Science.gov

Sample records for emission screening test

  1. Technology matrix for pre-test survey organic emissions screening

    SciTech Connect

    Alburty, D.S.; Trenholm, A.R.

    1999-07-01

    Increased interest in pre-screening point sources for emissions of organic hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) prior to full-scale emissions testing has focused attention on the evaluation of several HAP measurement methodologies that provide data relatively quickly, and at low cost. Pre-screening is used to evaluate the need for full-scale testing, ensure that the appropriate methods are selected for the full-scale tests, and help determine whether there are safety concerns for the testing. MRI developed a matrix for comparing costs, practical time requirements, compounds that were identified, practical quantitation limits, and other concerns regarding six emissions screening technologies. The purpose of the matrix was to assist in evaluating the technologies with regard to the data objectives of proposed full-scale tests. Use of on-site GC/MS, on-site FTIR spectroscopy, SUMMA canisters followed by laboratory analysis, field GC/FID, VOST, and Draeger tubes are described, and the pros and cons of each are discussed.

  2. NC-TEST: noncontact thermal emissions screening technique for drug and alcohol detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, Francine J.

    1997-01-01

    Drug abuse is highly correlated with criminal behavior. The typical drug-using criminal commits hundreds of crimes per year. The crime rate cannot be significantly reduced without a reduction in the percentage of the population abusing drugs and alcohol. Accurate and timely estimation of that percentage is important for policy decisions concerning crime control, public health measures, allocation of intervention resources for prevention and treatment, projections of criminal justice needs, and the evaluation of policy effectiveness. Such estimation is particularly difficult because self reporting is unreliable; and physical testing has to date required blood or urine analysis which is expensive and invasive, with the result that too few people are tested. MIKOS Ltd. has developed a non-contact, passive technique with the potential for automatic, real- time screening for drug and alcohol use. The system utilizes thermal radiation which is spontaneously and continuously emitted by the human body. Facial thermal patterns and changes in patterns are correlated with standardized effects of specific drugs and alcohol. A portable system incorporating the collection and analysis technique can be used episodically to collect data for estimating drug and alcohol use by general unknown populations such as crowds at airports, or it can be used for repetitive routine screening of specific known groups such as airline pilots, military personnel, school children, or persons on probation or parole.

  3. Screening Tests and Vaccines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Contact Us Text size | Print | Screening Tests and Vaccines This information in Spanish ( en español ) Getting important screening tests and vaccines can save your life. Check this section of ...

  4. Newborn Screening Tests Approved

    MedlinePlus

    ... The screens are used to detect four rare metabolic disorders To use the sharing features on this page, ... of screening tests designed to detect four rare metabolic disorders in newborns has been approved by the U.S. ...

  5. Cancer Screening: How Do Screening Tests Become Standard Tests?

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer symptoms. There are different kinds of screening tests. Screening tests include the following: Physical exam and ... are linked to some types of cancer. Screening tests have risks. Not all screening tests are helpful ...

  6. Neonatal cystic fibrosis screening test

    MedlinePlus

    Cystic fibrosis screening - neonatal; Immunoreactive trypsinogen; IRT test; CF - screening ... better nutrition, growth, and lung function. This screening test helps doctors identify children with CF before they ...

  7. Newborn screening tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... at least 26 disorders on an expanded and standardized uniform panel. The most thorough screening panel checks ... diagnose illnesses. They show which babies need more testing to confirm or rule out illnesses. If follow- ...

  8. Score test variable screening

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Sihai Dave; Li, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Variable screening has emerged as a crucial first step in the analysis of high-throughput data, but existing procedures can be computationally cumbersome, difficult to justify theoretically, or inapplicable to certain types of analyses. Motivated by a high-dimensional censored quantile regression problem in multiple myeloma genomics, this paper makes three contributions. First, we establish a score test-based screening framework, which is widely applicable, extremely computationally efficient, and relatively simple to justify. Secondly, we propose a resampling-based procedure for selecting the number of variables to retain after screening according to the principle of reproducibility. Finally, we propose a new iterative score test screening method which is closely related to sparse regression. In simulations we apply our methods to four different regression models and show that they can outperform existing procedures. We also apply score test screening to an analysis of gene expression data from multiple myeloma patients using a censored quantile regression model to identify high-risk genes. PMID:25124197

  9. Choice of screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, P R; Chamberlain, J

    1978-01-01

    In this paper, we consider one of the decisions that have to be made about a screening programme: which type of test to use. Our study shows that knowledge of the sensitivities, specificities, and costs of alternative tests is an inadequate basis for the choice of test. The monetary values of the different possible results of the test must also be estimated, or judgements made about the likely magnitude of these values. If judgements have to be made, they should be explicit, because different individuals are likely to judge differently, and their opinions will critically affect the choice of test. PMID:101568

  10. Short apraxia screening test.

    PubMed

    Leiguarda, Ramon; Clarens, Florencia; Amengual, Alejandra; Drucaroff, Lucas; Hallett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Limb apraxia comprises many different and common disorders, which are largely unrecognized essentially because there is no easy-to-use screening test sensitive enough to identify all types of limb praxis deficits. We evaluated 70 right-handed patients with limb apraxia due to a single focal lesion of the left hemisphere and 40 normal controls, using a new apraxia screening test. The test covered 12 items including: intransitive gestures, transitive gestures elicited under verbal, visual, and tactile modalities, imitation of meaningful and meaningless postures and movements, and a multiple object test. Interrater reliability was maximum for a cutoff of >2 positive items identifying apraxia on the short battery (Cohen's kappa .918, p < .0001), and somewhat less for >3 items (Cohen's kappa .768, p < .0001). Although both results were statistically significant, >2 was higher, indicating greater apraxia diagnosis agreement between raters at this cutoff value. The screening test proved to have high specificity and sensitivity to diagnose every type of upper limb praxis deficit, thus showing advantages over previously published tests.

  11. Glucose screening tests during pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Oral glucose tolerance test - pregnancy; OGTT - pregnancy; Glucose challenge test - pregnancy; Gestational diabetes - glucose screening ... screening test between 24 and 28 weeks of pregnancy. The test may be done earlier if you ...

  12. Auto Emission Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The photos show automobile engines being tested for nitrous oxide emissions, as required by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), at the Research and Engineering Division of Ford Motor Company, Dearborn. Michigan. NASA technical information helped the company develop a means of calculating emissions test results. Nitrous oxide emission readings vary with relative humidity in the test facility. EPA uses a standard humidity measurement, but the agency allows manufacturers to test under different humidity conditions, then apply a correction factor to adjust the results to the EPA standard. NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center developed analytic equations which provide a simple, computer-programmable method of correcting for humidity variations. A Ford engineer read a NASA Tech Brief describing the Dryden development and requested more detailed information in the form of a technical support package, which NASA routinely supplies to industry on request. Ford's Emissions Test Laboratory now uses the Dryden equations for humidity-adjusted emissions data reported to EPA.

  13. Environmental Test Screening Procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeidler, Janet

    2000-01-01

    This procedure describes the methods to be used for environmental stress screening (ESS) of the Lightning Mapper Sensor (LMS) lens assembly. Unless otherwise specified, the procedures shall be completed in the order listed, prior to performance of the Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP). The first unit, S/N 001, will be subjected to the Qualification Vibration Levels, while the remainder will be tested at the Operational Level. Prior to ESS, all units will undergo Pre-ESS Functional Testing that includes measuring the on-axis and plus or minus 0.95 full field Modulation Transfer Function and Back Focal Length. Next, all units will undergo ESS testing, and then Acceptance testing per PR 460.

  14. Manufactured soil screening test

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The purpose of this technical note is to provide a screening test that can be used to evaluate the potential for manufacturing artificial soil using dredged material, cellulose waste materials (e.g., yard waste compost, sawdust, wastepaper), and biosolids (e.g., N-Viro-reconditioned sewage sludge, BIONSOIL-reconstituted cow manure). This procedure will allow the most productive blend of any dredged material (uncontaminated or contaminated), cellulose, and biosolids to be determined and recommended for use in an environmentally productive and beneficial manner.

  15. Hearing loss screening tests for adults.

    PubMed

    Becerril-Ramírez, Perla B; González-Sánchez, Dina F; Gómez-García, Angélica; Figueroa-Moreno, Rafael; Bravo-Escobar, Gerardo A; García de la Cruz, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The early detection of hearing loss has been studied widely in newborns due to the emerging technologies for diagnosis and treatment. There are detailed protocols for this goal. Nonetheless, hearing loss screening in adults has become more important lately with the increase of the life expectancy, an expected change in the Mexican population pyramid towards a rectangular shape in the next 50 years (with increased hearing loss prevalence) and the creation of public policies for social security such as the "Seguro Popular". There are no Mexican studies about hearing loss screening in adults. The aim of this work was to assess a tone emission and a questionnaire as screening tools for hearing loss in adults. A sample size of 500 individuals without otology pathology from the outpatient clinics at a general hospital. An otoscopy, 2 screening tests (tone emission and questionnaire) and tonal audiometry were performed on all subjects. The questionnaire turned out to be a sensitive test but with low specificity, while the tone emission was less sensitive but more specific with a higher rate of precision. In this study, the best result was achieved by a combined strategy using the two tests above, with a precision of 90%. The best screening strategy proposed by this study for hearing loss in adults is a questionnaire and tone emission test, which guarantees complete hearing assessment in objective and subjective manners, performed quickly and without special training. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  16. Beam tests of phosphorescent screens

    SciTech Connect

    Seeman, J.T.; Luth, V.; Ross, M.; Sheppard, J.

    1985-03-05

    Twelve phosphorescent screens were beam tested for linearity, uniformity, low radiation damage and a suitable emitted wavelength for use with television cameras. One screen was chosen for the construction of several intercepting profile monitors which were used during the SLC Ten Sector Tests to measure the emittance and wakefield effects of a damped electron beam.

  17. Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Testing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory's primary responsibilities include: evaluating emission control technology; testing vehicles, engines and fuels; and determining compliance with federal emissions and fuel economy standards.

  18. Screening Tests for Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... All people should know their HIV status. This Web page from womenshealth.gov talks about how to get tested for HIV, types of HIV tests, and confidential versus anonymous testing. Gonorrhea Fact Sheet - ...

  19. Sound-conduction effects on distortion-product otoacoustic emission screening outcomes in newborn infants: test performance of wideband acoustic transfer functions and 1-kHz tympanometry.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Chris A; Keefe, Douglas H; Liu, Yi-Wen; Fitzpatrick, Denis; McCreery, Ryan W; Lewis, Dawna E; Gorga, Michael P

    2009-12-01

    Universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) test outcomes can be influenced by conditions affecting the sound conduction pathway, including ear canal and/or middle ear function. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the test performance of wideband (WB) acoustic transfer functions and 1-kHz tympanometry in terms of their ability to predict the status of the sound conduction pathway for ears that passed or were referred in a UNHS program. A distortion-product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) test was used to determine the UNHS status of 455 infant ears (375 passed and 80 referred). WB and 1-kHz tests were performed immediately after the infant's first DPOAE test (day 1). Of the 80 infants referred on day 1, 67 infants were evaluated again after a second UNHS DPOAE test the next day (day 2). WB data were acquired under ambient and tympanometric (pressurized) ear canal conditions. Clinical decision theory analysis was used to assess the test performance of WB and 1-kHz tests in terms of their ability to classify ears that passed or were referred, using DPOAE UNHS test outcomes as the "gold standard." Specifically, performance was assessed using previously published measurement criteria and a maximum-likelihood procedure for 1-kHz tympanometry and WB measurements, respectively. For measurements from day 1, the highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.87 for an ambient WB test predictor. The highest area under the receiver operating characteristic curve among several variables derived from 1-kHz tympanometry was 0.75. In general, ears that passed the DPOAE UNHS test had higher energy absorbance compared with those that were referred, indicating that infants who passed the DPOAE UNHS had a more acoustically efficient conductive pathway. Results showed that (1) WB tests had better performance in classifying UNHS DPOAE outcomes than 1-kHz tympanometry; (2) WB tests provide data to suggest that many UNHS referrals are a consequence of transient

  20. TB Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protein Derivative; PPD; Mantoux; Latent Tuberculosis Infection Test; Interferon-gamma Release Assays; IGRA; T-Spot®.TB; QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT- ... Tube (QFT-GIT) Formal name: Tuberculin Skin Test; Interferon Gamma Release Assays Related tests: AFB Testing ; Bacterial Sputum Culture ; Adenosine ...

  1. Screening Tests for Birth Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... groups, such as sickle cell disease (African American), cystic fibrosis (non-Hispanic white), and Tay–Sachs disease (Ashkenazi ... tests can be done before or during pregnancy. Cystic fibrosis carrier screening is offered to all women of ...

  2. Screening emissions of high oleic vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This article describes tests of a high oleic safflower oil for use as a fuel in diesel engines. Test included looking at the following: costs with reformulated diesel fuels or other benefits; reduction of particulate emissions by at least 14 percent; reduction of nitrogen oxide emissions; use without causing engine deposits and other problems. Results are given on emissions of high oleic vegetable oils, and commercial opportunities are discussed briefly.

  3. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  4. Neonatal Screening Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigue, Charles L.

    1986-01-01

    Describes several laboratory experiments that are adaptations of clinical tests for certain genetic diseases in babies. Information and procedures are provided for tests for phenylketonuria (PKU), galactosemia, tyrosinemia, cystinuria, and mucopolysaccharidosis. Discusses the effects of each disease on the infants' development. (TW)

  5. Quadruple screen test

    MedlinePlus

    ... quadruple; Unconjugated estriol - quadruple; uE3 - quadruple; Pregnancy - quadruple; Birth defect - quadruple ... determine the chance of your baby having a birth defect, the test also factors in: Your age ...

  6. Prenatal Genetic Screening Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... until the second trimester. What is cell-free DNA testing? Cell-free DNA is the small amount of DNA that is released from the placenta into a pregnant woman’s bloodstream. The cell-free DNA in a sample of a woman’s blood can ...

  7. Preschool visual acuity screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Friendly, D S

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the relative merits of two screening tests used for visual acuity assessment of preschool children. The tests that were compared were the Good-Lite Company versions of the E-Test and of the STYCAR (Screening Test for Young Children and Retardates). The former is the most popular method for evaluating central acuity in young children in this nation; the STYCAR is a relatively new letter-matching-test developed in England, where it is widely employed. The E-Test poses left-right orientation problems which are eliminated by the symmetrical letters H, T, O and V utilized in the Letter-Matching-Test. Both visual acuity tests were administered on two separate occasions by personnel from the Prevention of Blindness Society of Metropolitan Washington to 633 preschool children in Washington, D.C. By random selection, 150 of the children received the E-Test at both sessions, 162 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at both sessions, 160 chilt athe the second session, and 161 children received the Letter-Matching-Test at the first session and the E-Test at the second session. The author medically examined the eyes of 408 of the 633 children without knowledge of which test had been initially administered. Statistical analysis of the data obtained from the study indicated that the Letter-Matching-Test was significantly better in terms of testability rates, group and individual instruction time, and performance time. The E-Test was more reliable in terms of test-retest acuity scores and was also more valid in terms of agreement between pass-fail results obtained at the first screening session and two levels of pass-fail refraction criteria. Images FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B PMID:754379

  8. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  9. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  10. ROANOKE WOODSTOVE EMISSION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses a project, part of the Integrated Air Cancer Project Roanoke study, that characterizes and quantifies emissions generated by burning authentic Roanoke cordwood. The burning occurred in a controlled laboratory setting using two woodstoves, each operated at two...

  11. Cancer Screening Test Use - United States, 2015.

    PubMed

    White, Arica; Thompson, Trevor D; White, Mary C; Sabatino, Susan A; de Moor, Janet; Doria-Rose, Paul V; Geiger, Ann M; Richardson, Lisa C

    2017-03-03

    Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) includes objectives to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer (1) as recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF).* Progress toward meeting these objectives is monitored by measuring cancer screening test use against national targets using data from the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1). Analysis of 2015 NHIS data indicated that screening test use remains substantially below HP2020 targets for selected cancer screening tests. Although colorectal cancer screening test use increased from 2000 to 2015, no improvements in test use were observed for breast and cervical cancer screening. Disparities exist in screening test use by race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, and health care access indicators. Increased measures to implement evidence-based interventions and conduct targeted outreach are needed if the HP2020 targets for cancer screening are to be achieved and the disparities in screening test use are to be reduced.

  12. Neonatal otoacoustic emission screening and the identification of deafness.

    PubMed Central

    Watkin, P. M.

    1996-01-01

    Using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs), a two stage screen with the testing of failures by auditory brainstem response (ABR), has been implemented in Whipps Cross Hospital in East London. From January 1992 to 1995, 11,606 infants received an initial TEOAE test. Once initial difficulties were resolved, coverage of district residents remained stable at 91.5%. Long term follow up of the cohort is being undertaken. Of those receiving an initial test, 13% failed in both ears. Only 1.75% of the cohort failed both stages of the TEOAE screen bilaterally. These infants were tested by ABR. The yield of infants with a bilateral permanent hearing loss of moderate or worse degree was 2/1000. The overall cost of implementing the programme was not prohibitive and the cost per hearing impaired child detected was little more than the widely accepted notional cost of identifying such children through targeted at risk screens. The screen was clearly sensitive. The priority for such universal TEOAE programmes, however, is to increase specificity without losing this sensitivity. PMID:8653430

  13. Comparison of Two Screening Tests: Gesell Developmental Test and Meeting Street School Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Lenell; Buttery, Thomas J.

    1982-01-01

    Pearson product-moment correlations were computed for selected subtests of The Gesell Developmental Test and The Meeting Street School Screening Test. The selected subtests are moderately correlated, suggesting that either test might be used in a battery. (Author)

  14. Preliminary Results of Field Emission Cathode Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovey, James S.; Kovaleski, Scott D.

    2001-01-01

    Preliminary screening tests of field emission cathodes such as chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, textured pyrolytic graphite, and textured copper were conducted at background pressures typical of electric thruster test facilities to assess cathode performance and stability. Very low power electric thrusters which provide tens to hundreds micronewtons of thrust may need field emission neutralizers that have a capability of tens to hundreds of microamperes. From current voltage characteristics, it was found that the CVD diamond and textured metals cathodes clearly satisfied the Fowler-Nordheim emission relation. The CVD diamond and a textured copper cathode had average current densities of 270 and 380 mA/sq cm, respectively, at the beginning-of-life. After a few hours of operation the cathode emission currents degraded by 40 to 75% at background pressures in the 10(exp -5) Pa to 10(exp -4) Pa range. The textured pyrolytic graphite had a modest current density at beginning-of-life of 84 mA/sq cm, but this cathode was the most stable of all. Extended testing of the most promising cathodes is warranted to determine if current degradation is a burn-in effect or whether it is a long-term degradation process. Preliminary experiments with ferroelectric emission cathodes, which are ceramics with spontaneous electric polarization, were conducted. Peak current densities of 30 to 120 mA/sq cm were obtained for pulse durations of about 500 ns in the 10(exp -4) Pa pressure range.

  15. What Screening Tests Are There?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for developing the disease because of their smoking history and age. If you are thinking about getting screened, talk to your doctor. If lung cancer screening is right for you, your doctor can refer you to ...

  16. Testing Precision Screening for Breast Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI research article about individualized approaches that could help identify those at risk of breast cancer who need to be screened and testing screening intervals that are appropriate for each person’s level of risk.

  17. Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for Alternative Vehicles Emissions Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Nigel

    2012-01-31

    The overall objective of this project was to perform research to quantify and improve the energy efficiency and the exhaust emissions reduction from advanced technology vehicles using clean, renewable and alternative fuels. Advanced vehicle and alternative fuel fleets were to be identified, and selected vehicles characterized for emissions and efficiency. Target vehicles were to include transit buses, school buses, vocational trucks, delivery trucks, and tractor-trailers. Gaseous species measured were to include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, and particulate matter. An objective was to characterize particulate matter more deeply than by mass. Accurate characterization of efficiency and emissions was to be accomplished using a state-of-the-art portable emissions measurement system and an accompanying chassis dynamometer available at West Virginia University. These two units, combined, are termed the Transportable Laboratory. An objective was to load the vehicles in a real-world fashion, using coast down data to establish rolling resistance and wind drag, and to apply the coast down data to the dynamometer control. Test schedules created from actual vehicle operation were to be employed, and a specific objective of the research was to assess the effect of choosing a test schedule which the subject vehicle either cannot follow or can substantially outperform. In addition the vehicle loading objective was to be met better with an improved flywheel system.

  18. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission tests. 61.67 Section 61.67... Emission tests. (a) Unless a waiver of emission testing is obtained under § 61.13, the owner or operator of a source to which this subpart applies shall test emissions from the source, (1) Within 90 days...

  19. A novel emissive projection display (EPD) on transparent phosphor screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Botao; Sun, Leonard; Yu, Ge; Sun, Ted X.

    2017-03-01

    A new paradigm of digital projection is on the horizon, based on innovative emissive screen that are made fully transparent. It can be readily applied and convert any surface to a high image quality emissive digital display, without affecting the surface appearance. For example, it can convert any glass window or windshield to completely see-through display, with unlimited field of view and viewing angles. It also enables a scalable and economic projection display on a pitch-black emissive screen with black level and image contrast that rivals other emissive displays such as plasma display or OLED.

  20. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service...

  1. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service...

  2. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards and Certification Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service...

  3. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  4. Dementia screening using computerized tests.

    PubMed

    Gualtieri, C Thomas

    2004-01-01

    The preclinical phase of dementia usually precedes the clinical diagnosis by many years. Early detection of dementing conditions during this preclinical phase may provide opportunities for treatments that may slow or mitigate progression. Conventional assessment tools usually can only detect dementia when the symptoms are overt and the disease is well-established. Computerized neurocognitive screening tools hold promise for diagnosing dementia in its early phase. The use, performance and development of several computerized screening tools to diagnose and monitor patients with pre-dementias and dementia are reviewed. The ability to accurately assess the presence of dementia clearly has direct relevance to insurance risk assessment and risk management. As new treatments appear, their role in clinical management of dementia patients will increase as well. In a future issue, the differential diagnosis of dementias related to the findings on these screening tools will be reviewed.

  5. Acoustic emission as a screening tool for ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojard, Greg; Goberman, Dan; Holowczak, John

    2017-02-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are composite materials with ceramic fibers in a high temperature matrix of ceramic or glass-ceramic. This emerging class of materials is viewed as enabling for efficiency improvements in many energy conversion systems. The key controlling property of ceramic matrix composites is a relatively weak interface between the matrix and the fiber that aids crack deflection and fiber pullout resulting in greatly increased toughness over monolithic ceramics. United Technologies Research Center has been investigating glass-ceramic composite systems as a tool to understand processing effects on material performance related to the performance of the weak interface. Changes in the interface have been shown to affect the mechanical performance observed in flexural testing and subsequent microstructural investigations have confirmed the performance (or lack thereof) of the interface coating. Recently, the addition of acoustic emission testing during flexural testing has aided the understanding of the characteristics of the interface and its performance. The acoustic emission onset stress changes with strength and toughness and this could be a quality tool in screening the material before further development and use. The results of testing and analysis will be shown and additional material from other ceramic matrix composite systems may be included to show trends.

  6. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  7. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  8. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  9. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., at its option, observe the test. (c) An emission test shall be conducted at each operational calciner or nodulizing kiln. If emissions from a calciner or nodulizing kiln are discharged through more than... calciner or kiln shall be the sum of the emission rates from each of the stacks. (d) Each emission...

  10. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service accumulation, the manufacturer must test each test engine using the specified test procedures, except as provided...

  11. 40 CFR 89.119 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emission tests. 89.119 Section 89.119... Provisions § 89.119 Emission tests. (a) Manufacturer testing. (1) Upon completion of service accumulation, the manufacturer must test each test engine using the specified test procedures, except as provided...

  12. Analysis of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabin, James N.

    1978-01-01

    In an effort to validate the Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST), the scores were compared with selected demographic, health history, and physical examination variables of migrant and seasonal farmworkers' preschool children in Colorado. (NQ)

  13. Screening and Invasive Testing in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Monni, Giovanni; Iuculano, Ambra; Zoppi, Maria Angelica

    2014-01-01

    Prenatal screening and testing for trisomy 21 in twin pregnancies poses a number of challenges: the exact estimate of the a priori risk of trisomy 21, the choice of prenatal screening test and/or invasive techniques to employ for the diagnosis and the impact of the result on the options of treatment in case of discordant results within a twin pair or among multiples. These different aspects are discussed below while recognizing that many issues remain unresolved. PMID:26237482

  14. Hematuria home screening: repeat testing results.

    PubMed

    Messing, E M; Young, T B; Hunt, V B; Newton, M A; Bram, L L; Vaillancourt, A; Hisgen, W J; Greenberg, E B; Kuglitsch, M E; Wegenke, J D

    1995-07-01

    To determine at what interval screening should be repeated to detect bladder cancer before it becomes muscle invasive 856 men who had 14 negative daily home tests for hematuria with a chemical reagent strip 9 months previously performed repeat tests. Of these men 50 (5.8%) had at least 1 positive test during the second 14-day screening period and 38 were evaluated, 15 of whom (39.5%) had significant urological pathological conditions, including 8 with malignancies. Bladder cancer was noted in 7 men, with no tumor invading the muscularis propria. The finding of 7 bladder cancers in 856 men (0.82%) who had a negative test 9 months previously indicates that bladder cancer has a brief preclinical duration and that testing must be repeated at least annually for screening to detect bladder cancer consistently before invasion occurs.

  15. Test kit testing certifies soil screening accuracy

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, L.K.

    1994-08-01

    With quality controls and validation, site managers can use immunoassay with confidence. It is not enough to know which hazardous substances have contaminated a site. A manager must have an idea about how much is present and where. Traditionally, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry answered these questions, but today immunoassay soil test kits often provide more immediate results at a lower cost.

  16. Current noninvasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: An overview of colorectal cancer screening tests

    PubMed Central

    Song, Le-Le; Li, Yue-Min

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become the third most common cancer in the world. Screening has been shown to be an effective way to identify early CRC and precancerous lesions, and to reduce its morbidity and mortality. Several types of noninvasive tests have been developed for CRC screening, including the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), the fecal-based DNA test and the blood-based DNA test (the SEPT9 assay). FIT has replaced FOBT and become the major screening test due to high sensitivity, specificity and low costs. The fecal DNA test exhibited higher sensitivity than FIT but its current cost is high for a screening assay. The SEPT9 assay showed good compliance while its performance in screening needs further improvements. These tests exhibited distinct sensitivity and specificity in screening for CRC and adenoma. This article will focus on the performance of the current noninvasive in vitro diagnostic tests that have been used for CRC screening. The merits and drawbacks for these screening methods will also be compared regarding the techniques, usage and costs. We hope this review can provide suggestions for both the public and clinicians in choosing the appropriate method for CRC screening. PMID:27895817

  17. Proton emission with a screened electrostatic barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budaca, R.; Budaca, A. I.

    2017-08-01

    Half-lives of proton emission for Z≥ 51 nuclei are calculated within a simple analytical model based on the WKB approximation for the barrier penetration probability which includes the centrifugal and overlapping effects besides the electrostatic repulsion. The model has a single free parameter associated to a Hulthen potential which emulates a Coulomb electrostatic interaction only at short distance. The agreement with experimental data is very good for most of the considered nuclei. Theoretical predictions are made for few cases with uncertain emitting state configuration or incomplete decay information. The model's assignment of the proton orbital momentum is in agreement with the differentiation of the experimental data by orbital momentum values realized with a newly introduced correlation formula.

  18. Test equality between two binary screening tests with a confirmatory procedure restricted on screen positives.

    PubMed

    Lui, Kung-Jong; Chang, Kuang-Chao

    2015-01-01

    In studies of screening accuracy, we may commonly encounter the data in which a confirmatory procedure is administered to only those subjects with screen positives for ethical concerns. We focus our discussion on simultaneously testing equality of sensitivity and specificity between two binary screening tests when only subjects with screen positives receive the confirmatory procedure. We develop four asymptotic test procedures and one exact test procedure. We derive sample size calculation formula for a desired power of detecting a difference at a given nominal [Formula: see text]-level. We employ Monte Carlo simulation to evaluate the performance of these test procedures and the accuracy of the sample size calculation formula developed here in a variety of situations. Finally, we use the data obtained from a study of the prostate-specific-antigen test and digital rectal examination test on 949 Black men to illustrate the practical use of these test procedures and the sample size calculation formula.

  19. Screening tests: a review with examples

    PubMed Central

    Niebo, Ron; Utell, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    Screening tests are widely used in medicine to assess the likelihood that members of a defined population have a particular disease. This article presents an overview of such tests including the definitions of key technical (sensitivity and specificity) and population characteristics necessary to assess the benefits and limitations of such tests. Several examples are used to illustrate calculations, including the characteristics of low dose computed tomography as a lung cancer screen, choice of an optimal PSA cutoff and selection of the population to undergo mammography. The importance of careful consideration of the consequences of both false positives and negatives is highlighted. Receiver operating characteristic curves are explained as is the need to carefully select the population group to be tested. PMID:25264934

  20. Testing cervicography and cervicoscopy as screening tests for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, S; Bonardi, R; Mazzotta, A; Grazzini, G; Iossa, A; Ciatto, S

    1993-02-28

    Suboptimal sensitivity is currently reported for Pap test in screening for cervical cancer. Colposcopy is known to be more sensitive than cytology but its use as a screening test is not possible due to costs and complexity. Screening by cervicography has been suggested as a compromise being less costly and feasible. The present study evaluates the feasibility of screening by cervicography and cervicoscopy (naked eye examination of the cervix after acetic acid lavage) on a consecutive screening series. Cervicography and cervicoscopy were performed by the smear taker in subjects consecutively attending a screening clinic. Women with abnormal cytology (atypia or more severe lesion) and/or abnormal cervicography or cervicoscopy (acetowhite lesion) underwent colposcopic assessment. The three screening methods were compared according to positivity rate, CIN 2-3 detection rate and positive predictive value. 2105 consecutive subjects were screened. Positivity rate was 3.8%, 15.3% or 25.4% for cytology, cervicography or cervicoscopy, respectively, 486 of 555 women attended the assessment phase, 281 directed biopsies were performed and 8 CIN 2-3 lesions were detected. Cytology, cervicography and cervicoscopy, detected 5.5, or 7 of 8 CIN 2-3 lesions, respectively. The positive predictive value was 0% for cytologic atypia, 25% for cytologic SIL, 1.75% for cervicography and 2.05% for cervicoscopy. Detecting one CIN 2-3 lesion at cytology cost $5,543. The cost per each additional cytologically negative CIN 2-3 lesion detected at cervicography or cervicoscopy was $12,947 or $3,916, respectively. The study confirms the limited sensitivity of cytology for CIN 2-3. The association of cervicography was not cost effective. Cervicoscopy was poorly specific but increased the detection rate of CIN 2-3 at relatively low costs. Cervicoscopy is worth further evaluation as a screening test.

  1. Neuropsychological screening tests in African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Lampley-Dallas, V. T.

    2001-01-01

    Neuropsychological tests are instruments used to diagnose a variety of cognitive conditions. This article will review a few of the brief scales commonly used in screening for dementia. It will also discuss the properties of and problems with some of the brief scales that are commonly used to screen African Americans for dementia, highlighting the various biases. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) is the most widely known and utilized cognitive impairment instrument in the United States. Whether or not it is biased to race after adjusting the scores for educational attainment remains controversial. The Blessed Information-Memory-Concentration Test (BIMC), Blessed Orientation-Memory-Concentration Test (BOMC), Short Portable Mental Status Questionnaire (SPMSQ), and Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination (NCSE) are other screening tests used to diagnose dementia. Some of these tests have been found to misclassify many more African Americans as demented compared to the proportion of whites that are misclassified. The Cambridge Cognitive Examination (CAMCOG) is the only brief neuropsychological scale designed to actually diagnose early dementia, but it is not known if it is biased for African Americans. PMID:11560287

  2. Validity testing of the EZ-SCREEN cannabinoid test.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, A J; Mills, L C; Darwin, W D; Huestis, M A; Cone, E J; Mitchell, J M

    1993-09-01

    Recently, a number of "quick tests" became available for use in on-site drug testing. These tests offer advantages in simplicity, ease of performance, and rapid access to test results. However, there is a paucity of data on the validity of these tests for the detection of drugs of abuse. This report describes a validity study of the EZ-SCREEN cannabinoid test for the detection of cannabinoids in urine. Three healthy, male volunteers with a history of marijuana use participated in the study. Each subject smoked 1, 2, or 4 marijuana cigarettes (2.6% THC) on each test day. Urine samples were collected and incorporated into a specimen set consisting of 178 clinical urine samples, 72 urine samples containing known amounts of drug, and 50 drug-free urine samples. The specimen set was randomized and analyzed under blind conditions by the EZ-SCREEN test and by GC/MS for 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THCCOOH). Results were interpreted independently by three readers. Concordance analysis was performed by comparison of results of the EZ-SCREEN test with GC/MS. The EZ-SCREEN test was highly sensitive and produced positive results at a standard THCCOOH concentration of 5 ng/mL. While showing high sensitivity to THCCOOH, the assay demonstrated low cross-reactivity with delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other cannabinoids. No false-positive results were recorded with 50 drug-free urine samples, but one reader recorded eight undecided results. Overall agreement between the three readers for the EZ-Screen results was approximately 80%. Delayed readings and photocopy readings tended to be less accurate than readings obtained at 3 min.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Using Cognitive Screening Tests in Audiology.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jing; Anderson, Melinda C; Arehart, Kathryn H; Souza, Pamela E

    2016-12-01

    The population of the United States is aging. Those older adults are living longer than ever and have an increased desire for social participation. As a result, audiologists are likely to see an increased demand for service by older clients whose communication difficulty is caused by a combination of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. For these individuals, early detection of mild cognitive impairment is critical for providing timely medical intervention and social support. This tutorial provides information about cognition of older adults, mild cognitive impairment, and cognitive screening tests, with the purpose of assisting audiologists in identifying and appropriately referring potential cases of cognitive impairment. Topics addressed also include how to administer cognitive screening tests on individuals with hearing loss, how to use test results in audiology practice, and the potential of using cognitive screening tests for evaluating the benefit of clinical interventions. As health care professionals who serve the aging population, audiologists are likely to encounter cases of undiagnosed cognitive impairment. In order to provide timely referral for medical assistance as well as an optimized individual outcome of audiologic interventions, audiologists should be trained to recognize an abnormality in older clients' cognitive status.

  4. Selecting a Test for Leprous Neuropathy Screening.

    PubMed

    Baltodano, Pablo A; Wan, Eric L; Noboa, Jonathan; Rosson, Gedge D; Dellon, A Lee

    2015-10-01

    Worldwide, leprosy represents a significant cause of disability due to progressive neurological impairment. Screening for leprous neuropathy is performed with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament (SWM) or ballpoint pen testing (BPT), which results in underreporting of its prevalence. The Pressure-specified sensory device (PSSD; Sensory Management Services, LLC, Baltimore, MD) is a sensitive, noninvasive, portable, neurosensory instrument, which has not been field-tested for leprosy screening. Early identification of leprous neuropathy would permit early antibiotic treatment to prevent contagion and early microsurgical neurolysis. A prospective, clinical diagnostic, cross-sectional study screened a consecutive sample of patients for leprous neuropathy in the leprosy-endemic province of Los Ríos, Ecuador. Patients meeting the World Health Organization criteria for leprosy and complaining of neuropathy symptoms were classified as leprous neuropathy patients. Patients without any signs of leprosy were used as normal controls. Bilateral ulnar nerve screening with the PSSD, SWM (0.07, 0.4, 2, 4, 10, and 300 g), and BPT was performed in all patients. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and compared across tests. A total of 71 patients (142 nerves) were evaluated. Compared with the 10 g SWM and the BPT, the PSSD was found to have significantly higher sensitivity (78.3 vs. 0% with p < 0.001, for both) with comparable specificity (97.8 vs. 100% with p > 0.999, for both). Compared with the 0.07 g SWM (lightest filament in our series), the PSSD showed better sensitivity (78.3 vs. 65.2%, p = 0.514) and significantly higher specificity (97.8 vs. 51.1%, p < 0.001). The PSSD provides superior diagnostic accuracy for detecting leprous neuropathy as compared with SWM and BPT. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  5. Summary of EPA Emission Test Methods

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document provides the publication date and rule status for the air emission test methods, performance specifications and quality assurance procedures. It is updated by the Measurement Technology Group, part of the Air Quality Assessment Div., OAQPS.

  6. 40 CFR 61.123 - Emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Elemental Phosphorus Plants § 61.123 Emission testing. (a) Each owner or operator of an elemental phosphorus... conducted within 45 days under these conditions. (f) Each owner or operator of an elemental phosphorus plant...

  7. Avco Lycoming emission and flight test results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The Avco Lycoming flight test program for reduced emissions was conducted to determine and document the lean fuel schedule limits for current production aircraft based on flight safety. Based on analysis of the emissions profile, Avco Lycoming proposed to evaluate the effect of leaner schedules in the idle/taxi, climb, and approach modes. These modes were selected as areas where it was felt that possible improvements could be made with the greatest improvement in cyclic emissions reduction. The fuel systems to produce these leaner stepped fuel schedules were tailored specifically for the flight test.

  8. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  9. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  10. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  11. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  12. 42 CFR 410.17 - Cardiovascular disease screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cardiovascular disease screening tests. 410.17... § 410.17 Cardiovascular disease screening tests. (a) Definition. For purposes of this subpart, the... Part B covers cardiovascular disease screening tests when ordered by the physician who is treating...

  13. A Comparison of Screening Tests for Soil Pb

    PubMed Central

    Wharton, Sarah E.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ribaudo, Lisa; McBride, Murray B.

    2012-01-01

    Soil has been identified as a significant source of lead (Pb) exposure for both children and adults. Therefore, identifying possibly contaminated soils by soil testing is important to protect public health. Soil Pb test results are usually reported as total Pb (mg kg−1), carried out using a concentrated nitric acid digestion procedure by hot plate (EPA method 3050) or microwave (EPA method 3051) followed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry to determine total Pb in the digest. However, this procedure is both time-consuming and expensive, sometimes costing homeowners and gardeners over $50 per sample. To make soil Pb testing more economically accessible to homeowners and gardeners, several university soil-testing laboratories offer less expensive screening tests designed to estimate total soil Pb. The first objective of this study was to compare three commonly used screening tests, modified Morgan (MM), Mehlich 3 (M3), and 1 M nitric acid (HNO3), to the standard total Pb testing method (EPA method 3051) to find which extractant is the most reliable predictor of total Pb. The second objective was to investigate the effect that different degrees of soil grinding have on the total Pb test and the extracted Pb concentration measured from the 1 M HNO3 test. Results indicate that the strongest predictor of total Pb is 1 M HNO3, followed by M3, and MM, and that thorough grinding is necessary if using less than five grams of soil in a Pb test, in order to adequately homogenize Pb-contaminated samples and achieve acceptable testing reproducibility. PMID:23439963

  14. [Mokken scaling of the Cognitive Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Diesfeldt, H F A

    2009-10-01

    The Cognitive Screening Test (CST) is a twenty-item orientation questionnaire in Dutch, that is commonly used to evaluate cognitive impairment. This study applied Mokken Scale Analysis, a non-parametric set of techniques derived from item response theory (IRT), to CST-data of 466 consecutive participants in psychogeriatric day care. The full item set and the standard short version of fourteen items both met the assumptions of the monotone homogeneity model, with scalability coefficient H = 0.39, which is considered weak. In order to select items that would fulfil the assumption of invariant item ordering or the double monotonicity model, the subjects were randomly partitioned into a training set (50% of the sample) and a test set (the remaining half). By means of an automated item selection eleven items were found to measure one latent trait, with H = 0.67 and item H coefficients larger than 0.51. Cross-validation of the item analysis in the remaining half of the subjects gave comparable values (H = 0.66; item H coefficients larger than 0.56). The selected items involve year, place of residence, birth date, the monarch's and prime minister's names, and their predecessors. Applying optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) it was found that the full set of twenty CST items performed best in distinguishing two predefined groups of patients of lower or higher cognitive ability, as established by an independent criterion derived from the Amsterdam Dementia Screening Test. The chance corrected predictive value or prognostic utility was 47.5% for the full item set, 45.2% for the fourteen items of the standard short version of the CST, and 46.1% for the homogeneous, unidimensional set of selected eleven items. The results of the item analysis support the application of the CST in cognitive assessment, and revealed a more reliable 'short' version of the CST than the standard short version (CST14).

  15. Uses and Abuses of Developmental Screening and School Readiness Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meisels, Samuel J.

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes the uses and abuses of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Tests and similar tests. First, discusses developmental screening and readiness tests, then focuses on the Gesell tests, specifically addressing their validity and questioning their current uses. Discusses implications of using readiness tests for assigning children to…

  16. Design and Development of an Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emission Control (ESBEC).

    PubMed

    Han, Taewon; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2017-05-01

    Current diesel particulate filters (DPFs) can effectively capture the exhaust particles, but they add to engine backpressure and accumulate particles during their operation, which results in the need to regenerate the DPFs by burning off the collected particles periodically. This regeneration results in aerosol emissions, especially in the 10-30 nanometer size range and contributes to ultrafine particle pollution. In this research, we designed and developed a prototype of a novel diesel exhaust control device: the Electrostatic Screen Battery for Emissions Control (ESBEC). The device features high particle collection efficiency without adding to the exhaust backpressure and without the need for thermal regeneration of the collected particles. The ESBEC consists of a series of metal mesh screens coated with a superhydrophobic substance and an integrated carbon fiber ionizer to charge the incoming particles. Multiple pairs of screens (e.g., 5 pairs) are arranged in a battery, in which one screen of each pair is supplied with high voltage, and the other is grounded, producing electrostatic field produced across the screens. The application of a superhydrophobic coating onto the screens allows easy removal of the collected particles using liquid without the need for thermal regeneration. The current prototypes of the device were tested with fluorescent polystyrene latex (PSL) particles of 0.2 and 1.2 μm in size and at 25 and 105 L/min sampling flow rates. The average collection efficiency was ~87% for 0.2 μm and ~95% for 1.2 μm PSL particles. In addition, the ESBEC was tested with actual diesel exhaust particles; here its performance was verified by visually inspecting deposition of particles on an after-filter with the device ON and OFF. In the next stages of this work, the ESBEC will be challenged with diesel exhaust at different mass concentrations and for different collection time periods.

  17. The Effect of Mode of Delivery and Hospital Type on Newborn Hearing Screening Results Using Otoacoustic Emissions: Based on Screening Age.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Farhad; Hamidi Nahrani, Morteza; Seifrabiei, Mohammad Ali; Emadi, Maryam

    2017-03-01

    It is well known that false positive on newborn hearing screening increases cost and maternal anxiety and worry. We aimed to evaluate the influence of mode of delivery (cesarean, vaginal) and hospital type (private, public) on false positives first screening test based on screening age. Identification and control of these factors can reduce the rate of false positives. Overall, 2784 infants were evaluated by otoacoustic emissions test. Hearing screening test was performed before hospital discharge. Finally, rate of the false-positive between both delivery group and hospital types were compared on the basis of screening age. False-positive results are obtained when a condition is not present, but the test results indicate that it is present. False positive rate in the first screening test in vaginal delivery was significantly higher than cesarean delivery and rate of significantly decreased with screening age. This reduction was observed only in cesarean delivery. Also the rate of false positives in public hospital is 2.2 fold higher than private hospital (P = 0.000) and with increase in screening age, the rate of False positive is significantly reduced in private hospitals while this decrease is not observed in public hospital. Screening test be retarded as much as possible in cesarean group and private hospital and be conducted just prior to hospital discharge also in public hospital, screening test are done in a separate room. In this way, false positive can be reduced by about six times and the cost and concerns imposed by the rate of false positives minimized.

  18. Uptake of faecal immunochemical test screening among nonparticipants in a flexible sigmoidoscopy screening programme.

    PubMed

    Hol, Lieke; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Reijerink, Jaqueline C I Y; Habbema, Dik J F; van Leerdam, Monique E

    2012-05-01

    Screening programmes based on single modality testing may prevent individuals with a preference for a different test from participating. We conducted a population-based trial to determine whether nonparticipants in flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening were willing to attend faecal immunochemical test (FIT) screening. In total, 8,407 subjects were invited in a primary FS screening programme. Invitees did not know at the time of FS invitation that nonparticipants would be offered FIT screening. A total of 4,407 nonparticipants of FS screening were invited for FIT screening (cut-off 50 ng haemoglobin/ml). The participation rate to FS screening was 31% [95% confidence interval (CI): 30-32%]. Among the FS nonparticipants 25% (CI: 24-26%) did attended FIT screening. The participation rate of the two-stage recruitment for FS and FIT screening was 45% (CI: 44-46%). FIT screenees were older (p = 0.02), more often women (p < 0.001) and had a lower social economic status (p = 0.01) than FS screenees. The detection rate (DR) for advanced adenoma was 3.5% (CI: 2.5-4.8%), and for colorectal cancer (CRC) it was 0.3% (CI: 0.1-0.8%) among participants to FIT screening. The DR of the two-stage recruitment was 6.1% (n = 202) for an advanced adenoma and 0.5% (n = 16) for a CRC. In conclusion, offering FIT screening to nonparticipants in a FS screening programme increases the overall participation rate considerably, as a quarter of nonparticipants of FS screening was willing to attend FIT screening. The participation rate remains lower for primary FIT screening in the same population (62%). Women in the target population were more likely to refuse FS than FIT screening. Countries introducing FS screening should be aware of these preferences. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  19. Breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Minsoo

    The purpose of this study was to examine overdiagnosis and overtreatment related to cancer screening and to review relevant reports and studies. A comprehensive search of peer-reviewed and gray literature was conducted for relevant studies published between January 2000 and December 2015 reporting breast, prostate, and thyroid cancer screening tests and overdiagnosis. This study revealed no dichotomy on where screening would lower risk or cause overdiagnosis and overtreatment. Many screening tests did both, that is, at population level, there were both benefit (decreased disease-specific mortality) and harm (overdiagnosis and overtreatment). Therefore, we need to consider a balanced argument with citations for the potential benefits of screening along with the harms associated with screening. Although the benefits and harms can only be tested through randomized trials, important data from cohort studies, diagnostic accuracy studies, and modeling work can help define the extent of benefits and harms in the population. The health care cycle that prompt patients to undergo periodic screening tests is self-reinforcing. In most developed countries, screening test recommendations encourage periodic testing. Therefore, patients are continuing their screening. It is necessary for patients to become wise consumers of screening tests and make decisions with their physicians regarding further testing and treatments.

