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Sample records for emissions control pilot

  1. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  2. Performance of a pilot-scale biotrickling filter in controlling the volatile organic compound emissions in a furniture manufacturing facility.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Soria, Vicente; Gabaldón, Carmen; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Palau, Jordi; Alvarez-Hornos, F Javier; Sempere, Feliu; Soriano, Carlos

    2009-08-01

    A 0.75-m3 pilot-scale biotrickling filter was run for over 1 yr in a Spanish furniture company to evaluate its performance in the removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) contained in the emission of two different paint spray booths. The first one was an open front booth used to manually paint furniture, and the second focus was an automatically operated closed booth operated to paint pieces of furniture. In both cases, the VOC emissions were very irregular, with rapid and extreme fluctuations. The pilot plant was operated at an empty bed residence time (EBRT) ranging from 10 to 40 sec, and good removal efficiencies of VOCs were usually obtained. When a buffering activated carbon prefilter was installed, the system performance was improved considerably, so a much better compliance with legal constraints was reached. After different shutdowns in the factory, the period to recover the previous performance of the biotrickling reactor was minimal. A weekend dehydration strategy was developed and implemented to control the pressure drop associated with excessive biomass accumulation.

  3. Multi-Pollutant Emissions Control: Pilot Plant Study of Technologies for Reducing Hg, SO3, NOx and CO2 Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Fenger; Richard A. Winschel

    2005-08-31

    A slipstream pilot plant was built and operated to investigate technology to adsorb mercury (Hg) onto the existing particulate (i.e., fly ash) by cooling flue gas to 200-240 F with a Ljungstrom-type air heater or with water spray. The mercury on the fly ash was then captured in an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). An alkaline material, magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH){sub 2}), is injected into flue gas upstream of the air heater to control sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}), which prevents acid condensation and corrosion of the air heater and ductwork. The slipstream was taken from a bituminous coal-fired power plant. During this contract, Plant Design and Construction (Task 1), Start Up and Maintenance (Task 2), Baseline Testing (Task 3), Sorbent Testing (Task 4), Parametric Testing (Task 5), Humidification Tests (Task 6), Long-Term Testing (Task 7), and a Corrosion Study (Task 8) were completed. The Mercury Stability Study (Task 9), ESP Report (Task 11), Air Heater Report (Task 12) and Final Report (Task 14) were completed. These aspects of the project, as well as progress on Public Outreach (Task 15), are discussed in detail in this final report. Over 90% mercury removal was demonstrated by cooling the flue gas to 200-210 F at the ESP inlet; baseline conditions with 290 F flue gas gave about 26% removal. Mercury removal is sensitive to flue gas temperature and carbon content of fly ash. At 200-210 F, both elemental and oxidized mercury were effectively captured at the ESP. Mg(OH){sub 2} injection proved effective for removal of SO{sub 3} and eliminated rapid fouling of the air heater. The pilot ESP performed satisfactorily at low temperature conditions. Mercury volatility and leaching tests did not show any stability problems. No significant corrosion was detected at the air heater or on corrosion coupons at the ESP. The results justify larger-scale testing/demonstration of the technology. These conclusions are presented and discussed in two presentations given in July and

  4. Laboratory, semi-pilot and room scale study of nitrite and molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission from swine manure.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Lyman; Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi

    2010-04-01

    The effects of manure age on emission of H(2)S and required level of nitrite or molybdate to control these emissions were investigated in the present work. Molybdate mediated control of H(2)S emission was also studied in semi-pilot scale open systems, and in specifically designed chambers which simulated swine production rooms. With fresh 1-, 3- and 6-month old manures average H(2)S concentration in the headspace gas of the closed systems were 4856+/-460, 3431+/-208, 1037+/-98 ppm and non-detectable, respectively. Moreover, the level of nitrite or molybdate required to control the emission of H(2)S decreased as manure age increased. In the semi-pilot scale open system and chambers, average H(2)S concentration at the surface of agitated fresh manure were 831+/-26 and 88.4+/-5.7 ppm, respectively. Furthermore, 0.1-0.25 mM molybdate was sufficient to control the emission of H(2)S. A cost study for an average size swine operation showed that the cost of treatment with molybdate was less than 1% of the overall production cost for each market hog.

  5. Pilot-scale limestone emission control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1: Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. The primary goal of the current study is the demonstration of the techno/economic capability of the LEC system as a post-combustion FGD process capable of use in both existing and future coal-fired boiler facilities burning high-sulfur coal. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. The pilot plant was normally operated on the slipstream of the Ohio Univ. boiler plant flue gas, but also had the capability of operating at higher inlet SO{sub 2} concentrations (typically equivalent to 3-1/2% sulfur coal) than those normally available from the flue gas slipstream. This was accomplished by injecting SO{sub 2} gas into the slipstream inlet. The pilot plant was instrumented to provide around-the-clock operation and was fully outfitted with temperature, SO{sub 2}, gas flow and pressure drop monitors.

  6. Analysis of pilot control strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heffley, R. K.; Hanson, G. D.; Jewell, W. F.; Clement, W. F.

    1983-01-01

    Methods for nonintrusive identification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics are presented along with examples based on flight data. The specific analysis technique is Nonintrusive Parameter Identification Procedure (NIPIP), which is described in a companion user's guide (NASA CR-170398). Quantification of pilot control strategy and task execution dynamics is discussed in general terms followed by a more detailed description of how NIPIP can be applied. The examples are based on flight data obtained from the NASA F-8 digital fly by wire airplane. These examples involve various piloting tasks and control axes as well as a demonstration of how the dynamics of the aircraft itself are identified using NIPIP. Application of NIPIP to the AFTI/F-16 flight test program is discussed. Recommendations are made for flight test applications in general and refinement of NIPIP to include interactive computer graphics.

  7. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. Control of air emissions from hazardous-waste combustion sources: field evaluations of pilot-scale air-pollution-control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Westbrook, C.W.; Tatsch, C.E.; Cottone, L.

    1986-01-01

    Pilot-scale air-pollution control devices supplied by Hydro-Sonic Systems, ETS, Inc., and Vulcan Engineering Company were installed at the ENSCO, Inc. Incinerator in El Dorado, Arkansas, in the spring of 1984. Each of these units treated an uncontrolled slipstream of the incinerator exhaust gas. Simultaneous measurement of the total particulate and HCl in the gas streams were made at the inlet to and exit from the units using an EPA Method 5 sampling train. Particle sizing at both locations using Andersen impactors was also done. The units supplied by Hydro-Sonics Systems and ETS, Inc. exhibited a high degree of HCl and particulate matter control. The Hydro-Sonic Tandem Nozzle SuperSub Model 100 gave the best overall performance for HCl and particulate control and ability to accommodate the variable composition of the exhaust gas.

  9. Pilot-scale Limestone Emission Control (LEC) process: A development project. Volume 1, Main report and appendices A, B, C, and D: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prudich, M.E.; Appell, K.W.; McKenna, J.D.

    1994-03-01

    ETS, Inc., a pollution consulting firm with headquarters in Roanoke, Virginia, has developed a dry, limestone-based flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system. This SO{sub 2} removal system, called Limestone Emission Control (LEC), can be designed for installation on either new or existing coal-fired boilers. In the LEC process, the SO{sub 2} in the flue gas reacts with wetted granular limestone that is contained in a moving bed. A surface layer of principally calcium sulfate (CaSO{sub 4}) is formed on the limestone. Periodic removal of this surface layer by mechanical agitation allows high utilization of the limestone granules. A nominal 5,000 acfm LEC pilot plant has been designed, fabricated and installed on the slipstream of a 70,000 pph stoker boiler providing steam to Ohio University`s Athens, Ohio campus. A total of over 90 experimental trials have been performed using the pilot-scale moving-bed LEC dry scrubber as a part of this research project with run times ranging up to a high of 125 hours. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies as high as 99.9% were achievable for all experimental conditions studied during which sufficient humidification was added to the LEC bed. The LEC process and conventional limestone scrubbing have been compared on an equatable basis using flue gas conditions that would be expected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) of a 500 MW coal-fired power plant. The LEC was found to have a definite economic advantage in both direct capital costs and operating costs. Based on the success and findings of the present project, the next step in LEC process development will be a full-scale commercial demonstration unit.

  10. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 3090- 00XX; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot, by any of the...

  11. ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM PILOT-SCALE INCINERATION OF CFCS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives results of the characterization of organic emissions resulting from the pilot-scale incineration of trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11) and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) under varied feed concentrations. (NOTE: As a result of the Montreal Protocol, an international...

  12. PILOT PLANT TESTING OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY RE-EMISSION FROM WET SCRUBBERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A pilot-scale wet lime/limestone flue gas desulfurization scrubber system was designed to conduct mercury emission control research. The first tests focused on investigating the phenomenon of Hgo re-emission from wet scrubbers with a specific objective of developing a Hgo re-emis...

  13. Emission and control of N2O and composition of ash derived from cattle manure combustion using a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Kawaguchi, Koji; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujimori, Takashi; Fujiwara, Taku

    2015-10-06

    This study investigates the emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and discusses the reduction of N2O emissions during the 24-h combustion of cattle manure using a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator under various experimental conditions. The results of these experiments were then validated against previously reported data. In addition, the characteristics of cattle manure incineration ash and their changes under different combustion conditions were estimated. In incineration experiments with composted cattle manure, N2O concentrations using multi-stage combustion were 75% lower than the concentrations resulting from normal combustion without additional auxiliary fuel, since N2O could be decomposed in the high-temperature zone formed by the inlet of the secondary combustion air. The N2O emission factor under normal combustion conditions (800°C) was 6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N. This result is similar to the values found in previous studies at the same temperature. The N2O emission factor was decreased to 1.6% g-N2O-N/g-N using a multi-stage combustion procedure. The current Japanese N2O emission factor of 0.1% g-N2O-N/g-N is an underestimate for some conditions and should be uniquely specified for each condition. Finally, cattle manure ash contains ample fertilizer elements, little Fe, Al and Zn, but abundant Cl. Therefore if Cl could be removed by some kind of pretreatment, cattle manure ash could be used as a favourable fertilizer.

  14. Adaptive Controller Effects on Pilot Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.; Hempley, Lucas E.

    2014-01-01

    Adaptive control provides robustness and resilience for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic. Some of the recent flight experiences of pilot-in-the-loop with an adaptive controller have exhibited unpredicted interactions. In retrospect, this is not surprising once it is realized that there are now two adaptive controllers interacting, the software adaptive control system and the pilot. An experiment was conducted to categorize these interactions on the pilot with an adaptive controller during control surface failures. One of the objectives of this experiment was to determine how the adaptation time of the controller affects pilots. The pitch and roll errors, and stick input increased for increasing adaptation time and during the segment when the adaptive controller was adapting. Not surprisingly, altitude, cross track and angle deviations, and vertical velocity also increase during the failure and then slowly return to pre-failure levels. Subjects may change their behavior even as an adaptive controller is adapting with additional stick inputs. Therefore, the adaptive controller should adapt as fast as possible to minimize flight track errors. This will minimize undesirable interactions between the pilot and the adaptive controller and maintain maneuvering precision.

  15. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; Ragazzi, Ronald

    This guide designed to assist teachers in improving instruction in the area of automotive emission control curriculum includes four areas. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction, with each instructional unit including some or all of the following basic components: Performance objectives, suggested activities for teacher and…

  16. Automotive Emission Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Billy D.; And Others

    This publication contains instructional materials for both teachers and students for a course in automotive emission control. Instructional materials in this publication are written in terms of student performance using measurable objectives. The course includes 16 units. Each instructional unit includes some or all of the basic components of a…

  17. Pilot Preferences on Displayed Aircraft Control Variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna C.; Gregory, Irene M.

    2013-01-01

    The experiments described here explored how pilots want available maneuver authority information transmitted and how this information affects pilots before and after an aircraft failure. The aircraft dynamic variables relative to flight performance were narrowed to energy management variables. A survey was conducted to determine what these variables should be. Survey results indicated that bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were the preferred variables. Based on this, two displays were designed to inform the pilot of available maneuver envelope expressed as bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed. These displays were used in an experiment involving control surface failures. Results indicate the displayed limitations in bank angle, vertical velocity, and airspeed were helpful to the pilots during aircraft surface failures. However, the additional information did lead to a slight increase in workload, a small decrease in perceived aircraft flying qualities, and no effect on aircraft situation awareness.

  18. Analysis of routine pilot-controller communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel G.; Lee, Alfred; Rodvold, Michelle

    1990-01-01

    Although pilot-controller communication is central to aviation safety, this area of aviation human factors has not been extensively researched. Most research has focused on what kinds of communication problems occur. A more complete picture of communication problems requires understanding how communication usually works in routine operations. A sample of routine pilot-controller communication in the TRACON environment is described. After describing several dimensions of routine communication, three kinds of communication problems are treated: inaccuracies such as incorrect readbacks, procedural deviations such as missing callsigns and readbacks, and nonroutine transactions where pilot and controller must deal with misunderstandings or other communication problems. Preliminary results suggest these problems are not frequent events in daily operations. However, analysis of the problems that do occur suggest some factors that may cause them.

  19. Collaboration in Controller-Pilot Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel; Lebacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Like other forms of dialogue, air traffic control (ATC) communication is an act of collaboration between two or more people. Collaboration progresses more or less smoothly depending on speaker and listener strategies. For example, we have found that the way controllers organize and deliver messages influences how easily pilots understand these messages, which in turn determines how much time and effort is needed to successfully complete the transaction. In this talk, I will introduce a collaborative framework for investigating controller-pilot communication and then describe a set of studies that investigate ATC communication from two complementary directions. First, we focused on the impact of ATC message factors (e.g., length, speech rate) on the cognitive processes involved in ATC: communication. Second, we examined pilot factors that influence the amount of cognitive resources available for these communication processes. These studies also illustrate how the collaborate framework can help analyze the impact of proposed visual data link systems on ATC communication. Examining the joint effects of communication medium, message factors, and pilot/controller factors on performance should help improve air safety and communication efficiency. Increased efficiency is important for meeting the growing demands on the National Air System.

  20. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  1. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller and Controller/Controller Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John; Davison, Hayley J.

    2000-01-01

    The increased ability to exchange information between Pilots, Controllers, Dispatchers, and other agents is a key component of advanced Air Traffic Management. The importance of shared information as well as current and evolving practices in information sharing are presented for a variety of interactions including: Controller/Pilot interactions, Pilot/Airline interactions, Controller/Controller interactions, and Airline/ATM interactions.

  2. Control Requirements to Support Manual Piloting Capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merancy, Nujoud; Chevray, Kay; Gonzalez, Rodolfo; Madsen, Jennifer; Spehar, Pete

    2013-01-01

    The manual piloting requirements specified under the NASA Constellation Program involved Cooper-Harper ratings, which are a qualitative and subjective evaluation from experienced pilots. This type of verification entails a significant investment of resources to assess a completed design and is not one that can easily or meaningfully be applied upfront in the design phase. The evolution of the Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle Program to include an independently developed propulsion system from an international partner makes application of Cooper-Harper based design requirements inadequate. To mitigate this issue, a novel solution was developed to reformulate the necessary piloting capability into quantifiable requirements. A trio of requirements was designed which specify control authority, precision, and impulse residuals enabling propulsion design within specified guidance and control boundaries. These requirements have been evaluated against both the existing Orion design and the proposed ESA design and have been found to achieve the desired specificity. The requirement set is capable of being applied to the development of other spacecraft in support of manual piloting.

  3. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    G. A. Farthing; G. T. Amrhein; G. A. Kudlac; D. A. Yurchison; D. K. McDonald; M. G. Milobowski

    2001-03-31

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. This objective is being met by identifying ways to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (fabric filters), and wet flue gas desulfurization (wet FGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  4. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    G.A. Farthing

    2001-02-06

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs, or air toxics) from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses), and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) systems. Development work initially concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen fluoride. Recent work has focused almost exclusively on the control of mercury emissions.

  5. Pilot-optimal multivariable control synthesis by output feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.; Innocenti, M.

    1981-01-01

    A control system design approach for optimal stability augmentation, systems, using limited state feedback theory with the specific inclusion of the human pilot in the loop is presented. The methodology is especially suitable for application to flight vehicles exhibiting nonconventional dynamic characteristics and for which quantitative handling qualities specifications are not available. The design is based on a correlation between pilot ratings and objective function of the optimal control model of the human pilot. Simultaneous optimization for augmentation and pilot gains are required.

  6. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, J. Landy (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. The methods and apparatus may further be modified to reduce NOx emissions. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals. Where removal of NOx emissions is included, nitric acid may also be isolated for use in fertilizer or other industrial applications.

  7. From pilot's associate to satellite controller's associate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neyland, David L.; Lizza, Carl; Merkel, Philip A.

    1992-01-01

    Associate technology is an emerging engineering discipline wherein intelligent automation can significantly augment the performance of man-machine systems. An associate system is one that monitors operator activity and adapts its operational behavior accordingly. Associate technology is most effectively applied when mapped into management of the human-machine interface and display-control loop in typical manned systems. This paper addresses the potential for application of associate technology into the arena of intelligent command and control of satellite systems, from diagnosis of onboard and onground of satellite systems fault conditions, to execution of nominal satellite control functions. Rather than specifying a specific solution, this paper draws parallels between the Pilot's Associate concept and the domain of satellite control.

  8. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-07-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  9. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  10. ADVANCED EMISSIONS CONTROL DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

    SciTech Connect

    M.J. Holmes

    1998-10-01

    The objective of this project is to develop practical strategies and systems for the simultaneous control of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, particulate matter, and air toxics emissions from coal-fired boilers in such a way as to keep coal economically and environmentally competitive as a utility boiler fuel. Of particular interest is the control of air toxics emissions through the cost-effective use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESP's), fabric filters (baghouses), and SO{sub 2} removal systems such as wet scrubbers and various clean coal technologies. This objective will be achieved through extensive development testing in the state-of-the art, 10 MW{sub e} equivalent, Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF). The project has extended the capabilities of the CEDF to facilitate air toxics emissions control development work on backend flue gas cleanup equipment. Specifically, an ESP, a baghouse, and a wet scrubber for SO{sub 2} (and air toxics) control were added--all designed to yield air toxics emissions data under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. A schematic of the CEDF and the project test equipment is shown in Figure 1. The specific objectives of the project are to: (1) Measure and understand production and partitioning of air toxics species in coal-fired power plant systems; (2) Optimize the air toxics removal performance of conventional flue gas cleanup systems; (3) Quantify the impacts of coal cleaning on air toxics emissions; (4) Identify and/or develop advanced air toxics emissions control concepts; (5) Develop and validate air toxics emissions measurement and monitoring techniques; (6) Establish an air toxics data library to facilitate studies of the impacts of coal selection, coal cleaning, and emissions control strategies on the emissions of coal-fired power plants.

  11. Emission control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx, SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions from combustion flue gas streams. Continuous concentration of hydrogen peroxide to levels approaching or exceeding propellant-grade hydrogen peroxide facilitates increased system efficiency. In this manner, combustion flue gas streams can be treated for the removal of NOx, SOx and heavy metals, while isolating useful by-products streams of sulfuric acid and nitric acid as well as solids for the recovery of the heavy metals.

  12. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A.P.Evans; K.E. Redinger; M.J. Holmes

    1998-04-01

    The objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. Ideally, the project aim is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas cleanup equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPS), fabric filters (baghouse), and wet flue gas desulfurization. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate and hydrogen chloride. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on the evaluation of mercury and several other air toxics emissions. The AECDP is jointly funded by the United States Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (oCDO), and Babcock& Wilcox-a McDermott company (B&W).

  13. Controlled pilot oxidizer for a gas turbine combustor

    DOEpatents

    Laster, Walter R.; Bandaru, Ramarao V.

    2010-07-13

    A combustor (22) for a gas turbine (10) includes a main burner oxidizer flow path (34) delivering a first portion (32) of an oxidizer flow (e.g., 16) to a main burner (28) of the combustor and a pilot oxidizer flow path (38) delivering a second portion (36) of the oxidizer flow to a pilot (30) of the combustor. The combustor also includes a flow controller (42) disposed in the pilot oxidizer flow path for controlling an amount of the second portion delivered to the pilot.

  14. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A P

    1998-12-03

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W's new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  15. Advanced Emission Control Development Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.P.

    1997-12-31

    Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using B&W`s new Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  16. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    M. J. Holmes

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  17. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    A. P. Evans

    1998-12-03

    McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI) is conducting a five-year project aimed at the development of practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of hazardous air pollutants (commonly called air toxics) from coal-fired electric utility plants. The need for air toxic emissions controls may arise as the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proceeds with implementation of Title III of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA) of 1990. Data generated during the program will provide utilities with the technical and economic information necessary to reliably evaluate various air toxics emissions compliance options such as fuel switching, coal cleaning, and flue gas treatment. The development work is being carried out using the Clean Environment Development Facility (CEDF) wherein air toxics emissions control strategies can be developed under controlled conditions, and with proven predictability to commercial systems. Tests conducted in the CEDF provide high quality, repeatable, comparable data over a wide range of coal properties, operating conditions, and emissions control systems. Development work to date has concentrated on the capture of mercury, other trace metals, fine particulate, and the inorganic species, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride.

  18. Exhaust emission control apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Eng, J.W.

    1991-09-24

    This patent describes an exhaust control apparatus for muffling noise and treating odors and pollutants, including solid particulate and gases in the exhaust of an internal combustion engine. It comprises an exhaust inlet tube for receiving the exhaust generated by an internal combustion engine; a cyclone barrier concentrically surrounding the exhaust inlet tube, a ring cavity between the cyclone tube and exhaust inlet tube defining a cyclone chamber in which the exhaust is treated; means for directing the exhaust from the exhaust inlet tube into the cyclone chamber; electrode means having small openings through which the exhaust passes to enter the cyclone chamber, the electrode means generating electrostatic forces which charge the solid particulate in the exhaust, ionize air and generate ozone in the cyclone chamber near the electrode; means for injecting air into the cyclone chamber causing centrifugal flow of the air and the exhausted within the cyclone chamber and increasing a dwell time of the exhaust within the cyclone chamber.

  19. GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS CONTROL BY OXYGEN FIRING IN CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILERS: PHASE II--PILOT SCALE TESTING AND UPDATED PERFORMANCE AND ECONOMICS FOR OXYGEN FIRED CFB WITH CO2 CAPTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; Gregory N. Liljedahl; David G. Turek

    2004-10-27

    Because fossil fuel fired power plants are among the largest and most concentrated producers of CO{sub 2} emissions, recovery and sequestration of CO{sub 2} from the flue gas of such plants has been identified as one of the primary means for reducing anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions. In this Phase II study, ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) has investigated one promising near-term coal fired power plant configuration designed to capture CO{sub 2} from effluent gas streams for sequestration. Burning fossil fuels in mixtures of oxygen and recirculated flue gas (made principally of CO{sub 2}) essentially eliminates the presence of atmospheric nitrogen in the flue gas. The resulting flue gas is comprised primarily of CO{sub 2}, along with some moisture, nitrogen, oxygen, and trace gases like SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Oxygen firing in utility scale Pulverized Coal (PC) fired boilers has been shown to be a more economical method for CO{sub 2} capture than amine scrubbing (Bozzuto, et al., 2001). Additionally, oxygen firing in Circulating Fluid Bed Boilers (CFB's) can be more economical than in PC or Stoker firing, because recirculated gas flow can be reduced significantly. Oxygen-fired PC and Stoker units require large quantities of recirculated flue gas to maintain acceptable furnace temperatures. Oxygen-fired CFB units, on the other hand, can accomplish this by additional cooling of recirculated solids. The reduced recirculated gas flow with CFB plants results in significant Boiler Island cost savings resulting from reduced component The overall objective of the Phase II workscope, which is the subject of this report, is to generate a refined technical and economic evaluation of the Oxygen fired CFB case (Case-2 from Phase I) utilizing the information learned from pilot-scale testing of this concept. The objective of the pilot-scale testing was to generate detailed technical data needed to establish advanced CFB design requirements and performance when firing coals and

  20. A Pilot-Scale Evaluation of a New Technology to Control NO(x) Emissions from Boilers at KSC: Hydrogen Peroxide Injection into Boiler Flue Gases Followed by Wet Scrubbing of Acid Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, C. David

    1997-01-01

    Emissions of nitrogen oxides NO(x) are a significant problem in the United States. NO(x) are formed in any combustion process, therefore it is not surprising that NO(x) are emitted from the boilers at KSC. Research at UCF has shown (in the laboratory) that injecting H2O2 into hot simulated flue gases can oxidize the NO and NO2 to their acid gas forms, HNO2 and HNO3, respectively. These acid gases are much more water soluble than their counterparts, and theoretically can be removed easily by wet scrubbing. This technology was of interest to NASA, both for their boilers at KSC, and for their combustion sources elsewhere. However, it was necessary to field test the technology and to provide pilot-scale data to aid in design of full-scale facilities. Hence this project was initiated in May of 1996.

  1. Pilot interface with fly by wire control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melvin, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    Aircraft designers are rapidly moving toward full fly by wire control systems for transport aircraft. Aside from pilot interface considerations such as location of the control input device and its basic design such as side stick, there appears to be a desire to change the fundamental way in which a pilot applies manual control. A typical design would have the lowest order of manual control be a control wheel steering mode in which the pilot is controlling an autopilot. This deprives the pilot of the tactile sense of angle of attack which is inherent in present aircraft by virtue of certification requirements for static longitudinal stability whereby a pilot must either force the aircraft away from its trim angle of attack or trim to a new angle of attack. Whether or not an aircraft actually has positive stability, it can be made to feel to a pilot as though it does by artificial feel. Artificial feel systems which interpret pilot input as pitch rate or G rate with automatic trim have proven useful in certain military combat maneuvers, but their transposition to other more normal types of manual control may not be justified.

  2. Pilot study to reduce emissions, improve health, and offset BC emissions through the distribution of improved cook stoves in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banmali Pradhan, B.; Panday, A. K.; Surapipith, V.

    2013-12-01

    In most developing countries, wood and other biomass fuels are still the primary source of energy for the majority of the people, particularly the poor. It is estimated that cook stoves account for approximately 20% of global black carbon emissions. In Nepal 87% of energy is supplied from traditional biomass and 75% of households still depend on biomass as a cooking fuel. The substitution of traditional cook stoves with improved cook stoves provides an important way to reduce black carbon emissions. In 2013 the International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) has commenced a pilot study that both examines ways to effectively disseminate improved cookstoves across remote rural mountain regions, and also quantifies the resulting changes in emissions, air quality and health. The selected study area is in Bajrabarahi Village in Makawanpur district, to the southwest of Kathmandu. The study area consists of around 1600 households, which are divided into control groups and groups where the cook stove intervention is taking place. The study complements the ';Clean Cooking energy solution for all by 2017' announced by the Government of Nepal recently, and will provide insights to the government on ways to effectively reduce black carbon emissions from cook stoves. To make the study robust and sustainable, local women's group and a local medical institution are involved in the project right from the conceptualization stage. The study region has been chosen in part because the medical school Patan Academy of Health Sciences (PAHS) has already started a long term health assessment in the region, and has built up considerable local contacts. The local women's group is working on the modality of cook stove distribution through micro credit programmes in the village. We will distribute the best available manufactured, fan-assisted cook stoves that are expected to reduce BC emissions the most. Health assessments, emissions estimates, as well as measurements of

  3. The evolution of automobile exhaust emission control

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, K.C.

    1993-12-31

    Automobile catalytic converters have progressed from oxidation-only systems in the mid 1970`s to the current three-way catalytic converters which control emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and nitrogen oxide to very low levels. New exhaust emission regulations adopted Federally and in California which come into effect during the 1990`s once again demand new emission control system technology. A new generation of catalytic converter systems coupled with attention to fuel composition characterizes this third phase of exhaust emission control.

  4. Exhaust emission control and diagnostics

    DOEpatents

    Mazur, Christopher John; Upadhyay, Devesh

    2006-11-14

    A diesel engine emission control system uses an upstream oxidation catalyst and a downstream SCR catalyst to reduce NOx in a lean exhaust gas environment. The engine and upstream oxidation catalyst are configured to provide approximately a 1:1 ratio of NO to NO2 entering the downstream catalyst. In this way, the downstream catalyst is insensitive to sulfur contamination, and also has improved overall catalyst NOx conversion efficiency. Degradation of the system is determined when the ratio provided is no longer near the desired 1:1 ratio. This condition is detected using measurements of engine operating conditions such as from a NOx sensor located downstream of the catalysts. Finally, control action to adjust an injected amount of reductant in the exhaust gas based on the actual NO to NO2 ratio upstream of the SCR catalyst and downstream of the oxidation catalyst.

  5. Investigation of piloting aids for manual control of hypersonic maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raney, David L.; Phillips, Michael R.; Person, Lee H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation of piloting aids designed to provide precise maneuver control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle is described. Stringent constraints and nonintuitive high-speed flight effects associated with maneuvering in the hypersonic regime raise the question of whether manual control of such a vehicle should even be considered. The objectives of this research were to determine the extent of manual control that is desirable for a vehicle maneuvering in this regime and to identify the form of aids that must be supplied to the pilot to make such control feasible. A piloted real-time motion-based simulation of a hypersonic vehicle concept was used for this study, and the investigation focused on a single representative cruise turn maneuver. Piloting aids, which consisted of an auto throttle, throttle director, autopilot, flight director, and two head-up display configurations, were developed and evaluated. Two longitudinal control response types consisting of a rate-command/attitude-hold system and a load factor-rate/load-factor-hold system were also compared. The complete set of piloting aids, which consisted of the autothrottle, throttle director, and flight director, improved the average Cooper-Harper flying qualities ratings from 8 to 2.6, even though identical inner-loop stability and control augmentation was provided in all cases. The flight director was determined to be the most critical of these aids, and the cruise turn maneuver was unachievable to adequate performance specifications in the absence of this flight director.

  6. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing control concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1994-01-01

    A two-phase piloted simulation study was conducted to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional (programmed) flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap, and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot rating showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two concepts were noticed and are discussed in this paper. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of the study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities. This paper describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft and the flap control concepts and presents the results of both phases of the simulation study.

  7. PARTICULATE EMISSION MEASUREMENTS FROM CONTROLLED CONSTRUCTION ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarized the results of field testing of the effectiveness of control measures for sources of fugitive particulate emissions found at construction sites. The effectiveness of watering temporary, unpaved travel surfaces on emissions of particulate matter with aerodyna...

  8. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    PubMed

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  10. Predicting Loss-of-Control Boundaries Toward a Piloting Aid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Jonathan; Stepanyan, Vahram; Krishnakumar, Kalmanje

    2012-01-01

    This work presents an approach to predicting loss-of-control with the goal of providing the pilot a decision aid focused on maintaining the pilot's control action within predicted loss-of-control boundaries. The predictive architecture combines quantitative loss-of-control boundaries, a data-based predictive control boundary estimation algorithm and an adaptive prediction method to estimate Markov model parameters in real-time. The data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm estimates the boundary of a safe set of control inputs that will keep the aircraft within the loss-of-control boundaries for a specified time horizon. The adaptive prediction model generates estimates of the system Markov Parameters, which are used by the data-based loss-of-control boundary estimation algorithm. The combined algorithm is applied to a nonlinear generic transport aircraft to illustrate the features of the architecture.

  11. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate the topical application of soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manu...

  12. A Piloted Evaluation of Damage Accommodating Flight Control Using a Remotely Piloted Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Cox, David E.; Murri, Daniel G.; Riddick, Stephen E.

    2011-01-01

    Toward the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport airplanes due to loss of control, the NASA Aviation Safety Program has conducted research into flight control technologies that can provide resilient control of airplanes under adverse flight conditions, including damage and failure. As part of the safety program s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control Project, the NASA Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research system was designed to address the challenges associated with the safe and efficient subscale flight testing of research control laws under adverse flight conditions. This paper presents the results of a series of pilot evaluations of several flight control algorithms used during an offset-to-landing task conducted at altitude. The purpose of this investigation was to assess the ability of various flight control technologies to prevent loss of control as stability and control characteristics were degraded. During the course of 8 research flights, data were recorded while one task was repeatedly executed by a single evaluation pilot. Two generic failures, which degraded stability and control characteristics, were simulated inflight for each of the 9 different flight control laws that were tested. The flight control laws included three different adaptive control methodologies, several linear multivariable designs, a linear robust design, a linear stability augmentation system, and a direct open-loop control mode. Based on pilot Cooper-Harper Ratings obtained for this test, the adaptive flight control laws provided the greatest overall benefit for the stability and control degradation scenarios that were considered. Also, all controllers tested provided a significant improvement in handling qualities over the direct open-loop control mode.

  13. Efficient Conversation: The Talk between Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, James L.

    Two-way radio communications between air traffic controllers using radar on the ground to give airplane pilots instructions are of interest within the developing framework of the sociology of language. The main purpose of air traffic control language is efficient communication to promote flight safety. This study describes the standardized format…

  14. Motion-Based Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Control Allocation Technique to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Leonard, Michael W.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Weinstein, Michael; Yildiz, Yildiray

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the maturation of a control allocation technique designed to assist pilots in the recovery from pilot induced oscillations (PIOs). The Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) is designed to enable next generation high efficiency aircraft designs. Energy efficient next generation aircraft require feedback control strategies that will enable lowering the actuator rate limit requirements for optimal airframe design. One of the common issues flying with actuator rate limits is PIOs caused by the phase lag between the pilot inputs and control surface response. CAPIO utilizes real-time optimization for control allocation to eliminate phase lag in the system caused by control surface rate limiting. System impacts of the control allocator were assessed through a piloted simulation evaluation of a non-linear aircraft simulation in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. Results indicate that CAPIO helps reduce oscillatory behavior, including the severity and duration of PIOs, introduced by control surface rate limiting.

  15. Analog Simulation of a Pilot-Controlled Rendezvous

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brissenden, Roy F.; Burton, Bert B.; Foudriat, Edwin C.; Whitten, James B.

    1961-01-01

    The rendezvous of a pilot-controlled space ferry vehicle with an orbiting space station was simulated in six degrees of freedom. A fixed-base simulator and an analog computer were used. The ferry vehicle was assumed to have a single main thrusting rocket and to be provided with attitude control. Control of the thrust was provided by a rocket throttle quadrant which could provide either proportional or on-off control. The attitude of the vehicle was controlled during the rendezvous with a two-axis, pencil-type side-arm controller and rudder pedals. For the most part rendezvous maneuvers were made with the target satellite in a circular orbit. In addition, an elliptical station orbit was investigated. Tolerable initial conditions, as well as adequate data presentations, were determined. Results of the investigation indicate that a human pilot can rendezvous successfully with the vehicle and instrumentation considered over a wide band of initial conditions. Coplanar conditions are not necessary. Retro-rocket fuel used is not greatly increased by imposing perturbing influences such as rocket-misalignment torques on the rendezvous vehicle. When excessive attitude-control torques are required to maintain the necessary trim attitudes under misalignment influences, the reaction fuel used for this control increases. The time required for a specific rendezvous varies somewhat between pilots. If control of the time for completing the rendezvous is desired, requirements for retrorocket fuel are affected, and an energy-management schedule is required. Continuous variation of the thrust is not necessary. The pilot positions the throttle to obtain a desired level of thrust, and applies bursts of thrust as required. All data were presented on dialed instruments. The quantities required are range and range rate and line-of-sight rates between the vehicle and the station, vehicle attitudes and angular rates, and the angles subtended by the line of sight. For the equipment assumed

  16. Gaseous emissions during the solid state fermentation of different wastes for enzyme production at pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Maulini-Duran, Caterina; Abraham, Juliana; Rodríguez-Pérez, Sheila; Cerda, Alejandra; Jiménez-Peñalver, Pedro; Gea, Teresa; Barrena, Raquel; Artola, Adriana; Font, Xavier; Sánchez, Antoni

    2015-03-01

    The emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), CH4, N2O and NH3 during the solid state fermentation process of some selected wastes to obtain different enzymes have been determined at pilot scale. Orange peel+compost (OP), hair wastes+raw sludge (HW) and winterization residue+raw sludge (WR) have been processed in duplicate in 50 L reactors to provide emission factors and to identify the different VOC families present in exhaust gaseous emissions. Ammonia emission from HW fermentation (3.2±0.5 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) and VOC emission during OP processes (18±6 kg Mg(-1) dry matter) should be considered in an industrial application of these processes. Terpenes have been the most emitted VOC family during all the processes although the emission of sulphide molecules during HW SSF is notable. The most emitted compound was dimethyl disulfide in HW and WR processes, and limonene in the SSF of OP.

  17. Motion cue effects on human pilot dynamics in manual control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washizu, K.; Tanaka, K.; Endo, S.; Itoko, T.

    1977-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to study the motion cue effects on human pilots during tracking tasks. The moving-base simulator of National Aerospace Laboratory was employed as the motion cue device, and the attitude director indicator or the projected visual field was employed as the visual cue device. The chosen controlled elements were second-order unstable systems. It was confirmed that with the aid of motion cues the pilot workload was lessened and consequently the human controllability limits were enlarged. In order to clarify the mechanism of these effects, the describing functions of the human pilots were identified by making use of the spectral and the time domain analyses. The results of these analyses suggest that the sensory system of the motion cues can yield the differential informations of the signal effectively, which coincides with the existing knowledges in the physiological area.

  18. Controller Design Based on Nonlinear Separation Control Method for OTEC Pilot Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Masatoshi; Sugi, Takenao; Ikegami, Yasuyuki; Uehara, Haruo

    An OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) pilot plant consists of two parts; an OTEC system of main part and a heat reservoir system of sub part. The nonlinear separation control method was applied to the controller design for the OTEC pilot plant. The nonlinear separation models were constructed for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system. The controller for the OTEC system and the heat reservoir system was designed by using the both nonlinear separation models. A detail simulation study showed that the multi-layer controller for the OTEC pilot plant brought a satisfactory control performance by comparing a conventional PI control.

  19. Results of the "In Control: No Alcohol!" Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mares, Suzanne H. W.; van der Vorst, Haske; Vermeulen-Smit, Evelien; Lichtwarck-Aschoff, Anna; Verdurmen, Jacqueline E. E.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.

    2012-01-01

    More than 50% of Dutch 12-year olds already started drinking. Since it is known that delaying the onset of alcohol use results in a lower risk of alcohol-related problems, the recently developed "In control: No alcohol!" prevention program is targeted at elementary school children and their mothers. In this pilot study, the success of…

  20. Time Domain Identification of an Optimal Control Pilot Model with Emphasis on the Objective Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, D. K.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the identification of the pilot's control compensation using time domain techniques is proposed. From this information we hope to infer a quadratic cost function, supported by the data, that represents a reasonable expression for the pilot's control objective in the task being performed, or an inferred piloting strategy. The objectives for this method are: (1) obtain a better understanding of the fundamental piloting techniques in complex tasks, such as landing approach; (2) the development of a metric measurable in simulations and flight test that correlate with subjective pilot opinion; and (3) to further validate pilot models and pilot vehicle analysis methods.

  1. Adaptive Controller Adaptation Time and Available Control Authority Effects on Piloting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, Anna; Gregory, Irene

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive control is considered for highly uncertain, and potentially unpredictable, flight dynamics characteristic of adverse conditions. This experiment looked at how adaptive controller adaptation time to recover nominal aircraft dynamics affects pilots and how pilots want information about available control authority transmitted. Results indicate that an adaptive controller that takes three seconds to adapt helped pilots when looking at lateral and longitudinal errors. The controllability ratings improved with the adaptive controller, again the most for the three seconds adaptation time while workload decreased with the adaptive controller. The effects of the displays showing the percentage amount of available safe flight envelope used in the maneuver were dominated by the adaptation time. With the displays, the altitude error increased, controllability slightly decreased, and mental demand increased. Therefore, the displays did require some of the subjects resources but these negatives may be outweighed by pilots having more situation awareness of their aircraft.

  2. Evaluation of pilot-scale pollution control devices for hazardous-waste incineration

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, H.M.; Olexsey, R.A.

    1985-09-01

    The paper summarizes the results of emission tests carried out on three pilot-scale air pollution-control devices. The units were connected to a slip stream from the ENSCO, Inc. hazardous-waste incinerator at El Dorado, Arkansas. The three units were a Hydro Sonic System wet scrubber; an ETS dry scrubber; and a Vulcan Engineering Company high temperature baghouse. The units were evaluated for their capability in removing particulate matter and HCl. Full discussion of the testing program and results is in an EPA report, Evaluation of Air Pollution Control Devices for Hazardous Waste Combustion, now undergoing final review in the Agency.

  3. A Study of the Characteristics of Human-Pilot Control Response to Simulated Aircraft Lateral Motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheatham, Donald C

    1954-01-01

    Report presents the results of studies made in an attempt to provide information on the control operations of the human pilot. These studies included an investigation of the ability of pilots to control simulated unstable yawing oscillations, a study of the basic characteristics of human-pilot control response, and a study to determine whether and to what extent pilot control response can be represented in an analytical form.

  4. A linear stochastic model of the human operator. [pilot control of an aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrett, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    A linear stochastic model of the human operator is developed and applied to the problem of piloted control of an aircraft. The pilot and aircraft are modeled as linear time-invariant systems containing both process and measurement noise. The loop closure by the pilot is determined by formulating the problem as an optimal stochastic control problem. The solution to the optimal control problem yields not only the pilot's optimal control output which he uses to control the vehicle, but also the optimal combination of his observations of the vehicle states upon which the pilot bases his control. A method is presented so that, using experimental pilot vehicle data, the cost functional which is minimized in the optimal control problem will be numerically equal to the pilot rating that the pilot would associate with the given vehicle and task.

  5. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reports on a study to evaluate organic combustion by-product emissions while feeding varying amounts of bromine (Br) and chlorine (Cl) into a pilot-scale incinerator burning surrogate waste materials. (NOTE: Adding brominated organic compounds to a pilot-scale incinerat...

  6. Fuel control for gas turbine with continuous pilot flame

    DOEpatents

    Swick, Robert M.

    1983-01-01

    An improved fuel control for a gas turbine engine having a continuous pilot flame and a fuel distribution system including a pump drawing fuel from a source and supplying a line to the main fuel nozzle of the engine, the improvement being a control loop between the pump outlet and the pump inlet to bypass fuel, an electronically controlled throttle valve to restrict flow in the control loop when main nozzle demand exists and to permit substantially unrestricted flow without main nozzle demand, a minimum flow valve in the control loop downstream of the throttle valve to maintain a minimum pressure in the loop ahead of the flow valve, a branch tube from the pilot flame nozzle to the control loop between the throttle valve and the minimum flow valve, an orifice in the branch tube, and a feedback tube from the branch tube downstream of the orifice to the minimum flow valve, the minimum flow valve being operative to maintain a substantially constant pressure differential across the orifice to maintain constant fuel flow to the pilot flame nozzle.

  7. Characterization of size-specific particulate matter emission rates for a simulated medical laser procedure--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Ramon; Lacey, Steven E; Lippert, Julia F; Liu, Li C; Esmen, Nurtan A; Conroy, Lorraine M

    2015-05-01

    Prior investigation on medical laser interaction with tissue has suggested device operational parameter settings influence laser generated air contaminant emission, but this has not been systematically explored. A laboratory-based simulated medical laser procedure was designed and pilot tested to determine the effect of laser operational parameters on the size-specific mass emission rate of laser generated particulate matter. Porcine tissue was lased in an emission chamber using two medical laser systems (CO2, λ = 10,600 nm; Ho:YAG, λ = 2100 nm) in a fractional factorial study design by varying three operational parameters (beam diameter, pulse repetition frequency, and power) between two levels (high and low) and the resultant plume was measured using two real-time size-selective particle counters. Particle count concentrations were converted to mass emission rates before an analysis of variance was used to determine the influence of operational parameter settings on size-specific mass emission rate. Particle shape and diameter were described for a limited number of samples by collecting particles on polycarbonate filters, and photographed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine method of particle formation. An increase in power and decrease in beam diameter led to an increase in mass emission for the Ho:YAG laser at all size ranges. For the CO2 laser, emission rates were dependent on particle size and were not statistically significant for particle ranges between 5 and 10 µm. When any parameter level was increased, emission rate of the smallest particle size range also increased. Beam diameter was the most influential variable for both lasers, and the operational parameters tested explained the most variability at the smallest particle size range. Particle shape was variable and some particles observed by SEM were likely created from mechanical methods. This study provides a foundation for future investigations to better estimate size

  8. Pilots Rate Augmented Generalized Predictive Control for Reconfiguration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soloway, Don; Haley, Pam

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to report the results from the research being conducted in reconfigurable fight controls at NASA Ames. A study was conducted with three NASA Dryden test pilots to evaluate two approaches of reconfiguring an aircraft's control system when failures occur in the control surfaces and engine. NASA Ames is investigating both a Neural Generalized Predictive Control scheme and a Neural Network based Dynamic Inverse controller. This paper highlights the Predictive Control scheme where a simple augmentation to reduce zero steady-state error led to the neural network predictor model becoming redundant for the task. Instead of using a neural network predictor model, a nominal single point linear model was used and then augmented with an error corrector. This paper shows that the Generalized Predictive Controller and the Dynamic Inverse Neural Network controller perform equally well at reconfiguration, but with less rate requirements from the actuators. Also presented are the pilot ratings for each controller for various failure scenarios and two samples of the required control actuation during reconfiguration. Finally, the paper concludes by stepping through the Generalized Predictive Control's reconfiguration process for an elevator failure.

  9. Assessment of Pneumatic Controller Emission Measurements ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Oil and Natural Gas (ONG) production facilities have the potential to emit greenhouse gases such as methane (CH4) and other hydrocarbons (HCs) to the atmosphere. ONG production sites have multiple emission sources including storage tank venting, enclosed combustion devices, engine exhaust, pneumatic controllers and uncontrolled leaks. Accounting for up to 37.8 percent of CH4 emissions, pneumatic controllers are one of the most significant sources of CH4 in ONG production field operations. Recent measurement studies used the only commercially-available high volume sampling (HVS) technology (Bacharach Hi Flow Sampler, Bacharach, Inc., New Kensington, PA) to quantify CH4 emission rates of pneumatic devices on ONG production pads and compare to inventory estimates. Other studies indicate that this HVS may malfunction, causing underestimates of emissions in certain scenarios encountered in ONG production and should not be used for some sources such as heavy emissions from condensate storage tanks. The HVS malfunction can occur on relatively large emissions, where the measured leak concentrations exceed 5%, and is ascribed to a sensor transition failure in the instrument. The HVS malfunction is believed to be exacerbated by several factors (large emission rates, amount of non-CH4 HCs in the emission stream, non-optimal HVS calibration frequency, firmware, and emission measurement coupling geometries). The degree to which HVS measurements of emissions from pneumatic co

  10. Kinesthetic control simulator. [for pilot training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, P. R.; Thomas, D. F., Jr. (Inventor)

    1975-01-01

    A kinesthetic control simulator is reported that has a flat base upon which rests a support structure having a lower spherical surface for rotation on the base plate with columns which support a platform above the support structure at a desired location with respect to the center of curvature of the spherical surface. A handrail is at approximately the elevation of the hips of the operator above the platform with a ring attached to the support structure which may be used to limit the angle of tilt. Five degree freedom-of-motion can be obtained by utilizing an air pad structure for support of the control simulator.

  11. INVESTIGATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION IMPACT ON MERCURY SPECIATION UNDER SIMULATED NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being increasingly applied for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired boilers. Some recent field and pilot studies suggest that the operation of SCR could affect the chemical form of mercury in the coal com...

  12. Computer simulation of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, William G.; Mickle, Marlin H.; Zipf, Mark E.; Kucuk, Senol

    1989-01-01

    The objective was to develop a computerized adaptive pilot model for the computer model of the research aircraft, the Harrier II AV-8B V/STOL with special emphasis on propulsion control. In fact, two versions of the adaptive pilot are given. The first, simply called the Adaptive Control Model (ACM) of a pilot includes a parameter estimation algorithm for the parameters of the aircraft and an adaption scheme based on the root locus of the poles of the pilot controlled aircraft. The second, called the Optimal Control Model of the pilot (OCM), includes an adaption algorithm and an optimal control algorithm. These computer simulations were developed as a part of the ongoing research program in pilot model simulation supported by NASA Lewis from April 1, 1985 to August 30, 1986 under NASA Grant NAG 3-606 and from September 1, 1986 through November 30, 1988 under NASA Grant NAG 3-729. Once installed, these pilot models permitted the computer simulation of the pilot model to close all of the control loops normally closed by a pilot actually manipulating the control variables. The current version of this has permitted a baseline comparison of various qualitative and quantitative performance indices for propulsion control, the control loops and the work load on the pilot. Actual data for an aircraft flown by a human pilot furnished by NASA was compared to the outputs furnished by the computerized pilot and found to be favorable.

  13. Identification of Time-Varying Pilot Control Behavior in Multi-Axis Control Tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Peter M. T.; Sweet, Barbara T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in fly-by-wire control architectures for rotorcraft have introduced new interest in the identification of time-varying pilot control behavior in multi-axis control tasks. In this paper a maximum likelihood estimation method is used to estimate the parameters of a pilot model with time-dependent sigmoid functions to characterize time-varying human control behavior. An experiment was performed by 9 general aviation pilots who had to perform a simultaneous roll and pitch control task with time-varying aircraft dynamics. In 8 different conditions, the axis containing the time-varying dynamics and the growth factor of the dynamics were varied, allowing for an analysis of the performance of the estimation method when estimating time-dependent parameter functions. In addition, a detailed analysis of pilots adaptation to the time-varying aircraft dynamics in both the roll and pitch axes could be performed. Pilot control behavior in both axes was significantly affected by the time-varying aircraft dynamics in roll and pitch, and by the growth factor. The main effect was found in the axis that contained the time-varying dynamics. However, pilot control behavior also changed over time in the axis not containing the time-varying aircraft dynamics. This indicates that some cross coupling exists in the perception and control processes between the roll and pitch axes.

  14. Nitrous oxide emissions from the oxidation tank of a pilot activated sludge plant.

    PubMed

    Lotito, Adriana Maria; Wunderlin, Pascal; Joss, Adriano; Kipf, Marco; Siegrist, Hansruedi

    2012-07-01

    This study discusses the results of the continuous monitoring of nitrous oxide emissions from the oxidation tank of a pilot conventional wastewater treatment plant. Nitrous oxide emissions from biological processes for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment plants have drawn great attention over the last years, due to the high greenhouse effect. However, even if several studies have been carried out to quantify nitrous oxide emission rates from different types of treatment, quite wide ranges have been reported. Only grab samples or continuous measurements over limited periods were considered in previous studies, which can account for the wide variability of the obtained results. Through continuous monitoring over several months, our work tries to fill this gap of knowledge and get a deeper insight into nitrous oxide daily and weekly emission dynamics. Moreover, the influence of some operating conditions (sludge age, dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxidation tank, nitrogen load) was studied to determine good practices for wastewater treatment plant operation aiming at the reduction of nitrous oxide emissions. The dissolved oxygen set-point is shown to play a major role in nitrous oxide emissions. Low sludge ages and high nitrogen loads are responsible for higher emissions as well. An interesting pattern has been observed, with quite negligible emissions during most of the day and a peak with a bell-like shape in the morning in the hours of maximum nitrogen load in the plant, correlated to the ammonia and nitrite peaks in the tank.

  15. Venturi/vortex technology for controlling chromium electroplating emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, K.J.; Northrup, J.; Heck, S.R.

    1997-12-31

    A new technology has been developed to control air emissions from hexavalent chromium electroplating tanks. The venturi/vortex scrubber uses a patented drain assembly to pull plating solution, air with toxic particulates above the solution, and unpopped bubbles of generated gases down with a gravity generated vortex effect. The recirculated plating solution acts as the scrubbing liquid and air agitation is eliminated. Separated gases are passed through a condenser/filter to remove any remaining fumes. The device is almost entirely constructed of CPVC. This device offers several advantages over conventional end-of-pipe systems including significantly lower cost, no wastewater, no extensive ventilation system, and emissions are recycled. The system can be is easily retrofitted to existing tanks, however, a loose fitting tank lid is recommended. A pilot demonstration has been performed at Benet Laboratory, Watervliet, NY (US Army) with a 1,500 gallon chromic acid electroplating tank and 1,500 Amps of applied current. Overall chromium emissions results were 0.00002 mg/Amp-hr, surpassing the stringent California State requirement of 0.006 mg/Amp-hr. Emission prevention by capturing unpopped bubbles is the method in which this system reduces the most emissions. The system met current ambient worker safety standards. Two major improvements are recommended: an increase in gas flow rate through the system and a solution to the system`s sensitivity to the plating solution level.