  20. DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test: Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Irene; Williams, Virginia

    The DPI Criterion-Referenced Pre-Reading Screening Test is to be used as one means of identifying some strengths and weaknesses in certain areas of pre-reading skills. It is intended to be used as a screening instrument for beginning first graders. The areas of pre-reading skills to be screened are (1) auditory perception, (2) letter knowledge,…

  1. Concurrent Validity of the Battelle Developmental Inventory Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Mary; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The study compared the results of the Battelle Developmental Inventory (BDI) Screening Test with the Denver Developmental Screening Test-Revised and with the full-scale BDI for 30 handicapped and 35 nonhandicapped children, all aged six months to six years. Major differences were found between the tests and populations identified for follow-up.…

  2. Simple enzymatic screening test for viral hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Janout, V; Englis, M; Sedlácek, V; Smékal, M

    1980-01-01

    The semi-quantitative ASAT screening examination has been used in groups of children over a period of 3 years for detection of VH cases. In these groups, 79% of VH cases, being mostly anicteric and clinically unapparent, were detected in the focus of infection in addition to the index cases. The application of this method resulted in a decrease by about one half in additional VH cases occurring in the focus after the detection of the index case. The semi-quantitative ASAT screening examination meets all general criteria required for a good screening method.

  3. Source Emission Test of Gas Turbine Engine Test Facility

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-01

    emission testing be conducted in accordance with Appendix A and B to Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 60 (40 CFR 60). Determination of gas...recovery, calculations and quality assurance were done in accordance with the methods and procedures outlined in 40 CFR 60 and 87. Five sampling...hook probe nozzle, heated inconel probe, heated glass filter, impingers and a pumping and metering device. The nozzle was sized prior to each stack test

  4. Potential Biases Introduced by Conflating Screening and Diagnostic Testing in Colorectal Cancer Screening Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Griffith, Derek M; West, Brady T; Janz, Nancy K; Resnicow, Ken; Morris, Arden M

    2015-12-01

    Screening and postsymptomatic diagnostic testing are often conflated in cancer screening surveillance research. We examined the error in estimated colorectal cancer screening prevalence due to the conflation of screening and diagnostic testing. Using data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey, we compared weighted prevalence estimates of the use of all testing (screening and diagnostic) and screening in at-risk adults and calculated the overestimation of screening prevalence across sociodemographic groups. The population screening prevalence was overestimated by 23.3%, and the level of overestimation varied widely across sociodemographic groups (median, 22.6%; mean, 24.8%). The highest levels of overestimation were in non-Hispanic white females (27.4%), adults ages 50-54 years (32.0%), and those with the highest socioeconomic vulnerability [low educational attainment (31.3%), low poverty ratio (32.5%), no usual source of health care (54.4%), and not insured (51.6%); all P < 0.001]. When the impetus for testing was not included, colorectal cancer screening prevalence was overestimated, and patterns of overestimation often aligned with social and economic vulnerability. These results are of concern to researchers who use survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess cancer screening behaviors, as it is currently not designed to distinguish diagnostic testing from screening. Surveillance research in cancer screening that does not consider the impetus for testing risks measurement error of screening prevalence, impeding progress toward improving population health. Ultimately, to craft relevant screening benchmarks and interventions, we must look beyond "what" and "when" and include "why." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. How Are Newborn Screening Tests Done?

    MedlinePlus

    ... researchers Health Education Programs Safe to Sleep, Media-Smart Youth, Maternal/Child Health Education Program NICHD Publications ... First, hospital staff fill out a newborn screening card with the infant’s vital information—name, sex, weight, ...

  6. Demonstration of a heavy-duty vehicle chassis screening test for compliance testing heavy-duty engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; McKain, D.L.; Hoppie, J.A.; Lyons, D.W.; Gautam, M.

    1998-07-01

    Emissions testing of new heavy-duty engines is performed to ensure compliance with governmental emissions standards. This testing involves operating the engine through the heavy-duty diesel transient Federal Test Procedure (FTP). While in-use engine emissions testing would be beneficial in aiding regions to meet standards dictated by the Clean Air Act, the process of removing the engine from the vehicle, fitting it to an engine dynamometer, testing, and refitting the engine in the chassis, combined with costs associated with removing the vehicle from service, is prohibitively expensive. A procedure for screening engine emissions testing with the engine in the vehicle using a chassis dynamometer was developed to mimic the FTP. Data from two engines and vehicles (a 195 hp Navistar T 444E in a single axle straight truck and a 370 hp Cummins N-14 in a tandem drive axle tractor) is presented as well as correlation between engine and chassis emissions tests. Also included was data gathered to gauge the effects of engine tampering and malfunctioning on emissions levels. It was concluded that engine and chassis emissions levels were well correlated with respect to oxides of nitrogen, but less well so with respect to particulate matter.

  7. Estimating mean sojourn time and screening test sensitivity in breast cancer mammography screening: new results.

    PubMed

    Weedon-Fekjaer, Harald; Vatten, Lars J; Aalen, Odd O; Lindqvist, Bo; Tretli, Steinar

    2005-01-01

    To assess if new screening techniques, increased use of hormone replacement therapy, or the transition from breast cancer screening trials to large scale screening programmes may influence the average time in preclinical screening detectable phase (mean sojourn time [MST]) or screening test sensitivity (STS). Screening and interval data for 395,188 women participating in the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Programme (NBCSP). Weighted non-linear least-square regression estimates using a tree step Markov chain model, and a sensitivity analysis of the possible impact by opportunistic screening between ordinary breast cancer screening rounds. MST was estimated to 6.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.1-7.0) years for women aged 50-59 years, and 7.9 (95% CI 6.0-7.9) years for those aged 60-69 years. Correspondingly, STS was estimated to 58% (95% CI 52-64 %) and 73 % (67-78 %), respectively. Simulations revealed that opportunistic screening may give a moderate estimation bias towards higher MST and lower STS. Assuming a probable 21% higher background incidence, due to increased hormone replacement therapy use, MST estimates decreased to 3.9 and 5.0 years for the two age groups, and STS increased to 75 and 85%. The new estimates indicate that screening detectable phase is longer than that found in previous mammography trials/programmes, but also that the sensitivity of the screening test is lower. Overall, the NBCSP detects more cancer cases than most previous trials/programmes.

  8. 40 CFR 86.427-78 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emission tests. 86.427-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.427-78 Emission tests. (a)(1) Each test vehicle shall be driven with all emission control systems installed and operating for the following total test...

  9. 40 CFR 86.427-78 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emission tests. 86.427-78 Section 86... Later New Motorcycles, General Provisions § 86.427-78 Emission tests. (a)(1) Each test vehicle shall be driven with all emission control systems installed and operating for the following total test...

  10. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:...

  11. 42 CFR 410.18 - Diabetes screening tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Diabetes screening tests. 410.18 Section 410.18... PROGRAM SUPPLEMENTARY MEDICAL INSURANCE (SMI) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.18 Diabetes screening tests. (a) Definitions. For purposes of this section, the following definitions apply: Diabetes...

  12. Ocular screening tests of elementary school children

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, J.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents an analysis of 507 abnormal retinal reflex images taken of Huntsville kindergarten and first grade students. The retinal reflex images were obtained by using an MSFC-developed Generated Retinal Reflex Image System (GRRIS) photorefractor. The system uses a 35 mm camera with a telephoto lens with an electronic flash attachment. Slide images of the eyes were examined for abnormalities. Of a total of 1835 students screened for ocular abnormalities, 507 were found to have abnormal retinal reflexes. The types of ocular abnormalities detected were hyperopia, myopia, astigmatism, esotropia, exotropia, strabismus, and lens obstuctions. The report shows that the use of the photorefractor screening system is an effective low-cost means of screening school children for abnormalities.

  13. Health Screening: What Tests You Need and When

    MedlinePlus

    ... please turn Javascript on. Screening tests, such as mammograms, Pap smears, and colorectal cancer tests, can find ... you have high blood pressure or high cholesterol. Mammograms (Women): Have a mammogram every 1 to 2 ...

  14. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 58.3 63 171.4 85 433.6 42 61.5 64 179.3 86 450.9 43 64.8 65 187.5 87 468.7 44 68.3 66 196.1 88 487... 96 657.6 53 107.2 75 289.1 97 682.1 54 112.5 76 301.4 98 707.3 55 118.0 77 314.1 99 733.2 56 123.8 78... inspection by the Administrator, for a minimum of 3 years, records of emission test results and other...

  15. Screening and scenarios of traffic emissions at Trier, Germany.

    PubMed

    Junk, Jürgen; Helbig, Alfred; Krein, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    In the course of the European Council Directive on permissible air pollutant limit values, valid starting from 2005 there is an urgent call for action, particularly for fine dust (PM10). Current investigations (Junk & Helbig 2003, Reuter & Baumüller 2003) show that the limit values in certain places in congested areas are exceeded. Only if it is possible to locate these Hot Spots purposeful measures to reduce the ambient air pollution can be conducted. For an efficient identification of these Hot Spots numerical computer models or establishing special measurements networks are too expensive. Using the statistical model STREET 5.0 (KTT 2003) a cost-effective screening of the air pollution situation caused by the traffic can be done. STREET is based on the 3-dimensional micro-scale non-hydrostatic flow- and dispersion model MISCAM (Eichhorn 1989). The results of over 100.000 different calculations with MISCAM are stored in a Database and used to calculate the emissions with STREET. In collaboration with the city council of Trier more than 150 streets were investigated, mapped, and calculated. A special urban climate measuring network supplies the necessary meteorological input data about the wind field and precipitation events in the valley of the Moselle. Information about road width and road orientation as well as building density was derived from aerial photographs. Traffic censuses and mobile air pollutants measurements supplied the remaining input data. We calculated the mean annual air pollutant concentrations for NO2, CO, SO2, O3, benzene as well as PM10. A comparison of the model results with the values obtained from the stations of the central emission measuring network of Rhineland-Palatinate (ZIMEN, annual report 2002) shows very good agreements. The model was not only used to calculate the annual air pollutant but also for urban planning and management. The absolute level of the air pollutant is mainly dependent on the amount of traffic in the street

  16. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  17. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  18. Older adults’ preferences for colorectal cancer-screening test attributes and test choice

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Christine E; Hess, Thomas M; Howard, Kirsten; Pignone, Michael P; Crutchfield, Trisha M; Hawley, Sarah T; Brenner, Alison T; Ward, Kimberly T; Lewis, Carmen L

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding which attributes of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests drive older adults’ test preferences and choices may help improve decision making surrounding CRC screening in older adults. Materials and methods To explore older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening test attributes and screening tests, we conducted a survey with a discrete choice experiment (DCE), a directly selected preferred attribute question, and an unlabeled screening test-choice question in 116 cognitively intact adults aged 70–90 years, without a history of CRC or inflammatory bowel disease. Each participant answered ten discrete choice questions presenting two hypothetical tests comprised of four attributes: testing procedure, mortality reduction, test frequency, and complications. DCE responses were used to estimate each participant’s most important attribute and to simulate their preferred test among three existing CRC-screening tests. For each individual, we compared the DCE-derived attributes to directly selected attributes, and the DCE-derived preferred test to a directly selected unlabeled test. Results Older adults do not overwhelmingly value any one CRC-screening test attribute or prefer one type of CRC-screening test over other tests. However, small absolute DCE-derived preferences for the testing procedure attribute and for sigmoidoscopy-equivalent screening tests were revealed. Neither general health, functional, nor cognitive health status were associated with either an individual’s most important attribute or most preferred test choice. The DCE-derived most important attribute was associated with each participant’s directly selected unlabeled test choice. Conclusion Older adults’ preferences for CRC-screening tests are not easily predicted. Medical providers should actively explore older adults’ preferences for CRC screening, so that they can order a screening test that is concordant with their patients’ values. Effective interventions are

  19. Predictive Value of Screening Tests for Visually Significant Eye Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kopplin, Laura J.; Mansberger, Steven L.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive value of ophthalmic screening tests with visually significant eye disease in a cohort of American Indian/Alaskan Natives from the Pacific Northwest. Design Validity assessment of a possible screening protocol. Methods Ophthalmic technicians performed a screening examination including medical and ocular history, best-corrected visual acuity, limbal anterior chamber depth assessment, frequency doubling technology perimetry (FDT, C-20-5), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, nonmydriatic digital photography, and tonometry on 429 participants. An ophthalmologist performed a comprehensive eye exam on subjects with one or more abnormal screening tests and a random selection of those with normal screening tests. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association between abnormal screening test results and visually significant eye disease. We also determined the predictive value of screening tests with ocular disease. Results Univariate analysis identified history of eye disease or diabetes mellitus (p<.001), visual acuity <20/40 (p<.001), abnormal/poor quality confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (p<.001), abnormal FDT (p<.001), and abnormal/poor quality non-mydriatic imaging (p<.001) as associated with visually significant eye disease. A multivariate analysis found visually significant eye disease to be associated (p<.001; receiver operating curve area= .827, negative predictive value=84%) with four screening tests: visual acuity <20/40, abnormal/poor quality non-mydriatic imaging, abnormal FDT and abnormal/poor quality confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Conclusions Ophthalmic technicians performing a subset of screening tests may provide an accurate and efficient means of screening for eye disease in an American Indian/Alaskan Native population. Confirmation of these results in other populations, particularly those with a different profile of disease prevalence is needed. PMID:26052087

  20. Predictive value of screening tests for visually significant eye disease.

    PubMed

    Kopplin, Laura J; Mansberger, Steven L

    2015-09-01

    To determine the predictive value of ophthalmic screening tests with visually significant eye disease in a cohort of American Indian/Alaskan Natives from the Pacific Northwest. Validity assessment of a possible screening protocol. Ophthalmic technicians performed a screening examination including medical and ocular history, best-corrected visual acuity, limbal anterior chamber depth assessment, frequency-doubling technology perimetry (FDT, C-20-5), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, nonmydriatic digital photography, and tonometry on 429 participants. An ophthalmologist performed a comprehensive eye examination on subjects with 1 or more abnormal screening tests and a random selection of those with normal screening tests. We used univariate and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association between abnormal screening test results and visually significant eye disease. We also determined the predictive value of screening tests with ocular disease. Univariate analysis identified history of eye disease or diabetes mellitus (P < .001), visual acuity <20/40 (P < .001), abnormal/poor-quality confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (P < .001), abnormal FDT (P < .001), and abnormal/poor-quality nonmydriatic imaging (P < .001) as associated with visually significant eye disease. A multivariate analysis found visually significant eye disease to be associated (P < .001; receiver operating characteristic curve area = 0.827, negative predictive value = 84%) with 4 screening tests: visual acuity <20/40, abnormal/poor-quality nonmydriatic imaging, abnormal FDT, and abnormal/poor-quality confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. Ophthalmic technicians performing a subset of screening tests may provide an accurate and efficient means of screening for eye disease in an American Indian/Alaskan Native population. Confirmation of these results in other populations, particularly those with a different profile of disease prevalence, is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  1. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  2. Newborn Screening Tests for your Baby

    MedlinePlus

    ... decides which tests are required. Ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. If your baby has ... state requires different tests, so ask your baby’s health care provider which tests your baby will have. You also can visit ...

  3. Evaluation of newborn screening bloodspot-based genetic testing as second tier screen for bedside newborn hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Schimmenti, Lisa A; Warman, Berta; Schleiss, Mark R; Daly, Kathleen A; Ross, Julie A; McCann, Mark; Jurek, Anne M; Berry, Susan A

    2011-12-01

    : Bedside newborn hearing screening is highly successful in identifying deaf or hard-of-hearing infants. However, newborn hearing screening protocols have high loss to follow-up rates. We propose that bloodspot-based genetic testing for GJB2 alleles can provide a means for rapid confirmation in a subset of infants who fail bedside newborn hearing screening. : We performed a case-control study comparing the prevalence of common GJB2 mutations from deidentified bloodspots designated as "refer" by newborn hearing screening and contemporaneously selected randomly chosen controls designated as "pass." Between March 2006 and December 2007, 2354 spots were analyzed for common alleles, c.35delG, c.167delT, c.235delC, and p.V37I in GJB2 with a subset reanalyzed by conventional Sanger sequencing to search for additional alleles. : The prevalence of biallelic GJB2 mutations in bloodspots from infants who referred by newborn hearing screening is approximately 1 in 50 (23/1177). In contrast, one bloodspot from an infant who passed newborn hearing screening was identified to harbor biallelic GJB2 mutations. : These findings show that when a newborn refers by newborn hearing screening, there is a significant chance that GJB2-related hearing loss is present. Bloodspot-based genetic testing for common GJB2 alleles should be considered as second tier testing for bedside newborn hearing screening.

  4. Testing the Untestable: A Vision Screening Program for Exceptional Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Virginia E.; Godolphin, Vivienne

    Based on a longitudinal study of vision screening techniques for handicapped children at the Chester County (Pennsylvania) Child Development Center, the paper reports on the development of a battery of effective vision screening methods for children with low functioning handicapped children. Specific tests are described, including the Sheridan…

  5. Screen test for cadmium and nickel plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phan, Angie H.; Zimmerman, Albert H.

    1994-01-01

    A new procedure is described which was recently developed to quantify loading uniformity of nickel and cadmium plates and to screen finished electrodes prior to cell assembly. The technique utilizes the initial solubility rates of the active material in a standard chemical deloading solution at fixed conditions. The method can provide a reproducible indication of plate loading uniformity in situations where high surface loading limits the free flow of deloading solution into the internal porosity of the sinter plate. A preliminary study indicates that 'good' cell performance is associated with higher deloading rates.

  6. A novel multitarget stool DNA test for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Malik, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, Ahlquist DA, Berger BM. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2014;370(14):1287-97. This Practice Pearl reviews the results of a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study that evaluated the performance of a new multitarget stool DNA (or mt-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) and compared it with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in individuals at average risk for CRC. The potential impact of this test on the future of CRC screening is also discussed in a brief commentary. mt-sDNA testing is a noninvasive screening test designed to detect DNA biomarkers associated with colorectal neoplasia and occult hemoglobin in the stool. The sensitivity of mt-sDNA testing for detection of CRC was 92.3%, compared with 73.8% for FIT (p = 0.002). Sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% for mt-sDNA testing and 23.8% for FIT (p < 0.001). The specificities of mt-sDNA testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). mt-sDNA testing thus may be a first-line screening option for asymptomatic individuals at average risk for CRC who do not want to have a colonoscopy.

  7. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing.

    PubMed

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy.

  8. Recent advances in prenatal genetic screening and testing

    PubMed Central

    Van den Veyver, Ignatia B.

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies has dramatically changed the current practice of prenatal screening and testing for genetic abnormalities in the fetus. Expanded carrier screening panels and non-invasive cell-free fetal DNA-based screening for aneuploidy and single-gene disorders, and more recently for subchromosomal abnormalities, have been introduced into prenatal care. More recently introduced technologies such as chromosomal microarray analysis and whole-exome sequencing can diagnose more genetic conditions on samples obtained through amniocentesis or chorionic villus sampling, including many disorders that cannot be screened for non-invasively. All of these options have benefits and limitations, and genetic counseling has become increasingly complex for providers who are responsible for guiding patients in their decisions about screening and testing before and during pregnancy. PMID:27853526

  9. Transient evoked oto-acoustic emission screening in newborns in Bogotá, Colombia: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jorge A; Bernal, Jaime E; García, Mary A; Zarante, Ignacio; Ramírez, Natalia; Bernal, Constanza; Gelvez, Nancy; Tamayo, Marta L

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics and performance of transient evoked oto-acoustic emission (TEOAE) hearing screening in newborns in Colombia, and analyze all possible variables and factors affecting the results. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study with bivariate analysis was performed. The study population consisted of 56,822 newborns evaluated at the private institution, PREGEN. TEOAE testing was carried out as a pediatric hearing screening test from December 2003 to March 2012. The database from PREGEN was revised, and the protocol for evaluation included the same screening test performed twice. Demographic characteristics were recorded and the newborn's background was evaluated. Basic statistics of the qualitative and quantitative variables, and statistical analysis were obtained using the chi-square test. Of the 56,822 records examined, 0.28% were classed as abnormal, which corresponded to a prevalence of 1 in 350. In the screened newborns, 0.08% had a major abnormality or other clinical condition diagnosed, and 0.29% reported a family history of hearing loss. A prevalence of 6.7 in 10,000 was obtained for microtia, which is similar to the 6.4 in 10,000 previously reported in Colombia (database of the Latin-American Collaborative Study of Congenital Malformations - ECLAMC). Statistical analysis demonstrated an association between presenting with a major anomaly and a higher frequency of abnormal results on both TEOAE tests. Newborns in Colombia do not currently undergo screening for the early detection of hearing impairment. The results from this study suggest TEOAE screening tests, when performed twice, are able to detect hearing abnormalities in newborns. This highlights the need to improve the long-term evaluation and monitoring of patients in Colombia through diagnostic tests, and to provide tests that are both sensitive and specific. Furthermore, the use of TEOAE screening is justified by the favorable cost

  10. Perceptions of Colon Cancer Screening by Stage of Screening Test Adoption

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Belue, Rhonda; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Rothwell, B. Erin; Champion, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States. To fully realize the benefits of early detection of colorectal cancer, screening rates must improve. This study assessed differences in beliefs (from the Health Belief Model) by stage of screening behavior adoption (based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change) as a foundation for intervention development. More people were in the precontemplation stage (not thinking about having the screening test) for fecal occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy versus contemplation (thinking about having the test) or action (adherent with screening). Those in precontemplation stage for fecal occult blood test had lower perceived risk than those in contemplation, lower perceived benefits than those in action, and higher barriers than both those in contemplation and those in action. For sigmoidoscopy stage of readiness, again, precontemplators had lower perceived risk and self-efficacy than contemplators and higher barriers than both contemplators and actors. Given the popularity of the transtheoretical model and the success of stage-based interventions to increase other cancer screening, especially mammography, we should begin to translate such effective interventions to colorectal cancer screening. As such, this study is one of very few to quantify beliefs across stages of colorectal cancer and identify significant differences across stages, laying the foundation for the development and testing of stage-based interventions. PMID:17510580

  11. Tests of walking balance for screening vestibular disorders.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Few reliable tests are available for screening people rapidly for vestibular disorders although such tests would be useful for a variety of testing situations. Balance testing is widely performed but of unknown value for screening. The goal of this study was to determine the value of tests of walking balance for screening people with vestibular impairments. We tested three groups of patients with known vestibular impairments: benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, unilateral vestibular weakness, and post-acoustic neuroma resection. We compared them to normal subjects. All subjects were independently ambulatory without gait aids. Subjects were tested on tandem walking (TW) with eyes open and eyes closed for 10 steps, walking with no additional head motions and with augmented head rotations in yaw for 7 m (WwHT), and an obstacle avoidance task, the Functional Mobility Test (FMT). Subjects wore a 3-D motion sensor centered at mid-torso to capture kinematic measures. Patients and normals differed significantly on some behavioral measures, such as the number of steps to perform TW, and on some but not all kinematic measures. ROC analyses, however, were at best only moderate, and failed to find strong differences and cut-points that would differentiate the groups. These findings suggest that although patients and normals differ in performance of these tests in some interesting ways the groups are not sufficiently different on these tests for easy use as screening tests to differentiate the populations.

  12. SCREENING TESTS FOR IMPROVED METHANE CRACKING MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, J; Jeffrey Holder, J

    2007-07-16

    Bench scale (1 to 6 gram) methane cracking tests have been performed on a variety of pure elements, some alloys, and SAES{reg_sign} commercial getters St 101, St 198, St 707, St 737, and St 909 to determine methane cracking performance (MCP) of 5% methane in a helium carrier at 700 C, 101.3 kPa (760 torr) with a 10 sccm feed. The MCP was almost absent from some materials tested while others showed varying degrees of MCP. Re, Cr, V, Gd, and Mo powders had good MCP, but limited capacities. Nickel supported on kieselguhr (Ni/k), a Zr-Ni alloy, and the SAES{reg_sign} getters had good MCP in a helium carrier. The MCP of these same materials was suppressed in a hydrogen carrier stream and the MCP of the Zr-based materials was reduced by nitride formation when tested with a nitrogen carrier gas.

  13. "Do-It-Yourself" Dementia Testing: Issues regarding an Alzheimer's Home Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.; Molinari, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment…

  14. "Do-It-Yourself" Dementia Testing: Issues regarding an Alzheimer's Home Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kier, Frederick J.; Molinari, Victor

    2003-01-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment…

  15. Pre-screening Discussions and Prostate-Specific Antigen Testing for Prostate Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhao, Guixiang; Hall, Ingrid J

    2015-08-01

    For many men, the net benefit of prostate cancer screening with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests may be small. Many major medical organizations have issued recommendations for prostate cancer screening, stressing the need for shared decision making before ordering a test. The purpose of this study is to better understand associations between discussions about benefits and harms of PSA testing and uptake of the test among men aged ≥40 years. Associations between pre-screening discussions and PSA testing were examined using self-reported data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Unadjusted prevalence of PSA testing was estimated and AORs were calculated using logistic regression in 2014. The multivariate analysis showed that men who had ever discussed advantages of PSA testing only or discussed both advantages and disadvantages were more likely, respectively, to report having had a test within the past year than men who had no discussions (p<0.001). In addition, men who had only discussed the disadvantages of PSA testing with their healthcare providers were more likely (AOR=2.75, 95% CI=2.00, 3.79) to report getting tested than men who had no discussions. Discussions of the benefits or harms of PSA testing are positively associated with increased uptake of the test. Given the conflicting recommendations for prostate cancer screening and increasing importance of shared decision making, this study points to the need for understanding how pre-screening discussions are being conducted in clinical practice and the role played by patients' values and preferences in decisions about PSA testing. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. The use of screening tests in spacecraft lubricant evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalogeras, Chris; Hilton, Mike; Carre, David; Didziulis, Stephen; Fleischauer, Paul

    1993-01-01

    A lubricant screening test fixture has been devised in order to satisfy the need to obtain lubricant performance data in a timely manner. This fixture has been used to perform short-term tests on potential lubricants for several spacecraft applications. The results of these tests have saved time by producing qualitative performance rankings of lubricant selections prior to life testing. To date, this test fixture has been used to test lubricants for 3 particular applications. The qualitative results from these tests have been verified by life test results and have provided insight into the function of various anti-wear additives.

  17. Using screening test data to recognize reactive chemical hazards.

    PubMed

    Saraf, Sanjeev R; Rogers, William J; Mannan, M Sam

    2003-11-14

    The evaluation of reactive hazards is necessary for safe operations in the chemical process industries. An integral aspect of reactive hazard testing is the screening of chemicals to focus experimental efforts on the more hazardous chemicals. Screening is often performed using a Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) or the Reactive System Screening Tool (RSST). The study of chemical incompatibility highlights the need for efficient screening techniques, since a large number of experiments must be performed at a reasonable cost and in a short period of time. A purpose of this paper is to present chemical incompatibility data measured using the RSST for di-tert-butyl peroxide (DTBP) in a variety of organic solvents. Analysis of the data with regard to the solvent functional groups was generalized to extend the measured data to compounds for which data are unavailable. Further, a classification for reactive chemicals is proposed that can serve as a guideline for selecting compositions for detailed testing.

  18. SPF Full-scale emissions test method development status ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is a non-technical presentation that is intended to inform ASTM task group members about our intended approach to full-scale emissions testing that includes the application of spray foam in an environmental chamber. The presentation describes the approach to emissions characterization, types of measurement systems employed, and expected outcomes from the planned tests. Purpose of this presentation is to update the ASTM D22.05 work group regarding status of our full-scale emissions test method development.

  19. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results.

  20. Screening in the Dark: Ethical Considerations of Providing Screening Tests to Individuals When Evidence is Insufficient to Support Screening Populations

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Ingrid M.; Kass, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    During the past decade, screening tests using computed tomography (CT) have disseminated into practice and been marketed to patients despite neither conclusive evidence nor professional agreement about their efficacy and cost-effectiveness at the population level. This phenomenon raises questions about physicians’ professional roles and responsibilities within the setting of medical innovation, as well as the appropriate scope of patient autonomy and access to unproven screening technology. This article explores how physicians ought to respond when new screening examinations that lack conclusive evidence of overall population benefit emerge in the marketplace and are requested by individual patients. To this end, the article considers the nature of evidence and how it influences decision-making for screening at both the public policy and individual patient levels. We distinguish medical and ethical differences between screening recommended for a population and screening considered on an individual patient basis. Finally, we discuss specific cases to explore how evidence, patient risk factors and preferences, and physician judgment ought to balance when making individual patient screening decisions. PMID:19326299

  1. Improvement of a rapid screening test for chronic granulomatous disease.

    PubMed

    Iacobini, M; Duse, M; Di Coste, A; Balducci, L

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis of CGD is made by demonstrating absent or markedly reduced oxidase activity in stimulated neutrophils. The screening test proposed is based upon the naked eye evaluation of the reduction of NBT on a solid surface. It seems to be a useful tool for rapid and inexpensive detection of CGD patients, especially for large-scale screening purposes. The test was carried out on forty-five subjects: two males affected by CGD, three female carriers and forty healthy donors. The test confirmed the results obtained with flow cytometric and NBT assays.

  2. Screening for hearing loss in the elderly using distortion product otoacoustic emissions, pure tones, and a self-assessment tool.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Tina

    2009-12-01

    To determine whether distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) could be used as a hearing screening tool with elderly individuals living independently, and to compare the utility of different screening protocols: (a) 3 pure-tone screening protocols consisting of 30 dB HL at 1, 2, and 3 kHz; 40 dB HL at 1, 2, and 3 kHz; or 40 dB HL at 1 and 2 kHz; (b) the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly-Screening version (HHIE-S); (c) pure tones at 40 dB HL at 1 and 2 kHz plus the HHIE-S; and (d) DPOAEs. A total of 106 elderly individuals age 65-91 years were screened using the above protocols. Pass/fail results showed that most individuals failed at 30 dB HL, followed by DPOAEs, the 40-dB HL protocols, the HHIE-S alone, and the combined pure-tone/HHIE-S protocol. All screening results were associated except the HHIE-S and 30 dB HL and the HHIE-S and DPOAEs. A McNemar analysis revealed that the differences between the correlated pass/fail results were significant except for the HHIE-S and 40 dB at 1 and 2 kHz. DPOAEs can be used to screen the elderly, with the advantage that individuals do not have to voluntarily respond to the test.

  3. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  4. Preschool Preposition Test: Developmental Screening for Head Start.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aaronson, May; And Others

    As a preschool screening instrument, the Preschool Preposition Test (PPT) can play an important role in the early identification of cognitive delay. PPT scores increase appropriately with chronological age. Cognitive data demonstrate impressive correlations with recognized intelligence tests (the Stanford-Binet and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary…

  5. An Adolescent Version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, Mark; Thurber, Steven; Hodgson, Joele M.

    2002-01-01

    Item content of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) was modified to make it more appropriate for young persons. The resulting test was found to have lower internal consistency than the adult MAST, but the elimination of five items with comparatively poor psychometric properties yielded an acceptable alpha coefficient. (Contains 10…

  6. The Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test as a Language Screening Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeney, Jennifer; Bernthal, John

    1996-01-01

    The validity of using the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test (RDDST) was investigated by testing 199 preschool children (ages 3-4) and reviewing the results 6 months later. Results indicated that the RDDST was an efficient prognostic tool in predicting formal assessment results for children at risk for language impairments. (CR)

  7. Using otoacoustic emissions to screen young children for hearing loss in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Foust, Terry; Eiserman, William; Shisler, Lenore; Geroso, Amy

    2013-07-01

    Otoacoustic emissions (OAE) technology, used widely in newborn hearing screening programs and validated by professional organizations as a reliable and objective tool, is beginning to be recognized as superior to subjective methods when screening young children in a variety of settings. This study examines the efficacy of integrating OAE hearing screening into services routinely provided in health care settings. Three federally funded clinics serving low-income and uninsured people in a metropolitan area participated in the 10-month study. Subjects included 846 children (842 in the target population <5 years of age and 4 older siblings) who were screened during routine visits to their primary care providers using a distortion product OAE instrument. A multistep screening and diagnostic protocol, incorporating middle ear evaluation and treatment, was followed when children did not pass the initial screening. Audiological evaluation was sought for children not passing a subsequent OAE screening. Of the 846 children screened, 814 (96%) ultimately passed the screening or audiological assessment and 29 (3%) exited the study. Three children (1 was <5 years of age and 2 were >5) were identified with permanent hearing loss. The rate of identification of permanent hearing loss in this study is similar to findings from a study of OAE screening in early childhood educational settings. OAE screening holds the potential for being an effective method for helping to identify young children with permanent hearing loss in primary care settings.

  8. Cognitive Screening Tests Versus Comprehensive Neuropsychological Test Batteries: A National Academy of Neuropsychology Education Paper†.

    PubMed

    Roebuck-Spencer, Tresa M; Glen, Tannahill; Puente, Antonio E; Denney, Robert L; Ruff, Ronald M; Hostetter, Gayle; Bianchini, Kevin J

    2017-03-10

    The American Medical Association Current Procedural Panel developed a new billing code making behavioral health screening a reimbursable healthcare service. The use of computerized testing as a means for cognitive screening and brief cognitive testing is increasing at a rapid rate. The purpose of this education paper is to provide information to clinicians, healthcare administrators, and policy developers about the purpose, strengths, and limitations of cognitive screening tests versus comprehensive neuropsychological evaluations. Screening tests are generally brief and narrow in scope, they can be administered during a routine clinical visit, and they can be helpful for identifying individuals in need of more comprehensive assessment. Some screening tests can also be helpful for monitoring treatment outcomes. Comprehensive neuropsychological assessments are multidimensional in nature and used for purposes such as identifying primary and secondary diagnoses, determining the nature  and severity of a person's cognitive difficulties, determining functional limitations, and planning treatment and rehabilitation. Cognitive screening tests are expected to play an increasingly important role in identifying individuals with cognitive impairment and in determining which individuals should be referred for further neuropsychological assessment. However, limitations of existing cognitive screening tests are present and cognitive screening tests should not be used as a replacement for comprehensive neuropsychological testing.

  9. Economic evaluation of prostate cancer screening test as a national cancer screening program in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sangjin; Kim, Youn Hee; Hwang, Jin Sub; Lee, Yoon Jae; Lee, Sang Moo; Ahn, Jeonghoon

    2014-01-01

    Prostate cancer is rapidly increasing in Korea and professional societies have requested adding prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing to the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP), but this started a controversy in Korea and neutral evidence on this issue is required more than ever. The purpose of this study was to provide economic evidence to the decision makers of the NCSP. A cost-utility analysis was performed on the adoption of PSA screening program among men aged 50-74-years in Korea from the healthcare system perspective. Several data sources were used for the cost-utility analysis, including general health screening data, the Korea Central Cancer Registry, national insurance claims data, and cause of mortality from the National Statistical Office. To solicit the utility index of prostate cancer, a face-to-face interview for typical men aged 40 to 69 was conducted using a Time-Trade Off method. As a result, the increase of effectiveness was estimated to be very low, when adopting PSA screening, and the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was analyzed as about 94 million KRW. Sensitivity analyses were performed on the incidence rate, screening rate, cancer stage distribution, utility index, and treatment costs but the results were consistent with the base analysis. Under Korean circumstances with a relatively low incidence rate of prostate cancer, PSA screening is not cost-effective. Therefore, we conclude that adopting national prostate cancer screening would not be beneficial until further evidence is provided in the future.

  10. Usefulness of Benedict's test for the screening of galactosemia.

    PubMed

    Morell-Garcia, Daniel; Bauça, Josep Miquel; Barceló, Antonia; Perez-Esteban, Gerardo; Vila, Magdalena

    2014-06-01

    Benedict's test for the screening of galactosemia presents a high false-positive rate, which puts into question its usefulness. We evaluated the results of Benedict's test as screening strategy for galactosemia, and the patients' definite diagnosis in our hospital in the last 25 years. We also assessed the most prevalent clinical conditions among the false-positive cases. Apart from glycosuria, many non-galactosemic newborns with heart alterations, prematurity, icterus and sepsis usually lead to false-positive results using Benedict's. No false-negative case for Benedict's test was reported in our hospital. A better approach in terms of cost-effectiveness, sensitivity and specificity is needed for an effective screening of galactosemia. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Acoustic emission from composite materials. [nondestructive tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Visconti, I. C.; Teti, R.

    1979-01-01

    The two basic areas where the acoustic emission (AE) technique can be applied are materials research and the evaluation of structural reliability. This experimental method leads to a better understanding of fracture mechanisms and is an NDT technique particularly well suited for the study of propagating cracks. Experiments are described in which acoustic emissions were unambiguously correlated with microstructural fracture mechanisms. The advantages and limitations of the AE technique are noted.

  12. Testing of household products and materials for emission of toluene diisocyanate.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T J; Myers, J D; Holdren, M W

    1999-06-01

    Polyurethane products were subjected to chamber testing to determine their emission rates of 2,4- and 2,6-toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The polyurethane (PU) products included carpet padding, furniture cushions, sheet foam, varnishes, and sealants, as well as a commercially-applied water sealant product for concrete that contained up to 4 percent TDI by weight. The PU products were screened in a 9-L glass chamber, under elevated temperature and chamber loading conditions, using both a time-integrated sampling and analysis method specific for TDI and a continuous but non-specific real-time monitor for isocyanates. None of the products normally found in residences showed a positive response in the screening tests, indicating that TDI emissions and consequently toxic effects from such products are negligible. However, the commercially-applied water sealant gave a positive response in the screening test. Further testing of that product at realistic temperatures showed initial TDI emission rates of about 300,000 micrograms/m2/hr, with emissions lasting only one hour or less. At 21 and 27 degrees C, about 1 percent and 5 percent, respectively, of the TDI content of the product was released to the air. The emitted TDI was predominantly the 2,6-isomer, although the TDI originally present in the product was predominantly the 2,4-isomer.

  13. Diesel emission production audit test procedure. SAE standard

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This SAE Recommended Practice applies to a production dynamometer test procedure which can be used to measure the smoke and gaseous emission characteristics of vehicular diesel engines. This procedure describes the smoke emission test method, smoke test cycle, gaseous emission test method, steady-state gaseous emission test cycle, equipment, instrumentation, calibration, data analysis, and correlation of results for comparison of production engine emission performance to the requirements of current or past Federal regulations. Variations in engines, instrumentation, and test equipment may require modifications to these procedures or data reduction methods. The acceptability of this procedure is dependent upon documented statistical data appropriate to correlate all tests, data reduction techniques, and special instrumentation to the required Federal tests. When using the audit test procedure to assess the emissions performance of production engines, considerations should be given to expected emissions deterioration factors and quality control limits should be adjusted accordingly. This document is intended as a guide for the measurement and assessment of transient smoke and steady-state gaseous emissions from heavy duty vehicular diesel engines only using a shortened engine dynamometer cycle which may be applicable to production line or production quality audit conditions. Key elements of the procedure closely resemble key elements of the federal rest procedures used for regulatory approval by the United States Government.

  14. Screening for Language Disorders in Stroke: German Validation of the Language Screening Test (LAST)

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Bruhin, M.; Vanbellingen, T.; Schumacher, R.; Pflugshaupt, T.; Annoni, J.M.; Müri, R.M.; Bohlhalter, S.; Nyffeler, T.

    2016-01-01

    Background Screening of aphasia in acute stroke is crucial for directing patients to early language therapy. The Language Screening Test (LAST), originally developed in French, is a validated language screening test that allows detection of a language deficit within a few minutes. The aim of the present study was to develop and validate two parallel German versions of the LAST. Methods The LAST includes subtests for naming, repetition, automatic speech, and comprehension. For the translation into German, task constructs and psycholinguistic criteria for item selection were identical to the French LAST. A cohort of 101 stroke patients were tested, all of whom were native German speakers. Validation of the LAST was based on (1) analysis of equivalence of the German versions, which was established by administering both versions successively in a subset of patients, (2) internal validity by means of internal consistency analysis, and (3) external validity by comparison with the short version of the Token Test in another subset of patients. Results The two German versions were equivalent as demonstrated by a high intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.91. Furthermore, an acceptable internal structure of the LAST was found (Cronbach's α = 0.74). A highly significant correlation (r = 0.74, p < 0.0001) between the LAST and the short version of the Token Test indicated good external validity of the scale. Conclusion The German version of the LAST, available in two parallel versions, is a new and valid language screening test in stroke. PMID:27194999

  15. Magneto acoustic emission apparatus for testing materials for embrittlement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Sidney G. (Inventor); Min, Namkung (Inventor); Yost, William T. (Inventor); Cantrell, John H. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for testing steel components for temper embrittlement uses magneto-acoustic emission to nondestructively evaluate the component. Acoustic emission signals occur more frequently at higher levels in embrittled components. A pair of electromagnets are used to create magnetic induction in the test component. Magneto-acoustic emission signals may be generated by applying an ac current to the electromagnets. The acoustic emission signals are analyzed to provide a comparison between a component known to be unembrittled and a test component. Magnetic remanence is determined by applying a dc current to the electromagnets, then turning the magnets off and observing the residual magnetic induction.

  16. The Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test: A Look at Test Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Johnny O.

    This study examined the need to develop reliable and valid procedures for screening large populations for possible speech and language problems and the use of the Fluharty Preschool Speech and Language Screening Test (FPSLST) as such a device. The test was administered to 260 preschool children, ages three to six. There were 166 Blacks and 94…

  17. 40 CFR 1066.815 - Exhaust emission test procedures for FTP testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FTP testing. 1066.815 Section 1066.815 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Vehicles § 1066.815 Exhaust emission test procedures for FTP testing. (a) General. The FTP exhaust emission... section and use the corresponding equation in § 1066.820 to calculate FTP composite emissions....

  18. 'NESTROFT'--an effective screening test for beta thalassemia trait.

    PubMed

    Manglani, M; Lokeshwar, M R; Vani, V G; Bhatia, N; Mhaskar, V

    1997-08-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of NESTROFT (Naked Eye Single Tube Red Cell Osmotic Fragility Test) as a screening tool for detection of beta thalassemia trait. Prospective study. Field camps in various parts of Gujarat and Maharashtra States. A total of 2525 subjects were screened. NESTROFT, complete hemogram including red cell indices and calculation of Mentzer's Fraction (MF) and discriminant functions (DF1-4) were done in all subjects. HbA2 was performed in 830 initial subjects to compute sensitivity, specificity and predictive values for various parameters. NESTROFT (sensitivity 94.4%), as a single screening parameter was superior to any of the other evaluated parameters individually, besides being cost effective. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) < 80 fl followed NESTROFT closely (sensitivity 93.7; p > 0.05). MCV < 75 fl had a significantly (p < 0.001) lower sensitivity (87.3%) in comparison to both of these parameters. In contrast, MF, DF1, DF2, DF3 and DF4 did not meet the requirements of a good screening test with sensitivity values of 66.2%, 54.9%, 47.2%, 64.1% and 55.6%, respectively. NESTROFT in combination with MCV < 80 fl proved 100% sensitive. However, the combination was not cost effective. NESTROFT is a sensitive, cost effective, rapid and reliable screening test for detection of beta thalassemia trait in a population.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.530 - Emission test sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.530... precondition the engine as described in § 1065.518: (i) For cold-start duty cycles, shut down the engine... unrepresentative emissions (see § 1065.10(c)(1)). You may start a cold-start duty cycle when the temperatures of...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.530 - Emission test sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.530... precondition sampling systems as described in § 1065.520(f): (i) For cold-start duty cycles, shut down the... unrepresentative emissions (see § 1065.10(c)(1)). You may start a cold-start duty cycle when the temperatures of...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.530 - Emission test sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.530... precondition sampling systems as described in § 1065.520(f): (i) For cold-start duty cycles, shut down the... unrepresentative emissions (see § 1065.10(c)(1)). You may start a cold-start duty cycle when the temperatures of...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.530 - Emission test sequence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Performing an Emission Test Over Specified Duty Cycles § 1065.530... precondition sampling systems as described in § 1065.520(f): (i) For cold-start duty cycles, shut down the... unrepresentative emissions (see § 1065.10(c)(1)). You may start a cold-start duty cycle when the temperatures of...

  3. Screening organic chemicals in commerce for emissions in the context of environmental and human exposure.

    PubMed

    Breivik, Knut; Arnot, Jon A; Brown, Trevor N; McLachlan, Michael S; Wania, Frank

    2012-08-01

    Quantitative knowledge of organic chemical release into the environment is essential to understand and predict human exposure as well as to develop rational control strategies for any substances of concern. While significant efforts have been invested to characterize and screen organic chemicals for hazardous properties, relatively less effort has been directed toward estimating emissions and hence also risks. Here, a rapid throughput method to estimate emissions of discrete organic chemicals in commerce has been developed, applied and evaluated to support screening studies aimed at ranking and identifying chemicals of potential concern. The method builds upon information in the European Union Technical Guidance Document and utilizes information on quantities in commerce (production and/or import rates), chemical function (use patterns) and physical-chemical properties to estimate emissions to air, soil and water within the OECD for five stages of the chemical life-cycle. The method is applied to 16,029 discrete substances (identified by CAS numbers) from five national and international high production volume lists. As access to consistent input data remains fragmented or even impossible, particular attention is given to estimating, evaluating and discussing uncertainties in the resulting emission scenarios. The uncertainty for individual substances typically spans 3 to 4 orders of magnitude for this initial tier screening method. Information on uncertainties in emissions is useful as any screening or categorization methods which solely rely on threshold values are at risk of leading to a significant number of either false positives or false negatives. A limited evaluation of the screening method's estimates for a sub-set of about 100 substances, compared against independent and more detailed emission scenarios presented in various European Risk Assessment Reports, highlights that up-to-date and accurate information on quantities in commerce as well as a detailed

  4. Analytical screening of low emissions, high performance duct burners for supersonic cruise aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohmann, R. A.; Riecke, G. T.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical screening study was conducted to identify duct burner concepts capable of providing low emissions and high performance in advanced supersonic engines. Duct burner configurations ranging from current augmenter technology to advanced concepts such as premix-prevaporized burners were defined. Aerothermal and mechanical design studies provided the basis for screening these configurations using the criteria of emissions, performance, engine compatibility, cost, weight and relative risk. Technology levels derived from recently defined experimental low emissions main burners are required to achieve both low emissions and high performance goals. A configuration based on the Vorbix (Vortex burning and mixing) combustor concept was analytically determined to meet the performance goals and is consistent with the fan duct envelope of a variable cycle engine. The duct burner configuration has a moderate risk level compatible with the schedule of anticipated experimental programs.

  5. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing.

  6. Human papillomavirus testing for primary cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Grce, Magdalena; Davies, Philip

    2008-09-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide and the seventh most common cause of cancer deaths in women in Europe. Today, we know how to prevent almost every case of this disease; organized cervical cancer screening based on the Papanicolaou or Pap smear has been proven to prevent 80% of cervical cancer deaths, while new technologies for the detection of the human papillomavirus (HPV) or the prevention of HPV infection offer the potential to make even more progress in the battle against this disease. Testing for carcinogenic or high-risk HPV types is gaining acceptance for the triage of women with borderline cytology and for follow-up after treatment of high-grade cervical lesions. Now, a number of large-scale randomized controlled trials have shown that HPV testing as a primary screening test can detect approximately 50% more high-grade lesions than the Pap test, albeit with a lower specificity if all HPV-positive women are followed up. However, alternative screening algorithms in which HPV-positive women are triaged with cytology have been shown to have equivalent specificity to the Pap test without compromising the increased sensitivity. Further advantages of HPV testing come from the fact that it is an objective and automatable test with a dichotomous result. These attributes can yield cost savings through reductions in staff numbers and simplification of quality control procedures while reducing turnaround times. In countries seeking to improve cervical cancer prevention, the implementation of HPV testing as the primary screening test with cytology for the triage of HPV-positive women is an option that should be fully evaluated. This review summarizes the recent advances in HPV testing in cervical cancer prevention.