  16. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller And Controller/Controller Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansman, R. John

    1999-01-01

    In order to respond to the increasing demand on limited airspace system resources, a number of applications of information technology have been proposed, or are under investigation, to improve the efficiency, capacity and reliability of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) operations. Much of the attention in advanced ATM technology has focused on advanced automation systems or decision aiding systems to improve the performance of individual Pilots or Controllers. However, the most significant overall potential for information technology appears to he in increasing the shared information between human agents such as Pilots, Controllers or between interacting Controllers or traffic flow managers. Examples of proposed shared information systems in the US include; Controller Pilot Databank Communication (CPDLC), Traffic Management Advisor (TMA); Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS); Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) and NAS Level Common Information Exchange. Air Traffic Management is fundamentally a human centered process consisting of the negotiation, execution and monitoring of contracts between human agents for the allocation of limited airspace, runway and airport surface resources. The decision processes within ATM tend to be Semistructured. Many of the routine elements in ATM decision making on the part of the Controllers or Pilots are well Structured and can be represented by well defined rules or procedures. However in disrupted conditions, the ATM decision processes are often Unstructured and cannot be reduced to a set of discrete rules. As a consequence, the ability to automate ATM processes will be limited and ATM will continue to be a human centric process where the responsibility and the authority for the negotiation will continue to rest with human Controllers and Pilots. The use of information technology to support the human decision process will therefore be an important aspect of ATM modernization. The premise of many of the proposed shared

  17. Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows both astronauts reviewing procedures and checking CRT screen data.

  18. Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls on forward flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    On forward flight deck, Commander Brand and Pilot Overmyer operate controls from commanders and pilots seats. Overall view taken from the aft flight deck looking forward shows Overmyer pointing to data on Panel 7 (F7) CRT 1 screen.

  19. Pilot study on using an alternative method of estimating emission of heavy metals from wood combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszowski, Tomasz; Bożym, Marta

    2014-09-01

    This thesis presents pilot studies concerning the assessment of the possibility of using organic materials of vegetative origin as indices of heavy metals emissions (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) from domestic wood-fired fireplaces. Mosses of the Pleurozium schreberi species as well as cellulose and cotton wool were used during the study as the potential indices for the elements emission. It was proved that mosses are more reliable as indices of metals emissions than cellulose or cotton wool. It was found that the quantity of Ni accumulated in the moss tissue is comparable with the concentration of this compound in the dust assessed with the reference method. A correlation between the Ni, Cr, Zn and Pb concentrations defined in the mosses and dust filter was found. It was proved that mosses as adsorbers, more clearly than in the case of cellulose and cotton, react to the change of the size of the particulates emitted.

  20. Canada Chair in hypertension prevention and control: a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Norm R C

    2007-05-15

    A five-year pilot project was initiated in Canada to fund an individual to lead the effort in improving hypertension prevention and control. As the initial recipient of the funding, the author's objectives were to provide leadership to improve the management of hypertension through enhancements to the Canadian Hypertension Education Program, to increase public knowledge of hypertension, to reduce the prevalence of hypertension by reducing dietary sodium additives and to develop a comprehensive hypertension surveillance program. The initiative has received strong support from the hypertension community, the Public Health Agency of Canada, the Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada, and many Canadian health care professional and scientific organizations. Progress has been made on all objectives. The pilot project was funded by The Canadian Hypertension Society, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and sanofi-aventis, in partnership with Blood Pressure Canada, and will finish in July 2011.

  1. U.S. Airline Transport Pilot International Flight Language Experiences, Report 6: Native English-Speaking Controllers Communicating With Non-Native English-Speaking Pilots

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills ...native speaker of English (or English dialect). 2. Controllers need to develop greater patience with non-native English - speaking pilots. Once interna...when a non-native English - speaking pilot and you are on the same flight path and you suspect that pilot is low in English language proficiency skills

  2. Economic growth and carbon emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenyu

    The question about whether environmental improvement is compatible with continued economic growth remains unclear and requires further study in a specific context. This study intends to provide insight on the potential for carbon emissions control in the absence of international agreement, and connect the empirical analysis with theoretical framework. The Chinese electricity generation sector is used as a case study to demonstrate the problem. Both social planner and private problems are examined to derive the conditions that define the optimal level of production and pollution. The private problem will be demonstrated under the emission regulation using an emission tax, an input tax and an abatement subsidy respectively. The social optimal emission flow is imposed into the private problem. To provide tractable analytical results, a Cobb-Douglas type production function is used to describe the joint production process of the desired output and undesired output (i.e., electricity and emissions). A modified Hamiltonian approach is employed to solve the system and the steady state solutions are examined for policy implications. The theoretical analysis suggests that the ratio of emissions to desired output (refer to 'emission factor'), is a function of productive capital and other parameters. The finding of non-constant emission factor shows that reducing emissions without further cutting back the production of desired outputs is feasible under some circumstances. Rather than an ad hoc specification, the optimal conditions derived from our theoretical framework are used to examine the relationship between desired output and emission level. Data comes from the China Statistical Yearbook and China Electric Power Yearbook and provincial information of electricity generation for the year of 1993-2003 are used to estimate the Cobb-Douglas type joint production by the full information maximum likelihood (FIML) method. The empirical analysis shed light on the optimal

  3. Pilot usage of decoupled flight path and pitch controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkhout, J.; Osgood, R.; Berry, D.

    1985-01-01

    Data from decoupled flight maneuvers have been collected and analyzed for four AFTI-F-16 pilots operating this aircraft's highly augmented fly-by-wire control system, in order to obtain spectral density, cross spectra, and Bode amplitude data, as well as coherences and phase angles for the two longitudinal axis control functions of each of 50 20-sec epochs. The analysis of each epoch yielded five distinct plotted parameters for the left hand twist grip and right hand sidestick controller output time series. These two control devices allow the left hand to generate vertical translation, direct lift, or pitch-pointing commands that are decoupled from those of the right hand. Attention is given to the control patterns obtained for decoupled normal flight, air-to-air gun engagement decoupled maneuvering, and decoupled air-to-surface bombing run maneuvering.

  4. Synthetic perspective optical flow: Influence on pilot control tasks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, C. Thomas; Johnson, Walter W.; Perrone, John A.; Phatak, Anil V.

    1989-01-01

    One approach used to better understand the impact of visual flow on control tasks has been to use synthetic perspective flow patterns. Such patterns are the result of apparent motion across a grid or random dot display. Unfortunately, the optical flow so generated is based on a subset of the flow information that exists in the real world. The danger is that the resulting optical motions may not generate the visual flow patterns useful for actual flight control. Researchers conducted a series of studies directed at understanding the characteristics of synthetic perspective flow that support various pilot tasks. In the first of these, they examined the control of altitude over various perspective grid textures (Johnson et al., 1987). Another set of studies was directed at studying the head tracking of targets moving in a 3-D coordinate system. These studies, parametric in nature, utilized both impoverished and complex virtual worlds represented by simple perspective grids at one extreme, and computer-generated terrain at the other. These studies are part of an applied visual research program directed at understanding the design principles required for the development of instruments displaying spatial orientation information. The experiments also highlight the need for modeling the impact of spatial displays on pilot control tasks.

  5. [Emission control way of volatile organic compounds in industry].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Mei; Zhang, Guo-Ning; Wei, Yu-Xia; Zou, Lan; Zhang, Ming-Hui

    2011-12-01

    Due to the volatile nature, the way of controlling way of VOCs was different from other atmospheric pollutants. By analyzing the emission characteristics of VOCs, four kinds of control way were proposed, which were the source control, organized emission control, fugitive emission control and the total amount control, and the control modes of each control way were also analyzed and compared.

  6. Environmental controls over methanol emission from leaves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, P.; Greenberg, J.; Niinemets, É.; Guenther, A.

    2007-12-01

    Methanol is found throughout the troposphere, with average concentrations second only to methane among atmospheric hydrocarbons. Proposed global methanol budgets are highly uncertain, but all agree that at least 60% of the total source arises from the terrestrial biosphere and primary emissions from plants. However, the magnitude of these emissions is also highly uncertain, and the environmental factors which control them require further elucidation. Using a temperature-controlled leaf enclosure, we measured methanol emissions from leaves of six plant species by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry, with simultaneous measurements of leaf evapotranspiration and stomatal conductance. Rates of emission at 30°C varied from 0.2 to 38 μg g (dry mass)-1 h-1, with higher rates measured on young leaves, consistent with the production of methanol via pectin demethylation in expanding foliage. On average, emissions increased by a factor of 2.3 for each 10°C increase in leaf temperature. At constant temperature, emissions were also correlated with co-varying incident photosynthetic photon flux density and rates of stomatal conductance. The data were analyzed using the emission model developed by Niinemets and Reichstein (2003a, b), with the incorporation of a methanol production term that increased exponentially with temperature. It was concluded that control of emissions, during daytime, was shared by leaf temperature and stomatal conductance, although rates of production may also vary diurnally in response to variations in leaf growth rate in expanding leaves. The model, which generally provided reasonable simulations of the measured data during the day, significantly overestimated emissions on two sets of measurements made through the night, suggesting that production rates of methanol were reduced at night, perhaps because leaf growth was reduced or possibly through a direct effect of light on production. Although the short-term dynamics of methanol emissions can

  7. Nanophotonic control of circular dipole emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Feber, B.; Rotenberg, N.; Kuipers, L.

    2015-04-01

    Controlling photon emission by single emitters with nanostructures is crucial for scalable on-chip information processing. Nowadays, nanoresonators can affect the lifetime of linear dipole emitters, while nanoantennas can steer the emission direction. Expanding this control to the emission of orbital angular momentum-changing transitions would enable a future coupling between solid state and photonic qubits. As these transitions are associated with circular dipoles, such control requires knowledge of the interaction of a complex dipole with optical eigenstates containing local helicity. We experimentally map the coupling of classical, circular dipoles to photonic modes in a photonic crystal waveguide. We show that, depending on the combination of the local helicity of the mode and the dipole helicity, circular dipoles can couple to left- or rightwards propagating modes with a near-unity directionality. The experimental maps are in excellent agreement with calculations. Our measurements, therefore, demonstrate the possibility of coupling the spin to photonic pathway.

  8. Advanced CIDI Emission Control System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, Christine

    2006-05-31

    Ford Motor Company, with ExxonMobil and FEV, participated in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Ultra-Clean Transportation Fuels Program with the goal to develop an innovative emission control system for light-duty diesel vehicles. The focus on diesel engine emissions was a direct result of the improved volumetric fuel economy (up to 50%) and lower CO2 emissions (up to 25%) over comparable gasoline engines shown in Europe. Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) with aqueous urea as the NOx reductant and a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter (CDPF) were chosen as the primary emission control system components. The program expected to demonstrate more than 90% durable reduction in particulate matter (PM) and NOx emissions on a light-duty truck application, based on the FTP-75 drive cycle. Very low sulfur diesel fuel (<15 ppm-wt) enabled lower PM emissions, reduced fuel economy penalty due to the emission control system and improved long-term system durability. Significant progress was made toward a durable system to meet Tier 2 Bin 5 emission standards on a 6000 lbs light-duty truck. A 40% reduction in engine-out NOx emissions was achieved with a mid-size prototype diesel engine through engine recalibration and increased exhaust gas recirculation. Use of a rapid warm-up strategy and urea SCR provided over 90% further NOx reduction while the CDPF reduced tailpipe PM to gasoline vehicle levels. Development work was conducted to separately improve urea SCR and CDPF system durability, as well as improved oxidation catalyst function. Exhaust gas NOx and ammonia sensors were also developed further. While the final emission control system did not meet Tier 2 Bin 5 NOx after 120k mi of aging on the dynamometer, it did meet the standards for HC, NMOG, and PM, and an improved SCR catalyst was shown to have potential to meet the NOx standard, assuming the DOC durability could be improved further. Models of DOC and SCR function were developed to guide the study of several key design

  9. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with MBS scrubbing

    SciTech Connect

    Lundquist, P.R.

    1998-12-31

    Sodium metabisulfite (MBS)-assisted water scrubbing was selected as the most cost-effective and reliable technology for removal of dilute formaldehyde emissions from a resin manufacturing plant. Dilute formaldehyde emission streams (e.g., from process hoods, sample hoods, and other miscellaneous captured sources) required treatment in order to meet the anticipated Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards and state air toxic requirements. Other conventional technologies (e.g., thermal oxidation, carbon adsorption, and biofiltration) were considered, but later discarded because they were cost prohibitive or technically impractical. Segregation of dilute volatile organic compound (VOC) and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) emissions from other more concentrated VOC and HAP emissions facilitated the use of technologies tailored to the characteristics of each stream type, and thereby provided significant cost savings. While past experience has shown that simple water scrubbing of dilute formaldehyde emissions would not meet generally accepted treatment performance (90+% control), removals in excess of 95% can be readily achieved with the addition of a reactant like MBS to the scrubbing liquor. MBS in solution reacts with formaldehyde absorbed by the scrubber water to form a bisulfite salt, rendering the reacted formaldehyde non-volatile. The reaction accelerates mass transfer of formaldehyde into the scrubbing liquid, thereby decreasing the size and cost of emission control equipment. Design of such systems should also consider the chemistry of the make-up water (and scrubber water) used in the process. Recirculating water scrubbers can be susceptible to carbonate scaling and other inorganic fouling experienced in similar water treatment systems (e.g., air strippers). The addition of salts to the recirculating scrubber solutions can be controlled to limit potential sulfur dioxide emissions and deposits.

  10. A PILOT DEEP SURVEY FOR X-RAY EMISSION FROM fuvAGB STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Sahai, R.; Sanz-Forcada, J.; Sánchez Contreras, C.; Stute, M.

    2015-09-01

    We report the results of a pilot survey for X-ray emission from a newly discovered class of AGB stars with far-ultraviolet excesses (fuvAGB stars) using XMM-Newton and Chandra. We detected X-ray emission in three of six fuvAGB stars observed—the X-ray fluxes are found to vary in a stochastic or quasi-periodic manner on roughly hour-long timescales, and simultaneous UV observations using the Optical Monitor on XMM for these sources show similar variations in the UV flux. These data, together with previous studies, show that X-ray emission is found only in fuvAGB stars. From modeling the spectra, we find that the observed X-ray luminosities are ∼(0.002–0.2) L{sub ⊙} and the X-ray-emitting plasma temperatures are ∼(35–160) × 10{sup 6} K. The high X-ray temperatures argue against the emission arising in stellar coronae, or directly in an accretion shock, unless it occurs on a WD companion. However, none of the detected objects is a known WD-symbiotic star, suggesting that if WD companions are present, they are relatively cool (<20,000 K). In addition, the high X-ray luminosities specifically argue against emission originating in the coronae of main-sequence companions. We discuss several models for the X-ray emission and its variability and find that the most likely scenario for the origin of the X-ray (and FUV) emission involves accretion activity around a companion star, with confinement by strong magnetic fields associated with the companion and/or an accretion disk around it.

  11. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Situation Awareness and Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John; Endsley, Mica R.; Amonlirdviman, Keith; Vigeant-Langlois, Laurence

    1998-01-01

    The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot/controller negotiation and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. A part-task simulator experiment is described which probes pilot/controller interaction in areas where common information has the potential to lead to contention, as identified in the comparative analysis. Preliminary results are presented which suggest that shared information can effect more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers.

  12. CONTROLLING ODOROUS EMISSIONS FROM IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses the control of odorous emissions from iron foundries. he main process sources of odors in iron foundries are mold and core making, casting, and sand shakeout. he odors are usually caused by chemicals, which may be present as binders and other additives to the...

  13. CONTROLLING EMISSIONS FROM FUEL AND WASTE COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of emissions from combustion of fuels and wastes has been a traditional focus of air pollution regulations. Significant technology developments of the '50s and '60s have been refined into reliable chemical and physical process unit operations. In the U.S., acid rain legis...

  14. Influence of photoperiod on carbon dioxide and methane emissions from two pilot-scale stabilization ponds.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juan P; Ruiz, José L; Peña, Miguel R; Lubberding, Henk; Gijzen, Huub

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CO(2), CH(4)) from pilot-scale algal and duckweed-based ponds (ABP and DBP) were measured using the static chamber methodology. Daylight and nocturnal variations of GHG and wastewater characteristics (e.g. chemical oxygen demand (COD), pH) were determined via sampling campaigns during midday (12:30-15:30) and midnight (00:30-03:30) periods. The results showed that under daylight conditions in ABP median emissions were -232 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 9.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and in DBP median emissions were -1,654.5 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 71.4 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. During nocturnal conditions ABP median emissions were 3,949.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 12.7 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), and DBP median emissions were 5,116 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1), 195.2 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. Once data measured during daylight were averaged together with nocturnal data the median emissions for ABP were 1,566.8 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-1) and 72.1 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), whilst for DBP they were 3,016.9 mg CO(2) m(-2) d(-) and 178.9 mg CH(4) m(-2) d(-1), respectively. These figures suggest that there were significant differences between CO(2) emissions measured during daylight and nocturnal periods (p < 0.05). This shows a sink-like behaviour for both ABP and DBP in the presence of solar light, which indicates the influence of photosynthesis in CO(2) emissions. On the other hand, the fluxes of CH(4) indicated that DBP and ABP behave as net sources of CH(4) during day and night, although higher emissions were observed from DBP. Overall, according to the compound average (daylight and nocturnal emissions) both ABP and DBP systems might be considered as net sources of GHG.

  15. Remotely Piloted Vehicles for Experimental Flight Control Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motter, Mark A.; High, James W.

    2009-01-01

    A successful flight test and training campaign of the NASA Flying Controls Testbed was conducted at Naval Outlying Field, Webster Field, MD during 2008. Both the prop and jet-powered versions of the subscale, remotely piloted testbeds were used to test representative experimental flight controllers. These testbeds were developed by the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project s emphasis on new flight test techniques. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project is under the Fundamental Aeronautics Program of NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD). The purpose of these testbeds is to quickly and inexpensively evaluate advanced concepts and experimental flight controls, with applications to adaptive control, system identification, novel control effectors, correlation of subscale flight tests with wind tunnel results, and autonomous operations. Flight tests and operator training were conducted during four separate series of tests during April, May, June and August 2008. Experimental controllers were engaged and disengaged during fully autonomous flight in the designated test area. Flaps and landing gear were deployed by commands from the ground control station as unanticipated disturbances. The flight tests were performed NASA personnel with support from the Maritime Unmanned Development and Operations (MUDO) team of the Naval Air Warfare Center, Aircraft Division

  16. The integration of control and display concepts for improved pilot situational awareness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Person, L. H., Jr.; Steinmetz, G. G.

    1981-01-01

    Consideration is given to a part of the Langley Terminal Configured Vehicle program in which the pilot is retained as an active segment of an integrated system. The pilot is active in the outer control loop and controls the orientation of the aircraft velocity. The pilot thus has a task, but a low workload. Attention is also given to first- and second-generation primary flight display for horizontal and vertical situation awareness.

  17. A piloted simulation of the backup control system engagement for the YAH-64

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanken, C. L.; Aiken, E. W.; Merrill, R. K.; Ross, V. L.

    1981-01-01

    A piloted simulator experiment, designed to evaluate and optimize certain backup control system (BUCS) engagement parameters and to provide pilot familiarization with aircraft response prior to flight test of the BUCS in the YAH-64 Advanced Attack Helicopter, is described. Key elements of the simulation were the representation of a control system jam, the pilot's breaking of a shear pin in the jammed control, and the resultant BUCS engagement. To minimize the excursions in aircraft motion which could result from the pilot's control inputs after shear pin breakage, the BUCS control function is blended in gradually. The experiment's results indicate that optimum time to full control authority after shear pin breakage is three seconds in all axes for certain critical tasks. Special pilot training in the recovery from a control system jam may be necessary to minimize unacceptably large aircraft transients in the off-axis.

  18. Supervisory control of a pilot-scale cooling loop

    SciTech Connect

    Kris Villez; Venkat Venkatasubramanian; Humberto Garcia

    2011-08-01

    We combine a previously developed strategy for Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) with a supervisory controller in closed loop. The combined method is applied to a model of a pilot-scale cooling loop of a nuclear plant, which includes Kalman filters and a model-based predictive controller as part of normal operation. The system has two valves available for flow control meaning that some redundancy is available. The FDI method is based on likelihood ratios for different fault scenarios which in turn are derived from the application of the Kalman filter. A previously introduced extension of the FDI method is used here to enable detection and identification of non-linear faults like stuck valve problems and proper accounting of the time of fault introduction. The supervisory control system is designed so to take different kinds of actions depending on the status of the fault diagnosis task and on the type of identified fault once diagnosis is complete. Some faults, like sensor bias and drift, are parametric in nature and can be adjusted without need for reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. Other faults, like a stuck valve problem, require reconfiguration of the regulatory control system. The whole strategy is demonstrated for several scenarios.

  19. Pilot Search for 54-MHz Maser Emission from Interstellar Hydroxyl Using LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Ian M.; Heald, G.; Oonk, R.; McKean, J.; Mol, J.; Hessels, J.; Toribio, C.; LOFAR Collaboration

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of the most sensitive search to date for the two 54-MHz spectral lines of the hydroxyl (OH) molecule. These are the preliminary results of a larger, planned observational campaign. The splitting of the rotational ground state of the hydroxyl molecule gives rise to the four familiar 1.7-GHz transitions by which OH is known in the interstellar medium. There are also two magnetic-dipole transitions among these states at frequencies of 53.2 MHz and 55.1 MHz. These 54-MHz transitions have never been detected astronomically. Because of the relative weakness of the magnetic-dipole emission process, it is expected that only maser emission will generate a detectable 54-MHz signal. Two previous searches have been conducted by other authors with other instruments toward Galactic sources of known 1720-MHz OH maser emission: three sources were searched at 55.1 MHz and two other sources were searched at 53.2 MHz, resulting in upper limits of approximately 30 Jy for spectral channels of 2 km/s in width. In preparation for our future observational campaign that will apply the unprecedented sensitivity of LOFAR to the search for 54-MHz OH emission, we conducted a pilot project using six hours of Commissioning Time. These observations employed 21 48-element stations and produced a spectral resolution of approximately 0.5 km/s for both the 53.2- and 55.1-MHz lines. This spectral resolution is a considerable improvement over previous searches since it is suitable both for resolving the characteristically narrow width of maser lines and for identifying radiofrequency interference. In our pilot observations, no emission was detected at either frequency with an upper limit of approximately 3 Jy. We observed the Galactic sources W75N and W3(OH), neither of which have been searched previously at either frequency. We discuss the astrophysical implications of these sensitive non-detections. LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array designed and constructed by ASTRON, has

  20. Shuttle Primary Reaction Control Subsystem Thruster Fuel Valve Pilot Seal Extrusion: A Failure Correlation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor L.

    2003-01-01

    Pilot operated valves (POVs) are used to control the flow of hypergolic propellants monomethylhydrazine (fuel) and nitrogen tetroxide (oxidizer) to the Shuttle orbiter Primary Reaction Control Subsystem (PRCS) thrusters. The POV incorporates a two-stage design: a solenoid-actuated pilot stage, which in turn controls a pressure-actuated main stage. Isolation of propellant supply from the thruster chamber is accomplished in part by a captive polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) pilot seal retained inside a Custom 455.1 stainless steel cavity. Extrusion of the pilot seal restricts the flow of fuel around the pilot poppet, thus impeding or preventing the main valve stage from opening. It can also prevent the main stage from staying open with adequate force margin, particularly if there is gas in the main stage actuation cavity. During thruster operation on-orbit, fuel valve pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by low or erratic chamber pressure or failure of the thruster to fire upon command (Fail-Off). During ground turnaround, pilot seal extrusion is commonly indicated by slow gaseous nitrogen (GN2) main valve opening times (greater than 38 ms) or slow water main valve opening response times (greater than 33 ms). Poppet lift tests and visual inspection can also detect pilot seal extrusion during ground servicing; however, direct metrology on the pilot seat assembly provides the most quantitative and accurate means of identifying extrusion. Minimizing PRCS fuel valve pilot seal extrusion has become an important issue in the effort to improve PRCS reliability and reduce associated life cycle costs.

  1. SDSS-IV eBOSS emission-line galaxy pilot survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comparat, J.; Delubac, T.; Jouvel, S.; Raichoor, A.; Kneib, J.-P.; Yèche, C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Le Cras, C.; Maraston, C.; Wilkinson, D. M.; Zhu, G.; Jullo, E.; Prada, F.; Schlegel, D.; Xu, Z.; Zou, H.; Bautista, J.; Bizyaev, D.; Bolton, A.; Brownstein, J. R.; Dawson, K. S.; Escoffier, S.; Gaulme, P.; Kinemuchi, K.; Malanushenko, E.; Malanushenko, V.; Mariappan, V.; Newman, J. A.; Oravetz, D.; Pan, K.; Percival, W. J.; Prakash, A.; Schneider, D. P.; Simmons, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S.; Banerji, M.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Capozzi, D.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; Cunha, C. E.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Estrada, J.; Flaugher, B.; Fosalba, P.; Frieman, J.; Gaztanaga, E.; Gerdes, D. W.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Maia, M. A. G.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miquel, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Roe, N.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thaler, J.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.; Zhang, Y.

    2016-08-01

    The Sloan Digital Sky Survey IV extended Baryonic Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (SDSS-IV/eBOSS) will observe 195 000 emission-line galaxies (ELGs) to measure the baryonic acoustic oscillation (BAO) standard ruler at redshift 0.9. To test different ELG selection algorithms, 9000 spectra were observed with the SDSS spectrograph as a pilot survey based on data from several imaging surveys. First, using visual inspection and redshift quality flags, we show that the automated spectroscopic redshifts assigned by the pipeline meet the quality requirements for a reliable BAO measurement. We also show the correlations between sky emission, signal-to-noise ratio in the emission lines, and redshift error. Then we provide a detailed description of each target selection algorithm we tested and compare them with the requirements of the eBOSS experiment. As a result, we provide reliable redshift distributions for the different target selection schemes we tested. Finally, we determine an target selection algorithms that is best suited to be applied on DECam photometry because they fulfill the eBOSS survey efficiency requirements. The catalog is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/592/A121

  2. NO and N{sub 2}O emission characteristics from a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor firing different fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Chien-Song Chyang; Fu-Ping Qian; Yen-Chin Lin; Sheng-Hong Yang

    2008-03-15

    This study investigated experimentally the effects of various operating conditions, such as bed temperature, excess air, fuel property, and the method of temperature control on NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. All the experiments are conducted in a pilot scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). The cross section of the combustion chamber is 0.64 x 0.32 m{sup 2}, and the inner diameter of the freeboard is 0.45 m. Rice husk, soybean, and high sulfur subbituminous coal are used as fuels. Silica sand is employed as the bed material. The experimental results reveal that NO emissions increase with excess air and are almost independent of the bed temperature (600-760{sup o}C). In addition, the amount of NO and N{sub 2}O increases while water is injected into the combustor. The high-volatile fuel appears to form a significant amount of NO and N{sub 2}O above the bed surface, However, NO emission detected at the outlet of the combustor decreases with the volatile content. Compared with the primary air, the bed temperature is the dominant factor for the trade off NO and N{sub 2}O. Most of the NO is formed above the bed surface, achieves a maximum value at the position below the inlet of second air, and is reduced considerably within the freeboard. Moreover, the most remarkable feature about them is that N{sub 2}O emission from combustion can be neglected no matter what the feeding material is. 39 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. A pilot study of traditional indoor biomass cooking and heating in rural Bhutan: gas and particle concentrations and emission rates.

    PubMed

    Wangchuk, T; He, C; Knibbs, L D; Mazaheri, M; Morawska, L

    2017-01-01

    Although many studies have reported the health effects of biomass fuels in developing countries, relatively few have quantitatively characterized emissions from biomass stoves during cooking and heating. The aim of this pilot study was to characterize the emission characteristics of different biomass stoves in four rural houses in Bhutan during heating (metal chimney stove), rice cooking (traditional mud stove), fodder preparation (stone tripod stove), and liquor distillation (traditional mud stove). Three stage measurements (before, during, and after the activity had ceased) were conducted for PM2.5 , particle number (PN), CO, and CO2 . When stoves were operated, the pollutant concentrations were significantly elevated above background levels, by an average of 40 and 18 times for PM2.5 and CO, respectively. Emission rates (mg/min) ranged from 1.07 × 10(2) (PM2.5 ) and 3.50 × 10(2) (CO) for the stone tripod stove during fodder preparation to 6.20 × 10(2) (PM2.5 ) and 2.22 × 10(3) (CO) for the traditional mud stove during liquor distillation. Usable PN data were only available for one house, during heating using a metal chimney stove, which presented an emission rate of 3.24 × 10(13) particles/min. Interventions to control household air pollution in Bhutan, in order to reduce the health risks associated with cooking and heating, are recommended.

  4. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  5. PILOT-SCALE STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF BROMINE ADDITION ON THE EMISSIONS OF CHLORINATED ORGANIC COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The addition of brominated organic compounds to the feed of a pilot-scale incinerator burning chlorinated waste has been found previously, under some circumstances, to enhance emissions of volatile and semivolatile organic chlorinated products of incomplete combustion (PiCs) incl...

  6. Monitoring of atmospheric aerosol emissions using a remotely piloted air vehicle (RPV)-Borne Sensor Suite

    SciTech Connect

    1996-05-01

    We have developed a small sensor system, the micro-atmospheric measurement system ({mu}-AMS), to monitor and track aerosol emissions. The system was developed to fly aboard a remotely piloted air vehicle, or other mobile platform, to provide real-time particle measurements in effluent plumes and to collect particles for chemical analysis. The {mu}-AMS instrument measures atmospheric parameters including particle mass concentration and size distribution, temperature, humidity, and airspeed, altitude and position (by GPS receiver) each second. The sensor data are stored onboard and are also down linked to a ground station in real time. The {mu}-AMS is battery powered, small (8 in. dia x 36 in.), and lightweight (15 pounds). Aerosol concentrations and size distributions from above ground explosive tests, airbone urban pollution, and traffic-produced particulates are presented.

  7. Advanced Emissions Control Development Program: Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    G.T. Amrhein; R.T. Bailey; W. Downs; M.J. Holmes; G.A. Kudlac; D.A. Madden

    1999-07-01

    The primary objective of the Advanced Emissions Control Development Program (AECDP) is to develop practical, cost-effective strategies for reducing the emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers. The project goal is to effectively control air toxic emissions through the use of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment such as electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), fabric filters (baghouses - BH), and wet flue gas desulfurization systems (WFGD). Development work concentrated on the capture of trace metals, fine particulate, hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, with an emphasis on the control of mercury. The AECDP project is jointly funded by the US Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (DOE), the Ohio Coal Development Office within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO), and Babcock and Wilcox, a McDermott company (B and W). This report discusses results of all three phases of the AECDP project with an emphasis on Phase III activities. Following the construction and evaluation of a representative air toxics test facility in Phase I, Phase II focused on characterization of the emissions of mercury and other air toxics and the control of these emissions for typical operating conditions of conventional flue gas clean-up equipment. Some general comments that can be made about the control of air toxics while burning a high-sulfur bituminous coal are as follows: (1) particulate control devices such as ESP's and baghouses do a good job of removing non-volatile trace metals, (2) particulate control devices (ESPs and baghouses) effectively remove the particulate-phase mercury, but the particulate-phase mercury was only a small fraction of the total for the coals tested, (3) wet scrubbing can effectively remove hydrogen chloride and hydrogen fluoride, and (4) wet scrubbers show good potential for the removal of mercury when operated under certain conditions, however, for certain applications, system enhancements can be required to achieve high

  8. Controlling NOx emission from industrial sources

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Nueffer, W.; Grano, D.; Khan, S.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    A number of regulatory actions focused on reducing NOx emissions from stationary combustion sources have been taken in the United States in the last decade. These actions include the Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, and the NOx SIP Call rulemakings. In addition to these regulations, the recent Interstate Air Quality Rulemaking proposal and other bills in the Congress are focusing on additional reductions of NOx. Industrial combustion sources accounted for about 18016 of NOx emissions in the United States in 2000 and constituted the second largest emitting source category within stationary sources, only behind electric utility sources. Based on these data, reduction of NOx emissions from industrial combustion sources is an important consideration in efforts undertaken to address the environmental concerns associated with NOx. This paper discusses primary and secondary NOx control technologies applicable to various major categories of industrial sources. The sources considered in this paper include large boilers, furnaces and fired heaters, combustion turbines, large IC engines, and cement kilns. For each source category considered in this paper, primary NOx controls are discussed first, followed by a discussion of secondary NOx controls.

  9. An optimal control approach to pilot/vehicle analysis and Neal-Smith criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bacon, B. J.; Schmidt, D. K.

    1984-01-01

    The approach of Neal and Smith was merged with the advances in pilot modeling by means of optimal control techniques. While confirming the findings of Neal and Smith, a methodology that explicitly includes the pilot's objective in attitude tracking was developed. More importantly, the method yields the required system bandwidth along with a better pilot model directly applicable to closed-loop analysis of systems in any order.

  10. Single-Lever Power Control for General Aviation Aircraft Promises Improved Efficiency and Simplified Pilot Controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Jeffrey L.

    1997-01-01

    General aviation research is leading to major advances in internal combustion engine control systems for single-engine, single-pilot aircraft. These advances promise to increase engine performance and fuel efficiency while substantially reducing pilot workload and increasing flight safety. One such advance is a single-lever power control (SLPC) system, a welcome departure from older, less user-friendly, multilever engine control systems. The benefits of using single-lever power controls for general aviation aircraft are improved flight safety through advanced engine diagnostics, simplified powerplant operations, increased time between overhauls, and cost-effective technology (extends fuel burn and reduces overhaul costs). The single-lever concept has proven to be so effective in preliminary studies that general aviation manufacturers are making plans to retrofit current aircraft with the technology and are incorporating it in designs for future aircraft.

  11. Factors controlling dimethylsulfide emission from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, S. G.; Howes, B. L.

    1985-01-01

    The factors that control the emission of methylated gases from salt marshes are being studied. Research focusses on dimethylsulfide (DMS) formation and the mechanism of DMS and CH4 emission to the atmosphere. The approach is to consider the plants as valves regulating the emission of methylated gases to the atmosphere with the goal of developing appropriate methods for emission measurement. In the case of CH4, the sediment is the source and transport to the atmosphere occurs primarily through the internal gas spaces in the plants. The source of DMS appears to be dimethyl sulfoniopropionate (DMSP) which may play a role in osmoregulation in plant tissues. Concentrations of DMSP in leaves are typically several-fold higher than in roots and rhizomes. Even so, the large below ground biomass of this plant means that 2/3 of the DMSP in the ecosystem is below ground on the aerial basis. Upon introduction to sediment water, DMSP rapidly decomposes to DMS and acrylic acid. The solubility of a gas (its equilibrium vapor pressure) is a fundamental aspect of gas exchange kinetics. The first comprehensive study was conducted of DMS solubility in freshwater and seawater. Data suggest that the Setchenow relation holds for H at intermediate salinities collected. These data support the concept that the concentration of DMS in the atmosphere is far from equilibrium with seawater.

  12. Flight test experience and controlled impact of a large, four-engine, remotely piloted airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Horton, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A controlled impact demonstration (CID) program using a large, four engine, remotely piloted transport airplane was conducted. Closed loop primary flight control was performed from a ground based cockpit and digital computer in conjunction with an up/down telemetry link. Uplink commands were received aboard the airplane and transferred through uplink interface systems to a highly modified Bendix PB-20D autopilot. Both proportional and discrete commands were generated by the ground pilot. Prior to flight tests, extensive simulation was conducted during the development of ground based digital control laws. The control laws included primary control, secondary control, and racetrack and final approach guidance. Extensive ground checks were performed on all remotely piloted systems. However, manned flight tests were the primary method of verification and validation of control law concepts developed from simulation. The design, development, and flight testing of control laws and the systems required to accomplish the remotely piloted mission are discussed.

  13. Flight test experience and controlled impact of a large, four-engine remotely piloted airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, R. W.; Horton, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    A controlled impact demonstration (CID) program using a large, four engine, remotely piloted transport airplane was conducted. Closed loop primary flight control was performed from a ground based cockpit and digital computer in conjunction with an up/down telemetry link. Uplink commands were received aboard the airplane and transferred through uplink interface systems to a highly modified Bendix PB-20D autopilot. Both proportional and discrete commands were generated by the ground pilot. Prior to flight tests, extensive simulation was conducted during the development of ground based digital control laws. The control laws included primary control, secondary control, and racetrack and final approach guidance. Extensive ground checks were performed on all remotely piloted systems. However, manned flight tests were the primary method of verification and validation of control law concepts developed from simulation. The design development, and flight testing of control laws and the systems required to accomplish the remotely piloted mission are discussed.

  14. Evaluation of the pseudo pilot effect on baseline controller study data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, Linda C.

    1988-01-01

    The Baseline Controller Study requires the support of pseudo pilots who input computer commands in response to air data in a simulated environment. Errors committed either by pseudo pilots, or by the computer's failure to accept commands, can result in data that is not representative of controller capabilities. Therefore, it became necessary to evaluate the actions of the pseudo pilots and determine what effect, if any, those actions had upon a given set of baseline data. The Pseudo Pilot Stations (PPS) associated with the Baseline Controller Study are user unfriendly. This fact, coupled with the human factor of the pilots themselves, required exploration of the degree the pseudo pilot's actions affected the subject air traffic controller actions during the collection of baseline data. Examination of the preliminary data collected by the Basline Controller Study subjectively determined that pseudo pilot actions do, indeed, affect the the research data. Further study is needed to quantify that affect and, perhaps, assign a value to the pseudo pilot factor rather than merely decide which simulations are valid and which are not.

  15. Assessing Development Impacts Associated with Low Emission Development Strategies: Lessons Learned from Pilot Efforts in Kenya and Montenegro

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, S.; Katz, J.; Wurtenberger, L.

    2014-01-01

    Low emission development strategies (LEDS) articulate economy-wide policies and implementation plans designed to enable a country to meet its long-term development objectives while reducing greenhouse gas emissions. A development impact assessment tool was developed to inform an analytically robust and transparent prioritization of LEDS actions based on their economic, social, and environmental impacts. The graphical tool helps policymakers communicate the development impacts of LEDS options and identify actions that help meet both emissions reduction and development goals. This paper summarizes the adaptation and piloting of the tool in Kenya and Montenegro. The paper highlights strengths of the tool and discusses key needs for improving it.

  16. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  17. Influence of display and control compatibility on pilot-induced oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, M. C.; Harris, R. L., Sr.; Person, L. H., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The differences in techniques used by seven pilots to acquire information from an advanced display for instrument approaches to and landings on a runway were investigated. A fixed base simulator programmed with dynamics resembling the terminal configured vehicle (TCV) was studied. It is shown that the seven pilots can be divided into two groups which used the display with distinctly different strategies for controlling the airplane. A related pattern of performance differences resulted. It is found that pilots who primarily use raw flight path information experience longitudinal oscillations while pilots using attitude information did not.

  18. Working on asymmetry in Parkinson's disease: randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Lucia; Ricciardi, Diego; Lena, Francesco; Plotnik, Meir; Petracca, Martina; Barricella, Simona; Bentivoglio, Anna Rita; Modugno, Nicola; Bernabei, Roberto; Fasano, Alfonso

    2015-08-01

    Posture, gait and balance problems are very disabling symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD). An increased stride-to-stri de variability, reduction of automaticity and asymmetry of lower limbs function characterize parkinsonian gait. These features predispose to freezing of gait (FOG), which often leads to falls. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the modulation of asymmetry through physiotherapy might improve gait and reduce FOG, thus preventing falls. Twenty-eight PD patients entered a double-blind pilot feasibility controlled study and were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months of a rehabilitative program (performed twice a week) by means of the motor part of the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS-III), Gait and Falls Questionnaire, Tinetti balance and gait scale, Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), European Quality of Life questionnaire. Patients were randomly assigned to three treatment arms: (1) worst side improvement; (2) best side improvement; (3) standard therapy. All study arms showed a significant improvement of the Tinetti and SPPB scores. BSI led to a greater improvement than ST in terms of UPDRS-III (p = 0.01); Tinetti total score (p = 0.05) and Tinetti gait subscore (p = 0.01). Our study confirms the efficacy of physical therapy in the treatment of PD and, more importantly, suggests that specific intervention tailored on individual feature (e.g., asymmetry of motor condition) might be even more effective than standard rehabilitative programs.

  19. Condensing economizers for thermal efficiency improvements and emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    Heaphy, J.P.; Carbonara, J.; Litzke, W.; Butcher, T.A.

    1993-12-31

    Flue gas condensing economizers improve the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible heat and water vapor latent heat from flue gas exhaust. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers also have the potential to act as control devices for emissions of particulates, SO{sub x}, and air toxics. Both Consolidated Edison of New York and Brookhaven National LaborAtory are currently working on condensing economizer technology with an emphasis on developing their potential for emissions control. Con Edison is currently conducting a condensing economizer demonstration at their oil-fired 74th Street Station in New York. Since installing this equipment in February of 1992 a heat rate improvement of 800 Btu/kWh has been seen. At another location, Ravenswood Station, a two stage condensing economizer has been installed in a pilot test. In this advanced configuration -the ``Integrated Flue Gas Treatment or IFGT system- two heat exchanger sections are installed and sprays of water with and without SO{sub 2} sorbents are included. Detailed studies of the removal of particulates, SO{sub 2}, SO{sub 3}, and selected air toxics have been done for a variety of operating conditions. Removal efficiencies for SO{sub 2} have been over 98% and for SO{sub 3} over 65%. Brookhaven National Laboratory`s studies involve predicting and enhancing particulate capture in condensing economizers with an emphasis on small, coal-fired applications. This work is funded by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the Department of Energy. Flyash capture efficiencies as high as 97% have been achieved to date with a single stage economizer.

  20. The Effects of Shared Information on Pilot-Controller Situation Awareness And Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John; Endsley, Mica R.; Amonlirdviman, Keith

    1999-01-01

    The effect of shared information is assessed in terms of pilot-controller negotiating behavior and shared situation awareness. Pilot goals and situation awareness requirements are developed and compared against those of air traffic controllers to identify areas of common and competing interest. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. Results are presented which indicate that shared information enhances situation awareness and can engender more collaborative interaction between pilots and air traffic controllers. Furthermore, the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather overlay on their plan view displays is demonstrated. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed.

  1. Pilot and Controller Workload and Situation Awareness with Three Traffic Management Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Kraut, Joshua; Bacon, Paige; Minakata, Katsumi; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on workload and situation awareness of pilots and controllers participating in a human-in-the-loop simulation using three different distributed air-ground traffic management concepts. Eight experimental pilots started the scenario in an en-route phase of flight and were asked to avoid convective weather while performing spacing and merging tasks along with a continuous descent approach (CDA) into Louisville Standiford Airport (SDF). Two controllers managed the sectors through which the pilots flew, with one managing a sector that included the Top of Descent, and the other managing a sector that included the merge point for arrival into SDF. At 3-minute intervals in the scenario, pilots and controllers were probed on their workload or situation awareness. We employed one of three concepts of operation that distributed separation responsibility across human controllers, pilots, and automation to measure changes in operator situation awareness and workload. We found that when pilots were responsible for separation, they had higher levels of awareness, but not necessarily higher levels of workload. When controllers are responsible and actively engaged, they showed higher workload levels compared to pilots and changes in awareness that were dependent on sector characteristics.

  2. THE HETDEX PILOT SURVEY. I. SURVEY DESIGN, PERFORMANCE, AND CATALOG OF EMISSION-LINE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Joshua J.; Blanc, Guillermo A.; Gebhardt, Karl; Hao, Lei; Byun, Joyce; Fry, Alex; Jeong, Donghui; Komatsu, Eiichiro; Hill, Gary J.; Cornell, Mark E.; MacQueen, Phillip J.; Drory, Niv; Bender, Ralf; Hopp, Ulrich; Kelzenberg, Ralf; Ciardullo, Robin; Gronwall, Caryl; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Gawiser, Eric; Kelz, Andreas

    2011-01-15

    We present a catalog of emission-line galaxies selected solely by their emission-line fluxes using a wide-field integral field spectrograph. This work is partially motivated as a pilot survey for the upcoming Hobby-Eberly Telescope Dark Energy Experiment. We describe the observations, reductions, detections, redshift classifications, line fluxes, and counterpart information for 397 emission-line galaxies detected over 169 {open_square}' with a 3500-5800 A bandpass under 5 A full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) spectral resolution. The survey's best sensitivity for unresolved objects under photometric conditions is between 4 and 20x 10{sup -17} erg s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} depending on the wavelength, and Ly{alpha} luminosities between 3 x 10{sup 42} and 6 x 10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1} are detectable. This survey method complements narrowband and color-selection techniques in the search of high-redshift galaxies with its different selection properties and large volume probed. The four survey fields within the COSMOS, GOODS-N, MUNICS, and XMM-LSS areas are rich with existing, complementary data. We find 105 galaxies via their high-redshift Ly{alpha} emission at 1.9 < z < 3.8, and the majority of the remainder objects are low-redshift [O II]3727 emitters at z < 0.56. The classification between low- and high-redshift objects depends on rest-frame equivalent width (EW), as well as other indicators, where available. Based on matches to X-ray catalogs, the active galactic nuclei fraction among the Ly{alpha} emitters is 6%. We also analyze the survey's completeness and contamination properties through simulations. We find five high-z, highly significant, resolved objects with FWHM sizes >44 {open_square}' which appear to be extended Ly{alpha} nebulae. We also find three high-z objects with rest-frame Ly{alpha} EW above the level believed to be achievable with normal star formation, EW{sub 0}>240 A. Future papers will investigate the physical properties of this sample.

  3. Complexity and Pilot Workload Metrics for the Evaluation of Adaptive Flight Controls on a Full Scale Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Schaefer, Jacob; Burken, John J.; Larson, David; Johnson, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Flight research has shown the effectiveness of adaptive flight controls for improving aircraft safety and performance in the presence of uncertainties. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA)'s Integrated Resilient Aircraft Control (IRAC) project designed and conducted a series of flight experiments to study the impact of variations in adaptive controller design complexity on performance and handling qualities. A novel complexity metric was devised to compare the degrees of simplicity achieved in three variations of a model reference adaptive controller (MRAC) for NASA's F-18 (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) Full-Scale Advanced Systems Testbed (Gen-2A) aircraft. The complexity measures of these controllers are also compared to that of an earlier MRAC design for NASA's Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) project and flown on a highly modified F-15 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois). Pilot comments during the IRAC research flights pointed to the importance of workload on handling qualities ratings for failure and damage scenarios. Modifications to existing pilot aggressiveness and duty cycle metrics are presented and applied to the IRAC controllers. Finally, while adaptive controllers may alleviate the effects of failures or damage on an aircraft's handling qualities, they also have the potential to introduce annoying changes to the flight dynamics or to the operation of aircraft systems. A nuisance rating scale is presented for the categorization of nuisance side-effects of adaptive controllers.

  4. Role of the Controller in an Integrated Pilot-Controller Study for Parallel Approaches

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verma, Savvy; Kozon, Thomas; Ballinger, Debbi; Lozito, Sandra; Subramanian, Shobana

    2011-01-01

    Closely spaced parallel runway operations have been found to increase capacity within the National Airspace System but poor visibility conditions reduce the use of these operations [1]. Previous research examined the concepts and procedures related to parallel runways [2][4][5]. However, there has been no investigation of the procedures associated with the strategic and tactical pairing of aircraft for these operations. This study developed and examined the pilot s and controller s procedures and information requirements for creating aircraft pairs for closely spaced parallel runway operations. The goal was to achieve aircraft pairing with a temporal separation of 15s (+/- 10s error) at a coupling point that was 12 nmi from the runway threshold. In this paper, the role of the controller, as examined in an integrated study of controllers and pilots, is presented. The controllers utilized a pairing scheduler and new pairing interfaces to help create and maintain aircraft pairs, in a high-fidelity, human-in-the loop simulation experiment. Results show that the controllers worked as a team to achieve pairing between aircraft and the level of inter-controller coordination increased when the aircraft in the pair belonged to different sectors. Controller feedback did not reveal over reliance on the automation nor complacency with the pairing automation or pairing procedures.

  5. Cervical spine degeneration in fighter pilots and controls: a 5-yr follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Petrén-Mallmin, M; Linder, J

    2001-05-01

    At 5 yr after MRI of the cervical spine, for evaluation concerning degenerative lesions, follow-up MRI was performed on asymptomatic experienced military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 47 yr; mean accumulated flying time 3,100 h) and on age-matched controls without military flying experience. Young military high performance aircraft pilots (mean age 28 yr, mean accumulated flying time 915 h) were also re-examined. Compared with baseline MRI 5 yr earlier, there was significant increase in disk protrusions in all groups, in osteophytes in controls, and in foraminal stenoses in experienced pilots, and a significant reduction in disk signal intensity in young pilots. The difference between experienced pilots and controls was markedly reduced compared with that at baseline MRI. Thus, military high performance aircraft pilots seem to be at increased risk of premature development of degenerative lesions of the same type as are seen in an aging population. With increasing age the difference between pilots and controls diminishes.

  6. Two-step pilot-scale biofilter system for the abatement of food waste composting emission.

    PubMed

    Galera, Melvin Maaliw; Cho, Eulsaeng; Kim, Yekyung; Farnazo, Danvir; Park, Shin-Jung; Oh, Young-Sook; Park, Jae Kyu; Chung, Wook-Jin

    2008-03-01

    A pilot-scale two-step biofilter system was evaluated in treating food waste composting emission for 220 days. Wood chips were packed at the bottom section while mixture of rock wool and earthworm compost (6% w/v) was packed at the top section. Inlet ammonia concentration was found to be dominant and intermittent. The overall ammonia removal of over 98% was achieved, 70% of which was removed in the wood chip section. The highest ammonia elimination capacity was determined to be 39.43 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h at 99.5% removal efficiency. From biodegradation kinetic analysis, the maximum removal rate, V(m), of the wood chip section was determined to be 200 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and the saturation constant, K(s), 180 mg/m(3). For the rock wool-earthworm cast mixture section, the V(m) was 87 g-NH(3)/m(3)/h and K(s) was 87 mg/m(3). Complete removal of hydrogen sulfide and most trace compounds were achieved by the biofilter. Highest hydrogen sulfide elimination rate was 0.22 g-H(2)S/m(3)/h. The biofilter was optimized from 24 to 16 s EBRT with resulting low average pressure drops of 16 and 29 mm H(2)O/m, respectively.

  7. Control emissions from marine vessel loading

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, G.N.; Cross, S.R.

    1994-03-01

    Regulations set by the US Coast Guard require safety measures during the loading of marine vessels connected to vapor collection systems. These regulations (which were promulgated in July 1990) immediately impacted all companies involved with the loading of benzene, due to previously enacted US Environmental Protection Agency regulations governing benzene transfer. In addition, regulations issued by the states of California, New Jersey, and Louisiana impose additional marine emission control requirements. These regulations effectively work together--the federal or state environmental rule first requires the collection of the vapors generate from vessel loading, and then the Coast Guard regulation governs the safety features that must be applied to the system. Depending on the vapor pressure of the chemical, a 10,000-barrel barge may emit over one ton of chemical to the atmosphere. Such large volumes make marine loading a prime target for the push to further reduce atmospheric pollution, and its is a good be that many more companies will be asked to look at the recovery of vapors during the loading of marine vessels. This article will aid the engineer who may be asked to evaluate the various methods of controlling emissions from vessel loading. It provides some guidance on the requirements of the Coast Guard regulations and briefly outlines some of the technologies that have been used to process the collected vapors. Some important design considerations unique to marine systems are discussed to help engineers avoid some of the potential pitfalls. Finally, some estimated costs are provided for two common types of marine vapor control systems.

  8. Flight Simulator Experiments on Influence of Wideness of Front View for Pilot's Roll Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumata, Kazunari; Nishihata, Michiteru; Kobayashi, Osamu

    Fixed based flight simulator experiments were conducted to investigate the influences of wideness of front view for pilot's roll control. In these experiments, the airplane's motion was considered as a single-degree-of-freedom system in roll, and three front views having different view-angle were provided. The results of these experiments showed that the pilot's roll control characteristics, and the pilot's sensing parameter and reaction time for rolling motion were influenced by the differences of wideness of front view in flight simulator.

  9. Implications of diesel emissions control failures to emission factors and road transport NOx evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Papadimitriou, Giannis; Ligterink, Norbert; Hausberger, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    Diesel NOx emissions have been at the forefront of research and regulation scrutiny as a result of failures of late vehicle technologies to deliver on-road emissions reductions. The current study aims at identifying the actual emissions levels of late light duty vehicle technologies, including Euro 5 and Euro 6 ones. Mean NOx emission factor levels used in the most popular EU vehicle emission models (COPERT, HBEFA and VERSIT+) are compared with latest emission information collected in the laboratory over real-world driving cycles and on the road using portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS). The comparison shows that Euro 5 passenger car (PC) emission factors well reflect on road levels and that recently revealed emissions control failures do not call for any significant corrections. However Euro 5 light commercial vehicles (LCVs) and Euro 6 PCs in the 2014-2016 period exhibit on road emission levels twice as high as used in current models. Moreover, measured levels vary a lot for Euro 6 vehicles. Scenarios for future evolution of Euro 6 emission factors, reflecting different degree of effectiveness of emissions control regulations, show that total NOx emissions from diesel Euro 6 PC and LCV may correspond from 49% up to 83% of total road transport emissions in 2050. Unless upcoming and long term regulations make sure that light duty diesel NOx emissions are effectively addressed, this will have significant implications in meeting future air quality and national emissions ceilings targets.