  7. Developments in Screening Tests and Strategies for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sovich, Justin L.; Sartor, Zachary; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and second most common in women. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States, CRC is the third most common cause of cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates have steadily fallen, primarily due to widespread screening. Methods. We conducted keyword searches on PubMed in four categories of CRC screening: stool, endoscopic, radiologic, and serum, as well as news searches in Medscape and Google News. Results. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for CRC screening and the most common method in the United States. Technological improvements continue to be made, including the promising “third-eye retroscope.” Fecal occult blood remains widely used, particularly outside the United States. The first at-home screen, a fecal DNA screen, has also recently been approved. Radiological methods are effective but seldom used due to cost and other factors. Serum tests are largely experimental, although at least one is moving closer to market. Conclusions. Colonoscopy is likely to remain the most popular screening modality for the immediate future, although its shortcomings will continue to spur innovation in a variety of modalities. PMID:26504799

  8. Performance of gastric cancer screening by endoscopy testing through the National Cancer Screening Program of Korea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kui Son; Jun, Jae Kwan; Lee, Hoo-Yeon; Park, Sohee; Jung, Kyu Won; Han, Mi Ah; Choi, Il Ju; Park, Eun-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have proposed endoscopy as an alternative strategy to radiography for gastric cancer (GC) screening. The current study presents the first reported population-based data from a large GC screening program that provided endoscopic examinations. A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) database. We evaluated GC detection rates, sensitivity, specificity, and the positive predictive value of an endoscopic screening program for the average-risk Korean population, aged 40 years and older, who underwent the NCSP from 2002 to 2005. The detection rates of GC by endoscopy in the first and subsequent rounds were 2.71 and 2.14 per 1000 examinations, respectively. Localized cancer accounted for 45.7% of screen-detected GC cases. The sensitivity of endoscopy was 69% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 66.3-71.8). The endoscopic screening was less sensitive for the detection of localized GC (65.7%, 95% CI = 61.8-69.5) than for regional or distant GC (73.6%, 95% CI = 67.4-79.8). In the multiple logistic models for localized GC and all combined GC, the odds ratio (OR) of sensitivity for the undifferentiated type was statistically significantly higher than that for the differentiated type, whereas the OR of sensitivity for the mixed type was lower than that for the differentiated type. The sensitivity of the endoscopic test in a population-based screening was slightly higher for the detection of regional or distant GC than for localized GC. Further evaluation of the impact of endoscopic screening should take into account the balance of cost and mortality reduction.

  9. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  10. Denver Developmental Screening Test: Cultural Variations in Southeast Asian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Virginia; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Tests (DDST) was administered to 25 Southeast Asian children (one to five years old) and scores of 150 other DDSTs performed on Southeast Asian children were reviewed. Findings suggested that scores may reflect differences in social and cultural experiences between these children and the standardization sample.…

  11. 76. View of copper screen shielded and grounded test area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. View of copper screen shielded and grounded test area in transmitter building no. 102, room 115. - Clear Air Force Station, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System Site II, One mile west of mile marker 293.5 on Parks Highway, 5 miles southwest of Anderson, Anderson, Denali Borough, AK

  12. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  13. Validation of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neale, Anne Victoria; And Others

    Elder abuse is recognized as an under-detected and under-reported social problem. Difficulties in detecting elder abuse are compounded by the lack of a standardized, psychometrically valid instrument for case finding. The development of the Hwalek-Sengstock Elder Abuse Screening Test (H-S/EAST) followed a larger effort to identify indicators and…

  14. Newborn Screening and Cascade Testing for FMR1 Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Sorensen, Page L.; Gane, Louise W.; Yarborough, Mark; Hagerman, Randi; Tassone, Flora

    2014-01-01

    We describe an ongoing pilot project in which newborn screening (NBS) for FMR1 mutations and subsequent cascade testing are performed by the MIND Institute at the University of California, Davis Medical Center (UCDMC). To date, out of 3042 newborns initially screened, 44 extended family members have been screened by cascade testing of extended family members once a newborn is identified. 14 newborns (7 males and 7 females) and 27 extended family members (5 males and 22 females) have been identified with FMR1 mutations. Three family histories are discussed in detail, each demonstrating some benefits and risks of NBS and cascade testing for FMR1 mutations in extended family members. While we acknowledge inherent risks, we propose that with genetic counseling, clinical follow-up of identified individuals and cascade testing, newborn screening (NBS) has significant benefits. Treatment for individuals in the extended family who would otherwise not have received treatment can be beneficial. In addition, knowledge of carrier status can lead to lifestyle changes and prophylactic interventions that are likely to reduce the risk of late onset neurological or psychiatric problems in carriers. Also with identification of carrier family members through NBS, reproductive choices become available to those who would not have known that they were at risk to have offspring with fragile X syndrome. PMID:23239591

  15. The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST): A Statistical Validation Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laux, John M.; Newman, Isadore; Brown, Russ

    2004-01-01

    This study extends the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST; M. L. Selzer, 1971) literature base by examining 4 issues related to the validity of the MAST scores. Specifically, the authors examine the validity of the MAST scores in light of the presence of impression management, participant demographic variables, and item endorsement…

  16. Psychometric Characteristics of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenstein, Robert

    The Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRST) is widely used to identify "developmentally immature" children for placement in extra-year, transition programs in spite of a problematic absence of psychometric evidence and research support. In this study of psychometric characteristics of the GSRST, teacher ratings of classroom…

  17. Tuberculosis Screening and Targeted Testing of College and University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of American College Health, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Screening and targeted testing for tuberculosis (TB) is a key strategy for controlling and preventing infection on college and university campuses. Early detection provides an opportunity to promote the health of affected individuals through prompt diagnosis and treatment while preventing potential spread to others. Implementation of a screening…

  18. Evaluating the Initial Version of a New Cognitive Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Marcia S.; Deuel, Lois-Lynn Stoyko; Urbano, Richard C.; Fletcher, Kathryn L.; Torres, Carolyn

    1998-01-01

    The performance on a cognitive screening test of 37 children (ages 4-6) with mild mental retardation or learning disabilities was compared to their peers. The tasks constituting the initial version of the battery were evaluated in terms of their classification accuracy and yielded a set of five different cognitive tasks. (CR)

  19. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  20. Using otoacoustic emissions to screen for hearing loss in early childhood care settings.

    PubMed

    Eiserman, William D; Hartel, Diana M; Shisler, Lenore; Buhrmann, Jan; White, Karl R; Foust, Terry

    2008-04-01

    Until recently, no objective tool has been available to help health and early childhood education providers screen young children for hearing loss. The aim of this study was to screen underserved children emissions (OAE) technology and to systematically document multi-step screening and diagnostic outcomes. A total of 4,519 children, screened by trained lay screeners using portable OAE equipment set to deliver stimuli and measurement levels sensitive to mild hearing loss as low as 25 decibels (dB) hearing level. The screening and follow-up protocol specified that children not passing the multi-step OAE screening be evaluated by local physicians and hearing specialists. Of the 4,519 children screened as a part of the study, 257 (6%) ultimately required medical or audiological follow-up. One hundred and seven children were identified as having a hearing loss or disorder of the outer, middle or inner ear requiring treatment or monitoring. Of these 107 children, 5 had permanent bilateral and 2 had permanent unilateral hearing loss. The seven children with permanent hearing loss included four who had passed newborn screening, two who were not screened at birth and one who did not receive follow-up services after referring from newborn screening. OAE screening, using a multi-step protocol, was found to be a feasible and accurate practice for identifying a wide range of hearing-health conditions warranting monitoring and treatment among children screening in early childhood care settings and (2) explore the value of extending early childhood OAE hearing screening into health care clinics and settings where young children receive routine care.

  1. [Electronic eikonometer: Measurement tests displayed on stereoscopic screen].

    PubMed

    Bourdy, C; James, Y

    2016-05-01

    We propose the presentation on a stereoscopic screen of the electronic eikonometer tests intended for analysis and measurement of perceptual effects of binocular disparity. These tests, so-called "built-in magnification tests" are constructed according to the same principle as those of preceding eikonometers (disparity variation parameters being included in each test presentation, which allows, for test observation and measurements during the examination, the removing of any intermediate optical system). The images of these tests are presented separately to each eye, according to active or passive stereoscopic screen technology: (1) Ogle Spatial Test to measure aniseikonia; (2) Fixation Disparity test: binocular nonius; (3) retinal correspondence test evaluated by nonius horopter; (4) stereoscopic test using Julesz' random-dot stereograms (RDS). All of these tests, with their variable parameters included, are preprogrammed by means of an associated mini-computer. This new system (a single screen for the presentation of tests for the right eye and left eye) will be much simpler to reproduce and install for all practitioners interested in the functional exploration of binocular vision. We develop the suitable methodology adapted to each type of examination, as well as manipulations to be performed by the operator. We then recall the possibilities for reducing aniseikonia thanks to some theoretical studies previously performed by matrix calculation of the size of the retinal images for different types of eye (emmetropia, axial or conformation anisometropia, aphakia) and for different means of correction (glasses, contact lenses, implants). Software for achieving these different tests is available, on request, at this address: eiconometre.electronique@gmail.com. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Pathology consultation on urine compliance testing and drug abuse screening.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael B; Hackenmueller, Sarah A; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2014-11-01

    Compliance testing in pain management requires a distinct approach compared with classic clinical toxicology testing. Differences in the patient populations and clinical expectations require modifications to established reporting cutoffs, assay performance expectations, and critical review of how best to apply the available testing methods. Although other approaches to testing are emerging, immunoassay screening followed by mass spectrometry confirmation remains the most common testing workflow for pain management compliance and drug abuse testing. A case-based approach was used to illustrate the complexities inherent to and uniqueness of pain management compliance testing for both clinicians and laboratories. A basic understanding of the inherent strengths and weaknesses of immunoassays and mass spectrometry provides the clinician a better understanding of how best to approach pain management compliance testing. Pain management compliance testing is a textbook example of an emerging field requiring open communication between physician and performing laboratory to fully optimize patient care. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  3. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA. 86.1439 Section 86.1439 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Test emission test procedures—EPA. (a) The portions of the performance warranty test...

  4. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA. 86.1439 Section 86.1439 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Test emission test procedures—EPA. (a) The portions of the performance warranty test...

  5. Alcohol abuse screening instruments: normative test data collected from a first DWI offender screening program.

    PubMed

    Lapham, S C; Skipper, B J; Owen, J P; Kleyboecker, K; Teaf, D; Thompson, B; Simpson, G

    1995-01-01

    A variety of instruments are used by Driving While Impaired (DWI) screening programs nationwide to assess offenders for alcohol- or drug-related problems. This study presents normative data from five standardized instruments administered by a DWI screening program: the MAC scale of the MMPI, the Alcohol Use Inventory (AUI), the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST), the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) and the Skinner's Trauma Scale (STS). The population under study were 2,317 first DWI offenders who completed screening evaluations in 1989-91. The sample included 24% women; the racial distribution was 46% Hispanic, 43% non-Hispanic white, 8% Native American and 3% other races. A statistical model was developed to determine associations among scores on the various instruments and age, gender, ethnicity, education, blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and validity measures on the MMPI-2 (L and K scale scores) There were significant differences in test scores among the ethnic- and gender-specific client groups. Test scores were significantly higher among men than women for the MAST, the D1 and D2 scales of the AUI, the MAC, and the STS. Correlations among the instruments were generally low, and the percentage of persons who scored above instrument cut-points varied significantly. The MAST identified the highest percentage of persons as alcoholic. MMPI profile validity was the most significant independent variable associated with test scores. Persons with scores in the valid range had higher mean scores on each of the instruments. The choice of instruments used in the DWI assessment can greatly influence the percentage of offenders assessed as having alcohol-related problems.

  6. Null screens type Hartmann to test simple lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Santiago, Gabriel; Castán-Ricaño, Diana; Gozález-Galindo, Alfredo; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Díaz-Uribe, Rufino

    2015-08-01

    In order to evaluate either qualitative or quantitatively the shape of fast plano-convex aspheric lenses, a method to design null screens type Hartmann is proposed. The null screens are formed with non-uniform spots, which allows to have uniform images at detection's plane. The screens are printed on a foil sheet and placed in front of the lens under test, they are illuminated with a collimated monochromatic beam propagating along the optical axis, in such a way that through the process of refraction will form a uniform spot patterns which are recorded at a predefined plane of detection. Finally, processing properly its image recorded we could be able to get a quantitative evaluation of the lens under test. The designs of these null screens are based on the equations of the caustic surface produced by refraction. A preliminary test for a fast plano-convex aspheric lens with F=# = 0:8 is presented in this work. This method could also be applied to alignment of optical systems.

  7. AiResearch QCGAT engine performance and emissions tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Results of aerodynamic performance and emission tests, conducted on a specially designed QCGAT engine in the 17,793-N (4,000 lb) thrust class, are presented. Performance of the AiResearch QCGAT engine was excellent throughout all testing. No serious mechanical malfunctions were encountered, and no significant test time was lost due to engine-related problems. Emissions were drastically reduced over similar engines, and the engine exhibited good smoke performance.

  8. 40 CFR 86.1439 - Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Certification Short Test emission test procedures-EPA. 86.1439 Section 86.1439 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE HIGHWAY VEHICLES AND ENGINES (CONTINUED) Emission Regulations for New...

  9. Arc Jet Screening Tests Of Phase 1 Orbiter Tile Repair Materials and Uncoated RSI High Temperature Emittance Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelPapa, Steven V.

    2005-01-01

    Arc jet tests of candidate tile repair materials and baseline Orbiter uncoated reusable surface insulation (RSI) were performed in the Johnson Space Center's (JSC) Atmospheric Reentry Materials and Structures Evaluation Facility (ARMSEF) from June 23, 2003, through August 19, 2003. These tests were performed to screen candidate tile repair materials by verifying the high temperature performance and determining the thermal stability. In addition, tests to determine the surface emissivity at high temperatures and the geometric shrinkage of bare RSI were performed. In addition, tests were performed to determine the surface emissivity at high temperatures and the geometric shrinkage of uncoated RSI.

  10. Urinary Screening Tests in the Prevention of Mental Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Thomas L.; Hansen, Shirley; Macdougall, Lynne

    1966-01-01

    A substantial number of genetically determined biochemical disorders in infants and young children produce mental deficiency and serious ill health in early life. If these diseases are detected promptly, effective therapy can be instituted to prevent the development of mental defect, or, where no treatment is presently available, the parents can be given appropriate genetic counselling so that the birth of further affected children can be prevented. Eight simple urine screening tests are described which have proved useful in the early detection of metabolic disorders in apparently healthy infants. These tests can easily be performed by a physician or nurse without special training or elaborate equipment. The attention of general practitioners, pediatricians and public health physicians is directed to the real possibilities for preventing some forms of mental deficiency through the routine use of screening tests on urine and on blood. PMID:5945986

  11. MUSCULOSKELETAL SCREENING AND FUNCTIONAL TESTING: CONSIDERATIONS FOR BASKETBALL ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Markwick, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Youth participation in basketball is on the rise, with basketball one of the top five participation sports in Australia. With increased participation there is a need for greater awareness of the importance of the pre-participation examination, including musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing as part of a multidisciplinary approach to reducing the risk for future injuries. As majority of all basketball injuries affect the lower extremities, pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance testing should assess fundamental movement qualities throughout the kinetic chain with an emphasis on lower extremity force characteristics, specifically eccentric loading tasks. Thus, the purpose of this clinical commentary is to review the existing literature elucidating pre-participation musculoskeletal screening and functional performance tests that can be used as a framework for rehabilitation professionals in assessing basketball athletes’ readiness to safely perform the movement demands of their sport. Methods Relevant articles published between 2000 and 2016 using the search terms ‘musculoskeletal screening’, ‘functional testing’, ‘youth athletes’, and ‘basketball’ were identified using MEDLINE. From a basketball-specific perspective, several relevant musculoskeletal assessments were identified, including: the Functional Hop Test Combination, the Landing Error Scoring System, the Tuck Jump Assessment, the Weight-Bearing Lunge Test, and the Star Excursion Balance Test. Each of these assessments creates movement demands that allow for easy identification of inefficient and/or compensatory movement tendencies. A basic understanding of musculoskeletal deficits including bilateral strength and flexibility imbalances, lower crossed syndrome, and dominance-related factors are key components in determination of injury risk. Discussion Assessment of sport-specific movement demands through

  12. A simple method for screening emission sources of carbonyl compounds in indoor air.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Shohei; Kume, Kazunari; Horiike, Toshiyuki; Honma, Nobuyuki; Fusaya, Masahiro; Ohura, Takeshi; Amagai, Takashi

    2010-06-15

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from building and furnishing materials are frequently observed in high concentrations in indoor air. Nondestructive analytical methods that determine the main parameters influencing concentration of the chemical substances are necessary to screen for sources of VOC emissions. Toward this goal, we have developed a new flux sampler, referred to herein as an emission cell for simultaneous multi-sampling (ECSMS), that is used for screening indoor emission sources of VOCs and for determining the emission rates of these sources. Because the ECSMS is based on passive sampling, it can be easily used on-site at a low cost. Among VOCs, low-molecular-weight carbonyl compounds including formaldehyde are frequently detected at high concentrations in indoor environments. In this study, we determined the reliability of the ECSMS for the collection of formaldehyde and other carbonyl compounds emitted from wood-based composites of medium density fiberboards and particleboards. We then used emission rates determined by the ECSMS to predict airborne concentrations of formaldehyde emitted from a bookshelf in a large chamber, and these data were compared to formaldehyde concentrations that were acquired simultaneously by means of an active sampling method. The values obtained from the two methods were quite similar, suggesting that ECSMS measurement is an effective method for screening primary sources influencing indoor concentrations of formaldehyde. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Issues in emissions testing of hybrid electric vehicles.

    SciTech Connect

    Duoba, M.; Anderson, J.; Ng, H.

    2000-05-23

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has tested more than 100 prototype HEVs built by colleges and universities since 1994 and has learned that using standardized dynamometer testing procedures can be problematic. This paper addresses the issues related to HEV dynamometer testing procedures and proposes a new testing approach. The proposed ANL testing procedure is based on careful hybrid operation mode characterization that can be applied to certification and R and D. HEVs also present new emissions measurement challenges because of their potential for ultra-low emission levels and frequent engine shutdown during the test cycles.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 266 - Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Metals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and...—Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Metals Table I-A—Tier I and Tier II Feed Rate and Emissions Screening Limits for Noncarcinogenic Metals for Facilities in Noncomplex...

  20. A preliminary report of breast cancer screening by positron emission mammography.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yayoi; Tasaki, Youichiro; Kuwada, Yukiko; Ozawa, Yukihiko; Inoue, Tomio

    2016-02-01

    Fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-positron emission tomography (PET) and PET/computed tomography (PET/CT) have had a considerable impact on the detection of various malignancies. PET and PET/CT are minimally invasive methods that can provide whole-body imaging at one time. Therefore, an FDG-PET cancer screening program has been widely used in Japan. However, the breast cancer detection rate of FDG-PET cancer screening is relatively low. Therefore, FDG-PET screening is not recommended for breast cancer screening. Positron emission mammography (PEM) is a high-resolution molecular breast imaging technology. PEM can detect small breast cancers that cannot be detected on PET or PET/CT images due to limited spatial resolution. We have performed opportunistic breast cancer screening using PEM since 2011. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report regarding PEM breast cancer screening. This study enrolled 265 women. PEM images were analyzed by agreement of 2 experienced nuclear medicine physicians. The readers were given information from medical interview sheet. US findings were interpreted holistically. The number of participants, patient recall rate, further examination rate, and cancer detection rate by year were calculated. The overall recall rate was 8.3%; the work-up examination rate was 77.3%, and cancer detection rate was 2.3%. The positive predictive value of PEM was 27.3%. Six cancers were found by PEM screening. Five were invasive cancers and one was ductal carcinoma in situ. Histological tumor sizes were reported in three cases: 0.7, 1.2, and 2 cm. PEM screening appears to have potential for breast cancer screening.

  1. Test emission characteristics of motorcycles in Central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chi-Wen; Lu, San-Ju; Lin, Kuo-Shian

    2006-09-15

    Due to the large population and high levels of motorized-vehicle exhaust emissions, motorcycle emissions make an important contribution to total emissions in Taiwan, ROC. Aiming to reduce the air pollution generated by these motorcycles, the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration (TEPA) has maintained an enforced inspection and maintenance (I/M) program for in-use motorcycles since 1996. This report explores the effects of engine type, engine size, engine age, and manufacturers of in-use motorcycles on CO/HC emissions in I/M testing data during the period of 1996-2002 in the Central Air Quality Basin of Taiwan. Additionally, geographical characteristics and failure rates of motorcycles are analyzed. The results indicate that the age, size, and type of engine, and the manufacturers of motorcycles all play a significant role in determining I/M emission test results. The findings also show that two-stroke motorcycles emitted approximately ten times greater HC than those of four-stroke motorcycles. CO/HC test emissions increase with a decrease in engine size, HC test emissions contributed by Yamaha and other manufacturers being the highest. Although CO/HC test emissions generally increase with the age of the motorcycle, older motorcycles do not contribute significantly to total emissions due to the small number of older motorcycles. It was observed that CO/HC test emissions depend on driving patterns, geographical location, and inspection rates of motorcycles. The failure rate due to CO is nearly four times greater than that of HC, and the older and smaller-engine-size motorcycles obtain greater failure rates. These statistical findings can also provide the EPA of Taiwan or other Asian countries with useful information for formulating better environmental strategies to manage motorcycles effectively.

  2. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  3. AMMONIA EMISSIONS FROM THE EPA'S LIGHT DUTY TEST VEHICLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses measurements of ammonia (NH3) emissions from EPA's light duty test vehicle while operated on a dynamometer. The vehicle's (1993 Chevrolet equipped with a three-way catalyst) emissions were measured for three transient (urban driving, highway fuel economy, and ...

  4. Colonoscopy versus fecal immunochemical testing in colorectal-cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Enrique; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Ángel; Andreu, Montserrat; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Montalvo, Isabel; Arenas, Juan; Laredo, Eva; Hernández, Vicent; Iglesias, Felipe; Cid, Estela; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Roncales, María-Pilar; Polo-Tomás, Mónica; Bessa, Xavier; Ferrer-Armengou, Olga; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Reyes-Melian, Juana Maria; Cacho, Guillermo; Díaz-Tasende, José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Poves, Carmen; Santander, Cecilio; González-Navarro, Andrés

    2012-02-23

    Colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) are accepted strategies for colorectal-cancer screening in the average-risk population. In this randomized, controlled trial involving asymptomatic adults 50 to 69 years of age, we compared one-time colonoscopy in 26,703 subjects with FIT every 2 years in 26,599 subjects. The primary outcome was the rate of death from colorectal cancer at 10 years. This interim report describes rates of participation, diagnostic findings, and occurrence of major complications at completion of the baseline screening. Study outcomes were analyzed in both intention-to-screen and as-screened populations. The rate of participation was higher in the FIT group than in the colonoscopy group (34.2% vs. 24.6%, P<0.001). Colorectal cancer was found in 30 subjects (0.1%) in the colonoscopy group and 33 subjects (0.1%) in the FIT group (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 1.64; P=0.99). Advanced adenomas were detected in 514 subjects (1.9%) in the colonoscopy group and 231 subjects (0.9%) in the FIT group (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.97 to 2.69; P<0.001), and nonadvanced adenomas were detected in 1109 subjects (4.2%) in the colonoscopy group and 119 subjects (0.4%) in the FIT group (odds ratio, 9.80; 95% CI, 8.10 to 11.85; P<0.001). Subjects in the FIT group were more likely to participate in screening than were those in the colonoscopy group. On the baseline screening examination, the numbers of subjects in whom colorectal cancer was detected were similar in the two study groups, but more adenomas were identified in the colonoscopy group. (Funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00906997.).

  5. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  6. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  7. Improved bacterial growth test for rapid water toxicity screening

    SciTech Connect

    Slabbert, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    Bacteria have several attributes which make them attractive as test organisms for the rapid screening of chemical pollution in natural waters. They have relatively short life cycles and, therefore, respond rapidly to environmental change. The degree of toxicity of chemicals to bacteria is normally established by measuring viability or growth. A very sensitive test has been described measuring cell multiplication inhibition of Pseudomonas putida, results being obtained after a 16 h incubation period. Because of their short generation time it is possible, however, that bacteria are capable of manifesting measurable growth within a shorter incubation period. In the present study P. putida was cultured under modified test conditions aiming at an equally sensitive but more rapid growth test. Subsequent to initial tests, using different growth media, a toxicity test procedure was developed which uses a medium with low complexing capacity, a standardized inoculum and a 6 h incubation period.

  8. Far infrared emission and portable testing device of fine powders.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinsheng; Meng, Junping; Ding, Yan; Wang, Peipeng; Gan, Kun

    2011-11-01

    In order for industrial and mining enterprises to fast detect the quality of fine mineral powders with far infrared emission, a simple testing model was set up according to the relationship between the emission intensity of powders and their surface temperature. The corresponding testing device was designed and assembled into three parts containing Constant Temperature Heating Part, Temperature Measuring Part and Sample Loading Part. By using the tourmaline mineral powders with far infrared emission as the research object and combining Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the calibration for the testing device was carried out. The results showed that the far infrared emission intensity of the tourmaline powders with different mining area and particle size could be judged. The testing results exhibited correct values when compared with those from FTIR measurements.

  9. Screening for tinea unguium by Dermatophyte Test Strip.

    PubMed

    Tsunemi, Y; Takehara, K; Miura, Y; Nakagami, G; Sanada, H; Kawashima, M

    2014-02-01

    The direct microscopy, fungal culture and histopathology that are necessary for the definitive diagnosis of tinea unguium are disadvantageous in that detection sensitivity is affected by the level of skill of the person who performs the testing, and the procedures take a long time. The Dermatophyte Test Strip, which was developed recently, can simply and easily detect filamentous fungi in samples in a short time, and there are expectations for its use as a method for tinea unguium screening. With this in mind, we examined the detection capacity of the Dermatophyte Test Strip for tinea unguium. The presence or absence of fungal elements was judged by direct microscopy and Dermatophyte Test Strip in 165 nail samples obtained from residents in nursing homes for the elderly. Moreover, the minimum sample amount required for positive determination was estimated using 32 samples that showed positive results by Dermatophyte Test Strip. The Dermatophyte Test Strip showed 98% sensitivity, 78% specificity, 84·8% positive predictive value, 97% negative predictive value and a positive and negative concordance rate of 89·1%. The minimum sample amount required for positive determination was 0·002-0·722 mg. The Dermatophyte Test Strip showed very high sensitivity and negative predictive value, and was considered a potentially useful method for tinea unguium screening. Positive determination was considered to be possible with a sample amount of about 1 mg. © 2013 British Association of Dermatologists.

  10. HPV testing as a screen for cervical cancer.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Annekathryn

    2015-06-30

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as a necessary factor in the development of pre-invasive and invasive cancers of the lower genital tract, of which cervical cancer is the most prevalent. A molecular understanding of malignant transformation and epidemiologic information has led to the development of many strategies for detection and early intervention. Newer tests for oncogenic subtypes of HPV have made it possible to predict the risk of future development of cervical cancer. This review summarizes the current understanding of HPV related disease and examines the role of HPV testing as a screening tool for cervical cancer. It summarizes the data from prospective and randomized controlled trials on HPV screening from Europe and North America and includes smaller studies from low and middle income countries where cervical cancer is the most common cancer in women.

  11. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Peters, Brian T; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Cohen, Helen S; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients' scores were significantly worse than normals' scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients.

  12. Dynamic visual acuity testing for screening patients with vestibular impairments

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Brian T.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Cohen, Helen S.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) may be a useful indicator of the function of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) but most DVA tests involve active head motion in the yaw plane. During gait the passive, vertical VOR may be more relevant and passive testing would be less likely to elicit compensatory strategies. The goal of this study was to determine if testing dynamic visual acuity during passive vertical motion of the subject would differentiate normal subjects from patients with known vestibular disorders. Subjects, normals and patients who had been diagnosed with either unilateral vestibular weaknesses or were post-acoustic neuroma resections, sat in a chair that could oscillate vertically with the head either free or constrained with a cervical orthosis. They viewed a computer screen 2 m away that showed Landholt C optotypes in one of 8 spatial configurations and which ranged in size from 0.4 to 1.0 logMAR. They were tested while the chair was stationary and while it was moving. Scores were worse for both groups during the dynamic condition compared to the static condition. In the dynamic condition patients’ scores were significantly worse than normals’ scores. Younger and older age groups differed slightly but significantly; the sample size was too small to examine age differences by decade. The data suggest that many well-compensated patients have dynamic visual acuity that is as good as age-matched normals. Results of ROC analyses were only moderate, indicating that the differences between patients and normals were not strong enough, under the conditions tested, for this test to be useful for screening people to determine if they have vestibular disorders. Modifications of the test paradigm may make it more useful for screening potential patients. PMID:23000614

  13. Ototoxicity screening of patients treated with streptomycin using distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Md Daud, M K; Mohamadl, H; Haron, A; Rahman, N A

    2014-01-01

    Pure tone audiometry (PTA) is currently widely used to monitor ototoxicity, but this method is time-consuming. Here we validate distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) as an instrument for early detection of ototoxicity. A cohort study was performed on newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients who were treated with streptomycin. The patients underwent hearing assessment using conventional PTA and high-frequency DPOAE (8, 9 and 10 kHz) on days 0, 7, 14, 28 and 56 of streptomycin treatment. Detection of ototoxicity according to the duration of streptomycin treatment was compared between DPOAE and PTA. Of 96 newly diagnosed patients treated with streptomycin, 50 completed the study. During the treatment period, 62.5% of the patients had vertigo, while 37.5% complained of tinnitus. DPOAE detected ototoxicity in 47.7% of the cases at day 7, 66.0% at day 14, 70.0% at day 28 and 77.1% at day 56 of streptomycin treatment. The higher frequencies were affected more by ototoxicity, with significant differences at 8 vs. 9 kHz on all testing days and at 9 vs. 10 kHz except on days 7 and 56 (p < 0.001). Hearing loss was detected by PTA in 2.3% of patients on day 7, in 10.6% on day 14, in 22.0% on day 48 and in 29.2% on day 56. DPOAE is a sensitive tool that can detect early changes in the cochlea due to ototoxicity. Use of DPOAE rather than PTA to screen for ototoxicity could reduce screening time and would allow clinical monitoring of more patients.

  14. 40 CFR 1066.425 - Performing emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CONTROLS VEHICLE-TESTING PROCEDURES Preparing Vehicles and Running an Exhaust Emission Test § 1066.425.... ER28AP14.086 ER28AP14.087 (d) Start testing as follows: (1) If a vehicle is already running and warmed up...

  15. Otoacoustic Emissions in Rural Nicaragua: Cost Analysis and Implications for Newborn Hearing Screening.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lye-Yeng; Espinoza, Francisca; Alvarez, Karen Mojica; Molter, Dave; Saunders, James E

    2017-05-01

    Objective (1) Determine the incidence and risk factors for congenital hearing loss. (2) Perform cost analysis of screening programs. Study Design Proportionally distributed cross-sectional survey. Setting Jinotega, Nicaragua. Subjects and Methods Otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) were used to screen 640 infants <6 months of age from neonatal intensive care unit, institutional, and home birth settings. Data on 15 risk factors were analyzed. Cost of 4 implementation strategies was studied: universal screening, screening at the regional health center (RHC), targeted screening, and screening at the RHC plus targeted screening. Cost-effectiveness analysis over 10 years was based on disability-adjusted life year estimates, with the World Health Organization standard of cost-effectiveness ratio (CER) / gross domestic product (GDP) <3, with GDP set at $4884.15. Results Thirty-eight infants failed the initial OAE (5.94%). In terms of births, 325 (50.8%) were in the RHC, 69 (10.8%) in the neonatal intensive care unit, and 29 (4.5%) at home. Family history and birth defect were significant in univariate analysis; birth defect was significant in multivariate analysis. Cost-effectiveness analysis demonstrated that OAE screening is cost-effective without treatment (CER/GDP = 0.06-2.00) and with treatment (CER/GDP = 0.58-2.52). Conclusions Our rate of OAE failures was comparable to those of developed countries and lower than hearing loss rates noted among Nicaraguan schoolchildren, suggesting acquired or progressive etiology in the latter. Birth defects and familial hearing loss correlated with OAE failure. OAE screening of infants is feasible and cost-effective in rural Nicaragua, although highly influenced by estimated hearing loss severity in identified infants and the high travel costs incurred in a targeted screening strategy.

  16. HPV DNA testing in population-based cervical screening (VUSA-Screen study): results and implications

    PubMed Central

    Rijkaart, D C; Berkhof, J; van Kemenade, F J; Coupe, V M H; Rozendaal, L; Heideman, D A M; Verheijen, R H M; Bulk, S; Verweij, W; Snijders, P J F; Meijer, C J L M

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is more sensitive than cytology for detecting high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). We evaluated the performance of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) testing in routine screening. Methods: In all, 25 871 women (29–61) enrolled in our population-based cohort study were offered both cytology and hrHPV testing. High-risk HPV-positive women with normal cytology and an age-matched subcohort of hrHPV-negative women with normal cytology were invited for repeat testing after 1 and/or 2 years and were referred for colposcopy if they presented with abnormal cytology and/or a positive hrHPV test. The hrHPV-positive women with borderline or mild dyskaryosis (BMD) and all women with moderate dyskaryosis or worse (>BMD) were directly referred for colposcopy. Women with BMD and an hrHPV-negative test were advised to repeat cytology at 6 and 18 months and were referred for colposcopy if the repeat cytology test was abnormal. The main outcome measure was CIN grade 3 or worse (CIN3+). Results were adjusted for non-attendance at repeat testing. Results: The hrHPV-positive women with abnormal cytology had a CIN3+ risk of 42.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 36.4–48.2), whereas the hrHPV-positive women with normal cytology had a much lower risk of 5.22% (95% CI: 3.72–7.91). In hrHPV-positive women with normal cytology, an additional cytology step after 1 year reduced the CIN3+ risk to only 1.6% (95% CI: 0.6–4.9) if the repeat test was normal. The CIN3+ risk in women with hrHPV-positive normal cytology was higher among women invited for the first time (29–33 years of age) (9.1% 95% CI: 5.6–14.3) than among older women (3.0% 95% CI: 1.5–5.5). Conclusion: Primary hrHPV screening with cytology triage in women aged ⩾30 years is an effective way to stratify women on CIN3+ risk and seems a feasible alternative to cytological screening. Repeat cytology after 1 year for hrHPV-positive women with normal cytology is however

  17. Sensitivity of caloric test and video head impulse as screening test for chronic vestibular complaints.

    PubMed

    Mezzalira, Raquel; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; do Carmo Bilécki-Stipsky, Marcia Maria; Brugnera, Cibele; Grasel, Signe Schuster

    2017-08-01

    This study compared the results of the caloric test with those of the video head impulse test obtained during the same session and evaluated whether the former can be used to screen for non-acute vestibular dysfunction. A total of 157 participants complaining of dizziness with vestibular characteristics of varying durations and clinical courses completed the caloric test and video head impulse test. Significantly more caloric test results than video head impulse test results were abnormal. The results of the caloric test and video head impulse test are distinct but complement each other. Within our sample, the caloric test was more sensitive for vestibular dysfunction. Therefore, the video head impulse test is not a suitable screening tool of the vestibular system in patients with chronic complaints.

  18. Sensitivity of caloric test and video head impulse as screening test for chronic vestibular complaints

    PubMed Central

    Mezzalira, Raquel; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; do Carmo Bilécki-Stipsky, Marcia Maria; Brugnera, Cibele; Grasel, Signe Schuster

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study compared the results of the caloric test with those of the video head impulse test obtained during the same session and evaluated whether the former can be used to screen for non-acute vestibular dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 157 participants complaining of dizziness with vestibular characteristics of varying durations and clinical courses completed the caloric test and video head impulse test. RESULTS: Significantly more caloric test results than video head impulse test results were abnormal. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the caloric test and video head impulse test are distinct but complement each other. Within our sample, the caloric test was more sensitive for vestibular dysfunction. Therefore, the video head impulse test is not a suitable screening tool of the vestibular system in patients with chronic complaints. PMID:28954005

  19. Parents' concerns about children's development: prescreening technique or screening test?

    PubMed

    Glascoe, F P

    1997-04-01

    ) whereas the majority of accurately concerned parents had multiple concerns. A significant proportion of the 12 parents of disabled children who did not raise concerns could be identified by difficulties communicating in either English or Spanish. If systematically elicited, parents' concerns approach standards for screening tests and can be used to make reasonably accurate referral decisions. Over-referrals can be significantly reduced by administered screening tests to the small group of children (16%) whose parents have a single significant concern. Those who pass screening or whose parents have nonsignificant concerns can be targeted for developmental promotion and in-office counseling. Under-referrals can be minimized by administering screening tests (with the help of an interpreter as needed) to children whose parents have communication difficulties.

  20. Adhesion characteristics of silver tracks screen-printed on polyimide with an environmental reliability test.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang-Seok; Myung, Woo-Ram; Jung, Seung-Boo

    2012-07-01

    Printable and flexible electronics are increasingly being used in numerous applications that are miniaturized, multi-functional and lightweight. Simultaneously, reliability issues of the printed and flexible electronic devices are getting more attention. The adhesion of screen-printed silver (Ag) tracks on a polyimide (PI) film was investigated after two kinds of the environmental reliability test: a constant-temperature storage test, and a steady-state temperature and humidity storage test. Atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) was adopted on the PI film surface to improve the poor adhesion derived from the inherent hydrophobicity. The Ag tracks constructed via screen printing were sintered at 250 degrees C for 30 min in air using a box-type muffle furnace. Some samples were exposed under 85 degrees C and 85% relative humidity (RH) for various durations (24, 72, 168 and 500 h), and others were aged at 85 degrees C with same durations to compare the influence of moisture on the adhesion. The adhesion of the screen-printed Ag tracks was evaluated by a roll-type 90 degrees peel test. The peel strength of the screen-printed Ag tracks decreased by 76.74% and 69.88% after 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test, and the aging test, respectively. The weakest adhesion was 4.98 gf/mm after the 500 h run of the 85 degrees C/85% RH test. To demonstrate these experimental results, the microstructural evolution and chemical bonding states of the interfacial surfaces were characterized using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS), respectively.

  1. Low Emissions RQL Flametube Combustor Component Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, James D.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes and summarizes elements of the High Speed Research (HSR) Low Emissions Rich burn/Quick mix/Lean burn (RQL) flame tube combustor test program. This test program was performed at NASA Glenn Research Center circa 1992. The overall objective of this test program was to demonstrate and evaluate the capability of the RQL combustor concept for High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) applications with the goal of achieving NOx emission index levels of 5 g/kg-fuel at representative HSCT supersonic cruise conditions. The specific objectives of the tests reported herein were to investigate component performance of the RQL combustor concept for use in the evolution of ultra-low NOx combustor design tools. Test results indicated that the RQL combustor emissions and performance at simulated supersonic cruise conditions were predominantly sensitive to the quick mixer subcomponent performance and not sensitive to fuel injector performance. Test results also indicated the mixing section configuration employing a single row of circular holes was the lowest NOx mixer tested probably due to the initial fast mixing characteristics of this mixing section. However, other quick mix orifice configurations such as the slanted slot mixer produced substantially lower levels of carbon monoxide emissions most likely due to the enhanced circumferential dispersion of the air addition. Test results also suggested that an optimum momentum-flux ratio exists for a given quick mix configuration. This would cause undesirable jet under- or over-penetration for test conditions with momentum-flux ratios below or above the optimum value. Tests conducted to assess the effect of quick mix flow area indicated that reduction in the quick mix flow area produced lower NOx emissions at reduced residence time, but this had no effect on NOx emissions measured at similar residence time for the configurations tested.

  2. Assessing Targeted Screening and Low Rates of HIV Testing

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Leigh A.; Gordin, Fred M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed rates of HIV testing based on targeting patients with identified risk factors at the Veterans Affairs Medical Center in Washington, DC (VAMC-DC), where written informed consent along with pretest and posttest counseling had, until recently, been required by federal law. Methods. A cumulative retrospective review of the period 2000 through 2007 was conducted to assess the number of patients who were provided medical care at VAMC-DC, tested for HIV, and underwent confirmatory testing. Data on demographic characteristics and risks for HIV acquisition were also collected. Results. At VAMC-DC, 3.8% to 4.9% (mean = 4.25%) of patients in care without known HIV infection underwent HIV screening annually. On average, HIV was confirmed at a yearly rate of 3.4% among those tested. During the study period, HIV prevalence ranged from 2.1% to 2.5%. Among patients receiving HIV care, 41.5% disclosed no risk factors for HIV acquisition. Conclusions. Given that the HIV prevalence observed in this study was above 2% and that 41.5% of patients in care did not disclose any acquisition risks, targeted HIV screening has not been sufficient. HIV testing must be broadened and offered as part of routine medical care. PMID:20634454

  3. Evaluation of ultrafine particle emissions from laser printers using emission test chambers.

    PubMed

    Schripp, Tobias; Wensing, Michael; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga; He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia

    2008-06-15

    It has now been recognized that some hardcopy devices emit ultrafine particles (d(p) < 100 nm) during their operation. As a consequence, the time-dependent characterization of particle release from laser printers is of high interest in order to evaluate the exposure of office workers to such emissions. The emission profiles of different printers can be compared in test chambers using a standardized test protocol and measuring devices with high time resolution. The extraction of meaningful and comparable data from the obtained data set is a complex procedure due to the different emission behavior patterns of the printers. The calculation of the unit specific emission rate (SERu) is of limited use because the emission profiles during the printing process ranged between short-term bursts and constant particle release. Therefore, other parameters such as the particle loss-rate coefficient, beta, which provides information about the testing conditions, and the area belowthe time vs concentration curve, F, which characterizes the particle release, allow for a comparison of the different printer tests. Variations in the emission behavior could not be associated with specific manufacturers or product lines. In addition, when performing several print jobs on the same device, with only short pauses between jobs, the emission rate was reduced in some cases. This further complicates the ability to determine the influence of printer construction and consumables, such as toner and paper, on the concentration of particles emitted.

  4. 40 CFR 61.67 - Emission tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... being tested is operating at the maximum production rate at which the equipment will be operated and... computed on a time weighted basis. (iii) For gas streams containing more that 10 percent oxygen, the concentration of vinyl chloride as determined by Method 106 is to be corrected to 10 percent oxygen (dry basis...

  5. [Newborn hearing screening test with multiple auditory steady-state responses].

    PubMed

    Mijares Nodarse, Eleina; Herrera Alonso, Didiesle; Gaya Vázquez, José; Santos Febles, Elsa; Pérez Abalo, María Cecilia; Mendez Alarcón, Leonel; Robertson Terry, Regla

    2011-01-01

    The techniques most frequently used within a screening context (otoacoustic emissions and click auditory brainstem response) have well-known limitations in hearing loss detection. This study examines the feasibility of a semi-automated multiple auditory steady-state responses (MSSR) system designed for neonatal hearing screening. A sample of 50 newborns without risk factors (well-babies) was tested within two weeks of birth. All had detectable auditory brainstem responses to clicks down to 40dB nHL in both ears. Two amplitude modulated carrier tones of 500 and 2,000Hz were mixed together and presented simultaneously. Each infant (and ear) was screened with the MSSR system; to simulate a hearing loss, a recording without stimulation was also obtained. Mean auditory thresholds were 42.5±7dB HL at 500Hz and 35.5±6dB HL at 2,000Hz. The average duration of the MSSR recording was 2.6±1.6 minutes for each tested ear and the overall duration of the screening procedure (including electrode fitting and infant preparation) was 17.8±3.7 minutes. The diagnostic sensibility and the positive predictive values of the MSSR semi-automatic screening system was 100% and 96% respectively, with specificity of 96% and negative predictive values of 100%. Although the diagnostic efficiency of the semi-automated MSSR system was found adequate, further technological improvements are still necessary to facilitate its use in the context of universal newborn hearing screening program. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  6. Strategies to Improve Repeat Fecal Occult Blood Testing Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Arnold, Connie L.; Bennett, Charles L.; Wolf, Michael S.; Reynolds, Cristalyn; Liu, Dachao; Rademaker, Alfred

    2013-01-01

    Background A comparative effectiveness intervention by this team improved initial fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rates from 3% to 53% among community clinic patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and costs associated with a literacy-informed intervention on repeat FOBT testing. Methods Between 2008 and 2011, a three-arm quasi-experiential comparative effectiveness evaluation was conducted in 8 community clinics in Louisiana. Clinics were randomly assigned to receive: enhanced care, a screening recommendation and FOBT kit annually; a brief educational intervention where patients additionally received a literacy appropriate pamphlet and simplified FOBT instructions; or nurse support where a nurse manager provided the education and followed up with phone support. In year 2 all materials were mailed. The study consisted of 461 patients, ages 50–85, with a negative initial FOBT. Results Repeat FOBT rates were 38% enhanced care, 33% education, and 59% with nurse support (p=0.017). After adjusting for age, race, gender, and literacy, patients receiving nurse support were 1.46 times more likely to complete repeat FOBT screening than those receiving education (95% CI 1.14–1.06, p=0.002) and 1.45 times more likely than those in enhanced care but this was not significant (95% CI 0.93–2.26 p=0.10). The incremental cost per additional person screened was $2,450 for nurse over enhanced care. Conclusion A mailed pamphlet and FOBT with simplified instructions did not improve annual screening. Impact Telephone outreach by a nurse manager was effective in improving rates of repeat FOBT yet this may be too costly for community clinics. PMID:24192009

  7. The transportable heavy-duty engine emissions testing laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    West Virginia University has designed and constructed a Transportable Emissions Testing Laboratory for measuring emissions from heavy duty vehicles, such as buses and trucks operating on conventional and alternative fuels. The laboratory facility can be transported to a test site located at, or nearby, the home base of the vehicles to be tested. The laboratory has the capability of measuring vehicle emissions as the vehicle is operated under either transient or steady state loads and speeds. The exhaust emissions from the vehicle is sampled and the levels of the constituents of the emission are measured. The laboratory consists of two major units; a power absorber unit and an emissions measurement unit. A power absorber unit allows for the connection of a dynamic load to the drive train of the vehicle so that the vehicle can be driven'' through a test cycle while actually mounted on a stationary test bed. The emissions unit contains instrumentation and equipment which allows for the dilution of the vehicle's exhaust with air. The diluteed exhaust is sampled and analyzed to measure the level of concentration of those constituents which have been identified to have impact on the clean environment. Sampling probes withdraw diluted exhaust which is supplied to a number of different exhaust gas analysis instruments. The exhaust gas analysis instruments have the capability to measure the levels of the following exhaust gas constituents: carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub x}), unburned hydrocarbons (HC), formaldehyde (HCHO), methane and particulate matter. Additional instruments or sampling devices can be installed whenever measurements of additional constituents are desired. A computer based, data acquisition system is used to continuously monitor a wide range of parameters important to the operation of the test and to record the test results.

  8. On organic emissions testing from indoor consumer products' use.

    PubMed

    Bartzis, J; Wolkoff, P; Stranger, M; Efthimiou, G; Tolis, E I; Maes, F; Nørgaard, A W; Ventura, G; Kalimeri, K K; Goelen, E; Fernandes, O

    2015-03-21

    A wide range of consumer and personal care products may, during their use, release significant amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the air. The identification and quantification of the emissions from such sources is typically performed in emission test chambers. A major question is to what degree the obtained emissions are reproducible and directly applicable to real situations. The present work attempts partly to address this question by comparison of selected VOC emissions in specific consumer products tested in chambers of various dimensions. The measurements were performed in three test chambers of different volumes (0.26-20 m(3)). The analytic performance of the laboratories was rigorously assessed prior to chamber testing. The results show emission variation for major VOC (terpenes); however, it remains in general, within the same order of magnitude for all tests. This variability does not seem to correlate with the chamber volume. It rather depends on the overall testing conditions. The present work is undertaken in the frame of EPHECT European Project.

  9. Expanded newborn screening by mass spectrometry: New tests, future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Ombrone, Daniela; Giocaliere, Elisa; Forni, Giulia; Malvagia, Sabrina; la Marca, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) has become a leading technology used in clinical chemistry and has shown to be particularly sensitive and specific when used in newborn screening (NBS) tests. The success of tandem mass spectrometry is due to important advances in hardware, software and clinical applications during the last 25 years. MS/MS permits a very rapid measurement of many metabolites in different biological specimens by using filter paper spots or directly on biological fluids. Its use in NBS give us the chance to identify possible treatable metabolic disorders even when asymptomatic and the benefits gained by this type of screening is now recognized worldwide. Today the use of MS/MS for second-tier tests and confirmatory testing is promising especially in the early detection of new disorders such as some lysosomal storage disorders, ADA and PNP SCIDs, X-adrenoleucodistrophy (X-ALD), Wilson disease, guanidinoacetate methyltransferase deficiency (GAMT), and Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The new challenge for the future will be reducing the false positive rate by using second-tier tests, avoiding false negative results by using new specific biomarkers and introducing new treatable disorders in NBS programs.

  10. Standing balance tests for screening people with vestibular impairments

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To improve the test standards for a version of the Romberg test and to determine if measuring kinematic variables improved its utility for screening. Study design Healthy controls and patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, postoperative acoustic neuroma resection, and chronic peripheral unilateral weakness were compared. Methods Subjects wore Bluetooth-enabled inertial motion units while standing on the floor or medium density, compliant foam, with eyes open or closed, with head still or moving in pitch or yaw. Dependent measures were time to perform each test condition, number of head movements made, and kinematic variables. Results Patients and controls did not differ significantly with eyes open or with eyes closed while on the floor. With eyes closed, on foam, some significant differences were found between patients and controls, especially for subjects older than age 59. Head movement conditions were more challenging than head still. Significantly fewer patients than controls could make enough head movements to obtain kinematic measures. Kinematics indicated that lateral balance control is significantly reduced in these patients compared to controls. Receiver Operator Characteristics and sensitivity/specificity analyses showed moderately good differences with older subjects. Conclusion Tests on foam with eyes closed, with head still or moving, may be useful as part of a screening battery for vestibular impairments, especially for older people. PMID:23877965

  11. Apsáalooke women's experiences with Pap test screening.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adina J; Christopher, Suzanne; LaFromboise, Victoria R; Letiecq, Bethany L; McCormick, Alma Knows His Gun

    2008-04-01

    Cervical cancer mortality rates are among the highest in the United States for Northern Plains Native American women compared with white and other Native American women. The aims of Messengers for Health, a community-based participatory research project based on the Apsáalooke (Crow Indian) Reservation, are to decrease cervical cancer screening barriers, improve knowledge regarding screening and prevention, and increase the proportion of women receiving Pap tests. This paper presents results from a survey assessing women's perceptions of the level of comfort and care received by health care providers in their most recent Pap test appointment. A survey assessing patient communication and satisfaction with their health care providers was conducted with a random sample of 101 Apsáalooke women. Qualitative and quantitative methods were utilized to analyze the survey data. Women reported both positive and negative experiences with their provider regarding their Pap test appointments. They noted positive experiences when trust was established and when the provider offered information, reassured or encouraged them, was personable, was familiar or consistent, maintained confidentiality, and was a woman. The women reported negative experiences when the examination was too short, when they did not have a consistent or female provider, and when they did not feel comfortable with the provider's nonverbal communication. Continued work with both providers and patients is necessary to decrease communication barriers and increase satisfaction with Pap test appointments.

  12. Standing balance tests for screening people with vestibular impairments.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2014-02-01

    To improve the test standards for a version of the Romberg test and to determine whether measuring kinematic variables improved its utility for screening. Healthy controls and patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, postoperative acoustic neuroma resection, and chronic peripheral unilateral weakness were compared. Subjects wore Bluetooth-enabled inertial motion units while standing on the floor or medium-density, compliant foam, with eyes open or closed, with head still or moving in pitch or yaw. Dependent measures were time to perform each test condition, number of head movements made, and kinematic variables. Patients and controls did not differ significantly with eyes open or with eyes closed while on the floor. With eyes closed, on foam, some significant differences were found between patients and controls, especially for subjects older than 59 years. Head movement conditions were more challenging than with the head still. Significantly fewer patients than controls could make enough head movements to obtain kinematic measures. Kinematics indicated that lateral balance control is significantly reduced in these patients compared to controls. Receiver operator characteristics and sensitivity/specificity analyses showed moderately good differences with older subjects. Tests on foam with eyes closed, with head still or moving, may be useful as part of a screening battery for vestibular impairments, especially for older people. 3b. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. High Throughput Screening for the Discovery of More Efficient Catalysts for Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Yaccato, Karin; Hagemeyer, Alfred; Volpe, Anthony; Weinberg, Henry

    2004-03-31

    High-throughput synthesis and screening methods have been developed for the discovery of highly active catalysts for the control of emissions from stationary and mobile sources. Low temperature CO oxidation, CO methanation, NOx abatement and the destruction of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) will be discussed. The discovery libraries for primary screening consisted of both 11x11 and 16x16 catalyst arrays on 3 inch and 4 inch quartz wafers, respectively. Catalysts were prepared by robotic liquid dispensing techniques and screened for catalytic activity in Symyx's Scanning Mass Spectrometer. The screening protocols encompassed mixed metal oxides, perovskites and supported base and noble metals. Active hits were further optimized in focus libraries using shallower compositional gradients. The ScanMS is a fast serial screening tool that uses flat wafer catalyst surfaces, local laser heating, a scanning/sniffing nozzle and a quadrupolar mass spectrometer to compare relative catalytic activities. The temperature range from 200C to 600C is accessible. Typically, 256 catalysts can be screened per day and about 100,000 experiments conducted annually.

  14. 49 CFR 40.241 - What are the first steps in any alcohol screening test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... alcohol screening tests, regardless of the type of testing device you are using: (a) When a specific time... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What are the first steps in any alcohol screening... TRANSPORTATION WORKPLACE DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING PROGRAMS Alcohol Screening Tests § 40.241 What are the...

  15. Index to emission factor testing programs. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczak, D.J.

    1980-10-01

    This report provides a collection of narratives, listings and tables summarizing past, current and projected Emission Factors programs which are presently being conducted by the Test and Evaluation Branch of the Emission Control Technology Division. The purpose of this document is to provide a general reference to available data, and overview of specifics in current programs, and a projection of upcoming projects. This information is intended to assist potential 'customers' of the programs in their identification of possible areas of interface, spin-offs or piggyback efforts. These programs involve emission testing of large numbers of in-use trucks, motorcycles and passenger cars at various locations throughout the country. EPA uses this information to calculate Emission Factors which are in turn used by state and local officials to project air quality and evaluate various pollution control strategies.

  16. Buffered Plate Antigen Test as a Screening Test for Diagnosis of Human Brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    Lucero, Nidia E.; Bolpe, Jorge E.

    1998-01-01

    Brucellosis in Argentina is currently investigated in bank donor blood by the standard plate agglutination test (PAT). This study evaluated the buffered plate antigen test (BPA), now used to screen for bovine brucellosis, as a screen for human disease. Of 57 sera from patients with culture-confirmed brucellosis, 100% were detected with the BPA. Of 142 sera positive by rose bengal (RB) and complement fixation (CF), from patients with clinical evidence of brucellosis, the BPA detected 100%. Of 307 sera from a nonsymptomatic population that were RB and CF negative, the BPA detected 99.67% of the negative sera. The data indicate that the BPA is satisfactory compared to the other agglutination tests employed. It is an inexpensive and practical screening test and reduces the nonspecific reactions detected by the PAT. PMID:9574720

  17. Review of measurement and testing problems. [of aircraft emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Good instrumentation was required to obtain reliable and repeatable baseline data. Problems that were encountered in developing such a total system were: (1) accurate airflow measurement, (2) precise fuel flow measurement, and (3) the instrumentation used for pollutant measurement was susceptible to frequent malfunctions. Span gas quality had a significant effect on emissions test results. The Spindt method was used in the piston aircraft emissions program. The Spindt method provided a comparative computational procedure for fuel/air ratio based on measured emissions concentrations.

  18. Volatile organic chemical emissions from carpet cushions: Screening measurements. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hodgson, A.T.; Phan, T.A.

    1994-05-01

    The US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has received complaints from consumers regarding the occurrence of adverse health effects following the installation of new carpeting (Schachter, 1990). Carpet systems are suspected of emitting chemicals which may be the cause of these complaints, as well as objectionable odors. Carpets themselves have been shown to emit a variety of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The objective of this study was to screen the representative samples of carpet cushions for emissions of individual VOCS, total VOCs (TVOC), formaldehyde, and, for the two types of polyurethane cushions, isomers of toluene diisocyanate (TDI). The measurements of VOCS, TVOC and formaldehyde were made over six-hour periods using small-volume (4-L) dynamic chambers. Sensitive gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were used to identify many of the VOCs emitted by the cushion samples and to obtain quantitative estimates of the emission rates of selected compounds. Separate screening measurements were conducted for TDI. The data from the screening measurements were used by the CPSC`s Health Sciences Laboratory to help design and conduct week-long measurements of emission rates of selected compounds.

  19. Proposed screening test for central auditory disorders: follow-up on the dichotic digits test.

    PubMed

    Musiek, F E; Gollegly, K M; Kibbe, K S; Verkest-Lenz, S B

    1991-03-01

    A follow-up report on the dichotic digits test (DDT) demonstrates that this procedure has good sensitivity to central auditory nervous system (CANS) pathology while remaining relatively resistant to mild-to-moderate high-frequency cochlear hearing loss. The DDT's test-retest reliability and short administration time make it an attractive screening procedure for CANS disorders.

  20. [Micro-Mental Test - a short method of dementia screening].

    PubMed

    Rapp, M A; Rieckmann, N; Gutzmann, H; Folstein, M F

    2002-09-01

    Especially in outpatient settings, dementia is still an underdiagnosed syndrome. The Micro-Mental Test has been developed as a short version of the Mini-Mental-Status Examination (MMSE). We examined the reliability and diagnostic validity of a German version (Mikro-Mental Test). We administered the MMSE and the German version of the Micro-Mental Test to 20 inpatients of a geriatric psychiatry hospital (mean age 74.8+/-8.1 years), 55 patients from a cognitive clinic (mean age 71.9+/-9.1 years), and 27 healthy older adults (mean age 68.5+/-4.1 years). Diagnoses made by an experienced psychiatrist according to ICD-10 criteria served as external criteria. The mean duration for testing with the Micro-Mental Test was 8 min, and with the MMSE 15 min. Test-retest analyses showed satisfactory reliability. With regard to sensitivity and specificity, we found comparable diagnostic validity for the MMSE and the Micro-Mental Test. We suggest that, due to its brevity and diagnostic validity, the Micro-Mental Test is a useful tool for dementia screening in an outpatient setting.

  1. School Locations and Traffic Emissions — Environmental (In)Justice Findings Using a New Screening Method

    PubMed Central

    Gaffron, Philine; Niemeier, Deb

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that the location of schools near heavily trafficked roads can have detrimental effects on the health of children attending those schools. It is therefore desirable to screen both existing school locations and potential new school sites to assess either the need for remedial measures or suitability for the intended use. Current screening tools and public guidance on school siting are either too coarse in their spatial resolution for assessing individual sites or are highly resource intensive in their execution (e.g., through dispersion modeling). We propose a new method to help bridge the gap between these two approaches. Using this method, we also examine the public K-12 schools in the Sacramento Area Council of Governments Region, California (USA) from an environmental justice perspective. We find that PM2.5 emissions from road traffic affecting a school site are significantly positively correlated with the following metrics: percent share of Black, Hispanic and multi-ethnic students, percent share of students eligible for subsidized meals. The emissions metric correlates negatively with the schools’ Academic Performance Index, the share of White students and average parental education levels. Our PM2.5 metric also correlates with the traffic related, census tract level screening indicators from the California Communities Environmental Health Screening Tool and the tool’s tract level rate of asthma related emergency department visits. PMID:25679341

  2. Sequential testing in a high stakes OSCE: Determining number of screening tests.

    PubMed

    Currie, Graeme P; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Cleland, Jennifer

    2016-07-01

    The sequential objective structured clinical exam (OSCE) is a stand-alone variation of the traditional OSCE whereby all students sit a screening test. Those who pass this initial assessment undergo no further testing while weakly performing students sit an additional (sequential) test to determine their overall pass/fail status. Our aim was to determine outcomes of adopting a sequential OSCE approach using different numbers of screening stations and pass marks. We carried out a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of two cohorts of student outcomes from the final OSCE examination at the University of Aberdeen Medical School. Data were accessed for students (n = 388) who sat the exam in the years 2013-2014. We used Stata simulate program to compare outcomes - in terms of sensitivity and specificity - across 5000 random selections of 6-14 OSCE stations using random selections of groups of 100 students (with different screening test pass marks) versus those obtained across 15 stations. Across 6-14 stations, the sensitivity was ≥87% in 2013 and ≥84% in 2014 while the specificity ranged from 60% to 100% in both years. Specificity generally increased as the number of screening stations increased (with concomitant narrowing of the 95% confidence interval), while sensitivity varied between 84 and 98%. Similar sensitivities and specificities were found with screening pass marks of +1, +2 and +3 standard errors of measurement (SEM). Eight stations as a screening test appeared to be a reasonable compromise in terms of high sensitivity (88-89%) and specificity (83-86%). This research extends current sequential OSCE literature using a novel and robust approach to identify the "ideal" in terms of number of screening stations and pass mark. We discuss the educational and resource implications of our findings and make recommendations for the use of the sequential OSCE in medical education.

  3. DNA testing and molecular screening for colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Carethers, John M

    2014-03-01

    Colon cancer develops and progresses as a consequence of abnormal cellular molecular changes, many of which result in mutant DNA. Modern molecular techniques allow examination of individual patient genetic data that ascribe risk, predict outcome, and/or modify an approach to therapy. DNA testing and molecular screening are in use today and are becoming a critical and necessary part of routine patient care. Assessing at-risk patients for hereditary colon cancer is predicted to move from individual gene testing that is commonly performed today to whole exome or whole genome sequencing, providing additional vast information of the patient's genome that might not be related to the colon cancer syndrome. Detecting mutant DNA from shed tumor cells in fecal material for colon cancer screening will increase in diagnostic accuracy over time, with improvements in the panel of mutant DNA being examined and through clinical testing. DNA mutations and other molecular changes detected directly from within the colon cancer help to inform and guide the physician for the best approach for optimal patient care and outcome. The use of epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted therapy in advanced colon cancer patients requires knowledge of the mutation status for KRAS and BRAF genes, and knowing the mutational status of PIK3CA may predict how patients respond to aspirin to prevent colon cancer recurrence. Biologically driven decision-making, or precision medicine, is becoming increasingly adopted for optimal care and outcome for colon cancer patients. Gastroenterologists will need to be increasingly aware.

  4. Combining the Memory Impairment Screen and the Isaacs Set Test: a practical tool for screening dementias.

    PubMed

    Chopard, Gilles; Pitard, Alexandre; Ferreira, Sabrina; Vanholsbeeck, Geraldine; Rumbach, Lucien; Galmiche, Jean

    2007-09-01

    To assess the accuracy of combining the Memory Impairment Screen (MIS) with the Isaacs Set Test (IST) in distinguishing subjects with dementia from controls without dementia. The weighted sum of MIS and IST scores was calculated, and the logical "or" rule combination was performed using two different patient and control samples. Combination results were compared with each test used alone and with Mini-Mental State Examination to detect all types of dementias. Database of the Regional Network for Diagnostic Aid and Management of Patients with Cognitive Impairment in the Franche-Comté, France, geographical area. A cohort of 444 patients with Alzheimer's disease, non-Alzheimer's dementia, and reversible dementia and 311 controls. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were calculated for the combination of these two tests. The weighted sum had overall sensitivities of 0.92 and 0.84 for mild cases, with a specificity of 0.92. The "or" rule had overall sensitivities of 0.92 and 0.89 for mild cases, with a specificity of 0.90. This pairing requires no more than 5 minutes. Its scoring is simple with the "or" rule combination. The combination of MIS and IST could be a useful tool for screening dementias. The "or" rule combination seems particularly adapted to medical practice.

  5. Screening analysis and selection of emission reduction concepts for intermittent combustion aircraft engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rezy, B. J.; Meyers, J. E.; Tucker, J. R.; Stuckas, S. J.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis was conducted to screen, evaluate, and select three engine exhaust emission reduction concepts from a group of 14 candidate alternatives. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to survey the emission reduction technology state-of-the-art and establish contact with firms working on intermittent combustion engine development and pollution reduction problems. Concept development, advantages, disadvantages, and expected emission reduction responses are stated. A set of cost effectiveness criteria was developed, appraised for relative importance, and traded off against each concept so that its merit could be determined. A decision model was used to aid the evaluators in managing the criteria, making consistent judgements, calculating merit scores, and ranking the concepts. An Improved Fuel Injection System, Improved Cooling Combustion Chamber, and a Variable Timing Ignition System were recommended to NASA for approval and further concept development. An alternate concept, Air Injection, was also recommended.

  6. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... percent relative humidity), a solar heat load intensity of 850 W/m2, and vehicle cooling air flow... all vehicle windows. (4) Connect the emission test sampling system to the vehicle's exhaust tail pipe...

  7. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... percent relative humidity), a solar heat load intensity of 850 W/m2, and vehicle cooling air flow... all vehicle windows. (4) Connect the emission test sampling system to the vehicle's exhaust tail pipe...

  8. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... percent relative humidity), a solar heat load intensity of 850 W/m2, and vehicle cooling air flow... all vehicle windows. (4) Connect the emission test sampling system to the vehicle's exhaust tail pipe...

  9. 40 CFR 86.160-00 - Exhaust emission test procedure for SC03 emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....161-00. (ii) Turn on the solar heating system. (iii) All vehicle test phases of preconditioning, soak... percent relative humidity), a solar heat load intensity of 850 W/m2, and vehicle cooling air flow... all vehicle windows. (4) Connect the emission test sampling system to the vehicle's exhaust tail pipe...

  10. Chassis test cycles for assessing emissions from heavy duty trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, N.N.; McKain, D.L.; Messer, J.T.; Lyons, D.W.

    1994-10-01

    Emissions from internal combustion engines can be evaluated by testing the engine itself or testing a whole vehicle using a chassis dynamometer. Recent concerns over atmospheric pollution and the drive to examine alternative fuel technology have led to an interest in chassis testing of trucks and buses. In particular these chassis tests permit the examination of changing emissions over the life of the vehicle. Identification of the chassis test protocols for heavy duty vehicles remains inchoate, but this paper seeks to assuage part of the problem by offering a practical test schedule for Class 8 trucks and truck-tractors in the 15000 to 36,360 kg GVW range. 8 refs., 15 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Acoustic emission testing of composite vessels under sustained loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lark, R. F.; Moorhead, P. E.

    1978-01-01

    Acoustic emissions (AE) generated from Kevlar 49/epoxy composite pressure vessels subjected to sustained load-to-failure tests were studied. Data from two different transducer locations on the vessels were compared. It was found that AE from vessel wall-mounted transducers showed a wide variance from those for identical vessels subjected to the same pressure loading. Emissions from boss-mounted transducers did, however, yield values that were relatively consistent. It appears that the signals from the boss-mounted transducers represent an integrated average of the emissions generated by fibers fracturing during the vessel tests. The AE from boss-mounted transducers were also independent of time for vessel failure. This suggests that a similar number of fiber fractures must occur prior to initiation of vessel failure. These studies indicate a potential for developing an AE test procedure for predicting the residual service life or integrity of composite vessels.

  12. Ground Based Microgravity Emissions Testing Of Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samorezov, Sergey; McNelis, Anne M.

    2004-01-01

    To control microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS), NASA developed payloads have to meet the payload integration requirements of the Space Station Program, specifically a microgravity allocation plan. The Microgravity Emissions Laboratory (MEL) was developed at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) for verification of the payloads compliance with payload integration requirements. MEL is a 6 degree of freedom inertial measurement system capable of characterizing the microgravity emissions, generated by a disturber, down to a micro g. Microgravity Emissions tests provide a payload developer with a tool to assess payload's compliance with the requirements, i.e. forces and moments, generated by the payload at its center of gravity. Forces and moments are presented in time domain for both stationary and transient signals, and in frequency domain for the stationary signals. To date, MEL conducted over thirty tests of ISS hardware. The test results are being successfully used by the payload developers for design verification and improvement.

  13. Sharpening the Tandem Walking Test for Screening Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Helen S.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Peters, Brian T.; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kung, Doris H.; Mosier, Dennis R.; Bloomberg, Jacob J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Few tests of functional motor behavior are useful for rapidly screening people for lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. The goal of this study was to improve the widely used Tandem Walking test (TW). Methods We tested adult normals and ambulatory peripheral neuropathy patients (PN) with eyes open and eyes closed, while they performed TW on industrial carpeting, in sock-covered feet. Each subject wore a torso-mounted inertial motion unit to measure kinematic data. PN subjects’ data were also compared to historical data on patients with vestibular impairments (VI). Results The normal and PN groups differed significantly on TW on the number of steps completed. PN and VI data also differed significantly on both visual conditions. Kinematic data showed that PN patients were more unstable than normals. For the number of steps taken during the eyes open condition receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values were only 0.81. For the number of steps taken during the eyes closed condition, however, ROC=0.88. Although not optimal, this ROC value is better. Sensitivity and specificity at a cut-off of 2 steps were 0.81 and 0.92, respectively, and at a cut-off of 3 steps was 0.86 and 0.75, respectively. ROC values for kinematic data were all < 0.8 and, when combined with the ROC value for the number of steps, the total ROC value did not improve appreciably. Conclusions Although not ideal for screening patients who may have peripheral neuropathy, counting the number of steps during TW is a quick and useful clinical test. TW is most sensitive to peripheral neuropathy patients when they are tested with eyes closed. PMID:24096950

  14. Sharpening the tandem walking test for screening peripheral neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Helen S; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P; Peters, Brian T; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Kung, Doris H; Mosier, Dennis R; Bloomberg, Jacob J

    2013-10-01

    Few tests of functional motor behavior are useful for rapidly screening people for lower extremity peripheral neuropathy. The goal of this study was to improve the widely used tandem walking (TW) test. We tested "normal" (control) adult and ambulatory patients with peripheral neuropathy (PN) with their eyes open and eyes closed while they performed TW on industrial carpeting in sock-covered feet. Each subject wore a torso-mounted inertial motion unit to measure kinematic data. The data of subjects with PN also were compared with historical data on patients with vestibular impairments. The normal and PN groups differed significantly on TW and on the number of steps completed. PN and vestibular impairments data also differed significantly on both visual conditions. Kinematic data showed that patients with PN were more unstable than normal patients in the group. For the number of steps taken during the eyes open condition, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) values were only 0.81 and for the number of steps taken during the eyes closed condition, ROC values were 0.88. Although not optimal, this ROC value is better. Sensitivity and specificity at a cutoff of two steps were 0.81 and 0.92, respectively, and at a cutoff of three steps were 0.86 and 0.75, respectively. ROC values for kinematic data were <0.8, and when combined with the ROC value for the number of steps, the total ROC value did not improve appreciably. Although not ideal for screening patients who may have PN, counting the number of steps during TW is a quick and useful clinical test. TW is most sensitive to patients with PN when they are tested with eyes closed.

  15. Emissions from laboratory combustor tests of manufactured wood products

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkening, R.; Evans, M.; Ragland, K.; Baker, A.

    1993-12-31

    Manufactured wood products contain wood, wood fiber, and materials added during manufacture of the product. Manufacturing residues and the used products are burned in a furnace or boiler instead of landfilling. Emissions from combustion of these products contain additional compounds from the combustion of non-wood material which have not been adequately characterized to specify the best combustion conditions, emissions control equipment, and disposal procedures. Total hydrocarbons, formaldehyde, higher aldehydes and carbon monoxide emissions from aspen flakeboard and aspen cubes were measured in a 76 mm i.d. by 1.5 m long fixed bed combustor as a function of excess oxygen, and temperature. Emissions of hydrocarbons, aldehydes and CO from flakeboard and from clean aspen were very sensitive to average combustor temperature and excess oxygen. Hydrocarbon and aldehyde emissions below 10 ppM were achieved with 5% excess oxygen and 1,200{degrees}C average temperature for aspen flakeboard and 1,100{degrees}C for clean aspen at a 0.9 s residence time. When the average temperature decreased below these levels, the emissions increased rapidly. For example, at 950{degrees}C and 5% excess oxygen the formaldehyde emissions were over 1,000 ppM. These laboratory tests reinforce the need to carefully control the temperature and excess oxygen in full-scale wood combustors.

  16. The planning of cervical cancer screening programmes in eastern Europe: is viral testing a suitable alternative to smear testing?

    PubMed

    Sherlaw-Johnson, C; Gallivan, S

    2000-09-01

    Cervical cancer screening with human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing has potential advantages over conventional, smear testing in that it can predict cases in which invasive cancers are more likely to develop, may be cheaper to implement and improve compliance. In areas of the world where little formalized cervical cancer screening takes place, or where health resources are limited, HPV testing has been suggested as a possible alternative for primary screening. In this paper we demonstrate the use of mathematical modelling to evaluate the effects of setting up screening programmes in Eastern Europe with HPV DNA testing as the primary screening tool and compare it with conventional smear testing. The impact of screening is measured in terms of the life years gained and the resulting resource usage and cost. We investigate several screening options with different screening intervals and age ranges for the target population.

  17. Effect of Friction Testing of Metals on Particle Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouam, J.; Songmene, V.; Djebara, A.; Khettabi, R.

    2012-06-01

    Metallic particles emitted during manufacturing processes can represent a serious danger for occupational safety. The mechanisms responsible for these particle emissions include two- and three-body frictions; Moreover, such particles can also be emitted during several other processes, including mechanical braking. To be in a position to devise ways to reduce these particle emissions at the source, it is important to know their size, quantity, and distribution, as well as the relationships between operating conditions and particle emissions. This article investigates nanoparticle and microparticle emissions during two friction tests: one (setup 1: pin in rotation only) simulates the friction occurring during mechanical braking actions, and another (setup 2: pin in rotation and translation) simulates the friction taking place at the tool-workpiece interface during metal cutting processes. The materials tested were aluminum alloys (6061-T6 and 7075-T6), and the pin used was a carbide cylinder. Particle emission was monitored using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) for nanoparticles, and the Aerosol Particle Sizer (APS) for microparticles. It was found that friction produces more nanoparticles than microparticles, and that total particle emission can be reduced by operating at low or at high sliding speeds.

  18. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  19. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  20. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  1. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the purpose...

  2. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the purpose...

  3. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the purpose...

  4. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  5. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the purpose...

  6. 42 CFR 410.39 - Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and... Medical and Other Health Services § 410.39 Prostate cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations... cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the purpose...

  7. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  8. 78 FR 13069 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ...: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and, Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on... entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Recommendations for Screening, Testing, and Management of Blood Donors and Blood and Blood Components Based on Screening Tests for Syphilis,'' dated March 2013. The...

  9. Rapid screening test for porphyria diagnosis using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, A.; Stepp, H.; Homann, C.; Hennig, G.; Brittenham, G. M.; Vogeser, M.

    2015-07-01

    Porphyrias are rare genetic metabolic disorders, which result from deficiencies of enzymes in the heme biosynthesis pathway. Depending on the enzyme defect, different types of porphyrins and heme precursors accumulate for the different porphyria diseases in erythrocytes, liver, blood plasma, urine and stool. Patients with acute hepatic porphyrias can suffer from acute neuropathic attacks, which can lead to death when undiagnosed, but show only unspecific clinical symptoms such as abdominal pain. Therefore, in addition to chromatographic methods, a rapid screening test is required to allow for immediate identification and treatment of these patients. In this study, fluorescence spectroscopic measurements were conducted on blood plasma and phantom material, mimicking the composition of blood plasma of porphyria patients. Hydrochloric acid was used to differentiate the occurring porphyrins (uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III) spectroscopically despite their initially overlapping excitation spectra. Plasma phantom mixtures were measured using dual wavelength excitation and the corresponding concentrations of uroporphyrin-III and coproporphyrin-III were determined. Additionally, three plasma samples of porphyria patients were examined and traces of coproporphyrin-III and uroporphyrin-III were identified. This study may therefore help to establish a rapid screening test method with spectroscopic differentiation of the occurring porphyrins, which consequently allows for the distinction of different porphyrias. This may be a valuable tool for clinical porphyria diagnosis and rapid or immediate treatment.

  10. A screening test for unstimulated salivary flow measurement.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Margherita; Zunt, Susan; Eckert, George J; Zero, Domenick

    2005-01-01

    It is well established that saliva is an important factor for the health of both soft and hard tissues in the oral cavity. This study determined: 1) the correlation between unstimulated salivary flow assessed using the Modified Schirmer tear strip Test (MST), with gravimetric and volumetric measurements and 2) the MST value that would allow the most reliable identification of patients with severe (<0.1 ml/minute) and moderate (<0.2 ml/minute) hyposalivation. A retrospective clinical study was conducted using data from 90 patients seen at the Indiana University School of Dentistry. All patients had a sample of unstimulated whole saliva collected by drooling for five minutes for volumetric/gravimetric assessment, followed by placement of the Schirmer strip in the floor of the mouth for three minutes (MST). Results showed a non-linear association between the MST and volumetric/gravimetric methods, with moderate Spearman correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71). Analysis of ROC-curves suggests that a cutoff screening value of 25 mm/three minutes provides high sensitivity (77%) and positive predictive value (71%) without significantly affecting specificity (80%). In conclusion, this study supports use of the MST test as a screening tool for hyposalivation.

  11. Development of a Pitch Discrimination Screening Test for Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Abramson, Maria Kulick; Lloyd, Peter J

    2016-04-01

    There is a critical need for tests of auditory discrimination for young children as this skill plays a fundamental role in the development of speaking, prereading, reading, language, and more complex auditory processes. Frequency discrimination is important with regard to basic sensory processing affecting phonological processing, dyslexia, measurements of intelligence, auditory memory, Asperger syndrome, and specific language impairment. This study was performed to determine the clinical feasibility of the Pitch Discrimination Test (PDT) to screen the preschool child's ability to discriminate some of the acoustic demands of speech perception, primarily pitch discrimination, without linguistic content. The PDT used brief speech frequency tones to gather normative data from preschool children aged 3 to 5 yrs. A cross-sectional study was used to gather data regarding the pitch discrimination abilities of a sample of typically developing preschool children, between 3 and 5 yrs of age. The PDT consists of ten trials using two pure tones of 100-msec duration each, and was administered in an AA or AB forced-choice response format. Data from 90 typically developing preschool children between the ages of 3 and 5 yrs were used to provide normative data. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-testing was used to examine the effects of age as a continuous variable on pitch discrimination. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine the significance of age on performance on the PDT. Spearman rank was used to determine the correlation of age and performance on the PDT. Pitch discrimination of brief tones improved significantly from age 3 yrs to age 4 yrs, as well as from age 3 yrs to the age 4- and 5-yrs group. Results indicated that between ages 3 and 4 yrs, children's auditory discrimination of pitch improved on the PDT. The data showed that children can be screened for auditory discrimination of pitch beginning with age 4 yrs. The PDT proved to be a time efficient, feasible tool for

  12. Radionuclide transit: a sensitive screening test for esophageal dysfunction

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, C.O.; Hill, L.D.; Holmes, E.R. III; Hull, D.A.; Gannon, R.; Pope, C.E. II

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend existing nuclear medicine techniques for the diagnosis of esophageal motor disorders. A standard homogeneous bolus of 99mtechnetium sulfur colloid in water was swallowed in the supine position under the collimator of a gamma camera linked to a microprocessor. Bolus transit was recorded at 0.4-s intervals, and the movie obtained was used to analyze transit in an objective manner. Ten normal volunteers and 30 subjects with dysphagia not related to mechanical obstruction were studied with this technique. Radionuclide transit studies detected a higher incidence of esophageal motor abnormality than manometry or radiology in the dysphagia group. In addition a definitive description of the functional problem was possible in most cases. Radionuclide transit is a safe noninvasive test and suitable as a screening test for esophageal motor disorders.

  13. PROSTATE CANCER SCREENING: PSA TEST AWARENESS AMONG ADULT MALES.

    PubMed

    Obana, Michael; O'Lawrence, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The overall purpose of this study was to determine whether visits to the doctor in the last 12 months, education level, and annual household income for adult males increased the awareness of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) tests. The effect of these factors for the knowledge of PSA exams was performed using statistical analysis. A retrospective secondary database was utilized for this study using the questionnaire in the California Health Interview Survey from 2009. Based on this survey, annual visits to the doctor, higher educational levels attained, and greater take-home pay were statistically significant and the results of the study were equivalent to those hypothesized. This also reflects the consideration of marketing PSA blood test screenings to those adult males who are poor, uneducated, and do not see the doctor on a consistent basis.

  14. Pain on Functional Movement Screen Tests and Injury Risk.

    PubMed

    Bushman, Timothy T; Grier, Tyson L; Canham-Chervak, Michelle C; Anderson, Morgan K; North, William J; Jones, Bruce H

    2015-11-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is a tool intended to evaluate limitations or asymmetries of movement to detect individuals at risk for exercise- and sports-related injury. The purpose was to determine the association and predictive value of specific FMS tests with injury risk in physically active men. Soldiers aged 18-57 years completed the FMS (n = 2,476). Demographic and fitness data were collected by survey. Medical record data for any, overuse, and traumatic injury 6 months after the assessment were obtained. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value were calculated along with receiver operator characteristics to determine area under the curve (AUC). Risks, risk ratios, odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to assess injury risks. Multivariate logistic regression identified that pain on 5 of the 7 tests was associated with greater risk for any injury (OR = 1.50-3.51): deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, trunk stability push-up, and rotary stability. However, FMS registered low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC for all 7 tests for the 3 injury types (2-24% sensitivity, 16-74% PPV, and 50-58% AUC). Although the presence of pain was associated with a higher risk of injury on 5 tests, a low sensitivity, PPV, and AUC were displayed. Therefore, caution is advised when implementing the FMS as a screening tool in an Army or similarly active population as it could lead to prevention and treatment resources being directed toward individuals who are not at greater risk for injury.

  15. Results of acoustic emission tests on Halon fire bottles

    SciTech Connect

    Beattie, A.G.; Shurtleff, W.W.

    1996-10-01

    An acoustic emission tester for aircraft Halon bottles has been developed. The necessary load is applied by heating the bottles. Acoustic emission is monitored during the heating by six sensors held in position by a special fixture. This fixture was designed to fit spheres with diameters between 5 and 16 inches. A prototype has been undergoing testing in two commercial Halon bottle repair and test facilities. Results to date indicate that about 97 percent of the bottles tested show no indications of any flaws. The other three percent have had indications of flaws in non-critical areas of the bottles. All bottles tested to date have passed the hydrostatic test required by the Department of Transportation (DOT).

  16. Development of a MEMS device for acoustic emission testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozevin, Didem; Pessiki, Stephen P.; Jain, Akash; Greve, David W.; Oppenheim, Irving J.

    2003-08-01

    Acoustic emission testing is an important technology for evaluating structural materials, and especially for detecting damage in structural members. Significant new capabilities may be gained by developing MEMS transducers for acoustic emission testing, including permanent bonding or embedment for superior coupling, greater density of transducer placement, and a bundle of transducers on each device tuned to different frequencies. Additional advantages include capabilities for maintenance of signal histories and coordination between multiple transducers. We designed a MEMS device for acoustic emission testing that features two different mechanical types, a hexagonal plate design and a spring-mass design, with multiple detectors of each type at ten different frequencies in the range of 100 kHz to 1 MHz. The devices were fabricated in the multi-user polysilicon surface micromachining (MUMPs) process and we have conducted electrical characterization experiments and initial experiments on acoustic emission detection. We first report on C(V) measurements and perform a comparison between predicted (design) and measured response. We next report on admittance measurements conducted at pressures varying from vacuum to atmospheric, identifying the resonant frequencies and again providing a comparison with predicted performance. We then describe initial calibration experiments that compare the performance of the detectors to other acoustic emission transducers, and we discuss the overall performance of the device as a sensor suite, as contrasted to the single-channel performance of most commercial transducers.

  17. Performance testing of multi-metal continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, W.J.; French, N.B.; Brown, C.H.; Burns, D.B.; Lemieux, P.M.; Ryan, J.V.; Priebe, S.J.; Waterland, L.R.

    1997-11-17

    Three prototype multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in April 1996 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The CEM instruments were: Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES); Laser Induced Breakdown Spectrometry-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (LIBS); and Laser Spark Spectrometry, another LIBS instrument. The three CEMs were tested simultaneously during test periods in which low, medium, and high concentration levels of seven toxic metals -- antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury -- were maintained under carefully controlled conditions. Two methods were used to introduce the test metals into the flue gas: (1) solution atomization, introducing metal-containing aerosol directly into the secondary combustion burner, and (2) injection of fly ash particulates. The testing addressed four measures of CEM performance: relative accuracy (RA), calibration drift, zero drift, and response time. These were accomplished by comparing the toxic metal analyte concentrations reported by the CEMs to the concentrations measured using the EPA reference method (RM) for the same analytes. Overall, the test results showed the prototype nature of the test CEMs and the clear need for further development. None of the CEMs tested consistently achieved RA values of 20% or less as required by the EPA draft performance specification. Instrument size reduction and automation will also likely need additional attention before multi-metal CEMs systems become commercially available for service as envisioned by regulators and citizens.

  18. Development of an unlicensed assistive personnel job screening test.

    PubMed

    Newhouse, Robin P; Steinhauser, Michele; Berk, Ron

    2007-01-01

    Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) competency is essential to the quality and safety of patient care. The purpose of this study was to construct a test with acceptable estimates of reliability and validity to identify UAPs who could successfully perform their job in four essential knowledge-based domains (math, patient data collection, medical terminology, and reporting abnormal data). An investigator-developed test was constructed. Psychometric testing was completed by administering the test to 145 UAPs. A cut score of 17/23 resulted in 79.7% sensitivity and 70.4% specificity. There were significant differences in mean scores between masters and nonmasters (t = -13.70, df = 79, p < .00). Master status was significantly related to the ability to take a patient's blood pressure (Phi = .503, p < .00). A score of 17 or greater indicates that the applicant demonstrates competency of basic knowledge required for the position. The test can be used as a screening tool for UAPs in nurse recruitment before candidates advance to the unit for an interview.

  19. Diagnostic Performance of Visual Screening Tests in the Elderly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lança, Carla Costa; Carolino, Elisabete

    2011-09-01

    This study aimed to determine and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of visual screening tests for detecting vision loss in elderly. This study is defined as study of diagnostic performance. The diagnostic accuracy of 5 visual tests -near convergence point, near accommodation point, stereopsis, contrast sensibility and amsler grid—was evaluated by means of the ROC method (receiver operating characteristics curves), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (LR+/LR-). Visual acuity was used as the reference standard. A sample of 44 elderly aged 76.7 years (±9.32), who were institutionalized, was collected. The curves of contrast sensitivity and stereopsis are the most accurate (area under the curves were 0.814-p = 0.001, C.I.95%[0.653;0.975]— and 0.713-p = 0.027, C.I.95%[0,540;0,887], respectively). The scores with the best diagnostic validity for the stereopsis test were 0.605 (sensitivity 0.87, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.89, LR-0.24) and 0.610 (sensitivity 0.81, specificity 0.54; LR+ 1.75, LR-0.36). The scores with higher diagnostic validity for the contrast sensibility test were 0.530 (sensitivity 0.94, specificity 0.69; LR+ 3.04, LR-0.09). The contrast sensitivity and stereopsis test's proved to be clinically useful in detecting vision loss in the elderly.

  20. Test accuracy of cognitive screening tests for diagnosis of dementia and multidomain cognitive impairment in stroke.

    PubMed

    Lees, Rosalind; Selvarajah, Johann; Fenton, Candida; Pendlebury, Sarah T; Langhorne, Peter; Stott, David J; Quinn, Terence J

    2014-10-01

    Guidelines recommend screening stroke-survivors for cognitive impairments. We sought to collate published data on test accuracy of cognitive screening tools. Index test was any direct, cognitive screening assessment compared against reference standard diagnosis of (undifferentiated) multidomain cognitive impairment/dementia. We used a sensitive search statement to search multiple, cross-disciplinary databases from inception to January 2014. Titles, abstracts, and articles were screened by independent researchers. We described risk of bias using Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool and reporting quality using Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy guidance. Where data allowed, we pooled test accuracy using bivariate methods. From 19 182 titles, we reviewed 241 articles, 35 suitable for inclusion. There was substantial heterogeneity: 25 differing screening tests; differing stroke settings (acute stroke, n=11 articles), and reference standards used (neuropsychological battery, n=21 articles). One article was graded low risk of bias; common issues were case-control methodology (n=7 articles) and missing data (n=22). We pooled data for 4 tests at various screen positive thresholds: Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (<88/100): sensitivity 0.96, specificity 0.70 (2 studies); Mini Mental State Examination (<27/30): sensitivity 0.71, specificity 0.85 (12 studies); Montreal Cognitive Assessment (<26/30): sensitivity 0.95, specificity 0.45 (4 studies); MoCA (<22/30): sensitivity 0.84, specificity 0.78 (6 studies); Rotterdam-CAMCOG (<33/49): sensitivity 0.57, specificity 0.92 (2 studies). Commonly used cognitive screening tools have similar accuracy for detection of dementia/multidomain impairment with no clearly superior test and no evidence that screening tools with longer administration times perform better. MoCA at usual threshold offers short assessment time with high sensitivity but at cost of specificity; adapted cutoffs have improved

  1. Developmental screenings in rural settings: a comparison of the child development review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    PubMed

    Brachlow, A; Jordan, A E; Tervo, R

    2001-01-01

    Screening results for the Child Development Review (CDR) and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test (Denver II) were compared in two locations: the Cheyenne River Reservation in South Dakota and Sioux Falls, S.D. Seventy-three white, Native American and other minority children, half originating from the reservation and half from Sioux Falls, were randomly assigned to take one developmental screening test. A chi-square analysis indicated a significant difference in results across tests. Specifically, more CDR than Denver II subjects passed the screening and more Denver II than CDR subjects failed the screening. This pattern held for subjects living on, but not off, the reservation. Thus, for Native American, white and other minority children living on the Cheyenne River Reservation, the CDR may be undersensitive and/or the Denver II oversensitive to suspect presentations. Medical practitioners are advised to use these instruments with caution in rural settings.

  2. Nursing swallow screens: why is testing water only not enough?

    PubMed

    Ellis, Allison Loftiss; Hannibal, Ruth Renee

    2013-10-01

    The speech-language pathologist (SLP) standardized a Nursing Bedside Swallowing Screen (NBSS) tool for all patients admitted to the hospital. The adults engaged in the NBSS before oral intake (i.e., medication included) as part of the Brain Attack Pathway for patients with neurological symptoms. If the patient failed the NBSS in the emergency department (ED), then the screen was repeated again after the patient had been admitted before the SLP dysphagia evaluation. Fifty-three male and female patients ranging from 34 to 96 years old with an initial diagnosis of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) admitted during an 8-week time period from April 25, 2010, to June 19, 2010, were included in this study. There were 32 women and 17 men including 27 strokes and 22 TIAs tested. As a whole, the NBSS and SLP dysphagia evaluation results were consistent with each other for 40 of 46 patients (86.96% perfect agreement). The NBSS had 74% of sensitivity (34 of 46) with the nursing and the speech pathologist in agreement with the patients passing the swallow screen. Accurate identification of aspiration with the patients failing the NBSS was evident with the nursing and speech pathology assessment, which resulted in 83% of sensitivity (10 of 12). The positive predictive value with the corresponding identification of aspiration with the staff was 96% (44 of 46). The naturalistic observation of the patients exhibited internal consistency reliability between the two disciplines. Extraneous variables affecting the results included spontaneous resolution of stroke or TIA symptoms or the patient's decline in neurological status. For more insights from the authors, see Supplemental Digital Content 1, at http://links.lww.com/JNN/A9.

  3. Scintillating fiber optic screens: a comparison of MTF, light conversion efficiency, and emission angle with Gd2O2S:Tb screens.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Sabol, J M; Seibert, J A; Boone, J M

    1997-02-01

    The widespread effort in developing digital imaging systems has led to large area high pixel density photodetectors such as charge coupled devices (CCDs), amorphous silicon photodiode arrays, and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) imagers. These photodetectors have different capabilities, characteristics, and requirements than conventional silver-halide-based film, and this fact had led to a new generation of exotic scintillators, including fiber optic screens made from scintillating glass. The scintillator performance characteristics of five different scintillating fiber optic screens and two conventional Gd2O2S:Tb screens (one 34 mg/cm2 and the other 60 mg/cm2) were measured and compared. The measurements that were made included the angular dependence of light emission relative to the normal, the modulation transfer function (MTF), and the absolute effective conversion efficiency (light photons per absorbed x-ray photon). It was found that the light emission of scintillating fiber optic screens is markedly forward peaked (depending on the sample) compared to conventional screens or Lambertian emitters. The MTFs of the five scintillating fiber optic screens measured were comparable and fell approximately midway between the two conventional screen MTFs. One of the scintillating fiber optic screens demonstrated light efficiency similar to the thick (60 mg/cm2) conventional screen, another had light output capabilities similar to the thin (34 mg/cm2) conventional screen, and the three others were less efficient than the thin screen. The non-Lambertian characteristics of the fiber optic scintillators will cause errors of up to 75% in lens efficiency calculations if a Lambertian source is assumed. The conventional screens were found to conform within about 5% of an ideal Lambertian emitter.

  4. Regulated Emissions from Biodiesel Tested in Heavy-Duty Engines Meeting 2004 Emission Standards

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, R. L.; Tennant, C. J.; Hayes, R. R.; Black, S.; Ireland, J.; McDaniel, T.; Williams, A.; Frailey, M.; Sharp, C. A.