  10. Source profiles of particulate matter emissions from a pilot-scale boiler burning North American coal blends.

    PubMed

    Lee, S W

    2001-11-01

    Recent awareness of suspected adverse health effects from ambient particulate matter (PM) emission has prompted publication of new standards for fine PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm (PM2.5). However, scientific data on fine PM emissions from various point sources and their characteristics are very limited. Source apportionment methods are applied to identify contributions of individual regional sources to tropospheric particulate concentrations. The existing industrial database developed using traditional source measurement techniques provides total emission rates only, with no details on chemical nature or size characteristics of particulates. This database is inadequate, in current form, to address source-receptor relationships. A source dilution system was developed for sampling and characterization of total PM, PM2.5, and PM10 (i.e., PM with aerodynamic diameter less than 10 pm) from residual oil and coal combustion. This new system has automatic control capabilities for key parameters, such as relative humidity (RH), temperature, and sample dilution. During optimization of the prototype equipment, three North American coal blends were burned using a 0.7-megawatt thermal (MWt) pulverized coal-fired, pilot-scale boiler. Characteristic emission profiles, including PM2.5 and total PM soluble acids, and elemental and carbon concentrations for three coal blends are presented. Preliminary results indicate that volatile trace elements such as Pb, Zn, Ti, and Se are preferentially enriched in PM2.5. PM2.5 is also more concentrated in soluble sulfates relative to total PM. Coal fly ash collected at the outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) contains about 85-90% PM10 and 30-50% PM2.5. Particles contain the highest elemental concentrations of Si and Al while Ca, Fe, Na, Ba, and K also exist as major elements. Approximately 4-12% of the materials exists as soluble sulfates in fly ash generated by coal blends containing 0.2-0.8% sulfur by mass

  11. SST Control by Subsurface Mixing during Indian Ocean Monsoons: 1-yr Pilot Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    public release; distribution is unlimited. SST Control by Subsurface Mixing during Indian Ocean Monsoons : 1-yr Pilot Project Emily Shroyer and James...observational basis and physical interpretation for new mixing parameterizations that will contribute to improved monsoon predictions in this sensitive...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE SST Control by Subsurface Mixing during Indian Ocean Monsoons : 1-yr Pilot Project 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  12. Aircraft Pilot Situational Awareness Interface for Airborne Operation of Network Controlled Unmanned Systems (US)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    2007-2032. 32 Nicola Tesla and his telautomatons (robots); Tesla further demonstrated remote control of objects by wireless in an exhibition in 1898...really piloted; in a more correct sense, the controllers augment the autopilot .107 This means that every command the pilot gives to the air vehicle...is in fact a command to the autopilot to command the air vehicle. All the unique characteristics of unmanned aviation define a unique set of

  13. Coke quench car emission control system

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coke quench car emission control system includes a coke car and a filter car connected in tandem for joint movement on rails disposed adjacent a coke oven. A hood and recuperator are mounted on a third car disposed on auxiliary rails which extend longitudinally along the upper portions of both the quench car and the filter car and in end-wise alignment. The hood is adapted to be coupled to the coke oven for receiving coke during a pushing operation. The recuperation has an inlet coupled to the hood for receiving emissions and withdrawing heat therefrom. The recuperator also has an outlet which is disposed adjacent the inlet of a filter system mounted on the filter car, when the third car is positioned atop the quench car. The third car is sized so that it can be moved on the auxiliary rails from a position atop the quench car to a position atop the filter car whereby the quench car can be exposed for a quenching operation.

  14. Measurements of Pilot Time Delay as Influenced by Controller Characteristics and Vehicles Time Delays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Privoznik, C. M.; Berry, D. T.; Bartoli, A. G.

    1984-01-01

    A study to measure and compare pilot time delay when using a space shuttle rotational hand controller and a more conventional control stick was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center's Dryden Flight Research Facility. The space shuttle controller has a palm pivot in the pitch axis. The more conventional controller used was a general-purpose engineering simulator stick that has a pivot length between that of a typical aircraft center stick and a sidestick. Measurements of the pilot's effective time delay were obtained through a first-order, closed-loop, compensatory tracking task in pitch. The tasks were implemented through a space shuttle cockpit simulator and a critical task tester device. The study consisted of 450 data runs with four test pilots and one nonpilot, and used three control stick configurations and two system delays. Results showed that the heavier conventional stick had the lowest pilot effective time delays associated with it, whereas the shuttle and light conventional sticks each had similar higher pilot time delay characteristics. It was also determined that each control stick showed an increase in pilot time delay when the total system delay was increased.

  15. Piloted Evaluation of an Integrated Methodology for Propulsion and Airframe Control Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bright, Michelle M.; Simon, Donald L.; Garg, Sanjay; Mattern, Duane L.; Ranaudo, Richard J.; Odonoghue, Dennis P.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated methodology for propulsion and airframe control has been developed and evaluated for a Short Take-Off Vertical Landing (STOVL) aircraft using a fixed base flight simulator at NASA Lewis Research Center. For this evaluation the flight simulator is configured for transition flight using a STOVL aircraft model, a full nonlinear turbofan engine model, simulated cockpit and displays, and pilot effectors. The paper provides a brief description of the simulation models, the flight simulation environment, the displays and symbology, the integrated control design, and the piloted tasks used for control design evaluation. In the simulation, the pilots successfully completed typical transition phase tasks such as combined constant deceleration with flight path tracking, and constant acceleration wave-off maneuvers. The pilot comments of the integrated system performance and the display symbology are discussed and analyzed to identify potential areas of improvement.

  16. Controlled ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption using passive acoustic emissions monitoring.

    PubMed

    Arvanitis, Costas D; Livingstone, Margaret S; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; McDannold, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The ability of ultrasonically-induced oscillations of circulating microbubbles to permeabilize vascular barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) holds great promise for noninvasive targeted drug delivery. A major issue has been a lack of control over the procedure to ensure both safe and effective treatment. Here, we evaluated the use of passively-recorded acoustic emissions as a means to achieve this control. An acoustic emissions monitoring system was constructed and integrated into a clinical transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound system. Recordings were analyzed using a spectroscopic method that isolates the acoustic emissions caused by the microbubbles during sonication. This analysis characterized and quantified harmonic oscillations that occur when the BBB is disrupted, and broadband emissions that occur when tissue damage occurs. After validating the system's performance in pilot studies that explored a wide range of exposure levels, the measurements were used to control the ultrasound exposure level during transcranial sonications at 104 volumes over 22 weekly sessions in four macaques. We found that increasing the exposure level until a large harmonic emissions signal was observed was an effective means to ensure BBB disruption without broadband emissions. We had a success rate of 96% in inducing BBB disruption as measured by in contrast-enhanced MRI, and we detected broadband emissions in less than 0.2% of the applied bursts. The magnitude of the harmonic emissions signals was significantly (P<0.001) larger for sonications where BBB disruption was detected, and it correlated with BBB permeabilization as indicated by the magnitude of the MRI signal enhancement after MRI contrast administration (R(2) = 0.78). Overall, the results indicate that harmonic emissions can be a used to control focused ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. These results are promising for clinical translation of this technology.

  17. Controlled Ultrasound-Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption Using Passive Acoustic Emissions Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Arvanitis, Costas D.; Livingstone, Margaret S.; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; McDannold, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    The ability of ultrasonically-induced oscillations of circulating microbubbles to permeabilize vascular barriers such as the blood-brain barrier (BBB) holds great promise for noninvasive targeted drug delivery. A major issue has been a lack of control over the procedure to ensure both safe and effective treatment. Here, we evaluated the use of passively-recorded acoustic emissions as a means to achieve this control. An acoustic emissions monitoring system was constructed and integrated into a clinical transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound system. Recordings were analyzed using a spectroscopic method that isolates the acoustic emissions caused by the microbubbles during sonication. This analysis characterized and quantified harmonic oscillations that occur when the BBB is disrupted, and broadband emissions that occur when tissue damage occurs. After validating the system's performance in pilot studies that explored a wide range of exposure levels, the measurements were used to control the ultrasound exposure level during transcranial sonications at 104 volumes over 22 weekly sessions in four macaques. We found that increasing the exposure level until a large harmonic emissions signal was observed was an effective means to ensure BBB disruption without broadband emissions. We had a success rate of 96% in inducing BBB disruption as measured by in contrast-enhanced MRI, and we detected broadband emissions in less than 0.2% of the applied bursts. The magnitude of the harmonic emissions signals was significantly (P<0.001) larger for sonications where BBB disruption was detected, and it correlated with BBB permeabilization as indicated by the magnitude of the MRI signal enhancement after MRI contrast administration (R2 = 0.78). Overall, the results indicate that harmonic emissions can be a used to control focused ultrasound-induced BBB disruption. These results are promising for clinical translation of this technology. PMID:23029240

  18. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt

    2014-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority.

  19. Unregulated emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine with various fuels and emission control systems.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shida; Frank, Brian P; Lanni, Thomas; Rideout, Greg; Meyer, Norman; Beregszaszy, Chris

    2007-07-15

    This study evaluated the effects of various combinations of fuels and emission control technologies on exhaust emissions from a heavy-duty diesel engine tested on an engine dynamometer. Ten fuels were studied in twenty four combinations of fuel and emission control technology configurations. Emission control systems evaluated were diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CRDPF), and the CRDPF coupled with an exhaust gas recirculation system (EGRT). The effects of fuel type and emission control technology on emissions of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene (BTEX), and 1,3-butadiene, elemental carbon and organic carbon (EC/OC), carbonyls, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and nitro-PAHs (n-PAHs) are presented in this paper. Regulated gaseous criteria pollutants of total hydrocarbons (THC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)) and particulate matter (PM) emissions have been reported elsewhere. In general, individual unregulated emission with a CRDPF or an EGRT system is similar (at very low emission level) or much lower than that operating solely with a DOC and choosing a "best" fuel. The water emulsion PuriNO(x) fuel exhibited higher BTEX, carbonyls and PAHs emissions compared to other ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) fuels tested in this study while n-PAH emissions were comparable to that from other ULSD fuels. Naphthalene accounted for greater than 50% of the total PAH emissions in this study and there was no significant increase of n-PAHs with the usage of CRDPF.

  20. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of an Innovative Treatment for Vapor Emissions.

    PubMed

    Watt, Andrew S; Magrini, Kimberly A; Carlson, Lynnae E; Wolfrum, Edward J; Larson, Sheldon A; Roth, Christine; Glatzmaier, Greg C

    1999-11-01

    Researchers from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory recently conducted a pilot-scale study at McClellan Air Force Base (AFB) in Sacramento, CA. The objective of the test was to determine the effectiveness of an ambient-temperature, solar-powered photocatalytic oxidation treatment unit for destroying emissions of chlorinated organic compounds from an air stripper. This paper reports test results and discusses applications and limitations of the technology. A 10-standard-cubic-foot-per-minute (SCFM) (28.3 L/min) slip stream of air from an air stripper at Operative Unit 29-31 at McClellan AFB was passed through a reactor that contained a lightweight, perforated, inert support coated with photoactive titanium dioxide. The reactor faced south and was tilted at a 45° angle from vertical so that the light-activated catalyst received most of the available sunlight. An online portable gas chro-matograph with two identical columns simultaneously analyzed the volatile organic compounds contained in the reactor inlet and outlet air streams. Summa canister grab samples of the inlet and outlet were also collected and sent to a certified laboratory for U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Method TO-14 analysis and verification of our field analyses. Three weeks of testing demonstrated that the treatment system's destruction and removal efficiencies (DREs) are greater than 95% at 10 SCFM with UV intensities at or greater than 1.5 milliwatts/square centimeter (mW/cm(2)). DREs greater than 95% at 20 SCFM were obtained under conditions where UV irradiation measured at or greater than 2 mW/cm(2). In Sacramento, this provided 6 hours of operation per clear or nearly clear day in April. A solar tracking system could extend operating time. The air stream also contained trace amounts of benzene. We observed no loss of system performance during testing.

  1. Emissions control for ground power gas turbines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudney, R. A.; Priem, R. J.; Juhasz, A. J.; Anderson, D. N.; Mroz, T. S.; Mularz, E. J.

    1977-01-01

    The similarities and differences of emissions reduction technology for aircraft and ground power gas turbines is described. The capability of this technology to reduce ground power emissions to meet existing and proposed emissions standards is presented and discussed. Those areas where the developing aircraft gas turbine technology may have direct application to ground power and those areas where the needed technology may be unique to the ground power mission are pointed out. Emissions reduction technology varying from simple combustor modifications to the use of advanced combustor concepts, such as catalysis, is described and discussed.

  2. Step 1: Human System Integration (HSI) FY05 Pilot-Technology Interface Requirements for Command, Control, and Communications (C3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The document provides the Human System Integration(HSI) high-level functional C3 HSI requirements for the interface to the pilot. Description includes (1) the information required by the pilot to have knowledge C3 system status, and (2) the control capability needed by the pilot to obtain C3 information. Fundamentally, these requirements provide the candidate C3 technology concepts with the necessary human-related elements to make them compatible with human capabilities and limitations. The results of the analysis describe how C3 operations and functions should interface with the pilot to provide the necessary C3 functionality to the UA-pilot system. Requirements and guidelines for C3 are partitioned into three categories: (1) Pilot-Air Traffic Control (ATC) Voice Communications (2) Pilot-ATC Data Communications, and (3) command and control of the unmanned aircraft (UA). Each requirement is stated and is supported with a rationale and associated reference(s).

  3. Use of Flight Simulators for Pilot-Control Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rathert, George A., Jr.; Creer, Brent Y.; Douvillier, Joseph G., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    Comparisons have been made between actual flight results and results obtained with fixed and moving flight simulators in a number of phases of flying airplanes with a wide range of characteristics. These results have been used to study the importance of providing motion stimuli in a simulator in order that the pilot operate the simulator in a realistic manner. Regions of airplane characteristics where motion stimuli are either mandatory or desirable are indicated.

  4. DOE/NETL's advanced NOx emissions control technology R & D program

    SciTech Connect

    Lani, B.W.; Feeley, T.J. III; Miller, C.E.; Carney, B.A.; Murphy, J.T.

    2006-11-15

    Efforts are underway to provide more cost-effective options for coal-fired power plants to meet stringent emissions limits. Several recently completed DOE/NETL R & D projects were successful in achieving the short-term goal of controlling NOx emissions at 0.15 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies. In anticipation of CAIR and possible congressional multi-pollutant legislation, DOE/NETL issued a solicitation in 2004 to continue R & D efforts to meet the 2007 goal and to initiate R & D targeting the 2010 goal of achieving 0.10 lb/MMBtu using in-furnace technologies in lieu of SCR. As a result, four new NOx R & D projects are currently underway and will be completed over the next three years. The article outlines: ALSTOM's Project on developing an enhanced combustion, low NOx burner for tangentially-fired boilers; Babcock and Wilcox's demonstration of an advanced NOx control technology to achieve an emission rate of 0.10 lb/MMBtu while burning bituminous coal for both wall- and cyclone-fired boilers; Reaction Engineering International's (REI) full-scale field testing of advanced layered technology application (ALTA) NOx control for cyclone fired boilers; and pilot-scale testing of ALTA NOx control of coal-fired boilers also by REI. DOE/NETL has begun an R & D effort to optimize performance of SCR controls to achieve the long term goal of 0.01 lb/MMBtu NOx emission rate by 2020. 1 fig.

  5. Combustion and NO emission of high nitrogen content biomass in a pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Qian, F P; Chyang, C S; Huang, K S; Tso, Jim

    2011-01-01

    The combustion of biomass of various nitrogen contents and its NO emission were investigated experimentally in this study. All the experiments were conducted in an I.D. 0.45 m pilot-scale vortexing fluidized bed combustor (VFBC). Rice husk, corn, and soybean were used as feeding materials. Urea was added into the feeding materials for the purpose of adjusting nitrogen content. The effects of various operating parameters on NO emission, such as bed temperature, excess air ratio, and flow rate of secondary air, were investigated. The effects of nitrogen content of fuels on NO emissions were also investigated by using the mixtures of rice husk/soybean, rice husk/urea, corn/soybean, and corn/urea in various weight ratios. The NO concentrations at various positions in the combustor were sampled and recorded. The experimental results show that most nitric oxide is formed at just above the bed surface. Temperature and excess air ratio are the major operating parameters for NO emission. For biomass with high nitrogen content, NO emission decreases with excess air, and increases with bed temperature. Compared with char-N, volatile-N is the more dominant reactant source for NO emission.

  6. Pilot/Controller Coordinated Decision Making in the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bearman, Chris; Miller, Ronald c.; Orasanu, Judith M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: NextGen technologies promise to provide considerable benefits in terms of enhancing operations and improving safety. However, there needs to be a thorough human factors evaluation of the way these systems will change the way in which pilot and controllers share information. The likely impact of these new technologies on pilot/controller coordinated decision making is considered in this paper using the "operational, informational and evaluative disconnect" framework. Method: Five participant focus groups were held. Participants were four experts in human factors, between x and x research students and a technical expert. The participant focus group evaluated five key NextGen technologies to identify issues that made different disconnects more or less likely. Results: Issues that were identified were: Decision Making will not necessarily improve because pilots and controllers possess the same information; Having a common information source does not mean pilots and controllers are looking at the same information; High levels of automation may lead to disconnects between the technology and pilots/controllers; Common information sources may become the definitive source for information; Overconfidence in the automation may lead to situations where appropriate breakdowns are not initiated. Discussion: The issues that were identified lead to recommendations that need to be considered in the development of NextGen technologies. The current state of development of these technologies provides a good opportunity to utilize recommendations at an early stage so that NextGen technologies do not lead to difficulties in resolving breakdowns in coordinated decision making.

  7. A FUEL-RICH PRECOMBUSTOR. FIELD EVALUATION OF LOW-EMISSION COAL BURNER TECHNOLOGY ON UTILITY BOILERS - VOLUME IV. ALTERNATE CON- CEPTS FOR SOX, NOX, AND PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results a study of the use of precombustors for the simultaneous control of S02, NOx, and ash emissions from coal combustion. In Phase 1, exploratory testing was conducted on a small pilot scale--293 kW (million Btu/hr)-pulverized-coal-fired precombustor to ident...

  8. Verbal workload in distributed air traffic management. [considering pilot controller interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kreifeldt, J. G.; Pardo, B.; Wempe, T. E.; Huff, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of alternative traffic management possibilities on task performance and pilot controller verbal workloads were studied. Two new rule structures - sequencing and advisory - in addition to vectoring were studied in conjunction with CRT pilot displays incorporating traffic situation displays with and without aircraft flight path predictors. The sequencing and advisory systems gave increasing control responsibility to the pilots. It was concluded that distributed management systems could in practice significantly reduce controller verbal workload without reducing system performance. Implications of this conclusion suggest that distributed management would allow controllers to handle a larger volume of traffic safely either as a normal operating procedure or as a failure mode alternative in a highly automated ground centered system.

  9. A pilot rating scale for evaluating failure transients in electronic flight control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, William S.; Schroeder, Jeffery A.; Eshow, Michelle M.

    1990-01-01

    A pilot rating scale was developed to describe the effects of transients in helicopter flight-control systems on safety-of-flight and on pilot recovery action. The scale was applied to the evaluation of hardovers that could potentially occur in the digital flight-control system being designed for a variable-stability UH-60A research helicopter. Tests were conducted in a large moving-base simulator and in flight. The results of the investigation were combined with existing airworthiness criteria to determine quantitative reliability design goals for the control system.

  10. Output-Feedback Model Predictive Control of a Pasteurization Pilot Plant based on an LPV model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi Pour, Fatemeh; Ocampo-Martinez, Carlos; Puig, Vicenç

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a model predictive control (MPC) of a pasteurization pilot plant based on an LPV model. Since not all the states are measured, an observer is also designed, which allows implementing an output-feedback MPC scheme. However, the model of the plant is not completely observable when augmented with the disturbance models. In order to solve this problem, the following strategies are used: (i) the whole system is decoupled into two subsystems, (ii) an inner state-feedback controller is implemented into the MPC control scheme. A real-time example based on the pasteurization pilot plant is simulated as a case study for testing the behavior of the approaches.

  11. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Sandra M; Lancaster, Gillian A; Campbell, Michael J; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L; Bond, Christine M

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms 'pilot' and 'feasibility' in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms 'feasibility' or 'pilot' as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term 'feasibility' in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention.

  12. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  13. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  14. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  15. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  16. 40 CFR 52.987 - Control of hydrocarbon emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Control of hydrocarbon emissions. 52... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Louisiana § 52.987 Control of hydrocarbon... compliance date of January 1, 1980. This shall result in an estimated hydrocarbon emission reduction of...

  17. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  18. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  19. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  20. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  1. 40 CFR 266.104 - Standards to control organic emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control organic emissions... Standards to control organic emissions. (a) DRE standard—(1) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(3... and removal efficiency (DRE) of 99.99% for all organic hazardous constituents in the waste feed....

  2. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  3. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  4. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  5. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  6. 40 CFR 266.106 - Standards to control metals emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Standards to control metals emissions... Standards to control metals emissions. (a) General. The owner or operator must comply with the metals standards provided by paragraphs (b), (c), (d), (e), or (f) of this section for each metal listed...

  7. Gaseous emissions from plants in controlled environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubay, Denis T.

    1988-01-01

    Plant growth in a controlled ecological life support system may entail the build-up over extended time periods of phytotoxic concentrations of volatile organic compounds produced by the plants themselves. Ethylene is a prominent gaseous emission of plants, and is the focus of this report. The objective was to determine the rate of ethylene release by spring wheat, white potato, and lettuce during early, middle, and late growth stages, and during both the light and dark segments of the diurnal cycle. Plants grown hydroponically using the nutrient film technique were covered with plexiglass containers for 4 to 6 h. At intervals after enclosure, gas samples were withdrawn with a syringe and analyzed for ethylene with a gas chromatograph. Lettuce produced 10 to 100 times more ethylene than wheat or potato, with production rates ranging from 141 to 158 ng g-dry/wt/h. Wheat produced from 1.7 to 14.3 ng g-dry/wt/h, with senescent wheat producing the least amount and flowering wheat the most. Potatoes produced the least amount of ethylene, with values never exceeding 5 ng g-dry/wt/h. Lettuce and potatoes each produced ethylene at similar rates whether in dark period or light period. Ethylene sequestering of 33 to 43 percent by the plexiglass enclosures indicated that these production estimates may be low by one-third to one-half. These results suggest that concern for ethylene build-up in a contained atmosphere should be greatest when growing lettuce, and less when growing wheat or potato.

  8. Temperature Dependence of Factors Controlling Isoprene Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, Bryan N.; Yoshida, Yasuko; Damon, Megan R.; Douglass, Anne R.; Witte, Jacquelyn C.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the relationship of variability in the formaldehyde (HCHO) columns measured by the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) to isoprene emissions in the southeastern United States for 2005-2007. The data show that the inferred, regional-average isoprene emissions varied by about 22% during summer and are well correlated with temperature, which is known to influence emissions. Part of the correlation with temperature is likely associated with other causal factors that are temperature-dependent. We show that the variations in HCHO are convolved with the temperature dependence of surface ozone, which influences isoprene emissions, and the dependence of the HCHO column to mixed layer height as OMI's sensitivity to HCHO increases with altitude. Furthermore, we show that while there is an association of drought with the variation in HCHO, drought in the southeastern U.S. is convolved with temperature.

  9. Cold-start hydrocarbon emissions control

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This article describes an effective, energy-efficient strategy for dealing with this problem using HC traps and heat-exchange related catalyst beds that have been successfully tested. The worldwide regulatory climate for continued and dramatic reductions in vehicle exhaust emissions will continue unabated for some time. The best known of these mandates includes California Air Resources Board`s Low Emission Vehicle (CARB LEV) program, the Ozone Transport Commission`s recent petition to the EPA for partial adoption of CARB`s LEV program, and the European Economic Community`s proposed staged multi-tier approach to reduce auto exhaust pollution. Since up to 70% of hydrocarbon tailpipe emissions occur during the cold-start portion of the Federal Test Procedure (FTP), significant reductions in total FTP HC emissions must include a cold-start HC abatement strategy.

  10. Application of a pilot control banding tool for risk level assessment and control of nanoparticle exposures

    SciTech Connect

    Paik, S Y; Zalk, D M; Swuste, P

    2008-03-03

    Control Banding (CB) strategies offer simplified solutions for controlling worker exposures to constituents that are found in the workplace in the absence of firm toxicological and exposure data. These strategies may be particularly useful in nanotechnology applications, considering the overwhelming level of uncertainty over what nanomaterials and nanotechnologies present as potential work-related health risks, what about these materials might lead to adverse toxicological activity, how risk related to these might be assessed, and how to manage these issues in the absence of this information. This study introduces a pilot CB tool or 'CB Nanotool' that was developed specifically for characterizing the health aspects of working with engineered nanoparticles and determining the level of risk and associated controls for five ongoing nanotechnology-related operations being conducted at two Department of Energy (DOE) research laboratories. Based on the application of the CB Nanotool, four of the five operations evaluated in this study were found to have implemented controls consistent with what was recommended by the CB Nanotool, with one operation even exceeding the required controls for that activity. The one remaining operation was determined to require an upgrade in controls. By developing this dynamic CB Nanotool within the realm of the scientific information available, this application of CB appears to be a useful approach for assessing the risk of nanomaterial operations, providing recommendations for appropriate engineering controls, and facilitating the allocation of resources to the activities that most need them.

  11. Pilot-scale testing of renewable biocatalyst for swine manure treatment and mitigation of odorous VOCs, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Devin L.; Koziel, Jacek A.; Bruning, Kelsey; Parker, David B.

    2017-02-01

    Comprehensive control of odors, hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia (NH3), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with swine production is a critical need. A pilot-scale experiment was conducted to evaluate surface-applied soybean peroxidase (SBP) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) as a manure additive to mitigate emissions of odorous volatile organic compounds (VOC) including dimethyl disulfide/methanethiol (DMDS/MT), dimethyl trisulfide, n-butyric acid, valeric acid, isovaleric acid, p-cresol, indole, and skatole. The secondary impact on emissions of NH3, H2S, and GHG was also measured. The SBP was tested at four treatments (2.28-45.7 kg/m2 manure) with CaO2 (4.2% by weight of SBP) over 137 days. Significant reductions in VOC emissions were observed: DMDS/MT (36.2%-84.7%), p-cresol (53.1%-89.5%), and skatole (63.2%-92.5%). There was a corresponding significant reduction in NH3 (14.6%-67.6%), and significant increases in the greenhouse gases CH4 (32.7%-232%) and CO2 (20.8%-124%). The remaining emissions (including N2O) were not statistically different. At a cost relative to 0.8% of a marketed hog it appears that SBP/CaO2 treatment could be a promising option at the lowest (2.28 kg/m2) treatment rate for reducing odorous gas and NH3 emissions at swine operations, and field-scale testing is warranted.

  12. The Walking School Bus and children's physical activity: A pilot cluster randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To evaluate the impact of a "walking school bus" program on children's rates of active commuting to school and physical activity. We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial among 4th-graders from 8 schools in Houston, Texas (N = 149). Random allocation to treatment or control condition...

  13. Flight test experience and controlled impact of a remotely piloted jet transport aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horton, Timothy W.; Kempel, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    The Dryden Flight Research Center Facility of NASA Ames Research Center (Ames-Dryden) and the FAA conducted the controlled impact demonstration (CID) program using a large, four-engine, remotely piloted jet transport airplane. Closed-loop primary flight was controlled through the existing onboard PB-20D autopilot which had been modified for the CID program. Uplink commands were sent from a ground-based cockpit and digital computer in conjunction with an up-down telemetry link. These uplink commands were received aboard the airplane and transferred through uplink interface systems to the modified PB-20D autopilot. Both proportional and discrete commands were produced by the ground system. Prior to flight tests, extensive simulation was conducted during the development of ground-based digital control laws. The control laws included primary control, secondary control, and racetrack and final approach guidance. Extensive ground checks were performed on all remotely piloted systems; however, piloted flight tests were the primary method and validation of control law concepts developed from simulation. The design, development, and flight testing of control laws and systems required to accomplish the remotely piloted mission are discussed.

  14. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie... CONTROL OF SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.9 Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. The Administrator may waive the following requirements of this part for participants in a...

  15. CO emissions in China: Uncertainties and implications of improved energy efficiency and emission control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Nielsen, Chris P.; McElroy, Michael B.; Zhang, Lin; Zhang, Jie

    2012-03-01

    A bottom-up methodology and an improved database of emission factors combining the latest domestic field measurements are developed to estimate the emissions of anthropogenic CO from China at national and provincial levels. The CO emission factors for major economic sectors declined to varying degrees from 2005 to 2009, attributed to improved energy efficiency and/or emission control regulations. Total national CO emissions are estimated at 173 Tg for 2005 and have been relatively stable for subsequent years, despite fast growth of energy consumption and industrial production. While industry and transportation sources dominated CO emissions in developed eastern and north-central China, residential combustion played a much greater role in the less developed western provinces. The uncertainties of national Chinese CO emissions are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation at -20% to +45% (95% confidence interval). Due to poor understanding of emission factors and activity levels for combustion of solid fuels, the largest uncertainties are found for emissions from the residential sector. The trends of bottom-up emissions compare reasonably to satellite observation of CO columns and to ground observations of CO2-CO correlation slopes. The increase in the ratio for emissions of CO2 relative to CO suggests that China has successfully improved combustion efficiencies across its economy in recent years, consistent with national policies to improve energy efficiency and to control criteria air pollutants.

  16. Piloted simulator investigation of helicopter control systems effects on handling qualities during instrument flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forrest, R. D.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Alderete, T. S.; Gee, D. R.

    1979-01-01

    An exploratory piloted simulation was conducted to investigate the effects of the characteristics of helicopter flight control systems on instrument flight handling qualities. This joint FAA/NASA study was motivated by the need to improve instrument flight capability. A near-term objective is to assist in updating the airworthiness criteria for helicopter instrument flight. The experiment consisted of variations of single-rotor helicopter types and levels of stability and control augmentation systems (SCAS). These configurations were evaluated during an omnirange approach task under visual and instrument flight conditions. The levels of SCAS design included a simple rate damping system, collective decoupling plus rate damping, and an attitude command system with collective decoupling. A limited evaluation of stick force versus airspeed stability was accomplished. Some problems were experienced with control system mechanization which had a detrimental effect on longitudinal stability. Pilot ratings, pilot commentary, and performance data related to the task are presented.

  17. Precipitation controls isoprene emissions from tropical ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potosnak, M. J.; Gatti, L. V.; Guenther, A. B.; Karl, T.; Trostdorf, C. R.; Martins, W. C.; Rinne, H. J.; Yamazaki, A.

    2003-12-01

    Isoprene emissions from tropical regions account for a majority of isoprene produced globally. Current estimates of global isoprene emissions use meteorological inputs (temperature and light), ecosystem leaf area, and a time invariant, ecosystem specific emissions factor. This approach has been verified to work well for deciduous mid-latitude forests, but the approach has not been tested for tropical ecosystems where seasonality is induced by precipitation. Recent flux studies at two field stations in the tropics found strong effects of precipitation regime (dry vs. wet season) on isoprene emissions. A flux study conducted during the wet season (October 1999) at the La Selva Biological Station (10° 26' N, 83° 59' W, precipitation 4000 mm yr{-1}) found whole system isoprene emissions rates between 2--10 mg C m-2 h-1, while a second campaign during the dry season (April 2003) found values ranging 8--16 mg C m-2 h-1. This difference could not be explained by changes in ambient temperature or light using established emissions algorithms. The second field site near Santarém, Brazil in the Floresta Nacional do Tapajós (2° 51' S, 54° 58' W, precipitation 2000 mm yr{-1}), part of the Large scale Biosphere-atmosphere experiment in Amazônia (LBA), showed a similar pattern. Additionally, a 13 month isoprene concentration record at this station found a 4 fold increase during the dry season. Application of a one dimensional chemistry model predicts a similar change in isoprene source strength. A standard emission model using temperature and light could not account for these seasonal changes, but adding an empirical term that accounted for previous precipitation greatly enhanced the fit.

  18. Ethanol emissions and control for wine-fermentation tanks. Test report

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, D.F.; Castronovo, C.L.; Ouchida, P.K.

    1988-04-01

    Three emission-control devices (a water scrubber, a carbon adsorption unit, and a catalytic incinerator) were tested as part of a pilot program to evaluate technology to reduce the ethanol content of wine-fermentation-tank exhaust gases. The devices were evaluated on 1400 gallon capacity tanks at the California State University at Fresno producing red wines and white wines. Tank exhaust gases were directed to the control devices through a hood cap collection system. A control tank with no exhaust gas collection system or control device was also tested. Ethanol emissions were monitored using continuous hydrocarbon analyzers at the inlet and outlet of each control device. Each of the control devices were found to be capable of reducing ethanol emissions by at least 90 percent. Continous monitoring of oxygen and carbon dioxide was collected. Samples were taken for determination of moisture content, selected volatile organic compound, and hydrogen sulfide concentrations. A datalogger was used to allow computer data reduction of the continuous-monitor results.

  19. Informing efficient randomised controlled trials: exploration of challenges in developing progression criteria for internal pilot studies

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Paula R; Gamble, Carrol; O'Connell Francischetto, Elaine; Metcalfe, Chris; Davidson, Peter; Williams, Hywel; Blazeby, Jane M

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Designing studies with an internal pilot phase may optimise the use of pilot work to inform more efficient randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Careful selection of preagreed decision or ‘progression’ criteria at the juncture between the internal pilot and main trial phases provides a valuable opportunity to evaluate the likely success of the main trial and optimise its design or, if necessary, to make the decision not to proceed with the main trial. Guidance on the appropriate selection and application of progression criteria is, however, lacking. This paper outlines the key issues to consider in the optimal development and review of operational progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase. Design A structured literature review and exploration of stakeholders' opinions at a Medical Research Council (MRC) Hubs for Trials Methodology Research workshop. Key stakeholders included triallists, methodologists, statisticians and funders. Results There is considerable variation in the use of progression criteria for RCTs with an internal pilot phase, although 3 common issues predominate: trial recruitment, protocol adherence and outcome data. Detailed and systematic reporting around the decision-making process for stopping, amending or proceeding to a main trial is uncommon, which may hamper understanding in the research community about the appropriate and optimal use of RCTs with an internal pilot phase. 10 top tips for the development, use and reporting of progression criteria for internal pilot studies are presented. Conclusions Systematic and transparent reporting of the design, results and evaluation of internal pilot trials in the literature should be encouraged in order to facilitate understanding in the research community and to inform future trials. PMID:28213598

  20. Assessment and control of chrysotile asbestos emissions from unpaved roads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, R. K.; Connor, M. A., Jr.

    1981-05-01

    The findings of field surveys and a test program to assess chrysotile asbestos emissions generated by vehicular use of unpaved roads surfaced with crushed serpentinite rock are presented. Included are discussions of Federal asbestos regulations, sampling and analysis procedures, human health effects, and various emission control techniques. The Enviromental Protection Agency believes that asbestos emissions which occur from unpaved roads and other dusty sources surfaced with serpentinite should be reduced to the greatest extent practical. Local, State, and Federal agencies responsible for road maintenance in the limited areas where asbestos emissions occur are in the best position to assess local conditions and implement the most appropriate control measures.

  1. Piloted simulation study of two tilt-wing flap control concepts, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birckelbaw, Lourdes G.; Corliss, Lloyd D.; Hindson, William S.; Churchill, Gary B.

    1994-01-01

    A two phase piloted simulation study has been conducted in the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator to investigate alternative wing and flap controls for tilt-wing aircraft. This report documents the flying qualities results and findings of the second phase of the piloted simulation study and describes the simulated tilt-wing aircraft, the flap control concepts, the experiment design and the evaluation tasks. The initial phase of the study compared the flying qualities of both a conventional programmed flap and an innovative geared flap. The second phase of the study introduced an alternate method of pilot control for the geared flap and further studied the flying qualities of the programmed flap and two geared flap configurations. In general, the pilot ratings showed little variation between the programmed flap and the geared flap control concepts. Some differences between the two control concepts were noticed and are discussed in this report. The geared flap configurations had very similar results. Although the geared flap concept has the potential to reduce or eliminate the pitch control power requirements from a tail rotor or a tail thruster at low speeds and in hover, the results did not show reduced tail thruster pitch control power usage with the geared flap configurations compared to the programmed flap configuration. The addition of pitch attitude stabilization in the second phase of simulation study greatly enhanced the aircraft flying qualities compared to the first phase.

  2. Emission of greenhouse gases from controlled incineration of cattle manure.

    PubMed

    Oshita, Kazuyuki; Sun, Xiucui; Taniguchi, Miki; Takaoka, Masaki; Matsukawa, Kazutsugu; Fujiwara, Taku

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emission is a potential limiting factor in livestock farming development. While incineration is one approach to minimize livestock manure, there are concerns about significant levels of nitrogen and organic compounds in manure as potential sources of greenhouse gas emissions (N2O and CH4). In this study, the effects of various incineration conditions, such as the furnace temperature and air ratio on N2O and CH4 formation behaviour, of cattle manure (as a representative livestock manure) were investigated in a pilot rotary kiln furnace. The results revealed that N2O emissions decreased with increasing temperature and decreasing air ratio. In addition, CH4 emissions tended to be high above 800 degrees C at a low air ratio. The emission factors for N2O and CH4 under the general conditions (combustion temperature of 800-850 degrees C and air ratio of 1.4) were determined to be 1.9-6.0% g-N2O-N/g-N and 0.0046-0.26% g-CH4/g-burning object, respectively. The emission factor for CH4 differed slightly from the published values between 0.16 and 0.38% g-CH4/g-burning object. However, the emission factor for N2O was much higher than the currently accepted value of 0.7% g-N2O-N/g-N and, therefore, it is necessary to revise the N2O emission factor for the incineration of livestock manure.

  3. Active control of excessive sound emission on a mobile device.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se-Woon; Youn, Dae Hee; Park, Young-cheol; Lee, Gun-Woo

    2015-04-01

    During a phone conversation, loud vocal emission from the far-end to the near-end space can disturb nearby people. In this paper, the possibility of actively controlling such unwanted sound emission using a control source placed on the mobile device is investigated. Two different approaches are tested: Global control, minimizing the potential energy measured along a volumetric space surface, and local control, minimizing the squared sound pressure at a discrete point on the phone. From the test results, both approaches can reduce the unwanted sound emission by more than 6 dB in the frequency range up to 2 kHz.

  4. [Characteristics of pilot motor activity when different control systems are used during landing approaches].

    PubMed

    Brusnichkina, R I

    1980-01-01

    Complex motor acts of pilots during their professional work were investigated with control information presented in a different manner. Two experimental series were run: in a real flight and in a simulator. Parameters of muscle bioelectric activity, control movements and performance efficiency were used. Differences in the formation of motor acts were shown to depend on the scope and quality of the information presented. During required transfer from one mode to another the structure of working movements and performance efficiency obeyed at large changes in the information necessary for piloting. This was accompanied by an alteration in the developed stereotype of actions, including motor acts.

  5. PILOT: a balloon-borne experiment to measure the polarized FIR emission of dust grains in the interstellar medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Ruka; Bernard, Jean-Philippe

    Measuring precisely the faint polarization of the Far-Infrared and sub-millimetre sky is one of the next observational challenges of modern astronomy and cosmology. In particular, detection of the B-mode polarization from the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may reveal the inflationary periods in the very early universe. Such measurements will require very high sensitivity and very low instrumental systematic effects. As for measurements of the CMB intensity, sensitive measurements of the CMB polarization will be made difficult by the presence of foreground emission from our own Milky Way, which is orders of magnitude stronger than the faint polarized cosmological signal. Such foreground emission will have to be understood very accurately and removed from cosmological measurements. This polarized emission is also interesting in itself, since it brings information relevant to the process of star formation, about the orientation of the magnetic field in our Galaxy through the alignment of dust grains. I will first summarize our current knowledge in this field, on the basis of extinction and emission measurements from the ground and airborne experiments and in the context of the recent measurements with the Planck satellite. I will then describe the concept and science goals of the PILOT balloon-borne experiment project (http://pilot.irap.omp.eu). This project is funded by the French space agency (CNES: “Centre National des Etudes Spatiales”) and currently under final assembly and tests. The experiment is dedicated to measuring precisely the linear polarization of the faint interstellar diffuse dust emission in the Far-Infrared in our Galaxy and nearby galaxies. It is composed of a 0.83 m diameter telescope and a Helium 4 deware accommodating the rest of the optics and 2 focal plane arrays with a total of 2048 individual bolometers cooled to 300 mK, developed for the PACS instruments on board the Hershel satellite. It will be operating in two broad photometric

  6. Controlling laser emission by selecting crystal orientation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijuan; Han, Shujuan; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Zhang, Huanjin; Yu, Haohai; Han, Shuo; Xu, Xinguang

    2013-01-01

    Based on the anisotropy of laser crystal, we demonstrate a method of adjusting laser emission by selecting crystal orientation. When the light propagating direction varies from a to c axis of Nd:LiGd(MoO4)2 crystal, emission wavelength exhibits a sensitive change of 1061 nm → 1061/1062 + 1068 nm → 1068 nm. The experimental discipline is well explained by a theoretical study of simulating on the spatial distribution of stimulated emission cross-section. This letter manifests that the laser property along non-principal-axis direction is also valuable for research and application, which breaks through the traditional custom of using laser materials processed along principal-axis.

  7. Effects of Different Heave Motion Components on Pilot Pitch Control Behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaal, Petrus M. T.; Zavala, Melinda A.

    2016-01-01

    The study described in this paper had two objectives. The first objective was to investigate if a different weighting of heave motion components decomposed at the center of gravity, allowing for a higher fidelity of individual components, would result in pilot manual pitch control behavior and performance closer to that observed with full aircraft motion. The second objective was to investigate if decomposing the heave components at the aircraft's instantaneous center of rotation rather than at the center of gravity could result in additional improvements in heave motion fidelity. Twenty-one general aviation pilots performed a pitch attitude control task in an experiment conducted on the Vertical Motion Simulator at NASA Ames under different hexapod motion conditions. The large motion capability of the Vertical Motion Simulator also allowed for a full aircraft motion condition, which served as a baseline. The controlled dynamics were of a transport category aircraft trimmed close to the stall point. When the ratio of center of gravity pitch heave to center of gravity heave increased in the hexapod motion conditions, pilot manual control behavior and performance became increasingly more similar to what is observed with full aircraft motion. Pilot visual and motion gains significantly increased, while the visual lead time constant decreased. The pilot visual and motion time delays remained approximately constant and decreased, respectively. The neuromuscular damping and frequency both decreased, with their values more similar to what is observed with real aircraft motion when there was an equal weighting of the heave of the center of gravity and heave due to rotations about the center of gravity. In terms of open- loop performance, the disturbance and target crossover frequency increased and decreased, respectively, and their corresponding phase margins remained constant and increased, respectively. The decomposition point of the heave components only had limited

  8. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  9. Sulfur oxide adsorbents and emissions control

    DOEpatents

    Li, Liyu; King, David L.

    2006-12-26

    High capacity sulfur oxide absorbents utilizing manganese-based octahedral molecular sieve (Mn--OMS) materials are disclosed. An emissions reduction system for a combustion exhaust includes a scrubber 24 containing these high capacity sulfur oxide absorbents located upstream from a NOX filter 26 or particulate trap.

  10. Alternative control technology document for bakery oven emissions. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanford, C.W.

    1992-12-01

    The document was produced in response to a request by the baking industry for Federal guidance to assist in providing a more uniform information base for State decision-making with regard to control of bakery oven emissions. The information in the document pertains to bakeries that produce yeast-leavened bread, rolls, buns, and similar products but not crackers, sweet goods, or baked foodstuffs that are not yeast leavened. Information on the baking processes, equipment, operating parameters, potential emissions from baking, and potential emission control options are presented. Catalytic and regenerative oxidation are identified as the most appropriate existing control technologies applicable to VOC emissions from bakery ovens. Cost analyses for catalytic and regenerative oxidation are included. A predictive formula for use in estimating oven emissions has been derived from source tests done in junction with the development of the document. Its use and applicability are described.

  11. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Balsavich, J.C. Jr.

    1991-11-01

    To meet the emission goals set by the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), Tecogen Inc. is developing a novel, integrated emission control system to control NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. In addition to controlling SO{sub 2} emissions, the reactor provides a means of extracting a substantial amount of the particulates present in the combustion gases. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor, including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. With SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions being dealt with by an emissions control reactor and bag filters, the control of NO{sub x} emissions needs to be addressed. Under a previous contract with PETC (contract No. AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emissions.

  12. 40 CFR 89.110 - Emission control information label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements of this section may be attached to a location other than the engine, in cases where the required... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Standards... affix at the time of manufacture a permanent and legible label identifying each nonroad engine....

  13. Advanced Combustion and Emission Control Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    2013-06-01

    The Advanced Combustion and Emission Control (ACEC) Technical Team is focused on removing technical barriers to the commercialization of advanced, high-efficiency, emission-compliant internal combustion (IC) engines for light-duty vehicle powertrains (i.e., passenger car, minivan, SUV, and pickup trucks).

  14. Controls on methane emissions from Alnus glutinosa saplings.

    PubMed

    Pangala, Sunitha R; Gowing, David J; Hornibrook, Edward R C; Gauci, Vincent

    2014-02-01

    Recent studies have confirmed significant tree-mediated methane emissions in wetlands; however, conditions and processes controlling such emissions are unclear. Here we identify factors that control the emission of methane from Alnus glutinosa. Methane fluxes from the soil surface, tree stem surfaces, leaf surfaces and whole mesocosms, pore water methane concentrations and physiological factors (assimilation rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration) were measured from 4-yr old A. glutinosa trees grown under two artificially controlled water-table positions. Up to 64% of methane emitted from the high water-table mesocosms was transported to the atmosphere through A. glutinosa. Stem emissions from 2 to 22 cm above the soil surface accounted for up to 42% of total tree-mediated methane emissions. Methane emissions were not detected from leaves and no relationship existed between leaf surface area and rates of tree-mediated methane emissions. Tree stem methane flux strength was controlled by the amount of methane dissolved in pore water and the density of stem lenticels. Our data show that stem surfaces dominate methane egress from A. glutinosa, suggesting that leaf area index is not a suitable approach for scaling tree-mediated methane emissions from all types of forested wetland.

  15. Geographic Region, Weather, Pilot Age and Air Carrier Crashes: a Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guohua; Pressley, Joyce C.; Qiang, Yandong; Grabowski, Jurek G.; Baker, Susan P.; Rebok, George W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Information about risk factors of aviation crashes is crucial for developing effective intervention programs. Previous studies assessing factors associated with crash risk were conducted primarily in general aviation, air taxis and commuter air carriers. Methods A matched case-control design was used to examine the associations of geographic region, basic weather condition, and pilot age with the risk of air carrier (14 CFR Part 121) crash involvement. Cases (n=373) were air carrier crashes involving aircraft made by Boeing, McDonnell Douglas, and Airbus, recorded in the National Transportation Safety Board’s aviation crash database during 1983 through 2002, and controls (n=746) were air carrier incidents involving aircraft of the same three makes selected at random from the Federal Aviation Administration’s aviation incident database. Each case was matched with two controls on the calendar year when the index crash occurred. Conditional logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. Results With adjustment for basic weather condition, pilot age, and total flight time, the risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska was more than three times the risk for other regions [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.18, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.35 – 7.49]. Instrument meteorological conditions were associated with an increased risk for air carrier crashes involving pilot error (adjusted OR 2.26, 95% CI 1.15 – 4.44) and a decreased risk for air carrier crashes without pilot error (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.40 – 0.87). Neither pilot age nor total flight time was significantly associated with the risk of air carrier crashes. Conclusions The excess risk of air carrier crashes in Alaska and the effect of adverse weather on pilot-error crashes underscore the importance of environmental hazards in flight safety. PMID:19378910

  16. Aquatic Physical Therapy for Children with Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-01-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7…

  17. EEG Neurofeedback for ADHD: Double-Blind Sham-Controlled Randomized Pilot Feasibility Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, L. Eugene; Lofthouse, Nicholas; Hersch, Sarah; Pan, Xueliang; Hurt, Elizabeth; Bates, Bethany; Kassouf, Kathleen; Moone, Stacey; Grantier, Cara

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Preparing for a definitive randomized clinical trial (RCT) of neurofeedback (NF) for ADHD, this pilot trial explored feasibility of a double-blind, sham-controlled design and adherence/palatability/relative effect of two versus three treatments/week. Method: Unmedicated 6- to 12-year-olds with "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of…

  18. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  19. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  20. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  1. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  2. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  3. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  4. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 79.7 Section 79.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  5. 9 CFR 54.9 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... contains testing or other procedures that indicate that an animal, despite meeting the definition of high... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. 54.9 Section 54.9 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH...

  6. 9 CFR 79.7 - Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Waiver of requirements for scrapie... PRODUCTS SCRAPIE IN SHEEP AND GOATS § 79.7 Waiver of requirements for scrapie control pilot projects. (a) The Administrator may waive the following requirements of this part for participants in a...

  7. Modified optimal control pilot model for computer-aided design and analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Schmidt, David K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents the theoretical development of a modified optimal control pilot model based upon the optimal control model (OCM) of the human operator developed by Kleinman, Baron, and Levison. This model is input compatible with the OCM and retains other key aspects of the OCM, such as a linear quadratic solution for the pilot gains with inclusion of control rate in the cost function, a Kalman estimator, and the ability to account for attention allocation and perception threshold effects. An algorithm designed for each implementation in current dynamic systems analysis and design software is presented. Example results based upon the analysis of a tracking task using three basic dynamic systems are compared with measured results and with similar analyses performed with the OCM and two previously proposed simplified optimal pilot models. The pilot frequency responses and error statistics obtained with this modified optimal control model are shown to compare more favorably to the measured experimental results than the other previously proposed simplified models evaluated.

  8. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial of Omega-3 Fatty Acids for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bent, Stephen; Bertoglio, Kiah; Ashwood, Paul; Bostrom, Alan; Hendren, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial to determine the feasibility and initial safety and efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids (1.3 g/day) for the treatment of hyperactivity in 27 children ages 3-8 with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). After 12 weeks, hyperactivity, as measured by the Aberrant Behavior Checklist, improved 2.7 (plus or minus…

  9. Developments and advances in emission control technology. SP-1120

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    Automotive emission control is an increasingly complex subject that continues to be of vital importance. Tighter emission standards as well as requirements for increased emission system performance and durability have resulted in ongoing development and continuing advances in emission control technology. A great deal of attention continues to be focused on technologies for emission control during cold-start. Detailed analyses are required to determine fundamental mechanisms which govern emission control under a wide variety of operating conditions. Effects of possible catalyst poisons as well as the mechanical durability of aftertreatment systems are being evaluated. Engine, vehicle, and aftertreatment sensors are being utilized to monitor and ensure emission control performance. Improved analytical techniques are being used to help understand emissions problems and to suggest avenues to solutions. Papers assembled in this volume touch on all of these areas. Catalyst durability papers address issues related to hot vibration testing and catalyst durability based on substrate surface area. A variety of papers related to the chemical composition of fuels address issues such as fuel hydrocarbon and NO conversion in three-way catalysts, fuel composition effects on emissions in urban traffic, and fuel sulfur effects on catalysts and on-board diagnostics (OBD-II) systems. Information useful for understanding the performance of cold-start technologies is described in papers on a numerical method for predicting warm-up characteristics of catalysts systems, axial characterization of warmup and underfloor catalytic converters, and EHC impact on extended soak times. Other approaches for reducing cold-start emissions are addressed in papers on in-cylinder catalysts and the use of intake air oxygen enrichment technology. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the database.