    2005-11-01

    Biodiesel produced from soybean oil, canola oil, yellow grease, and beef tallow was tested in two heavy-duty engines. The biodiesels were tested neat and as 20% by volume blends with a 15 ppm sulfur petroleum-derived diesel fuel. The test engines were the following: 2002 Cummins ISB and 2003 DDC Series 60. Both engines met the 2004 U.S. emission standard of 2.5 g/bhp-h NO{sub x}+HC (3.35 g/kW-h) and utilized exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). All emission tests employed the heavy-duty transient procedure as specified in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations. Reduction in PM emissions and increase in NO{sub x} emissions were observed for all biodiesels in all engines, confirming observations made in older engines. On average PM was reduced by 25% and NO{sub x} increased by 3% for the two engines tested for a variety of B20 blends. These changes are slightly larger in magnitude, but in the same range as observed in older engines. The cetane improver 2-ethyl hexyl nitrate was shown to have no measurable effect on NO{sub x} emissions from B20 in these engines, in contrast to observations reported for older engines. The effect of intake air humidity on NO{sub x} emissions from the Cummins ISB was quantified. The CFR NO{sub x}/humidity correction factor was shown to be valid for an engine equipped with EGR, operating at 1700 m above sea level, and operating on conventional or biodiesel.

  5. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  6. The Free-Running Asthma Screening Test: An Approach to Screening for Exercise-Induced Asthma in Rural Alabama.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaman, Doris J.; Estes, Jenny

    1997-01-01

    This study documented the prevalence of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in rural elementary schools, examining the use of a free-running asthma screening test and peak expiratory flow-rate measurement for school screening. Results indicated that 5.7% of the students had EIA. Absenteeism and poverty were related to EIA. (SM)

  7. 40 CFR 1042.235 - Emission testing related to certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... applicable requirements. (3) Before we test one of your engines, we may set its adjustable parameters to any... would meet all the requirements that apply to the engine family covered by the application for...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION...

  8. 40 CFR 1042.235 - Emission testing related to certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... applicable requirements. (3) Before we test one of your engines, we may set its adjustable parameters to any... would meet all the requirements that apply to the engine family covered by the application for...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION...

  9. ETV TEST OF PCDD/F EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emission monitors were tested under the EPA Environmental Technology and Verification (ETV) program. Two long-term sampling devices, the DioxinMonitoringSystem and Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans, and two sem...

  10. ETV TEST OF PCDD/F EMISSIONS MONITORING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four polychlorinated dibenzodioxin and furan (PCDD/F) emission monitors were tested under the EPA Environmental Technology and Verification (ETV) program. Two long-term sampling devices, the DioxinMonitoringSystem and Adsorption Method for Sampling Dioxins and Furans, and two sem...

  11. The Takeda Three Colors Combination Test: A Screening Test for Detection of Very Mild Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tajime, Kayo; Taniguchi, Toshiatsu

    2014-01-01

    Background. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia and is prevalent worldwide. It is expected that AD, for which aging is a risk factor, will increase in the future. Because early detection of AD has become increasingly important, promoting demand for screening tests with adequate sensitivity. In this study, we examined the usefulness of the Takeda Three Colors Combination Test (TTCC) for screening of the very mild AD and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). Methods. 154 senior persons participated in the research: 55 with very mild AD, 45 with aMCI, and 54 control group. The TTCC, which was a colored cards configuration memory task, was examined for sensitivity and specificity. Results. The sensitivity of the TTCC was 76% and 47% for the very mild AD and aMCI groups, and the specificity was 83%. Conducting TTCC (including instruction and evaluation) was accomplished within 2 minutes for all subjects. Conclusion. The TTCC is useful screening test for early detection of AD. Furthermore, administration time is short and requires no special training or skills. Thus, we believe the TTCC shows great potential for use as an AD screening test by a general practitioner in communities worldwide. PMID:25386623

  12. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: A Study of Test Selection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    A 30-minute screening battery of tests and subtests selected from the complete 90-minute battery used in USOE Prekindergarten-Kindergarten research plus three locally developed instruments were identified as the most satisfactory single measures of cognitive, motor, auditory, visual, visual-motor coordination, and language development to provide…

  13. Screening for childhood asthma using an exercise test.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, A; Bowen, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Screening for asthma in children in the community could have advantages at a time when prevalence rates of the condition and associated hospital admission rates are rising. AIM. The aim of this study was to assess the usefulness of a standard exercise test as a marker of asthma or potential asthma in children, and to examine the relationship between asthma and other respiratory tract illnesses. METHOD. In 1985 a cross-sectional research study was undertaken in 10 primary schools in West Glamorgan; the children were followed up over six years until 1991. The exercise test involved measuring peak expiratory flow rate before and after the children ran as fast as they could for six minutes. A control group of children with a negative exercise test result were compared with those not known to have asthma who had a positive result (fall in peak expiratory flow rate of 15% or greater), using clinical data. Similar clinical comparisons were undertaken between the children known to have asthma and a control group. RESULTS. Of 864 children not known to have asthma, 60 had a positive exercise result. Of 92 children known to have asthma, 33 had a positive test result and seven were unable to finish the test because of bronchospasm, a sensitivity of 43% and a specificity of 93%. Follow up of 55 of the 60 children not known to have asthma but who had an abnormal response to the test showed that 32 had developed clinically recognizable asthma six years later. There was a significantly higher prevalence of atopic and respiratory illnesses (otitis media, hay fever and eczema) in the group of children with bronchial hyperreactivity demonstrated on exercise than in those without bronchial hyperreactivity. CONCLUSION. This research shows that bronchial hyperreactivity demonstrated by an exercise test can be a marker for childhood asthma. The study has also identified other respiratory tract illnesses which appear to belong to the same spectrum as asthma. PMID:8204321

  14. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-02-01

    To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in line as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia.

  15. Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening Study: near and distance visual acuity testing increase the diagnostic accuracy of screening for amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Bušić, Mladen; Bjeloš, Mirjana; Petrovečki, Mladen; Kuzmanović Elabjer, Biljana; Bosnar, Damir; Ramić, Senad; Miletić, Daliborka; Andrijašević, Lidija; Kondža Krstonijević, Edita; Jakovljević, Vid; Bišćan Tvrdi, Ana; Predović, Jurica; Kokot, Antonio; Bišćan, Filip; Kovačević Ljubić, Mirna; Motušić Aras, Ranka

    2016-01-01

    Aim To present and evaluate a new screening protocol for amblyopia in preschool children. Methods Zagreb Amblyopia Preschool Screening (ZAPS) study protocol performed screening for amblyopia by near and distance visual acuity (VA) testing of 15 648 children aged 48-54 months attending kindergartens in the City of Zagreb County between September 2011 and June 2014 using Lea Symbols in lines test. If VA in either eye was >0.1 logMAR, the child was re-tested, if failed at re-test, the child was referred to comprehensive eye examination at the Eye Clinic. Results 78.04% of children passed the screening test. Estimated prevalence of amblyopia was 8.08%. Testability, sensitivity, and specificity of the ZAPS study protocol were 99.19%, 100.00%, and 96.68% respectively. Conclusion The ZAPS study used the most discriminative VA test with optotypes in lines as they do not underestimate amblyopia. The estimated prevalence of amblyopia was considerably higher than reported elsewhere. To the best of our knowledge, the ZAPS study protocol reached the highest sensitivity and specificity when evaluating diagnostic accuracy of VA tests for screening. The pass level defined at ≤0.1 logMAR for 4-year-old children, using Lea Symbols in lines missed no amblyopia cases, advocating that both near and distance VA testing should be performed when screening for amblyopia. PMID:26935612

  16. "Do-it-yourself" dementia testing: issues regarding an Alzheimer's home screening test.

    PubMed

    Kier, Frederick J; Molinari, Victor

    2003-06-01

    The Early Alert Alzheimer's Home Screening Test (AHST) is a variant of the Smell Identification Test (SIT) and the Cross-Cultural Smell Identification Test (CC-SIT), and recently became available for purchase by the general public. The validity and the practical utility of routine screening for individuals with asymptomatic cognitive impairment has not been established. There are considerable specific methodological concerns regarding the use of the AHST including the association of olfactory impairment with (a) age in the absence of cognitive impairment, (b) numerous acute and/or chronic medical conditions, and (c) lifestyle habits and social and/or demographic variables. General public misunderstanding of the difference between a screening and a diagnostic test, primary care physicians' frequent confusion about follow-up mechanisms for newly diagnosed patients with dementia, the possible lack of perceived counseling options for those self-diagnosed, and abuse of test findings create distinct possibilities for misuse of this test. The marketing of the AHST and its general use without appropriate public health educational safeguards is inappropriate and may be unethical.

  17. Tests of a screen having a working element with a nonuniform trajectory field

    SciTech Connect

    Uchitel', A.D.; Zelov, E.A.; Zasel'skii, V.I.; Lyalyuk, V.P.; Nikitenko, V.I.; Pochekailo, I.E.; Ananko, A.A.; Kolomoets, A.I.; Antoshkin, A.A.

    1988-03-01

    The authors discuss the development of a new sinter screen in a 5000-m/sup 2/ blast furnace. A distinctive feature of the screen is that the vibrator is installed at the center of percussion of the box, while the rocker forms a right angle with the principal central axis of inertia of the working element. The design provides for vibrations which are tangential to the screen in the charging zone and elliptical vibrations along the rest of the screen. The new screen is compared with GST-62B and GIST-62 screens and overall performance of the screens according to the results of the comparison tests are given.

  18. Comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; VanDerSchal, W.H.; Leather, G.R.

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus ccalyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photo bacterium phosphoreum - Microtox test, and a mixture of bacterial species - the polytox test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriadaphnta dubia), green algae (Setenastrum capricarnutum), fathead minnows (Pimephalespromelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC5O/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  19. A comparison of standard acute toxicity tests with rapid-screening toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Toussaint, M.W.; Shedd, T.R.; Schalie, W.H. van der; Leather, G.R.

    1995-05-01

    This study compared the relative sensitivity of five inexpensive, rapid toxicity tests to the sensitivity of five standard aquatic acute toxicity tests through literature review and testing. The rapid toxicity tests utilized organisms that require little culturing or handling prior to testing: a freshwater rotifer (Branchionus calyciflorus); brine shrimp (Artemia salina); lettuce (Lactuca sativa); and two microbial tests (Photobacterium phosphoreum--Microtox{reg_sign} test, and a mixture of bacterial species--the Polytox{reg_sign} test). Standard acute toxicity test species included water fleas (Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia), green algae (Selenastrum capricornutum), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia). Sensitivity comparisons between rapid and standard acute toxicity tests were based on LC50/EC50 data from 11 test chemicals. Individually, the lettuce and rotifer tests ranked most similar in sensitivity to the standard tests, while Microtox fell just outside the range of sensitivities represented by the group of standard acute toxicity tests. The brine shrimp and Polytox tests were one or more orders of magnitude different from the standard acute toxicity tests for most compounds. The lettuce, rotifer, and Microtox tests could be used as a battery for preliminary toxicity screening of chemicals. Further evaluation of complex real-world environmental samples is recommended.

  20. Could Acoustic Emission Testing Show a Pipe Failure in Advance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soares, S. D.; Teixeira, J. C. G.

    2004-02-01

    During the last 20 years PETROBRAS has been attempting to use Acoustic Emission (AE) as an inspection tool. In this period the AE concept has changed from a revolutionary method to a way of finding areas to make a complete inspection. PETROBRAS has a lot of pressure vessels inspected by AE and with other NDTs techniques to establish their relationship. In other hand, PETROBRAS R&D Center has conducted destructive hydrostatic tests in pipelines samples with artificial defects made by milling. Those tests were monitored by acoustic emission and manual ultrasonic until the complete failure of pipe sample. This article shows the results obtained and a brief proposal of analysis criteria for this environment of test.

  1. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  2. A Comment on the Efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, James H.

    1976-01-01

    The efficiency of the Revised Denver Developmental Screening Test an easily administered measure of four areas of infant and preschool development, was evaluated using an estimate of the base rate of mental retardation in the screening population. (Author/CL)

  3. [Experiences with the Eurotest in neuropsychological examinations. A screening test].

    PubMed

    Peset, V; Puig, C; Martínez-Ruiz, E; Mazón, J; Menéndez, B; Lacruz-Ballester, L; Lluch, V; Lominchar-Espada, J

    The increasing number of foreign patients being attended in our health centres makes it necessary to have tests that are compatible among different countries, especially in Europe. The objective of this study is to compare the Eurotest with other screening tests and to determine whether there are any differences between European (other than Spanish) and Spanish patients. We included patients who were referred because of complaints that were compatible with cognitive impairment and they were asked to carry out a protocol of tests that included the global deterioration scale (GDS), Folstein's MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination), the Clock Test (CT) and the Eurotest. Epidemiological data were collected. The sample used in the study included 45 patients, 21 males and 24 females, with a mean age of 69.76 years; 34 were born in Spain and 11 abroad. Diagnoses were 17 with mild cognitive impairment, 8 with Alzheimer's disease, 6 with age-associated impairment, 5 with vascular dementia, 5 with a psychiatric disorder, 1 with mixed dementia and 1 with dementia with Lewy bodies. The distribution according to the GDS was as follows: 10 with a GDS of 2, 18 with a GDS of 3, and 17 with a GDS of 4. All the patients with a GDS 2 completed the tests correctly, those with a GDS 3 scored below the cut-off point 5 for the Eurotest, 4 for the MMSE and 3 for CT, and in the GDS 4 they were 9, 7 and 6, respectively. Results did not vary between Spaniards and foreigners, the kappa index between MMSE and the Eurotest was 0.39 and the Pearson coefficient was 0.67. The Eurotest was slightly more useful in patients with a greater degree of impairment.

  4. Sterility screening of platelet concentrates: questioning the optimal test strategy.

    PubMed

    Dreier, J; Störmer, M; Pichl, L; Schottstedt, V; Grolle, A; Bux, J; Kleesiek, K

    2008-10-01

    Routine bacterial monitoring of apheresis platelet concentrates (APC) and pooled platelet concentrates (PPC) was introduced in two German blood services using culture and real-time reverse transcriptase (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The results of testing are reviewed and used to discuss different strategies for detection of bacterial contamination of PCs. Two thousand three hundred and sixty-two APCs and 1993 PPCs have been tested by real-time RT-PCR and the BacT/Alert automated culturing system using aerobic and anaerobic culture bottles. After standard processing of PCs and storage of 22-24 h at 20-24 degrees C with agitation, samples were taken under aseptic conditions. Reactive culture bottles were confirmed as positive and bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rRNA analysis and biochemical tests. Seventeen of 2362 tested APCs were reactive in culture and one also in RT-PCR. Of these, 13 APCs were identified as initially positive as Staphylococcus warneri (n = 1, positive in aerobic and anaerobic culture), Propionibacterium acnes (n = 12, positive only in anaerobic culture) and four were initially reactive. Two of 1993 PPCs were initially reactive (anaerobic) and two more were confirmed positive (anaerobic) from a repeat culture and identified as P. acnes. All remaining specimens were tested negative. Our study demonstrates that the predominant organisms implicated in platelet bacterial contamination are part of the human skin flora. Inoculating blood culture systems and anaerobic cultivation detects these bacteria after approximately 3-7 days when blood products have been transfused. Based on the presented data different screening strategies are discussed.

  5. Simulations of NOx Emissions from Low Emissions Discrete Jet Injector Combustor Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Breisacher, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    An experimental and computational study was conducted to evaluate the performance and emissions characteristics of a candidate Lean Direct Injection (LDI) combustor configuration with a mix of simplex and airblast injectors. The National Combustion Code (NCC) was used to predict the experimentally measured EINOx emissions for test conditions representing low power, medium power, and high-power engine cycle conditions. Of the six cases modeled with the NCC using a reduced-kinetics finite-rate mechanism and lagrangian spray modeling, reasonable predictions of combustor exit temperature and EINOx were obtained at two high-power cycle conditions.

  6. How to report and interpret screening test properties: guidelines for driving researchers.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Bruce; Walter, Stephen D; Bédard, Michel

    2014-01-01

    One important goal of driving research is the development of a short but valid office-based screening test for fitness to drive of aging drivers. Several candidate tests have been proposed already, and no doubt others will be proposed in the future. It might seem obvious that authors advocating for the adoption of a particular screening test or procedure should report sensitivity, specificity, and other common screening test properties. Unfortunately, driving researchers have frequently failed to report any screening test properties. Others have reported screening test properties but have made basic mistakes such as calculating predictive values of positive and negative tests but reporting them incorrectly as sensitivity and specificity. These omissions and errors suggest that some driving researchers may be unaware of the importance of accurately reporting test properties when proposing a screening procedure and that others may need a refresher on how to calculate and interpret the most common screening test properties. Many good learning resources for screening and diagnostic tests are available, but most of them are intended for students and researchers in medicine, epidemiology, or public health. We hope that this tutorial in a prominent transportation journal will help lead to improved reporting and interpretation of screening test properties in articles that assess the usefulness of potential screening tools for fitness to drive.

  7. Factors associated with completion of bowel cancer screening and the potential effects of simplifying the screening test algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Benjamin; Whyte, Sophie; Seaman, Helen E; Snowball, Julia; Halloran, Stephen P; Butler, Piers; Patnick, Julietta; Nickerson, Claire; Chilcott, Jim

    2016-01-01

    Background: The primary colorectal cancer screening test in England is a guaiac faecal occult blood test (gFOBt). The NHS Bowel Cancer Screening Programme (BCSP) interprets tests on six samples on up to three test kits to determine a definitive positive or negative result. However, the test algorithm fails to achieve a definitive result for a significant number of participants because they do not comply with the programme requirements. This study identifies factors associated with failed compliance and modifications to the screening algorithm that will improve the clinical effectiveness of the screening programme. Methods: The BCSP Southern Hub data for screening episodes started in 2006–2012 were analysed for participants aged 60–69 years. The variables included age, sex, level of deprivation, gFOBt results and clinical outcome. Results: The data set included 1 409 335 screening episodes; 95.08% of participants had a definitively normal result on kit 1 (no positive spots). Among participants asked to complete a second or third gFOBt, 5.10% and 4.65%, respectively, failed to return a valid kit. Among participants referred for follow up, 13.80% did not comply. Older age was associated with compliance at repeat testing, but non-compliance at follow up. Increasing levels of deprivation were associated with non-compliance at repeat testing and follow up. Modelling a reduction in the threshold for immediate referral led to a small increase in completion of the screening pathway. Conclusions: Reducing the number of positive spots required on the first gFOBt kit for referral for follow-up and targeted measures to improve compliance with follow-up may improve completion of the screening pathway. PMID:26766733

  8. Colorectal cancer screening comparing no screening, immunochemical and guaiac fecal occult blood tests: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Leo G M; van Rijn, Anne F; Verbeek, Andre L M; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Laheij, Robert J F; Fockens, Paul; Jansen, Jan B M J; Adang, Eddy M M; Dekker, Evelien

    2011-04-15

    Comparability of cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies is limited if heterogeneous study data are combined. We analyzed prospective empirical data from a randomized-controlled trial to compare cost-effectiveness of screening with either one round of immunochemical fecal occult blood testing (I-FOBT; OC-Sensor®), one round of guaiac FOBT (G-FOBT; Hemoccult-II®) or no screening in Dutch aged 50 to 75 years, completed with cancer registry and literature data, from a third-party payer perspective in a Markov model with first- and second-order Monte Carlo simulation. Costs were measured in Euros (€), effects in life-years gained, and both were discounted with 3%. Uncertainty surrounding important parameters was analyzed. I-FOBT dominated the alternatives: after one round of I-FOBT screening, a hypothetical person would on average gain 0.003 life-years and save the health care system €27 compared with G-FOBT and 0.003 life years and €72 compared with no screening. Overall, in 4,460,265 Dutch aged 50-75 years, after one round I-FOBT screening, 13,400 life-years and €320 million would have been saved compared with no screening. I-FOBT also dominated in sensitivity analyses, varying uncertainty surrounding important effect and cost parameters. CRC screening with I-FOBT dominated G-FOBT and no screening with or without accounting for uncertainty. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  9. Methanol fuel vehicle demonstration: Exhaust emission testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hyde, J.D.

    1993-07-01

    Ford Motor Company converted four stock 1986 Ford Crown Victoria sedans to methanol flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). During 143,108 operational miles from 1987 to 1990, the FFVs underwent more than 300 dynamometer driving tests to measure exhaust emissions, catalytic activity, fuel economy, acceleration, and driveability with gasoline and methanol blend fuels. Dynamometer driving tests included the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and the New York City Cycle. Exhaust emission measurements included carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}), non- oxygenated hydrocarbons, organic material hydrocarbon equivalent (OMHCE), formaldehyde, and methanol. Catalytic activity was based on exhaust emissions data from active and inactive catalysts. OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} were usually lower with M85 (85% methanol, 15% gasoline) than with gasoline for both active and inactive catalysts when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near normal operating temperatures. CO was higher with M85 than with gasoline when initial engine and catalyst temperatures were at or near ambient temperature. Formaldehyde and methanol were higher with M85. Active catalyst FTP OMHCE, CO, and NO{sub x} increased as vehicle mileage increased, but increased less with M85 than with gasoline. Energy based fuel economy remained almost constant with changes in fuel composition and vehicle mileage.

  10. Structural tests using a MEMS acoustic emission sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheim, Irving J.; Greve, David W.; Ozevin, Didem; Hay, D. Robert; Hay, Thomas R.; Pessiki, Stephen P.; Tyson, Nathan L.

    2006-03-01

    In a collaborative project at Lehigh and Carnegie Mellon, a MEMS acoustic emission sensor was designed and fabricated as a suite of six resonant-type capacitive transducers in the frequency range between 100 and 500 kHz. Characterization studies showed good comparisons between predicted and experimental electro-mechanical behavior. Acoustic emission events, simulated experimentally in steel ball impact and in pencil lead break tests, were detected and source localization was demonstrated. In this paper we describe the application of the MEMS device in structural testing, both in laboratory and in field applications. We discuss our findings regarding housing and mounting (acoustic coupling) of the MEMS device with its supporting electronics, and we then report the results of structural testing. In all tests, the MEMS transducers were used in parallel with commercial acoustic emission sensors, which thereby serve as a benchmark and permit a direct observation of MEMS device functionality. All tests involved steel structures, with particular interest in propagation of existing cracks or flaws. A series of four laboratory tests were performed on beam specimens fabricated from two segments (Grade 50 steel) with a full penetration weld (E70T-4 electrode material) at midspan. That weld region was notched, an initial fatigue crack was induced, and the specimens were then instrumented with one commercial transducer and with one MEMS device; data was recorded from five individual transducers on the MEMS device. Under a four-point bending test, the beam displayed both inelastic behavior and crack propagation, including load drops associated with crack instability. The MEMS transducers detected all instability events as well as many or most of the acoustic emissions occurring during plasticity and stable crack growth. The MEMS transducers were less sensitive than the commercial transducer, and did not detect as many events, but the normalized cumulative burst count obtained

  11. Tests Screening Reading Difficulty in Malayalam among Upper Primary School Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafoor, K. Abdul

    2014-01-01

    Design of a screening test for identifying reading difficult students in Malayalam and validation thereof among boys is made to help schools proactively intervene with such students. A battery of tests developed based on extant literature on screening tests, reviewed difficulties in reading Malayalam, and discrimination power of the draft tests is…

  12. Relevance of molecular tests for HTLV-1 infection as confirmatory tests after the first sero-screening.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Kaori; Inokuchi, Naoko; Tsushima, Yuko; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Hasegawa, Hiroo; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kamihira, Shimeru

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of human T-cell leukemia virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infection has been widely examined by serologics. In the first screening tests, serological false negative and positive samples have been reduced thanks to advances in assay techniques that apply new emission agents and sensors. On the other hand, western blot (WB) remains problematic. For example, WB analysis yields many samples equivalent to antibody positive ones. To reduce the need for WB, an alternative testing strategy is required to detect HTLV-1 infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the HTLV-1 provirus has recently been recommended for a final diagnosis of infection. However, although PCR is thought to be one element, the validation of detection performance for HTLV-1 infection between serological and molecular testing is not always clear. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the accuracy and test the validity of an improved methodology for serological detection of HTLV-infection, as well as that of PCR. In conclusion, the high values of kappa-statistics are expected to deliver high quality in chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay (or chemiluminescent immunoassay), while the problems with WB assays remain to be elucidated. As an alternative to WB, a combination of real-time qPCR and nested PCR is proposed as a suitable confirmatory test.

  13. Referral rates and cost efficiency in a universal newborn hearing screening program using transient evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Maxon, A B; White, K R; Behrens, T R; Vohr, B R

    1995-07-01

    Recently, a National Institutes of Health Consensus Statement recommended that all infants be screened for hearing prior leaving the birthing hospital using a two-stage screening process based on transient evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs). Although the value of identifying hearing loss before 1 year of age is widely recognized, the feasibility of universal newborn hearing screening using TEOAE is sometimes questioned because it is presumed that the technique has a high false positive rate and is not cost efficient. This paper presents new data for 4253 infants from an operational universal newborn hearing screening program using a TEOAE procedure that answers those arguments.

  14. Role of screening and angular distributions in resonant soft-x-ray emission of CO

    SciTech Connect

    Skytt, P.; Glans, P.; Gunnelin, K.

    1997-04-01

    In the present work the authors focus on two particular properties of resonant X-ray emission, namely core hole screening of the excited electron, and anisotropy caused by the polarization of the exciting synchrotron radiation. The screening of the core hole by the excited electron causes energy shifts and intensity variations in resonant spectra compared to the non-resonant case. The linear polarization of the synchrotron radiation and the dipole nature of the absorption process create a preferential alignment selection of the randomly oriented molecules in the case of resonant excitation, producing an anisotropy in the angular distribution of the emitted X-rays. The authors have chosen CO for this study because this molecule has previously served as a showcase for non-resonant X-ray emission, mapping the valence electronic structure differently according to the local selection rules. With the present work they take interest in how this characteristic feature of the spectroscopy is represented in the resonant case.

  15. Target screening effect on the pre-emission of neutrons from Li11 halo nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrascu, M.; Constantinescu, A.; Cruceru, I.; Giurgiu, M.; Isbasescu, A.; Petrascu, H.; Bordeanu, C.; Serban, S.; Stoica, V.; Tanihata, I.; Lynch, W. G.; Famiano, M. A.; Lyuboshits, V. L.; Lyuboshits, V. V.; Ieki, K.

    2006-05-01

    For the first time to our knowledge the target screening effect on the pre-emission of halo neutrons from Li11 has been quantitatively analyzed. Our work has been performed in the 7.5 15 MeV neutron energy range. In this range the target nuclei are likely to behave as opaque, and therefore the sharp-cutoff calculations are most appropriate for the target screening determination. It has been observed that the ζ probability used in the sharp-cutoff calculations is an observable of the experiment, because it can be directly obtained from measured quantities, which are the number of single detected neutrons and the number of detected neutron pairs. The value of ζexp obtained this way in the case of a Si target appears to be close to the ζ value calculated for the Li11 halo radius RH=4.8 fm, independently determined in another experiment [Phys. Lett. B287, 307 (1992)]. This property also allows investigation of Borromean halo nuclei such as He6, Be14, and B17, for which RH was not yet measured. The calculated value within the present approach of the two-neutron pre-emission yield appears to be 3.5 times larger in the case of C12 than in the case of a Si target.

  16. Early Adoption of a Multitarget Stool DNA Test for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Finney Rutten, Lila J; Jacobson, Robert M; Wilson, Patrick M; Jacobson, Debra J; Fan, Chun; Kisiel, John B; Sweetser, Seth; Tulledge-Scheitel, Sidna M; St Sauver, Jennifer L

    2017-05-01

    To characterize early adoption of a novel multitarget stool DNA (MT-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening and to test the hypothesis that adoption differs by demographic characteristics and prior CRC screening behavior and proceeds predictably over time. We used the Rochester Epidemiology Project research infrastructure to assess the use of the MT-sDNA screening test in adults aged 50 to 75 years living in Olmsted County, Minnesota, in 2014 and identified 27,147 individuals eligible or due for screening colonoscopy from November 1, 2014, through November 30, 2015. We used electronic Current Procedure Terminology and Health Care Common Procedure codes to evaluate early adoption of the MT-sDNA screening test in this population and to test whether early adoption varies by age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior. Overall, 2193 (8.1%) and 974 (3.6%) individuals were screened by colonoscopy and MT-sDNA, respectively. Age, sex, race, and prior CRC screening behavior were significantly and independently associated with MT-sDNA screening use compared with colonoscopy use after adjustment for all other variables (P<.05 for all). The rates of adoption of MT-sDNA screening increased over time and were highest in those aged 50 to 54 years, women, whites, and those who had a history of screening. The use of the MT-sDNA screening test varied predictably by insurance coverage. The rates of colonoscopy decreased over time, whereas overall CRC screening rates remained steady. The results of the present study are generally consistent with predictions derived from prior research and the diffusion of innovation framework, pointing to increasing use of the new screening test over time and early adoption by younger patients, women, whites, and those with prior CRC screening. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Incorporating human papillomavirus testing into cytological screening in the era of prophylactic vaccines.

    PubMed

    Almonte, Maribel; Sasieni, Peter; Cuzick, Jack

    2011-10-01

    Screening for, and treatment of, pre-cancerous cervical lesions has lead to dramatic reductions in cervical cancer in many countries. In all cases, cervical screening has been based on cytology, but that is beginning to change. Research studies, including randomised trials, clearly show that human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could be used to prevent a greater proportion of cervical cancer within a practical screening programme. Meanwhile, young adolescents are being vaccinated against HPV in developed countries, but cervical screening should continue for many years because it will take decades before most of those targeted by screening have been vaccinated. In the HPV vaccination era, the rate of cervical disease will decrease, and so will the positive predictive value of cytology. The screening characteristics of HPV testing make it the preferred choice for primary screening. However, questions regarding how to use HPV testing to screen vaccinated and unvaccinated women in the future remain unanswered.

  18. Computerized visuo-spatial memory test as a supplementary screening test for dementia.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohko; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2010-06-01

    To prepare for a super-aging society, effective dementia screening tests are required. The most salient deficit appearing from the early stages of dementia/Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a deterioration in memory. The Hasegawa Dementia Scale-revised (HDS-R) and the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) are widely used in Japan to screen for dementia. Both place an emphasis on memory function, but neither examines visuo-spatial memory (VSM) function, even though VSM deficits are a sensitive marker for the detection of conversion to dementia. Furthermore, brief tests of VSM that are appropriate for screening have not been standardized. Thus, in the present study, we devised a brief, computer-aided short-term VSM test. Sixty-six aged people were evaluated. Using the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR), it was found that 29 could be considered normal controls (NC; CDR 0), 10 had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; CDR 0.5), 15 had mild dementia (CDR 1), and 12 had moderate to severe dementia (CDR 2-3). The VSM test estimated how many locations each subject could memorize. Several numbered circles were shown on a monitor and subjects were required to memorize the location of these circles sequentially. After the numbers on the circles on the screen had disappeared, the subjects were required to indicate the circles in ascending order. A touch panel screen was used for this test to make it easier. The HDS-R was applied to subjects with MCI and dementia. The mean (+/-SD) VSM score in subjects with MCI (5.70 +/- 0.96) was significantly lower than that in NC subjects (6.69 +/- 0.82), but significantly higher than that in subjects classified as CDR 1 (4.67 +/- 0.87). There was no significant difference in VSM scores between subjects classified as CDR 1 and CDR 2-3 (3.80 +/- 0.80). There was a moderate significant correlation between VSM and HDS-R scores. In the present study, the VSM test detected differences in VSM function among NC subjects and subjects with MCI and mild dementia. The

  19. Calculated globulin (CG) as a screening test for antibody deficiency.

    PubMed

    Jolles, S; Borrell, R; Zouwail, S; Heaps, A; Sharp, H; Moody, M; Selwood, C; Williams, P; Phillips, C; Hood, K; Holding, S; El Shanawany, T

    2014-09-01

    Calculated globulin (total protein - albumin) is usually tested as part of a liver function test profile in both primary and secondary care and determines the serum globulin concentration, of which immunoglobulins are a major component. The main use hitherto of calculated globulin is to detect paraproteins when the level is high. This study investigated the potential to use low levels of calculated globulin to detect antibody deficiency. Serum samples with calculated globulin cut-off < 18 g/l based on results of a pilot study were collected from nine hospitals in Wales over a 12-month period. Anonymized request information was obtained and the samples tested for immunoglobulin levels, serum electrophoresis and, if appropriate, immunofixation. A method comparison for albumin measurement using bromocresol green and bromocresol purple was undertaken. Eighty-nine per cent (737 of 826) samples had an immunoglobulin (Ig)G level of < 6 g/l using the bromocresol green methodology with a cut-off of < 18 g/l, and 56% (459) had an IgG of < 4 g/l. Patients with both secondary and primary antibody deficiency were discovered and serum electrophoresis and immunofixation showed that 1·2% (10) had previously undetected small paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. Using bromocresol purple, 74% of samples had an IgG of < 6 g/l using a cut-off of < 23 g/l. Screening using calculated globulin with defined cut-off values detects both primary and secondary antibody deficiency and new paraproteins associated with immune-paresis. It is cheap, widely available and under-utilized. Antibody-deficient patients have been discovered using information from calculated globulin values, shortening diagnostic delay and time to treatment with immunoglobulin replacement therapy.

  20. Development of an affordable dye-stained microalbuminuria screening test.

    PubMed

    Tugirimana, Pierrot Lundimu; Delanghe, Joris R

    2009-05-01

    A simple spot test was developed, which allows quantification of microalbuminuria. Evaluation was carried out according to the ISO 15189 guidelines. Urine was spotted on cellulose acetate strips and stained using different sensitive protein binding dyes (nigrosin, Coomassie Blue R-250, amido black). The colour intensity of the stained spots was quantified using a Kodak Image 450 station. Analytical sensitivity of the Coomassie Blue based method (18 mg/L) was better than that for nigrosin (50 mg/ L) or amido black (100 mg/L) based methods. Within-run coefficient of variation (CV) and between-run CV of the Coomassie blue assay were, respectively, 8.4% and 9.7% (50 mg/L), and 3% and 4.5% (400 mg/L). For nigrosin, these data were, respectively, 8.4 and 9.4 (50 mg/L), and 3.4 and 6.4% (400 mg/L). Coomassie Blue showed a preferential binding selectivity towards albumin. The method was found to be linear between 20 and 600 mg/L. A good correlation (r2 = 0.89) was obtained between Coomassie Blue based and immunonephelometric measurements. Immuno-unreactive albumin (prepared by protease treatment) could be detected by the spot test, which offers an advantage of the method versus immunochemical tests. Ammonium sulphate precipitation could further increase the specificity of the assay by eliminating effects of free light chains. The described method is very simple and extremely cheap, which makes it potentially suited for screening programmes, particularly in third world countries.

  1. Crack propagation testing using a YCOB acoustic emission sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Joseph A.; Kim, Kyungrim; Zhang, Shujun; Jiang, Xiaoning

    2014-03-01

    Piezoelectric crystals are popular for passive sensors, such as accelerometers and acoustic emission sensors, due to their robustness and high sensitivity. These sensors are widespread in structural health monitoring among civil and industrial structures, but there is little application in high temperature environments (e.g. > 1000°C) due to the few materials that are capable of operating at elevated temperatures. Most piezoelectric materials suffer from a loss of electric properties above temperatures in the 500-700°C range, but rare earth oxyborate crystals, such as Yttrium calcium oxyborate (YCOB), retain their piezoelectric properties above 1000 °C. Our previous research demonstrated that YCOB can be used to detect transient lamb waves via Hsu-Nielsen tests, which replicate acoustic emission waves, up to 1000°C. In this paper, YCOB piezoelectric acoustic emission sensors were tested for their ability to detect crack progression at elevated temperatures. The sensor was fabricated using a YCOB single crystal and Inconel electrodes and wires. The sensor was mounted onto a stainless steel bar substrate, which was machined to include a pre-crack notch. A dynamic load was induced on the bar with a shaker in order to force the crack to advance along the thickness of the substrate. The obtained raw data was processed and analyzed in the frequency domain and compared to the Lamb wave modes that were evaluated in previous Hsu-Nielsen testing for the substrate.

  2. Faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening: the past or the future.

    PubMed

    Benton, Sally C; Seaman, Helen E; Halloran, Stephen P

    2015-02-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) reduces CRC mortality; many countries have implemented population-based CRC screening programmes and many more are poised to do so. Whilst several different CRC screening modalities are available, choice will be influenced by cost, available resources (e.g. high-quality colonoscopy) and acceptability of the test by the invited population. For CRC screening, no screening test has so far surpassed the practicality, affordability and effectiveness of tests for the presence of blood in faeces (faecal occult blood tests, FOBt). The results of several large FOBt-based randomised controlled trials provide the best clinical evidence to support their use in population-based CRC screening. This review considers the current options for CRC screening and the future for FOBt.

  3. The free running athletic screening test as a screening test for exercise-induced asthma in high school.

    PubMed

    Randolph, C; Fraser, B; Matasavage, C

    1997-01-01

    As part of a multicenter study envisioned by the American College of Allergy Sports Committee to screen for exercise-induced asthma, 303 high school students, freshman and sophomore gym classes, completed a questionnaire concerning exercise-related asthma, chronic asthma, and atopy. The study group included 124 females (41%) and 179 males (59%) with an average and median age of 15 years and a range of 13-17 years, and included 99% Caucasian and 1% nonCaucasian students, all attending the same parochial high school. After obtaining informed consent, 112 (37%) agreed to a free running test with initial challenge on an outdoor cinder track during April-June 1995. All challenges were conducted between 8:00 A.M. and noon with relative-humidity 59% and average temperature 15 degrees C. The challenge consisted of 7 minutes of continuous running on the cinder track with a doubling of pulse rate to 160/min during the run. Peak expiratory flows were taken at baseline, 0, 5, and 10 minutes postexercise. Twenty nine of 112 (26%) of the students were initially assessed as positive challenges, defined as a 15% decline in peak flow following exercise on the first challenge. However, four students self-recovered; thus 25 of 112 (22%) were qualified as true positives. Of these 25, 20 (80%) agreed to be reexercised. Fourteen of 20 (70%) were positive, yielding a prevalence rate of 14/112 (12.5%). Sixteen of these 20 (80%) were then exercised a third time using spirometry pre- and postexercise. Eight were positive, yielding a prevalence rate of 8/112 (7%). The questionnaire correlated significantly with the challenge, particularly when read by section (p = 0.000001) rather than globally positive or negative (p = 0.00008), with a specificity of 64%, sensitivity of 94%, positive predictive value of 44%, and negative predictive value of 97%. In summary, inexpensive and familiar free-running tests can be a useful screening test to confirm the questionnaire which is sensitive (94%) in

  4. Testing and screening for chlamydia in general practice: a cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Allison; Morgan, Simon; Henderson, Kim; Tapley, Amanda; Spike, Neil; Scott, John; van Driel, Mieke; Magin, Parker

    2014-12-01

    Chlamydia screening is widely advocated. General practice registrars are an important stage of clinical behaviour development. This study aimed to determine rates of, and factors associated with, registrars' chlamydia testing including asymptomatic screening. A cross-sectional analysis of data from Registrars Clinical Encounters in Training (ReCEnT), a cohort study of registrars' consultations. Registrars record details of 60 consecutive consultations in each GP-term of training. Outcome factors were chlamydia testing, asymptomatic screening and doctor-initiated screening. Testing occurred in 2.5% of 29,112 consultations (398 registrars) and in 5.8% of patients aged 15-25. Asymptomatic screening comprised 47.5% of chlamydia tests, and 55.6% of screening tests were doctor-initiated. Chlamydia testing was associated with female gender of doctor and patient, younger patient age, and patients new to doctor or practice. Asymptomatic screening was associated with practices where patients incur no fees, and in patients new to doctor or practice. Screening of female patients was more often doctor-initiated. GP registrars screen for chlamydia disproportionately in younger females and new patients. Our findings highlight potential opportunities to improve uptake of screening for chlamydia, including targeted education and training for registrars, campaigns targeting male patients, and addressing financial barriers to accessing screening services. © 2014 Public Health Association of Australia.

  5. The methods of formaldehyde emission testing of engine: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunhui; Geng, Peng; Cao, Erming; Wei, Lijiang

    2015-12-01

    A number of measurements have been provided to detect formaldehyde in the atmosphere, but there are no clear unified standards in engine exhaust. Nowadays, formaldehyde, an unregulated emission from methanol engine, has been attracting increasing attention by researchers. This paper presents the detection techniques for formaldehyde emitted from the engines applied in recent market, introducing the approaches in terms of unregulated emission tests of formaldehyde, which involved gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, chromatography-mass spectrometry, chromatography-spectrum, Fourier infrared spectroscopy and spectrophotometry. The author also introduces the comparison regarding to the advantages of the existing detection techniques based on the principle, to compare with engine exhaust sampling method, the treatment in advance of detection, obtaining approaches accessing to the qualitative and quantitative analysis of chromatograms or spectra. The accuratest result obtained was chromatography though it cannot be used continuously. It also can be utilized to develop high requirements of emissions and other regulations. Fourier infrared spectroscopy has the advantage of continuous detection for a variety of unregulated emissions and can be applied to the bench in variable condition. However, its accuracy is not as good as chromatography. As the conclusion, a detection technique is chosen based on different requirements.

  6. Triple test as predictive screen for unilateral weakness on caloric testing in routine practice.

    PubMed

    Rohrmeier, Christian; Richter, Otto; Schneider, Michael; Wirsching, Kornelia; Fiedler, Isabella; Haubner, Frank; Strutz, Jürgen; Kühnel, Thomas S

    2013-02-01

    To investigate in vertigo patients in routine practice to what extent a rapid and straightforward triple bedside test (spontaneous nystagmus, head-shaking nystagmus, and the head impulse test) can predict a normal result on caloric testing. Prospective, single-blind, diagnostic study. Tertiary referral center. 151 patients (78 male and 73 female subjects; mean age, 52.5 +/- 16.4 yr) presenting with acute or recent symptoms of vertigo. Diagnostic evaluation. The negative predictive value (NPV) of the triple test in relation to a normal caloric test response. In unilateral weakness (UW) on caloric testing (UW, >=25%), the triple test had sensitivity of 63.6%, specificity of 85.4%, a positive predictive value (PPV) of 71.4%, and an NPV of 80.4%. In other words, 80.4% of patients with a negative triple test also had a normal response on caloric testing. In pronounced canal paresis (UW, >=50%), the triple test had sensitivity of 81.8%, specificity of 81.4%, a PPV of 55.1%, and an NPV of 94.1%. Significant differences were found between 2 subgroups assessed by examiners with differing levels of experience (p < 0.05). The triple test represents a good screening tool that quickly and reliably excludes unilateral weakness and in particular pronounced canal paresis on caloric testing. (C) 2013 Otology & Neurotology, Inc.

  7. Suitability Screening Test for Marine Corps Air Traffic Controllers Phase 3: Non-cognitive Test Validation and Cognitive Test Prototype

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Operating Forces revocation to further emphasize the utility of considering non-cognitive traits in conjunction with ASVAB standards when selecting...ATC MOS designation. Taken together, the two tests are predicted to reduce attrition/ revocation and increase the quality of Marines selected for...performance, less attrition/ revocation costs, and increased diversity through fair, valid screening improvements. viii Contents Introduction

  8. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  9. Orbiter Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Advanced Sealant Systems: Screening Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.; Lewis, Ronad K.; Norman, Ignacio; Chao, Dennis; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Oxidation protection for the Orbiter reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC consists of three components: silicon carbide coating, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) impregnated into the carbon substrate and a silicon based surface sealant (designated Type A). The Orbiter Type A sealant is being consumed each mission, which results in increased carbon-carbon substrate mass loss, which adversely impacts the mission life of the RCC components. In addition, the sealant loss in combination with launch pad contamination (salt deposit and zinc oxide) results in RCC pinholes. A sealant refurbishment schedule to maintain mission life and minimize affects of pin hole formation has been implemented in the Orbiter maintenance schedule. The objective of this investigation is to develop an advanced sealant system for the RCC that extends the refurbishment schedule by reducing sealant loss/pin hole formation and that can be applied to existing Orbiter RCC components. This paper presents the results of arc jet screening tests conducted on several sealants that are being considered for application to the Orbiter RCC.

  10. Postoperative bleeding in a patient with normal screening coagulation tests.

    PubMed

    Nourbakhsh, Eva; Anvari, Reza; D'cunha, Nicholas; Thaxton, Lauren; Malik, Asim; Nugent, Kenneth

    2011-09-01

    A 54-year-old man was brought to the emergency room after a head-on collision. He had multiple fractures in his lower extremities and required immediate surgery. After surgery, the patient had a persistent drop in hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelets despite red blood cell transfusions. Laboratory studies included normal prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, normal plasminogen functional activity, negative antiplatelet antibodies, normal platelet functional analysis and negative disseminated intravascular coagulation screen. Factor XIII antigen levels were 25% of predicted, and the diagnosis of factor XIII deficiency was made. The patient was treated with cryoprecipitate, and the bleeding stopped. Patients with factor XIII deficiency have either a rare congenital or acquired coagulation disorder. Both presentations have normal standard laboratory clotting tests, and the diagnosis requires an assay measuring factor XIII activity or antigen levels. The usual treatment includes cryoprecipitate, fresh-frozen plasma or recombinant factor XIII. This deficiency should be considered in patients with unexplained spontaneous, traumatic or postoperative bleeding.

  11. Assessing risk assessment: genetic testing and screening for complex disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, S M

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports on the presentations from the second session of a 2-day workshop on genetic diversity and science communication, organized by the Institute of Genetics. The four talks in this session (by Sarah Cunningham-Burley, Gail Geller, Michael Hayden, and Theresa Marteau) focused on the topic of risk assessment in the context of genetic testing, screening and preventive medicine for complex disease. Each talk underscored the urgency and importance of evaluating when and for whom risk assessment may be useful. A recurrent theme was the need to attend closely to the diverse ways that risk is constructed, perceived and communicated in a variety of contexts and the significant implications of this for laypersons as well as experts. Although there was no consensus on when genetic risk assessment ceases (or might begin) to be useful, ensuing dialogue between presenters and participants reflected what is perhaps a new and critical engagement with how risk assessment itself is assessed. In response to this impetus, I use the word RISK as a heuristic to identify, extract and amplify four tendencies that appear to advance understandings of risk assessment towards a more explicitly reflexive, interpretive, and situated form of knowing.

  12. Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    ARL-TN-0723 ● DEC 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain...Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain by Steven Callaway Computational and Information Sciences Directorate, ARL...Display (LCD) Screen Thermal Testing to Simulate Solar Gain 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Steven

  13. Technical report: Ethical and policy issues in genetic testing and screening of children.

    PubMed

    Ross, Lainie Friedman; Ross, Laine Friedman; Saal, Howard M; David, Karen L; Anderson, Rebecca R

    2013-03-01

    The genetic testing and genetic screening of children are commonplace. Decisions about whether to offer genetic testing and screening should be driven by the best interest of the child. The growing literature on the psychosocial and clinical effects of such testing and screening can help inform best practices. This technical report provides ethical justification and empirical data in support of the proposed policy recommendations regarding such practices in a myriad of settings.

  14. Colon cancer screening

    MedlinePlus

    Screening for colon cancer; Colonoscopy - screening; Sigmoidoscopy - screening; Virtual colonoscopy - screening; Fecal immunochemical test; Stool DNA test; sDNA test; Colorectal cancer - screening; Rectal ...

  15. Horizontal lang two-pencil test as a screening test for stereopsis and binocularity

    PubMed Central

    Nongpiur, Monisha E; Sharma, Pradeep

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the horizontal Lang two-pencil test as a bedside test to detect gross stereopsis. Materials and Methods: Eighty-four strabismic subjects divided into two groups based on the amount of deviation, and 40 normal subjects were studied. Sensory status examination including binocularity and stereopsis were evaluated with Bagolini, Titmus test and the Netherlands organisation for applied scientific research (TNO), Randot, synoptophore and horizontal Lang two-pencil test. Results: The subjects in the group with smaller deviation showed better performance on all the four stereo tests and over 90% demonstrated presence of fusion. When compared to TNO and Randot for determining presence of stereopsis, the horizontal Lang two-pencil test demonstrated sensitivity of 100% and 83.9%, specificity of 77.8% and 73.7%, and negative predictive value of 100% and 100% respectively. It also showed 100% specificity as a test for binocularity when compared with the Bagolini striated glass test. Conclusion: Horizontal Lang two-pencil test, an easily performed test with a high sensitivity and negative predictive value can be used as a screening test to detect gross stereopsis and binocularity. PMID:20534917

  16. D.P.I. Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test, Levels 1, 2, 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown Education Center, Louisville, KY.

    The Diagnostic Prescriptive Individualized (D.P.I.) Primary Reading Criterion-Referenced Screening Test Levels 1, 2 and 3 are diagnostic tests geared toward aiding the teacher of grade 1 and 2 children in identifying the academic strengths, weaknesses, and needs of each student. These tests are concerned with the overall screening of skills of…

  17. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each...

  18. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each...

  19. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a) Each...

  20. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 26.131 - Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. 26.131 Section 26.131 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Licensee Testing Facilities § 26.131 Cutoff levels for validity screening and initial validity tests. (a)...

  2. Screening tests for aphasia in patients with stroke: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Hachioui, Hanane; Visch-Brink, Evy G; de Lau, Lonneke M L; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Nouwens, Femke; Koudstaal, Peter J; Dippel, Diederik W J

    2017-02-01

    Aphasia has a large impact on the quality of life and adds significantly to the costs of stroke care. Early recognition of aphasia in stroke patients is important for prognostication and well-timed treatment planning. We aimed to identify available screening tests for differentiating between aphasic and non-aphasic stroke patients, and to evaluate test accuracy, reliability, and feasibility. We searched PubMed, EMbase, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for published studies on screening tests aimed at assessing aphasia in stroke patients. The reference lists of the selected articles were scanned, and several experts were contacted to detect additional references. Of each screening test, we estimated the sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratio of a positive test, likelihood ratio of a negative test, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and rated the degree of bias of the validation method. We included ten studies evaluating eight screening tests. There was a large variation across studies regarding sample size, patient characteristics, and reference tests used for validation. Many papers failed to report on the consecutiveness of patient inclusion, time between aphasia onset and administration of the screening test, and blinding. Of the three studies that were rated as having an intermediate or low risk of bias, the DOR was highest for the Language Screening Test and ScreeLing. Several screening tools for aphasia in stroke are available, but many tests have not been verified properly. Methodologically sound validation studies of aphasia screening tests are needed to determine their usefulness in clinical practice.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of mass screening for colorectal cancer: choice of fecal occult blood test and screening strategy.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Iradj; Alzahouri, Kazem; Ghout, Idir; Charles, Delchier Jean; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality. This gives high public health priority to mass screening using a noninvasive, fecal occult blood test of asymptomatic individuals. A positive test selects those who should undergo colonoscopy to ensure early detection of colorectal cancer. Guaiac fecal occult blood test has low sensitivity. Automated immunochemical tests that measure the fecal human hemoglobin concentration are more sensitive and can be simplified as a 1- to 3-sample format with optimum cutoff points. The aim was to improve the sensitivity of the test by choosing an accurate format (1- to 3-sample and optimum hemoglobin concentration) while maintaining acceptable specificity and avoiding alteration of the screening program in terms of quality of life and economic outputs. We used a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program for a population of 100,000 asymptomatic individuals by use of immunological fecal tests with different cutoffs, leading to different sensitivity/specificity ratios, and to compare its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared with the guaiac fecal test program. The results suggest that a 3-sample immunological test with 50 ng/mL as a positive cutoff is cost-effective. It provides more asymptomatic cancer detection without significantly increasing normal colonoscopies. This format should be prospectively evaluated in mass screening.

  4. Test Report Emission Test Program EPA Information Collection Request for Delayed Coking Units 736 Coker Unit

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ARI Environmental, Inc. (ARI) was retained by Houston Refining LP (HRO) to conduct an emission test program at their refinery located in Houston, Texas. The testing was conducted on on the 736 Delayed Coking Unit (DCU) in response to EPA's ICR.

  5. Prenatal reflex DNA screening for Down syndrome: enhancing the screening performance of the initial first trimester test.

    PubMed

    Wald, Nicholas J; Bestwick, Jonathan P

    2016-04-01

    To estimate the effect of adding three biochemical markers (alphafetoprotein, inhibin-A, and placental growth factor) and two ultrasound markers (ductus venosus pulsatility index and nasal bone examination) to enhance the initial Combined test in prenatal reflex DNA screening for Down syndrome. Published data were used to estimate screening performance [detection rates (DRs) and false-positive rates (FPRs)] of reflex DNA screening according to the additional markers used, the proportion of women with the highest initial test risks reflexed to DNA testing and the gestational age at the time of blood collection. If 10% of women are reflexed, the addition of the three biochemical markers to the Combined test increases the DR from 90.8% to 92.3% (FPR 0.025% to 0.027%) with markers measured at 11 completed weeks' gestation. With markers measured at 13 completed weeks' gestation the DR increases from 87.7% to 95.2% (FPRs both 0.027%). The further addition of the two ultrasound markers increases the DR to 96.8% and 97.5% at 11 and 13 weeks' respectively (FPR to 0.024% and 0.022% respectively). Adding the specified markers to the Combined test can maintain or improve screening performance with a lower proportion of women reflexed. Our results can be used to determine the most cost-effective reflex DNA screening policy. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Periodogram based tests for distortion product otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Craigmile, Peter F; King, Wayne M

    2004-07-01

    Distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) are an important nonbehavioral measure of cochlear function, which provides a close analogue of the behavioral pure-tone audiogram. DPOAEs are sinusoidal distortion products (DPs) produced by nonlinearities in the healthy cochlea. Detection of DPs is accomplished in the Fourier domain with a periodogram based test. The test compares the power in the DP periodogram bin to a noise estimate derived from a certain number of the surrounding bins. Statistical properties of this test to date have only been examined by constructing receiver operator characteristics curves derived from DPOAE measurements in normal and hearing impaired individuals. In this paper the null distribution of this order-statistic based test is explicitly derived, and via simulations intended to mimic the nonwhite features of real-ear noise measurements, the power of the test is demonstrated. These simulations demonstrate that a local F test is more powerful than this DPOAE test, with critical values that are easier to calculate. Although the power of both tests increase with an increasing number of bins, the improvement is negligible at around four bins. Since the power of both tests decrease at lower DP frequencies, it is not recommended to use a large number of bins.

  7. Acoustic emission testing of 12-nickel maraging steel pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunegan, H. L.

    1973-01-01

    Acoustic emission data were obtained from three point bend fracture toughness specimens of 12-nickel maraging steel, and two pressure vessels of the same material. One of the pressure vessels contained a prefabricated flaw which was extended and sharpened by fatigue cycling. It is shown that the flawed vessel had similar characteristics to the fracture specimens, thereby allowing estimates to be made of its nearness to failure during a proof test. Both the flawed and unflawed pressure vessel survived the proof pressure and 5 cycles to the working pressure, but it was apparent from the acoustic emission response during the proof cycle and the 5 cycles to the working pressure that the flawed vessel was very near failure. The flawed vessel did not survive a second cycle to the proof pressure before failure due to flaw extension through the wall (causing a leak).

  8. Adult Patients' Perspectives on the Benefits and Harms of Overused Screening Tests: a Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Sutkowi-Hemstreet, Anne; Vu, Maihan; Harris, Russell; Brewer, Noel T; Dolor, Rowena J; Sheridan, Stacey L

    2015-11-01

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in reducing the overuse of healthcare services. However, little is known about how patients conceptualize the benefits and harms of overused screening tests or how patients make decisions regarding these tests. To determine how patients think about the harms and benefits of overused screening tests and how they consider these and other factors when making decisions. Semi-structured, qualitative interviews. The study comprised 50 patients, ages 50-84, who had previously received or not received any of four overused screening services: 1) prostate cancer screening (men ages 50-69), 2) colon cancer screening (men and women ages 76-85), 3) osteoporosis screening (low-risk women ages 50-64), or 4) cardiovascular disease screening (low-risk men and women ages 50-85). We conducted a thematic analysis, using a hybrid inductive-deductive approach. Two independent coders analyzed interview transcriptions to identify themes and exemplifying quotes. Many patients could not name a harm of screening. When they did name harms, patients often focused on only the harms of the screening test itself and rarely mentioned harms further along the screening cascade (e.g., from follow-up testing and treatment). In contrast, patients could easily name benefits of screening, although many seemed to misunderstand or overestimate the magnitude of the benefits. Furthermore, patients described many additional factors they considered when making screening decisions, including their clinicians' recommendations, their age, family or friends' experiences with disease, and insurance coverage. This study highlights the need to help adults recognize and understand the benefits and harms of screening and make appropriate decisions about overused screening tests.

  9. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  10. A New Method to Address Verification Bias in Studies of Clinical Screening Tests: Cervical Cancer Screening Assays as an Example

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaonan; Kim, Mimi Y; Castle, Philip E; Strickler, Howard D

    2013-01-01

    Objective Studies to evaluate clinical screening tests often face the problem that the “gold standard” diagnostic approach is costly and/or invasive. It is therefore common to verify only a subset of negative screening tests using the gold standard method. However, under-sampling the screen-negatives can lead to substantial overestimation of the sensitivity and underestimation of the specificity of the diagnostic test. Our objective was to develop a simple and accurate statistical method to address this “verification bias”. Study Design and Setting We developed a weighted generalized estimating equation approach to estimate, in a single model, the accuracy (e.g., sensitivity/specificity) of multiple assays as well as simultaneously compare results between assays while addressing verification bias. This approach can be implemented using standard statistical software. Simulations were conducted to assess the proposed method. An example is provided using a cervical cancer screening trial that compared the accuracy of human papillomavirus and Pap tests, with histological data as the gold standard. Results The proposed approach performed well in estimating and comparing the accuracy of multiple assays in the presence of verification bias. Conclusion The proposed approach is an easy to apply and accurate method for addressing verification bias in studies of multiple screening methods. PMID:24332397

  11. Endocrine Disruptor Screening and Testing Advisory Committee (EDSTAC) Final Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EDSTAC Report was developed through a deliberative process that encouraged the development of consensus solutions to complex problems and issues related to developing an Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1830-01 - Acceptance of vehicles for emission testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vehicles for emission testing. (a) General test vehicle requirements. (1) All test vehicles shall be tested... applicable for the type of test conducted. (2) Components affecting emissions which are used to build test... good engineering judgment. (3) Test vehicles must have air conditioning installed and operational...

  13. 1997 Performance Testing of Multi-Metal Continuous Emissions Monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Sky +, Inc.

    1998-09-01

    Five prototype and two commercially available multi-metals continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) were tested in September 1997 at the Rotary Kiln Incinerator Simulator facility at the EPA National Risk Management Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. The seven CEMs were tested side by side in a long section of duct following the secondary combustion chamber of the RKIS. Two different concentrations of six toxic metals were introduced into the incinerator-approximately 15 and 75 µg/dscm of arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, lead, and mercury (We also tested for antimony but we are not reporting on it here because EPA recently dropped antimony from the list of metals addressed by the draft MACT rule). These concentrations were chosen to be close to emission standards in the draft MACT rule and the estimated Method Detection Limit (MDL) required of a CEM for regulatory compliance purposes. Results from this test show that no CEMs currently meet the performance specifications in the EPA draft MACT rule for hazardous waste incinerators. Only one of the CEMs tested was able to measure all six metals at the concentrations tested. Even so, the relative accuracy of this CEM varied between 35% and 100%, not 20% or less as required in the EPA performance specification. As a result, we conclude that no CEM is ready for long-term performance validation for compliance monitoring applications. Because sampling and measuring Hg is a recurring problem for multi-metal CEMs as well as Hg CEMs, we recommended that developers participate in a 1998 DOE-sponsored workshop to solve these and other common CEM measurement issues.

  14. Validity of Forced Eyelid Closure Test: A Novel Clinical Screening Test for Ocular Myasthenia Gravis.

    PubMed

    Apinyawasisuk, Supanut; Zhou, Xinkai; Tian, Jack J; Garcia, Giancarlo A; Karanjia, Rustum; Sadun, Alfredo A

    2017-09-01

    Forced eyelid closure test (FECT) is a clinical screening test developed from the original Cogan lid twitch (CLT) sign to assist in the diagnosis of ocular myasthenia gravis (OMG), We evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of FECT compared with CLT and benchmarked to standard diagnostic tests. This study was a retrospective chart review of 48 patients using electronic medical records of those that presented with ptosis and/or diplopia at Doheny Eye Institute, University of California, Los Angeles between February 2015 and April 2016. Patients without FECT testing were excluded. FECT and CLT results, and final diagnosis were recorded. To perform FECT, the patient was asked to squeeze his or her eyelids shut for 5-10 seconds then open quickly and fixate in primary position. The excessive upward overshoot of eyelids movement indicated a positive FECT. The test was performed by a neuro-ophthalmologist before establishing the diagnosis. Patients who had equivocal test results and/or inconclusive final diagnosis were excluded. Of the 48 patients studied, 18 patients (37.5%) had positive FECT; 15 of whom had a final diagnosis of OMG (83.3%). Of the 30 patients with negative FECT, 1 had OMG (3.3%). Of the 48 patients, 35 patients also had a documented CLT result (72.9%). CLT was positive in 11 of these 35 patients (31.4%), and 9 of these 11 had OMG (81.8%). Of the 24 patients with negative CLT, 2 of them had OMG (8.3%). Sensitivity and specificity of FECT were 94% and 91% (joint 95% confidence region: sensitivity × specificity = [0.70, 1] × [0.75, 1]). The relative true-positive fraction (rTPF) between FECT and CLT was 1.15; the relative false-positive fraction was 1.31. FECT is a simple clinical screening test with good sensitivity and specificity for OMG.

  15. Positron emission tomography in the diagnostic work-up of screening-detected lung nodules.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giulia; Travaini, Laura L; Maisonneuve, Patrick; Rampinelli, Cristiano; Bertolotti, Raffaella; Spaggiari, Lorenzo; Bellomi, Massimo; Paganelli, Giovanni

    2015-02-01

    Low-dose computed tomography (CT) screening for lung cancer can reduce lung cancer mortality, but overdiagnosis, false positives and invasive procedures for benign nodules are worrying. We evaluated the utility of positron emission tomography (PET)-CT in characterising indeterminate screening-detected lung nodules. 383 nodules, examined by PET-CT over the first 6 years of the COSMOS (Continuous Observation of Smoking Subjects) study to diagnose primary lung cancer, were reviewed and compared with pathological findings (surgically-treated patients) or follow-up (negative CT for ⩾2 years, considered negative); 196 nodules were malignant. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of PET-CT for differentially diagnosing malignant nodules were, respectively, 64%, 89% and 76% overall, and 82%, 92% and 88% for baseline-detected nodules. Performance was lower for nodules found at repeat annual scans, with sensitivity ranging from 22% for nonsolid to 79% for solid nodules (p=0.0001). Sensitivity (87%) and specificity (73%) were high for nodules ⩾15 mm, better (sensitivity 98%) for solid nodules ⩾15 mm. PET-CT was highly sensitive for the differential diagnosis of indeterminate nodules detected at baseline, nodules ⩾15 mm and solid nodules. Sensitivity was low for sub-solid nodules and nodules discovered after baseline for which other methods, e.g. volume doubling time, should be used.

  16. Emission performance of ceramic preconverters evaluated by FTP and Euro Stage III emission test cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Locker, R.J.; Then, P.M.; Zink, U.

    1996-09-01

    Preconverters and close-coupled main converters are viewed as key components in advanced emission systems to help the auto industry comply with tightened emission regulations in North America and Europe. Due to their close position to the exhaust manifold when compared to current main catalysts, the mechanical and thermal durability requirements on such close-coupled converters are significantly increased. A set of representative preconverter systems, with respect to back pressure and surface area, ceramic and metal substrate material was exposed to a 100 hour engine aging cycle, which is equivalent to approximately 80,000 kilometers under European driving conditions. This aging cycle is used by the German Autoconsortium (ZDAKW). In order to address the high thermal load in a close-coupled position, the preconverter inlet gas temperature has been elevated to a maximum of 950 C at stoichiometry. Maximum preconverter midbed temperature has been found close to 1,000 C. State-of-the-art catalytic coatings were used on the preconverters (Pd-only) and main converters (Trimetal). Emission tests using the new European test cycle (EDC 99), as well as the FTP 75 test cycle have been used to evaluate the catalytic performance. These tests were done during the aging at 20, 60 and 100 hours on the preconverters alone and on the combination of pre- and main converters. The impact of air injection has been studied on the complete preconverter/mainconverter system. The Celcor XT{trademark} ceramic preconverter proved mechanically and catalytically intact during the severe 100 hour aging cycle. The metallic and ceramic preconverter systems demonstrated equivalent catalytic performance.

  17. Fasting plasma glucose as a screening test for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Mukesh M; Dhatt, Gurdeep S

    2007-02-01

    Although debated, most preeminent expert panels recommend routine screening for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Among the many tests that have been used and evaluated for the screening of GDM, the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) remains very appealing. It is easy to administer, well tolerated, inexpensive, reproducible and patient friendly. However attractive, the FPG has given varied results in different populations and its use as a screening test for GDM remains uncertain. This review will objectively assess the available studies to find the real value of FPG as a screening test for GDM.

  18. Patients' anxiety and expectations: how they influence family physicians' decisions to order cancer screening tests.

    PubMed

    Haggerty, Jeannie; Tudiver, Fred; Brown, Judith Belle; Herbert, Carol; Ciampi, Antonio; Guibert, Remi

    2005-12-01

    To compare the influence of physicians' recommendations and patients' anxiety or expectations on the decision to order four cancer screening tests in clinical situations where guidelines were equivocal: screening for prostate cancer with prostate-specific antigen for men older than 50; breast cancer screening with mammography for women 40 to 49; colorectal cancer screening with fecal occult blood testing; and colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy for patients older than 40. Cross-sectional mailed survey with clinical vignettes. British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec, and Prince Edward Island. Of 600 randomly selected family physicians in active practice approached, 351 responded, but 35 respondents were ineligible (response rate 62%). Decisions to order cancer screening tests, physicians' perceptions of recommendations, patients' anxiety about cancer, and patients' expectation to be tested. For all screening situations, physicians most likely to order the tests believed that routine screening with the test was recommended; physicians least likely to order tests believed routine screening was not. Patients' expectations or anxiety, however, markedly increased screening by physicians who did not believe that routine screening was recommended. In regression models, the interaction between physicians' recommendations and patients' anxiety or expectation was significant for all four screening tests. When patients had no anxiety or expectations, physicians' beliefs about screening strongly predicted test ordering. Physicians who believed routine screening was recommended ordered the test in most cases regardless of patient characteristics. But patients' anxiety or expectations markedly increased the probability that the test would be ordered. The probability of test ordering went from 0.28 to 0.54 for prostate-specific antigen (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9), from 0.15 to 0.44 for mammography (OR = 2.8), from 0.33 to 0.79 for fecal occult blood testing (OR = 2.4), and

  19. The time is now to implement HPV testing for primary screening in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Louise; Denny, Lynette

    2017-05-01

    Unacceptable disparities in cervical cancer between richer and poorer countries persist and serve as reminders of gross disparities in access to and quality of screening services. HPV testing is well-suited to address some of the barriers to implementing adequate screening programs in low resource settings. HPV testing has considerably better sensitivity than cytology providing the same extent of safety with fewer rounds of screening. New robust HPV testing platforms require little to no skill by laboratory workers and some can be used at the point-of-care. This allows for a round of screening to be accomplished in one or two visits, reducing costs and the inevitable attrition that occurs when women need to be recalled to obtain their results. HPV testing is ideal for incorporating into the new "screen-and-treat" approaches designed to overcome limitations of conventional, multi-visit, colposcopy-based approaches to screening. Visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) is the screening test that has been used most widely in screen-and-treat programs to date but the performance characteristics of this test are poor. HPV-based screen-and-treat is more effective in reducing disease in the population and reduces over-treatment intrinsic to this approach. HPV testing can be adapted or combined with other molecular tests to improve treatment algorithms. Infrastructure established to support VIA-based screen-and-treat can effectively incorporate HPV testing. We are poised at a critical juncture in public health history to implement HPV testing as part of primary screening and thereby improve women's health in low resource settings.

  20. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – July 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in July 2016, and the report became available in August 2016.

  1. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – June 2017

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  2. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – March 2017

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in March 2017, and the report became available in June 2017

  3. L'Anse Warden Electric Company Boiler Number One Emission Test Report – December 2016

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    L’Anse Warden Electric Company (LWEC) submitted results from an emission test on the Boiler No. 1 stack. Stack air emission testing was conducted in December 2016, and the report became available in January 2017

  4. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  5. Effects of cis-platinum chemotherapy on otoacoustic emissions: the development of an objective screening protocol. Third place--Resident Clinical Science Award 1998.

    PubMed

    Ress, B D; Sridhar, K S; Balkany, T J; Waxman, G M; Stagner, B B; Lonsbury-Martin, B L

    1999-12-01

    To develop an objective, fast, and simply performed screening protocol for cis -platinum (CP) ototoxicity, we compared the efficacy of screening with distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) with the outcome of both conventional and ultra-high-frequency (UHF) audiometry. Baseline audiometric and DPOAE testing was performed in 66 patients, 33 of whom met criteria for inclusion in the final database. Comparisons were made between baseline measurements and those recorded before subsequent CP infusions. Outcomes were analyzed clinically and with paired repeated-measures analysis of variance. Results indicated that DPOAEs and UHF were better measures than conventional audiometry. Further, DPOAEs may be better suited for screening older patients receiving CP chemotherapy because DPOAEs are as sensitive as UHF and are present in a greater number of these patients. Screening with DPOAEs may be enhanced by testing only in the 3- to 5.2-kHz range, thus decreasing testing time. Higher time averages to increase the signal-to-noise ratio and use of this narrower bandwidth might also allow for accurate bedside testing.

  6. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport

    PubMed Central

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-01-01

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools. PMID:27114928

  7. Use of clinical movement screening tests to predict injury in sport.

    PubMed

    Chimera, Nicole J; Warren, Meghan

    2016-04-18

    Clinical movement screening tests are gaining popularity as a means to determine injury risk and to implement training programs to prevent sport injury. While these screens are being used readily in the clinical field, it is only recently that some of these have started to gain attention from a research perspective. This limits applicability and poses questions to the validity, and in some cases the reliability, of the clinical movement tests as they relate to injury prediction, intervention, and prevention. This editorial will review the following clinical movement screening tests: Functional Movement Screen™, Star Excursion Balance Test, Y Balance Test, Drop Jump Screening Test, Landing Error Scoring System, and the Tuck Jump Analysis in regards to test administration, reliability, validity, factors that affect test performance, intervention programs, and usefulness for injury prediction. It is important to review the aforementioned factors for each of these clinical screening tests as this may help clinicians interpret the current body of literature. While each of these screening tests were developed by clinicians based on what appears to be clinical practice, this paper brings to light that this is a need for collaboration between clinicians and researchers to ensure validity of clinically meaningful tests so that they are used appropriately in future clinical practice. Further, this editorial may help to identify where the research is lacking and, thus, drive future research questions in regards to applicability and appropriateness of clinical movement screening tools.

  8. Hypothesis testing in high-throughput screening for drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Prummer, Michael

    2012-04-01

    Following the success of small-molecule high-throughput screening (HTS) in drug discovery, other large-scale screening techniques are currently revolutionizing the biological sciences. Powerful new statistical tools have been developed to analyze the vast amounts of data in DNA chip studies, but have not yet found their way into compound screening. In HTS, characterization of single-point hit lists is often done only in retrospect after the results of confirmation experiments are available. However, for prioritization, for optimal use of resources, for quality control, and for comparison of screens it would be extremely valuable to predict the rates of false positives and false negatives directly from the primary screening results. Making full use of the available information about compounds and controls contained in HTS results and replicated pilot runs, the Z score and from it the p value can be estimated for each measurement. Based on this consideration, we have applied the concept of p-value distribution analysis (PVDA), which was originally developed for gene expression studies, to HTS data. PVDA allowed prediction of all relevant error rates as well as the rate of true inactives, and excellent agreement with confirmation experiments was found.

  9. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  10. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested (Tier 2). T1S...

  11. Empirical Profiles of Academic Oral English Proficiency from an International Teaching Assistant Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Ikkyu

    2017-01-01

    Language proficiency constitutes a crucial barrier for prospective international teaching assistants (ITAs). Many US universities administer screening tests to ensure that ITAs possess the required academic oral English proficiency for their TA duties. Such ITA screening tests often elicit a sample of spoken English, which is evaluated in terms of…

  12. XENOENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS-TIERED SCREENING AND TESTING: FILLING KEY DATA GAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT
    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). High priority chemicals would be evaluated in the Tier 1 Screening (T1S) battery. Chemicals positive in T1S would then be tested...

  13. Willingness to take a screening test for colorectal cancer: a community-based survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Naing, Cho; Jun, Yip Kar; Yee, Wai Mun; Waqiyuddin, Syazana J D B T; Lui, Lau Chiew; Shaung, Ooi Yin; Haw, Fong Jenn

    2014-03-01

    The aims of the study were (i) to determine the knowledge and perceptions of colorectal cancer (CRC), (ii) to explore the willingness of the study population to take a screening test for CRC, and (iii) to identify factors affecting the willingness to take a screening test for CRC. A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a semiurban town in Malaysia using a pretested structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics were determined for all important variables. A binary logistic regression model was introduced to identify independent predictors of the willingness to take a screening test. Factors influencing willingness were explored according to the constructs of the health belief model. Of the 256 respondents who had heard about CRC, the majority were aware of altered bowel habits (67.3%) or the presence of blood in stool or rectal bleeding (63.4%) as the warning symptoms. Although 38% of the respondents knew of colonoscopy as the screening test, 22% were not aware of any screening test for CRC. A majority (77.4%) showed willingness to take a screening test for CRC. In the multivariate analysis, 'having family or friends with history of CRC' and 'self-perceived risk' were the two significant variables for predicting the acceptance of CRC screening among the study population. Findings suggested that the respondents' knowledge of the CRC screening test was inadequate, albeit a high proportion expressed their intention to take screening tests. Health education on the CRC addressing available screening tests and the benefits of early screening for CRC should be scaled up.

  14. Women's intentions to receive cervical cancer screening with primary human papillomavirus testing.

    PubMed

    Ogilvie, Gina S; Smith, Laurie W; van Niekerk, Dirk J; Khurshed, Fareeza; Krajden, Mel; Saraiya, Mona; Goel, Vivek; Rimer, Barbara K; Greene, Sandra B; Hobbs, Suzanne; Coldman, Andrew J; Franco, Eduardo L

    2013-12-15

    We explored the potential impact of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing on women's intentions to be screened for cervical cancer in a cohort of Canadian women. Participants aged 25-65 years from an ongoing trial were sent a questionnaire to assess women's intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing instead of Pap smears and to be screened every 4 years or after 25 years of age. We created scales for attitudes about HPV testing, perceived behavioral control, and direct and indirect subjective norms. Demographic data and scales that were significantly different (p < 0.1) between women who intended to be screened with HPV and those who did not intend were included in a stepwise logistic regression model. Of the 2,016 invitations emailed, 1,538 were received, and 981 completed surveys for a response rate of 63% (981/1,538). Eighty-four percent of women (826/981) responded that they intended to attend for HPV-based cervical cancer screening, which decreased to 54.2% when the screening interval was extended, and decreased further to 51.4% when screening start was delayed to age of 25. Predictors of intentions to undergo screening were attitudes (odds ratio [OR]: 1.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.15, 1.30), indirect subjective norms (OR: 1.02; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.03) and perceived behavioral control (OR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.10; 1.22). Intentions to be screened for cervical cancer with HPV testing decreased substantially when the screening interval was extended and screening started at age of 25. Use of primary HPV testing may optimize the screening paradigm, but programs should ensure robust planning and education to mitigate any negative impact on screening attendance rates. Copyright © 2013 UICC.

  15. Abnormal ovarian cancer screening test result: women's informational, psychological and practical needs.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Patricia Y; Graves, Kristi D; Pavlik, Edward J; Andrykowski, Michael A

    2007-01-01

    Considerable effort has been devoted to the identification of cost-effective approaches to screening for ovarian cancer (OC). Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is one such screening approach. Approximately 5-7% of routine TVS screening tests yield abnormal results. Some women experience significant distress after receipt of an abnormal TVS screening test. Four focus groups provided in-depth, qualitative data regarding the informational, psychological, and practical needs of women after the receipt of an abnormal TVS result. Through question and content analytic procedures, we identified four themes: anticipation, emotional response, role of the screening technician, and impact of prior cancer experiences. Results provide initial guidance toward development of interventions to promote adaptive responses after receipt of an abnormal cancer screening test result.

  16. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  17. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  18. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  19. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  20. 49 CFR 40.229 - What devices are used to conduct alcohol screening tests?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... are allowed to use to conduct alcohol screening tests under this part. You may use an ASD that is on the NHTSA CPL for DOT alcohol tests only if there are instructions for its use in this part. An ASD...

  1. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D... - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle...—Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures Appendix I-1 to Subparts D and E—Test Procedure for Street and off...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D... - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle...—Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures Appendix I-1 to Subparts D and E—Test Procedure for Street and off...

  3. 40 CFR Appendix I to Subparts D... - Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Motorcycle Noise Emission Test... AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT NOISE EMISSION CONTROLS Motorcycle...—Motorcycle Noise Emission Test Procedures Appendix I-1 to Subparts D and E—Test Procedure for Street and off...

  4. 40 CFR 1042.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures...

  5. 40 CFR 1042.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures...

  6. 40 CFR 1042.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I run a valid emission test... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE MARINE COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES AND VESSELS Test Procedures § 1042.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures...

  7. The effect of Ar neutral beam treatment of screen-printed carbon nanotubes for enhanced field emission

    SciTech Connect

    Kyung, Se Jin; Park, Jae Beom; Park, Byung Jae; Min, Kyung Seok; Lee, June Hee; Yeom, Geun Young; Shin, Yong Sook; Park, Chong Yun

    2007-04-15

    This study examined the effectiveness of an Ar neutral beam as a surface treatment for improving the field emission properties of screen-printed carbon nanotubes (CNTs). A short period of the neutral beam treatment on tape-activated CNTs enhanced the emission properties of the CNTs, showing a decrease in the turn-on field and an increase in the number of emission sites. The neutral beam treatment appeared to render the CNT surfaces more actively by exposing more CNTs from the CNT paste without cutting or kinking the already exposed long CNT emitters. The treated CNTs emitted more electrons than the CNTs treated using other methods. When the field emission properties were measured after the neutral beam treatment, the turn-on field decreased from 1.65 to 0.60 V/{mu}m and the emission field at 1 mA/cm{sup 2} decreased from 3.10 to 2.41 V/{mu}m. After the neutral beam treatment for 10 s, there was an improvement in the stability of the emission current at a constant electric field. It is expected that the neutral beam treatment introduced in this study will provide an easy way of improving the emission intensity and stability of screen-printed CNT emitters.

  8. Validating a dance-specific screening test for balance: preliminary results from multisite testing.

    PubMed

    Batson, Glenna

    2010-09-01

    Few dance-specific screening tools adequately capture balance. The aim of this study was to administer and modify the Star Excursion Balance Test (oSEBT) to examine its utility as a balance screen for dancers. The oSEBT involves standing on one leg while lightly targeting with the opposite foot to the farthest distance along eight spokes of a star-shaped grid. This task simulates dance in the spatial pattern and movement quality of the gesturing limb. The oSEBT was validated for distance on athletes with history of ankle sprain. Thirty-three dancers (age 20.1 +/- 1.4 yrs) participated from two contemporary dance conservatories (UK and US), with or without a history of lower extremity injury. Dancers were verbally instructed (without physical demonstration) to execute the oSEBT and four modifications (mSEBT): timed (speed), timed with cognitive interference (answering questions aloud), and sensory disadvantaging (foam mat). Stepping strategies were tracked and performance strategies video-recorded. Unlike the oSEBT results, distances reached were not significant statistically (p = 0.05) or descriptively (i.e., shorter) for either group. Performance styles varied widely, despite sample homogeneity and instructions to control for strategy. Descriptive analysis of mSEBT showed an increased number of near-falls and decreased timing on the injured limb. Dancers appeared to employ variable strategies to keep balance during this test. Quantitative analysis is warranted to define balance strategies for further validation of SEBT modifications to determine its utility as a balance screening tool.

  9. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Yun; Chen, Nien-I; Chen, Pin-Wen; Chiang, Shu-Chuan; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lee, Ni-Chung; Chien, Yin-Hsiu

    2013-02-10

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level) and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level), is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency) and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD) were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs). The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350) and CUD (1:30 000) detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible.

  10. A novel aggregation-induced emission based fluorescent probe for an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) assay and inhibitor screening.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibo; Huang, Yi; Zhao, Xiaoping; Gong, Wan; Wang, Yi; Cheng, Yiyu

    2014-12-11

    A 'turn-on' fluorescent probe based on aggregation-induced emission (AIE) has been developed. It exhibits excellent selectivity and sensitivity for monitoring angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity both in solutions and in living cells as well as for screening ACE inhibitors in vitro.

  11. A test protocol to screen capacitors for radiation-induced charge loss.

    SciTech Connect

    Zarick, Thomas Andrew; Hartman, E. Frederick

    2008-09-01

    This report presents a test protocol for screening capacitors dielectrics for charge loss due to ionizing radiation. The test protocol minimizes experimental error and provides a test method that allows comparisons of different dielectric types if exposed to the same environment and if the same experimental technique is used. The test acceptance or screening method is fully described in this report. A discussion of technical issues and possible errors and uncertainties is included in this report also.

  12. The Slingerland Screening Tests for Identifying Children with Specific Language Disability: Screening for Learning Disabilities in First Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinero, Thomas E.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The responses on the Slingerland Screening Tests for identifying children with specific learning disabilities of 29 learning disabled and 11 nondisabled children in Grade 1 distinguished the two groups, except for copying (near vision). Copying (far vision) and auditory, visual, and kinesthetic perception and discrimination together were the…

  13. Developmental Screenings in Rural Settings: A Comparison of the Child Development Review and the Denver II Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brachlow, Allison; Jordan, Augustus E.; Tervo, Raymond

    2001-01-01

    Two developmental screening tests were applied to 73 children, aged 1 month-6.7 years, in Sioux Falls and the Cheyenne River Reservation (South Dakota). There were no racial differences; compared to urban children, rural reservation children of any race were more likely to pass the Child Development Review and to fail the Denver II Developmental…

  14. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  15. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  16. Predictive Validity Test of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI) to identify adolescents at high risk of substance use. Method: The sampling frame consisted of 26,781 surveys, and a secondary analysis was conducted. A random 25% sample was used, leaving 6,661 cases. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine the predictive…

  17. Predictive Validity Test of the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study assesses the Adolescent Domain Screening Inventory (ADSI) to identify adolescents at high risk of substance use. Method: The sampling frame consisted of 26,781 surveys, and a secondary analysis was conducted. A random 25% sample was used, leaving 6,661 cases. Binary logistic regressions were run to determine the predictive…

  18. Studies with the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method - Oxygen concentrations with various test conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.; Solis, A. N.

    1977-01-01

    Continuing efforts to increase the versatility of the USF/NASA toxicity screening test method have included the use of different test conditions in order to simulate various fire environments. The use of air flow at flow rates of 16 to 48 ml/sec maintains oxygen concentrations above 19 percent throughout the 30 min exposure period, compared to above 16 percent without forced air flow. These levels of oxygen are well within the tolerance range of mice, and approach the oxygen levels found in many real fire situations. Proposed minimum oxygen levels based on experience with rats are unduly restrictive on the use of other species such as mice, and tend to eliminate the cost savings which may more than justify the selection of mice.

  19. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  20. Test Review: Siegel, B. (2004). "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test--II (PDDST-II)." San Antonio, TX: Harcourt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Janine M.; Duncan, C. Randy; Francis, Garnett C.

    2007-01-01

    The "Pervasive Developmental Disorder Screening Test-II (PDDST-II)--Early Childhood Screener for Autistic Spectrum Disorders" is a clinical screening tool for pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) or autism spectrum disorders (ASD) designed for use by nonspecialist clinicians. It was designed to differentiate children as young as 18 months who…

  1. Prospective evaluation of whole-body cancer screening with multiple modalities including [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in a healthy population: a preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Kojima, Shinsuke; Teramukai, Satoshi; Inubushi, Masayuki; Kodama, Hironobu; Maeda, Yoshiki; Okada, Hiroyuki; Zhou, Bin; Nagai, Yoji; Fukushima, Masanori

    2009-04-10

    To prospectively evaluate the utility of whole-body cancer screening with multiple modalities including [(18)F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in a healthy population. This report summarizes the results of the first three annual screenings. A total of 1,197 healthy volunteers > or = 35 years old were enrolled between August 2003 and July 2004 and offered annual cancer screening for 5 years with subsequent long-term follow-up. Screening modalities included were whole-body FDG-PET, chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT), brain and pelvic magnetic resonance imaging, several tumor markers, and fecal occult blood testing. As of the end of 2006, 22 primary cancers were pathologically confirmed. Nineteen of 22 were detected by the screening; 18 in the initial, one in the second, and none in the third. Three were diagnosed after development of symptoms. Of the 18 detected in the initial screening (six thyroid, four lung, three prostate, three breast, one endometrial, and one thymic), 12 were at stage I and 11 were PET positive. PET-negative cancers were detected by CT or the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Sensitivity and specificity were 50.0% (11 of 22) and 93.2% (1,095 of 1,175), respectively, for FDG-PET alone and 81.8% (18 of 22) and 82.0% (963 of 1,175), respectively, for the combination of imaging modalities and PSA. While FDG-PET alone is insufficient, whole-body cancer screening with selected modalities including FDG-PET has initial performance supporting possible utility by detecting a wide variety of early-stage cancers with reasonable sensitivity. However, the detection of many indolent cancers and false positives necessitate continuing study for appropriate evaluation.

  2. Early Pregnancy Diabetes Screening and Diagnosis: Prevalence, Rates of Abnormal Test Results, and Associated Factors.

    PubMed

    Mission, John F; Catov, Janet; Deihl, Tiffany E; Feghali, Maisa; Scifres, Christina

    2017-10-06

    To evaluate the prevalence of early diabetes screening in pregnancy, rates of abnormal diabetes test results before 24 weeks of gestation, and factors associated with early diabetes screening. This was a retrospective cohort study of all singleton deliveries from 2012 to 2014 among diverse clinical practices at a large academic medical center. We assessed rates of early (less than 24 weeks of gestation) and routine (at or beyond 24 weeks of gestation) diabetes screening, with abnormal test results defined using the Carpenter-Coustan criteria, a 50-g glucose challenge test result greater than 200 mg/dL, or a hemoglobin A1C level greater than 6.5%. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate clinical and demographic determinants of screening and diagnosis. Overall, 1,420 of 11,331 (12.5%) women underwent early screening. Increasing body mass index (BMI) category, race, public insurance, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, a family history of diabetes, and chronic hypertension were associated with early screening. Early screening rates rose with increasing BMI category, but only 268 of 551 (48.6%) of women with class III obesity underwent early screening. Among those screened early, 2.0% of normal-weight women, 4.0% of overweight women, 4.2% of class I obese women, 3.8% of class II obese women, and 9.0% of class III obese women had abnormal early test results (P<.001). Early diabetes screening is used inconsistently, and many women with risk factors do not undergo early screening. A significant proportion of women with class III obesity will test positive for gestational diabetes mellitus before 24 weeks of gestation, and studies are urgently needed to assess the effect of early diabetes screening and diagnosis on perinatal outcomes in high-risk women.

  3. Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening--a puzzle of tests and strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Gossum, A

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death around the World. An effective way to reduce colorectal cancer mortality is to screen for it and its precursor, the adenoma. In industrialized countries the mortality related to CRC is decreasing probably due to better screening programmes in average-risk individuals as well as changes in risk factors. Screening procedures are various including faecal screening tests--which primarily detect colon cancer--and structural tests (endoscopy--flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy--, Barium enema, Computed Tomography Colonography) that may detect not only cancer but also its precursors. Video-colon capsule is a new tool for exploring the colon but needs further studies before becoming a screening test. The choice of a screening test includes several factors as cost, invasiveness, acceptability, adherence to repeat testing and acceptance referral for colonoscopy for positive tests as well as local financial resources. Every screening programme has advantages and limitations. Enhancing use and quality of CRC screening programmes is mandatory.

  4. 2012 cervical cancer screening guidelines and the future role of HPV testing.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Anna M

    2013-03-01

    Persistent high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a necessary precursor for the development of cervical cancer. Recent data demonstrating the sensitivity of HPV testing has led to consensus group updates of how to best screen women in the United States. The newest recommendations incorporate HPV testing for women 30 to 65 years of age, but do not yet recommend primary screening with HPV testing alone. With the advent of HPV vaccination and consequent shift in the prevalence of HPV-related disease, the role of cervical cytology as primary testing in national screening programs will be further called into question.

  5. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnant mothers: a valid and cost-effective screening test in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ullah, A; Barman, A; Ahmed, I; Salam, A

    2012-01-01

    In Bangladesh, a number of screening tests for asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy are in practice. The objective of this study was to assess the validity and cost-effectiveness of these screening tests. A total of 600 apparently healthy pregnant mothers were included in this study. The validity of the screening tests was calculated against the urine culture as 'gold standard'. Incremental cost-effective ratio between the screening test methods and the least costly method (microscopic urine analysis) was calculated. Bacterial count/oil-immersion field in Gram-stained smear of urine was the most sensitive (91.7%) and specific (97.2%). Incremental cost per additional positive cases of bacterial count, leukocyte esterase and combination of leukocyte esterase and nitrite were US$3, US$25 and US$23, respectively. Gram staining may be the alternative approach to traditional routine urinalysis for the screening of asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy in clinical practice in Bangladesh, as well as other developing countries.

  6. Optical testing of a parabolic trough solar collector by a null screen with stitching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Oliva, V., I.; Campos-Garcia, M.; Granados-Agustin, F.; Arjona-Pérez, M. J.; Díaz-Uribe, R.; Avendaño-Alejo, M.

    2009-06-01

    In this work we report a method for testing a parabolic trough solar collector (PTSC) based on the null screen principles. For surfaces with symmetry of revolution a cylindrical null screen is used, now, for testing the PTSC we use a flat null screen. The design of the null screen with ellipsoidal spots is described; its image, which is formed by reflection on the test surface, becomes an exact square array of circular spots if the surface is perfect. Any departure from this geometry is indicative of defects on the surface. The flat null screen design and the surface evaluation algorithm are presented. Here the surface is tested in sections and the evaluation of the shape of the surface is performed with stitching method. Results of the evaluation for a square PTSC with 1000 mm by side (F/0.49) are shown.

  7. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  8. Identification and Validation of a Brief Test Anxiety Screening Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von der Embse, Nathaniel P.; Kilgus, Stephen P.; Segool, Natasha; Putwain, Dave

    2013-01-01

    The implementation of test-based accountability policies around the world has increased the pressure placed on students to perform well on state achievement tests. Educational researchers have begun taking a closer look at the reciprocal effects of test anxiety and high-stakes testing. However, existing test anxiety assessments lack efficiency and…

  9. Cost-effectiveness of high-sensitivity faecal immunochemical test and colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, M; Carlsson, P; Levin, L-Å; Hager, J; Hultcrantz, R

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer screening can decrease morbidity and mortality. However, there are widespread differences in the implementation of programmes and choice of strategy. The primary objective of this study was to estimate lifelong costs and health outcomes of two of the currently most preferred methods of screening for colorectal cancer: colonoscopy and sensitive faecal immunochemical test (FIT). A cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal cancer screening in a Swedish population was performed using a decision analysis model, based on the design of the Screening of Swedish Colons (SCREESCO) study, and data from the published literature and registries. Lifelong cost and effects of colonoscopy once, colonoscopy every 10 years, FIT twice, FIT biennially and no screening were estimated using simulations. For 1000 individuals invited to screening, it was estimated that screening once with colonoscopy yielded 49 more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and a cost saving of €64 800 compared with no screening. Similarly, screening twice with FIT gave 26 more QALYs and a cost saving of €17 600. When the colonoscopic screening was repeated every tenth year, 7 additional QALYs were gained at a cost of €189 400 compared with a single colonoscopy. The additional gain with biennial FIT screening was 25 QALYs at a cost of €154 300 compared with two FITs. All screening strategies were cost-effective compared with no screening. Repeated and single screening strategies with colonoscopy were more cost-effective than FIT when lifelong effects and costs were considered. However, other factors such as patient acceptability of the test and availability of human resources also have to be taken into account. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Computerized reminders for five preventive screening tests: generation of patient-specific letters incorporating physician preferences.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, D. J.; Gross, R.; Buchanan, J.

    2000-01-01

    Compliance with preventive screening tests is inadequate in the United States. We describe a computer based system for generating reminder letters to patients who may have missed their indicated screening tests because they do not visit a provider regularly or missed their tests despite the fact that they do visit a provider. We started with national recommendations and generated a local consensus for test indications. We then used this set of indications and our electronic record to determine test deficiencies in our pilot pool of 3073 patients. The computer generated customized reminder letters targeting several tests. Physicians chose any patients who should not receive letters. The response rate for fecal occult blood (FOB) testing was 33% compared with an 18% historical compliance rate within the same community. FOB reminders generated improved test compliance. Test execution must be considered when commencing a program of screening test reminders. PMID:11079954

  11. Identification and screening evaluation of key historical materials and emission sources at the Oak Ridge Reservation.