  10. Flight Controller Design with Nonlinear Aerodynamics, Large Parameter Uncertainty, and Pilot Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    stability augmentation system (SAS) additional compensation is added to reduce pilot workload while improving handling qualities. The YF-16 uncertain plant is simulated with C (a blend of normal acceleration at pilot station and pitch rate) as the controlled output. The simulation includes the full siz degree of freedom nonlinear dynamic equations of motion and aerodynamic data throughout the entire subsonic flight envelope. A technique is presented which enables the uncertain nonlinear YF-16 to be represented as a set of linear timer invariant plants which is

  11. VOC from Vehicular Evaporation Emissions: Status and Control Strategy.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huan; Man, Hanyang; Tschantz, Michael; Wu, Ye; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2015-12-15

    Vehicular evaporative emissions is an important source of volatile organic carbon (VOC), however, accurate estimation of emission amounts and scientific evaluation of control strategy for these emissions have been neglected outside of the United States. This study provides four kinds of basic emission factors: diurnal, hot soak, permeation, and refueling. Evaporative emissions from the Euro 4 vehicles (1.6 kg/year/car) are about four times those of U.S. vehicles (0.4 kg/year/car). Closing this emissions gap would have a larger impact than the progression from Euro 3 to Euro 6 tailpipe HC emission controls. Even in the first 24 h of parking, China's current reliance upon the European 24 h diurnal standard results in 508 g/vehicle/year emissions, higher than 32 g/vehicle/year from Tier 2 vehicles. The U.S. driving cycle matches Beijing real-world conditions much better on both typical trip length and average speed than current European driving cycles. At least two requirements should be added to the Chinese emissions standards: an onboard refueling vapor recovery to force the canister to be sized sufficiently large, and a 48-h evaporation test requirement to ensure that adequate purging occurs over a shorter drive sequence.

  12. Further exhaust emission control for two-stroke engines

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, Kazuo; Nakano, Masamitsu; Ukawa, Haruo; Inaga, Hisashi

    1994-09-01

    Two-stroke engines are being utilized in large numbers as small utility, lawn and garden equipment engines. The following two subjects were examined with regards to exhaust emission control. The first subject was to compare the theoretical values of a combustion model simulation with the experimentally measured values of the base line emission of two-stroke volume. The second subject was to examine the emission conformability to the 1995 and 1999 California Air Resources Board (CARB) exhaust emission regulations California Regulations for 1995 and Later Utility and Lawn and Garden Equipment Engine, adopted at March 20, 1992, amended, at November 3, 1993. in two-stroke engines with various combinations between various fuels, fuel supply systems and scavenging systems. For this subject it was determine;that the emission control systems based on the lean combustion can be used to meet the 1995 CARB exhaust emission regulations. However, it was also concluded that to meet the 1999 CARB exhaust emission regulations, various emission control systems with various combinations regarding such parameters as fuels, scavenging systems and exhaust systems must be used. 27 refs., 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Pilot Evaluation of Adaptive Control in Motion-Based Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T.; Campbell, Stefan Forrest

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this work is to assess the strengths, weaknesses, and robustness characteristics of several MRAC (Model-Reference Adaptive Control) based adaptive control technologies garnering interest from the community as a whole. To facilitate this, a control study using piloted and unpiloted simulations to evaluate sensitivities and handling qualities was conducted. The adaptive control technologies under consideration were ALR (Adaptive Loop Recovery), BLS (Bounded Linear Stability), Hybrid Adaptive Control, L1, OCM (Optimal Control Modification), PMRAC (Predictor-based MRAC), and traditional MRAC

  14. Simulation of Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretmersky, Steven C.; Murawski, Robert; Nguyen, Thanh C.; Raghavan, Rajesh S.

    2004-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has established an operational plan for the future Air Traffic Management (ATM) system, in which the Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) is envisioned to evolve into digital messaging that will take on an ever increasing role in controller to pilot communications, significantly changing the way the National Airspace System (NAS) is operating. According to FAA, CPDLC represents the first phase of the transition from the current analog voice system to an International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) compliant system in which digital communication becomes the alternate and perhaps primary method of routine communication. The CPDLC application is an Air Traffic Service (ATS) application in which pilots and controllers exchange messages via an addressed data link. CPDLC includes a set of clearance, information, and request message elements that correspond to existing phraseology employed by current Air Traffic Control (ATC) procedures. These message elements encompass altitude assignments, crossing constraints, lateral deviations, route changes and clearances, speed assignments, radio frequency assignments, and various requests for information. The pilot is provided with the capability to respond to messages, to request clearances and information, to report information, and to declare/rescind an emergency. A 'free text' capability is also provided to exchange information not conforming to defined formats. This paper presents simulated results of the aeronautical telecommunication application Controller Pilot Data Link Communications over VHF Digital Link Mode 3 (VDL Mode 3). The objective of this simulation study was to determine the impact of CPDLC traffic loads, in terms of timely message delivery and capacity of the VDL Mode 3 subnetwork. The traffic model is based on and is used for generating air/ground messages with different priorities. Communication is modeled for the en route domain of the Cleveland

  15. Defining Feasibility and Pilot Studies in Preparation for Randomised Controlled Trials: Development of a Conceptual Framework

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Sandra M.; Lancaster, Gillian A.; Campbell, Michael J.; Thabane, Lehana; Hopewell, Sally; Coleman, Claire L.; Bond, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    We describe a framework for defining pilot and feasibility studies focusing on studies conducted in preparation for a randomised controlled trial. To develop the framework, we undertook a Delphi survey; ran an open meeting at a trial methodology conference; conducted a review of definitions outside the health research context; consulted experts at an international consensus meeting; and reviewed 27 empirical pilot or feasibility studies. We initially adopted mutually exclusive definitions of pilot and feasibility studies. However, some Delphi survey respondents and the majority of open meeting attendees disagreed with the idea of mutually exclusive definitions. Their viewpoint was supported by definitions outside the health research context, the use of the terms ‘pilot’ and ‘feasibility’ in the literature, and participants at the international consensus meeting. In our framework, pilot studies are a subset of feasibility studies, rather than the two being mutually exclusive. A feasibility study asks whether something can be done, should we proceed with it, and if so, how. A pilot study asks the same questions but also has a specific design feature: in a pilot study a future study, or part of a future study, is conducted on a smaller scale. We suggest that to facilitate their identification, these studies should be clearly identified using the terms ‘feasibility’ or ‘pilot’ as appropriate. This should include feasibility studies that are largely qualitative; we found these difficult to identify in electronic searches because researchers rarely used the term ‘feasibility’ in the title or abstract of such studies. Investigators should also report appropriate objectives and methods related to feasibility; and give clear confirmation that their study is in preparation for a future randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of an intervention. PMID:26978655

  16. Diesel particulate emission control without engine modifications

    SciTech Connect

    Filowitz, M.S.; Vataru, M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an ashless, fuel supplement which was found to typically reduce diesel particulate emissions by over 30% while significantly improving fuel economy and power output without any modifications to existing diesel engines or fuels. The treating cost is an order of magnitude less than the estimated cost of reducing aromatic content at the refinery to achieve particulate reductions. The particulate reduction is virtually all from the carbon (soot) fraction. The reduced soot formation translates into less abrasives and less soot-loading stress on the engine oil. Diesel tests conducted are also discussed.

  17. Emission current control system for multiple hollow cathode devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beattie, John R. (Inventor); Hancock, Donald J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An emission current control system for balancing the individual emission currents from an array of hollow cathodes has current sensors for determining the current drawn by each cathode from a power supply. Each current sensor has an output signal which has a magnitude proportional to the current. The current sensor output signals are averaged, the average value so obtained being applied to a respective controller for controlling the flow of an ion source material through each cathode. Also applied to each controller are the respective sensor output signals for each cathode and a common reference signal. The flow of source material through each hollow cathode is thereby made proportional to the current drawn by that cathode, the average current drawn by all of the cathodes, and the reference signal. Thus, the emission current of each cathode is controlled such that each is made substantially equal to the emission current of each of the other cathodes. When utilized as a component of a multiple hollow cathode ion propulsion motor, the emission current control system of the invention provides for balancing the thrust of the motor about the thrust axis and also for preventing premature failure of a hollow cathode source due to operation above a maximum rated emission current.

  18. Historical evaluation of vehicle emission control in Guangzhou based on a multi-year emission inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Liu, Huan; Wu, Xiaomeng; Zhou, Yu; Yao, Zhiliang; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2013-09-01

    The Guangzhou government adopted many vehicle emission control policies and strategies during the five-year preparation (2005-2009) to host the 2010 Asian Games. This study established a multi-year emission inventory for vehicles in Guangzhou during 2005-2009 and estimated the uncertainty in total vehicle emissions by taking the assumed uncertainties in fleet-average emission factors and annual mileage into account. In 2009, the estimated total vehicle emissions in Guangzhou were 313 000 (242 000-387 000) tons of CO, 60 900 (54 000-70 200) tons of THC, 65 600 (56 800-74 100) tons of NOx and 2740 (2100-3400) tons of PM10. Vehicle emissions within the urban area of Guangzhou were estimated to be responsible for ˜40% of total gaseous pollutants and ˜25% of total PM10 in the entire city. Although vehicle use intensity increased rapidly in Guangzhou during 2005-2009, vehicle emissions were estimated to have been reduced by 12% for CO, 21% for THC and 20% for PM10 relative to those in 2005. NOx emissions were estimated to have remained almost constant during this period. Compared to the "without control" scenario, 19% (15%-23%) of CO, 20% (18%-23%) of THC, 9% (8%-10%) of NOx and 16% (12%-20%) of PM10 were estimated to have been mitigated from a combination of the implementation of Euro III standards for light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and heavy-duty diesel vehicles and improvement of fuel quality. This study also evaluated several enhanced vehicle emission control actions taken recently. For example, the enhanced I/M program for LDVs was estimated to reduce 11% (9%-14%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC and 2% (2%-3%) of NOx relative to total vehicle emissions in 2009. Total emission reductions by temporary traffic controls for the Asian Games were estimated equivalent to 9% (7%-11%) of CO, 9% (8%-10%) of THC, 5% (5%-6%) of NOx and 10% (8%-13%) of PM10 estimated total vehicle emissions in 2009. Those controls are essential to further vehicle emission mitigation in Guangzhou

  19. Positive Psychotherapy for Smoking Cessation: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Spillane, Nichea S.; Day, Anne M.; Cioe, Patricia A.; Parks, Acacia; Leventhal, Adam M.; Brown, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Greater depressive symptoms and low positive affect (PA) are associated with poor smoking cessation outcomes. Smoking cessation approaches that incorporate a focus on PA may benefit smokers trying to quit. The purpose of this study was to conduct a pilot randomized clinical trial to compare standard smoking cessation treatment (ST) with smoking cessation treatment that targets positive affect, termed positive psychotherapy for smoking cessation (PPT-S). Method: Smokers who were seeking smoking cessation treatment were assigned by urn randomization to receive, along with 8 weeks of nicotine replacement therapy, either ST (n = 31) or PPT-S (n = 35). Seven-day point prevalence smoking abstinence was biochemically confirmed at 8, 16, and 26 weeks. Results: Compared to ST, a greater percentage of participants in PPT-S were abstinent at 8 weeks, 16 weeks, and 26 weeks, but these differences were nonsignificant. In a more statistically powerful longitudinal model, participants in PPT-S had a significantly higher odds of abstinence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.75; 95% CI = 1.02, 7.42; p = .046) across follow-ups compared to those in ST. The positive effect of PPT-S was stronger for those higher in PA (OR = 6.69, 95% CI = 1.16, 38.47, p = .03). Greater use of PPT-S strategies during the initial 8 weeks of quitting was associated with a less steep decline in smoking abstinence rates over time (OR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.06, 6.56, p =.04). Conclusion: This trial suggests substantial promise for incorporating PPT into smoking cessation treatment. PMID:25646352

  20. Analytical study of ride smoothing benefits of control system configurations optimized for pilot handling qualities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powers, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the relative improvements in aircraft ride qualities that resulted from utilizing several control law configurations that were optimized for pilot handling qualities only. The airplane configuration used was an executive jet transport in the approach configuration. The control law configurations included the basic system, a rate feedback system, three command augmentation systems (rate command, attitude command, and rate command/attitude hold), and a control wheel steering system. Both the longitudinal and lateral directional axes were evaluated. A representative example of each control law configuration was optimized for pilot handling qualities on a fixed base simulator. The root mean square airplane responses to turbulence were calculated, and predictions of ride quality ratings were computed by using three models available in the literature.

  1. Electric-utility emissions: control strategies and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Van Horn, A.; Arpi, D.; Bowen, C.; Chapman, R.; Cooper, R.; Greenfield, S.; Moffett, M.; Wells, M.

    1981-04-01

    The Utility Simulation Model has been used to project the emissions, costs, and operating decisions of the electric utilities for each year between 1980 and 2000. For each steam generating unit in the United States, the model simulates the compliance decision, including choice of fuels and pollution controls, as well as emissions and pollution control costs. Results are aggregated to state, regional, and national levels. The results presented here, summarized by strategy for selected years, include SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ emissions, annual revenue requirements, the average price of electricity, dollars per ton of SO/sub 2/ reduced, coal capacity with FGD, utility fuel consumption, and regional production of coal for utility consumption. Because the strategies analyzed were aimed at SO/sub 2/ reduction, the results focus on the emissions and costs of controlling SO/sub 2/. This report is not intended to provide complete analysis and interpretation of the numerical results given in Section 3.

  2. Pilot and Full Scale Measurements of VOC Emissions from Lumber Drying of Inland Northwest Species

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, Brad G.; Lamb, Brian K.; Westberg, Halvor; Folk, Richard; Knighton, B; Grimsrud, E

    2004-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are precursors to ground level ozone. Ground level ozone is the major component of photochemical smog, and has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects. These health effects include cancer, heart disease, pneumonia and death. In order to reduce ground level ozone, VOC emissions are being more stringently regulated. One VOC source that may come under regulation is lumber drying. Drying lumber is known to emit VOC into the atmosphere. This research evaluates the validity of VOC emission measurements from a small-scale kiln to approximate VOC emissions from kilns at commercial mills. We also report emission factors for three lumber species commonly harvested in the northwest United States (Douglas-fir, ponderosa pine, & grand fir). This work was done with a novel tracer ratio technique at a small laboratory kiln and a large commercial lumber drying facility. The measured emission factors were 0.51 g/kgOD for Douglas-fir, 0.7 g/kgOD for ponderosa pine, and 0.15 g/kgOD for grand fir. Aldehyde emission rates from lumber drying were also measured in some experiments. Results indicate that aldehyde emissions can constitute a significant percentage of the total VOC emissions.

  3. A pilot's opinion - VTOL control design requirements for the instrument approach task.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patton, J. M., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents pilot opinion supported by test data concerning flight control and display concepts and control system design requirements for VTOL aircraft in the instrument approach task. Material presented is drawn from research flights in the following aircraft: Dornier DO-31, Short SC-1, LTV XC-142A, and Boeing-Vertol CH-46. The control system concepts and mechanizations employed in the above aircraft are discussed, and the effect of control system augmentation is shown on performance. Operational procedures required in the instrument approach task are described, with comments on need for automation and combining of control functions.

  4. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    ) and CAMNet (Canadian Atmospheric Mercury Measurement Network). The model estimated a total deposition of 474 Mg yr-1 to the CONUS (Contiguous United States) domain, with two-thirds being dry deposited. Reactive gaseous mercury contributed the most to 60% of deposition. Emission speciation distribution is a key factor for local deposition as contribution from large point sources can be as high as 75% near (< 100 km) the emission sources, indicating that emission reduction may result in direct deposition decrease near the source locations. Among the sources, BC contributes to about 68% to 91% of total deposition. Excluding the BC's contribution, EGU contributes to nearly 50% of deposition caused by CONUS emissions in the Northeast, Southeast and East Central regions, while emissions from natural processes are more important in the Pacific and West Central regions (contributing up to 40% of deposition). The modeling results implies that implementation of the new emission standards proposed by USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) would significantly benefit regions that have larger contributions from EGU sources. Control of mercury emissions from coal combustion processes has attracted great attention due to its toxicity and the emission-control regulations and has lead to advancement in state-of-the-art control technologies that alleviate the impact of mercury on ecosystem and human health. This part of the work applies a sorption model to simulate adsorption of mercury in flue gases, onto a confined-bed of activated carbon. The model's performances were studied at various flue gas flow rates, inlet mercury concentrations and adsorption bed temperatures. The process simulated a flue gas, with inlet mercury concentration of 300 ppb, entering at a velocity of 0.3 m s-1 from the bottom into a fixed bed (inside bed diameter of 1 m and 3 m bed height; bed temperature of 25 °C) of activated carbon (particle size of 0.004 m with density of 0.5 g cm-3 and

  5. Modeling of Control Costs, Emissions, and Control Retrofits for Cost Effectiveness and Feasibility Analyses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn about EPA’s use of the Integrated Planning Model (IPM) to develop estimates of SO2 and NOx emission control costs, projections of futureemissions, and projections of capacity of future control retrofits, assuming controls on EGUs.

  6. Instrument scanning and controlling: Using eye movement data to understand pilot behavior and strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dick, A. O.

    1980-01-01

    Eye movement data and other parameters including instrument readings, aircraft state and position variables, and control maneuvers were recorded while pilots flew ILS simulations in a B 737. The experiment itself employed seven airline pilots, each of whom flew approximately 40 approach/landing sequences. The simulator was equipped with a night visual scene but the scene was fogged out down to approximately 60 meters (200 ft). The instrument scanning appeared to follow aircraft parameters not physical position of instruments. One important implication of the results is: pilots look for categories or packets of information. Control inputs were tabulated according to throttle, wheel position, column, and pitch trim changes. Three seconds of eye movements before and after the control input were then obtained. Analysis of the eye movement data for the controlling periods showed clear patterns. The results suggest a set of miniscan patterns which are used according to the specific details of the situation. A model is developed which integrates scanning and controlling. Differentiations are made between monitoring and controlling scans.

  7. Emissions and fuel economy effects of vehicle exhaust emission control device (revision). Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, H.

    1998-10-01

    This report describes testing by EPA of the Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control Device (VEECD) retrofit device under Section 32918 of Title 49 U.S.C. Retrofit Devices (RD). The VEECD is described by the developer in the international patent application as an embodiment of air bleed principle. It is intended to be retrofitted to vehicles produced without any, or with earlier-technology emission control systems. The developer claims (RD Application Appendix A) that the valve significantly reduces CO and HC emissions without substantially increasing CO{sub 2} or NOx emissions. Incidental city fuel economy enhancement was also claimed. Non-FTP test data obtained for 1986/87 European vehicles from two laboratories in the UK was submitted. This data (Appendix B) was analyzed using the t-test for the difference of constant speed data (30/60/85MPH) at 95% confidence level.

  8. Generation of control sequences for a pilot-disassembly system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seliger, Guenther; Kim, Hyung-Ju; Keil, Thomas

    2002-02-01

    Closing the product and material cycles has emerged as a paradigm for industry in the 21st century. Disassembly plays a key role in a life cycle economy since it enables the recovery of resources. A partly automated disassembly system should adapt to a large variety of products and different degrees of devaluation. Also the amounts of products to be disassembled can vary strongly. To cope with these demands an approach to generate on-line disassembly control sequences will be presented. In order to react on these demands the technological feasibility is considered within a procedure for the generation of disassembly control sequences. Procedures are designed to find available and technologically feasible disassembly processes. The control system is formed by modularised and parameterised control units in the cell level within the entire control architecture. In the first development stage product and process analyses at the sample product washing machine were executed. Furthermore a generalized disassembly process was defined. Afterwards these processes were structured in primary and secondary functions. In the second stage the disassembly control at the technological level was investigated. Factors were the availability of the disassembly tools and the technological feasibility of the disassembly processes within the disassembly system. Technical alternative disassembly processes are determined as a result of availability of the tools and technological feasibility of processes. The fourth phase was the concept for the generation of the disassembly control sequences. The approach will be proved in a prototypical disassembly system.

  9. Development of a Laboratory for Improving Communication between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brammer, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    Runway incursions and other surface incidents are known to be significant threats to aviation safety and efficiency. Though the number of near mid-air collisions in U.S. air space has remained unchanged during the last five years, the number of runway incursions has increased and they are almost all due to human error. The three most common factors contributing to air traffic controller and pilot error in airport operations include two that involve failed auditory communication. This project addressed the problems of auditory communication in air traffic control from an acoustical standpoint, by establishing an acoustics laboratory designed for this purpose and initiating research into selected topics that show promise for improving voice communications between air traffic controllers and pilots.

  10. Mindfulness meditation in older adults with postherpetic neuralgia: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    Meize-Grochowski, Robin; Shuster, George; Boursaw, Blake; DuVal, Michelle; Murray-Krezan, Cristina; Schrader, Ron; Smith, Bruce W; Herman, Carla J; Prasad, Arti

    2015-01-01

    This parallel-group, randomized controlled pilot study examined daily meditation in a diverse sample of older adults with postherpetic neuralgia. Block randomization was used to allocate participants to a treatment group (n = 13) or control group (n = 14). In addition to usual care, the treatment group practiced daily meditation for six weeks. All participants completed questionnaires at enrollment in the study, two weeks later, and six weeks after that, at the study's end. Participants recorded daily pain and fatigue levels in a diary, and treatment participants also noted meditation practice. Results at the 0.10 level indicated improvement in neuropathic, affective, and total pain scores for the treatment group, whereas affective pain worsened for the control group. Participants were able to adhere to the daily diary and meditation requirements in this feasibility pilot study.

  11. Characterization of emissions from combustion sources: controlled studies

    SciTech Connect

    Tucker, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes Session I papers (given at the EPA Workshop on Characterization of Contaminant Emissions from Indoor Sources, Chapel Hill, NC, May 1985) that illustrate the progress made to date on characterizing indoor-combustion emissions from unvented space heaters, gas appliances, and sidestream cigarette smoke. The state of knowledge of such emissions and their controllability is summarized by four general statements: (1) Unvented gas-fired appliances are important sources of indoor CO and NOx, but not of organic emissions; (2) Important combustion sources of indoor organics, include smoking and possibly kerosene heaters; (3) The extent of the problems of leakage from vented appliances is simply not known; (4) Indoor combustion sources do not appear to present major problems with controllability, if source removal is an acceptable alternative. From an engineering standpoint, the most-challenging issue is burner design changes for unvented appliances.

  12. Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions

    DOEpatents

    Webb, Cynthia Chaffin; Weber, Phillip Anthony; Khair, Magdi K.

    2004-06-01

    Systems and methods for controlling diesel engine emissions, including, for example, oxides of nitrogen emissions, particulate matter emissions, and the like. The emission control system according to this invention is provided in the exhaust passageway of a diesel engine and includes a catalyst-based particulate filter; and first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems coupled to the catalyst-based particulate filter. The first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems are arranged in a parallel flow configuration with each other. Each of the first and second lean NO.sub.x trap systems include a carbon monoxide generating catalyst device, a sulfur trap device, a lean NO.sub.x device, a supplemental fuel injector device, and a plurality of flow diverter devices.

  13. Optical control of the emission direction of a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, I. J.; Wasley, N. A.; Fox, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Ramsay, A. J.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Oulton, R.; Hugues, M.

    2013-12-09

    Using the helicity of a non-resonant excitation laser, control over the emission direction of an InAs/GaAs quantum dot is demonstrated. The quantum dot is located off-center in a crossed-waveguide structure, such that photons of opposite circular polarization are emitted into opposite waveguide directions. By preferentially exciting spin-polarized excitons, the direction of emission can therefore be controlled. The directional control is quantified by using the ratio of the intensity of the light coupled into the two waveguides, which reaches a maximum of ±35%.

  14. Primary production control of methane emission from wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiting, G. J.; Chanton, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Based on simultaneous measurements of CO2 and CH4 exchange in wetlands extending from subarctic peatlands to subtropical marshes, a positive correlation between CH4 emission and net ecosystem production is reported. It is suggested that net ecosystem production is a master variable integrating many factors which control CH4 emission in vegetated wetlands. It is found that about 3 percent of the daily net ecosystem production is emitted back to the atmosphere as CH4. With projected stimulation of primary production and soil microbial activity in wetlands associated with elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration, the potential for increasing CH4 emission from inundated wetlands, further enhancing the greenhouse effect, is examined.

  15. Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Liu, H; Zhang, Z G; Wang, Q; Zhu, S N

    2017-02-03

    Our experiment shows that the thermal emission of phonon can be controlled by magnetic resonance (MR) mode in a metasurface (MTS). Through changing the structural parameter of metasurface, the MR wavelength can be tuned to the phonon resonance wavelength. This introduces a strong coupling between phonon and MR, which results in an anticrossing phonon-plasmons mode. In the process, we can manipulate the polarization and angular radiation of thermal emission of phonon. Such metasurface provides a new kind of thermal emission structures for various thermal management applications.

  16. Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, S. N.

    2017-01-01

    Our experiment shows that the thermal emission of phonon can be controlled by magnetic resonance (MR) mode in a metasurface (MTS). Through changing the structural parameter of metasurface, the MR wavelength can be tuned to the phonon resonance wavelength. This introduces a strong coupling between phonon and MR, which results in an anticrossing phonon-plasmons mode. In the process, we can manipulate the polarization and angular radiation of thermal emission of phonon. Such metasurface provides a new kind of thermal emission structures for various thermal management applications. PMID:28157206

  17. Controlling thermal emission of phonon by magnetic metasurfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Liu, H.; Zhang, Z. G.; Wang, Q.; Zhu, S. N.

    2017-02-01

    Our experiment shows that the thermal emission of phonon can be controlled by magnetic resonance (MR) mode in a metasurface (MTS). Through changing the structural parameter of metasurface, the MR wavelength can be tuned to the phonon resonance wavelength. This introduces a strong coupling between phonon and MR, which results in an anticrossing phonon-plasmons mode. In the process, we can manipulate the polarization and angular radiation of thermal emission of phonon. Such metasurface provides a new kind of thermal emission structures for various thermal management applications.

  18. SUMMARY REPORT CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS BY REBURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report covers NOx control employing reburning technology: A new, effective method of controlling NOx emissions from a wide range of stationary combustion sources including large, coal-fired, utility boilers. Although reburning potentially is applicable ...

  19. Positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission

    SciTech Connect

    Word, R. C.; Fitzgerald, J. P. S.; Könenkamp, R.

    2014-09-15

    We report the positional control of plasmonic fields and electron emission in a continuous gap antenna structure of sub-micron size. We show experimentally that a nanoscale area of plasmon-enhanced electron emission can be motioned by changing the polarization of an exciting optical beam of 800 nm wavelength. Finite-difference calculations are presented to support the experiments and to show that the plasmon-enhanced electric field distribution of the antenna can be motioned precisely and predictively.

  20. Testimony Therapy With Ritual: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Esala, Jennifer J; Taing, Sopheap

    2017-02-01

    Testimony therapy can provide low-cost, brief, simple, and culturally adaptable psychosocial services in low-income countries (Agger, Raghuvanshi, Khan, Polatin, & Laursen, 2009). Nonetheless, there have been no well-controlled studies of testimony therapy. We report the analyses of a randomized controlled trial designed to assess the effectiveness of testimony therapy plus a culturally adapted ceremony in reducing mental health symptoms among Khmer Rouge torture survivors from across Cambodia. Using multilevel modeling, we compared symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression between a treatment (n = 45) and a control group (n = 43) at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. We found that testimony therapy plus ceremony significantly reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (d = 0.49), anxiety (d = 0.44), and depression (d = 0.53).

  1. Pilot and Controller Evaluations of Separation Function Allocation in Air Traffic Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wing, David; Prevot, Thomas; Morey, Susan; Lewis, Timothy; Martin, Lynne; Johnson, Sally; Cabrall, Christopher; Como, Sean; Homola, Jeffrey; Sheth-Chandra, Manasi; Mercer, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Two human-in-the-loop simulation experiments were conducted in coordinated fashion to investigate the allocation of separation assurance functions between ground and air and between humans and automation. The experiments modeled a mixed-operations concept in which aircraft receiving ground-based separation services shared the airspace with aircraft providing their own separation service (i.e., self-separation). Ground-based separation was provided by air traffic controllers without automation tools, with tools, or by ground-based automation with controllers in a managing role. Airborne self-separation was provided by airline pilots using self-separation automation enabled by airborne surveillance technology. The two experiments, one pilot-focused and the other controller-focused, addressed selected key issues of mixed operations, assuming the starting point of current-day operations and modeling an emergence of NextGen technologies and procedures. In the controller-focused experiment, the impact of mixed operations on controller performance was assessed at four stages of NextGen implementation. In the pilot-focused experiment, the limits to which pilots with automation tools could take full responsibility for separation from ground-controlled aircraft were tested. Results indicate that the presence of self-separating aircraft had little impact on the controllers' ability to provide separation services for ground-controlled aircraft. Overall performance was best in the most automated environment in which all aircraft were data communications equipped, ground-based separation was highly automated, and self-separating aircraft had access to trajectory intent information for all aircraft. In this environment, safe, efficient, and highly acceptable operations could be achieved for twice today's peak airspace throughput. In less automated environments, reduced trajectory intent exchange and manual air traffic control limited the safely achievable airspace throughput and

  2. A Pilot Opinion Study of Lateral Control Requirements for Fighter-Type Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creer, Brent Y.; Stewart, John D.; Merrick, Robert B.; Drinkwater, Fred J., III

    1959-01-01

    As part of a continuing NASA program of research on airplane handling qualities, a pilot opinion investigation has been made on the lateral control requirements of fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range. The investigation was carried out using a stationary flight simulator and a moving flight simulator, and the flight simulator results were supplemented by research tests in actual flight. The flight simulator study was based on the presumption that the pilot rates the roll control of an airplane primarily on a single-degree-of-freedom basis; that is, control of angle of roll about the aircraft body axis being of first importance. From the assumption of a single degree of freedom system it follows that there are two fundamental parameters which govern the airplane roll response, namely the roll damping expressed as a time constant and roll control power in terms of roll acceleration. The simulator study resulted in a criterion in terms of these two parameters which defines satisfactory, unsatisfactory, and unacceptable roll performance from a pilot opinion standpoint. The moving simulator results were substantiated by the in-flight investigation. The derived criterion was compared with the roll performance criterion based upon wing tip helix angle and also with other roll performance concepts which currently influence the roll performance design of military fighter aircraft flying in their combat speed range.

  3. Soil acidification in China: is controlling SO2 emissions enough?

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Duan, Lei; Xing, Jia; Larssen, Thorjorn; Nielsen, Chris P; Hao, Jiming

    2009-11-01

    Facing challenges of increased energy consumption and related regional air pollution, China has been aggressively implementing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and phasing out small inefficient units in the power sector in order to achieve the national goal of 10% reduction in sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) emissions from 2005 to 2010. In this paper, the effect of these measures on soil acidification is explored. An integrated methodology is used, combining emission inventory data, emission forecasts, air quality modeling, and ecological sensitivities indicated by critical load. National emissions of SO(2), oxides of nitrogen (NO(X)), particulate matter (PM), and ammonia (NH(3)) in 2005 were estimated to be 30.7, 19.6, 31.3, and 16.6 Mt, respectively. Implementation of existing policy will lead to reductions in SO(2) and PM emissions, while those of NO(X) and NH(3) will continue to rise, even under tentatively proposed control measures. In 2005, the critical load for soil acidification caused by sulfur (S) deposition was exceeded in 28% of the country's territory, mainly in eastern and south-central China. The area in exceedance will decrease to 26% and 20% in 2010 and 2020, respectively, given implementation of current plans for emission reductions. However, the exceedance of the critical load for nitrogen (N, combining effects of eutrophication and acidification) will double from 2005 to 2020 due to increased NO(X) and NH(3) emissions. Combining the acidification effects of S and N, the benefits of SO(2) reductions during 2005-2010 will almost be negated by increased N emissions. Therefore abatement of N emissions (NO(X) and NH(3)) and deposition will be a major challenge to China, requiring policy development and technology investments. To mitigate acidification in the future, China needs a multipollutant control strategy that integrates measures to reduce S, N, and PM.

  4. Portable pilot plant for evaluating marine biofouling growth and control in heat exchangers-condensers.

    PubMed

    Casanueva, J F; Sánchez, J; García-Morales, J L; Casanueva-Robles, T; López, J A; Portela, J R; Nebot, E; Sales, D

    2003-01-01

    Biofouling frequently involves a serious impediment to achieving optimum operating conditions in heat exchangers-condensers. The economic coat and energy losses associated with this phenomenon are significant and the environmental impact of biocides must satisfy stringent regulations. A portable pilot plant has been designed in order to carry out in-situ experimental study as biofilm is formed under thermal and hydrodynamically controlled conditions. The pilot plant has an automatic monitoring, control and data acquisition system, which automatically processes data from indirect measure of fouling in terms of increased fluid frictional and heat transfer resistances. A particular method is used and proposed for direct measuring and biofilm characterization. Once we know the actual film thickness, we can calculate the effective thermal conductivity of the layer by using the appropriate heat transfer equations.

  5. Initial piloted simulation study of geared flap control for tilt-wing V/STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerrero, Lourdes M.; Corliss, Lloyd D.

    1991-01-01

    A simulation study of a representative tilt wing transport aircraft was conducted in 1990 on the Ames Vertical Motion Simulator. This simulation is in response to renewed interest in the tilt wing concept for use in future military and civil applications. For past tilt wing concepts, pitch control in hover and low-speed flight has required a tail rotor or reaction jets at the tail. Use of mono cyclic propellers or a geared flap have also been proposed as alternate methods for providing pitch control at low speed. The geared flap is a subject of this current study. This report describes the geared flap concept, the tilt wing aircraft, the simulation model, the simulation facility and experiment setup, the pilots' evaluation tasks and procedures, and the results obtained from the simulation experiment. The pilot evaluations and comments are also documented in the report appendix.

  6. The influence of air traffic control message length and timing on pilot communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrow, Daniel; Rodvold, Michelle

    1993-01-01

    The present paper outlines an approach to air traffic control (ATC) communication that is based on theories of dialogue organization and describes several steps or phases in routine controller-pilot communication. The introduction also describes several kinds of communication problems that often disrupt these steps, as well as how these problems may be caused by factors related to ATC messages, the communication medium (radio vs. data link) and task workload. Next, a part-task simulation study is described. This study focused on how problems in radio communication are related to message factors. More specifically, we examined if pilots are more likely to misunderstanding longer ATC messages. A more general goal of the study is to show that communication analysis can help trace where problem occur and why.

  7. EPA moves to control offshore emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-09

    This paper reports that except for most of the Gulf Coast, the Environmental Protection Agency proposes to hold all U.S. offshore rigs and platforms within about 28 miles from shore to the same standards as onshore facilities. EPA estimated compliance will cost the oil industry $2.2 million/year for all sources on the Outer Continental Shelf. The rule, the first EPA has proposed to control air pollution from OCS operations, covers drilling and production off Alaska, the Pacific coast states, the Atlantic coast states, and the Florida Gulf Coast. It does not affect OCS areas off Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama.

  8. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde.

  9. Plasmonic beaming and active control over fluorescent emission.

    PubMed

    Jun, Young Chul; Huang, Kevin C Y; Brongersma, Mark L

    2011-01-01

    Nanometallic optical antennas are rapidly gaining popularity in applications that require exquisite control over light concentration and emission processes. The search is on for high-performance antennas that offer facile integration on chips. Here we demonstrate a new, easily fabricated optical antenna design that achieves an unprecedented level of control over fluorescent emission by combining concepts from plasmonics, radiative decay engineering and optical beaming. The antenna consists of a nanoscale plasmonic cavity filled with quantum dots coupled to a miniature grating structure that can be engineered to produce one or more highly collimated beams. Electromagnetic simulations and confocal microscopy were used to visualize the beaming process. The metals defining the plasmonic cavity can be utilized to electrically control the emission intensity and wavelength. These findings facilitate the realization of a new class of active optical antennas for use in new optical sources and a wide range of nanoscale optical spectroscopy applications.

  10. Pilot Testing of WRI'S Novel Mercury Control Technology by Pre-Combustion Thermal Treatment of Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Kumar Sellakumar

    2008-08-17

    The challenges to the coal-fired power industry continue to focus on the emission control technologies, such as mercury, and plant efficiency improvements. An alternate approach to post-combustion control of mercury, while improving plant efficiency deals with Western Research Institute's (WRI)'s patented pre-combustion mercury removal and coal upgrading technology. WRI was awarded under the DOE's Phase III Mercury program, to evaluate the effectiveness of WRI's novel thermal pretreatment process to achieve >50% mercury removal, and at costs of <$30,000/lb of Hg removed. WRI has teamed with Etaa Energy, Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC), Foster Wheeler North America Corp. (FWNA), and Washington Division of URS (WD-URS), and with project co-sponsors including Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Southern Company, Basin Electric Power Cooperative (BEPC), Montana-Dakota Utilities (MDU), North Dakota Industrial Commission (NDIC), Detroit Edison (DTE), and SaskPower to undertake this evaluation. The technical objectives of the project were structured in two phases: Phase I--coal selection and characterization, and bench-and PDU-scale WRI process testing and; and Phase II--pilot-scale pc combustion testing, design of an integrated boiler commercial configuration, its impacts on the boiler performance and the economics of the technology related to market applications. This report covers the results of the Phase I testing. The conclusion of the Phase I testing was that the WRI process is a technically viable technology for (1) removing essentially all of the moisture from low rank coals, thereby raising the heating value of the coal by about 30% for subbituminous coals and up to 40% for lignite coals, and (2) for removing volatile trace mercury species (up to 89%) from the coal prior to combustion. The results established that the process meets the goals of DOE of removing <50% of the mercury from the coals by pre-combustion methods. As such, further

  11. New emission controls for Missouri batch-type charcoal kilns

    SciTech Connect

    Yronwode, P.; Graf, W.J.

    1999-07-01

    Charcoal kilns have been exempted from air emission regulation in the state of Missouri. Today, 80% of US charcoal production takes place in Missouri. As a result of a petition filed by people in the area around an installation in southern Missouri, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) set up air monitors and measured ambient air levels at that charcoal manufacturing installation. These monitors yielded the highest particulate matter less than 10 micron (PM{sub 10}) levels ever recorded in the state. Earlier stack testing at another charcoal manufacturing installation indicated that toxics and carcinogens are present in charcoal kiln air emissions. A Charcoal Kiln Workgroup was formed to determine the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for charcoal kilns and to draft a charcoal kiln rule that requires BACT. The BACT report determined that afterburners were suitable for controlling emissions from batch-type charcoal kilns. In addition, the charcoal industry supported incorporating the BACT limits and requirements into an enforceable state rule and submitting this rule to the EPA for federal approval. A consent agreement between the EPA and three major charcoal companies was signed with provisions to install, operate, and maintain emission control devices on charcoal kilns. This agreement was to settle complaints alleging that the three major charcoal producers had failed to report toxic air emissions to federal and state regulators. The agreement provided that industry would install control devices on a set schedule with some charcoal kilns being shut down.

  12. Coal-fueled diesel technology development Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    GEESI Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a CWS fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size Emissions Control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation.Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine Emissions Characteristics and to evaluate Emissions Control concepts such a Barrier filtration, Granular bed filtration, and Cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical Emissions Control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the Envelope Filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration Envelope Filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This Envelope Filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  13. Coal-fueled diesel technology development emissions control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vankleunen, W.; Kaldor, S.; Gal, E.; Mengel, M.; Arnold, M.

    1994-01-01

    General Electric Environmental Services, Inc. (GEESI), Emissions Control program activity ranged from control concept testing of 10 CFM slipstream from a coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel single cylinder research diesel engine to the design, installation, and operation of a full-size emissions control system for a full-size CWS fuel diesel engine designed for locomotive operation. Early 10 CFM slipstream testing program activity was performed to determine emissions characteristics and to evaluate emissions control concepts such a barrier filtration, granular bed filtration, and cyclone particulate collection for reduction of particulate and gaseous emissions. Use of sorbent injection into the engine exhaust gas upstream of the barrier filter or use of sorbent media in the granular bed filter were found to provide reduction of exhaust gas SO2 and NO(x) in addition to collection of ash particulate. Emergence of the use of barrier filtration as a most practical emissions control concept disclosed a need to improve cleanability of the filter media in order to avoid reduction of turbocharger performance by excessive barrier filter pressure drop. The next progression of program activity, after the slipstream feasibility state, was 500 CFM cold flow testing of control system concepts. The successful completion of 500 CFM cold flow testing of the envelope filter led to a subsequent progression to a similar configuration envelope filter designed to operate at 500 CFM hot gas flow from the CWS fuel research diesel engine in the GETS engine test laboratory. This envelope filter included the design aspect proven by cold flow testing as well as optimization of the selection of the installed filter media.

  14. A piloted evaluation of an oblique-wing research aircraft motion simulation with decoupling control laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kempel, Robert W.; Mcneill, Walter E.; Gilyard, Glenn B.; Maine, Trindel A.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Ames Research Center developed an oblique-wing research plane from NASA's digital fly-by-wire airplane. Oblique-wing airplanes show large cross-coupling in control and dynamic behavior which is not present on conventional symmetric airplanes and must be compensated for to obtain acceptable handling qualities. The large vertical motion simulator at NASA Ames-Moffett was used in the piloted evaluation of a proposed flight control system designed to provide decoupled handling qualities. Five discrete flight conditions were evaluated ranging from low altitude subsonic Mach numbers to moderate altitude supersonic Mach numbers. The flight control system was effective in generally decoupling the airplane. However, all participating pilots objected to the high levels of lateral acceleration encountered in pitch maneuvers. In addition, the pilots were more critical of left turns (in the direction of the trailing wingtip when skewed) than they were of right turns due to the tendency to be rolled into the left turns and out of the right turns. Asymmetric side force as a function of angle of attack was the primary cause of lateral acceleration in pitch. Along with the lateral acceleration in pitch, variation of rolling and yawing moments as functions of angle of attack caused the tendency to roll into left turns and out of right turns.

  15. Controllers and Pilots Play a Key Role in Runway Safety Initiatives Through Real-Time Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Madson, Mike; Bender, Kim

    2004-01-01

    A new and innovative way to evaluate runway safety initiatives for airports is through the use of interactive real-time simulation. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) operates an integrated suite of simulators that can give both pilots and tower controllers the ability to simultaneously "try out" ideas in the safety of virtual reality. In February of 2003, the FAA conducted a demonstration in the NASA facilities for Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport (DFW) of a concept to reduce runway crossings and enhance the efficiency of the airport. Currently DFW experiences about 1,700 runway crossings per day, which contribute to arrival and departure delays and the potential for runway incursions. The proposed concept included the addition of new perimeter taxiways on the East and West sides of the airport. Through use of NASA's unique simulation capabilities, DFW controllers and commercial pilots provided expert feedback on the safety and operational implications by directly experiencing the proposed changes. Overall, the data collected from the participants and the simulators demonstrated that the concept would improve operations at DFW, if implemented. Improvements were observed in many areas including departure rates, taxi duration, runway crossings, and controller and pilot communications.

  16. National Spill Control School. A pilot program in environmental training. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Oberholtzer, G.R.; Acuff, J.T.

    1980-01-01

    Increased environmental awareness and the amended Federal Water Pollution Control Act of 1972 required an increased level of expertise by the American Public in the field of oil spill prevention and control. The National Spill Control School was created at Corpus Christi State University to help meet this need. Drawing on the talents of a nationwide sample of experts in this field, the project team created a unique management oriented course. A review of the origination and experiences of two years of classes of this pilot program is provided in this report.

  17. Piloted simulation evaluation of pitch control designs for highly augmented STOVL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Engelland, S. A.; Franklin, J. A.; Stortz, M. W.; Hardy, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    Analyses of design variations on a pitch axis stabilization and command augmentation system (SCAS) for a STOVL fighter aircraft are performed in a moving base simulation experiment. The primary goal of this study is to determine if turbulence-induced control activity could be reduced by modifying SCAS parameters while keeping the response-to-command characteristics of the baseline system that provide Level 1 flying qualities. Pilot ratings and control utilization statistics for the baseline system are in agreement with similar data gathered in a prior simulation test involving the same aircraft and control system.

  18. Resource recovery emission control system comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    The response to the necessity for control of acid gases, fine particulate, mercury vapor, and organics present in the flue gas emitted from the incineration of municipal solid waste and hazardous waste has followed the conventional steps for emerging technology. These are: adaptation of existing equipment and its failure; development of new technologies; fear of failure of new technologies; modification of technology; overcoming of concerns by extended operation. It has been established that incineration of wastes produces a flue gas containing: particulates including fine particulates in which toxic heavy metals and organics are concentrated; acid gases, primarily HCl and SO/sub 2/ with quantities produced increasing with time; mercury and organic vapor; high concentrations of incandescent particles. The initial reponse was to apply existing types of equipment to the problem.

  19. Cliffside 6 integrated emissions control system

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, D.G.; Rader, P.C.; Gansley, R.R.; Wang, W.

    2009-04-15

    The article takes an inside look into the environmental hardware going into one of the highest profile coal-fired power plants projects in the US, a new 800 MW supercritical coal-fired facility at Cliffside, NC, Unit C6. This is currently under construction and scheduled to be in commercial service in 2012. To evaluate the alternative air quality control system (AQCS) options, Duke Energy established a cross-functional team and used a decision analysis process to select the 'best balanced choice'. Alstom's integrated AQCS which combines dry and wet flue gas desulfurization systems was the best balanced choice. Replacing an ESP with a spray dryer absorber achieved major cost savings and eliminated the need for wastewater treatment. 1 ref., 2 photos.

  20. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  1. Reducing TV watching during adult obesity treatment: two pilot randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Raynor, Hollie A; Steeves, Elizabeth Anderson; Bassett, David R; Thompson, Dixie L; Gorin, Amy A; Bond, Dale S

    2013-12-01

    The more time adults spend being sedentary, the greater the risk of obesity. The effect of reducing television (TV) watching, a prominent sedentary behavior, on weight loss has not been tested in an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention, and the mechanisms by which reducing TV watching influences energy balance behaviors are not well understood. Two, 8-week, pilot, randomized controlled trials were conducted examining the effect of a reduced TV watching prescription on energy balance behaviors and weight loss within an adult standard behavioral obesity intervention. In the first study, participants (n=24) were randomized into one of two conditions: (a) reduce energy intake and increase moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) (INCREASE PA); or (b) reduce energy intake and decrease TV watching (DECREASE TV). As findings from the first pilot study did not show an increase in MVPA in the DECREASE TV group, the second study was designed to examine the effect of adding a reduced TV prescription to a standard intervention to optimize outcomes. In Pilot Study 2, participants (n=28) were randomized to INCREASE PA or to INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Outcomes included objectively measured TV watching and MVPA, self-reported light physical activity (LPA-Pilot Study 2 only), self-reported dietary intake while watching TV, and weight. Conditions with TV watching prescriptions significantly reduced TV watching. Both studies showed medium to large effect sizes for conditions with TV watching prescriptions to show greater reductions in dietary intake while watching TV. Pilot Study 1 found a trend for an increase in MVPA in INCREASE PA and Pilot Study 2 found significant increases in MVPA in both conditions. Pilot Study 2 found a significant increase in LPA in the INCREASE PA+DECREASE TV. Results indicate adding a TV watching prescription to a standard obesity intervention did not enhance increases in MVPA, but may assist with reducing dietary intake while TV watching and

  2. EMISSIONS OF TRACE PRODUCTS OF INCOMPLETE COMBUSTION FROM A PILOT-SCALE INCINERATOR SECONDARY COMBUSTION CHAMBER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed on a 73 kW rotary kiln incinerator simulator equipped with a 73 kW secondary combustion chamber (SCC) to examine emissions of products of incomplete combustion (PICs) resulting from incineration of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and dichlorometh...

  3. Aerobic exercise for Alzheimer's disease: A randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Sciver, Angela; Mahnken, Jonathan D.; Honea, Robyn A.; Brooks, William M.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Swerdlow, Russell H.; Burns, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Background There is increasing interest in the role of physical exercise as a therapeutic strategy for individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). We assessed the effect of 26 weeks (6 months) of a supervised aerobic exercise program on memory, executive function, functional ability and depression in early AD. Methods and findings This study was a 26-week randomized controlled trial comparing the effects of 150 minutes per week of aerobic exercise vs. non-aerobic stretching and toning control intervention in individuals with early AD. A total of 76 well-characterized older adults with probable AD (mean age 72.9 [7.7]) were enrolled and 68 participants completed the study. Exercise was conducted with supervision and monitoring by trained exercise specialists. Neuropsychological tests and surveys were conducted at baseline,13, and 26 weeks to assess memory and executive function composite scores, functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia), and depressive symptoms (Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia). Cardiorespiratory fitness testing and brain MRI was performed at baseline and 26 weeks. Aerobic exercise was associated with a modest gain in functional ability (Disability Assessment for Dementia) compared to individuals in the ST group (X2 = 8.2, p = 0.02). There was no clear effect of intervention on other primary outcome measures of Memory, Executive Function, or depressive symptoms. However, secondary analyses revealed that change in cardiorespiratory fitness was positively correlated with change in memory performance and bilateral hippocampal volume. Conclusions Aerobic exercise in early AD is associated with benefits in functional ability. Exercise-related gains in cardiorespiratory fitness were associated with improved memory performance and reduced hippocampal atrophy, suggesting cardiorespiratory fitness gains may be important in driving brain benefits. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01128361 PMID:28187125

  4. In-situ vitrification (ISV) organic-surrogate vapor emissions during a 1-ton pilot melt. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, R.N.; Wieser, R.F.; Fajer, R.W.

    1996-09-01

    Pilot tests of a commercial soil vitrification process for entombing Animal/Chemical and Glass Hole area wastes were evaluated by incorporating perfluorocarbon tracers (PFTs) into aqueous and organic {open_quotes}wastes{close_quotes} within bottles of the type buried in typical Brookhaven-type holes. The objective was to add sufficient known PFT quantities of two or more types in the aqueous and organic phases while, at the same time, surrounding the test pit with known emission rate PFT sources, one type in the soil and another type in the air, such that monitoring of the air above ground and below ground would allow computation of the fugitive emission rates from the process as it occurred. Hood off-gas PFT concentrations were also to be monitored in order to verify the fraction present; claims have been made that greater than 99% of pit organics are destroyed during the melt. The output was to be the percentage escape (i.e., not captured by the hood) of pit aqueous and organic phases as the vitrification process proceeded. The actual melt commenced at 1350 on Monday 24 June 1996 and continued for just short of 48 hours. By the next day it was clear from the real-time PFT analyzer that above-ground fugitive emissions were not assessable because substantial PFT vapors were fumigating the area from the exhaust stack of the ISV hood`s soil vapor extraction (SVE) processing system. That sampling component was then switched to the stack to compare hood off-gas concentrations before and after the charcoal filtering.

  5. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1991-02-26

    This patent describes an acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  6. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    SciTech Connect

    White, T.L.

    1990-05-02

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuously vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level. 2 figs.

  7. Acoustic emission feedback control for control of boiling in a microwave oven

    DOEpatents

    White, Terry L.

    1991-01-01

    An acoustic emission based feedback system for controlling the boiling level of a liquid medium in a microwave oven is provided. The acoustic emissions from the medium correlated with surface boiling is used to generate a feedback control signal proportional to the level of boiling of the medium. This signal is applied to a power controller to automatically and continuoulsly vary the power applied to the oven to control the boiling at a selected level.

  8. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  9. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  10. Controlled drop emission by wetting properties in driven liquid filaments.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Aguilar, R; Nistal, R; Hernández-Machado, A; Pagonabarraga, I

    2011-05-01

    The controlled formation of micrometre-sized drops is of great importance to many technological applications. Here we present a wetting-based destabilization mechanism of forced microfilaments on either hydrophilic or hydrophobic stripes that leads to the periodic emission of droplets. The drop emission mechanism is triggered above the maximum critical forcing at which wetting, capillarity, viscous friction and gravity can balance to sustain a stable driven contact line. The corresponding critical filament velocity is predicted as a function of the static wetting angle, which can be tuned through the substrate behaviour, and shows a strong dependence on the filament size. This sensitivity explains the qualitative difference in the critical velocity between hydrophilic and hydrophobic stripes, and accounts for previous experimental results of splashing solids. We demonstrate that this mechanism can be used to control independently the drop size and emission period, opening the possibility of highly monodisperse and flexible drop production techniques in open microfluidic geometries.

  11. Particulate Emissions from a Pre-Emissions Control Era Spark-Ignition Vehicle: A Historical Benchmark

    SciTech Connect

    John M.E. Storey; C. Scott Sluder; Douglas A. Blom; Erin Higinbotham

    2000-06-19

    This study examined the particulate emissions from a pre-emissions control era vehicle operated on both leaded and unleaded fuels for the purpose of establishing a historical benchmark. A pre-control vehicle was located that had been rebuilt with factory original parts to approximate an as-new vehicle prior to 1968. The vehicle had less than 20,000 miles on the rebuilt engine and exhaust. The vehicle underwent repeated FTP-75 tests to determine its regulated emissions, including particulate mass. Additionally, measurements of the particulate size distribution were made, as well as particulate lead concentration. These tests were conducted first with UTG96 certification fuel, followed by UTG96 doped with tetraethyl lead to approximate 1968 levels. Results of these tests, including transmission electron micrographs of individual particles from both the leaded and unleaded case are presented. The FTP composite PM emissions from this vehicle averaged 40.5 mg/mile using unleaded fuel. The results from the leaded fuel tests showed that the FTP composite PM emissions increased to an average of 139.5 mg/mile. Analysis of the particulate size distribution for both cases demonstrated that the mass-based size distribution of particles for this vehicle is heavily skewed towards the nano-particle range. The leaded-fuel tests showed a significant increase in mass concentration at the <0.1 micron size compared with the unleaded-fuel test case. The leaded-fuel tests produced lead emissions of nearly 0.04 g/mi, more than a 4-order-of-magnitude difference compared with unleaded-fuel results. Analysis of the size-fractionated PM samples showed that the lead PM emissions tended to be distributed in the 0.25 micron and smaller size range.

  12. Pilot experiments in the control of bancroftian filariasis in Japan and Ryukyu*

    PubMed Central

    Sasa, Manabu

    1963-01-01

    In this paper the author reviews the literature on the distribution and epidemiology of filariasis in Japan and discusses the extensive programme of research on the disease that is at present being carried out there. As part of this programme, comparative pilot experiments were started in 1958, in several areas of differing filariasis endemicity, with the object of determining the most effective and economical methods for preventing and treating the disease. The results so far obtained from these pilot experiments, which are still in progress, suggest that a close approach to the eradication of filariasis from the endemic areas could be reached through the administration of diethylcarbamazine at a suitable dosage to microfilaria carriers and the simultaneous application of control measures against the vector mosquitos. PMID:13986607

  13. Postural control deficits in people with fibromyalgia: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Postural instability and falls are increasingly recognized problems in patients with fibromyalgia (FM). The purpose of this study was to determine whether FM patients, compared to age-matched healthy controls (HCs), have differences in dynamic posturography, including sensory, motor, and limits of stability. We further sought to determine whether postural instability is associated with strength, proprioception and lower-extremity myofascial trigger points (MTPs); FM symptoms and physical function; dyscognition; balance confidence; and medication use. Last, we evaluated self-reported of falls over the past six months. Methods In this cross-sectional study, we compared middle-aged FM patients and age-matched HCs who underwent computerized dynamic posturography testing and completed the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire-Revised (FIQR) and balance and fall questionnaires. All subjects underwent a neurological and musculoskeletal examination. Descriptive statistics were used to characterize the sample and explore the relationships between variables. The relationships between subjective, clinical and objective variables were evaluated by correlation and regression analyses. Results Twenty-five FM patients and twenty-seven HCs (combined mean age ± standard deviation (SD): 48.6 ± 9.7 years) completed testing. FM patients scored statistically lower on composite sensory organization tests (primary outcome; P < 0.010), as well as with regard to vestibular, visual and somatosensory ratio scores on dynamic posturography. Balance confidence was significantly different between groups, with FM patients reporting less confidence than HCs (mean ± SD: 81.24 ± 19.52 vs. 98.52 ± 2.45; P < 0.001). Interestingly, 76% to 84% of FM patients had gastrocnemius and/or anterior tibialis MTPs. Postural stability was best predicted by dyscognition, FIQR score and body mass index. Regarding falls, 3 (11%) of 27 HCs had fallen only once during the past 6 months, whereas 18 (72

  14. Volatile Organic Compound Emissions from Oil and Gas Production Sources: A Pilot Study in Northeastern Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B.

    2015-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds can be emitted from multiple sources, and as such, it would be useful for a facility to be able to distinguish emissions originating inside battery limits (ISBL) from those originating from external sources. A field campaign of ambient air sampling was conducted at the Phillips 66 Research Center located in Northeastern Oklahoma. The surface measurement campaign included ambient air measurement using two hour and six hour time-integrated canister sampling and measurement of meteorological data. A total of 238 ambient air samples were collected between February and April of 2015 and the concentrations of 55 different hydrocarbons were measured in each of these samples. C2-C5 alkanes were the most dominant hydrocarbons measured during this study with their mean concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 13.6 ppb. The data analysis identified oil and gas production as the primary source of emission. The results and their analysis will be discussed.

  15. Performance of a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator for the control of sulfuric acid mist.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiayu; Wang, Hongmei; Shi, Yingjie; Zhang, Fan; Dang, Xiaoqing; Zhang, Hui; Shu, Yun; Deng, Shuang; Liu, Yu

    2016-10-01

    The use of a wet electrostatic precipitator (WESP) is often regarded as a viable option to reduce sulfuric acid mist emitted from the wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) tower in coal-fired power plants. In this study, a pilot-scale wet electrostatic precipitator equipped with a wall-cooled collection electrode is investigated for the control of sulfuric acid mist from a simulated WFGD system. The results show that due to partial charging effect, the removal efficiency of sulfuric acid aerosol decreases when the aerosol size decreases to several tens of nanometers. Moreover, due to the plasma-induced effect, a large number of ultrafine sulfuric acid aerosols below 50 nm formed at a voltage higher than 24 kV inside the WESP. The percentages of submicron-sized aerosols significantly increase together with the voltage. To minimize the adverse plasma-induced effect, a WESP should be operated at a high gas velocity with an optimum high voltage. Even at a high flue gas velocity of 2.3 m s(-1), the mass concentration and the total number concentration of uncaptured sulfuric acid aerosols at the WESP outlet are as low as ca. 0.6 mg m(-3) and ca. 10(4) 1 cm(-3) at 28 kV, respectively. The corresponding removal efficiencies were respectively higher than 99.4 and 99.9 % and are very similar to that at 1.1 and 1.6 m s(-1). Moreover, the condensation-induced aerosol growth enhances the removal of sulfuric acid mist inside a WESP and enables a low emission concentration of ca. 0.65 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.4 % even at a low voltage of 21 kV, and of ca. 0.35 mg m(-3) with a corresponding removal efficiency superior to 99.6 % at a higher voltage level of 26 kV.

  16. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  17. Realizable optimal control for a remotely piloted research vehicle. [stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.

    1980-01-01

    The design of a control system using the linear-quadratic regulator (LQR) control law theory for time invariant systems in conjunction with an incremental gradient procedure is presented. The incremental gradient technique reduces the full-state feedback controller design, generated by the LQR algorithm, to a realizable design. With a realizable controller, the feedback gains are based only on the available system outputs instead of being based on the full-state outputs. The design is for a remotely piloted research vehicle (RPRV) stability augmentation system. The design includes methods for accounting for noisy measurements, discrete controls with zero-order-hold outputs, and computational delay errors. Results from simulation studies of the response of the RPRV to a step in the elevator and frequency analysis techniques are included to illustrate these abnormalities and their influence on the controller design.

  18. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP

  19. Solar wind control of Jupiter's hectometric radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrow, C. H.; Desch, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    Radio, plasma, and magnetic field data obtained by Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 were used to examine the manner in which the Jovian hectometric radio emission (HOM) is controlled by the solar wind. Using the method of superposed epochs, it was found that the higher energy HOM is correlated with the IMF as well as with the solar wind density and pressure. However, unlike the Io-independent decametric radio emission (Non-Io DAM), the HOM displayed no correlation with the solar wind velocity, although this radio component appear to be also influenced by the IMF. The results suggest separate HOM amd Non-Io DAM sources.

  20. Control of Trace Metal Emissions During Coal Combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas C. Ho

    1997-10-01

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. The project was started on July 1, 1994 and this is the thirteenth quarterly technical progress report. Specifically, the following progress has been made during this performance period from July 1, 1997 through September 30, 1997.

  1. Emissions from premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) combustion and affect on emission control devices

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, II, James E; Kass, Michael D; Huff, Shean P; Barone, Teresa L; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y; Storey, John Morse

    2010-01-01

    A light-duty diesel engine has been operated in advanced combustion modes known generally as premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). The emissions have been characterized for several load and speed combinations. Fewer NO{sub x} and particulate matter (PM) emissions are produced by PCCI, but higher CO and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions result. In addition, the nature of the PM differs from conventional combustion; the PM is smaller and has a much higher soluble organic fraction (SOF) content (68% vs. 30% for conventional combustion). Three catalyst technologies were studied to determine the affects of HECC on catalyst performance; the technologies were a lean NO{sub x} trap (LNT), diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), and diesel particulate filter (DPF). The LNT benefited greatly from the reduced NO{sub x} emissions associated with PCCI. NO{sub x} capacity requirements are reduced as well as overall tailpipe NO{sub x} levels particularly at low load and temperature conditions where regeneration of the LNT is difficult. The DOC performance requirements for PCCI are more stringent due to the higher CO and HC emissions; however, the DOC was effective at controlling the higher CO and HC emissions at conditions above the light-off temperature. Below light-off, CO and HC emissions are problematic. The study of DPF technology focused on the fuel penalties associated with DPF regeneration or 'desoot' due to the different PM loading rates from PCCI vs. conventional combustion. Less frequent desoot events were required from the lower PM from PCCI and, when used in conjunction with an LNT, the lower PM from less frequent LNT regeneration. The lower desoot frequency leads a {approx}3% fuel penalty for a mixture of PCCI and conventional loads vs. {approx}4% for conventional only combustion.

  2. Model predictive control of a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Perales, A.L.V.; Ollero, P.; Ortiz, F.J.G.; Gomez-Barea, A.

    2009-06-15

    A model predictive control (MPC) strategy based on a dynamic matrix (DMC) is designed and applied to a wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (WLFGD) pilot plant to evaluate what enhancement in control performance can be achieved with respect to a conventional decentralized feedback control strategy. The results reveal that MPC can significantly improve both reference tracking and disturbance rejection. For disturbance rejection, the main control objective in WLFGD plants, selection of tuning parameters and sample time, is of paramount importance due to the fast effect of the main disturbance (inlet SO{sub 2} load to the absorber) on the most important controlled variable (outlet flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration). The proposed MPC strategy can be easily applied to full-scale WLFGD plants.

  3. Effects of Fresh and Aged Vehicular Exhaust Emissions on Breathing Pattern and Cellular Responses – Pilot Single Vehicle Study

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Edgar A.; Chung, Yeonseung; Papapostolou, Vasileios; Lawrence, Joy; Long, Mark S.; Hatakeyama, Vivian; Gomes, Brenno; Calil, Yasser; Sato, Rodrigo; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here is a laboratory pilot study using diluted car exhaust from a single vehicle to assess differences in toxicological response between primary emissions and secondary products resulting from atmospheric photochemical reactions of gas phase compounds with O3, OH and other radicals. Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed for five hours to either filtered room air (Sham) or one of two different atmospheres: 1. Diluted Car Exhaust (P) + Mt. Saint Helens Ash (MSHA); 2. P+MSHA+SOA (Secondary Organic Aerosol, formed during simulated photochemical aging of diluted exhaust). Primary and secondary gases were removed using a non-selective diffusion denuder. Continuous respiratory data was collected during the exposure, and broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) and complete blood counts (CBC) were performed 24 hours after exposure. ANOVA models were used to assess the exposure effect and to compare those effects across different exposure types. Total average exposures were 363±66 μg/m3 P+MSHA and 212±95 μg/m3 P+MSHA+SOA. For both exposures, we observed decreases in breathing rate, tidal and minute volumes (TV, MV) and peak and median flows (PIF, PEF and EF50) along with increases in breathing cycle times (Ti, Te) compared to sham. These results indicate that the animals are changing their breathing pattern with these test atmospheres. Exposure to P+MSHA+SOA produced significant increases in Total Cells, Macrophages and Neutrophils in the BAL and in-vivo chemiluminescence of the lung. There were no significant differences in CBC parameters. Our data suggest that simulated atmospheric photochemistry, producing SOA in the P+MSHA+SOA exposures, enhanced the toxicity of vehicular emissions. PMID:22486346

  4. Air quality assessment and control of emission rates.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Yuri N; Parra-Guevara, David; Belitskaya, Davydova Valentina

    2005-12-01

    Mathematical methods based on the adjoint model approach are given for the air-pollution estimation and control in an urban region. A simple advection-diffusion-reaction model and its adjoint are used to illustrate the application of the methods. Dual pollution concentration estimates in ecologically important zones are derived and used to develop two non-optimal strategies and one optimal strategy for controlling the emission rates of enterprises. A linear convex combination of these strategies represents a new sufficient strategy. A method for detecting the enterprises, which violate the emission rates prescribed by a control, is given. A method for determining an optimal position for a new enterprise in the region is also described.

  5. Biofiltration: An innovative air pollution control technology for VOC emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Leson, G. ); Winer, A.M. )

    1991-08-01

    Biofiltration is a relatively recent air pollution control (APC) technology in which off-gases containing biodegradable volatile organic compounds (VOC) or inorganic air toxics are vented through a biologically active material. This technology has been successfully applied in Germany and The Netherlands in many full-scale applications to control odors, VOC and air toxic emissions from a wide range of industrial and public sector sources. Control efficiencies of more than 90 percent have been achieved for many common air pollutants. Due to lower operating costs, biofiltration can provide significant economic advantages over other APC technologies if applied to off-gases that contain readily biodegradable pollutants in low concentrations. Environmental benefits include low energy requirements and the avoidance of cross media transfer of pollutants. This paper reviews the history and current status of biofiltration, outlines its underlying scientific and engineering principles, and discusses the applicability of biofilters for a wide range of specific emission sources.

  6. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control In-flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; Vanzwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An adaptive augmenting control algorithm for the Space Launch System has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the launch vehicles baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a proposed manual steering mode were investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of twenty five constant pitch-rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control.

  7. Control of several emissions during olive pomace thermal degradation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-10-13

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25-750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min⁻¹. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor.

  8. Ozone trends in Atlanta, Georgia - Have emission controls been effective?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Ronald W.; Richardson, Jennifer L.; Chameldes, William L.

    1989-01-01

    Nine years of summertime ozone data from the Atlanta metropolitan area are analyzed and compared to local emissions of volatile organic carbon and nitrogen oxides. Trends from 1979 to 1987 were studied for the number of days per year ozone exceeded the NAAQS standard, the second-highest ozone level observed per year, and the first quartile summertime average ozone observed, as well as the mean difference between the ozone level observed downwind and upwind of the city. Because this last parameter is sensitive to chemical factors but relatively insensitive to the number of days each year with meteorological conditions conducive to ozone formation, its trend may be best suited for determining how effective emission controls have been in reducing O3 in the Atlanta area. In spite of the fact that sizeable reductions have been claimed for volatile organic carbon emissions over the past several years, the data give no indication that ozone levels have decreased and in fact, imply that summertime ozone production may have increased. The results imply that either emissions have not decreased as much as has been claimed or that ozone is not sensitive to anthropogenic volatile organic carbon emissions.

  9. Control of Several Emissions during Olive Pomace Thermal Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Nogales, Sergio; Román, Silvia; Montero, Irene; Arranz, José Ignacio; Sepúlveda, Francisco José

    2014-01-01

    Biomass plays an important role as an energy source, being an interesting alternative to fossil fuels due to its environment-friendly and sustainable characteristics. However, due to the exposure of customers to emissions during biomass heating, evolved pollutants should be taken into account and controlled. Changing raw materials or mixing them with another less pollutant biomass could be a suitable step to reduce pollution. This work studied the thermal behaviour of olive pomace, pyrenean oak and their blends under combustion using thermogravimetric analysis. It was possible to monitor the emissions released during the process by coupling mass spectrometry analysis. The experiments were carried out under non-isothermal conditions at the temperature range 25–750 °C and a heating rate of 20 °C·min−1. The following species were analysed: aromatic compounds (benzene and toluene), sulphur emissions (sulphur dioxide), 1,4-dioxin, hydrochloric acid, carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides. The results indicated that pollutants were mainly evolved in two different stages, which are related to the thermal degradation steps. Thus, depending on the pollutant and raw material composition, different emission profiles were observed. Furthermore, intensity of the emission profiles was related, in some cases, to the composition of the precursor. PMID:25314298

  10. Control of air emissions from POTWs using biofiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Webster, T.S.; Devinny, J.S.; Torres, E.M.; Basrai, S.S.

    1995-12-31

    The University of Southern California (USC), in collaboration with the County Sanitation Districts of Orange County (CSDOC), the South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD), Southern California Edison (SCE), the Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF), and Huntingdon Environmental Engineering, Inc. (HEEI), is conducting a research project to evaluate the application of biofiltration to remove volatile organic compounds (VOCs), odor-causing air pollutants, and toxics from a publicly owned treatment works (POTW) waste airstream. As part of this project, bench-scale and pilot-scale experiments are being conducted to test the effectiveness of biofiltration and determine the optimum parameters for applying biofiltration to POTWs. Results from the bench-scale experiments demonstrate that biofiltration is effective in reducing the concentration of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and total VOCs present in waste airstreams by over 99% and up to 90%, respectively. Average reduction of specific aromatic and carbonyl compounds ranged from 55% to 91%. Removal efficiencies for chlorinated hydrocarbons were variable, ranging from 6% to 88%. Overall, biofiltration appears to be a promising technology for full-scale implementation at POTWs for VOC and odor emission compliance.

  11. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  12. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  13. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  14. 14 CFR 61.94 - Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Student pilot seeking a sport pilot... Student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or a recreational pilot certificate: Operations at... operational control tower in other airspace. (a) A student pilot seeking a sport pilot certificate or...

  15. 78 FR 36776 - Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-19

    ... AGENCY Proposed Information Collection Request; Comment Request; Emission Control System Performance... an information collection request (ICR), ``Emission Control System Performance Warranty Regulations and Voluntary Aftermarket Part Certification Program (Renewal)'' (EPA ICR No. 0116.10, OMB Control...

  16. A Piloted Simulator Investigation of Side-Stick Controller/Stability and Control Augmentation System Requirements for Helicopter Visual Flight Tasks,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    Control System Concept AFC It 0 FWD UTUT COOM11111E1DWACK UBUSIMO H Figure 4. Primary Flight Control System Cne Forward path lead-lag shaping was...For the low speed tasks the pilots were simulation study --one each from Boelng-Vertol, given time to feel out the system before each NASA, the U.S...of the evaluation EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS pilots, (A, C, and D), participated in the previous ADOCS simulation study (Reference 1). Experimental results

  17. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein

    1999-01-11

    ''Conventional'' waste landfills emit methane, a potent greenhouse gas, in quantities such that landfill methane is a major factor in global climate change. Controlled landfilling is a novel approach to manage landfills for rapid completion of total gas generation, maximizing gas capture and minimizing emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated and brought to much earlier completion by improving conditions for biological processes (principally moisture levels) in the landfill. Gas recovery efficiency approaches 100% through use of surface membrane cover over porous gas recovery layers operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project's results at the Yolo County Central Landfill near Davis, California are, to date, highly encouraging. Two major controlled landfilling benefits would be the reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions.

  18. Understanding and constraining global controls on dust emissions from playas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Robert; Eckardt, Frank; Vickery, Kate; Wiggs, Giles; Hipondoka, Martin; Murray, Jon; Baddock, Matt; Brindley, Helen; King, James; Nield, Jo; Thomas, Dave; Washington, Richard; Haustein, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    Playas are ephemeral, endorheic lake systems that are common in arid regions. They have been identified as both regionally and globally significant sources of mineral dust. Emissions of dust from large playas can therefore impact significantly on regional climate through a range of land/atmosphere interactions. However, not all playas have or will emit dust, and those that do emit dust rarely do so consistently. Thus, global models that target ephemeral lakes at source areas often struggle to model the emission characteristics of the locations accurately. It is clear that our understanding of controls on dust emission from these environments varies at global scales (i.e. relevant to climate models) is poorly understood. Existing research confirms that the potential for dust emission from playas within dryland regions can be extremely varied; large disparities are noted to exist from one playa to another, and significant spatial/temporal heterogeneity has been observed within those playas that do emit dust. Research also shows that dust fluxes from playa surfaces varies vary based on hydrological gradient or ephemeral inflows and may change over time in response to human or climate forcing mechanisms. Consequently, despite the presence of abundant fine sediment and suitable wind conditions, some playas will remain supply limited and will not emit dust as they are either too wet (e.g. via extensive groundwater discharge) not salty enough (e.g. salts have been removed from the surface by groundwater recharge) or there is not a sufficient supply of sand (coarse particles) on or at the upwind edge of the playa surface to cause dust emission. Other playas (e.g. Owens Lake) have emitted dust at a disproportionate (regionally/nationally) significant level seemingly without constraint (becoming effectively transport capacity limited) through optimal combinations of the same factors. Finally, we can also see situations where dust emitting playa systems flip between supply

  19. Fire emission reconstruction in Africa during the last 500 years: A pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zangrando, Roberta; Gambaro, Andrea; Cescon, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gabrielli, Paolo; Barbante, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Fire emissions directly affect the global carbon cycle and atmospheric chemistry, yet little is known about past fire variability and the impacts of aerosols produced by biomass burning on the climate system. Tropical savanna fires are the dominant source of carbon from fire emissions and provide more than sixty percent of the global total. The Kilimanjaro ice fields (3°04.6'S; 37°21.2'E, 5893 meters above sea level) are located near the largest savanna system in the world. Glaciers on Kilimanjaro trap and preserve atmospheric aerosols produced by tropical savanna fires. The Kilimanjaro ice cores supply a high-resolution equatorial proxy record that provides a nearly-continuous record of climate parameters (temperature, accumulation, atmospheric chemistry, and aridity) as well as presenting the opportunity for the use of a novel technique to examine the regional fire history. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a major component of and a globally present molecular tracer for atmospheric biomass burning. Here, we use triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry to quantify past concentrations of levoglucosan, and consequently biomass burning, in the Kilimanjaro ice core. The investigation of organic atmospheric tracers is expanding the limits of proxy information gleaned from ice cores and provides data for the least understood area of the climate system. Levoglucosan has been measured in Antarctic ice samples, but this work presents the first measurements of levoglucosan on low-latitude ice. Tropical ice cores are located closer to centers of human activity and vegetation than polar cores and therefore are better able to display changes in regional activity such as biomass burning than the polar cores, which provide an integrated global signal. Levoglucosan can be precisely determined due to the lack of other compounds that cause interference with the peak identification in the chromatogram. Initial tests for the presence and levels of levoglucosan

  20. Eliminating non-renewable CO2 emissions from sewage treatment: an anaerobic migrating bed reactor pilot plant study.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Ken; Lant, Paul

    2006-10-20

    The aim of this work was to demonstrate at pilot scale a high level of energy recovery from sewage utilising a primary Anaerobic Migrating Bed Reactor (AMBR) operating at ambient temperature to convert COD to methane. The focus is the reduction in non-renewable CO(2) emissions resulting from reduced energy requirements for sewage treatment. A pilot AMBR was operated on screened sewage over the period June 2003 to September 2004. The study was divided into two experimental phases. In Phase 1 the process operated at a feed rate of 10 L/h (HRT 50 h), SRT 63 days, average temperature 28 degrees C and mixing time fraction 0.05. In Phase 2 the operating parameters were 20 L/h, 26 days, 16 degrees C and 0.025. Methane production was 66% of total sewage COD in Phase 1 and 23% in Phase 2. Gas mixing of the reactor provided micro-aeration which suppressed sulphide production. Intermittent gas mixing at a useful power input of 6 W/m(3) provided satisfactory process performance in both phases. Energy consumption for mixing was about 1.5% of the energy conversion to methane in both operating phases. Comparative analysis with previously published data confirmed that methane supersaturation resulted in significant losses of methane in the effluent of anaerobic treatment systems. No cases have been reported where methane was considered to be supersaturated in the effluent. We have shown that methane supersaturation is likely to be significant and that methane losses in the effluent are likely to have been greater than previously predicted. Dissolved methane concentrations were measured at up to 2.2 times the saturation concentration relative to the mixing gas composition. However, this study has also demonstrated that despite methane supersaturation occurring, micro-aeration can result in significantly lower losses of methane in the effluent (<11% in this study), and has demonstrated that anaerobic sewage treatment can genuinely provide energy recovery. The goal of demonstrating a

  1. Spontaneous emission control in a tunable hybrid photonic system.

    PubMed

    Frimmer, Martin; Koenderink, A Femius

    2013-05-24

    We experimentally demonstrate control of the rate of spontaneous emission in a tunable hybrid photonic system that consists of two canonical building blocks for spontaneous emission control, an optical antenna and a mirror, each providing a modification of the local density of optical states (LDOS). We couple fluorophores to a plasmonic antenna to create a superemitter with an enhanced decay rate. In a superemitter analog of the seminal Drexhage experiment we probe the LDOS of a nanomechanically approached mirror. Because of the electrodynamic interaction of the antenna with its own mirror image, the superemitter traces the inverse of the LDOS enhancement provided by the mirror, in stark contrast to a bare source, whose decay rate is proportional to the mirror LDOS.

  2. Contaminant occurrence, identification and control in a pilot-scale corn fiber to ethanol conversion process.

    PubMed

    Schell, Daniel J; Dowe, Nancy; Ibsen, Kelly N; Riley, Cynthia J; Ruth, Mark F; Lumpkin, Robert E

    2007-11-01

    While interest in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic feedstocks is increasing, there is still relatively little pilot-plant data and operating experience available for this emerging industry. A series of batch and continuous fermentation runs were performed in a pilot-plant, some lasting up to six weeks, in which corn fiber-derived sugars were fermented to ethanol using glucose-fermenting and recombinant glucose/xylose-fermenting yeasts. However, contamination by Lactobacillus bacteria was a common occurrence during these runs. These contaminating microorganisms were found to readily consume arabinose, a sugar not utilized by the yeast, producing acetic and lactic acids that had a detrimental effect on fermentation performance. The infections were ultimately controlled with the antibiotic virginiamycin, but routine use of antibiotics is cost prohibitive. The severity of the problem encountered during this work is probably due to use of a highly contaminated feedstock. Lignocellulosic conversion facilities will not employ aseptic designs. Instead, techniques similar to those employed in the corn-based fuel ethanol industry to control infections will be used. Effective control may also be possible by using fermentative microorganisms that consume all biomass-derived sugars.

  3. Solid state carbon nanotube device for controllable trion electroluminescence emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Shuang; Ma, Ze; Wei, Nan; Liu, Huaping; Wang, Sheng; Peng, Lian-Mao

    2016-03-01

    Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for gradually increasing bias were also investigated. The realization of electrically induced pure trion emission opens up a new opportunity for CNT film-based optoelectronic devices, providing a new degree of freedom in controlling the devices to extend potential applications in spin or magnetic optoelectronics fields.Semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have a direct chirality-dependent bandgap and reduced dimensionality-related quantum confinement effects, which are closely related to the performance of optoelectronic devices. Here, taking advantage of the large energy separations between neutral singlet excitons and charged excitons, i.e. trions in CNTs, we have achieved for the first time all trion electroluminescence (EL) emission from chirality-sorted (8,3) and (8,4) CNT-based solid state devices. We showed that strong trion emission can be obtained as a result of localized impact excitation and electrically injected holes, with an estimated efficiency of ~5 × 10-4 photons per injected hole. The importance of contact-controlled carrier injection (including symmetric and asymmetric contact configurations) and EL spectral stability for

  4. A Control Allocation Technique to Recover From Pilot-Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) Due to Actuator Rate Limiting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yildiz, Yildiray; Kolmanovsky, Ilya V.

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a control allocation technique that can help pilots recover from pilot induced oscillations (PIO). When actuators are rate-saturated due to aggressive pilot commands, high gain flight control systems or some anomaly in the system, the effective delay in the control loop may increase depending on the nature of the cause. This effective delay increase manifests itself as a phase shift between the commanded and actual system signals and can instigate PIOs. The proposed control allocator reduces the effective time delay by minimizing the phase shift between the commanded and the actual attitude accelerations. Simulation results are reported, which demonstrate phase shift minimization and recovery from PIOs. Conversion of the objective function to be minimized and constraints to a form that is suitable for implementation is given.

  5. An Experimental Study of the Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller Re-Route Negotiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, Todd C.; Hansman, R. John

    1999-01-01

    Air-ground data link systems are being developed to enable pilots and air traffic controllers to share information more fully. The sharing of information is generally expected to enhance their shared situation awareness and foster more collaborative decision making. An exploratory, part-task simulator experiment is described which evaluates the extent to which shared information may lead pilots and controllers to cooperate or compete when negotiating route amendments. The results indicate an improvement in situation awareness for pilots and controllers and a willingness to work cooperatively. Independent of data link considerations, the experiment also demonstrates the value of providing controllers with a good-quality weather representation on their plan view displays. Observed improvements in situation awareness and separation assurance are discussed. It is argued that deployment of this relatively simple, low-risk addition to the plan view displays be accelerated.

  6. Ecological control of Triatoma dimidiata (Latreille, 1811): five years after a Costa Rican pilot project.

    PubMed

    Zeledó, Rodrigo; Rojas, Julio C; Urbina, Andrea; Cordero, Marlen; Gamboa, Sue H; Lorosa, Elias S; Alfaro, Sergio

    2008-09-01

    An ecological pilot project for the control of Triatoma dimidiata allowed a new evaluation four and five years after environmental modifications in the peridomestic areas of 20 households. It was verified that the two groups of houses, 10 case-houses and 10 control-houses, were free of insects after those periods of time. In the first group, the owners started a chicken coop in the backyard and a colony of bugs was found there without infesting the house. In the second group, the inhabitants of one house once again facilitated the conditions for the bugs to thrive in the same store room, reaffirming that man-made ecotopes facilitates colonization. This ecological control method was revealed to be reliable and sustainable and it is recommended to be applied to those situations where the vectors of Chagas disease can colonize houses and are frequent in wild ecotopes.

  7. Influence of UAS Pilot Communication and Execution Delay on Controller's Acceptability Ratings of UAS-ATC Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Morales, Gregory; Chiappe, Dan; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Shively, Jay; Buker, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Successful integration of UAS in the NAS will require that UAS interactions with the air traffic management system be similar to interactions between manned aircraft and air traffic management. For example, UAS response times to air traffic controller (ATCo) clearances should be equivalent to those that are currently found to be acceptable with manned aircraft. Prior studies have examined communication delays with manned aircraft. Unfortunately, there is no analogous body of research for UAS. The goal of the present study was to determine how UAS pilot communication and execution delays affect ATCos' acceptability ratings of UAS pilot responses when the UAS is operating in the NAS. Eight radar-certified controllers managed traffic in a modified ZLA sector with one UAS flying in it. In separate scenarios, the UAS pilot verbal communication and execution delays were either short (1.5 s) or long (5 s) and either constant or variable. The ATCo acceptability of UAS pilot communication and execution delays were measured subjectively via post trial ratings. UAS verbal pilot communication delay, were rated as acceptable 92% of the time when the delay was short. This acceptability level decreased to 64% when the delay was long. UAS pilot execution delay had less of an influence on ATCo acceptability ratings in the present stimulation. Implications of these findings for UAS in the NAS integration are discussed.

  8. The insertion of human dynamics models in the flight control loops of V/STOL research aircraft. Appendix 2: The optimal control model of a pilot in V/STOL aircraft control loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zipf, Mark E.

    1989-01-01

    An overview is presented of research work focussed on the design and insertion of classical models of human pilot dynamics within the flight control loops of V/STOL aircraft. The pilots were designed and configured for use in integrated control system research and design. The models of human behavior that were considered are: McRuer-Krendel (a single variable transfer function model); and Optimal Control Model (a multi-variable approach based on optimal control and stochastic estimation theory). These models attempt to predict human control response characteristics when confronted with compensatory tracking and state regulation tasks. An overview, mathematical description, and discussion of predictive limitations of the pilot models is presented. Design strategies and closed loop insertion configurations are introduced and considered for various flight control scenarios. Models of aircraft dynamics (both transfer function and state space based) are developed and discussed for their use in pilot design and application. Pilot design and insertion are illustrated for various flight control objectives. Results of pilot insertion within the control loops of two V/STOL research aricraft (Sikorski Black Hawk UH-60A, McDonnell Douglas Harrier II AV-8B) are presented and compared against actual pilot flight data. Conclusions are reached on the ability of the pilot models to adequately predict human behavior when confronted with similar control objectives.

  9. Reducing Postpartum Weight Retention and Improving Breastfeeding Outcomes in Overweight Women: A Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Julia; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley; Hure, Alexis; Smith, Roger; Collins, Clare E

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity is prevalent among women of reproductive age (42% BMI > 25 kg/m2) and parity is associated with risk of weight gain. Weight gain greater than that recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM )is also associated with lower rates of breastfeeding initiation and duration in women. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial is to examine the feasibility of recruiting and maintaining a cohort of pregnant women with the view of reducing postpartum weight retention and improving breastfeeding outcomes. Women (BMI of 25–35 kg/m2 (n = 36)) were recruited from the John Hunter Hospital antenatal clinic in New South Wales, Australia. Participants were stratified by BMI and randomised to one of three groups with follow-up to six months postpartum. Women received a dietary intervention with or without breastfeeding support from a lactation consultant, or were assigned to a wait-list control group where the dietary intervention was issued at three months postpartum. Feasibility and acceptability was assessed by participation rates and questionnaire. Analysis of variance and covariance was conducted to determine any differences between groups. Sixty-nine per cent of the participants were still enrolled at six months postpartum. This pilot demonstrated some difficulties in recruiting women from antenatal clinics and retaining them in the trial. Although underpowered; the results on weight; biomarkers and breastfeeding outcomes indicated improved metabolic health. PMID:25723973

  10. Systematically developed pilot randomized controlled trial of exercise and cognition in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Sandroff, Brian M; Balto, Julia M; Klaren, Rachel E; Sommer, Sarah K; DeLuca, John; Motl, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of a systematically developed, progressive treadmill walking exercise training intervention on cognition among fully ambulatory persons with MS. Ten fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive chronic treadmill walking exercise training. Participants underwent measures of cognition (i.e., cognitive processing speed (CPS), executive function), walking performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness before and after the 12-week period; baseline and follow-up assessments were performed by blinded assessors. Overall, there were large intervention effects on CPS (d = 0.95), walking performance (d = 0.76), and cardiorespiratory fitness (d > 1.08). The change in cardiorespiratory fitness was significantly associated with change in CPS (r = .60), but not walking performance. This small pilot RCT provides preliminary proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving CPS, walking performance, and cardiorespiratory fitness in fully ambulatory persons with MS, and that improved fitness might be a possible mechanism for improved CPS.

  11. THE IMPACT OF PARTICULATE EMISSIONS CONTROL ON THE CONTROL OF OTHER MWC AIR EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    On December 20, 1989, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed revised new source performance standards for new municipal waste combustion (MWC) units and guidelines for existing sources. The proposed national regulations require tighter particulate matter control and a...

  12. Occupational exposures to emissions from combustion of diesel and alternative fuels in underground mining--a simulated pilot study.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Eric A; Reed, Rustin J; Lee, Vivien S T; Burgess, Jefferey L

    2015-01-01

    Diesel fuel is commonly used for underground mining equipment, yet diesel engine exhaust is a known human carcinogen. Alternative fuels, including biodiesel, and a natural gas/diesel blend, offer the potential to reduce engine emissions and associated health effects. For this pilot study, exposure monitoring was performed in an underground mine during operation of a load-haul-dump vehicle. Use of low-sulfur diesel, 75% biodiesel/25% diesel blend (B75), and natural gas/diesel blend (GD) fuels were compared. Personal samples were collected for total and respirable diesel particulate matter (tDPM and rDPM, respectively) and total and respirable elemental and organic carbon (tEC, rEC, tOC, rOC, respectively), as well as carbon monoxide (CO), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, naphthalene, nitric oxide (NO), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2). Compared to diesel, B75 use was associated with a 33% reduction in rDPM, reductions in rEC, tEC, and naphthalene, increased tDPM, tOC, and NO, and no change in rOC, CO, and NO2. Compared to diesel, GD was associated with a 66% reduction in rDPM and a reduction in all other exposures except CO. The alternative fuels tested both resulted in reduced rDPM, which is the basis for the current Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) occupational exposure standard. Although additional study is needed with a wider variety of equipment, use of alternative fuels have the promise of reducing exposures from vehicular exhaust in underground mining settings.

  13. VOC emissions controls for aluminum cold rolling mills

    SciTech Connect

    Genoble, A.L.; Lagoe, D.J.; Wasyluk, W.J.R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper is a case history of retrofitting VOC emissions controls to two (2) aluminum cold rolling mills at an aluminum sheet complex in central New York. The plant site was located in the northeast ozone transport region, and it was necessary to achieve compliance with VOC emissions limitations. Emissions control equipment included high efficiency filters for VOC mists and a wash oil process for scrubbing VOC vapors. All rolling oil was recovered for reuse on site. A vacuum distillation process was used to separate wash oil from rolling oil. The equipment began operating in mid-1995, and long term results have proven the validity of the recovery concept. Total project costs were $7.2 million for two (2) 60,000 ACFM systems. Project duration from the date of the initial request for equipment price quotations to the first round of stack testing was twenty (20) months. The modular construction of the vacuum distillation equipment simplified field erection and shortened the duration of field work. Stack testing indicated overall VOC collection efficiencies that exceeded regulatory requirements. Initially, problems were experienced with Method 25 stack testing methodology. Final results were confirmed by two (2) independent methods.

  14. Technology for CO{sub 2} emission monitoring and control

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.L. Jr.; Unkefer, P.J.; Pendergrass, J.H.; Parkinson, W.J.; Loose, V.W.; Brainard, J.R.

    1998-12-31

    The authors examined three specific areas relative to CO{sub 2} emissions and controls: (1) the effect of deregulation of the utility industry on emissions, (2) the role of advanced power systems in reducing emissions, and (3) developing CO{sub 2} mitigation technologies. In this work the Energy Technologies program office at Los Alamos attempted to initiate an integrated approach that includes a range of tasks involving both point and distributed CO{sub 2} control. The authors have examined evolving mitigation (separation and sequestration) technologies for CO{sub 2} disposal. The separation of hydrogen gas from high-temperature CO{sub 2}-containing streams is a critical component of carbon dioxide mitigation technology, and cost-effective point sequestration will require separation of CO{sub 2} from H{sub 2}. They investigated four types of separation techniques: two high-temperature membrane technologies, an intermediate-temperature membrane technology, and a separation technology based on the formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate compounds through reaction of CO{sub 2} with water at near freezing conditions. At Los Alamos, sequestration technologies are being developed along three principal areas: mineral sequestration of CO{sub 2}, the enhancement of natural sinks using biotechnology methods, and the conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol using high-temperature photolysis.

  15. City-specific vehicle emission control strategies to achieve stringent emission reduction targets in China's Yangtze River Delta region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaojun; Wu, Ye; Zhao, Bin; Wu, Xiaomeng; Shu, Jiawei; Hao, Jiming

    2017-01-01

    The Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region is one of the most prosperous and densely populated regions in China and is facing tremendous pressure to mitigate vehicle emissions and improve air quality. Our assessment has revealed that mitigating vehicle emissions of NOx would be more difficult than reducing the emissions of other major vehicular pollutants (e.g., CO, HC and PM2.5) in the YRD region. Even in Shanghai, where the emission control implemented are more stringent than in Jiangsu and Zhejiang, we observed little to no reduction in NOx emissions from 2000 to 2010. Emission-reduction targets for HC, NOx and PM2.5 are determined using a response surface modeling tool for better air quality. We design city-specific emission control strategies for three vehicle-populated cities in the YRD region: Shanghai and Nanjing and Wuxi in Jiangsu. Our results indicate that even if stringent emission control consisting of the Euro 6/VI standards, the limitation of vehicle population and usage, and the scrappage of older vehicles is applied, Nanjing and Wuxi will not be able to meet the NOx emissions target by 2020. Therefore, additional control measures are proposed for Nanjing and Wuxi to further mitigate NOx emissions from heavy-duty diesel vehicles.

  16. Acupuncture for low back pain due to spondylolisthesis: study protocol for a randomized controlled pilot trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Spondylolisthesis is the major cause of refractory low back pain. There are many studies of the surgical treatment of spondylolisthesis, but few of conservative treatments. There is also no optimal conservative treatment protocol, however, low back pain caused by low-grade spondylolisthesis is controlled with non-surgical pain management. Acupuncture has become a useful method for treating low back pain, but there has not been any study of its efficacy in relation to spondylolisthesis. This study was designed to establish the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial and the safety of acupuncture for low back pain due to low-grade spondylolisthesis. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled pilot clinical trial of five weeks duration. Fourteen patients will be recruited and randomly allocated to two groups: an acupuncture plus interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (experimental group), and an interlaminar epidural steroid injection group (control group). All patients will be administered an interlaminar epidural steroid injection once a week for three weeks (three injections in total), but only the experimental group will receive additional treatment with three acupuncture sessions a week for three weeks (nine acupuncture sessions in total). The primary outcome will be measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS). Our primary end point is three-week VAS. The secondary outcome will be measured using the PainVision system, the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire, and the Oswestry Disability Index. Assessments will be made at baseline and at one, three and five weeks thereafter (that is, the five-week assessment will be made two weeks after treatment cessation). Discussion This randomized controlled pilot trial will inform the design of a further full-scale trial. The outcomes will provide some resources for incorporating acupuncture into existing pain management methods such as interlaminar epidural steroid injection in low

  17. Pilot study for compact microbeam radiation therapy using a carbon nanotube field emission micro-CT scanner

    SciTech Connect

    Hadsell, Mike Cao, Guohua; Zhang, Jian; Burk, Laurel; Schreiber, Torsten; Lu, Jianping; Zhou, Otto; Schreiber, Eric; Chang, Sha

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is defined as the use of parallel, microplanar x-ray beams with an energy spectrum between 50 and 300 keV for cancer treatment and brain radiosurgery. Up until now, the possibilities of MRT have mainly been studied using synchrotron sources due to their high flux (100s Gy/s) and approximately parallel x-ray paths. The authors have proposed a compact x-ray based MRT system capable of delivering MRT dose distributions at a high dose rate. This system would employ carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission technology to create an x-ray source array that surrounds the target of irradiation. Using such a geometry, multiple collimators would shape the irradiation from this array into multiple microbeams that would then overlap or interlace in the target region. This pilot study demonstrates the feasibility of attaining a high dose rate and parallel microbeam beams using such a system. Methods: The microbeam dose distribution was generated by our CNT micro-CT scanner (100μm focal spot) and a custom-made microbeam collimator. An alignment assembly was fabricated and attached to the scanner in order to collimate and superimpose beams coming from different gantry positions. The MRT dose distribution was measured using two orthogonal radiochromic films embedded inside a cylindrical phantom. This target was irradiated with microbeams incident from 44 different gantry angles to simulate an array of x-ray sources as in the proposed compact CNT-based MRT system. Finally, phantom translation in a direction perpendicular to the microplanar beams was used to simulate the use of multiple parallel microbeams. Results: Microbeams delivered from 44 gantry angles were superimposed to form a single microbeam dose distribution in the phantom with a FWHM of 300μm (calculated value was 290 μm). Also, during the multiple beam simulation, a peak to valley dose ratio of ∼10 was found when the phantom translation distance was roughly 4x the beam width

  18. Design and pilot evaluation of the RAH-66 Comanche selectable control modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Phillip J.; Dryfoos, James B.

    1993-01-01

    The RAH-66 Comanche helicopter has been designed to possess superior handling qualities over a wide range of flight conditions. The control laws have been tailored to satisfy the requirements of ADS-33C and the Weapon System Specification (WSS). This paper addresses the design of the Comanche Selectable Mode control laws (Velocity Stabilization/Hover Hold and Altitude Hold), which provide the additional stabilization and control augmentation needed when flying in a Degraded Visual Environment (DVE). An overview of the RAH-66 control laws is presented, including a detailed description of the Selectable Modes design. The primary focus of this paper is the results of piloted evaluation of these control laws in the Boeing motionbase simulator. These tests substantiate the detailed design of the Comanche Selectable Mode control laws. All tested DVE tasks (ADS-33C, sections 4.4 and 4.5) were rated Level 1. Other evaluation tasks confirmed the mission suitability of the control system. These control laws are ready for formal ADS-33C compliance testing in the Sikorsky Full Mission Simulator (FMS).

  19. Piloted simulator study of allowable time delay in pitch flight control system of a transport airplane with negative static stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grantham, William D.; Smith, Paul M.; Person, Lee H., Jr.; Meyer, Robert T.; Tingas, Stephen A.

    1987-01-01

    A piloted simulation study was conducted to determine the permissible time delay in the flight control system of a 10-percent statically unstable transport airplane during cruise flight conditions. The math model used for the simulation was a derivative Lockheed L-1011 wide-body jet transport. Data were collected and analyzed from a total of 137 cruising flights in both calm- and turbulent-air conditions. Results of this piloted simulation study verify previous findings that show present military specifications for allowable control-system time delay may be too stringent when applied to transport-size airplanes. Also, the degree of handling-qualities degradation due to time delay is shown to be strongly dependent on the source of the time delay in an advanced flight control system. Maximum allowable time delay for each source of time delay in the control system, in addition to a less stringent overall maximum level of time delay, should be considered for large aircraft. Preliminary results also suggest that adverse effects of control-system time delay may be at least partially offset by variations in control gearing. It is recommended that the data base include different airplane baselines, control systems, and piloting tasks with many pilots participating, so that a reasonable set of limits for control-system time delay can be established to replace the military specification limits currently being used.

  20. Effects of dynamic aeroelasticity on handling qualities and pilot rating. [longitudinal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yen, W. Y.; Swaim, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    Pilot performance parameters, such as pilot ratings, tracking errors, and pilot comments were determined for a longitudinal pitch tracking task using a large, flexible bomber with parametric variations in the undamped natural frequencies of the two lowest frequency symmetric elastic modes. This pitch tracking task was programmed on a fixed base simulator with an electronic attitude-director display of pitch command, pitch angle, and pitch error. Low frequency structural flexibility significantly affects the handling qualities and pilot ratings in the task evaluated.

  1. Assertive Community Treatment For People With Alcohol Dependence: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gilburt, Helen; Burns, Tom; Copello, Alex; Crawford, Michael; Day, Ed; Deluca, Paolo; Godfrey, Christine; Parrott, Steve; Rose, Abigail; Sinclair, Julia; Coulton, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims A pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) to assess the feasibility and potential efficacy of assertive community treatment (ACT) in adults with alcohol dependence. Methods Single blind, individually randomized, pilot RCT of 12 months of ACT plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU alone in adults (age 18+ years) with alcohol dependence and a history of previous unsuccessful alcohol treatment attending specialist community alcohol treatment services. ACT aimed to actively engage participants for 12 months with assertive, regular, minimum weekly contact. ACT was combined with TAU. TAU comprised access to the full range of services provided by the community teams. Primary outcome is mean drinks per drinking day and percent days abstinent at 12 months follow up. Analysis of covariance was conducted using 80% confidence intervals, appropriate in the context of a pilot trial. Results A total of 94 participants were randomized, 45 in ACT and 49 in TAU. Follow-up was achieved with 98 and 88%, respectively at 12 months. Those in ACT had better treatment engagement, and were more often seen in their homes or local community than TAU participants. At 12 months the ACT group had more problems related to drinking and lower quality of life than TAU but no differences in drinking measures. The ACT group had a higher percentage of days abstinent but lower quality of life at 6 months. The ACT group had less unplanned healthcare use than TAU. Conclusions An trial of ACT was feasible to implement in an alcohol dependent treatment population. Trial registration ISRCTN22775534 PMID:27940571

  2. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  3. Automated Boiler Combustion Controls for Emission Reduction and Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1998-12-02

    In the late 1980s, then President Bush visited Krakow, Poland. The terrible air quality theremotivated him to initiate a USAID-funded program, managed by DOE, entitled "Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program." The primary objective of this program was to encourage the formation of commercial ventures between U.S. and Polish firms to provide equipment and/or services to reduce pollution from low-emission sources in Krakow, Poland. This program led to the award of a number of cooperative agreements, including one to Control Techtronics International. The technical objective of CTI's cooperative agreement is to apply combustion controls to existing boiler plants in Krakow and transfer knowledge and technology through a joint U.S. and Polish commercial venture. CTI installed automatic combustion controls on five coal boilers for the district heating system in Krakow. Three of these were for domestic hot-water boilers, and two were for steam for industrial boilers. The following results have occurred due to the addition of CTI's combustion controls on these five existing boilers: ! 25% energy savings ! 85% reduction in particulate emissions The joint venture company CTI-Polska was then established. Eleven additional technical and costing proposals were initiated to upgrade other coal boilers in Krakow. To date, no co-financing has been made available on the Polish side. CTI-Polska continues in operation, serving customers in Russia and Ukraine. Should the market in Poland materialize, the joint venture company is established there to provide equipment and service.

  4. Active Control of Combustor Instability Shown to Help Lower Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLaat, John C.; Chang, Clarence T.

    2002-01-01

    In a quest to reduce the environmental impact of aerospace propulsion systems, extensive research is being done in the development of lean-burning (low fuel-to-air ratio) combustors that can reduce emissions throughout the mission cycle. However, these lean-burning combustors have an increased susceptibility to thermoacoustic instabilities, or high-pressure oscillations much like sound waves, that can cause severe high-frequency vibrations in the combustor. These pressure waves can fatigue the combustor components and even the downstream turbine blades. This can significantly decrease the safe operating life of the combustor and turbine. Thus, suppression of the thermoacoustic combustor instabilities is an enabling technology for lean, low-emissions combustors. Under the Aerospace Propulsion and Power Base Research and Technology Program, the NASA Glenn Research Center, in partnership with Pratt & Whitney and United Technologies Research Center, is developing technologies for the active control of combustion instabilities. With active combustion control, the fuel is pulsed to put pressure oscillations into the system. This cancels out the pressure oscillations being produced by the instabilities. Thus, the engine can have lower pollutant emissions and long life.The use of active combustion instability control to reduce thermo-acoustic-driven combustor pressure oscillations was demonstrated on a single-nozzle combustor rig at United Technologies. This rig has many of the complexities of a real engine combustor (i.e., an actual fuel nozzle and swirler, dilution cooling, etc.). Control was demonstrated through modeling, developing, and testing a fuel-delivery system able to the 280-Hz instability frequency. The preceding figure shows the capability of this system to provide high-frequency fuel modulations. Because of the high-shear contrarotating airflow in the fuel injector, there was some concern that the fuel pulses would be attenuated to the point where they would

  5. Greenhouse gas emission from covered windrow composting with controlled ventilation.

    PubMed

    Ermolaev, Evgheni; Pell, Mikael; Smårs, Sven; Sundberg, Cecilia; Jönsson, Håkan

    2012-02-01

    Data on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from full-scale composting of municipal solid waste, investigating the effects of process temperature and aeration combinations, is scarce. Oxygen availability affects the composition of gases emitted during composting. In the present study, two experiments with three covered windrows were set up, treating a mixture of source separated biodegradable municipal solid waste (MSW) fractions from Uppsala, Sweden, and structural amendment (woodchips, garden waste and re-used compost) in the volume proportion 1:2. The effects of different aeration and temperature settings on the emission of methane (CH(4)), nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and carbon dioxide (CO(2)) during windrow composting with forced aeration following three different control schemes were studied. For one windrow, the controller was set to keep the temperature below 40 °C until the pH increased, another windrow had minimal aeration at the beginning of the process and the third one had constant aeration. In the first experiment, CH(4) concentrations (CH(4):CO(2) ratio) increased, from around 0.1% initially to between 1 and 2% in all windrows. In the second experiment, the initial concentrations of CH(4) displayed similar patterns of increase between windrows until day 12, when concentration peaked at 3 and 6%, respectively, in two of the windrows. In general, the N(2)O fluxes remained low (0.46 ± 0.02 ppm) in the experiments and were two to three times the ambient concentrations. In conclusion, the emissions of CH(4) and N(2)O were low regardless of the amount of ventilation. The data indicates a need to perform longer experiments in order to observe further emission dynamics.

  6. Running injuries in novice runners enrolled in different training interventions: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Baltich, J; Emery, C A; Whittaker, J L; Nigg, B M

    2016-08-03

    The purpose of this trial was to evaluate injury risk in novice runners participating in different strength training interventions. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial. Novice runners (n = 129, 18-60 years old, <2 years recent running experience) were block randomized to one of three groups: a "resistance" strength training group, a "functional" strength training group, or a stretching "control" group. The primary outcome was running related injury. The number of participants with complaints and the injury rate (IR = no. injuries/1000 running hours) were quantified for each intervention group. For the first 8 weeks, participants were instructed to complete their training intervention three to five times a week. The remaining 4 months was a maintenance period.

  7. Maintaining physical activity during head and neck cancer treatment: Results of a pilot controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shuang G.; Alexander, Neil B.; Djuric, Zora; Zhou, Jessica; Tao, Yebin; Schipper, Matthew; Feng, Felix Y.; Eisbruch, Avraham; Worden, Francis P.; Strath, Scott J.; Jolly, Shruti

    2017-01-01

    Background Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (concurrent CRT) to treat head and neck cancer is associated with significant reductions of weight, mobility, and quality of life (QOL). An intervention focusing on functional exercise may attenuate these losses. Methods We allocated patients to a 14-week functional resistance and walking program designed to maintain physical activity during cancer treatment (MPACT group; n = 11), or to usual care (control group; n = 9). Outcomes were assessed at baseline, and 7 and 14 weeks. Results Compared to controls, the MPACT participants had attenuated decline or improvement in several strength, mobility, physical activity, diet, and QOL endpoints. These trends were statistically significant (p < .05) in knee strength, mental health, head and neck QOL, and barriers to exercise. Conclusion In this pilot study of patients with head and neck cancer undergoing concurrent CRT, MPACT training was feasible and maintained or improved function and QOL, thereby providing the basis for larger future interventions with longer follow-up. PMID:26445898

  8. Pilot/vehicle control optimization using averaged operational mode and subsystem relative performance index sensitivities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G. G.; Lehtinen, B.; Riehl, J. P.