    PubMed

    Widner, T E; Ripple, S R; Buddenbaum, J E

    1996-10-01

    In 1991, the State of Tennessee initiated a Health Studies Agreement with the U.S. Department of Energy. It included independent studies of possible adverse health effects in people living near the Oak Ridge Reservation resulting from releases of chemicals and radionuclides since 1942. A Dose Reconstruction Feasibility, the first of a planned sequence of initiatives to evaluate the potential for health effects, included application of screening methods to focus subsequent dose reconstruction and epidemiologic efforts on the materials and emission sources that have historically been most important. The feasibility study produced a history of operations that likely generated off-site releases from the X-10, K-25, Y-12, and S-50 plants, based on reviews of classified and unclassified records and interviews of active and retired workers. The availability of environmental monitoring and research data that would support dose reconstruction was also characterized. Quantitative emission and environmental contamination data were used to identify those materials and plant activities that should receive the highest priority in further health studies. Plausible exposure pathways were identified, and screening methods were used to identify the most important pathways and past activities that appear to be associated with the greatest health hazards. The materials and activities shown to have the highest potential for public health hazards are as follows: 1) The release of radioiodine [likely over 3.7 PBq (100,000 Ci)] to the air from radioactive lanthanum ("RaLa") processing at X-10 (now Oak Ridge National Laboratory) from 1944 through 1956; 2) The release of 137Cs and other radionuclides in liquid wastes from chemical separation activities at X-10; 3) The release of mercury to the air, soil, and surface waters from Y-12 lithium enrichment operations between 1950 and 1963. About 11,000,000 kg of mercury were handled at Y-12, and 910,000 kg were reported lost or unaccounted for

  12. Development and Testing of a 3-Item Screening Tool for Problematic Internet Use.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Megan A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Selkie, Ellen

    2016-09-01

    To develop and validate the Problematic and Risky Internet Use Screening Scale (PRIUSS)-3 screening scale, a short scale to screen for Problematic Internet Use. This scale development study applied standard processes using separate samples for training and testing datasets. We recruited participants from schools and colleges in 6 states and 2 countries. We selected 3 initial versions of a PRIUSS-3 using correlation to the PRIUSS-18 score. We evaluated these 3 potential screening scales for conceptual coherence, factor loading, sensitivity, and specificity. We selected a 3-item screening tool and evaluated it in 2 separate testing sets using receiver operating curves. Our study sample included 1079 adolescents and young adults. The PRIUSS-3 included items addressing anxiety when away from the Internet, loss of motivation when on the Internet, and feelings of withdrawal when away from the Internet. This screening scale had a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 69%. A score of ≥3 on the PRIUSS-3 was the threshold to follow up with the PRIUSS-18. Similar to other clinical screening tools, the PRIUSS-3 can be administered quickly in a clinical or research setting. Positive screens should be followed by administering the full PRIUSS-18. Given the pervasive presence of the Internet in youth's lives, screening and counseling for Problematic Internet Use can be facilitated by use of this validated screening tool. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Flores, Yvonne N; Bishai, David M; Lorincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2011-02-01

    To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Screening women between the ages of 30-80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program.

  14. HPV testing for cervical cancer screening appears more cost-effective than Papanicolau cytology in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bishai, David M.; Lőrincz, Attila; Shah, Keerti V.; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo; Hernández, Mauricio; Granados-García, Víctor; Pérez, Ruth; Salmerón, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the incremental costs and effects of different HPV testing strategies, when compared to Papanicolau cytology (Pap), for cervical cancer screening in Mexico. Methods A cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) examined the specific costs and health outcomes associated with (1) no screening; (2) only the Pap test; (3) only self-administered HPV; (4) only clinician administered HPV; and (5) clinician administered HPV plus the Pap test. The costs of self- and clinician-HPV testing, as well as with the Pap test, were identified and quantified. Costs were reported in 2008 US dollars. The health outcome associated with these screening strategies was defined as the number of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia or cervical cancer cases detected. This CEA was performed using the perspective of the Mexican Institute of Social Security (IMSS) in Morelos, Mexico. Results Screening women between the ages of 30–80 for cervical cancer using clinical-HPV testing or the combination of clinical-HPV testing, and the Pap is always more cost-effective than using the Pap test alone. Conclusions This CEA indicates that HPV testing could be a cost-effective screening alternative for a large health delivery organization such as IMSS. These results may help policy-makers implement HPV testing as part of the IMSS cervical cancer screening program. PMID:21170578

  15. Universal screening test based on analysis of circulating organ-enriched microRNAs: a novel approach to diagnostic screening.

    PubMed

    Sheinerman, Kira S; Umansky, Samuil

    2015-03-01

    Early disease detection leads to more effective and cost-efficient treatment. It is especially important for cancer and neurodegenerative diseases, because progression of these pathologies leads to significant and frequently irreversible changes in underlying pathophysiological processes. At the same time, the development of specific screening tests for detection of each of the hundreds of human pathologies in asymptomatic stage may be impractical. Here, we discuss a recently proposed concept: the development of minimally invasive Universal Screening Test (UST) based on analysis of organ-enriched microRNAs in plasma and other bodily fluids. The UST is designed to detect the presence of a pathology in particular organ systems, organs, tissues or cell types without diagnosing a specific disease. Once the pathology is detected, more specific, and if necessary invasive and expensive, tests can be administered to precisely define the nature of the disease. Here, we discuss recent studies and analyze the data supporting the UST approach.

  16. Post-traumatic stress disorder screening test performance in civilian primary care.

    PubMed

    Freedy, John R; Steenkamp, Maria M; Magruder, Kathryn M; Yeager, Derik E; Zoller, James S; Hueston, William J; Carek, Peter J

    2010-12-01

    we determined the test performance characteristics of four brief post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) screening tests in a civilian primary care setting. this was a cross-sectional cohort study of adults attending a family medicine residency training clinic in the southeastern USA. Four hundred and eleven participants completed a structured telephone interview that followed an index clinic visit. Screening tests included: PTSD Symptom Checklist-Civilian Version (17 items), SPAN (four items), Breslau's scale (seven items) and Primary Care PTSD screen (PC-PTSD) (four items). A modified Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale was used to determine past month PTSD for comparison. Receiver operating characteristic analysis based on area under the curve (AUC) was used to assess diagnostic efficiency (>0.80 desired). Cut-off scores were selected to yield optimal sensitivity and specificity (>80%). past month PTSD was substantial (women = 35.8% and men = 20.0%; P < 0.01). AUC values were PTSD Symptom Checklist (PCL) (0.897), SPAN (0.806), Breslau's scale (0.886) and PC-PTSD (0.885). Optimal cut-scores yielded the following sensitivities and specificities: PCL (80.0% and 80.7%; cut-off = 43), SPAN (75.9% and 71.6%; cut-off = 3), Breslau's scale (84.5% and 76.4%; cut-off = 4) and PC-PTSD (85.1% and 82.0%; cut-off = 3). Overall and gender-specific screening test performances were explored. results confirm: (i) PTSD was common, especially among women; (ii) all four PTSD screening tests were diagnostically adequate; (iii) Two of four PTSD screening tests showed adequate sensitivity and specificity (>80%) and (iv) The PC-PTSD screening test (four items) appeared to be the best single screening test. There are few studies to establish the utility of PTSD screening tests within civilian primary care.

  17. A Computerized Adaptive Mathematics Screening Test: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, James R.

    A pilot study of a computerized adaptive test of mathematics achievement was conducted in May and June 1989 in selected schools of the San Diego Unified School District. The study evaluated the usefulness of the test for determining eligibility for Chapter 1 programs in mathematics. The test was a prototype battery of three adaptive tests: (1)…

  18. Assessment of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of HPV testing in primary screening for cervical.

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, Thomas; Nocon, Marc; Roll, Stephanie; Mühlberger, Nikolai; Sroczynski, Gaby; Siebert, Uwe; Willich, Stefan N; von der Schulenburg, J-Matthias

    2007-09-04

    The introduction of a screening programme for cervical carcinoma in Germany has led to a significant reduction in incidence of the disease. To date, however, diagnosis in Germany has been based solely on cervical cytology, which has been criticised because of a low sensitivity and consequently high rate of false negative results. Because an infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV) previously was found to be a necessary aetiological factor in the development of cervical cancer, there has been some discussion that HPV testing should be included in cervical cancer screening. How do HPV tests compare to cytological tests in terms of sensitivity and specificity, and what are the effects of screening for cervical carcinoma in Germany? Is there health economic evidence that may foster an inclusion of HPV testing into national screening programms? A systematic literature review was performed, including studies that compared the HPV test to cervical cytology in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of CIN 2+ (CIN=Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia). In addition, a systematic review of the relevant health economic literature was performed to analyze cost-effectiveness in the German setting. A total of 24 studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. One study consisted of three substudies. Hence, results of 26 comparisons of HPV and cytology are reported. In 25 of these, the HPV test was more sensitive than cytology, whereas cytology had better specificity in 21 studies. The combination of HPV test and cytology increased sensitivity. Variability in results was considerably larger for cytology than for HPV testing. Results of the economic meta-analysis suggest that in health care settings with already established PAP screening programms, cost-effectiveness strongly depends on screening intervals. In analyses comparing HPV screening to conventional PAP screening with two-yearly intervals, only 25% of the HPV strategies were found to be cost-effective, whereas

  19. Cost-effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer in France using a guaiac test versus an immunochemical test.

    PubMed

    Lejeune, Catherine; Dancourt, Vincent; Arveux, Patrick; Bonithon-Kopp, Claire; Faivre, Jean

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the cost and the effectiveness of two biennial fecal occult blood screening tests for colorectal cancer: a guaiac nonrehydrated test (G-FOBT) and an immunochemical test (I-FOBT) with the absence of screening. A Markov model was developed to compare these strategies in a general population of subjects aged 50 to 74 over a 20-year period. Compared with the absence of screening, G-FOBT and I-FOBT were associated with a decrease in colorectal cancer mortality of 17.4 percent and 25.2 percent, respectively. With regard to cost-effectiveness, expressed as cost per life-year gained, I-FOBT was the most effective and most costly alternative. Compared with no screening, G-FOBT and I-FOBT presented similar discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios: 2,739 euros and 2,819 euros respectively per life-year gained. When compared with G-FOBT, I-FOBT presented an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 2,988 euros per life-year gained. Sensitivity analyses showed the strong influence of the I-FOBT lead time, of the participation rate to screening for I-FOBT, and of the purchase price of the I-FOBT on the discounted incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. Compared with the absence of screening and with G-FOBT, the biennial two-stool immunochemical test can be considered a promising method for mass screening for colorectal cancer.

  20. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... model by vehicle testing. 80.48 Section 80.48 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing. (a) The provisions of this section apply only if... emission model or complex emission model database, or if the values of fuel parameters included in...

  1. The Clinical and Economic Benefits of Co-Testing Versus Primary HPV Testing for Cervical Cancer Screening: A Modeling Analysis.

    PubMed

    Felix, Juan C; Lacey, Michael J; Miller, Jeffrey D; Lenhart, Gregory M; Spitzer, Mark; Kulkarni, Rucha

    2016-06-01

    Consensus United States cervical cancer screening guidelines recommend use of combination Pap plus human papillomavirus (HPV) testing for women aged 30 to 65 years. An HPV test was approved by the Food and Drug Administration in 2014 for primary cervical cancer screening in women age 25 years and older. Here, we present the results of clinical-economic comparisons of Pap plus HPV mRNA testing including genotyping for HPV 16/18 (co-testing) versus DNA-based primary HPV testing with HPV 16/18 genotyping and reflex cytology (HPV primary) for cervical cancer screening. A health state transition (Markov) model with 1-year cycling was developed using epidemiologic, clinical, and economic data from healthcare databases and published literature. A hypothetical cohort of one million women receiving triennial cervical cancer screening was simulated from ages 30 to 70 years. Screening strategies compared HPV primary to co-testing. Outcomes included total and incremental differences in costs, invasive cervical cancer (ICC) cases, ICC deaths, number of colposcopies, and quality-adjusted life years for cost-effectiveness calculations. Comprehensive sensitivity analyses were performed. In a simulation cohort of one million 30-year-old women modeled up to age 70 years, the model predicted that screening with HPV primary testing instead of co-testing could lead to as many as 2,141 more ICC cases and 2,041 more ICC deaths. In the simulation, co-testing demonstrated a greater number of lifetime quality-adjusted life years (22,334) and yielded $39.0 million in savings compared with HPV primary, thereby conferring greater effectiveness at lower cost. Model results demonstrate that co-testing has the potential to provide improved clinical and economic outcomes when compared with HPV primary. While actual cost and outcome data are evaluated, these findings are relevant to U.S. healthcare payers and women's health policy advocates seeking cost-effective cervical cancer screening

  2. PER pressure: New Jersey's "Population Emissions Ratio" environmental equity screening model.

    PubMed

    Atlas, Mark

    2003-02-01

    In recent years, much attention has focused on how to incorporate environmental equity considerations into government permitting programs for environmentally regulated facilities. On February 4, 2002, the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) became the first state environmental agency to propose a broad legally binding rule intended to guard against environmental inequity in its permitting decisions. The proposed rule centered on an innovative computerized environmental equity (EE) screening model that used "Population Emissions Ratios" to identify small geographic areas in which environmental equity concerns might exist and to simulate the effect on statewide environmental equity of increasing environmental risks in small geographic areas. The NJDEP's model examined an extensive array of ethnic groups, included a variety of environmental risks, evaluated most of those risks in terms of human health, and used an innovative simulation process designed to identify permitting decisions that would worsen statewide environmental inequity. The results of the NJDEP's efforts, however, pose substantial concerns. For example, some key provisions of the NJDEP's model were inadequately explained and some were illogical and would bias its results. The model might be susceptible to generating implausible results due to small, meaningless, and/or essentially random fluctuations in its data inputs. The model used relatively large geographic areas as the units of analysis and interpolated results between them, rather than using smaller geographic areas and avoiding interpolation errors. Finally, the environmental risks evaluated by the model were both arguably over- and underinclusive. Thus, the NJDEP's efforts, although noteworthy, raised more issues than they settled.

  3. Carrier screening for cystic fibrosis in US genetic testing laboratories: a survey of laboratory directors.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, D J; Katsanis, S H; Javitt, G H; Murphy, J A; Scott, J A; Hudson, K L

    2008-10-01

    Initial guidelines for cystic fibrosis (CF) carrier screening were issued in 2001 by the American College of Medical Genetics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and updated in 2004. It is unknown how these guidelines have influenced laboratory practice. This study examined the uptake of two components of these guidelines for CF screening in genetic testing laboratories. A survey of directors of US genetic testing laboratories was conducted. Of 190 respondents, 178 answered questions about CF testing. Nearly half (49%) performed some type of DNA testing for CF; most of these (92%) performed CF carrier screening. Ten percent used a 23-mutation panel for CF screening. The results of 5T tests were reported as a reflex test by 79% of laboratories, while 8% always returned 5T results and 7% never returned them. Seven percent of laboratories adopted both guidelines, 80% adopted one of the two guidelines, and 13% had not adopted either recommendation, suggesting that factors other than clinical guidelines may influence laboratories' CF screening practices. Further studies are needed to determine whether the adoption of CF screening guidelines has significant clinical or economic effects on population-based CF screening programs.

  4. The Adolescent Health Review: Test of a Computerized Screening Tool in School-Based Clinics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Patricia A.; Beebe, Timothy J.; Funk, Eunkyung; Rancome, Jeanne

    2003-01-01

    Implemented a computerized screening instrument, the Adolescent Health Review, in urban school-based clinics to test the viability of a stand-alone screening process and its acceptance by patients and providers, examining the relationship between health risks and the stated purpose for the clinic visit. Patients and providers readily accepted the…

  5. Preschool Developmental Screening with Denver II Test in Semi-Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eratay, Emine; Bayoglu, Birgül; Anlar, Banu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the feasibility and reliability of screening semi-urban preschool children with Denver II, developmental and neurological status was examined in relation with one-year outcome. Methodology: Denver II developmental screening test was applied to 583 children who visited family physicians or other health centers in a province of…

  6. 77 FR 15101 - Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ... systems. Extensive background on the Agency's endocrine program is available at http://www.epa.gov/endo... AGENCY Results From Inert Ingredient Test Orders Issued Under EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program... EPA's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP) and the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA...

  7. Improving the Sensitivity of the Language Sector of the Denver Developmental Screening Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glascoe, Frances P.; Borowitz, Kathleen C.

    1988-01-01

    The Denver Developmental Screening Test (DDST) and an expressive language measure were administered to 114 children (aged 24 to 74 months) suspected of developmental difficulties. The DDST did not identify the majority of children who failed the expressive language screening, even after cutoff scores were made more rigorous. (Author/JDD)

  8. Preference for physician vs. nurse-initiated opt-out screening on HIV test acceptance.

    PubMed

    Kinsler, Janni J; Sayles, Jennifer N; Cunningham, William E; Mahajan, Anish

    2013-01-01

    Provider-initiated opt-out HIV screening suggests that providers should routinely order HIV tests unless a patient declines. However, data on how providers will respond to this new screening model are scarce. Documented concerns from the providers' perspectives have included time constraints of a typical patient encounter, and discomfort with discussing sexual history and risk behavior with patients. To address these potential barriers, nurse-initiated screening has been proposed as an approach to increasing screening rates in general medical and urgent care settings. This study compares patient acceptability of provider-initiated opt-out HIV screening with nurse-initiated opt-out HIV screening among 220 patients between the ages of 18-64 from two publically funded "safety-net" outpatient clinics in Los Angeles County. Our study found that 77% of patients agreed to HIV testing using opt-out screening, and that HIV test acceptance was higher with the physician-initiated opt-out model compared with the nurse-initiated opt-out model (adjusted odds ratios = 2.92; 95% CI = 1.37-6.22). These findings indicate that adding opt-out screening to primary care providers responsibilities may be an acceptable and effective strategy for addressing the perennially low HIV testing rates, particularly among low income, traditionally underserved patient populations among whom the epidemic is expanding most rapidly.

  9. Participation behaviour following a false positive test in the Copenhagen mammography screening programme.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Sune Bangsbøll; Vejborg, Ilse; von Euler-Chelpin, My

    2008-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate concerning possible disadvantages of mammography screening, one being the consequence of receiving a false positive test-result. It is argued that receiving a false positive answer may have short- and/or long-term adverse psychological effects on women, but results from different studies are conflicting. We tested if there was a difference in continued participation behaviour between the group of women who have been subject to a false positive result and those who have not. The study used the registers from the first six invitation rounds of the mammography screening programme in Copenhagen (1991-2003). We estimated the relative risk of not participating in the subsequent screening round for women with a false positive test using women with a negative test as baseline. As outcome measure odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used. There was no significant difference in participation in the subsequent round between women with a false positive test and women with a negative test. The proportion of screens resulting in false positive answers, both after assessment and after surgery, decreased from 5.54% in Round 1 to 1.79% in Round 5. Participation in the subsequent screening round was well above 80% in all five screening rounds. Our results showed that women experiencing a false positive test at mammography screening participated in the subsequent screening round to the same extent as did women experiencing a negative screening test, regardless of whether the false positive statement was given following assessment or following surgery. The benign to malignant biopsy ratio, comparing the type B false positives to the true positives, was by the fifth round well below the desirable level of

  10. Cost-effectiveness of one versus two sample faecal immunochemical testing for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    van Roon, Aafke H C; Reijerink, Jacqueline C I Y; van Vuuren, Anneke J; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Habbema, J Dik F; Kuipers, Ernst J; van Leerdam, Monique E; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    Objective The sensitivity and specificity of a single faecal immunochemical test (FIT) are limited. The performance of FIT screening can be improved by increasing the screening frequency or by providing more than one sample in each screening round. This study aimed to evaluate if two-sample FIT screening is cost-effective compared with one-sample FIT. Design The MISCAN–colon microsimulation model was used to estimate costs and benefits of strategies with either one or two-sample FIT screening. The FIT cut-off level varied between 50 and 200 ng haemoglobin/ml, and the screening schedule was varied with respect to age range and interval. In addition, different definitions for positivity of the two-sample FIT were considered: at least one positive sample, two positive samples, or the mean of both samples being positive. Results Within an exemplary screening strategy, biennial FIT from the age of 55–75 years, one-sample FIT provided 76.0–97.0 life-years gained (LYG) per 1000 individuals, at a cost of €259 000–264 000 (range reflects different FIT cut-off levels). Two-sample FIT screening with at least one sample being positive provided 7.3–12.4 additional LYG compared with one-sample FIT at an extra cost of €50 000–59 000. However, when all screening intervals and age ranges were considered, intensifying screening with one-sample FIT provided equal or more LYG at lower costs compared with two-sample FIT. Conclusion If attendance to screening does not differ between strategies it is recommended to increase the number of screening rounds with one-sample FIT screening, before considering increasing the number of FIT samples provided per screening round. PMID:22490518

  11. Early Education Screening Test Battery of Basic Skills Development: Criteria for Personalizing Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University City School District, MO.

    The development and content of the Early Education Screening Test Battery are described elsewhere (TM 000 184). This report provides norms for the Gross Motor Test (GMO), Visual-Motor Integration (VMI), four scales of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA), Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), and the Behavior Rating Scale…

  12. Evolution of motor activity tests into a screening reality.

    PubMed

    Mullenix, P J

    1989-03-01

    Measures of activity have changed in ways that their utility in screening for neurotoxicity has vastly improved. New computer pattern recognition systems now provide rapid, objective tools for identifying animal behavior. Advances in data analysis procedures have replaced the percent change in overall activity level with measures of initiations, total time and temporal structure for multiple behaviors and sequences. These advances can distinguish hyperactivities induced by different mechanisms and rank their neurotoxic potential, a feat not possible with photocell devices generally used in laboratories today. With the recent technological improvements, it is possible that a measure of activity will become one of the best predictors of malfunction in the central nervous system.

  13. Counseling and testing for HIV prevention: costs, effects, and cost-effectiveness of more rapid screening tests.

    PubMed Central

    Farnham, P G; Gorsky, R D; Holtgrave, D R; Jones, W K; Guinan, M E

    1996-01-01

    New rapid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody tests permit many individuals to receive test results and appropriate counseling at one clinic visit. Because currently used tests require significant time for processing, all individuals must return for a second visit for test results and counseling. Since return rates for the second visit are low, the more rapid tests present an opportunity to improve the efficiency of HIV counseling and testing. The authors compared the costs and effectiveness of the currently used counseling and testing procedure and a streamlined procedure made possible by the new, more rapid screening tests. When test-positive clients are given preliminary screening test results, the rapid procedure is more cost-effective than the current procedure. Since over 90% of the clients in most clinics will test negative, the rapid counseling and testing procedure allows the vast majority of clients to be counseled and tested and to receive their results and posttest counseling in one visit. However, in the case where the goal of HIV counseling and testing is to focus only on infected individuals, if information regarding a positive result from the rapid screening test is not given to clients at the initial visit before a confirmatory test is performed, then the rapid counseling and testing procedure is not more cost-effective than the current procedure. PMID:8610190

  14. Harms, benefits and costs of fecal immunochemical testing versus guaiac fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Goede, S. Lucas; Rabeneck, Linda; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Zauber, Ann G.; Paszat, Lawrence F.; Hoch, Jeffrey S.; Yong, Jean H. E.; Kroep, Sonja; Tinmouth, Jill; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris

    2017-01-01

    Background The ColonCancerCheck screening program for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Ontario, Canada, is considering switching from biennial guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) screening between age 50–74 years to the more sensitive, but also less specific fecal immunochemical test (FIT). The aim of this study is to estimate whether the additional benefits of FIT screening compared to gFOBT outweigh the additional costs and harms. Methods We used microsimulation modeling to estimate quality adjusted life years (QALYs) gained and costs of gFOBT and FIT, compared to no screening, in a cohort of screening participants. We compared strategies with various age ranges, screening intervals, and cut-off levels for FIT. Cost-efficient strategies were determined for various levels of available colonoscopy capacity. Results Compared to no screening, biennial gFOBT screening between age 50–74 years provided 20 QALYs at a cost of CAN$200,900 per 1,000 participants, and required 17 colonoscopies per 1,000 participants per year. FIT screening was more effective and less costly. For the same level of colonoscopy requirement, biennial FIT (with a high cut-off level of 200 ng Hb/ml) between age 50–74 years provided 11 extra QALYs gained while saving CAN$333,300 per 1000 participants, compared to gFOBT. Without restrictions in colonoscopy capacity, FIT (with a low cut-off level of 50 ng Hb/ml) every year between age 45–80 years was the most cost-effective strategy providing 27 extra QALYs gained per 1000 participants, while saving CAN$448,300. Interpretation Compared to gFOBT screening, switching to FIT at a high cut-off level could increase the health benefits of a CRC screening program without considerably increasing colonoscopy demand. PMID:28296927

  15. Fluorescent screens and image processing for the APS linac test stand

    SciTech Connect

    Berg, W.; Ko, K.

    1992-12-01

    A fluorescent screen was used to monitor relative beam position and spot size of a 56-MeV electron beam in the linac test stand. A chromium doped alumina ceramic screen inserted into the beam was monitored by a video camera. The resulting image was captured using a frame grabber and stored into memory. Reconstruction and analysis of the stored image was performed using PV-WAVE. This paper will discuss the hardware and software implementation of the fluorescent screen and imaging system. Proposed improvements for the APS linac fluorescent screens and image processing will also be discussed.

  16. On the estimation of disease prevalence by latent class models for screening studies using two screening tests with categorical disease status verified in test positives only.

    PubMed

    Chu, Haitao; Zhou, Yijie; Cole, Stephen R; Ibrahim, Joseph G

    2010-05-20

    To evaluate the probabilities of a disease state, ideally all subjects in a study should be diagnosed by a definitive diagnostic or gold standard test. However, since definitive diagnostic tests are often invasive and expensive, it is generally unethical to apply them to subjects whose screening tests are negative. In this article, we consider latent class models for screening studies with two imperfect binary diagnostic tests and a definitive categorical disease status measured only for those with at least one positive screening test. Specifically, we discuss a conditional-independent and three homogeneous conditional-dependent latent class models and assess the impact of misspecification of the dependence structure on the estimation of disease category probabilities using frequentist and Bayesian approaches. Interestingly, the three homogeneous-dependent models can provide identical goodness-of-fit but substantively different estimates for a given study. However, the parametric form of the assumed dependence structure itself is not 'testable' from the data, and thus the dependence structure modeling considered here can only be viewed as a sensitivity analysis concerning a more complicated non-identifiable model potentially involving a heterogeneous dependence structure. Furthermore, we discuss Bayesian model averaging together with its limitations as an alternative way to partially address this particularly challenging problem. The methods are applied to two cancer screening studies, and simulations are conducted to evaluate the performance of these methods. In summary, further research is needed to reduce the impact of model misspecification on the estimation of disease prevalence in such settings.

  17. Introduction of first trimester combined test increases uptake of Down's syndrome screening.

    PubMed

    Tringham, Gillian M; Nawaz, Tariq S; Holding, Stephen; Mcfarlane, Jane; Lindow, Stephen W

    2011-11-01

    To describe any trends in the uptake of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome since the addition of the earlier first trimester combined test. All antenatal screening tests for Down's syndrome were carried out and their results were recorded by the Clinical Biochemistry Department at the Hull Royal Infirmary (HRI) and reviewed against the antenatal booking data held at the Women and Children's Hospital at HRI. The uptake of antenatal Down's syndrome screening for 5 different age groups of women across a four-year-period from 2007 to 2010 was analysed. There was a significant increase in uptake of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome from 43.9% to 56.5% after the introduction of the combined test in 2010. This increase was apparent in all age groups. There was no change in the proportion of women opting for an invasive test following a positive screening test. Addition of the earlier first trimester combined test has increased uptake of antenatal screening for Down's syndrome in women of all ages. This is most likely due to the advantages this test gives women such as earlier decision making, earlier further invasive diagnostic testing and earlier termination, if necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Blood Test Can Screen for Rare Sinus Cancer, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 9, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- A new DNA blood test can catch a rare but deadly ... sinuses, researchers report. The test, which looks for DNA evidence of Epstein-Barr virus in blood samples, ...

  19. A New Modified Evans Blue Dye Test as Screening Test for Aspiration in Tracheostomized Patients.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Ferraro, Fausto; Nagar, Francesca; Fusco, Pierluigi; Mazzone, Salvatore; Costa, Giuseppe; Di Natale, Davide; Serra, Nicola; Santini, Mario

    2017-04-01

    The authors assessed the diagnostic accuracy of a new modified Evans blue dye test (MEBDT) as a screening test for aspiration in tracheostomized patients. Monocentric retrospective study performed between October 2013 and December 2015. Anesthesia and Intensive Care Unit, Second University of Naples. Among 62 eligible patients, 5 were excluded. The authors' study population included 57 patients. Patients underwent both fiberoptic endoscopic examination of the swallow (FEES) and MEBDT to evaluate swallow. The MEBDT results were compared with those of FEES and the diagnostic accuracy of MEBDT was calculated using the FEES as the gold standard. The authors found that both FEES and MEBDT were positive for aspiration in 40 patients (true-positive MEBDT); FEES and MEBDT were negative in 10 (true-negative MEBDT). On the other hand, FEES was positive with an MEBDT negative in 7 patients (false-negative MEBDT), and there were no FEES negative and MEBDT positive (false-positive MEBDT). MEBDT had a sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predicted value of 85%, 100%, 100%, and 58.82%, respectively. MEBDT could be a supplementary diagnostic test for aspiration. Patients with positive MEBDT should not undergo oral feeding, while patients with negative MEBDT should undergo FEES before starting oral feeding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An evaluation of impact wrench vibration emissions and test methods.

    PubMed

    McDowell, Thomas W; Dong, R G; Xu, X; Welcome, D E; Warren, C

    2008-03-01

    In the interest of providing more effective evaluations of impact wrench vibration exposures and the development of improved methods for measuring vibration emissions produced by these tools, this study focused on three variables: acceleration measured at the tool surface, vibration exposure duration per test trial, and the amount of torque required to unseat the nuts following a test trial. For this evaluation, six experienced male impact wrench operators used three samples each of five impact wrench models (four pneumatic models and one battery-powered model) in a simulated work task. The test setup and procedures were based on those provided by an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) Technical Committee overseeing the revision of ISO 8662-7. The work task involved the seating of 10 nuts onto 10 bolts mounted on steel plates. The results indicate that acceleration magnitudes vary not only by tool type but also by individual tools within a type. Thus, evaluators are cautioned against drawing conclusions based on small numbers of tools and/or tool operators. Appropriate sample sizes are suggested. It was further noted that evaluators could draw different conclusions if tool assessments are based on ISO-weighted acceleration as opposed to unweighted acceleration. As expected, vibration exposure durations varied by tool type and by test subject; duration means varied more for study participants than they did for tool types. For the 12 pneumatic tools evaluated in this study, torque varied directly with tool handle acceleration. Therefore, in order to reduce vibration exposure, tools should be selected and adjusted so that they produce no more than the needed torque for the task at hand.

  1. A PREDICTIVE SCREENING TEST FOR CHILDREN WITH ARTICULATORY SPEECH DEFECTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAN RIPER, CHARLES

    THE CONSTRUCTION OF A TEST TO IDENTIFY DEFECTIVE ARTICULATION IN FIRST-GRADE CHILDREN WAS REPORTED. THE "EMPIRICAL SCALE DERIVATION METHOD" WAS SELECTED AS THE MOST APPROPRIATE TECHNIQUE TO SEEK TEST ITEMS FOR THE PREDICTION OF ARTICULATORY MATUARATION. AFTER SELECTION AND REDUCTION TO 135 TEST ITEMS, AN EXPERIMENTAL ITEM POOL WAS…

  2. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  3. 40 CFR 1039.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for... § 1039.104(e) and 40 CFR part 1065 to perform valid tests. (1) For service accumulation, use the test...

  4. 40 CFR 1039.501 - How do I run a valid emission test?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Test Procedures § 1039.501 How do I run a valid emission test? (a) Use the equipment and procedures for... § 1039.104(e) and 40 CFR part 1065 to perform valid tests. (1) For service accumulation, use the test...

  5. Screening methods for assessment of biodegradability of chemicals in seawater--results from a ring test.

    PubMed

    Nyholm, N; Kristensen, P

    1992-04-01

    An international ring test involving 14 laboratories was organized on behalf of the Commission of the European Economic Communities (EEC) with the purpose of evaluating two proposed screening methods for assessment of biodegradability in seawater: (a) a shake flask die-away test based primarily on analysis of dissolved organic carbon and (b) a closed bottle test based on determination of dissolved oxygen. Both tests are performed with nutrient-enriched natural seawater as the test medium and with no inoculum added other than the natural seawater microflora. The test methods are seawater versions of the modified OECD screening test and the closed bottle test, respectively, adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and by the EEC as tests for "ready biodegradability." The following five chemicals were examined: sodium benzoate, aniline, diethylene glycol, pentaerythritol, and 4-nitrophenol. Sodium benzoate and aniline, which are known to be generally readily biodegradable consistently degraded in practically all tests, thus demonstrating the technical feasibility of the methods. Like in previous ring tests with freshwater screening methods variable results were obtained with the other three compounds, which is believed primarily to be due to site-specific differences between the microflora of the different seawater samples used and to some extent also to differences in the applied concentrations of test material. A positive result with the screening methods indicates that the test substance will most likely degrade relatively rapidly in seawater from the site of collection, while a negative test result does not preclude biodegradability under environmental conditions where the concentrations of chemicals are much lower than the concentrations applied for analytical reasons in screening tests. Nevertheless, the screening tests are considered useful and cost-effective tools for an initial assessment of biodegradability in marine

  6. Electronic screening for mental health in rural primary care: feasibility and user testing.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Sarah P; Zerull, Lisa M; Mahone, Irma H; Guerlain, Stephanie; Akan, Doruk; Hauenstein, Emily; Schorling, John

    2009-01-01

    Despite attention to prevention and screening for depression and alcohol use, Healthy People 2010 objectives continue to include goals to increase the detection of depression and decrease the rates of alcohol abuse. These problems remain significant. The overall goal of this study was to develop a computer-based electronic screening (eScreening) tool and determine the feasibility of implementing computer-based eScreening technology for rural visitors to a primary care clinic. The study called specifically for an electronic touch screen with voice prompts. This tool, called the eScreening tool, screens for alcohol abuse and depression among rural patients in a primary care setting. The screening was offered to rural adults who are not in acute distress and not at end of life, regardless of their stated reason for seeking medical care. Phase 1 of the pilot was used to determine the perceptions of nurses, other providers, and consumers regarding the acceptability and perceived usefulness of an eScreening tool. Phase 2 involved user testing of the eScreening tool. The longer term goals of the research program are to work with rural nurses to improve patient outcomes and develop interventions and for educational, consultation, and/or direct clinical care.

  7. Radon testing behavior in a sample of individuals with high home radon screening measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Field, R.W.; Kross, B.C.; Vust, L.J. )

    1993-08-01

    Although radon exposure has been identified as the second leading cause of lung cancer, fewer than 6% of US homeowners test their homes for radon. This report examines participants' follow-up radon testing behavior subsequent to receiving an initial screening radon level greater than 20 pCi/L. Sixty-two participants in the Iowa State-Wide Rural Radon Screening Survey who had radon screening measurements over 20 pCi/L were questioned by phone survey 3 months after receipt of their radon screening result to assess: whether participants were aware of radon's health risk; if participants recalled the radon screening results; how participants perceived the relative health risk of radon and whether participants planned follow-up radon testing. Only 19% of the respondents specifically identified lung cancer as the possible adverse health outcome of high radon exposure, and the majority of participants underestimated the health risks high radon levels pose when compared to cigarettes and x-rays. In addition, less than one third (29%) of the participants actually remembered their radon screening level within 10 pCi/L 3 months after receiving their screening results. Only 53% of the individuals correctly interpreted their screening radon level as being in the high range, and only 39% of the participants planned follow-up radon measurements. Receipt of radon screening test results indicating high radon levels was not an adequate motivational factor in itself to stimulate further radon assessment or mitigation. The findings suggest that free radon screening will not result in a dramatic increase in subsequent homeowner initiated remediation or further recommended radon testing. 13 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  8. Getting clocked: screening for TBI-related cognitive impairment with the clock drawing test.

    PubMed

    Hazan, Elias; Zhang, Jia; Brenkel, Megan; Shulman, Kenneth; Feinstein, Anthony

    2017-09-28

    Undetected cognitive impairment resulting from Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs), particularly the 75-95% classified as mild (mTBI), poses a significant public health challenge as untreated symptoms, can persist and cause lasting disability. These cognitive deficits are often missed by standard screening tests, creating a need for alternative cognitive screening tools. The Clock Drawing Test (CDT), a popular, brief cognitive screening instrument, was used to evaluate cognition in persons with TBI. The effectiveness of the CDT was assessed on its own and in tandem with a validated computerised screening battery, including the Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), and Paced Visual Serial Addition Test 2-second trials (PVSAT-2). The clock drawing component of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) of 223 subjects attending an outpatient TBI clinic was scored using two different methods. The CDT screened for cognitive impairment most effectively when scored using the Clock Drawing Interpretation Scale (CDIS). Cognitive impairment was detected in 19.4% of the elusive cohort of persons with mTBI. The results of this study suggest that the CDT is effective at screening for cognitive impairment in persons with TBI. The CDT could be a valuable supplementary tool in TBI clinics as well as an effective cognitive screening instrument in busy primary care settings.

  9. Use of primary high-risk human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening: interim clinical guidance.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K; Ault, Kevin A; Chelmow, David; Davey, Diane D; Goulart, Robert A; Garcia, Francisco A R; Kinney, Walter K; Massad, L Stewart; Mayeaux, Edward J; Saslow, Debbie; Schiffman, Mark; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Lawson, Herschel W; Einstein, Mark H

    2015-02-01

    In 2011, the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology updated screening guidelines for the early detection of cervical cancer and its precursors. Recommended screening strategies were cytology and cotesting (cytology in combination with hrHPV testing). These guidelines also addressed the use of hrHPV testing alone as a primary screening approach, which was not recommended for use at that time. There is now a growing body of evidence for screening with primary hrHPV testing, including a prospective US-based registration study. Thirteen experts including representatives from the Society of Gynecologic Oncology, American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, American Cancer Society, American Society of Cytopathology, College of American Pathologists, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology, convened to provide interim guidance for primary hrHPV screening. This guidance panel was specifically triggered by an application to the FDA for a currently marketed HPV test to be labeled for the additional indication of primary cervical cancer screening. Guidance was based on literature review and review of data from the FDA registration study, supplemented by expert opinion. This document aims to provide information for healthcare providers who are interested in primary hrHPV testing and an overview of the potential advantages and disadvantages of this strategy for screening as well as to highlight areas in need of further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bias in trials comparing paired continuous tests can cause researchers to choose the wrong screening modality.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Deborah H; Lamb, Molly M; O'Donnell, Colin I; Ringham, Brandy M; Brinton, John T; Muller, Keith E; Lewin, John M; Alonzo, Todd A; Pisano, Etta D

    2009-01-20

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy of two continuous screening tests, a common approach is to test the difference between the areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. After study participants are screened with both screening tests, the disease status is determined as accurately as possible, either by an invasive, sensitive and specific secondary test, or by a less invasive, but less sensitive approach. For most participants, disease status is approximated through the less sensitive approach. The invasive test must be limited to the fraction of the participants whose results on either or both screening tests exceed a threshold of suspicion, or who develop signs and symptoms of the disease after the initial screening tests. The limitations of this study design lead to a bias in the ROC curves we call paired screening trial bias. This bias reflects the synergistic effects of inappropriate reference standard bias, differential verification bias, and partial verification bias. The absence of a gold reference standard leads to inappropriate reference standard bias. When different reference standards are used to ascertain disease status, it creates differential verification bias. When only suspicious screening test scores trigger a sensitive and specific secondary test, the result is a form of partial verification bias. For paired screening tests with bivariate normally distributed scores, we give formulae and programs to quantify the effect of paired screening trial bias on a paired comparison of area under the curves. We fix the prevalence of disease, and the chance a diseased subject manifests signs and symptoms. We derive the formulas for true sensitivity and specificity, and those for the sensitivity and specificity observed by the study investigator. The observed area under the ROC curves is quite different from the true area under the ROC curves. The typical direction of the bias is a strong inflation in sensitivity, paired with a concomitant

  11. Bias in estimating accuracy of a binary screening test with differential disease verification

    PubMed Central

    Brinton, John T.; Ringham, Brandy M.; Glueck, Deborah H.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value are typically used to quantify the accuracy of a binary screening test. In some studies it may not be ethical or feasible to obtain definitive disease ascertainment for all subjects using a gold standard test. When a gold standard test cannot be used an imperfect reference test that is less than 100% sensitive and specific may be used instead. In breast cancer screening, for example, follow-up for cancer diagnosis is used as an imperfect reference test for women where it is not possible to obtain gold standard results. This incomplete ascertainment of true disease, or differential disease verification, can result in biased estimates of accuracy. In this paper, we derive the apparent accuracy values for studies subject to differential verification. We determine how the bias is affected by the accuracy of the imperfect reference test, the percent who receive the imperfect reference standard test not receiving the gold standard, the prevalence of the disease, and the correlation between the results for the screening test and the imperfect reference test. It is shown that designs with differential disease verification can yield biased estimates of accuracy. Estimates of sensitivity in cancer screening trials may be substantially biased. However, careful design decisions, including selection of the imperfect reference test, can help to minimize bias. A hypothetical breast cancer screening study is used to illustrate the problem. PMID:21495059

  12. Bias in estimating accuracy of a binary screening test with differential disease verification.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Todd A; Brinton, John T; Ringham, Brandy M; Glueck, Deborah H

    2011-07-10

    Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value are typically used to quantify the accuracy of a binary screening test. In some studies, it may not be ethical or feasible to obtain definitive disease ascertainment for all subjects using a gold standard test. When a gold standard test cannot be used, an imperfect reference test that is less than 100 per cent sensitive and specific may be used instead. In breast cancer screening, for example, follow-up for cancer diagnosis is used as an imperfect reference test for women where it is not possible to obtain gold standard results. This incomplete ascertainment of true disease, or differential disease verification, can result in biased estimates of accuracy. In this paper, we derive the apparent accuracy values for studies subject to differential verification. We determine how the bias is affected by the accuracy of the imperfect reference test, the percent who receive the imperfect reference standard test not receiving the gold standard, the prevalence of the disease, and the correlation between the results for the screening test and the imperfect reference test. It is shown that designs with differential disease verification can yield biased estimates of accuracy. Estimates of sensitivity in cancer screening trials may be substantially biased. However, careful design decisions, including selection of the imperfect reference test, can help to minimize bias. A hypothetical breast cancer screening study is used to illustrate the problem. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Diffusion-controlled reference material for VOC emissions testing: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Cox, S S; Liu, Z; Little, J C; Howard-Reed, C; Nabinger, S J; Persily, A

    2010-10-01

    Because of concerns about indoor air quality, there is growing awareness of the need to reduce the rate at which indoor materials and products emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs). To meet consumer demand for low emitting products, manufacturers are increasingly submitting materials to independent laboratories for emissions testing. However, the same product tested by different laboratories can result in very different emissions profiles because of a general lack of test validation procedures. There is a need for a reference material that can be used as a known emissions source and that will have the same emission rate when tested by different laboratories under the same conditions. A reference material was created by loading toluene into a polymethyl pentene film. A fundamental emissions model was used to predict the toluene emissions profile. Measured VOC emissions profiles using small-chamber emissions tests compared reasonably well to the emissions profile predicted using the emissions model, demonstrating the feasibility of the proposed approach to create a diffusion-controlled reference material. To calibrate emissions test chambers and improve the reproducibility of VOC emission measurements among different laboratories, a reference material has been created using a polymer film loaded with a representative VOC. Initial results show that the film's VOC emission profile measured in a conventional test chamber compares well to predictions based on independently determined material/chemical properties and a fundamental emissions model. The use of such reference materials has the potential to build consensus and confidence in emissions testing as well as 'level the playing field' for product testing laboratories and manufacturers.

  14. USE OF THE LABORATORY RAT AS A MODEL IN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening and testing program the US Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing to detect endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. EDCs have been shown to alter the following activities: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG] function; estrogen, androge...

  15. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  16. USE OF THE LABORATORY RAT AS A MODEL IN ENDOCRINE DISRUPTOR SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The screening and testing program the US Environmental Protection Agency is currently developing to detect endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is described. EDCs have been shown to alter the following activities: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal [HPG] function; estrogen, androge...

  17. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY - OBJECTIVE 2: DEVELOPING APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICALS FOR SUBSEQUENT SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic objectives of the Computational Toxicology Program is to develop approaches for prioritizing chemicals for subsequent screening and testing. Approaches currently available for this process require extensive resources. Therefore, less costly and time-extensi...

  18. COMPUTATIONAL TOXICOLOGY - OBJECTIVE 2: DEVELOPING APPROACHES FOR PRIORITIZING CHEMICALS FOR SUBSEQUENT SCREENING AND TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic objectives of the Computational Toxicology Program is to develop approaches for prioritizing chemicals for subsequent screening and testing. Approaches currently available for this process require extensive resources. Therefore, less costly and time-extensi...

  19. 77 FR 4544 - CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-30

    ...(a)(2)) defines a ``children's product'' as a consumer product designed or intended primarily for... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CPSC Symposium on Phthalates Screening and Testing Methods AGENCY: Consumer Product...

  20. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE OR REPLACE THE USE OF ANIMALS IN THE ENDOCRINE SCREENING AND TESTING PROGRAM.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract: The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing a screening and testing program for endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) to detect alterations of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function, estrogen, androgen and thyroid hormone synthesis and androgen (AR...

  1. Improving the biomarker pipeline to develop and evaluate cancer screening tests.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G

    2009-08-19

    The biomarker pipeline to develop and evaluate cancer screening tests has three stages: identification of promising biomarkers for the early detection of cancer, initial evaluation of biomarkers for cancer screening, and definitive evaluation of biomarkers for cancer screening. Statistical and biological issues to improve this pipeline are discussed. Although various recommendations, such as identifying cases based on clinical symptoms, keeping biomarker tests simple, and adjusting for postscreening noise, have been made previously, they are not widely known. New recommendations include more frequent specimen collection to help identify promising biomarkers and the use of the paired availability design with interval cases (symptomatic cancers detected in the interval after screening) for initial evaluation of biomarkers for cancer screening.

  2. A simplified screening test for identifying people with low vision in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Keeffe, J. E.; Lovie-Kitchin, J. E.; Maclean, H.; Taylor, H. R.

    1996-01-01

    Simple but effective tests have been produced for screening subjects with low vision in developing countries. These tests of distance and near vision, based on the E test, were evaluated and validated in trials with people aged 4-90 years, and have been field tested in the health, education and rehabilitation services in 32 developing countries. Their sensitivity and specificity as screening tools for low vision have been calculated; sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 96% for the distance vision test, and sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 84% for the near vision test. The content and format of the tests have been demonstrated to be appropriate for developing countries, and their effectiveness for screening for low vision has been confirmed. PMID:9002333

  3. Effects of changes in click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) pass criteria, as used in the English newborn hearing screening program, on screening outcome.