    1972-01-01

    A method is presented for designing optimal feedback controllers for systems having subsystem sensitivity constraints. Such constraints reflect the presence of subsystem performance indices which are in conflict with the performance index of the overall system. The key to the approach is the use of relative performance index sensitivity (a measure of the deviation of a performance index from its optimum value). The weighted sum of subsystem and/or operational mode relative performance index sensitivies is defined as an overall performance index. A method is developed to handle linear systems with quadratic performance indices and either full or partial state feedback. The usefulness of this method is demonstrated by applying it to the design of a stability augmentation system (SAS) for a VTOL aircraft. A desirable VTOL SAS design is one that produces good VTOL transient response both with and without active pilot control. The system designed using this method is shown to effect a satisfactory compromise solution to this problem.

  9. Controlled fed-batch fermentations of dilute-acid hydrolysate in pilot development unit scale.

    PubMed

    Rudolf, Andreas; Galbe, Mats; Lidén, Gunnar

    2004-01-01

    Inhibitors formed during wood hydrolysis constitute a major problem in fermenting dilute-acid hydrolysates. By applying a fed-batch technique, the levels of inhibitory compounds may be held low, enabling high ethanol productivity. In this study, a previously developed fed-batch strategy was modified and implemented for use in pilot development unit (PDU) scale. The rate of total gas formation, measured with a mass flow meter, was used as input variable in the control algorithm. The feed rate in the PDU-scale experiments could be properly controlled based on the gas evolution from the reactor. In fed-batch experiments utilizing TMB 3000, an inhibitor-tolerant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, close to 100% of the hexoses in the hydrolysate was converted.

  10. Mindfulness training for loneliness among Chinese college students: A pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Na; Fan, Fu-Min; Huang, Si-Yuan; Rodriguez, Marcus A

    2016-10-05

    Loneliness has been found to predict a wide range of physical and mental health problems. It is suggested that China's One-Child Policy places young Chinese people at a particularly high risk for loneliness. Although loneliness is most prevalent in late adolescence and early adulthood, interventions have primarily targeted children or older adults with limited success. The current study examines a pilot randomized controlled trial of a mindfulness training program among Chinese college students. Participants with elevated loneliness (N = 50, ages 17-25) were randomized into either an 8-week mindfulness training or a control group. Self-reported measures of loneliness and mindfulness were administered at baseline and posttest. The training group also completed a program evaluation form and a 3-month follow-up assessment. Results provided preliminary evidence indicating that the intervention was feasible and effective at reducing loneliness among Chinese college students. Limitations and future directions were discussed.

  11. [Thromboelastography/-metry and external quality control. Results of a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Dick, A; Schwaiger, M; Jámbor, C

    2010-05-01

    Thromboelastography/thromboelastometry (TEG/ROTEM) is widely used in near-patient setting, especially in perioperative and intensive care medicine for the management of acute bleeding. Until now a comprehensive quality management especially an external quality control of TEG/ROTEM results is not established. Here we report about our results of a pilot survey performed in 2008 and 2009 integrated in the External Quality Assessment Schemes (EQAS) performed by INSTAND. According to this first EQAS data ROTEM results can be controlled in external quality schemes using lyophilized plasma samples. The clot firmness (A20) and clot formation kinetics characterized by the alpha-angle showed very good reproducibility both between the participants and between different surveys. Variations for CT and CFT were considerably higher especially in the plasma sample with reduced fibrinogen level. Regular participation in an external quality assurance will help to confirm this beneficial technology in emergency settings.

  12. Interview skills for adults with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lindee; Leatzow, Allison; Clark, Sarah; Siller, Michael

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of the interview skills curriculum (ISC), a manualized 12-week group-delivered intervention for young adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This intervention aims to increase social-pragmatic skills essential to a successful job interview. Twenty-eight adults (18-36 years) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: ISC or waitlist control. Results revealed that the experimental group showed larger gains in social-pragmatic skills observed during a mock job interview than the control group. Treatment effects on distal outcomes, including social adaptive behaviors and depressive symptoms were not significant, although the respective effect sizes were medium/large. Results indicate that a brief, low-intensity treatment can improve the job-interview performance of young adults with ASD.

  13. Pilot Canine Investigation of the Cardiopulmonary Baroreflex Control of Ventricular Contractility

    PubMed Central

    Sala-Mercado, Javier A.; Chen, Xiaoxiao; Hammond, Robert L.; Kim, Jong-Kyung; McDonald, Phillip J.; Stephenson, Larry W.; O’Leary, Donal S.; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2010-01-01

    We performed a pilot investigation of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility in two conscious dogs. We specifically measured spontaneous beat-to-beat hemodynamic variability before and after the administration of propranolol. We then identified the transfer function relating beat-to-beat fluctuations in central venous pressure (CVP) to maximal ventricular elastance (Emax) to characterize the cardiopulmonary baroreflex control of ventricular contractility, while accounting for the influences of arterial blood pressure fluctuations on Emax via the arterial baroreflex and heart rate fluctuations on Emax via the force-frequency relation. Our major finding is that the cardiopulmonary baroreflex responds to an increase (decrease) in CVP by increasing (decreasing) Emax via the β-sympathetic nervous system. PMID:19963523

  14. Comparison of model-based and conventional controllers on a pilot-scale heat exchanger.

    PubMed

    Raul, Pramod R; Srinivasan, Haritha; Kulkarni, Sanket; Shokrian, Mazdak; Shrivastava, Glory; Russell Rhinehart, R

    2013-05-01

    This pilot-scale heat exchanger demonstration compares two relatively simple nonlinear model-based control strategies to conventional proportional-integral (PI) control. The two nonlinear controllers, generic model control (GMC) and process-model based control (PMBC), use a first-principles model thereby providing characterization of the nonlinear process throughout the operating range. There are two approaches to GMC, one uses a dynamic model, the other a steady-state model. This work uses the steady-state model; accordingly, will use the term GMC-SS, which can be classified as output characterization for a PI controller, making it relatively simple to implement. PMBC uses a dynamic model and adapts to represent the process. These two nonlinear controllers were selected for this application evaluation because of their simplicity (they can be implemented in-house within many commercial control systems), diversity (steady-state and dynamic models), and demonstrated utility for control of nonlinear single-input-single-output processes. The application and results are presented and discussed. Summarizing the results: Within a small temperature operating range PI provides good control, but over the full operating range, the nonlinear and variable delay of the process lead to poor control with PI. GMC can handle the nonlinear issues, but using the convenient steady-state model; it also, provides poor control because of the variable delay associated with flow rate. PMBC was able to provide good control throughout the entire operating range. PMBC has a further advantage of only having one tuning coefficient, while PI and GMC-SS have two.

  15. Launch Vehicle Manual Steering with Adaptive Augmenting Control:In-Flight Evaluations of Adverse Interactions Using a Piloted Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Curt; Miller, Chris; Wall, John H.; VanZwieten, Tannen S.; Gilligan, Eric T.; Orr, Jeb S.

    2015-01-01

    An Adaptive Augmenting Control (AAC) algorithm for the Space Launch System (SLS) has been developed at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) as part of the launch vehicle's baseline flight control system. A prototype version of the SLS flight control software was hosted on a piloted aircraft at the Armstrong Flight Research Center to demonstrate the adaptive controller on a full-scale realistic application in a relevant flight environment. Concerns regarding adverse interactions between the adaptive controller and a potential manual steering mode were also investigated by giving the pilot trajectory deviation cues and pitch rate command authority, which is the subject of this paper. Two NASA research pilots flew a total of 25 constant pitch rate trajectories using a prototype manual steering mode with and without adaptive control, evaluating six different nominal and off-nominal test case scenarios. Pilot comments and PIO ratings were given following each trajectory and correlated with aircraft state data and internal controller signals post-flight.

  16. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  17. Piloted simulation tests of propulsion control as backup to loss of primary flight controls for a mid-size jet transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Davis, Gloria; Conley, Joe; Hardy, Gordon; Gibson, Jim; Blake, Matthew; Bryant, Don; Williams, Diane

    1995-01-01

    Failures of aircraft primary flight-control systems to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. , DC-1O crash, B-747 crash, C-5 crash, B-52 crash, and others). Dryden Flight Research Center (DFRC) investigated the use of engine thrust for emergency flight control of several airplanes, including the B-720, Lear 24, F-15, C-402, and B-747. A series of three piloted simulation tests have been conducted at Ames Research Center to investigate propulsion control for safely landing a medium size jet transport which has experienced a total primary flight-control failure. The first series of tests was completed in July 1992 and defined the best interface for the pilot commands to drive the engines. The second series of tests was completed in August 1994 and investigated propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA) display requirements and various command modes. The third series of tests was completed in May 1995 and investigated PCA full-flight envelope capabilities. This report describes the concept of a PCA, discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of piloted simulation evaluations of the concept by a cross-section of air transport pilots.

  18. Performances and fouling control of a flat sheet membrane in a MBR pilot-plant.

    PubMed

    Grélot, A; Grelier, P; Tazi-Pain, A; Lesjean, B; Brüss, U; Grasmick, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance and the optimisation of the hydraulic operating conditions of the A3 Water Solutions flat sheet membrane technology in a MBR pilot-plant to achieve a satisfying fouling control and also a reduction in the required aeration. Two vertically stacked modules were tested at pilot-scale at Anjou Recherche under typical biological operating conditions (mixed liquor suspended solids concentration (MLSS) =10 g/l; sludge retention time (SRT) =28 days; food to microorganism ratio (F/M)=0.12 kg COD/kg MLSS/d). The use of a double-deck and of specific backwashes for this membrane technology enabled to achieve satisfying membrane performances for a net flux of 25 L h(-1) m(-2), 20 degrees C at a low specific aeration demand per membrane surface (SADm = 0.2 Nm(3) h(-1) m(-2)) which corresponds to a specific aeration demand per permeate volume unit (SADp) of 8 Nm(3) air/m(3) permeate, which is lower than reported for many commercial membrane systems. The mixed liquor characteristics (foaming, MLSS concentration) appeared to influence the fouling behaviour of the membranes but no correlation was found with the fouling rate. However, with the new operating conditions, the system is robust and can cope with fouling resulting from biological stress and daily peak flows for MLSS concentrations in the membrane tank up to 18 g/l.

  19. Modafinil for Clozapine-Treated Schizophrenia Patients: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Freudenreich, Oliver; Henderson, David C.; Macklin, Eric A.; Evins, A. Eden; Fan, Xiaoduo; Cather, Cori; Walsh, Jared P.; Goff, Donald C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia often suffer from cognitive deficits and negative symptoms that are poorly responsive to antipsychotics including clozapine. Clozapine-induced sedation can worsen cognition and impair social and occupational functioning. Objectives To evaluate the efficacy, tolerability, and safety of modafinil for negative symptoms, cognition, and wakefulness/fatigue in DSM-IV–diagnosed schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine. Method A double-blind, placebo-controlled, flexible-dosed 8-week pilot trial was conducted between September 2003 and September 2007, adding modafinil up to 300 mg/d to stabilized schizophrenia outpatients receiving clozapine. Psychopathology, cognition, and wakefulness/fatigue were assessed with standard rating scales. Results Thirty-five patients were randomly assigned to treatment with study drug and included in the analysis. Modafinil did not reduce negative symptoms or wakefulness/fatigue or improve cognition compared to placebo. Modafinil was well tolerated and did not worsen psychosis. Conclusions Results of this pilot trial do not support routine use of modafinil to treat negative symptoms, cognitive deficits, or wakefulness/fatigue in patients on clozapine. However, given our limited power to detect a treatment effect and the clear possibility of a type II error, larger trials are needed to resolve or refute a potential therapeutic effect of uncertain magnitude. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00573417 PMID:19689921

  20. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  1. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  2. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  3. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  4. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  5. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  6. 40 CFR 75.34 - Units with add-on emission controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Units with add-on emission controls... add-on emission controls. (a) The owner or operator of an affected unit equipped with add-on SO2 and... which the add-on emission controls are documented to be operating properly, as described in the...

  7. 40 CFR 63.325 - Determination of equivalent emission control technology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... control technology. 63.325 Section 63.325 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Determination of equivalent emission control technology. (a) Any person requesting that the use of certain... equivalent emission reductions: (1) Diagrams, as appropriate, illustrating the emission control...

  8. Survey of Emissions Associated with Enclosed Combustor Emission Control Devices in the Denver-Julesburg Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knighton, W. B.; Floerchinger, C. R.; Wormhoult, J.; Massoli, P.; Fortner, E.; Brooks, B.; Roscioli, J. R.; Bon, D.; Herndon, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play an important role in local and regional air quality. A large source of VOCs comes from the oil and gas industry and the Denver-Julesburg Basin (D-J Basin) has seen a sharp increase in production in recent years primarily due to advances in horizontal drilling techniques. To help curb emissions with extraction and production of natural gas and its associated oil, emission control devices are required for facilities emitting over 6 tons of hydrocarbons per year. Within the ozone non-attainment area, which encompasses Denver and much of the front range, enclosed combustion devices (enclosed flares) are required to reduce hydrocarbon emissions by at least 95%. While certification tests indicate that these enclosed combustor devices provide high destruction removal efficiencies, there is considerable interest in knowing how well they perform in the field. As part of Front Range Air Pollution and Photochemistry Experiment (FRAPPE) project conducted during the Summer of 2014, the Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory (AML) surveyed oil and gas operations within the Wattenberg gas field and the surrounding D-J Basin. The AML deployed a full suite of gas and particle phase instrumentation providing a comprehensive set of on-line, real-time measurements for the major natural gas components (methane and ethane) and their combustion products (CO2, CO, NOx) using a variety of spectroscopic techniques. Additional gas phase organic gas emissions were made using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Particle number and composition were determined using a condensation particle counter and an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS). A summary of the number of enclosed combustor devices measured and their observed combustion efficiencies will be presented.

  9. Optimizing the mix of strategies for control of vehicular emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Lejano, R.P.; Ayala, P.M.; Gonzales, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    A number of strategies for the control of vehicular emissions are being considered by the Philippine government to address Metropolitan Manila`s air quality problem. An analytical tool is needed for optimizing criteria pollutant reductions given the budgetary constraints. The simplest approach is to take costs and pollutant removals to be linear with each strategy`s scale of activity, and this is readily solved as a linear programming problem. Another approach is to use a dynamic system of weights which shift with progressive improvements in pollutant emissions. The two approaches yield somewhat different results, suggesting the sensitivity of the solution to the assumed weights. The study also illustrates the importance of a sound methodology for evaluating priorities given to different air quality goals. One such methodology may involve a polling of expert panels and the public to gain insight into the relative importance given to competing emissions reduction goals. An informal polling of resource agency staff was conducted and discussed in this paper. The authors take the position that proper planning involves tracing intermediate steps to the final outcome and not just focusing on the latter. 17 refs., 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  10. Mine planning and emission control strategies using geostatistics

    SciTech Connect

    Martino, F.; Kim, Y.C.

    1983-03-01

    This paper reviews the past four years' research efforts performed jointly by the University of Arizona and the Homer City Owners in which geostatistics were applied to solve various problems associated with coal characterization, mine planning, and development of emission control strategies. Because geostatistics is the only technique which can quantify the degree of confidence associated with a given estimate (or prediction), it played an important role throughout the research efforts. Through geostatistics, it was learned that there is an urgent need for closely spaced sample information, if short-term coal quality predictions are to be made for mine planning purposes.

  11. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 1: Knowledge base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Myers, Thomas T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design stages starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. While theory and associated computational means are an important aspect of the design methodology, the lore, knowledge and experience elements, which guide and govern applications are critical features. This material is presented as summary tables, outlines, recipes, empirical data, lists, etc., which encapsulate a great deal of expert knowledge. Much of this is presented in topical knowledge summaries which are attached as Supplements. The composite of the supplements and the main body elements constitutes a first cut at a a Mark 1 Knowledge Base for manned-aircraft flight control.

  12. Addressing Control Research Issues Leading to Piloted Simulations in Support of the IFCS F-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Napolitano, Marcello; Perhinschi, Mario; Campa, Giampiero; Seanor, Brad

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the research effort by a team of researchers at West Virginia University in support of the NASA Intelligent Flight Control System (IFCS) F-15 program. In particular, WVU researchers assisted NASA Dryden researchers in the following technical tasks leading to piloted simulation of the 'Gen_2' IFCS control laws. Task #1- Performance comparison of different neural network (NN) augmentation for the Dynamic Inversion (DI) -based VCAS 'Gen_2' control laws. Task #2- Development of safety monitor criteria for transition to research control laws with and without failure during flight test. Task #3- Fine-tuning of the 'Gen_2' control laws for cross-coupling reduction at post-failure conditions. Matlab/Simulink-based simulation codes were provided to the technical monitor on a regular basis throughout the duration of the project. Additional deliverables for the project were Power Point-based slides prepared for different project meetings. This document provides a description of the methodology and discusses the general conclusions from the simulation results.

  13. A pilot study: locus of control and spiritual beliefs in alcoholics anonymous and smart recovery members.

    PubMed

    Li, E C; Feifer, C; Strohm, M

    2000-01-01

    To investigate whether Alcoholics Anonymous' (AA's) "higher power" concept encourages externally dependent behavior, this pilot study tested whether AA and Self Management and Recovery Training (SR) members are equal on measures of external locus of control. The AA sample (N = 48) and SR sample (N = 33) were similar in age, gender, and education levels, and both required a minimum of 8 weeks group involvement. A modified spiritual beliefs questionnaire (SBQ) was first administered to each sample to compare them on spiritual beliefs, and the drinking-related locus of control scale (DRIE) was then conducted to compare each sample on locus of control. Significant differences were found between both samples on five out of seven spiritual measures, with the AA group scoring consistently higher on these factors (p < .01). In addition, the AA sample was significantly more external on the DRIE scale than the SR sample (p = .00003). These findings suggest that AA members are generally more spiritually oriented and exhibit greater external locus of control relative to SR members. Future controlled trials are necessary to confirm whether these results are caused by particular programs or primarily due to a self-selective process.

  14. CONTROL OF TRACE METAL EMISSIONS DURING COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    THOMAS C. HO

    1998-02-18

    Emissions of toxic trace metals in the form of metal fumes or submicron particulates from a coal-fired combustion source have received greater environmental and regulatory concern over the past years. Current practice of controlling these emissions is to collect them at the cold-end of the process by air-pollution control devices (APCDs) such as electrostatic precipitators and baghouses. However, trace metal fumes may not always be effectively collected by these devices because the formed fumes are extremely small. The proposed research is to explore the opportunities for improved control of toxic trace metal emissions, alternatively, at the hot-end of the coal combustion process, i.e., in the combustion chamber. The technology proposed is to prevent the metal fumes from forming during the process, which would effectively eliminate the metal emission problems. Specifically, the technology is to employ suitable sorbents to (1) reduce the amount of metal volatilization during combustion and (2) capture volatilized metal vapors. The objectives of the project are to demonstrate the technology and to characterize the metal capture process during coal combustion in a fluidized bed combustor. This final technical report details the work performed, the conclusions obtained, and the accomplishments achieved over the project performance period from July 1, 1994 through December 31, 1997. Specifically, this report consists of the following five chapters: Chapter 1. Executive Summary; Chapter 2. Metal Capture by Various Sorbents; Chapter 3. Simultaneous Metal and Sulfur Capture; Chapter 4. Sorption and Desorption of Mercury on Sorbents; and Chapter 5. Project Conclusions. In summary, the metals involved in the project were arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, mercury and selenium and the sorbents tested included bauxite, zeolite and calcined limestone. The three sorbents have been found to have various degree of metal capture capability on arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead

  15. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas.

  16. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions for peatlands in Northern Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Dise, N.B.; Gorham, E.; Verry, E.S.

    1993-06-20

    Controls on methane emission from peatlands in northern Minnesota were investigated by correlation to environmental variables and by field manipulations. From September 1988 through September 1990, methane flux measurements were made at weekly to monthly intervals at six sites in the Marcell Experimental Forest, northern Minnesota (two open bog sites, two forested bog sites, a poor fen, and a fen lagg). Flux was related to water table position and peat temperature with simple correlations at individual sites and multiple regression on all sites together. The effect of water table was also investigated experimentally in {open_quotes}bog corrals{close_quotes} (open-ended metal enclosures set in the peat) in which water table was artificially raised to the surface in the driest peatland. Temperature largely controlled variation in flux within individual ecosystems at Marcell, but hydrology distinguished between-site variation. Water table position, peat temperature, and degree of peat humification explained 91% of the variance in log CH{sub 4} flux, predicted annual methane emission from individual wetlands successfully, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased emission by 2.5x and 2.2x, respectively. Just as expanding the scale of investigation from a single habitat in a wetland to several wetlands necessitates incorporation of additional variables to explain flux (water table, peat characteristics), modeling flux from several wetland regions, if possible, will require the addition of climate parameters. 30 refs., 8 figs., 21 tabs.

  17. N2O and NO2 Emissions from Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks with Advanced Emission Controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2014-12-01

    Diesel engines are the largest source of nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions nationally, and also a major contributor to the black carbon (BC) fraction of fine particulate matter (PM). Recently, diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have become standard equipment on new heavy-duty diesel trucks. However, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out nitric oxide (NO) to nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in continuously regenerating DPFs leads to increased tailpipe emission of NO2. This is of potential concern due to the toxicity of NO2 and the resulting increases in atmospheric formation of other air pollutants such as ozone, nitric acid, and fine PM. While use of SCR reduces emissions of both NO and NO2, it may lead to increased emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. Here we report results from on-road measurements of heavy-duty diesel truck emissions conducted at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in the San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg of diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to individual truck attributes, including engine model year and installed emission control equipment. Between 2009 and 2013, the fraction of DPF-equipped trucks at the Port of Oakland increased from 2 to 99%, and median engine age decreased from 11 to 6 years. Over the same period, fleet-average emission factors for black carbon and NOx decreased by 76 ± 22% and 53 ± 8%, respectively. However, direct emissions of NO2 increased, and consequently the NO2/NOx emission ratio increased from 0.03 ± 0.02 to 0.18 ± 0.03. Older trucks retrofitted with DPFs emitted approximately 3.5 times more NO2 than newer trucks equipped with both DPF and SCR. Preliminary data from summer 2014 measurements at the Caldecott Tunnel suggest that some older trucks have negative emission factors for N2O, and that for newer trucks, N2O emission factors have changed sign and

  18. A pilot randomized controlled trial of the Yoga of Awareness program in the management of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Carson, James W; Carson, Kimberly M; Jones, Kim D; Bennett, Robert M; Wright, Cheryl L; Mist, Scott D

    2010-11-01

    A mounting body of literature recommends that treatment for fibromyalgia (FM) encompass medications, exercise and improvement of coping skills. However, there is a significant gap in determining an effective counterpart to pharmacotherapy that incorporates both exercise and coping. The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a comprehensive yoga intervention on FM symptoms and coping. A sample of 53 female FM patients were randomized to the 8-week Yoga of Awareness program (gentle poses, meditation, breathing exercises, yoga-based coping instructions, group discussions) or to wait-listed standard care. Data were analyzed by intention to treat. At post-treatment, women assigned to the yoga program showed significantly greater improvements on standardized measures of FM symptoms and functioning, including pain, fatigue, and mood, and in pain catastrophizing, acceptance, and other coping strategies. This pilot study provides promising support for the potential benefits of a yoga program for women with FM.

  19. Pilot Quality Control Program for Audit RT External Beams at Mexican Hospitals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez R., J. T.; Tovar M., V. M.

    2008-08-01

    A pilot quality control program for audit 18 radiotherapy RT external beams at 13 Mexican hospitals is described—for eleven 60 Co beams and seven photon beams of 6, 10 and 15 MV from accelerators. This program contains five parts: a) Preparation of the TLD-100 powder: washing, drying and annealing (one hour 400 °C plus 24 hrs 80 °C). b) Sending two IAEA type capsules to the hospitals for irradiation at the hospital to a nominal DW = 2 Gy ṡ c ) Preparation at the SSDL of ten calibration curves CC in the range of 0.5 Gy to 6 Gy in terms of absorbed dose to water DW for 60 Co with traceability to primary laboratory NRC (Canada), according to a window irradiation: 26/10/2007-7/12/2007. d) Reading all capsules that match their hospital time irradiation and the SSDL window irradiation. f) Evaluation of the Dw imparted by the hospitals.

  20. Landfill aeration for emission control before and during landfill mining.

    PubMed

    Raga, Roberto; Cossu, Raffaello; Heerenklage, Joern; Pivato, Alberto; Ritzkowski, Marco

    2015-12-01

    The landfill of Modena, in northern Italy, is now crossed by the new high velocity railway line connecting Milan and Bologna. Waste was completely removed from a part of the landfill and a trench for the train line was built. With the aim of facilitating excavation and further disposal of the material extracted, suitable measures were defined. In order to prevent undesired emissions into the excavation area, the aerobic in situ stabilisation by means of the Airflow technology took place before and during the Landfill Mining. Specific project features involved the pneumatic leachate extraction from the aeration wells (to keep the leachate table low inside the landfill and increase the volume of waste available for air migration) and the controlled moisture addition into a limited zone, for a preliminary evaluation of the effects on process enhancement. Waste and leachate were periodically sampled in the landfill during the aeration before the excavation, for quality assessment over time; the evolution of biogas composition in the landfill body and in the extraction system for different plant set-ups during the project was monitored, with specific focus on uncontrolled migration into the excavation area. Waste biological stability significantly increased during the aeration (waste respiration index dropped to 33% of the initial value after six months). Leachate head decreased from 4 to 1.5m; leachate recirculation tests proved the beneficial effects of moisture addition on temperature control, without hampering waste aerobization. Proper management of the aeration plant enabled the minimization of uncontrolled biogas emissions into the excavation area.

  1. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  2. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: Comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site

    SciTech Connect

    Chiriac, R.; De Araujos Morais, J.; Carre, J.; Bayard, R.; Chovelon, J.M.; Gourdon, R.

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > Follow-up of the emission of VOCs in a municipal waste pilot-scale cell during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases. > Study from the very start of waste storage leading to a better understanding of the decomposition/degradation of waste. > Comparison of the results obtained on the pilot-scale cell with those from 3 biogases coming from the same landfill site. > A methodology of characterization for the progression of the stabilization/maturation of waste is finally proposed. - Abstract: The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon

  3. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    SciTech Connect

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; Pinheiro, F. A.; Rosa, F. S. S.; Peres, N. M. R.; Farina, C.

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magnetic field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.

  4. Active magneto-optical control of spontaneous emission in graphene

    DOE PAGES

    Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Amorim, B.; Bastos, G.; ...

    2015-11-13

    In this study, we investigate the spontaneous emission rate of a two-level quantum emitter near a graphene-coated substrate under the influence of an external magnetic field or strain induced pseudomagnetic field. We demonstrate that the application of the magnetic field can substantially increase or decrease the decay rate. We show that a suppression as large as 99% in the Purcell factor is achieved even for moderate magnetic fields. The emitter's lifetime is a discontinuous function of |B|, which is a direct consequence of the occurrence of discrete Landau levels in graphene. We demonstrate that, in the near-field regime, the magneticmore » field enables an unprecedented control of the decay pathways into which the photon/polariton can be emitted. Our findings strongly suggest that a magnetic field could act as an efficient agent for on-demand, active control of light-matter interactions in graphene at the quantum level.« less

  5. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = 0.79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  6. Randomized controlled pilot trial of a novel dissonance-based group treatment for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-02-01

    The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ(2)[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment.

  7. Inositol for the prevention of neural tube defects: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Greene, Nicholas D E; Leung, Kit-Yi; Gay, Victoria; Burren, Katie; Mills, Kevin; Chitty, Lyn S; Copp, Andrew J

    2016-03-28

    Although peri-conceptional folic acid (FA) supplementation can prevent a proportion of neural tube defects (NTD), there is increasing evidence that many NTD are FA non-responsive. The vitamin-like molecule inositol may offer a novel approach to preventing FA-non-responsive NTD. Inositol prevented NTD in a genetic mouse model, and was well tolerated by women in a small study of NTD recurrence. In the present study, we report the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects by Inositol (PONTI) pilot study designed to gain further experience of inositol usage in human pregnancy as a preliminary trial to a future large-scale controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of inositol in NTD prevention. Study subjects were UK women with a previous NTD pregnancy who planned to become pregnant again. Of 117 women who made contact, ninety-nine proved eligible and forty-seven agreed to be randomised (double-blind) to peri-conceptional supplementation with inositol plus FA or placebo plus FA. In total, thirty-three randomised pregnancies produced one NTD recurrence in the placebo plus FA group (n 19) and no recurrences in the inositol plus FA group (n 14). Of fifty-two women who declined randomisation, the peri-conceptional supplementation regimen and outcomes of twenty-two further pregnancies were documented. Two NTD recurred, both in women who took only FA in their next pregnancy. No adverse pregnancy events were associated with inositol supplementation. The findings of the PONTI pilot study encourage a large-scale controlled trial of inositol for NTD prevention, but indicate the need for a careful study design in view of the unwillingness of many high-risk women to be randomised.

  8. A complete computer monitoring and control system using commercially available, configurable software for laboratory and pilot plant Escherichia coli fermentations.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, R S; Blome, J S; Neway, J O

    1996-06-01

    The advent of inexpensive computers and associated control and data acquisition software makes possible the development of sophisticated, configurable, integrated monitoring and control systems for small-scale laboratory and pilot-scale fermentors at low cost. We describe here the implementation of such a system, the interfacing of off-line instruments to enhance real time data analysis, low level process control and several substrate feeding protocols.

  9. CO₂ laser emission modes to control enamel erosion.

    PubMed

    Scatolin, Renata Siqueira; Alonso-Filho, Fernando Luiz; Galo, Rodrigo; Rios, Daniela; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2015-08-01

    Considering the importance and prevalence of dental erosion, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different modes of pulse emission of CO2 laser associated or not to acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) 1.23% gel, in controlling enamel erosion by profilometry. Ninety-six fragments of bovine enamel were flattened and polished, and the specimens were subjected to initial erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid (pH = 2). Specimens were randomly assigned according to surface treatment: APF 1.23% gel and gel without fluoride (control), and subdivided according to the modes of pulse CO2 laser irradiation: no irradiation (control), continuous, ultrapulse, and repeated pulse (n = 12). After surface treatment, further erosive challenges were performed for 5 days, 4 × 2 min/day. Enamel structure loss was quantitatively determined by a profilometer, after surface treatment and after 5 days of erosive challenges. Two-away ANOVA revealed a significant difference between the pulse emission mode of the CO2 laser and the presence of fluoride (P ≤ 0.05). The Duncan's test showed that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode and the specimens only received fluoride, promoted lower enamel loss than that other treatments. A lower dissolution of the enamel prisms was observed when it was irradiated with CO2 laser in continuous mode compared other groups. It can be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation in continuous mode was the most effective to control the enamel structure loss submitted to erosive challenges with hydrochloric acid.

  10. Sleep Promotion Program for Improving Sleep Behaviors in Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    John, Bindu; Bellipady, Sumanth Shetty; Bhat, Shrinivasa Undaru

    2016-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of this pilot trial was to determine the efficacy of sleep promotion program to adapt it for the use of adolescents studying in various schools of Mangalore, India, and evaluate the feasibility issues before conducting a randomized controlled trial in a larger sample of adolescents. Methods. A randomized controlled trial design with stratified random sampling method was used. Fifty-eight adolescents were selected (mean age: 14.02 ± 2.15 years; intervention group, n = 34; control group, n = 24). Self-report questionnaires, including sociodemographic questionnaire with some additional questions on sleep and activities, Sleep Hygiene Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, The Cleveland Adolescent Sleepiness Questionnaire, and PedsQL™ Present Functioning Visual Analogue Scale, were used. Results. Insufficient weekday-weekend sleep duration with increasing age of adolescents was observed. The program revealed a significant effect in the experimental group over the control group in overall sleep quality, sleep onset latency, sleep duration, daytime sleepiness, and emotional and overall distress. No significant effect was observed in sleep hygiene and other sleep parameters. All target variables showed significant correlations with each other. Conclusion. The intervention holds a promise for improving the sleep behaviors in healthy adolescents. However, the effect of the sleep promotion program treatment has yet to be proven through a future research. This trial is registered with ISRCTN13083118. PMID:27088040

  11. Evaluation of Purchased Day Care: Texas Department of Human Services Day Care Service Control Pilot Study, 1985 through 1989.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Marian

    This pilot study of facilities from which the Texas Department of Human Services (TDHS) purchased day care services gathered and analyzed data for use in developing day care service control standards by means of which the quality of purchased day care services could be systematically assessed. Random samples were selected from contract centers,…

  12. Factors Influencing the Decisions and Actions of Pilots and Air Traffic Controllers in Three Plausible NextGen Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Kim-Phuong L.; Strybel, Thomas Z.; Battiste, Vernol; Johnson, Walter

    2011-01-01

    In the current air traffic management (ATM) system, pilots and air traffic controllers have well-established roles and responsibilities: pilots fly aircraft and are concerned with energy management, fuel efficiency, and passenger comfort; controllers separate aircraft and are concerned with safety and management of traffic flows. Despite having different goals and obligations, both groups must be able to effectively communicate and interact with each other for the ATM system to work. This interaction will become even more challenging as traffic volume increases dramatically in the near future. To accommodate this increase, by 2025 the national air transportation system in the U.S. will go through a transformation that will modernize the ATM system and make it safer, more effective, and more efficient. This new system, NextGen, will change how pilots and controllers perform their tasks by incorporating advanced technologies and employing new procedures. It will also distribute responsibility between pilots, controllers and automation over such tasks as maintaining aircraft separation. The present chapter describes three plausible concepts of operations that allocate different ATM responsibilities to these groups. We describe how each concept changes the role of each operator and the types of decisions and actions performed by them.

  13. Investigating the Use of Coherence Analysis on Mandibular Electromyograms to Investigate Neural Control of Early Oromandibular Behaviours: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steeve, Roger W.; Price, Christiana M.

    2010-01-01

    An empirical method for investigating differences in neural control of jaw movement across oromandibular behaviours is to compute the coherence function for electromyographic signals obtained from mandibular muscle groups. This procedure has been used with adults but not extended to children. This pilot study investigated if coherence analysis…

  14. Pilot-scale cooling tower to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies for cooling system makeup water.

    PubMed

    Chien, S H; Hsieh, M K; Li, H; Monnell, J; Dzombak, D; Vidic, R

    2012-02-01

    Pilot-scale cooling towers can be used to evaluate corrosion, scaling, and biofouling control strategies when using particular cooling system makeup water and particular operating conditions. To study the potential for using a number of different impaired waters as makeup water, a pilot-scale system capable of generating 27,000 kJ∕h heat load and maintaining recirculating water flow with a Reynolds number of 1.92 × 10(4) was designed to study these critical processes under conditions that are similar to full-scale systems. The pilot-scale cooling tower was equipped with an automatic makeup water control system, automatic blowdown control system, semi-automatic biocide feeding system, and corrosion, scaling, and biofouling monitoring systems. Observed operational data revealed that the major operating parameters, including temperature change (6.6 °C), cycles of concentration (N = 4.6), water flow velocity (0.66 m∕s), and air mass velocity (3660 kg∕h m(2)), were controlled quite well for an extended period of time (up to 2 months). Overall, the performance of the pilot-scale cooling towers using treated municipal wastewater was shown to be suitable to study critical processes (corrosion, scaling, biofouling) and evaluate cooling water management strategies for makeup waters of complex quality.

  15. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  16. Laparoscopic Surgical Treatment of Severe Obesity Combined with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Pilot Randomized Two-Arm Controlled Clinical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ospanov, Oral B.; Orekeshova, Akzhunis M.; Fursov, Roman A.; Yelemesov, Aset A.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are serious medical, social, and economic problems of modern society. A pilot randomized two-arm controlled clinical study was conducted to compare laparoscopic plication of the greater gastric curvature combined with Nissen fundoplication (LFN+LGP) versus only Nissen fundoplication (LFN). The…

  17. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  18. LANDFILL OPERATION FOR CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND MAXIMUM METHANE EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Don Augenstein; Ramin Yazdani; Rick Moore; Michelle Byars; Jeff Kieffer; Professor Morton Barlaz; Rinav Mehta

    2000-02-26

    Controlled landfilling is an approach to manage solid waste landfills, so as to rapidly complete methane generation, while maximizing gas capture and minimizing the usual emissions of methane to the atmosphere. With controlled landfilling, methane generation is accelerated to more rapid and earlier completion to full potential by improving conditions (principally moisture, but also temperature) to optimize biological processes occurring within the landfill. Gas is contained through use of surface membrane cover. Gas is captured via porous layers, under the cover, operated at slight vacuum. A field demonstration project has been ongoing under NETL sponsorship for the past several years near Davis, CA. Results have been extremely encouraging. Two major benefits of the technology are reduction of landfill methane emissions to minuscule levels, and the recovery of greater amounts of landfill methane energy in much shorter times, more predictably, than with conventional landfill practice. With the large amount of US landfill methane generated, and greenhouse potency of methane, better landfill methane control can play a substantial role both in reduction of US greenhouse gas emissions and in US renewable energy. The work described in this report, to demonstrate and advance this technology, has used two demonstration-scale cells of size (8000 metric tons [tonnes]), sufficient to replicate many heat and compaction characteristics of larger ''full-scale'' landfills. An enhanced demonstration cell has received moisture supplementation to field capacity. This is the maximum moisture waste can hold while still limiting liquid drainage rate to minimal and safely manageable levels. The enhanced landfill module was compared to a parallel control landfill module receiving no moisture additions. Gas recovery has continued for a period of over 4 years. It is quite encouraging that the enhanced cell methane recovery has been close to 10-fold that experienced with conventional

  19. Advanced piloted aircraft flight control system design methodology. Volume 2: The FCX flight control design expert system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Thomas T.; Mcruer, Duane T.

    1988-01-01

    The development of a comprehensive and electric methodology for conceptual and preliminary design of flight control systems is presented and illustrated. The methodology is focused on the design states starting with the layout of system requirements and ending when some viable competing system architectures (feedback control structures) are defined. The approach is centered on the human pilot and the aircraft as both the sources of, and the keys to the solution of, many flight control problems. The methodology relies heavily on computational procedures which are highly interactive with the design engineer. To maximize effectiveness, these techniques, as selected and modified to be used together in the methodology, form a cadre of computational tools specifically tailored for integrated flight control system preliminary design purposes. The FCX expert system as presently developed is only a limited prototype capable of supporting basic lateral-directional FCS design activities related to the design example used. FCX presently supports design of only one FCS architecture (yaw damper plus roll damper) and the rules are largely focused on Class IV (highly maneuverable) aircraft. Despite this limited scope, the major elements which appear necessary for application of knowledge-based software concepts to flight control design were assembled and thus FCX represents a prototype which can be tested, critiqued and evolved in an ongoing process of development.

  20. Pilot-in-the-Loop Evaluation of a Yaw Rate to Throttle Feedback Control with Enhanced Engine Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Guo, Ten-Huei; Sowers, T. Shane; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Fulton, Christopher E.; May, Ryan D.; Owen, A. Karl

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a yaw rate to throttle feedback system designed to replace a damaged rudder. It can act as a Dutch roll damper and as a means to facilitate pilot input for crosswind landings. Enhanced propulsion control modes were implemented to increase responsiveness and thrust level of the engine, which impact flight dynamics and performance. Piloted evaluations were performed to determine the capability of the engines to substitute for the rudder function under emergency conditions. The results showed that this type of implementation is beneficial, but the engines' capability to replace the rudder is limited.

  1. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  2. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  3. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  4. 40 CFR 1060.104 - What running loss emission control requirements apply?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What running loss emission control... STATIONARY EQUIPMENT Emission Standards and Related Requirements § 1060.104 What running loss emission control requirements apply? (a) Engines and equipment must meet running loss requirements as follows:...

  5. Portable air pollution control equipment for the control of toxic particulate emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Chaurushia, A.; Odabashian, S.; Busch, E.

    1997-12-31

    Chromium VI (Cr VI) has been identified by the environmental regulatory agencies as a potent carcinogen among eleven heavy metals. A threshold level of 0.0001 lb/year for Cr VI emissions has been established by the California Air Resources Board for reporting under Assembly Bill 2588. A need for an innovative control technology to reduce fugitive emissions of Cr VI was identified during the Air Toxic Emissions Reduction Program at Northrop Grumman Military Aircraft Systems Division (NGMASD). NGMASD operates an aircraft assembly facility in El Segundo, CA. Nearly all of the aircraft components are coated with a protective coating (primer) prior to assembly. The primer has Cr VI as a component for its excellent corrosion resistance property. The complex assembly process requires fasteners which also need primer coating. Therefore, NGMASD utilizes High Volume Low Pressure (HVLP) guns for the touch-up spray coating operations. During the touch-up spray coating operations, Cr VI particles are atomized and transferred to the aircraft surface. The South Coast Air Quality Management District (SCAQMD) has determined that the HVLP gun transfers 65% of the paint particles onto the substrate and the remaining 35% are emitted as an overspray if air pollution controls are not applied. NGMASD has developed the Portable Air Pollution Control Equipment (PAPCE) to capture and control the overspray in order to reduce fugitive Cr VI emissions from the touch-up spray coating operations. A source test was performed per SCAQMD guidelines and the final report has been approved by the SCAQMD.

  6. Catalytic destruction vs. adsorption in controlling dioxin emission.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Wei Ting; Hung, Pao Chen; Chang, Moo Been

    2015-12-01

    This study investigates the removal efficiencies of PCDD/Fs achieved with a catalytic filter (CF) and with activated carbon injection followed by bag filter (ACI+BF) as applied in an industrial waste incinerator (IWI) and a hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), respectively. Catalytic filtration has been successfully applied to remove PCDD/Fs from gas streams. Comparing the CF to the ACI+BF system, it appears that the PCDD/F removal efficiency achieved with a CF is higher than that of an ACI+BF system. The PCDD/F emissions from both incinerators are well controlled to meet the regulatory limit of 0.1 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3). Additionally, the PCDD/F concentration in BF ash is higher than the regulation limit of Taiwan (1.0 ng I-TEQ/g). In contrast, the PCDD/F concentration in CF ash is only 0.274 ng I-TEQ/g. The difference is attributed to the fact that the ACI+BF system just transfers PCDD/Fs from gas phase to solid phase and further increases the PCDD/F concentration in fly ash, while CF technology effectively destroys the gas-phase PCDD/Fs. Therefore, the disposal of the fly ash discharged from CF would be less expensive compared with the fly ash discharged from the ACI+BF system. In this study, the PCDD/F emission factors of both incinerators are also established.

  7. Model-based control of MF/UF filtration processes: pilot plant implementation and results.

    PubMed

    Busch, J; Marquardt, W

    2009-01-01

    Membrane micro- and ultrafiltration processes are widespread in water and wastewater treatment applications. Owing to the complex filtration mechanisms and the few available measurement information, they are typically operated using simple control approaches. However, two negative consequences are the sub-optimal performance and the relatively inflexible operation despite dynamic operating conditions. In previous publications, a model-based, adaptive run-to-run control approach for filtration processes has been introduced to improve process performance. It exploits the structure of cyclically operated filtration processes, where one cycle comprises a filtration and a backwashing phase. This contribution focuses on the experimental validation of the approach at a pilot-scale membrane bioreactor for municipal wastewater treatment. Necessary modifications to the approach and details on its implementation are discussed. The controller yields very good results with respect to prediction quality, optimization results, and stability. In addition to improved operational safety, savings of up to 50% are achieved with respect to energy consumption and membrane strain.

  8. Optical People Counting for Demand Controlled Ventilation: A Pilot Study of Counter Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Fisk, William J.; Sullivan, Douglas

    2009-12-26

    This pilot scale study evaluated the counting accuracy of two people counting systems that could be used in demand controlled ventilation systems to provide control signals for modulating outdoor air ventilation rates. The evaluations included controlled challenges of the people counting systems using pre-planned movements of occupants through doorways and evaluations of counting accuracies when naive occupants (i.e., occupants unaware of the counting systems) passed through the entrance doors of the building or room. The two people counting systems had high counting accuracy accuracies, with errors typically less than 10percent, for typical non-demanding counting events. However, counting errors were high in some highly challenging situations, such as multiple people passing simultaneously through a door. Counting errors, for at least one system, can be very high if people stand in the field of view of the sensor. Both counting system have limitations and would need to be used only at appropriate sites and where the demanding situations that led to counting errors were rare.

  9. Methane emissions from process equipment at natural gas production sites in the United States: pneumatic controllers.

    PubMed

    Allen, David T; Pacsi, Adam P; Sullivan, David W; Zavala-Araiza, Daniel; Harrison, Matthew; Keen, Kindal; Fraser, Matthew P; Daniel Hill, A; Sawyer, Robert F; Seinfeld, John H

    2015-01-06

    Emissions from 377 gas actuated (pneumatic) controllers were measured at natural gas production sites and a small number of oil production sites, throughout the United States. A small subset of the devices (19%), with whole gas emission rates in excess of 6 standard cubic feet per hour (scf/h), accounted for 95% of emissions. More than half of the controllers recorded emissions of 0.001 scf/h or less during 15 min of measurement. Pneumatic controllers in level control applications on separators and in compressor applications had higher emission rates than controllers in other types of applications. Regional differences in emissions were observed, with the lowest emissions measured in the Rocky Mountains and the highest emissions in the Gulf Coast. Average methane emissions per controller reported in this work are 17% higher than the average emissions per controller in the 2012 EPA greenhouse gas national emission inventory (2012 GHG NEI, released in 2014); the average of 2.7 controllers per well observed in this work is higher than the 1.0 controllers per well reported in the 2012 GHG NEI.

  10. Pilot-scale data provide enhanced estimates of the life cycle energy and emissions profile of algae biofuels produced via hydrothermal liquefaction.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Saydah, Benjamin; Eranki, Pragnya; Colosi, Lisa M; Greg Mitchell, B; Rhodes, James; Clarens, Andres F

    2013-11-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) has been used widely to estimate the environmental implications of deploying algae-to-energy systems even though no full-scale facilities have yet to be built. Here, data from a pilot-scale facility using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is used to estimate the life cycle profiles at full scale. Three scenarios (lab-, pilot-, and full-scale) were defined to understand how development in the industry could impact its life cycle burdens. HTL-derived algae fuels were found to have lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than petroleum fuels. Algae-derived gasoline had significantly lower GHG emissions than corn ethanol. Most algae-based fuels have an energy return on investment between 1 and 3, which is lower than petroleum biofuels. Sensitivity analyses reveal several areas in which improvements by algae bioenergy companies (e.g., biocrude yields, nutrient recycle) and by supporting industries (e.g., CO2 supply chains) could reduce the burdens of the industry.

  11. Controlling the directionality of spontaneous emission by evanescent wave coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Lun E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Hao, Guo-Dong E-mail: gdhao2@hotmail.com; Toda, Naoya

    2015-09-28

    We report an approach toward controlling the directionality of spontaneous emissions by employing the evanescent wave coupling effect in a subwavelength-sized ridge or truncated cone structure. An InGaAs/GaAs light-emitting diode in which a stripe-shaped InGaAs/GaAs quantum well with a stripe width of about 100 nm is embedded at the center of a subwavelength-sized GaAs ridge (of width ∼520 nm) is fabricated by micro processing and epitaxial regrowth techniques. Strong directionalities characterized by a half-intensity angle of 43° are observed in planes perpendicular to the ridge axis. The directionality is found to be almost independent of operating conditions.

  12. Application of microturbines to control emissions from associated gas

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Darren D.

    2013-04-16

    A system for controlling the emission of associated gas produced from a reservoir. In an embodiment, the system comprises a gas compressor including a gas inlet in fluid communication with an associated gas source and a gas outlet. The gas compressor adjusts the pressure of the associated gas to produce a pressure-regulated associated gas. In addition, the system comprises a gas cleaner including a gas inlet in fluid communication with the outlet of the gas compressor, a fuel gas outlet, and a waste product outlet. The gas cleaner separates at least a portion of the sulfur and the water from the associated gas to produce a fuel gas. Further, the system comprises a gas turbine including a fuel gas inlet in fluid communication with the fuel gas outlet of the gas cleaner and an air inlet. Still further, the system comprises a choke in fluid communication with the air inlet.

  13. Preliminary Evaluation of the Control of Microbial Fouling by Laboratory and Pilot-Scale Air-Stripping Columns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    AD-A186 558 TECHNICAL REPORT AD NATICK/TR-87/039 PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF THE CONTROL OF MICROBIAL FOULING BY LABORATORY AND PILOT-SCALE AIR ...Scale Air -Stripping Columns. 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Darrell Seekins, Morris Rogers 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME COVERED 114. DATE OF REPORT (Year...TERMS (Continue on reverse if necessary and identify by block number) FIELD GROUP TSUB-GROUP Air -Stripping Microbial Fouling Aeration Biogrowth Control

  14. Effect of Continuous Positive Airway Pressure on Stroke Rehabilitation: A Pilot Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Khot, Sandeep P.; Davis, Arielle P.; Crane, Deborah A.; Tanzi, Patricia M.; Li Lue, Denise; Claflin, Edward S.; Becker, Kyra J.; Longstreth, W.T.; Watson, Nathaniel F.; Billings, Martha E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) predicts poor functional outcome after stroke and increases the risk for recurrent stroke. Less is known about continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on stroke recovery. Methods: In a pilot randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial, adult stroke rehabilitation patients were assigned to auto-titrating or sham CPAP without diagnostic testing for OSA. Change in Functional Independence Measure (FIM), a measure of disability, was assessed between rehabilitation admission and discharge. Results: Over 18 months, 40 patients were enrolled and 10 withdrew from the study: 7 from active and 3 from sham CPAP (p > 0.10). For the remaining 30 patients, median duration of CPAP use was 14 days. Average CPAP use was 3.7 h/night, with at least 4 h nightly use among 15 patients. Adherence was not influenced by treatment assignment or stroke severity. In intention-to-treat analyses (n = 40), the median change in FIM favored active CPAP over sham but did not reach statistical significance (34 versus 26, p = 0.25), except for the cognitive component (6 versus 2.5, p = 0.04). The on-treatment analyses (n = 30) yielded similar results (total FIM: 32 versus 26, p = 0.11; cognitive FIM: 6 versus 2, p = 0.06). Conclusions: A sham-controlled CPAP trial among stroke rehabilitation patients was feasible in terms of recruitment, treatment without diagnostic testing and adequate blinding—though was limited by study retention and CPAP adherence. Despite these limitations, a trend towards a benefit of CPAP on recovery was evident. Tolerance and adherence must be improved before the full benefits of CPAP on recovery can be assessed in larger trials. Citation: Khot SP, Davis AP, Crane DA, Tanzi PM, Li Lue D, Claflin ES, Becker KJ, Longstreth WT, Watson NF, Billings ME. Effect of continuous positive airway pressure on stroke rehabilitation: a pilot randomized sham-controlled trial. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(7):1019–1026. PMID

  15. 1997 annual ground control operating plan for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    This plan presents background information and a working guide to assist Mine Operations and Engineering in developing strategies for addressing ground control issues at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). With the anticipated receipt of waste in late 1997, this document provides additional detail to Panel 1 activities and options. The plan also serves as a foundation document for development and revision of the annual long-term ground control plan. Section 2.0 documents the current status of all underground excavations with respect to location, geology, geometry, age, ground support, operational use, projected life, and physical conditions. Section 3.0 presents the methods used to evaluate ground conditions, including visual observations of the roof, ribs, and floor, inspection of observation holes, and review of instrumentation data. Section 4.0 lists several ground support options and specific applications of each. Section 5.0 discusses remedial ground control measures that have been implemented to date. Section 6.0 presents projections and recommendations for ground control actions based on the information in Sections 2.0 through 5.0 of this plan and on a rating of the critical nature of each specific area. Section 7.0 presents a summary statement, and Section 8.0 includes references. Appendix A provides an overview and critique of ground control systems that have been, or may be, used at the site. Because of the dynamic nature of the underground openings and associated geotechnical activities, this plan will be revised as additional data are incorporated.