    PubMed

    Stevens, John; Brandreth, Marian; Bacon, Paul

    2014-09-01

    There were two objectives, firstly what effect does a change in the pass criteria of a click-evoked otoacoustic emission (CEOAE) newborn hearing screen have on the number of cases of significant hearing impairment detected by follow up diagnostics, and secondly how does this change affect the screen pass rate? Changes in the pass criteria were: reduction in the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR); reduction in the minimum signal level (MSL); inclusion of the 1-kHz half-octave band; reduction from two to a single half-octave band. Data from three screening sites was used within the English newborn hearing screening program from the period 2002 to 2006, with a total number of births of about 40,000. There were 42 bilateral and 43 unilateral cases of significant hearing impairment. No effect on the number of cases detected by follow up diagnostics was observed when: (1) SNR was reduced to a minimum of 5 dB; (2) MSL was reduced to -10 dB SPL; and (3) the 1-kHz band was included. With all these changes the percentage pass rate improved by 0.36%. The current choice of SNR and MSL criteria appears robust. Only a small increase in pass rate is possible without affecting case detection.

  4. Administering Cognitive Tests Through Touch Screen Tablet Devices: Potential Issues.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Amy; Lindsay, Stephen; Eslambolchilar, Parisa; Thornton, Ian M; Tales, Andrea

    2016-10-04

    Mobile technologies, such as tablet devices, open up new possibilities for health-related diagnosis, monitoring, and intervention for older adults and healthcare practitioners. Current evaluations of cognitive integrity typically occur within clinical settings, such as memory clinics, using pen and paper or computer-based tests. In the present study, we investigate the challenges associated with transferring such tests to touch-based, mobile technology platforms from an older adult perspective. Problems may include individual variability in technical familiarity and acceptance; various factors influencing usability; acceptability; response characteristics and thus validity per se of a given test. For the results of mobile technology-based tests of reaction time to be valid and related to disease status rather than extraneous variables, it is imperative the whole test process is investigated in order to determine potential effects before the test is fully developed. Researchers have emphasized the importance of including the 'user' in the evaluation of such devices; thus we performed a focus group-based qualitative assessment of the processes involved in the administration and performance of a tablet-based version of a typical test of attention and information processing speed (a multi-item localization task), to younger and older adults. We report that although the test was regarded positively, indicating that using a tablet for the delivery of such tests is feasible, it is important for developers to consider factors surrounding user expectations, performance feedback, and physical response requirements and to use this information to inform further research into such applications.

  5. [Return for HIV test results after voluntary screening in Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Ngangue, Patrice-Alain; Gagnon, Marie-Pierre; Bedard, Emmanuelle

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to identify beliefs, perceptions and attitudes that may influence the return for test results after voluntary HIV testing in six district hospitals of the city of Douala in Cameroon.Methods: A qualitative study based on theory of planned behaviour (TPB) and using semi-structured interviews (N = 33) was conducted among individuals who underwent a voluntary HIV test in the prevention and voluntary testing and counselling centres (PVTCCs) located in six district hospitals of the city of Douala in Cameroon.Results: Participants identified a) seven advantages to return for their results (e.g., “knowing about my health condition,” “take the medication in the case of a positive result “and four disadvantages (e.g., fear of positive result); b) four groups of people that may influence their decision to return for HIV test results (e.g., family, friends/colleagues; c) one barrier (lack of time) and four factors that can facilitate return for the results after an HIV testing (e.g., the career project).Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that individuals who voluntarily undergo an HIV test in PVTCCs of the Douala district hospitals in Cameroon perceived real advantages and very few disadvantages and barriers to know their HIV status. Particular attention should be given to organizational factors that may be responsible for failure to return for HIV test results and post-test counselling.

  6. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Dale; Selby, Neil

    2012-08-14

    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  7. Discriminant validity of the Visual Motor Integration Test in screening children with handwriting dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shao-Hsia; Yu, Nan-Ying

    2009-12-01

    To examine the discriminant validity of the Visual Motor Integration test in screening children with handwriting dysfunction, 599 children in Grade 2, including 41 children with handwriting dysfunction identified by their teachers and 558 typically developing children, were assessed. The Visual Motor Integration test, with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.894), showed high accuracy regarding screening purposes. Judging from the values for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio, negative likelihood ratio, hit rate, Youden's index, and odds ratio, a standard score of 85 was the best cutoff point for screening children for handwriting dysfunction.

  8. Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe

    SciTech Connect

    Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu

    2012-07-01

    Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.

  9. NSGC practice guideline: prenatal screening and diagnostic testing options for chromosome aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, K L; Czerwinski, J L; Hoskovec, J M; Noblin, S J; Sullivan, C M; Harbison, A; Campion, M W; Devary, K; Devers, P; Singletary, C N

    2013-02-01

    The BUN and FASTER studies, two prospective multicenter trials in the United States, validated the accuracy and detection rates of first and second trimester screening previously reported abroad. These studies, coupled with the 2007 release of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) Practice Bulletin that endorsed first trimester screening as an alternative to traditional second trimester multiple marker screening, led to an explosion of screening options available to pregnant women. ACOG also recommended that invasive diagnostic testing for chromosome aneuploidy be made available to all women regardless of maternal age. More recently, another option known as Non-invasive Prenatal Testing (NIPT) became available to screen for chromosome aneuploidy. While screening and testing options may be limited due to a variety of factors, healthcare providers need to be aware of the options in their area in order to provide their patients with accurate and reliable information. If not presented clearly, patients may feel overwhelmed at the number of choices available. The following guideline includes recommendations for healthcare providers regarding which screening or diagnostic test should be offered based on availability, insurance coverage, and timing of a patient's entry into prenatal care, as well as a triage assessment so that a general process can be adapted to unique situations.

  10. Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emission Test Performance for Ototoxicity Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Reavis, Kelly M.; McMillan, Garnett; Austin, Donald; Gallun, Frederick; Fausti, Stephen A.; Gordon, Jane S.; Helt, Wendy J.; Konrad-Martin, Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Introduction A nonbehavioral method for monitoring ototoxicity in patients treated with cisplatin is needed because patients enduring chemotherapy may not be well or cooperative enough to undergo repeated hearing tests. Distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) provide a nonbehavioral measure of auditory function that is sensitive to cisplatin exposure. However, interpreting DPOAE findings in the context of ototoxicity monitoring requires that their accuracy be determined in relation to a clinically accepted gold standard test. Objectives Among patients receiving cisplatin for the treatment of cancer, we sought to (1) identify the combination of DPOAE metrics and ototoxicity risk factors that best classified ears with and without ototoxic-induced hearing changes; and (2) evaluate the test performance achieved by the composite measure as well as by DPOAEs alone. Design Odds of experiencing hearing changes at a given patient visit were determined using data collected prospectively from 24 Veterans receiving cisplatin. Pure-tone thresholds were examined within an octave of each subject’s high-frequency hearing limit. DPOAE were collected as a set of four response growth (input/output) functions near the highest f2 frequency that yielded a robust response at L2 = L1 = 65 dB SPL. Logistic regression modeled the risk of hearing change using several DPOAE metrics, drug treatment factors, and other patient factors as independent variables. An optimal discriminant function was derived by reducing the model so that only statistically significant variables were included. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to evaluate test performance. Results At higher cisplatin doses, ears with better hearing at baseline were more likely to exhibit ototoxic hearing changes than those with poorer hearing. Measures of pre-exposure hearing, cumulative drug dose, and DPOAEs generated a highly accurate discriminant function with a cross-validated area under the

  11. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1055 - Newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Newborn screening test system for amino acids... screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem mass spectrometry. (a) Identification. A newborn screening test system for amino acids, free carnitine, and acylcarnitines using tandem...

  15. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening.

    PubMed

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-11-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  16. Non-invasive prenatal testing for aneuploidy and beyond: challenges of responsible innovation in prenatal screening

    PubMed Central

    Dondorp, Wybo; de Wert, Guido; Bombard, Yvonne; Bianchi, Diana W; Bergmann, Carsten; Borry, Pascal; Chitty, Lyn S; Fellmann, Florence; Forzano, Francesca; Hall, Alison; Henneman, Lidewij; Howard, Heidi C; Lucassen, Anneke; Ormond, Kelly; Peterlin, Borut; Radojkovic, Dragica; Rogowski, Wolf; Soller, Maria; Tibben, Aad; Tranebjærg, Lisbeth; van El, Carla G; Cornel, Martina C

    2015-01-01

    This paper contains a joint ESHG/ASHG position document with recommendations regarding responsible innovation in prenatal screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT). By virtue of its greater accuracy and safety with respect to prenatal screening for common autosomal aneuploidies, NIPT has the potential of helping the practice better achieve its aim of facilitating autonomous reproductive choices, provided that balanced pretest information and non-directive counseling are available as part of the screening offer. Depending on the health-care setting, different scenarios for NIPT-based screening for common autosomal aneuploidies are possible. The trade-offs involved in these scenarios should be assessed in light of the aim of screening, the balance of benefits and burdens for pregnant women and their partners and considerations of cost-effectiveness and justice. With improving screening technologies and decreasing costs of sequencing and analysis, it will become possible in the near future to significantly expand the scope of prenatal screening beyond common autosomal aneuploidies. Commercial providers have already begun expanding their tests to include sex-chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions. However, multiple false positives may undermine the main achievement of NIPT in the context of prenatal screening: the significant reduction of the invasive testing rate. This document argues for a cautious expansion of the scope of prenatal screening to serious congenital and childhood disorders, only following sound validation studies and a comprehensive evaluation of all relevant aspects. A further core message of this document is that in countries where prenatal screening is offered as a public health programme, governments and public health authorities should adopt an active role to ensure the responsible innovation of prenatal screening on the basis of ethical principles. Crucial elements are the quality of the screening process as a whole (including non

  17. Newborn screening for citrin deficiency and carnitine uptake defect using second-tier molecular tests

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis is a powerful tool for newborn screening, and many rare inborn errors of metabolism are currently screened using MS/MS. However, the sensitivity of MS/MS screening for several inborn errors, including citrin deficiency (screened by citrulline level) and carnitine uptake defect (CUD, screened by free carnitine level), is not satisfactory. This study was conducted to determine whether a second-tier molecular test could improve the sensitivity of citrin deficiency and CUD detection without increasing the false-positive rate. Methods Three mutations in the SLC25A13 gene (for citrin deficiency) and one mutation in the SLC22A5 gene (for CUD) were analyzed in newborns who demonstrated an inconclusive primary screening result (with levels between the screening and diagnostic cutoffs). Results The results revealed that 314 of 46 699 newborns received a second-tier test for citrin deficiency, and two patients were identified; 206 of 30 237 newborns received a second-tier testing for CUD, and one patient was identified. No patients were identified using the diagnostic cutoffs. Although the incidences for citrin deficiency (1:23 350) and CUD (1:30 000) detected by screening are still lower than the incidences calculated from the mutation carrier rates, the second-tier molecular test increases the sensitivity of newborn screening for citrin deficiency and CUD without increasing the false-positive rate. Conclusions Utilizing a molecular second-tier test for citrin deficiency and carnitine transporter deficiency is feasible. PMID:23394329

  18. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform... test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air carrier must ensure that...

  19. 49 CFR 1546.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Carrier Conducts Screening § 1546.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform... test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each foreign air carrier must ensure that...

  20. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator must...

  1. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator must...

  2. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator must...

  3. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator must...

  4. 49 CFR 1544.407 - Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals who perform screening functions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Training, testing, and knowledge of individuals... Qualifications When the Aircraft Operator Performs Screening § 1544.407 Training, testing, and knowledge of... on-the-job training test prescribed by TSA. (f) Knowledge requirements. Each aircraft operator must...

  5. Preliminary Report on a National Cross-Validation of the Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Deirdre J.; Pliske, Rebecca M.

    A study was conducted to validate the Army's Computerized Adaptive Screening Test (CAST), using data from 2,240 applicants from 60 army recruiting stations across the nation. CAST is a computer-assisted adaptive test used to predict performance on the Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT). AFQT scores are computed by adding four subtest scores of…

  6. Predictive Properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test within Samples from Two Treatment Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerji, Madhabi

    The predictive properties of the Gesell School Readiness Screening Test (GSRT) were examined, taking into account the stated purposes of the test and the context of test use. Two samples were used: (1) a control sample of 55 students (21 males and 34 females) whose GSRT scores were not used for placement or tracking; and (2) a treatment sample of…

  7. The Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) as a Predictor of Third-Grade Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichta, Lawrence J., Jr.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Evaluated the Screening Test of Academic Readiness (STAR) using a sample of 28 third graders. The third graders' scores on the Peabody Individual Achievement Test were correlated with their total STAR scores from prekindergarten testing. Results showed the STAR is a useful instrument for predicting third grade achievement. (Author/JAC)

  8. Recommendations for Developing Alternative Test Methods for Screening and Prioritization of Chemicals for Developmental Neurotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental neurotoxicity testing (DNT) is perceived by many stakeholders to be an area in critical need of alternative methods to current animal testing protocols and gUidelines. An immediate goal is to develop test methods that are capable of screening large numbers of chemic...

  9. Cervical cancer screening of HPV vaccinated populations: Cytology, molecular testing, both or none.

    PubMed

    El-Zein, Mariam; Richardson, Lyndsay; Franco, Eduardo L

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer control includes primary prevention through vaccination to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and secondary prevention through screening to detect and treat cervical precancerous lesions. This review summarizes the evidence for the population impact of vaccines against oncogenic HPV types in reducing the prevalence of cervical precancerous lesions. We examine the gradual shift in screening technology from cervical cytology alone to cytology and HPV cotesting, and finally to the recognition that HPV testing can serve alone as the new screening paradigm, particularly in the initial post-vaccination era. We should expect an impact on screening performance and practices, as cohorts of HPV-vaccinated girls and adolescents reach cervical cancer screening age. In preparation for changes in the screening paradigm for the vaccination era, we propose that policymaking on cervical cancer screening should mirror current practices with other cancers as benchmarks. Cervical precancerous lesions will become a very rare condition following the widespread implementation of HPV vaccines with broader coverage in the number of preventable oncogenic types. Irrespective of screening technology, the false positive results will far outnumber the true positive ones, a tipping point that will herald a new period when the harms from cervical cancer screening will outweigh its benefits. We present a conceptual framework to guide decision making when we reach this point within 25-30 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. ARTISTIC: a randomised trial of human papillomavirus (HPV) testing in primary cervical screening.

    PubMed

    Kitchener, H C; Almonte, M; Gilham, C; Dowie, R; Stoykova, B; Sargent, A; Roberts, C; Desai, M; Peto, J

    2009-11-01

    Primary cervical screening uses cytology to detect cancer precursor lesions [cervical intraepithelial neoplasia stage 3 or beyond (CIN3+)]. Human papillomavirus (HPV) testing could add sensitivity as an adjunct to cytology or as a first test, reserving cytology for HPV-positive women. This study addresses the questions: Does the combination of cytology and HPV testing achieve a reduction in incident CIN3+?; Is HPV testing cost-effective in primary cervical screening?; Is its use associated with adverse psychosocial or psychosexual effects?; and How would it perform as an initial screening test followed by cytology for HPV positivity? ARTISTIC was a randomised trial of cervical cytology versus cervical cytology plus HPV testing, evaluated over two screening rounds, 3 years apart. Round 1 would detect prevalent disease and round 2 a combination of incident and undetected disease from round 1. Women undergoing routine cervical screening in the NHS programme in Greater Manchester. In total 24,510 women aged 20-64 years were enrolled between July 2001 and September 2003. HPV testing was performed on the liquid-based cytology (LBC) sample obtained at screening. Women were randomised in a ratio of 3:1 to have the HPV test result revealed and acted upon if persistently positive in cytology-negative cases or concealed. A detailed health economic evaluation and a psychosocial and psychosexual assessment were also performed. The primary outcome was CIN3+ in round 2. Secondary outcomes included an economic assessment and psychosocial effects. A large HPV genotyping study was also conducted. In round 1 there were 313 CIN3+ lesions, representing a prevalence in the revealed and concealed arms of 1.27% and 1.31% respectively (p = 0.81). Round 2 (30-48 months) involved 14,230 (58.1%) of the women screened in round 1 and only 31 CIN3+ were detected; the CIN3 rate was not significantly different between the revealed and concealed arms. A less restrictive definition of round 2 (26

  11. Sequential pathways of testing after first-trimester screening for trisomy 21.

    PubMed

    Platt, Lawrence D; Greene, Naomi; Johnson, Anthony; Zachary, Julia; Thom, Elizabeth; Krantz, David; Simpson, Joe Leigh; Silver, Richard K; Snijders, Rosalinde J M; Goetzl, Laura; Pergament, Eugene; Filkins, Karen; Mahoney, Maurice J; Hogge, W Allen; Wilson, R Douglas; Mohide, Patrick; Hershey, Douglas; MacGregor, Scott; Bahado-Singh, Ray; Jackson, Laird G; Wapner, Ronald

    2004-10-01

    To evaluate the performance and use of second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening for trisomy 21 by women who had previously undergone first-trimester combined screening (nuchal translucency, pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, and free beta-hCG), with disclosure of risk estimates. In a multicenter, first-trimester screening study sponsored by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, multiple-marker maternal serum screening with alpha-fetoprotein, unconjugated estriol, and total hCG was performed in 4,145 (7 with trisomy 21) of 7,392 (9 with trisomy 21) women who were first-trimester screen-negative and 180 (7 with trisomy 21) of 813 (52 with trisomy 21) who were first-trimester screen-positive. Second-trimester risks were calculated using multiples of the median and a standardized risk algorithm with a cutoff risk of 1:270. Among the first-trimester screen-negative cohort, 6 of 7 (86%) trisomy 21 cases were detected by second-trimester multiple-marker maternal serum screening with a false-positive rate of 8.9%. Among the first-trimester screen-positive cohort, all 7 trisomy 21 cases were also detected in the second trimester, albeit with a 38.7% false-positive rate. Our data demonstrate that a sequential screening program that provides patients with first-trimester results and offers the option for early invasive testing or additional serum screening in the second trimester can detect 98% of trisomy 21-affected pregnancies. However, such an approach will result in 17% of patients being considered at risk and, hence, potentially having an invasive test. II-2

  12. Outreach sexual infection screening and postal tests in men who have sex with men: are they comparable to clinic screening?

    PubMed

    Wood, Martyn; Ellks, Rachael; Grobicki, Moira

    2015-05-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have higher rates of poor sexual health. The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence has produced guidance on increasing the uptake of HIV testing to reduce undiagnosed infection in MSM. We report the results of a pilot outreach sexually transmitted infection service using nurse-delivered screening and self-sampled postal testing at a sex on premises venue with comparison made against a sexual health clinic service. Thirty men were included in each group. Users of the nurse-delivered and postal services were older (nurse service median age 57.5 years vs. postal kit service 47 years vs. clinic 35.5 years, p ≤ 0.001). Outreach groups were less likely to have undertaken sexually transmitted infection testing previously than the clinic group (53.3% and 60% vs. 93.3%, p ≤ 0.001). Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing uptake was comparable across groups (nurse outreach 86.6%, 'do it yourself' postal kit 100% vs. clinic 100%, p = 0.032), but uptake for blood tests was lower in the postal kit group (nurse outreach 83.3%, postal kit 53.3% vs. clinic 100%, p ≤ 0.001). No significant difference in active sexually transmitted infection positivity across the groups was observed. This combination outreach screening approach is effective in targeting MSM who use sex on premises venues.

  13. The Possible Effects on Socio-Economic Inequalities of Introducing HPV Testing as Primary Test in Cervical Cancer Screening Programs

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Baldacchini, Flavia; Ronco, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Screening with HPV is more effective than Pap test in preventing cervical cancer. HPV as primary test will imply longer intervals and a triage test for HPV positive women. It will also permit the development of self-sampling devices. These innovations may affect population coverage, participation, and compliance to protocols, and likely in a different way for less educated, poorer, and disadvantaged women. Aim: To describe the impact on inequalities, actual or presumed, of the introduction of HPV-based screening. Methods: The putative HPV-based screening algorithm has been analyzed to identify critical points for inequalities. A systematic review of the literature has been conducted searching PubMed on HPV screening coverage, participation, and compliance. Results were summarized in a narrative synthesis. Results: Knowledge about HPV and cervical cancer was lower in women with low socio-economic status and in disadvantaged groups. A correct communication can reduce differences. Longer intervals will make it easier to achieve high-population coverage, but higher cost of the test in private providers could reduce the use of opportunistic screening by disadvantaged women. There are some evidences that inviting for HPV test instead of Pap increases participation, but there are no data on social differences. Self-sampling devices are effective in increasing participation and coverage. Some studies showed that the acceptability of self-sampling is higher in more educated women, but there is also an effect on hard-to-reach women. Communication of HPV positivity may increase anxiety and impact on sexual behaviors, the effect is stronger in low educated and disadvantaged women. Finally, many studies found indirect evidence that unvaccinated women are or will be more probably under-screened. Conclusion: The introduction of HPV test may increase population coverage, but non-compliance to protocols and interaction with opportunistic screening can increase the

  14. Validation testing of shallow notched round-bar screening test specimens. [for the space shuttle main engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vroman, G. A.

    1975-01-01

    The capability of shallow-notched, round-bar, tensile specimens for screening critical environments as they affect the material fracture properties of the space shuttle main engine was tested and analyzed. Specimens containing a 0.050-inch-deep circumferential sharp notch were cyclically loaded in a 5000-psi hydrogen environment at temperatures of +70 and -15 F. Replication of test results and a marked change in cyclic life because of temperature variation demonstrated the validity of the specimen type to be utilized for screening tests.

  15. A wireless data acquisition system for acoustic emission testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmerman, A. T.; Lynch, J. P.

    2013-01-01

    As structural health monitoring (SHM) systems have seen increased demand due to lower costs and greater capabilities, wireless technologies have emerged that enable the dense distribution of transducers and the distributed processing of sensor data. In parallel, ultrasonic techniques such as acoustic emission (AE) testing have become increasingly popular in the non-destructive evaluation of materials and structures. These techniques, which involve the analysis of frequency content between 1 kHz and 1 MHz, have proven effective in detecting the onset of cracking and other early-stage failure in active structures such as airplanes in flight. However, these techniques typically involve the use of expensive and bulky monitoring equipment capable of accurately sensing AE signals at sampling rates greater than 1 million samples per second. In this paper, a wireless data acquisition system is presented that is capable of collecting, storing, and processing AE data at rates of up to 20 MHz. Processed results can then be wirelessly transmitted in real-time, creating a system that enables the use of ultrasonic techniques in large-scale SHM systems.

  16. Integrating HIV testing into cervical cancer screening in Tanzania: an analysis of routine service delivery statistics.

    PubMed

    Plotkin, Marya; Besana, Giulia V R; Yuma, Safina; Kim, Young Mi; Kulindwa, Yusuph; Kabole, Fatma; Lu, Enriquito; Giattas, Mary Rose

    2014-09-30

    While the lifetime risk of developing cervical cancer (CaCx) and acquiring HIV is high for women in Tanzania, most women have not tested for HIV in the past year and most have never been screened for CaCx. Good management of both diseases, which have a synergistic relationship, requires integrated screening, prevention, and treatment services. The aim of this analysis is to assess the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of integrating HIV testing into CaCx prevention services in Tanzania, so as to inform scale-up strategies. We analysed 2010-2013 service delivery data from 21 government health facilities in four regions of the country, to examine integration of HIV testing within newly introduced CaCx screening and treatment services, located in the reproductive and child health (RCH) section of the facility. Analysis included the proportion of clients offered and accepting the HIV test, reasons why testing was not offered or was declined, and HIV status of CaCx screening clients. A total of 24,966 women were screened for CaCx; of these, approximately one-quarter (26%) were referred in from HIV care and treatment clinics. Among the women of unknown HIV status (n = 18,539), 60% were offered an HIV test. The proportion of women offered an HIV test varied over time, but showed a trend of decline as the program expanded. Unavailability of HIV test kits at the facility was the most common reason for a CaCx screening client not to be offered an HIV test (71% of 6,321 cases). Almost all women offered (94%) accepted testing, and 5% of those tested (582 women) learned for the first time that they were HIV-positive. Integrating HIV testing into CaCx screening services was highly acceptable to clients and was an effective means of reaching HIV-positive women who did not know their status; effectiveness was limited, however, by shortages of HIV test kits at facilities. Integration of HIV testing into CaCx screening services should be prioritized in HIV

  17. From guaiac to immune fecal occult blood tests: the emergence of technology in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States for both men and women. Colorectal cancer screening is an important means for reducing morbidity and mortality. The American Cancer Society recommends five different screening regimens for adults of average risk, age 50 years and older. The optimal effectiveness of a screening program is dependent on the accuracy of the screening test used. An accurate screening test would have high sensitivity (positive) when an adenomatous polyp or cancer is present and high specificity (negative) in their absence. In April 2002, the American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory Group concluded that the immunochemical fecal occult blood test has some advantages that merit revision of their guideline statement for fecal occult blood testing, to include the immunochemical fecal occult blood test. The advantages cited were the possibility of improved sensitivity and specificity and the lack of required dietary restrictions, which make it a more patient-friendly test. Several types of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests are discussed in this article, including their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of the traditional guaiac fecal occult blood testing.

  18. Application of ORAL.screen saliva drug test for the screening of methamphetamine, MDMA, and MDEA incorporated in hair.

    PubMed

    Miki, Akihiro; Katagi, Munehiro; Shima, Noriaki; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi

    2004-03-01

    By the use of a one-step immunoassay drug test for oral fluid, a convenient and fairly sensitive screening method has been devised for methamphetamine (MA), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), and 3,4-methylenedioxyethylamphetamine (MDEA) incorporated in hair. These drugs, in a 10-mg portion of hair, were extracted into 5M HCl/methanol (1:20, v/v), and the extract reconstituted in 100 micro L water was assayed with the saliva drug test ORAL.screen trade mark. The limits of detection were 0.5 ng/mg hair for d-MA, 0.8 ng/mg for dl-MDMA, and 1.0 ng/mg for dl-MDEA. The results are in good agreement with those of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) determination. Although all positive results must be confirmed by either GC-MS or a specific alternative methodology, this method provided a simple screening, suitable for drug enforcement purposes, while requiring only a 10-mg hair specimen.

  19. Chapter 13: Primary screening of cervical cancer with human papillomavirus tests.

    PubMed

    Franco, Eduardo L

    2003-01-01

    Despite its history of success in cancer screening, Pap cytology has important limitations, particularly its high false-negative rate, which carries important public health implications. Since the mid-1990s, there has been substantial interest in the use of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA testing in cervical cancer screening under the premise that the testing of cervical cells for the causative agent of cervical cancer could have acceptable screening performance, while being more reproducible in clinical practice than Pap cytology. There have been several studies assessing the utility of HPV testing compared with the Pap test as a screening tool. These studies varied widely in lesion-outcome definition and in methodology. No studies were based on cervical cancer incidence or mortality. No randomized controlled trials have yet been published; all of the studies were based on concomitant testing for HPV and cytology or additional tests. HPV testing has greater sensitivity (average, 27%) but somewhat lower specificity (average, 8%) than Pap cytology for detecting high-grade lesions. Screening of women aged 30 years or older tends to improve test specificity, but it also does so for cytology. The combination of cytology and HPV attained high-negative predictive values, which suggests that their joint use could allow screening intervals to be safely increased, thus lowering costs. Although evidence is yet to come from long-term studies and from randomized controlled trials with high-grade lesions and invasive cancer as outcomes, HPV testing is clearly one of the most promising new technologies and has the potential to improve cervical cancer-screening effectiveness in many settings.

  20. Automated screening of propulsion system test data by neural networks, phase 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoyt, W. Andes; Whitehead, Bruce A.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of propulsion system test and flight performance data involves reviewing an extremely large volume of sensor data generated by each test. An automated system that screens large volumes of data and identifies propulsion system parameters which appear unusual or anomalous will increase the productivity of data analysis. Data analysts may then focus on a smaller subset of anomalous data for further evaluation of propulsion system tests. Such an automated data screening system would give NASA the benefit of a reduction in the manpower and time required to complete a propulsion system data evaluation. A phase 1 effort to develop a prototype data screening system is reported. Neural networks will detect anomalies based on nominal propulsion system data only. It appears that a reasonable goal for an operational system would be to screen out 95 pct. of the nominal data, leaving less than 5 pct. needing further analysis by human experts.

  1. Stool DNA Testing to Screen for Colorectal Cancer in the Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; Wilschut, Janneke A.; Zauber, Ann G.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    Background Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse stool DNA testing for colorectal cancer screening among Medicare enrollees. Objective To evaluate the conditions under which stool DNA testing could be cost-effective compared with the colorectal cancer screening tests currently reimbursed by CMS. Design Comparative microsimulation modeling study using two independently-developed models. Data Sources Derived from literature. Target Population 65-year-old (Medicare eligible) individuals; 50-year old individuals as sensitivity analysis. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Third-party payer. Interventions Stool DNA test every 3 or 5 years in comparison to currently-recommended colorectal cancer screening strategies. Outcome Measures Life expectancy, lifetime costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, threshold costs. Results of Base-Case Analysis Assuming a cost of $350 per test, strategies of stool DNA testing every 3 or 5 years yielded fewer life-years and higher costs than the currently recommended colorectal cancer screening strategies. Results of Threshold Analysis Screening with the stool DNA test would be cost-effective at per-test cost of $40 to $60 for 3-yearly stool DNA testing, depending on the simulation model used. There were no levels of sensitivity and specificity for which stool DNA testing would be cost-effective at its current cost of $350 per test. Stool DNA testing at 3-yearly intervals would be cost-effective at a cost of $350 per test if the relative adherence with stool DNA testing were at least 50% better than with other screening tests. Results of Sensitivity Analysis None of the above mentioned results changed significantly when considering a 50-year old cohort. Limitations We did not model other pathways than the traditional adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Conclusions Only if a significant reduction can be made to the test cost or if its availability would entice a large fraction of otherwise unscreened

  2. Adaptation of high-throughput screening in drug discovery-toxicological screening tests.

    PubMed

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound's toxicity having only 1-3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study.

  3. Adaptation of High-Throughput Screening in Drug Discovery—Toxicological Screening Tests

    PubMed Central

    Szymański, Paweł; Markowicz, Magdalena; Mikiciuk-Olasik, Elżbieta

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is one of the newest techniques used in drug design and may be applied in biological and chemical sciences. This method, due to utilization of robots, detectors and software that regulate the whole process, enables a series of analyses of chemical compounds to be conducted in a short time and the affinity of biological structures which is often related to toxicity to be defined. Since 2008 we have implemented the automation of this technique and as a consequence, the possibility to examine 100,000 compounds per day. The HTS method is more frequently utilized in conjunction with analytical techniques such as NMR or coupled methods e.g., LC-MS/MS. Series of studies enable the establishment of the rate of affinity for targets or the level of toxicity. Moreover, researches are conducted concerning conjugation of nanoparticles with drugs and the determination of the toxicity of such structures. For these purposes there are frequently used cell lines. Due to the miniaturization of all systems, it is possible to examine the compound’s toxicity having only 1–3 mg of this compound. Determination of cytotoxicity in this way leads to a significant decrease in the expenditure and to a reduction in the length of the study. PMID:22312262

  4. Cost-Effectiveness between Double and Single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) in a Mass Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Shan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Li, Qi-Long; Ma, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Zheng, Shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cost-effectiveness between double and single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) (FIT) in a mass CRC screening. A two-stage sequential screening was conducted. FIT was used as a primary screening test and recommended twice by an interval of one week at the first screening stage. We defined the first-time FIT as FIT1 and the second-time FIT as FIT2. If either FIT1 or FIT2 was positive (+), then a colonoscopy was recommended at the second stage. Costs were recorded and analyzed. A total of 24,419 participants completed either FIT1 or FIT2. The detection rate of advanced neoplasm was 19.2% among both FIT1+ and FIT2+, especially high among men with age ≥55 (27.4%). About 15.4% CRC, 18.9% advanced neoplasm, and 29.9% adenoma missed by FIT1 were detected by FIT2 alone. Average cost was $2,935 for double FITs and $2,121 for FIT1 to detect each CRC and $901 for double FITs and $680 for FIT1 to detect each advanced neoplasm. Double FITs are overall more cost-effective, having significantly higher positive and detection rates with an acceptable higher cost, than single FIT. Double FITs should be encouraged for the first screening in a mass CRC screening, especially in economically and medically underserved populations/areas/countries. PMID:27144171

  5. Cost-Effectiveness between Double and Single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) in a Mass Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Cai, Shan-Rong; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Huang, Yan-Qin; Li, Qi-Long; Ma, Xin-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Zhan; Zheng, Shu

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the cost-effectiveness between double and single Fecal Immunochemical Test(s) (FIT) in a mass CRC screening. A two-stage sequential screening was conducted. FIT was used as a primary screening test and recommended twice by an interval of one week at the first screening stage. We defined the first-time FIT as FIT1 and the second-time FIT as FIT2. If either FIT1 or FIT2 was positive (+), then a colonoscopy was recommended at the second stage. Costs were recorded and analyzed. A total of 24,419 participants completed either FIT1 or FIT2. The detection rate of advanced neoplasm was 19.2% among both FIT1+ and FIT2+, especially high among men with age ≥55 (27.4%). About 15.4% CRC, 18.9% advanced neoplasm, and 29.9% adenoma missed by FIT1 were detected by FIT2 alone. Average cost was $2,935 for double FITs and $2,121 for FIT1 to detect each CRC and $901 for double FITs and $680 for FIT1 to detect each advanced neoplasm. Double FITs are overall more cost-effective, having significantly higher positive and detection rates with an acceptable higher cost, than single FIT. Double FITs should be encouraged for the first screening in a mass CRC screening, especially in economically and medically underserved populations/areas/countries.

  6. 78 FR 66366 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests To Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ...The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing the availability of a draft document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Use of Donor Screening Tests to Test Donors of Human Cells, Tissues, and Cellular and Tissue-Based Products (HCT/Ps) for Infection with Treponema pallidum (Syphilis),'' dated October 2013. The draft guidance document provides establishments that make donor eligibility......

  7. Neither One-Time Negative Screening Tests nor Negative Colposcopy Provides Absolute Reassurance against Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Philip E.; Rodríguez, Ana C.; Burk, Robert D.; Herrero, Rolando; Hildesheim, Allan; Solomon, Diane; Sherman, Mark E.; Jeronimo, Jose; Alfaro, Mario; Morales, Jorge; Guillén, Diego; Hutchinson, Martha L.; Wacholder, Sholom; Schiffman, Mark

    2009-01-01

    A population sample of 10,049 women living in Guanacaste, Costa Rica was recruited into a natural history of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical neoplasia study in 1993–4. At the enrollment visit, we applied multiple state-of-the-art cervical cancer screening methods to detect prevalent cervical cancer and to prevent subsequent cervical cancers by the timely detection and treatment of precancerous lesions. Women were screened at enrollment with 3 kinds of cytology (often reviewed by more than one pathologist), visual inspection, and Cervicography. Any positive screening test led to colposcopic referral and biopsy and/or excisional treatment of CIN2 or worse. We retrospectively tested stored specimens with an early HPV test (Hybrid Capture Tube Test) and for >40 HPV genotypes using a research PCR assay. We followed women typically 5–7 years and some up to 11 years. Nonetheless, sixteen cases of invasive cervical cancer were diagnosed during follow-up. Six cancer cases were failures at enrollment to detect abnormalities by cytology screening; three of the six were also negative at enrollment by sensitive HPV DNA testing. Seven cancers represent failures of colposcopy to diagnose cancer or a precancerous lesion in screen-positive women. Finally, three cases arose despite attempted excisional treatment of precancerous lesions. Based on this evidence, we suggest that no current secondary cervical cancer prevention technologies applied once in a previously under-screened population is likely to be 100% efficacious in preventing incident diagnoses of invasive cervical cancer. PMID:19569231

  8. Acoustic emission monitoring of HFIR vessel during hydrostatic testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Friesel, M.A.; Dawson, J.F.

    1992-08-01

    This report discusses the results and conclusions reached from applying acoustic emission monitoring to surveillance of the High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel during pressure testing. The objective of the monitoring was to detect crack growth and/or fluid leakage should it occur during the pressure test. The report addresses the approach, acoustic emission instrumentation, installation, calibration, and test results.

  9. [Screening versus diagnostic tests: an update in the speech, language and hearing pathology practice].

    PubMed

    Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de; Chiari, Brasília Maria

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation instruments, properties, selection indicators, application and validation of screening and diagnostic tests. To present some concepts concerning screening and diagnostic tests and their application according to a specific purpose. To present a few practical examples of the application of these instruments related to human communication, as well as to present validation criteria of tests in the population and criteria used for the rational selection of screening or diagnostic instruments in health programs and health services based on epidemiological concepts indexed in Scielo, Lilacs or Medline up to January 2007. Diagnostic instruments differ from screening instruments in their objectives and eligibility criteria. Sensibility and specificity are two important indicators to be considered when choosing an instrument for screening or diagnosis. Reproducibility, time required to complete the evaluation and previous preparation of patients, if needed, are also indicators to be considered when choosing an instrument. Publication and information exchange regarding the properties of evaluation instruments, used for diagnosis or screening, related to the Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences must be systematically stimulated. Besides that, improving the knowledge about methodologies and evaluation instruments under different perspectives contribute to the better use of human and financial resources. Furthermore, the elaboration of studies that promote the correct validation of screening and diagnostic instruments used in human communication disorders contributes to the increase in knowledge in the field of Speech, Language and Hearing Sciences and, indirectly, to the acknowledgement of this science, based on technical-scientific evidence, in health promotion.

  10. Primary HPV testing: a proposal for co-testing in initial rounds of screening to optimise sensitivity of cervical cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Herbert, A

    2017-02-01

    As explained by Kitchener in a previous issue of Cytopathology (2015;26:4-6), primary human papillomavirus (HPV) testing is likely to be introduced in the UK for all women aged 25-64 years following pilot site studies already in place. This will be necessary when the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors declines when vaccination takes effect but there is a risk in abandoning cytology as a primary test: a risk that would be most apparent in the present unvaccinated population in which the prevalence of cervical cancer and its precursors is exceptionally high. HPV testing is more sensitive than cytology but has a significant false-negative rate that could be detrimental to a successful screening programme if introduced without cytology backup. Accurate cytology would be needed for triage and could be compromised if HPV-negative tests were excluded from examination. This article proposes a compromise: cytology and HPV co-testing for the first two screening tests to optimise the sensitivity of the test as a whole. Registrations of invasive and in situ carcinoma of the uterine cervix in England indicate that the prevalence of the disease is highest in young women in the early rounds of screening. Calculations of the likely impact on the workload of this proposal have been based on a service evaluation of 295 cytology tests received at St Thomas' Hospital, which suggests that the volume of cytology tests would be reduced by approximately 60% compared with 80% for primary HPV testing alone. This proposal should be debated openly before irrevocable changes are made to a skilled workforce.

  11. Newborn bloodspot results: predictive value of screen positive test for thalassaemia major.

    PubMed

    Streetly, Allison; Latinovic, Radoslav; Henthorn, Joan; Daniel, Yvonne; Dormandy, Elizabeth; Darbyshire, Phil; Mantio, Debbie; Fraser, Laura; Farrar, Lisa; Will, Andrew; Tetlow, Lesley

    2013-12-01

    There are limited published data on the performance of the percentage of haemoglobin A (Hb A) as a screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn period. This paper aims to analyse data derived from a national newborn bloodspot screening programme for sickle cell disease on the performance of haemoglobin A (Hb A) as a screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn period. Newborn bloodspot sickle cell screening data from 2,288,008 babies were analysed. Data reported to the NHS Sickle Cell and Thalassaemia Screening Programme in England for the period 2005 to 2012 were also reviewed to identify any missed cases (4,599,849 babies). Within the cohort of 2,288,008 births, 170 babies were identified as screen positive for beta thalassaemia major using a cut-point of 1.5% HbA. There were 51 identified through look-back methods and 119 prospectively identified from 4 screening laboratories. Among 119 babies with prospective data, 7 were lost to follow up and 15 were false positive results. Using a cut-off value of 1.5% Hb A as a percentage of the total haemoglobin as a screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn provides an estimated sensitivity of 99% (from the look back arm of the study) with a positive predictive value of 87% (from the prospective arm of the study). Excluding infants born before 32 weeks gestation, the positive predictive value rose to 95%. A haemoglobin A value of less than 1.5% is a reliable screening test for beta thalassaemia major in the newborn period.

  12. 40 CFR 80.48 - Augmentation of the complex emission model by vehicle testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... emission model is deemed valid. (b) To augment the complex emission model described at § 80.45, the... refueling VOC and toxics emissions) shall not be augmented by vehicle testing. (4) The Agency reserves the... petitions to augment the complex model defined at § 80.45 with a new parameter, the effect of the...

  13. Correlated terahertz acoustic and electromagnetic emission in dynamically screened InGaN/GaN quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Capel, P. J. S.; Turchinovich, D.; Porte, H. P.; Lahmann, S.; Rossow, U.; Hangleiter, A.; Dijkhuis, J. I.

    2011-08-01

    We investigate acoustic and electromagnetic emission from optically excited strained piezoelectric In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs), using optical pump-probe spectroscopy, time-resolved Brillouin scattering, and THz emission spectroscopy. A direct comparison of detected acoustic signals and THz electromagnetic radiation signals demonstrates that transient strain generation in InGaN/GaN MQWs is correlated with electromagnetic THz generation, and both types of emission find their origin in ultrafast dynamical screening of the built-in piezoelectric field in the MQWs. The measured spectral intensity of the detected Brillouin signal corresponds to a maximum strain amplitude of generated acoustic pulses of 2%. This value coincides with the static lattice-mismatch-induced strain in In0.2Ga0.8N/GaN, demonstrating the total release of static strain in MQWs via impulsive THz acoustic emission. This confirms the ultrafast dynamical screening mechanism in MQWs as a highly efficient method for impulsive strain generation.

  14. Screening and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: an attempt at test reduction.

    PubMed

    Fragu, P; Alpérovitch, A; Patois, E

    1979-09-01

    A sequencial strategy for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been prospectively appraised on 410 patients using a pocket calculator-aided diagnostic system. It was found that for 64% of the patients final diagnosis could be established from nine clinical signs, ankle jerk time and free thyroxin index. For the 36% of doubtful subjects, T3 determination permitted the reduction of uncertainty to 9%. No misdiagnosis was observed. By comparing this strategy with the physician's usual diagnosis process, in which all clinical signs and several thyroid function tests were used, it appeared that the number of tests was reduced by 65% for T3 requests and by 70% for other tests (99mTc uptake and TRH). The cost-saving was estimated to be about 28%. The interest of this calculator-aided decision model resides in the possibility for the general practitioner to refer only doubtful and hyperthyroid subjects to a thyroid unit.

  15. Screening and diagnosis of hyperthyroidism: an attempt at test reduction.

    PubMed Central

    Fragu, P; Alpérovitch, A; Patois, E

    1979-01-01

    A sequencial strategy for the diagnosis of hyperthyroidism has been prospectively appraised on 410 patients using a pocket calculator-aided diagnostic system. It was found that for 64% of the patients final diagnosis could be established from nine clinical signs, ankle jerk time and free thyroxin index. For the 36% of doubtful subjects, T3 determination permitted the reduction of uncertainty to 9%. No misdiagnosis was observed. By comparing this strategy with the physician's usual diagnosis process, in which all clinical signs and several thyroid function tests were used, it appeared that the number of tests was reduced by 65% for T3 requests and by 70% for other tests (99mTc uptake and TRH). The cost-saving was estimated to be about 28%. The interest of this calculator-aided decision model resides in the possibility for the general practitioner to refer only doubtful and hyperthyroid subjects to a thyroid unit. PMID:509001

  16. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease

    PubMed Central

    Piety, Nathaniel Z.; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R.; Patel, Palka R.; Noli, Maria P.; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F.; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S.

    2017-01-01

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings. PMID:28367971

  17. A Paper-Based Test for Screening Newborns for Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Piety, Nathaniel Z; George, Alex; Serrano, Sonia; Lanzi, Maria R; Patel, Palka R; Noli, Maria P; Kahan, Silvina; Nirenberg, Damian; Camanda, João F; Airewele, Gladstone; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2017-04-03

    The high cost, complexity and reliance on electricity, specialized equipment and supplies associated with conventional diagnostic methods limit the scope and sustainability of newborn screening for sickle cell disease (SCD) in sub-Saharan Africa and other resource-limited areas worldwide. Here we describe the development of a simple, low-cost, rapid, equipment- and electricity-free paper-based test capable of detecting sickle hemoglobin (HbS) in newborn blood samples with a limit of detection of 2% HbS. We validated this newborn paper-based test in a cohort of 159 newborns at an obstetric hospital in Cabinda, Angola. Newborn screening results using the paper-based test were compared to conventional isoelectric focusing (IEF). The test detected the presence of HbS with 81.8% sensitivity and 83.3% specificity, and identified SCD newborns with 100.0% sensitivity and 70.7% specificity. The use of the paper-based test in a two-stage newborn screening process could have excluded about 70% of all newborns from expensive confirmatory testing by IEF, without missing any of the SCD newborns in the studied cohort. This study demonstrates the potential utility of the newborn paper-based test for reducing the overall cost of screening newborns for SCD and thus increasing the practicality of universal newborn SCD screening programs in resource-limited settings.

  18. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange.

    PubMed

    Downs, Stephen M; van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services.

  19. Improving newborn screening laboratory test ordering and result reporting using health information exchange

    PubMed Central

    van Dyck, Peter C; Rinaldo, Piero; McDonald, Clement; Howell, R Rodrey; Zuckerman, Alan; Downing, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    Capture, coding and communication of newborn screening (NBS) information represent a challenge for public health laboratories, health departments, hospitals, and ambulatory care practices. An increasing number of conditions targeted for screening and the complexity of interpretation contribute to a growing need for integrated information-management strategies. This makes NBS an important test of tools and architecture for electronic health information exchange (HIE) in this convergence of individual patient care and population health activities. For this reason, the American Health Information Community undertook three tasks described in this paper. First, a newborn screening use case was established to facilitate standards harmonization for common terminology and interoperability specifications guiding HIE. Second, newborn screening coding and terminology were developed for integration into electronic HIE activities. Finally, clarification of privacy, security, and clinical laboratory regulatory requirements governing information exchange was provided, serving as a framework to establish pathways for improving screening program timeliness, effectiveness, and efficiency of quality patient care services. PMID:20064796

  20. Comprehensive Carrier Screening and Molecular Diagnostic Testing for Recessive Childhood Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kingsmore, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Of 7,028 disorders with suspected Mendelian inheritance, 1,139 are recessive and have an established molecular basis. Although individually uncommon, Mendelian diseases collectively account for ~20% of infant mortality and ~18% of pediatric hospitalizations. Molecular diagnostic testing is currently available for only ~300 recessive disorders. Preconception screening, together with genetic counseling of carriers, has resulted in remarkable declines in the incidence of several severe recessive diseases including Tay-Sachs disease and cystic fibrosis. However, extension of preconception screening and molecular diagnostic testing to most recessive disease genes has hitherto been impractical. Recently, we reported a preconception carrier screen / molecular diagnostic test for 448 recessive childhood diseases. The current status of this test is reviewed here. Currently, this reports analytical validity of the comprehensive carrier test. As the clinical validity and clinical utility in the contexts described is ascertained, this article will be updated. PMID:22872815