  16. Metformin in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: results of a pilot randomized placebo controlled clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Luchsinger, José A.; Perez, Thania; Chang, Helena; Mehta, Pankaj; Steffener, Jason; Pradabhan, Gnanavalli; Ichise, Masanori; Manly, Jennifer; Devanand, Devangere P.; Bagiella, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hyperinsulinemia may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a pilot study of metformin, a medication efficacious in treating and preventing diabetes while reducing hyperinsulinemia, among persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (AMCI) with the goal of collecting preliminary data on feasiblity, safety, and efficacy. Participants were 80 men and women aged 55 to 90 years with AMCI, overweight or obese, without treated diabetes. We randomized participants to metformin 1000 mg twice a day or matching placebo for 12 months. The co-primary clinical outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 months in total recall of the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and the score of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). The secondary outcome was change in relative glucose uptake (rCMRgl) in the posterior cingulate-precuneus in brain Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography. Change in plasma Aβ42 was an exploratory outcome. The mean age of participants was 65 years. Fifty % of participants were women. The only baseline variable that was different between the arms was the ADAS-Cog. Metformin could not be tolerated by 7.5% of participants; 15% tolerated 500 mg/day, 35% tolerated 1000 mg/day, 32.5% tolerated 1500 mg/day, and only 10% tolerated the maximum dose. There were no serious adverse events related to metformin. The 7.5% of persons who did not tolerate metformin reported gastrointestinal symptoms. After adjusting for baseline ADAS-cog, changes in total recall of the SRT favored the metformin group (9.7 ± 8.5 vs. 5.3 ± 8.5; p = 0.02). Differences for other outcomes were not significant. A larger trial seems warranted to evaluate the efficacy and cognitive safety of metformin in prodromal AD. PMID:26890736

  17. Metformin in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment: Results of a Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, José A; Perez, Thania; Chang, Helena; Mehta, Pankaj; Steffener, Jason; Pradabhan, Gnanavalli; Ichise, Masanori; Manly, Jennifer; Devanand, Davangere P; Bagiella, Emilia

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes and hyperinsulinemia may be risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). We conducted a pilot study of metformin, a medication efficacious in treating and preventing diabetes while reducing hyperinsulinemia, among persons with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) with the goal of collecting preliminary data on feasibility, safety, and efficacy. Participants were 80 men and women aged 55 to 90 years with aMCI, overweight or obese, without treated diabetes. We randomized participants to metformin 1000 mg twice a day or matching placebo for 12 months. The co-primary clinical outcomes were changes from baseline to 12 months in total recall of the Selective Reminding Test (SRT) and the score of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog). The secondary outcome was change in relative glucose uptake in the posterior cingulate-precuneus in brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography. Change in plasma Aβ42 was an exploratory outcome. The mean age of participants was 65 years. Fifty percent of participants were women. The only baseline variable that was different between the arms was the ADAS-Cog. Metformin could not be tolerated by 7.5% of participants; 15% tolerated 500 mg/day, 35% tolerated 1000 mg/day, 32.5% tolerated 1500 mg/day, and only 10% tolerated the maximum dose. There were no serious adverse events related to metformin. The 7.5% of persons who did not tolerate metformin reported gastrointestinal symptoms. After adjusting for baseline ADAS-cog, changes in total recall of the SRT favored the metformin group (9.7±8.5 versus 5.3±8.5; p = 0.02). Differences for other outcomes were not significant. A larger trial seems warranted to evaluate the efficacy and cognitive safety of metformin in prodromal AD.

  18. The evolution of shipping emissions and the costs of recent and forthcoming emission regulations in the northern European emission control area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, L.; Jalkanen, J.-P.; Kalli, J.; Kukkonen, J.

    2013-06-01

    An extensive inventory of marine exhaust emissions is presented in the northern European emission control area (ECA) in 2009 and 2011. The emissions of SOx, NOx, CO2, CO and PM2.5 were evaluated using the Ship Traffic Emission Assessment Model (STEAM). We have combined the information on individual vessel characteristics and position reports generated by the Automatic Identification System (AIS). The emission limitations from 2009 to 2011 have had a significant impact on reducing the emissions of both SOx and PM2.5. The predicted emissions of SOx originated from IMO-registered marine traffic have been reduced by 33%, from 322 ktons to 217 ktons, in the ECA from 2009 to 2011. The corresponding predicted reduction of PM2.5 emissions was 20%, from 74 ktons to 59 ktons. The highest CO2 and PM2.5 emissions in 2011 were located in the vicinity of the coast of the Netherlands, in the English Channel, near the South-Eastern UK and along the busiest shipping lines in the Danish Straits and the Baltic Sea. The changes of emissions and the financial costs caused by various regulative actions since 2005 were also evaluated, based on the increased direct fuel costs. We also simulated the effects and direct costs associated with the forthcoming switch to low-sulfur distillate fuels in 2015. According to the projections for the future, there will be a reduction of 85% in SOx emissions and a~reduction of 50% in PM2.5 emissions in 2015, compared with the corresponding shipping emissions in 2011 in the ECA. The corresponding relative increase in fuel costs for all shipping varied between 10% and 63%, depending on the development of the prices of fuels and the use of the sulfur scrubber equipment.

  19. Aquatic physical therapy for children with developmental coordination disorder: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hillier, Susan; McIntyre, Auburn; Plummer, Leanne

    2010-05-01

    Aquatic therapy is an intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) that has not been investigated formally. This was a pilot randomized controlled trial to investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an aquatic therapy program to improve motor skills of children with DCD. Thirteen children (mean age 7 years 1 month; 10 males) with DCD were randomly allocated to receive either six sessions of aquatic therapy (once weekly session of 30 min for 6-8 weeks) or to a wait-list (control group). The intervention and measures were demonstrated to be feasible, but barriers, such as limited appointment times and accessibility, were encountered. Analysis of covariance indicated that at posttest, mean scores on the Movement Assessment Battery were higher for children who received aquatic therapy compared to those on the wait-list (p = .057). Similar trends were noted on the physical competence portion of the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance (p = .058). Participation levels, as measured by a parent questionnaire, showed improvement for both groups. Potential facilitators and barriers to implementation of an aquatic therapy for children with DCD are discussed.

  20. EMDR for Syrian refugees with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Acarturk, Ceren; Konuk, Emre; Cetinkaya, Mustafa; Senay, Ibrahim; Sijbrandij, Marit; Cuijpers, Pim; Aker, Tamer

    2015-01-01

    Background The most common mental health problems among refugees are depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) is an effective treatment for PTSD. However, no previous randomized controlled trial (RCT) has been published on treating PTSD symptoms in a refugee camp population. Objective Examining the effect of EMDR to reduce the PTSD and depression symptoms compared to a wait-list condition among Syrian refugees. Method Twenty-nine adult participants with PTSD symptoms were randomly allocated to either EMDR sessions (n=15) or wait-list control (n=14). The main outcome measures were Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II) at posttreatment and 4-week follow-up. Results Analysis of covariance showed that the EMDR group had significantly lower trauma scores at posttreatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.78, 95% CI: 0.92–2.64). The EMDR group also had a lower depression score after treatment as compared with the wait-list group (d=1.14, 95% CI: 0.35–1.92). Conclusion The pilot RCT indicated that EMDR may be effective in reducing PTSD and depression symptoms among Syrian refugees located in a camp. Larger RCTs to verify the (cost-) effectiveness of EMDR in similar populations are needed. PMID:25989952

  1. Emission characterization of an alcohol/diesel-pilot fueled compression-ignition engine and its heavy-duty diesel counterpart. Final report, August 1980-August 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Ullman, T.L.; Hare, C.T.

    1981-08-01

    This report describes results from emissions testing of a prototype diesel engine, developed by Volvo Truck Corporation of Sweden, which uses pilot injection of diesel fuel for compression ignition of alcohol fuel injection for main combustion. In addition to this dual-fuel engine, emission testing was also conducted on a heavy-duty diesel engine of similar design. Both engines were tested over the 1979 13-mode FTP, or shorter versions of this modal test, and over the 1984 Transient FTP as well as an experimental bus cycle. The dual-fuel engine was characterized with methanol, ethanol and ethanol with 30 percent water (wt %). An oxidation catalyst was also used with methanol and ethanol. Emission characterization included regulated emissions (HC, CO, and NOX) along with total particulate, unburned alcohols, individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes, phenols, and odor. The particulate matter was characterized in terms of particle size distribution, sulfate content, C, H, S, metal content, and soluble organic fraction. The soluble organic fraction was studied by determining its elemental composition (C,H,S,N), boiling point distribution, BaP content, relative make-up of polar compounds, and bioactivity by Ames testing.

  2. A technique for displaying flight information in the field of view of binoculars for use by the pilots of radio controlled models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, H. V.

    1974-01-01

    A display system was developed to provide flight information to the ground based pilots of radio controlled models used in flight research programs. The display system utilizes data received by telemetry from the model, and presents the information numerically in the field of view of the binoculars used by the pilots.

  3. A pilot randomised controlled trial of negative pressure wound therapy to treat grade III/IV pressure ulcers [ISRCTN69032034

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely promoted as a treatment for full thickness wounds; however, there is a lack of high-quality research evidence regarding its clinical and cost effectiveness. A trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III/IV pressure ulcers would be worthwhile but premature without assessing whether such a trial is feasible. The aim of this pilot randomised controlled trial was to assess the feasibility of conducting a future full trial of NPWT for the treatment of grade III and IV pressure ulcers and to pilot all aspects of the trial. Methods This was a two-centre (acute and community), pilot randomised controlled trial. Eligible participants were randomised to receive either NPWT or standard care (SC) (spun hydrocolloid, alginate or foam dressings). Outcome measures were time to healing of the reference pressure ulcer, recruitment rates, frequency of treatment visits, resources used and duration of follow-up. Results Three hundred and twelve patients were screened for eligibility into this trial over a 12-month recruitment period and 12/312 participants (3.8%) were randomised: 6 to NPWT and 6 to SC. Only one reference pressure ulcer healed (NPWT group) during follow-up (time to healing 79 days). The mean number of treatment visits per week was 3.1 (NPWT) and 5.7 (SC); 6/6 NPWT and 1/6 SC participants withdrew from their allocated trial treatment. The mean duration of follow-up was 3.8 (NPWT) and 5.0 (SC) months. Conclusions This pilot trial yielded vital information for the planning of a future full study including projected recruitment rate, required duration of follow-up and extent of research nurse support required. Data were also used to inform the cost-effectiveness and value of information analyses, which were conducted alongside the pilot trial. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN69032034. PMID:22839453

  4. Microcurrent skin patches for postoperative pain control in total knee arthroplasty: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    El-Husseini, T; El-Kawy, S; Shalaby, H; El-Sebai, M

    2007-04-01

    Pain control following painful orthopaedic procedures such as total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is an ongoing challenge, as current pain management techniques often result in under-medication and/or complications. In a study designed to test the effect of the micro-current skin patch (MCT) on pain relief in patients following TKA, we followed 24 patients, randomly divided into two groups, one group receiving MCT plus tramadol hydrochloride (tramadol) for pain relief and a control group receiving only tramadol, for 10 days postoperatively. Tramadol was given intramuscularly in increment doses of 100 mg, as needed, for the duration of the study period. Pain was assessed daily using a visual analogue score (VAS). Other parameters, including the effect of MCT on the dose of tramadol needed for pain relief, the degree of wound healing measured at the end of the follow-up period, category of the wound 10 days postoperatively (1, 2 or 3) and total drain fluid volume, were also assessed. During the 10-day postoperative period there was a progressive decrease in pain in patients of both groups, however the patients of the MCT group showed a consistently lower VAS throughout the observation period, most markedly on those follow-up days with the highest pain scores in patients of the control group. This effect was monitored on the basis of the average dose of tramadol administered per day: 200.0+/-7.0 mg/day in the control group and 63.3+/-15.8 mg/day in the MCT group. Wound healing was better with the application of the MCT patch: grade 1 wounds were observed in 50% of the patients of the MCT group as compared to 8.3% in control group. The total drain volume was lower in patients of the MCT group compared to the controls (1020.8+/-211.6 and 1170.8+/-243.5 ml, respectively). None of the patients indicated that they wished to discontinue MCT therapy. This pilot study shows that MCT therapy led to better pain control with a markedly lower need for tramadol as compared to the

  5. Real-Time Optimization for use in a Control Allocation System to Recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Michael W.

    2013-01-01

    Integration of the Control Allocation technique to recover from Pilot Induced Oscillations (CAPIO) System into the control system of a Short Takeoff and Landing Mobility Concept Vehicle simulation presents a challenge because the CAPIO formulation requires that constrained optimization problems be solved at the controller operating frequency. We present a solution that utilizes a modified version of the well-known L-BFGS-B solver. Despite the iterative nature of the solver, the method is seen to converge in real time with sufficient reliability to support three weeks of piloted runs at the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS) facility. The results of the optimization are seen to be excellent in the vast majority of real-time frames. Deficiencies in the quality of the results in some frames are shown to be improvable with simple termination criteria adjustments, though more real-time optimization iterations would be required.

  6. A case-control pilot study of low-intensity IVF in good-prognosis patients.

    PubMed

    Gleicher, Norbert; Weghofer, Andrea; Barad, David H

    2012-04-01

    Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is rapidly gaining in popularity. Yet studies comparing LI-IVF to standard IVF are lacking. This is a case-control pilot study, reporting on 14 first LI-IVF and 14 standard IVF cycles in women with normal age-specific ovarian reserve under age 38, matched for age, laboratory environment, staff and time of cycle. LI-IVF cycles underwent mild ovarian stimulation, utilizing clomiphene citrate, augmented by low-dose gonadotrophin stimulation. Control patients underwent routine ovarian stimulation. LI-IVF and regular IVF patients were similar in age, body mass index, FSH and anti-Müllerian hormone. Standard IVF utilized more gonadotrophins (P<0.001), yielded more oocytes (P<0.001) and cryopreserved more embryos (P<0.001). With similar embryo numbers transferred, after ethnicity adjustments, standard IVF demonstrated better odds for pregnancy (OR 7.07; P=0.046) and higher cumulative pregnancy rates (63.3% versus 21.4%; OR 6.6; P=0.02). Adjustments for age, ethnicity and diagnosis maintained significance but oocyte adjustment did not. Cost assessments failed to reveal differences between LI-IVF and standard IVF. In this small study, LI-IVF reduced pregnancy chances without demonstrating cost advantages, raising questions about its utility. In the absence of established clinical and/or economic foundations, LI-IVF should be considered an experimental procedure. Low-intensity IVF (LI-IVF) is increasingly propagated as an alternative to standard IVF. LI-IVF has, however, never been properly assessed in comparison to standard IVF. Such a comparison is presented in the format of a small pilot study, matching LI-IVF cycles with regular IVF cycles and comparing outcomes as well as costs. The study suggests that LI-IVF, at least in this setting, is clinically inferior and economically at best similar to standard IVF. LI-IVF should, therefore, as of this point not be offered as routine IVF treatment but only as an experimental procedure.

  7. A pilot randomized controlled trial to decrease adaptation difficulties in chinese new immigrants to Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaonan; Stewart, Sunita M; Chui, Jolian P L; Ho, Joy L Y; Li, Anthony C H; Lam, Tai Hing

    2014-01-01

    Immigration occurs globally, and immigrants are vulnerable to the development of adaptation difficulties. Little evidence is available for effective programs to enhance immigrant adaptation outside of the West. This pilot randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of two interventions used to decrease adaptation difficulties by (a) providing knowledge of resources that are relevant to the Hong Kong context or (b) enhancing personal resilience in immigrants to Hong Kong from Mainland China. A total of 220 participants were randomly assigned to three conditions: information, resilience, or control arms. They completed measures on adaptation difficulties, knowledge, and personal resilience at baseline, immediately after the intervention (postintervention), and at a 3-month follow-up. The information intervention resulted in higher increases postintervention in knowledge than did the other two arms. The resilience intervention reported greater increases in personal resilience than did the control arm at both postintervention and 3 months later; it also reported greater increases than the information arm did at the 3-month follow-up. Although both interventions reported greater decreases in adaptation difficulties than the control arm did at postintervention and 3 months later, no significant differences were found when they were compared with each other at both time points. Both programs had high acceptability and were feasible to implement in the community. Change in knowledge had no significant mediation effect on adaption difficulties, but change in personal resilience from baseline to postintervention mediated the effect of the intervention on the outcome of adaptation difficulties at the 3-month follow-up. These findings indicate evidence for benefits of the information and resilience interventions, and they inform further development of our programs.

  8. The Walking School Bus and Children's Physical Activity: A Pilot Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Kathy; Baranowski, Tom; Nicklas, Theresa A.; Uscanga, Doris K.; Hanfling, Marcus J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of a “walking school bus” program on children's rates of active commuting to school and physical activity. METHODS: We conducted a pilot cluster randomized controlled trial among 4th-graders from 8 schools in Houston, Texas (N = 149). Random allocation to treatment or control conditions was at the school level. Study staff walked with children to and from school up to 5 days/week. Outcomes were measured the week before (time 1) and during weeks 4 and 5 of the intervention (time 2). The main outcome was the weekly rate of active commuting, and a secondary outcome was moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Covariates included sociodemographics, distance from home to school, neighborhood safety, child BMI z score, parent self-efficacy/outcome expectations, and child self-efficacy for active commuting. A mixed-model repeated measures regression accounted for clustering by school, and stepwise procedures with backward elimination of nonsignificant covariates were used to identify significant predictors. RESULTS: Intervention children increased active commuting (mean ± SD) from 23.8% ± 9.2% (time 1) to 54% ± 9.2% (time 2), whereas control subjects decreased from 40.2% ± 8.9% (time 1) to 32.6% ± 8.9% (time 2) (P < .0001). Intervention children increased their minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity from 46.6 ± 4.5 (time 1) to 48.8 ± 4.5 (time 2), whereas control children decreased from 46.1 ± 4.3 (time 1) to 41.3 ± 4.3 (time 2) (P = .029). CONCLUSIONS: The program improved children's active commuting to school and daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. PMID:21859920

  9. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  10. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McNicol, Gavin

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  11. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Allendorf; D. K. Ottesen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1998-11-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom of line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  12. Humidity control of particle emissions in aeolian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenna Neuman, Cheryl; Sanderson, Steven

    2008-06-01

    Humidity is an important control of the wind speed required to entrain particles into an air flow and is well known to vary on a global scale, as do dust emissions. This paper reports on wind tunnel experiments which quantify this control through placing a polymer capacitance sensor immediately at the bed surface. The sensor measured changes in the humidity (RH) of the pore air in real time. RH was varied between 15% and 80% and the critical wind speed determined for the release of particles to the air stream. The results strongly support earlier suggestions that fine particles are most affected in relatively dry atmospheres, particularly those which are tightly packed. An analytical model is proposed to describe this relationship which depends on determination of the matric potential from the Kelvin equation. The total contact area between particle asperities adjoined by pendular rings is represented as a power function of the number of layers of adsorbed water. The value of the exponent appears to be governed by the surface roughness of the particles and their packing arrangement. Parallel developments in colloid interface science and atomic force microscopy, relevant to industrial and pharmaceutical applications, support these conclusions in principle and will likely have an important bearing on future progress in parameterization of the proposed model.

  13. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  14. Three-Dimensional Composite Nanostructures for Lean NOx Emission Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Pu-Xian

    2013-07-31

    This final report to the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) for DE-EE0000210 covers the period from October 1, 2009 to July 31, 2013. Under this project, DOE awarded UConn about $1,248,242 to conduct the research and development on a new class of 3D composite nanostructure based catalysts for lean NOx emission control. Much of the material presented here has already been submitted to DOE/NETL in quarterly technical reports. In this project, through a scalable solution process, we have successfully fabricated a new class of catalytic reactors, i.e., the composite nanostructure array (nano-array) based catalytic converters. These nanocatalysts, distinct from traditional powder washcoat based catalytic converters, directly integrate monolithic substrates together with nanostructures with well-defined size and shape during the scalable hydrothermal process. The new monolithic nanocatalysts are demonstrated to be able to save raw materials including Pt-group metals and support metal oxides by an order of magnitude, while perform well at various oxidation (e.g., CO oxidation and NO oxidation) and reduction reactions (H{sub 2} reduction of NOx) involved in the lean NOx emissions. The size, shape and arrangement of the composite nanostructures within the monolithic substrates are found to be the key in enabling the drastically reduced materials usage while maintaining the good catalytic reactivity in the enabled devices. The further understanding of the reaction kinetics associated with the unique mass transport and surface chemistry behind is needed for further optimizing the design and fabrication of good nanostructure array based catalytic converters. On the other hand, the high temperature stability, hydrothermal aging stability, as well as S-poisoning resistance have been investigated in this project on the nanocatalysts, which revealed promising results toward good chemical and mechanical robustness, as well as S

  15. Piloted Evaluation of Modernized Limited Authority Control Laws in the NASA-Ames Vertical Motion Simulator (VMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahasrabudhe, Vineet; Melkers, Edgar; Faynberg, Alexander; Blanken, Chris L.

    2003-01-01

    The UH-60 BLACK HAWK was designed in the 1970s, when the US Army primarily operated during the day in good visual conditions. Subsequently, the introduction of night-vision goggles increased the BLACK HAWK'S mission effectiveness, but the accident rate also increased. The increased accident rate is strongly tied to increased pilot workload as a result of a degradation in visual cues. Over twenty years of research in helicopter flight control and handling qualities has shown that these degraded handling qualities can be recovered by modifying the response type of the helicopter in low speed flight. Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation initiated a project under the National Rotorcraft Technology Center (NRTC) to develop modern flight control laws while utilizing the existing partial authority Stability Augmentation System (SAS) of the BLACK HAWK. This effort resulted in a set of Modernized Control Laws (MCLAWS) that incorporate rate command and attitude command response types. Sikorsky and the US Army Aeroflightdynamics Directorate (AFDD) conducted a piloted simulation on the NASA-Ames Vertical h4otion Simulator, to assess potential handling qualities and to reduce the risk of subsequent implementation and flight test of these modern control laws on AFDD's EH-60L helicopter. The simulation showed that Attitude Command Attitude Hold control laws in pitch and roll improve handling qualities in the low speed flight regime. These improvements are consistent across a range of mission task elements and for both good and degraded visual environments. The MCLAWS perform better than the baseline UH-60A control laws in the presence of wind and turbulence. Finally, while the improved handling qualities in the pitch and roll axis allow the pilot to pay more attention to the vertical axis and hence altitude performance also improves, it is clear from pilot comments and altitude excursions that the addition of an Altitude Hold function would further reduce workload and improve overall

  16. Study of the VOC emissions from a municipal solid waste storage pilot-scale cell: comparison with biogases from municipal waste landfill site.

    PubMed

    Chiriac, R; De Araujos Morais, J; Carre, J; Bayard, R; Chovelon, J M; Gourdon, R

    2011-11-01

    The emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from municipal solid waste stored in a pilot-scale cell containing 6.4 tonnes of waste (storage facility which is left open during the first period (40 days) and then closed with recirculation of leachates during a second period (100 days)) was followed by dynamic sampling on activated carbon and analysed by GC-MS after solvent extraction. This was done in order to know the VOC emissions before the installation of a methanogenesis process for the entire waste mass. The results, expressed in reference to toluene, were exploited during the whole study on all the analyzable VOCs: alcohols, ketones and esters, alkanes, benzenic and cyclic compounds, chlorinated compounds, terpene, and organic sulphides. The results of this study on the pilot-scale cell are then compared with those concerning three biogases from a municipal waste landfill: biogas (1) coming from waste cells being filled or recently closed, biogas (2) from all the waste storage cells on site, and biogas (3) which is a residual gas from old storage cells without aspiration of the gas. The analysis of the results obtained revealed: (i) a high emission of VOCs, principally alcohols, ketones and esters during the acidogenesis; (ii) a decrease in the alkane content and an increase in the terpene content were observed in the VOCs emitted during the production of methane; (iii) the production of heavier alkanes and an increase in the average number of carbon atoms per molecule of alkane with the progression of the stabilisation/maturation process were also observed. Previous studies have concentrated almost on the analysis of biogases from landfills. Our research aimed at gaining a more complete understanding of the decomposition/degradation of municipal solid waste by measuring the VOCs emitted from the very start of the landfill process i.e. during the acidogenesis and acetogenesis phases.

  17. Automated UV process analyzers/distributed control boost emission control process efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Fabre, M.C.

    1987-10-01

    The Marathon Petroleum Company refinery in Garyville, LA, refines more than 200,000 bbl/day of crude oil. Waste process gases-H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/-are handled by a single system. Emission control efficiency and reliability needed to be improve in the H/sub 2/S and NH/sub 3/ acid gas conversion process. To maintain the EPA emission maximum of only 10 ppm H/sub 2/S, the process required almost continuous manual inspection. The need for frequent optical measurements, the susceptibility of process upset due to human error or steam variances, and stream overloading problems combined to make the process unreliable. In its ongoing effort to ensure maximum emission control efficiency, Marathathon retrofit the process to an automated self-diagnostic treatment and monitoring system in 1986. The multistep treatment process controls and treats Marathon;s acid gas-by-product through two existing Claus process units and SO/sub 2/-to-H/sub 2/S converters, a desuperheater, an amine scrubber and a thermal oxidizer. Critical to maintaining both the stack emission control and the efficiency of the process are a pair of automated UV-photometric analyzers. The instruments were incorporated to monitor the gas streams and to fine-tune the process equipment (through the plant's existing distributed control system) to meet variably operating conditions. Since the retrofitted and monitoring system became operational, Marathon has eliminated the compliance reporting problems that had formerly plaqued the plant. Stack efficiency (measuring stream content of SO/sub 2/) has been consistently maintained at levels of 50% or less of the allowable EPA maximum. By automating the analysis procedures, little hands-on-or visual maintenance, sample testing, calibration, and report preparation time are required, saving an estimated 60% in yearly operations and maintenance costs.

  18. Estimation of automobile emissions and control strategies in India.

    PubMed

    Nesamani, K S

    2010-03-15

    Rapid, but unplanned urban development and the consequent urban sprawl coupled with economic growth have aggravated auto dependency in India over the last two decades. This has resulted in congestion and pollution in cities. The central and state governments have taken many ameliorative measures to reduce vehicular emissions. However, evolution of scientific methods for emission inventory is crucial. Therefore, an attempt has been made to estimate the emissions (running and start) from on-road vehicles in Chennai using IVE model in this paper. GPS was used to collect driving patterns. The estimated emissions from motor vehicles in Chennai in 2005 were 431, 119, 46, 7, 4575, 29, and 0.41 tons/days respectively for CO, VOC, NO(x), PM, CO(2,) CH(4) and N(2)O. It is observed from the results that air quality in Chennai has degraded. The estimation revealed that two and three-wheelers emitted about 64% of the total CO emissions and heavy-duty vehicles accounted for more than 60% and 36% of the NO(x) and PM emissions respectively. About 19% of total emissions were that of start emissions. It is also estimated that on-road transport contributes about 6637 tons/day CO(2) equivalent in Chennai. This paper has further examined various mitigation options to reduce vehicular emissions. The study has concluded that advanced vehicular technology and augmentation of public transit would have significant impact on reducing vehicular emissions.

  19. Predicting field N2O emissions and controlling factors in a Swiss grassland using a mid-infrared spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhwan; Six, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Infrared reflectance spectroscopy, alternative to conventional analysis methods, is used to analyze soil physical and chemical properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopic technique to determine the spatial and temporal changes and variability in controlling factors of soil N2O emissions under various management practices. In this study, we selected an intensively managed grassland in Chamau, Switzerland as a pilot site. The perennial grassland is situated in the pre-alpine lowlands of Switzerland at 400 m a.s.l., and managed for forage production. Management practices include 4 to 6 times mowing per year. One to two weeks after mowing, the grassland is fertilized with cattle slurry. Gas and soil (0-20 cm depth) samples were collected from April to September 2013. The soil samples were air-dried and ball-milled for spectrum measurements in the MIR (= 4000-400 cm-1). We developed and tested a site-specific calibration model to quantify soil factors affecting daily N2O emissions, namely mineral N concentrations, dissolved organic carbon, pH, and gravimetric water content. Soil MIR databases could be applied to large-scale biogeochemical modeling of N2O emissions to improve our understanding of related mechanisms, encompassing its high spatial and temporal variation. We also discuss potential MIR spectroscopy applications in regional soil assessment and GHG accounting under climate change.

  20. 78 FR 5303 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; State of Missouri; Control of Sulfur Emissions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Sulfur Emissions From Stationary Boilers AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Direct... ) emissions (a precursor pollutant to PM 2.5 ), from industrial boilers. EPA is approving this revision... 10 CSR 10- 5.570 Control of Sulfur Emissions from Stationary Boilers to the SIP. This rule...

  1. Geomorphic and hydrologic controls of dust emissions during drought from Yellow Lake playa, West Texas, USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research on the factors that control dust emissions from playas has revealed a number of complex geomorphic and hydrologic factors, yet there are few measurements of dust emissions from playas during drought or low-emission seasons. Deflation of Yellow Lake, a saline playa in West Texas, produces sa...

  2. Parenting for Autism, Language, And Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES): protocol for a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Margiad Elen; Hastings, Richard; Charles, Joanna Mary; Evans, Sue; Hutchings, Judy

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Children with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) often have associated behavioural difficulties that can present a challenge for parents and parenting. There are several effective social learning theory-based parenting programmes for dealing with behavioural difficulties, including the Incredible Years (IY) parent programmes. However, these programmes typically do not specifically target parents of children with ASD. Recently, a new addition to the IY suite of programmes known as the IY Autistic Spectrum and Language Delays (IY-ASLD) parent programme was developed. The main aims of the present study are to examine the feasibility of delivering this programme within child health services and to provide initial evidence for effectiveness and economic costs. Methods and analysis The Parenting for Autism, Language, And Communication Evaluation Study (PALACES) trial is a pragmatic, multicentre, pilot randomised controlled trial comparing the IY-ASLD programme with a wait-list control condition. 72 parents of children with ASD (aged 3–8 years) will be randomly allocated to either the intervention or control condition. Data will be collected prior to randomisation and 6 months postrandomisation for all families. Families in the intervention condition only will also be followed up at 12 and 18 months postrandomisation. This study will provide initial evidence of effectiveness for the newly developed IY-ASLD parenting programme. It will also add to the limited economic evidence for an intervention targeting parents of children with ASD and provide longer term data, an important component for evaluations of parenting programmes. Ethics and dissemination Approval for the study was granted by the Research Ethics Committee at the School of Psychology, Bangor University (reference number: 2016–15768) and the North Wales Research Ethics Committee, UK (reference number: 16/WA/0224). The findings will be disseminated through research conferences and peer

  3. Fine particle (2.5 microns) emissions: regulations, measurement, and control

    SciTech Connect

    John D. McKenna; James H. Turner; James P. McKenna, Jr.

    2008-09-15

    Contents: Introduction; Health effects; Air monitoring; Emission control methods - fabric filter/baghouses, electrostatic precipitators, wet scrubbers; Environmental technology verification and baghouse filtration products; Cost considerations; and Nanoparticulates.

  4. Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depression following perinatal loss: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jennifer E; Price, Ann Back; Kao, Jennifer Chienwen; Fernandes, Karen; Stout, Robert; Gobin, Robyn L; Zlotnick, Caron

    2016-10-01

    This randomized controlled pilot trial examined the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of an adapted interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for major depressive disorder (MDD) following perinatal loss (miscarriage, stillbirth, or early neonatal death). Fifty women who experienced a perinatal loss within the past 18 months, whose current depressive episode onset occurred during or after the loss, were randomized to the group IPT adapted for perinatal loss (the Group IPT for Major Depression Following Perinatal Loss manual developed for this study is available at no cost by contacting either of the first two authors) or to the group Coping with Depression (CWD), a cognitive behavioral treatment which did not focus on perinatal loss nor social support. Assessments occurred at baseline, treatment weeks 4 and 8, post-treatment, and 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment. IPT was feasible and acceptable in this population. Although some participants were initially hesitant to discuss their losses in a group (as occurred in IPT but not CWD), end of treatment satisfaction scores were significantly (p = 0.001) higher in IPT than in CWD. Confidence intervals around between-groups effect sizes favored IPT for reductions in depressive symptoms during treatment as well as for improvement in mode-specific targets (social support, grief symptoms) and recovery from a post-traumatic stress disorder over follow-up. This group IPT treatment adapted for MDD after perinatal loss is feasible, acceptable, and possibly efficacious.

  5. Antagonism of NMDA receptors as a potential treatment for Down syndrome: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Boada, R; Hutaff-Lee, C; Schrader, A; Weitzenkamp, D; Benke, T A; Goldson, E J; Costa, A C S

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor uncompetitive antagonist, memantine hydrochloride (memantine), has been shown to improve learning/memory and rescue one form of hippocampus synaptic plasticity dysfunction in the best-studied mouse model of DS available, the Ts65Dn mouse. Given the status of memantine as a treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD) approved by the Food and Drug Administration, the preclinical evidence of potential efficacy in Ts65Dn mice, and the favorable safety profile of memantine, we designed a study to investigate whether the findings in the mouse model could be translated to individuals with DS. In this pilot, proof-of-principle study we hypothesized that memantine therapy would improve test scores of young adults with DS on measures of episodic and spatial memory, which are generally considered to be hippocampus dependent. Accordingly, in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we compared the effect of 16-week treatment with either memantine or placebo on cognitive and adaptive functions of 40 young adults with DS using a carefully selected set of neuropsychological outcome measures. Safety and tolerability were also monitored. Although no significant differences were observed between the memantine and placebo groups on the two primary outcome measures, we found a significant improvement in the memantine group in one of the secondary measures associated with the primary hypothesis. Only infrequent and mild adverse events were noted. PMID:22806212

  6. Microbial pilot test for the control of paraffin and asphaltenes at Prudhoe Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, K.R.; Lloyd, C.T.; Spencer, D.; Hoeltgen, J.

    1996-12-31

    The following paper describes a six month pilot test for the control of paraffin and asphaltene deposition at the reservoir level using naturally occurring microorganisms. For the course of the paper, paraffin will be defined as pentane soluble hydrocarbon precipitates. Likewise, asphaltene will be defined as hydrocarbon deposits which are pentane insoluble and toluene soluble. The microbial project was conducted on four wells in the Eastern Operating Area of the Prudhoe Bay oil field. The microorganisms were selected based upon their ability to metabolize long hydrocarbon chains into lighter components. Data collected from the project reflects the impact on total fluid production and crude oil physical and chemical properties i.e. API gravity, viscosity, and sulfur content. Operation and maintenance costs for the microbial treatments versus alternative methods are shown and proven to be favorable on certain well types. The advantages of growing the microbes on site and increasing the variety and type of microbial functions is presented. The treatment techniques for effective microbial application along with candidate selection are discussed.

  7. A Pilot Study to Examine Maturation of Body Temperature Control in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Knobel, Robin B.; Levy, Janet; Katz, Laurence; Guenther, Bob; Holditch-Davis, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test instrumentation and develop analytic models to use in a larger study to examine developmental trajectories of body temperature and peripheral perfusion from birth in extremely low birth weight (EBLW) infants. Design A case study design. Setting The study took place in a level four neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in North Carolina. Participants Four ELBW infants, less than 29 weeks gestational age at birth. Methods Physiologic data were measured every minute for the first 5 days of life: peripheral perfusion using perfusion index by Masimo and body temperature using thermistors. Body temperature was also measured using infrared thermal imaging. Stimulation and care events were recorded over the first 5 days using video which was coded with Noldus Observer software. Novel analytical models using the state space approach to time series analysis were developed to explore maturation of neural control over central and peripheral body temperature. Results/Conclusion Results from this pilot study confirmed the feasibility of using multiple instruments to measure temperature and perfusion in ELBW infants. This approach added rich data to our case study design and set a clinical context with which to interpret longitudinal physiological data. PMID:24004312

  8. Temperature control in a 30 stage, 5-cm Centrifugal Contactor Pilot Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Jack D. Law; Troy G. Garn; David H. Meikrantz

    2009-09-01

    Temperature profile testing was performed using a 30 stage 5-cm centrifugal contactor pilot plant. These tests were performed to evaluate the ability to control process temperature by adjusting feed solution temperatures. This would eliminate the need for complex jacketed heat exchanger installation on the centrifugal contactors. Thermocouples were installed on the inlet and outlets of each stage, as well as directly in the mixing zone of several of the contactor stages. Lamp oil, a commercially available alkane mixture of C14 to C18 chains, and tap water adjusted to pH 2 with nitric acid were the solution feeds for the temperature profile testing. Temperature data profiles for an array of total throughputs and contactor rpm values for both single-phase and two-phase systems were collected with selected profiles. The total throughput ranged from 0.5-1.4 L/min with rotor speeds from 3500-4000 rpm. Inlet solution temperatures ranging from ambient up to 50 °C were tested. Results of the two-phase temperature profile testing are detailed

  9. Asenapine for the Control of Physical Aggression: A Prospective Naturalist Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Amon, Jin Shi; Johnson, Sarah B.; El-Mallakh, Rif S.

    2017-01-01

    It has been previously purported that higher relative affinity to the dopamine D4 receptor compared to D2 (i.e., D4/D2 affinity ratio > 1) may underlie unique antiaggression potency. Asenapine is a newer antipsychotic that also has D4/D2 affinity ratio > 1. It has demonstrated efficacy in reducing acute agitation in a placebo-controlled study. We performed a prospective naturalistic, pilot, proof of concept study on an inpatient psychiatric unit. Among patients with aggression at time of admission (≥ 12 on Refined Aggression Questionnaire [RAQ], or ≥ 2 on Modified Overt Aggression Scale [MOAS]), asenapine treatment was associated with a significant reduction in total aggression as measured by the MOAS (−14.7 ± 11.59 vs. −5.4 ± 10.12, P = 0.045), and particularly physical aggression (−8.0 ± 5.06 vs. −0.78 ± 2.40, P < 0.0001) compared to treatment that did not include asenapine. These data suggest that asenapine may be useful in the targeted treatment of aggression, and provide some support for the D4/D2 affinity ratio hypothesis. PMID:28138201

  10. Randomized, placebo-controlled pilot trial of gabapentin during an outpatient, buprenorphine-assisted detoxification procedure.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Nichole C; Mancino, Michael J; Gentry, W Brooks; Guise, J Benjamin; Bickel, Warren K; Thostenson, Jeff; Oliveto, Alison H

    2013-08-01

    This pilot study examined the efficacy of the N-type calcium channel blocker gabapentin to improve outcomes during a brief detoxification protocol with buprenorphine. Treatment-seeking opioid-dependent individuals were enrolled in a 5-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial examining the effects of gabapentin during a 10-day outpatient detoxification from buprenorphine. Participants were inducted onto buprenorphine sublingual tablets during Week 1, were randomized and inducted onto gabapentin or placebo during Week 2, underwent a 10-day buprenorphine taper during Weeks 3 and 4, and then were tapered off gabapentin/placebo during Week 5. Assessments included thrice-weekly opioid withdrawal scales, vitals, and urine drug screens. Twenty-four individuals (13 male; 17 Caucasian, 3 African American, 4 Latino; mean age 29.7 years) participated in the detoxification portion of the study (gabapentin, n = 11; placebo, n = 13). Baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between groups. Self-reported and observer-rated opioid withdrawal ratings were relatively low and did not differ between groups during the buprenorphine taper. Urine results showed a Drug × Time interaction, such that the probability of opioid-positive urines significantly decreased over time in the gabapentin versus placebo groups during Weeks 3 and 4 (OR = 0.73, p = .004). These results suggest that gabapentin reduces opioid use during a 10-day buprenorphine detoxification procedure.

  11. Pilot Quality Control Program for Audit RT External Beams at Mexican Hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Alvarez R, J T; Tovar M, V M

    2008-08-11

    A pilot quality control program for audit 18 radiotherapy RT external beams at 13 Mexican hospitals is described--for eleven {sup 60}Co beams and seven photon beams of 6, 10 and 15 MV from accelerators. This program contains five parts: a) Preparation of the TLD-100 powder: washing, drying and annealing (one hour 400 deg. C plus 24 hrs 80 deg. C). b) Sending two IAEA type capsules to the hospitals for irradiation at the hospital to a nominal D{sub W} = 2 Gy{center_dot}c) Preparation at the SSDL of ten calibration curves CC in the range of 0.5 Gy to 6 Gy in terms of absorbed dose to water D{sub W} for {sup 60}Co with traceability to primary laboratory NRC (Canada), according to a window irradiation: 26/10/2007-7/12/2007. d) Reading all capsules that match their hospital time irradiation and the SSDL window irradiation. f) Evaluation of the Dw imparted by the hospitals.

  12. High vs. Low Frequency Stimulation Effects on Fine Motor Control in Chronic Hemiplegia: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Doucet, Barbara M.; Griffin, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The optimal parameters of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for recovery of hand function following stroke are not known. This clinical pilot study examined whether higher or lower frequencies are more effective for improving fine motor control of the hand in a chronic post-stroke population. Methods A one-month, 4x/week in-home regimen of either a high frequency (40Hz) or low frequency (20Hz) NMES program was applied to the hemiplegic thenar muscles of 16 persons with chronic stroke. Participants were identified a priori as having a low level of function (LF) or a high level of function (HF). Outcome measures of strength, dexterity, and endurance were measured before and after participation in the regimen. Results LF subjects showed no significant changes with either the high or the low frequency NMES regimen. HF subjects showed significant changes in strength, dexterity and endurance. Within this group, higher frequencies of stimulation yielded strength gains and increased motor activation; lower frequencies impacted dexterity and endurance. Conclusions The results suggest that higher frequencies of stimulation could be more effective in improving strength and motor activation properties and that lower frequencies may impact coordination and endurance changes; results also indicate that persons with a higher functional level of recovery may respond more favorably to NMES regimens, but further study with larger patient groups is warranted. PMID:23893829

  13. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  14. Tactile acuity training for patients with chronic low back pain: a pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic pain can disrupt the cortical representation of a painful body part. This disruption may play a role in maintaining the individual’s pain. Tactile acuity training has been used to normalise cortical representation and reduce pain in certain pain conditions. However, there is little evidence for the effectiveness of this intervention for chronic low back pain (CLBP). The primary aim of this study was to inform the development of a fully powered randomised controlled trial (RCT) by providing preliminary data on the effect of tactile acuity training on pain and function in individuals with CLBP. The secondary aim was to obtain qualitative feedback about the intervention. Methods In this mixed-methods pilot RCT 15 individuals were randomised to either an intervention (tactile acuity training) or a placebo group (sham tactile acuity training). All participants received 3 sessions of acuity training (intervention or sham) from a physiotherapist and were requested to undertake daily acuity home training facilitated by an informal carer (friend/relative). All participants also received usual care physiotherapy. The primary outcome measures were pain (0-100visual analogue scale (VAS)) and function (Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ)). Participants and their informal carers were invited to a focus group to provide feedback on the intervention. Results The placebo group improved by the greatest magnitude for both outcome measures, but there was no statistically significant difference (Mean difference (95%CI), p-value) between groups for change in pain (25.6 (-0.7 to 51.9), p = 0.056) or function (2.2 (-1.6 to 6.0), p = 0.237). Comparing the number of individuals achieving a minimally clinically significant improvement, the placebo group had better outcomes for pain with all participants achieving ≥30% improvement compared to only a third of the intervention group (6/6 vs. 3/9, p = 0.036). Qualitatively, participants reported that

  15. A Pilot Randomized Placebo Controlled Trial of Electroacupuncture for Women with Pure Stress Urinary Incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Huanfang; Liu, Baoyan; Wu, Jiani; Du, Ruosang; Liu, Xiaoxu; Yu, Jinna; Liu, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    Background Acupuncture is a potential conservative therapy for women with stress urinary incontinence (SUI). There is limited evidence to support its effectiveness due to the poor quality of existing studies. Methods We performed a pilot randomized, controlled trial to preliminarily assess the efficacy of electroacupuncture (EA) in women with pure SUI. A total of 80 women with pure SUI were randomly assigned to receive EA with deep needling at BL33 and BL35 (n = 40) or sham EA with non-penetrating needling at sham acupoints (n = 40) three sessions per week for 6 weeks. The women were followed for 24 weeks. The primary outcome was the change from baseline in the amount of urine leakage measured by a 1-hour pad test after 6 weeks. The secondary outcomes included the 72-hour incontinence episode frequency (IEF), International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Short Form (ICIQ-SF) score, and patient self-evaluation of therapeutic effect. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored throughout the trial. Results The median decrease from baseline of urine leakage measured by the 1-hour pad test was 2.5 g [interquartile range (IQR): 1.80–14.6 in the EA group, which was greater than the median decrease of 0.05 g (IQR: -2.80–+0.50) in the sham EA group after 6 weeks (p<0.01). The differences between groups in the decrease from baseline of 72-hour IEF became statistically significant at week 30 with a median decrease of 3.25 g (IQR: 1.25–5.69) in the EA group, and a median decrease of 1.00 g (IQR: -0.69–+2.88) in the sham EA group (p = 0.01). The participants in the EA group showed greater decreases in ICIQ-SF score and higher ratings in the help they received from the treatment than those in the sham EA group at weeks 6,18 and 30 (all p<0.05). No obvious AEs were observed in either group. Conclusion EA may effectively and safely relieve urinary incontinence symptoms and improve quality of life in women with pure SUI. EA demonstrated more than a placebo effect. Since

  16. Mobile Technology for Vegetable Consumption: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Study in Overweight Adults

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Maya; King, Abby C

    2016-01-01

    Background Mobile apps present a potentially cost-effective tool for delivering behavior change interventions at scale, but no known studies have tested the efficacy of apps as a tool to specifically increase vegetable consumption among overweight adults. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the initial efficacy and user acceptability of a theory-driven mobile app to increase vegetable consumption. Methods A total of 17 overweight adults aged 42.0 (SD 7.3) years with a body mass index (BMI) of 32.0 (SD 3.5) kg/m2 were randomized to the use of Vegethon (a fully automated theory-driven mobile app enabling self-monitoring of vegetable consumption, goal setting, feedback, and social comparison) or a wait-listed control condition. All participants were recruited from an ongoing 12-month weight loss trial (parent trial). Researchers who performed data analysis were blinded to condition assignment. The primary outcome measure was daily vegetable consumption, assessed using an adapted version of the validated Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire administered at baseline and 12 weeks after randomization. An analysis of covariance was used to assess differences in 12-week vegetable consumption between intervention and control conditions, controlling for baseline. App usability and satisfaction were measured via a 21-item post-intervention questionnaire. Results Using intention-to-treat analyses, all enrolled participants (intervention: 8; control: 9) were analyzed. Of the 8 participants randomized to the intervention, 5 downloaded the app and logged their vegetable consumption a mean of 0.7 (SD 0.9) times per day, 2 downloaded the app but did not use it, and 1 never downloaded it. Consumption of vegetables was significantly greater among the intervention versus control condition at the end of the 12-week pilot study (adjusted mean difference: 7.4 servings; 95% CI 1.4-13.5; P=.02). Among secondary outcomes defined a priori, there was significantly greater

  17. FUEL FORMULATION EFFECTS ON DIESEL FUEL INJECTION, COMBUSTION, EMISSIONS AND EMISSION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Boehman, A; Alam, M; Song, J; Acharya, R; Szybist, J; Zello, V; Miller, K

    2003-08-24

    This paper describes work under a U.S. DOE sponsored Ultra Clean Fuels project entitled ''Ultra Clean Fuels from Natural Gas,'' Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-01NT41098. In this study we have examined the incremental benefits of moving from low sulfur diesel fuel and ultra low sulfur diesel fuel to an ultra clean fuel, Fischer-Tropsch diesel fuel produced from natural gas. Blending with biodiesel, B100, was also considered. The impact of fuel formulation on fuel injection timing, bulk modulus of compressibility, in-cylinder combustion processes, gaseous and particulate emissions, DPF regeneration temperature and urea-SCR NOx control has been examined. The primary test engine is a 5.9L Cummins ISB, which has been instrumented for in-cylinder combustion analysis and in-cylinder visualization with an engine videoscope. A single-cylinder engine has also been used to examine in detail the impacts of fuel formulation on injection timing in a pump-line-nozzle fueling system, to assist in the interpretation of results from the ISB engine.

  18. Development of helicopter attitude axes controlled hover flight without pilot assistance and vehicle crashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Miguel

    In this work, we show how to computerize a helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight without the assistance of a pilot and without ever crashing. We start by developing a helicopter research test bed system including all hardware, software, and means for testing and training the helicopter to fly by computer. We select a Remote Controlled helicopter with a 5 ft. diameter rotor and 2.2 hp engine. We equip the helicopter with a payload of sensors, computers, navigation and telemetry equipment, and batteries. We develop a differential GPS system with cm accuracy and a ground computerized navigation system for six degrees of freedom (6-DoF) free flight while tracking navigation commands. We design feedback control loops with yet-to-be-determined gains for the five control "knobs" available to a flying radio-controlled (RC) miniature helicopter: engine throttle, main rotor collective pitch, longitudinal cyclic pitch, lateral cyclic pitch, and tail rotor collective pitch. We develop helicopter flight equations using fundamental dynamics, helicopter momentum theory and blade element theory. The helicopter flight equations include helicopter rotor equations of motions, helicopter rotor forces and moments, helicopter trim equations, helicopter stability derivatives, and a coupled fuselage-rotor helicopter 6-DoF model. The helicopter simulation also includes helicopter engine control equations, a helicopter aerodynamic model, and finally helicopter stability and control equations. The derivation of a set of non-linear equations of motion for the main rotor is a contribution of this thesis work. We design and build two special test stands for training and testing the helicopter to fly attitude axes controlled hover flight, starting with one axis at a time and progressing to multiple axes. The first test stand is built for teaching and testing controlled flight of elevation and yaw (i.e., directional control). The second test stand is built for teaching and

  19. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume E. Evaluation of fabric filter for particulate emission control. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Three types of Solvent Refined Coal Fuels namely, Pulverized SRC Fuel Solids, SRC Residual Fuel Oil and SRC Fuel Water Slurry were fired, one at a time, in a 700 HP boiler designed for oil firing. The purpose was to demonstrate the suitability of SRC Fuels in serving as an alternative to fuel oil and to evaluate the feasibility of fabric filters for control of emissions from SRC fuel fired boilers. Two types of fabric filters, namely a Pulse Jet, full scale Baghouse and a Reverse Air, pilot scale filter were tested. The Pulse Jet Baghouse was an existing full scale unit with a cloth area of 1924 square feet and a gas flow capacity of approximately 10,000 ACFM at 400/sup 0/F. The Reverse Air Pilot Filter was a bench scale, portable unit with a cloth area of 1 square foot and a gas flow capacity of up to 6 ACFM at 400/sup 0/F. This report presents the results of particulate mass emission rates, operating conditions and performance of the two fabric filters. The particulate emissions from all fuel types were easily controlled to less than 0.01 lb/million Btu within normal and conventional working range of the fabric filters and with no special or restrictive operating conditions.

  20. COST EFFECTIVE VOC EMISSION CONTROL STARTEGIES FOR MILITARY, AEROSPACE,AND INDUSTRIAL PAINT SPRAY BOOTH OPERATIONS: COMBINING IMPROVED VENTILATION SYSTEMS WITH INNOVATIVE, LOW COST EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes a full-scale demonstration program in which several paint booths were modified for recirculation ventilation; the booth exhaust streams are vented to an innovative volatile organic compound (VOC) emission control system having extremely low operating costs. ...

  1. A Multidisciplinary Intervention Utilizing Virtual Communication Tools to Reduce Health Disparities: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Emerson, John F.; Welch, Madelyn; Rossman, Whitney E.; Carek, Stephen; Ludden, Thomas; Templin, Megan; Moore, Charity G.; Tapp, Hazel; Dulin, Michael; McWilliams, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technology are likely to provide new approaches to address healthcare disparities for high-risk populations. This study explores the feasibility of a new approach to health disparities research using a multidisciplinary intervention and advanced communication technology to improve patient access to care and chronic disease management. A high-risk cohort of uninsured, poorly-controlled diabetic patients was identified then randomized pre-consent with stratification by geographic region to receive either the intervention or usual care. Prior to enrollment, participants were screened for readiness to make a behavioral change. The primary outcome was the feasibility of protocol implementation, and secondary outcomes included the use of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) services and markers of chronic disease control. The intervention included a standardized needs assessment, individualized care plan, intensive management by a multidisciplinary team, including health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and the use of a cloud-based glucose monitoring system. One-hundred twenty-seven high-risk, potentially eligible participants were randomized. Sixty-one met eligibility criteria after an in-depth review. Due to limited resources and time for the pilot, we only attempted to contact 36 participants. Of these, we successfully reached 20 (32%) by phone and conducted a readiness to change screen. Ten participants screened in as ready to change and were enrolled, while the remaining 10 were not ready to change. Eight enrolled participants completed the final three-month follow-up. Intervention feasibility was demonstrated through successful implementation of 13 out of 14 health coach-facilitated virtual visits, and 100% of participants indicated that they would recommend the intervention to a friend. Protocol feasibility was demonstrated as eight of 10 participants completed the entire study protocol. At the end of the three-month intervention, participants had a

  2. A self-care educational intervention to improve knowledge of dietary phosphorus control in patients requiring hemodialysis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brogdon, Rhonda M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to improve knowledge of dietary phosphorus control in patients requiring hemodialysis. The evidence-based literature suggests that nonadherence to phosphorous control in diets is a major health concern for patients who require hemodialysis because they have limited kidney function. Phosphorus tends to accumulate rather than be excreted. A self-care educational intervention was used in a pilot study (N = 10) to increase patients' knowledge about low phosphorous diets to promote dietary adherence. The outcome of this study was evaluated by a pre-test/post-test of patients' knowledge about phosphorus in the diet. A positive gain in knowledge was realized related to the intervention.

  3. [Study on feasible emission control level of air pollutions for cement industry ].

    PubMed

    Ren, Chun; Jiang, Mei; Zou, Lan; Li, Xiao-qian; Wei, Yu-xia; Zhao, Guo-hua; Zhang, Guo-ning

    2014-09-01

    The revised National Emission Standard of Air Pollutions for Cement Industry has been issued, which will be effective for the new enterprises and the existing enterprises on Mar. 1st, 2014 and July 1st, 2015, respectively. In the process of revision, the key technical issues on determination of standard limits was how to determine the feasible emission control level of air pollutions. Feasible emission control requirements were put forward, according to air pollutants emission, technologies, environmental management requirements and foreign standards, etc. The main contents of the revised standard include expanding the scope of application, increasing the pollutants, improving the particulate and NO emissions control level, and increasing special emission limits applied to key areas of air pollutants. The standard will become the gripper of pollution prevention, total emission reduction, structural adjustment and optimization of the layout, and will promote scientific and technical progression for the cement industry.

  4. Off-cycle exhaust emissions from modern passenger cars with properly-functioning emissions controls

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, R.W.; Ross, M.H.

    1996-09-01

    Real-world tailpipe emissions from properly-functioning, model year 1991--94 conventional gasoline-fueled cars associated with vehicle operations not emphasized in the FTP are analyzed. Tailpipe emissions are expressed as the product of three factors: fuel rate, engine-out emissions index, and catalyst pass fraction, which are modeled using empirical data from the FTP-Revision Project and applied to in-use driving survey data to estimate real-world emissions. Average tailpipe emissions due to fuel enrichment in warmed-up vehicles are estimated to be 8 g/mile for CO, and 0.3 g/mile for HC. For NO{sub x}, the contribution due to incremental loads on the engine (i.e. air conditioner, grade, high acceleration, and high speed) that are not accounted for in the FTP but are encountered in real-world driving are estimated to be roughly 0.3 g/mile.

  5. Trimethopim-sulfamethoxazole compared with benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children: a pilot randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Steven Y C; Andrews, Ross M; Kearns, Therese; Gundjirryirr, Rosalyn; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2010-03-01

    We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial comparing trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole to benzathine penicillin for treatment of impetigo in Aboriginal children. Treatment was successful in 7 of 7 children treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and 5 of 6 treated with benzathine penicillin. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole achieved microbiological clearance and healing of sores from which beta-hemolytic streptococci and community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were initially cultured.

  6. Energy, Carbon-emission and Financial Savings from Thermostat Control

    SciTech Connect

    Blasing, T J; Schroeder, Dana

    2013-08-01

    Among the easiest approaches to energy, and cost, savings for most people is the adjustment of thermostats to save energy. Here we estimate savings of energy, carbon, and money in the United States of America (USA) that would result from adjusting thermostats in residential and commercial buildings by about half a degree Celsius downward during the heating season and upward during the cooling season. To obtain as small a unit as possible, and therefore the least likely to be noticeable by most people, we selected an adjustment of one degree Fahrenheit (0.56 degree Celsius) which is the gradation used almost exclusively on thermostats in the USA and is the smallest unit of temperature that has been used historically. Heating and/or cooling of interior building space for personal comfort is sometimes referred to as space conditioning, a term we will use for convenience throughout this work without consideration of humidity. Thermostat adjustment, as we use the term here, applies to thermostats that control the indoor temperature, and not to other thermostats such as those on water heaters. We track emissions of carbon only, rather than of carbon dioxide, because carbon atoms change atomic partners as they move through the carbon cycle, from atmosphere to biosphere or ocean and, on longer time scales, through the rock cycle. To convert a mass of carbon to an equivalent mass of carbon dioxide (thereby including the mass of the 2 oxygen atoms in each molecule) simply multiply by 3.67.

  7. 40 CFR 63.985 - Nonflare control devices used to control emissions from storage vessels and low throughput...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... vapors, the type of condenser, and the design flow rate of the emission stream. (ii) Performance test. A... control device as described in paragraph (b)(1)(i) of this section if a performance test will be performed... Compliance Status whenever emissions of regulated material are routed to the control device except...

  8. Controlling satellite communication system unwanted emissions in congested RF spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, Donald; Heymann, Roger

    2007-09-01

    The International Telecommunication Union (ITU), a United Nations (UN) agency, is the agency that, under an international treaty, sets radio spectrum usage regulations among member nations. Within the United States of America (USA), the organization that sets regulations, coordinates an application for use, and provides authorization for federal government/agency use of the radio frequency (RF) spectrum is the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA). In this regard, the NTIA defines which RF spectrum is available for federal government use in the USA, and how it is to be used. The NTIA is a component of the United States (U.S.) Department of Commerce of the federal government. The significance of ITU regulations is that ITU approval is required for U.S. federal government/agency permission to use the RF spectrum outside of U.S. boundaries. All member nations have signed a treaty to do so. U.S. federal regulations for federal use of the RF spectrum are found in the Manual of Regulations and Procedures for Federal Radio Frequency Management, and extracts of the manual are found in what is known as the Table of Frequency Allocations. Nonfederal government and private sector use of the RF spectrum within the U.S. is regulated by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). There is a need to control "unwanted emissions" (defined to include out-of-band emissions, which are those immediately adjacent to the necessary and allocated bandwidth, plus spurious emissions) to preclude interference to all other authorized users. This paper discusses the causes, effects, and mitigation of unwanted RF emissions to systems in adjacent spectra. Digital modulations are widely used in today's satellite communications. Commercial communications sector standards are covered for the most part worldwide by Digital Video Broadcast - Satellite (DVB-S) and digital satellite news gathering (DSNG) evolutions and the second generation of DVB-S (DVB-S2) standard

  9. Combined aerobic and resistance training in breast cancer survivors: A randomized, controlled pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Herrero, F; San Juan, A F; Fleck, S J; Balmer, J; Pérez, M; Cañete, S; Earnest, C P; Foster, C; Lucía, A

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a combined cardiorespiratory and resistance exercise training program of short duration on the cardiorespiratory fitness, strength endurance, task specific functional muscle capacity, body composition and quality of life (QOL) in women breast cancer survivors. Sixteen subjects were randomly assigned to either a training (n = 8; age: 50 +/- 5 yrs) or control non-exercising group (n = 8; age: 51 +/- 10 yrs). The training group followed an 8-week exercise program consisting of 3 weekly sessions of 90-min duration, supervised by an experienced investigator and divided into resistance exercises and aerobic training. Before and after the intervention period, all of the subjects performed a cardiorespiratory test to measure peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), a dynamic strength endurance test (maximum number of repetitions for chest and leg press exercise at 30 - 35 % and 100 - 110 % of body mass, respectively) and a sit-stand test. Quality of life was assessed using the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer QLQ-C30 (EORTC-C30) questionnaire. In response to training, QOL, VO2peak (mean 3.9 ml/kg/min; 95 % CI, 0.93, 6.90) performance in leg press (17.9 kg; 95 % CI, 12.8, 22.4) and sit-stand test (- 0.67 s; 95 % CI, - 0.52, - 1.2) improved (p < or = 0.05). We observed no significant changes in the control group. Combined cardiorespiratory and resistance training, even of very brief duration, improves the QOL and the overall physical fitness of women breast cancer survivors.

  10. Children Learning About Secondhand Smoke (CLASS II): protocol of a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Kamran; Huque, Rumana; Jackson, Cath; Parrott, Steve; Dogar, Omara; Shah, Sarwat; Thomson, Heather; Sheikh, Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) increases children’s risk of acquiring chest and ear infections, tuberculosis, meningitis and asthma. Smoking bans in public places (where implemented) have significantly reduced adults’ exposure to SHS. However, for children, homes remain the most likely place for them to be exposed to SHS. Additional measures are therefore required to protect children from SHS. In a feasibility study in Dhaka, Bangladesh, we have shown that a school-based smoke-free intervention (SFI) was successful in encouraging children to negotiate and implement smoking restrictions in homes. We will now conduct a pilot trial to inform plans to undertake a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) investigating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of SFI in reducing children’s exposure to SHS. Methods and analysis We plan to recruit 12 primary schools in Dhaka, Bangladesh. From these schools, we will recruit approximately 360 schoolchildren in year 5 (10–12 years old), that is, 30 per school. SFI consists of six interactive educational activities aimed at increasing pupils’ knowledge about SHS and related harms, motivating them to act, providing skills to negotiate with adults to persuade them not to smoke inside homes and helping families to ‘sign-up’ to a voluntary contract to make their homes smoke-free. Children in the control arm will receive the usual education. We will estimate: recruitment and attrition rates, acceptability, fidelity to SFI, effect size, intracluster correlation coefficient, cost of intervention and adverse events. Our primary outcome will consist of SHS exposure in children measured by salivary cotinine. Secondary outcomes will include respiratory symptoms, lung function tests, healthcare contacts, school attendance, smoking uptake, quality of life and academic performance. Ethics and dissemination The trial has received ethics approval from the Research Governance Committee at the University of York

  11. A yoga intervention for type 2 diabetes risk reduction: a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes is a major health problem in many countries including India. Yoga may be an effective type 2 diabetes prevention strategy in India, particularly given its cultural familiarity. Methods This was a parallel, randomized controlled pilot study to collect feasibility and preliminary efficacy data on yoga for diabetes risk factors among people at high risk of diabetes. Primary outcomes included: changes in BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin, insulin resistance, blood pressure, and cholesterol. We also looked at measures of psychological well-being including changes in depression, anxiety, positive and negative affect and perceived stress. Forty-one participants with elevated fasting blood glucose in Bangalore, India were randomized to either yoga (n = 21) or a walking control (n = 20). Participants were asked to either attend yoga classes or complete monitored walking 3–6 days per week for eight weeks. Randomization and allocation was performed using computer-generated random numbers and group assignments delivered in sealed, opaque envelopes generated by off-site study staff. Data were analyzed based on intention to treat. Results This study was feasible in terms of recruitment, retention and adherence. In addition, yoga participants had significantly greater reductions in weight, waist circumference and BMI versus control (weight −0.8 ± 2.1 vs. 1.4 ± 3.6, p = 0.02; waist circumference −4.2 ± 4.8 vs. 0.7 ± 4.2, p < 0.01; BMI −0.2 ± 0.8 vs. 0.6 ± 1.6, p = 0.05). There were no between group differences in fasting blood glucose, postprandial blood glucose, insulin resistance or any other factors related to diabetes risk or psychological well-being. There were significant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, anxiety, depression, negative affect and perceived stress in both the yoga intervention and walking

  12. COMBUSTION CONTROL OF ORGANIC EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    More than two decades ago, researchers identified benzo(a)pyrene and other organic species in the emissions from incineration of solid waste. Chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and-furans (CDD/CDF) were first detected in municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions in 1977. Since then, C...

  13. A robust two-way switching control system for remote piloting and stabilization of low-cost quadrotor UAVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripamonti, Francesco; Resta, Ferruccio; Vivani, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two control logics and an attitude estimator for UAV stabilization and remote piloting, that are as robust as possible to physical parameters variation and to other external disturbances. Moreover, they need to be implemented on low-cost micro-controllers, in order to be attractive for commercial drones. As an example, possible applications of the two switching control logics could be area surveillance and facial recognition by means of a camera mounted on the drone: the high computational speed logic is used to reach the target, when the high-stability one is activated, in order to complete the recognition tasks.

  14. Control of odour emission in wastewater treatment plants by direct and undirected measurement of odour emission capacity.

    PubMed

    Zarra, T; Giuliani, S; Naddeo, V; Belgiorno, V

    2012-01-01

    Odour emissions from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered to be the main causes of disturbance noticed by the exposed population and have relevant impacts on both tourism economy and land costs. Odour impact from WWTPs is generated by primary and secondary odour emissions. Primary odour emissions are related especially to the wastewater type and variability discharged into the sewer and directed to the WWTP, and to the wastewater collection and sewage system. Secondary odours are related to the treatment units of the plant. Several studies describe the key role of primary odour emissions and how they are strongly related to odour impacts of WWTPs. In this way, a opportune characterization of the emission capacity of primary odour could be an effective way to control odour emission in the WWTPs. In this study the odour emission capacity (OEC) of different domestic sewers was described and investigated; a correlation between the OEC and the main physical-chemical parameters of wastewater quality was also carried out. Results of this study identify the optimum conditions for sampling and measuring OEC in wastewaters and define its dependence by wastewater quality. These results can contribute to setting the standards for the maximum odourant content of wastewater that are discharged into the publicly owned sewage system.

  15. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-03

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions.

  16. Vehicular Diesel control emissions benefit assessment in Mexico City

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Reynoso, J.; Jazcilevich, A. D.; Ruiz-Suarez, L.; Cruz-Nuñez, X.; Rojas, A. R.; Tripp, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel vehicles contribute in an important proportion to the particle and black carbon (BC) ambient concentrations in urban areas. These pollutants can effect the climate and health. The average age of the Diesel fleet in Mexico is 15 year-old. An introduction of new technologies and retrofit systems can reduce emissions from this type of vehicles. A set of policies were selected and applied in order to identify their economic benefits in health. An air quality model was used to obtain ambient concentrations from the emissions and specific methodology for emissions inventory adjustment was developed for this project. Preliminary results show an important benefit due to the improvement of the emissions reduction from the Diesel fleet. PM2.5 differences for reduction scenario case 1 and base case. Output from WRF-chem using 2005 Naional Emissions Inventory Reductions obtained using data from the initial fleet, fleet temporal variation and substitution policies.

  17. Piloted Simulation Tests of Propulsion Control as Backup to Loss of Primary Flight Controls for a B747-400 Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Hardy, Gordon; Sullivan, Barry; Jones, Jerry; Williams, Diane; Soukup, Paul; Winters, Jose

    1997-01-01

    Partial failures of aircraft primary flight control systems and structural damages to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. DC-10, B-747, C-5, B-52, and others). Following the DC-10 accident at Sioux City, Iowa in 1989, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended 'Encourage research and development of backup flight control systems for newly certified wide-body airplanes that utilize an alternate source of motive power separate from that source used for the conventional control system.' This report describes the concept of a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of a PCA piloted simulation test and evaluation of the B747-400 airplane conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in December, 1996. The purpose of the test was to develop and evaluate propulsion control throughout the full flight envelope of the B747-400 including worst case scenarios of engine failures and out of trim moments. Pilot ratings of PCA performance ranged from adequate to satisfactory. PCA performed well in unusual attitude recoveries at 35,000 ft altitude, performed well in fully coupled ILS approaches, performed well in single engine failures, and performed well at aft cg. PCA performance was primarily limited by out-of-trim moments.

  18. How light, temperature, and measurement and growth [CO2] interactively control isoprene emission in hybrid aspen

    PubMed Central

    Niinemets, Ülo; Sun, Zhihong

    2015-01-01

    Plant isoprene emissions have been modelled assuming independent controls by light, temperature and atmospheric [CO2]. However, the isoprene emission rate is ultimately controlled by the pool size of its immediate substrate, dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMADP), and isoprene synthase activity, implying that the environmental controls might interact. In addition, acclimation to growth [CO2] can shift the share of the control by DMADP pool size and isoprene synthase activity, and thereby alter the environmental sensitivity. Environmental controls of isoprene emission were studied in hybrid aspen (Populus tremula × Populus tremuloides) saplings acclimated either to ambient [CO2] of 380 μmol mol–1 or elevated [CO2] of 780 μmol mol–1. The data demonstrated strong interactive effects of environmental drivers and growth [CO2] on isoprene emissions. Light enhancement of isoprene emission was the greatest at intermediate temperatures and was greater in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants, indicating greater enhancement of the DMADP supply. The optimum temperature for isoprene emission was higher at lower light, suggesting activation of alternative DMADP sinks at higher light. In addition, [CO2] inhibition of isoprene emission was lost at a higher temperature with particularly strong effects in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. Nevertheless, DMADP pool size was still predicted to more strongly control isoprene emission at higher temperatures in elevated-[CO2]-grown plants. We argue that interactive environmental controls and acclimation to growth [CO2] should be incorporated in future isoprene emission models at the level of DMADP pool size. PMID:25399006

  19. OVERVIEW OF ADVANCED PETROLEUM-BASED FUELS-DIESEL EMISSIONS CONTROL PROGRAM (APBF-DEC)

    SciTech Connect

    Sverdrup, George M.

    2000-08-20

    The Advanced Petroleum-Based Fuels-Diesel Emissions Control Program (APBF-DEC) began in February 2000 and is supported by government agencies and industry. The purpose of the APBF-DEC program is to identify and evaluate the optimal combinations of fuels, lubricants, diesel engines, and emission control systems to meet the projected emission standards for the 2000 to 2010 time period. APBF-DEC is an outgrowth of the earlier Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects Program (DECSE), whose objective is to determine the impact of the sulfur levels in fuel on emission control systems that could lower the emissions of NOx and particulate matter (PM) from diesel powered vehicles in the 2002 to 2004 period. Results from the DECSE studies of two emission control technologies-diesel particle filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber-will be used in the APBF-DEC program. These data are expected to provide initial information on emission control technology options and the effects of fuel properties (including additives) on the performance of emission control systems.

  20. Arterial stiffness in periodontitis patients and controls. A case–control and pilot intervention study.

    PubMed

    Houcken, W; Teeuw, W J; Bizzarro, S; Alvarez Rodriguez, E; Mulders, T A; van den Born, B-Jh; Loos, B G

    2016-01-01

    Increased arterial stiffness (AS) is an important indicator for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD). Epidemiologically, periodontitis and ACVD are associated. Therefore, we aimed to investigate AS in periodontitis patients and controls. In addition, we explored the effect of periodontal therapy on AS in a sub-group of cases. Pulse-wave velocity (PWV), a non-invasive chair-side function test for AS, was measured in periodontitis patients (n=57; mean age 46.6 years) and compared with a reference group (n=48; mean age 45.5 years). In addition, 45 cases (mean age 46.9 years) were 6 months followed after periodontal treatment, to explore a possible effect on arterial function. Periodontitis patients showed a significantly increased PWV compared with the reference group (8.01±0.20 vs. 7.36±0.22 m s(-1) respectively; P=0.029) and this remained significant after adjustments for ACVD risk factors (P=0.019). After periodontal therapy, no significant reduction in PWV was seen (8.00±1.8 to 7.82±1.6 m s(-1); P=0.13), but systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly reduced (119.8±14.6 to 116.9±15.1 mm Hg; P=0.040). It can be concluded that periodontitis is associated with increased AS. This confirms with a new parameter the association of periodontitis with ACVD. Although periodontal treatment did not lower AS significantly, a modest reduction of SBP after 6 months was observed.

  1. Control of H2S emission from swine manure using Na-nitrite and Na-molybdate.

    PubMed

    Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi; Stade, Sarah; Laguë, Claude

    2008-06-15

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in oil reservoirs (souring) has been shown to be controlled effectively using nitrite and molybdate salts. In the present work the effects of addition of nitrite and molybdate on reducing the emission of H2S from swine manure slurry was investigated in the laboratory and semi-pilot scale systems. Addition of 80 mM nitrite or 2 mM molybdate (final concentration in the manure slurry) to fresh manure in the laboratory scale closed systems (125 mL and 4 L) reduced the concentration of H2S in the headspace gas from 1500 microL L(-1) to 10 microL L(-1) which maintained during the remaining period of trials (40-60 days). With aged manure, similar results were achieved with a lower level of nitrite (10 mM). Simultaneous or sequential additions of nitrite and molybdate to fresh manure had similar effects. Contrary to the systems simulating biological conditions in oil reservoirs in which simultaneous addition of nitrite and molybdate has been reported to have a synergistic effect, no synergism was observed when nitrite and molybdate were added to the manure simultaneously. Experiments with fresh manure slurry in the semi-pilot scale systems (200 L) confirmed the effectiveness of this approach in which addition of 80 mM nitrite or 2 mM molybdate or a combination of 80 mM nitrite and 2 mM molybdate decreased the concentration of the H2S in the headspace gas from an initial value of 500 microL L(-1) to a low level in the range 2-25 microL L(-1) and maintained these low levels during the remaining period of trials (16 days). The concentration of ammonia (NH3) in the headspace gas of the treated systems was similar to that observed in the control system (untreated), indicating that the treatment did not have an effect on the level of present NH3. Although the addition of nitrite or molybdate reduced emissions of H2S from swine manure and the associated health and safety concerns, it had little impact on the intensity of odour in the

  2. Emissions of Transport Refrigeration Units with CARB Diesel, Gas-to-Liquid Diesel, and Emissions Control Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Barnitt, R. A.; Chernich, D.; Burnitzki, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Miyasato, M.; Lucht, E.; van der Merwe, D.; Schaberg, P.

    2010-05-01

    A novel in situ method was used to measure emissions and fuel consumption of transport refrigeration units (TRUs). The test matrix included two fuels, two exhaust configurations, and two TRU engine operating speeds. Test fuels were California ultra low sulfur diesel and gas-to-liquid (GTL) diesel. Exhaust configurations were a stock muffler and a Thermo King pDPF diesel particulate filter. The TRU engine operating speeds were high and low, controlled by the TRU user interface. Results indicate that GTL diesel fuel reduces all regulated emissions at high and low engine speeds. Application of a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions, sometimes almost entirely. The application of both GTL diesel and a Thermo King pDPF reduced regulated emissions at high engine speed, but showed an increase in oxides of nitrogen at low engine speed.

  3. Controlling spontaneous emission dynamics in semiconductor micro cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gayral, B.

    Spontaneous emission of light can be controlled, cavity quantum electrodynamics tells us, and many experiments in atomic physics demonstrated this fact. In particular, coupling an emitter to a resonant photon mode of a cavity can enhance its spontaneous emission rate: this is the so-called Purcell effect. Though appealing it might seem to implement these concepts for the benefit of light-emitting semiconductor devices, great care has to be taken as to which emitter/cavity system should be used. Semiconductor quantum boxes prove to be good candidates for witnessing the Purcell effect. Also, low volume cavities having a high optical quality in other words a long photon storage time are required. State-of-the-art fabrication techniques of such cavities are presented and discussed.We demonstrate spontaneous emission rate enhancement for InAs/GaAs quantum boxes in time-resolved and continuous-wave photoluminescence experiments. This is done for two kinds of cavities, namely GaAs/AlAs micropillars (global enhancement by a factor of 5), and GaAs microdisks (global enhancement by a factor of 20). Prospects for lasers, light-emitting diodes and single photon sources based on the Purcell effect are discussed. L'émission spontanée de lumière peut être contrôlée, ainsi que nous l'enseigne l'électrodynamique quantique en cavité, ce fait a été démontré expérimentalement en physique atomique. En particulier, coupler un émetteur à un mode photonique résonnant d'une cavité peut exalter son taux d'émission spontanée : c'est l'effet Purcell. Bien qu'il semble très prometteur de mettre en pratique ces concepts pour améliorer les dispositifs semi-conducteurs émetteurs de lumière, le choix du système émetteur/cavité est crucial. Nous montrons que les boîtes quantiques semi-conductrices sont des bons candidats pour observer l'effet Purcell. Il faut par ailleurs des cavités de faible volume ayant une grande qualité optique en d'autres mots un long temps de

  4. Feasibility and Outcomes of an Internet-Based Mindfulness Training Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Interventions based on meditation and mindfulness techniques have been shown to reduce stress and increase psychological well-being in a wide variety of populations. Self-administrated Internet-based mindfulness training programs have the potential to be a convenient, cost-effective, easily disseminated, and accessible alternative to group-based programs. Objective This randomized controlled pilot trial with 90 university students in Stockholm, Sweden, explored the feasibility, usability, acceptability, and outcomes of an 8-week Internet-based mindfulness training program. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (n=46) or an active control condition (n=44). Intervention participants were invited to an Internet-based 8-week mindfulness program, and control participants were invited to an Internet-based 4-week expressive writing program. The programs were automated apart from weekly reminders via email. Main outcomes in pre- and postassessments were psychological well-being and depression symptoms. To assess the participant’s experiences, those completing the full programs were asked to fill out an assessment questionnaire and 8 of the participants were interviewed using a semistructured interview guide. Descriptive and inferential statistics, as well as content analysis, were performed. Results In the mindfulness program, 28 out of 46 students (60%) completed the first week and 18 out of 46 (39%) completed the full program. In the expressive writing program, 35 out of 44 students (80%) completed the first week and 31 out of 44 (70%) completed the full program. There was no statistically significantly stronger intervention effect for the mindfulness intervention compared to the active control intervention. Those completing the mindfulness group reported high satisfaction with the program. Most of those interviewed were satisfied with the layout and technique and with the support provided by the study coordinators. More

  5. Towards an Improved Pilot-Vehicle Interface for Highly Automated Aircraft: Evaluation of the Haptic Flight Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schutte, Paul; Goodrich, Kenneth; Williams, Ralph

    2012-01-01

    The control automation and interaction paradigm (e.g., manual, autopilot, flight management system) used on virtually all large highly automated aircraft has long been an exemplar of breakdowns in human factors and human-centered design. An alternative paradigm is the Haptic Flight Control System (HFCS) that is part of NASA Langley Research Center s Naturalistic Flight Deck Concept. The HFCS uses only stick and throttle for easily and intuitively controlling the actual flight of the aircraft without losing any of the efficiency and operational benefits of the current paradigm. Initial prototypes of the HFCS are being evaluated and this paper describes one such evaluation. In this evaluation we examined claims regarding improved situation awareness, appropriate workload, graceful degradation, and improved pilot acceptance. Twenty-four instrument-rated pilots were instructed to plan and fly four different flights in a fictitious airspace using a moderate fidelity desktop simulation. Three different flight control paradigms were tested: Manual control, Full Automation control, and a simplified version of the HFCS. Dependent variables included both subjective (questionnaire) and objective (SAGAT) measures of situation awareness, workload (NASA-TLX), secondary task performance, time to recognize automation failures, and pilot preference (questionnaire). The results showed a statistically significant advantage for the HFCS in a number of measures. Results that were not statistically significant still favored the HFCS. The results suggest that the HFCS does offer an attractive and viable alternative to the tactical components of today s FMS/autopilot control system. The paper describes further studies that are planned to continue to evaluate the HFCS.

  6. Environmental Consequences of Invasive Species: Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Insecticide Use and the Role of Biological Control in Reducing Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Heimpel, George E.; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D.; Ragsdale, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:23977273

  7. Environmental consequences of invasive species: greenhouse gas emissions of insecticide use and the role of biological control in reducing emissions.

    PubMed

    Heimpel, George E; Yang, Yi; Hill, Jason D; Ragsdale, David W

    2013-01-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions associated with pesticide applications against invasive species constitute an environmental cost of species invasions that has remained largely unrecognized. Here we calculate greenhouse gas emissions associated with the invasion of an agricultural pest from Asia to North America. The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines, was first discovered in North America in 2000, and has led to a substantial increase in insecticide use in soybeans. We estimate that the manufacture, transport, and application of insecticides against soybean aphid results in approximately 10.6 kg of carbon dioxide (CO2) equivalent greenhouse gasses being emitted per hectare of soybeans treated. Given the acreage sprayed, this has led to annual emissions of between 6 and 40 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gasses in the United States since the invasion of soybean aphid, depending on pest population size. Emissions would be higher were it not for the development of a threshold aphid density below which farmers are advised not to spray. Without a threshold, farmers tend to spray preemptively and the threshold allows farmers to take advantage of naturally occurring biological control of the soybean aphid, which can be substantial. We find that adoption of the soybean aphid economic threshold can lead to emission reductions of approximately 300 million kg of CO2 equivalent greenhouse gases per year in the United States. Previous studies have documented that biological control agents such as lady beetles are capable of suppressing aphid densities below this threshold in over half of the soybean acreage in the U.S. Given the acreages involved this suggests that biological control results in annual emission reductions of over 200 million kg of CO2 equivalents. These analyses show how interactions between invasive species and organisms that suppress them can interact to affect greenhouse gas emissions.

  8. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Student Guide. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This student guide is for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, in the Engine Tune-Up Service portion of the Automotive Mechanics Curriculum. It deals with inspecting, testing, and servicing an emission control system. A companion review exercise book and posttests are available separately as CE 031 221-222. An introduction tells how this unit fits…

  9. STRUCTURAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN CA-BASED SORBENTS USED FOR SO2 EMISSION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses structural transformations in Ca-based sorbents used for SO2 emission control. conomizer temperature injection of Ca-based sorbents is an option for dry control of SO2 emissions from coal-fired boilers. heir reactivity with SO2 was found to be a function of th...

  10. Preface: Special Issue on Catalytic Control of Lean-Burn Engine Exhaust Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Yezerets, Aleksey; Peden, Charles HF; Szanyi, Janos; Nova, Isabella; Epling, Bill

    2012-04-30

    This issue of Catalysis Today includes original research articles based on select presentations from the Mobile Emissions Control Symposium at the 22nd North American Catalysis Society (NACS) Meeting held in Detroit in June 2011, with a particular focus on catalyzed diesel emissions control. The Symposium was dedicated to the memory of Dr. Haren Gandhi, a visionary technology leader and a passionate environmental advocate.

  11. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Posttests. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morse, David T.; May, Theodore R.

    This book of posttests is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the posttests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. One multiple choice posttest is provided that covers the seven performance objectives contained in…

  12. Engine Tune-up Service. Unit 6: Emission Control Systems. Review Exercise Book. Automotive Mechanics Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, E. Miles

    This book of pretests and review exercises is designed to accompany the Engine Tune-Up Service Student Guide for Unit 6, Emission Control Systems, available separately as CE 031 220. Focus of the exercises and pretests is inspecting, testing, and servicing emission control systems. Pretests and performance checklists are provided for each of the…

  13. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  14. 40 CFR 270.315 - What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAM RCRA Standardized Permits for Storage and Treatment Units Information That Must Be Kept at Your Facility § 270.315 What air emissions control information must I keep at my facility? If you have air... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What air emissions control...

  15. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  17. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products. 3280.308 Section 3280.308 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... Body and Frame Construction Requirements § 3280.308 Formaldehyde emission controls for certain...

  18. Engine Performance (Section C: Emission Control Systems). Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Module 3. Instructor's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rains, Larry

    This engine performance (emission control systems) module is one of a series of competency-based modules in the Missouri Auto Mechanics Curriculum Guide. Topics of this module's five units are: positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) and evaporative emission control systems; exhaust gas recirculation (EGR); air injection and catalytic converters;…

  19. 40 CFR 63.3555 - How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control device emission destruction or...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true How do I determine the outlet THC.../outlet Concentration Option § 63.3555 How do I determine the outlet THC emissions and add-on control... section to determine either the outlet THC emissions or add-on control device emission destruction...

  20. Riluzole augmentation in treatment-refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder: a pilot placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Pittenger, Christopher; Bloch, Michael H.; Wasylink, Suzanne; Billingslea, Eileen; Simpson, Ryan; Jakubovski, Ewgeni; Kelmendi, Ben; Sanacora, Gerard; Coric, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) affects approximately 2.5% of the population and is associated with significant morbidity. Many patients receive little benefit from the best available treatments, and even those who do respond often suffer from significant residual symptoms. Convergent evidence suggests that abnormalities in glutamate homeostasis and neurotransmission may contribute to OCD and that glutamate-modulating medications may be of benefit in patients whose symptoms are refractory to standard interventions. Small open-label trials of augmentation of SSRI pharmacotherapy with the glutamate modulator riluzole have suggested benefit in adults with refractory symptoms. We report a pilot placebo-control trial of riluzole augmentation of ongoing SRI treatment in SRI-refractory patients. Method Outpatients (n = 27) and inpatients (n = 12) with DSM-IV OCD on stable SSRI pharmacotherapy were randomized between 11/2006 and 12/2012 to receive riluzole 50 mg bid or placebo and followed for 12 weeks, after a 2-week placebo lead-in. Results Riluzole was well tolerated; one patient experienced moderate nausea, but none discontinued treatment due to side effects. While there was nominally greater Y-BOCS improvement in the riluzole group (our primary outcome), it did not reach significance in a mixed model random effects analysis, in the overall analysis or in the outpatient subsample. In the outpatient subsample there was a trend suggesting benefit from riluzole augmentation for obsessions (p = 0.056, 2-tailed, uncorrected), in a secondary analysis. Among outpatients, more achieved at least a partial response (>25% improvement) with riluzole than with placebo (p = 0.02 in a secondary analysis). Conclusions Riluzole may be of benefit to a subset of patients. Larger samples would be required to detect effects of the order suggested by the nominal improvement in our outpatient subsample. PMID:26214725

  1. Auricular Acupressure on Specific Points for Hemodialysis Patients with Insomnia: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yuchi; Su, Guobin; Chen, Shuhui; Guo, Xinfeng; Wu, Xiuqing; Liu, Xusheng; Lin, Qizhan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a randomized controlled trial compared auricular acupressure (AA) on specific acupoints with AA on non-specific acupoints for treating maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients with insomnia. Methods Sixty three (63) eligible subjects were randomly assigned into either AA group received AA on specific acupoints (n=32), or sham AA (SAA) group received AA on points irrelevant to insomnia treatment (n=31) for eight weeks. All participants were followed up for 12 weeks after treatments. The primary outcome was clinical response at eight weeks after randomization, defined as a reduction of Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) global score by 3 points and more. Results Fifty-eight (58) participants completed the trial and five dropped out. Twenty participants in AA group (62.5%) and ten in SAA group (32.3%) responded to the eight-week interventions (χ2 = 5.77, P = 0.02). PSQI global score declined 3.75 ± 4.36 (95%CI -5.32, -2.18) and 2.26 ± 3.89 (95%CI -3.68, -0.83) in AA group and SAA group respectively. Three participants died during the follow-up period. No evidence supported their deaths were related to the AA intervention. No other adverse event was observed. Conclusion Feasibility and logistics of patient recruitment, randomization procedure, blinding approach, interventions application and outcome assessment had been tested in this pilot trial. The preliminary data appeared to show a favorable result on AA treatment. A full-scale trial is warranted. Trial Registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002272. PMID:25874938

  2. On-road vehicle emission control in Beijing: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ye; Wang, Renjie; Zhou, Yu; Lin, Bohong; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2011-01-01

    Beijing, the capital of China, has experienced rapid motorization since 1990; a trend that is likely to continue. The growth in vehicles and the corresponding emissions create challenges to improving the urban air quality. In an effort to reduce the impact of vehicle emissions on urban air quality, Beijing has adopted a number of vehicle emission control strategies and policies since the mid 1990 s. These are classified into seven categories: (1) emission control on new vehicles; (2) emission control on in-use vehicles; (3) fuel quality improvements; (4) alternative-fuel and advanced vehicles; (5) economic policies; (6) public transport; and (7) temporal traffic control measures. Many have proven to be successful, such as the Euro emission standards, unleaded gasoline and low sulfur fuel, temporal traffic control measures during the Beijing Olympic Games, etc. Some, however, have been failures, such as the gasoline-to-LPG taxi retrofit program. Thanks to the emission standards for new vehicles as well as other controls, the fleet-average emission rates of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) by each major vehicle category are decreasing over time. For example, gasoline cars decreased fleet-average emission factors by 12.5% for CO, 10.0% for HC, 5.8% for NO(X), and 13.0% for PM(10) annually since 1995, and such a trend is likely to continue. Total emissions for Beijing's vehicle fleet increased from 1995 to 1998. However, they show a clear and steady decrease between 1999 and 2009. In 2009, total emissions of CO, HC, NO(X), and PM(10) were 845,000 t, 121,000 t, 84,000 t, and 3700 t, respectively; with reductions of 47%, 49%, 47%, and 42%, relative to 1998. Beijing has been considered a pioneer in controlling vehicle emissions within China, similar to the role of California to the U.S. The continued rapid growth of vehicles, however, is challenging Beijing's policy-makers.

  3. Black carbon and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from vehicles in the United States-Mexico border region: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kerry; Wagner, David; Lighty, JoAnn; Quintero Núñez, Margarito; Vazquez, F Adrian; Collins, Kimberly; Barud-Zubillaga, Alberto

    2006-03-01

    The investigators developed a system to measure black carbon (BC) and particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission factors during roadside sampling in four cities along the United States-Mexico border, Calexico/Mexicali and El Paso/Juarez. The measurement system included a photoacoustic analyzer for BC, a photoelectric aerosol sensor for particle-bound PAHs, and a carbon dioxide (CO2) analyzer. When a vehicle with measurable emissions passed the system probe, corresponding BC, PAH, and CO2 peaks were evident, and a fuel-based emission factor was estimated. A picture of each vehicle was also recorded with a digital camera. The advantage of this system, compared with other roadside methods, is the direct measurement of particulate matter components and limited interference from roadside dust. The study revealed some interesting trends: Mexican buses and all medium-duty trucks were more frequently identified as high emitters of BC and PAH than heavy-duty trucks or passenger vehicles. In addition, because of the high daily mileage of buses, they are good candidates for additional study. Mexican trucks and buses had higher average emission factors compared with U.S. trucks and buses, but the differences were not statistically significant. Few passenger vehicles had measurable BC and PAH emissions, although the highest emission factor came from an older model passenger vehicle licensed in Baja California.

  4. Topical Allium ampeloprasum subsp Iranicum (Leek) extract cream in patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids: a pilot randomized and controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Mosavat, Seyed Hamdollah; Ghahramani, Leila; Sobhani, Zahra; Haghighi, Ehsan Rahmanian; Heydari, Mojtaba

    2015-04-01

    Allium ampeloprasum subsp iranicum (Leek) has been traditionally used in antihemorrhoidal topical herbal formulations. This study aimed to evaluate its safety and efficacy in a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial. Twenty patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids were randomly allocated to receive the topical leek extract cream or standard antihemorrhoid cream for 3 weeks. The patients were evaluated before and after the intervention in terms of pain, defecation discomfort, bleeding severity, anal itching severity, and reported adverse events. A significant decrease was observed in the grade of bleeding severity and defecation discomfort in both the leek and antihemorrhoid cream groups after the intervention, while no significant change was observed in pain scores. There was no significant difference between the leek and antihemorrhoid cream groups with regard to mean changes in outcome measures. This pilot study showed that the topical use of leek cream can be as effective as a standard antihemorrhoid cream.

  5. Control of NOx Emissions from Stationary Combustion Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary control technologies or secondary control technologies. Primary control technologies reduce the formation of NOx in the primary combustion zone. In contrast, secondary control technologies destroy the NO...

  6. Evidence for solar wind control of Saturn radio emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desch, M. D.

    1982-01-01

    Using data collected by the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft in 1980 and 1981, strong evidence is presented for a direct correlation between variations in the solar wind at Saturn and the level of activity of Saturn's nonthermal radio emission. Correlation coefficients of 57 to 58% are reached at lag times of 0 to 1 days between the arrival at Saturn of high pressure solar wind streams and the onset of increased radio emission. The radio emission exhibits a long-term periodicity of 25 days, identical to the periodicity seen in the solar wind at this time and consistent with the solar rotation period. The energy coupling efficiency between the solar wind with the Saturn radio emission is estimated and compared with that for Earth.

  7. Environmental factors controlling methane emissions from peatlands in northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dise, Nancy B.; Gorham, Eville; Verry, Elon S.

    1993-01-01

    The environmental factors affecting the emission of methane from peatlands were investigated by correlating CH4 emission data for two years, obtained from five different peatland ecosystems in northern Minnesota, with peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification. The relationship obtained between the CH4 flux and these factors was compared to results from a field manipulation experiment in which the water table was artificially raised in three experimental plots within the driest peatland. It was found that peat temperature, water table position, and degree of peat humification explained 91 percent of the variance in log CH4 flux, successfully predicted annual CH4 emission from individual wetlands, and predicted the change in flux due to the water table manipulation. Raising the water table in the bog corrals by an average of 6 cm in autumn 1989 and 10 cm in summer 1990 increased CH4 emission by 2.5 and 2.2 times, respectively.

  8. Steelmaking process control using remote ultraviolet atomic emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Samuel

    Steelmaking in North America is a multi-billion dollar industry that has faced tremendous economic and environmental pressure over the past few decades. Fierce competition has driven steel manufacturers to improve process efficiency through the development of real-time sensors to reduce operating costs. In particular, much attention has been focused on end point detection through furnace off gas analysis. Typically, off-gas analysis is done with extractive sampling and gas analyzers such as Non-dispersive Infrared Sensors (NDIR). Passive emission spectroscopy offers a more attractive approach to end point detection as the equipment can be setup remotely. Using high resolution UV spectroscopy and applying sophisticated emission line detection software, a correlation was observed between metal emissions and the process end point during field trials. This correlation indicates a relationship between the metal emissions and the status of a steelmaking melt which can be used to improve overall process efficiency.

  9. Melodic Intonation Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: Evidence from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Van Der Meulen, Ineke; Van De Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W. M. E.; Heijenbrok, Majanka H.; Visch-Brink, Evy; Ribbers, Gerard M.

    2016-01-01

    Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT) examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT: subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list RCT design. Patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT) or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT). Assessments were done at baseline (T1), after 6 weeks (T2), and 6 weeks later (T3). Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β = 13.32, p = 0.02). This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This is in line with studies showing larger

  10. The Incredible Years Parents and Babies Program: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Klest, Sihu K.; Sandoy, Tróndur Møller

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Infancy is an important period of life; adverse experiences during this stage can have both immediate and lifelong impacts on the child’s mental health and well-being. This study evaluates the effects of offering the Incredible Years Parents and Babies (IYPB) program as a universal intervention. Method We conducted a pragmatic, two-arm, parallel pilot randomized controlled trial; 112 families with newborns were randomized to the IYPB program (76) or usual care (36) with a 2:1 allocation ratio. The primary outcome was parenting confidence at 20 weeks(Karitane Parenting Confidence Scale and Parental Stress Scale). Secondary outcomes include measures of parent health, parent-child relationship, infant development, parent-child activities, and network. Interviewers and data analysts were blind to allocation status. Multiple linear-regression analyses were used for evaluating the effects of the intervention. Results There were no intervention effects on the primary outcomes. Only one effect was detected for secondary outcomes, intervention mothers reported a significantly smaller network than control mothers (β = -0.15 [-1.85,-0.28]). When examining the lowest-functioning mothers in moderator analyses, we found that intervention mothers reported significantly higher parent stress (β = 5.33 [0.27,10.38]), lower parenting confidence (β = -2.37 [-4.45,-0.29]), and worse mental health than control mothers (β = -18.62 [-32.40,-4.84]). In contrast, the highest functioning intervention mothers reported significantly lower parent stress post-intervention (β = -6.11 [-11.07,-1.14]). Conclusion Overall, we found no effects of the IYPB as a universal intervention for parents with infants. The intervention was developed to be used with groups of low functioning families and may need to be adapted to be effective with universal parent groups. The differential outcomes for the lowest and highest functioning families suggest that future research should evaluate the

  11. Melodic Intonation Therapy in Chronic Aphasia: Evidence from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Van Der Meulen, Ineke; Van De Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke W M E; Heijenbrok, Majanka H; Visch-Brink, Evy; Ribbers, Gerard M

    2016-01-01

    Melodic Intonation Therapy (MIT) is a language production therapy for severely non-fluent aphasic patients using melodic intoning and rhythm to restore language. Although many studies have reported its beneficial effects on language production, randomized controlled trials (RCT) examining the efficacy of MIT are rare. In an earlier publication, we presented the results of an RCT on MIT in subacute aphasia and found that MIT was effective on trained and untrained items. Further, we observed a clear trend in improved functional language use after MIT: subacute aphasic patients receiving MIT improved considerably on language tasks measuring connected speech and daily life verbal communication. Here, we present the results of a pilot RCT on MIT in chronic aphasia and compare these to the results observed in subacute aphasia. We used a multicenter waiting-list RCT design. Patients with chronic (>1 year) post-stroke aphasia were randomly allocated to the experimental group (6 weeks MIT) or to the control group (6 weeks no intervention followed by 6 weeks MIT). Assessments were done at baseline (T1), after 6 weeks (T2), and 6 weeks later (T3). Efficacy was evaluated at T2 using univariable linear regression analyses. Outcome measures were chosen to examine several levels of therapy success: improvement on trained items, generalization to untrained items, and generalization to verbal communication. Of 17 included patients, 10 were allocated to the experimental condition and 7 to the control condition. MIT significantly improved repetition of trained items (β = 13.32, p = 0.02). This effect did not remain stable at follow-up assessment. In contrast to earlier studies, we found only a limited and temporary effect of MIT, without generalization to untrained material or to functional communication. The results further suggest that the effect of MIT in chronic aphasia is more restricted than its effect in earlier stages post stroke. This is in line with studies showing larger

  12. JV Task 107- Pilot-Scale Emission Control Technology Testing for Constellation Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Jones; Brandon Pavlish; Stephen Sollom; John Kay

    2007-06-30

    An Indonesian, Colombian, and Russian coal were tested in the Energy & Environmental Research Center's combustion test facility for their performance and an evaluation of mercury release and capture with selected additives in both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse configurations. Sorbents included the carbon-based materials NORIT DARCO Hg, Sorbent Technologies B-PAC and B-PAC LC, STI Rejects provided by Constellation Energy, and Envergex e-Sorb, along with ChemMod's high-temperature additive. Each coal was evaluated over several days and compared. Ash-fouling tests were conducted, and mercury levels were monitored using continuous mercury monitors (CMMs). The Ontario Hydro mercury sampling method was also utilized. The Indonesian coal had the lowest ash content, lowest sulfur content, and lowest energy content of the three coals tested. The Colombian coal had the highest mercury content and did contain a significant level of selenium which can interfere with the ability of a CMM to monitor mercury in the gas stream. All sorbents displayed very favorable results. In most cases, mercury removal greater than 86% could be obtained. The Indonesian coal displayed the best mercury removal with sorbent addition. A maximum removal of 97% was measured with this coal using Envergex's carbon-based sorbent at a rate of 4 lb/Macf across an electrostatic precipitator. The high ash and selenium content of the Colombian coal caused it to be a problematic fuel, and ash plugging of the test furnace was a real concern. Problems with the baghouse module led to limited testing. Results indicated that native capture across the baghouse for each coal type was significant enough not to warrant sorbent addition necessary. The fouling potential was the lowest for the Indonesian coal. Low sulfur content contributes to the poor potential for fouling, as witnessed by the lack of deposits during testing. The Russian and Colombian coals had a much higher potential for fouling primarily because of their high ash contents, but the potential was highest for the Colombian coal. Of the three coals tested, the Colombian would be the least desirable.

  13. Control technology for radioactive emissions to the atmosphere at US Department of Energy facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, E.B.

    1984-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection agency (EPA) on existing technology for the control of radionuclide emissions into the air from US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities, and to provide EPA with information on possible additional control technologies that could be used to further reduce these emissions. Included in this report are generic discussions of emission control technologies for particulates, iodine, rare gases, and tritium. Also included are specific discussions of existing emission control technologies at 25 DOE facilities. Potential additional emission control technologies are discussed for 14 of these facilities. The facilities discussed were selected by EPA on the basis of preliminary radiation pathway analyses. 170 references, 131 figures, 104 tables.

  14. Factors controlling emissions of dimethylsulphide from salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dacey, John W. H.; Wakeham, Stuart G.; King, Gary M.

    1987-01-01

    Salt marshes are presently identified as systems exhibiting high area-specific sulfur emission in the form of dimethylsulfide (DMS) and H2S, with the former predominating in vegetated areas of the marshes. Attention is presently given to the distribution of DMS in salt marshes; it is found that this compound primarily arises from physiological processes in the leaves of higher plants, especially the grass species Spartina alterniflora. Uncertainties associated with DMS emission measurements are considered.

  15. Gaseous and particulate emission profiles during controlled rice straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchis, E.; Ferrer, M.; Calvet, S.; Coscollà, C.; Yusà, V.; Cambra-López, M.

    2014-12-01

    Burning of rice straw can emit considerable amounts of atmospheric pollutants. We evaluated the effect of rice straw moisture content (5%, 10%, and 20%) on the emission of carbon dioxide (CO2) and on the organic and inorganic constituents of released particulate matter (PM): dioxins, heavy metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Four burning tests were conducted per moisture treatment using the open chamber method. Additionally, combustion characteristics, including burning stages, durations, temperature, and relative humidity, were recorded. Burning tests showed flaming and smoldering stages were significantly longer in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.05) compared with the rest. The amount of burned straw and ashes decreased with increasing straw moisture content (P < 0.001). Carbon dioxide was the main product obtained during combustion with emission values ranging from 692 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (10% moisture content) to 835 g CO2 kg dry straw-1 (20% moisture content). Emission factors for PM were the highest in 20% moisture treatment (P < 0.005). Fine PM (PM2.5) accounted for more than 60% of total PM mass. Emission factors for dioxins increased with straw moisture content, being the highest in 20% moisture treatment, although showing a wide variability among burning tests (P > 0.05). Emissions factors for heavy metals were low and similar among moisture treatments (P > 0.05). Emission factors for individual PAHs were generally higher in 20% moisture treatment. Overall, emission factors of atmospheric pollutants measured in our study were higher in the 20% moisture content. This difference could be attributed to the incomplete combustion at higher levels of rice straw moisture content. According to our results, rice straw burning should be done after straw drying and under minimal moisture conditions to lower pollutant emission levels.

  16. Effects of After-Treatment Control Technologies on Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R.; Kirchstetter, T.

    2015-12-01

    Diesel engines are major emitters of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and the black carbon (BC) fraction of particulate matter (PM). Diesel particle filter (DPF) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) emission control systems that target exhaust PM and NOx have recently become standard on new heavy-duty diesel trucks (HDDT). There is concern that DPFs may increase ultrafine particle (UFP) and total particle number (PN) emissions while reducing PM mass emissions. Also, the deliberate catalytic oxidation of engine-out NO to NO2 in continuously regenerating DPFs may lead to increased tailpipe emission of NO2 and near-roadway concentrations that exceed the 1-hr national ambient air quality standard. Increased NO2 emissions can also promote formation of ozone and secondary PM. We report results from ongoing on-road studies of HDDT emissions at the Port of Oakland and the Caldecott Tunnel in California's San Francisco Bay Area. Emission factors (g pollutant per kg diesel) were linked via recorded license plates to each truck's engine model year and installed emission controls. At both sites, DPF use significantly increased the NO2/NOx emission ratio. DPFs also significantly increased NO2 emissions when installed as retrofits on older trucks with higher baseline NOx emissions. While SCR systems on new trucks effectively reduce total NOx emissions and mitigate these undesirable DPF-related NO2 emissions, they also lead to significant emission of N2O, a potent greenhouse gas. When expressed on a CO2-equivalent basis, the N2O emissions increase offsets the fuel economy gain (i.e., the CO2 emission reduction) associated with SCR use. At the Port, average NOx, BC and PN emission factors from new trucks equipped with DPF and SCR were 69 ± 15%, 92 ± 32% and 66 ± 35% lower, respectively, than modern trucks without these emission controls. In contrast, at the Tunnel, PN emissions from older trucks retrofit with DPFs were ~2 times greater than modern trucks without DPFs. The difference

  17. Examining the Pilot and Controller Performance Data When in a Free Flight with Weather Phenomenon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nituen, Celestine A.; Lozito, Sandra C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The present study investigated effects of weather related factors on the performance of pilots under free flight. A weather scenario was defined by a combination of precipitation factors (light rain, moderate rain, and heavy rain or snow), visibility (1,4,8 miles), wind conditions (light, medium, or heavy), cloud ceiling (800ft. below, 1800ft above, and 4000ft horizontal). The performance of the aircraft self-separation was evaluated in terms of detection accuracy and detection times for student- and commercial (expert) pilots. Overall, the results obtained from a behavioral analysis showed that in general, the ability to recognize intruder aircraft conflict incidents, followed by the ability to acquire the spatial location of the intruder aircraft relative to ownership aircraft were judged to be the major cognitive tasks as perceived by the participants during self-separation. Further, the participants rarely used cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) during conflict management related to aircraft separation, but used CDTI highly during decision-making tasks. In all weather scenarios, there were remarkable differences between expert and student pilots in detection times. In summary, weather scenarios were observed to affect intruder aircraft detection performance accuracies. There was interaction effects between weather Scenario-1 and Scenario-2 for climbing task data generated by both expert- and student- pilots at high traffic density. Scenario-3 weather condition provided an opportunity for poor detection accuracy as well as detection time increase. This may be attributed to low visibility. The intruder aircraft detection times were not affected by the weather conditions during climbing and descending tasks. The decision of pilots to fly into certain weather condition was dependent in part on the warning distance to the location of the weather. When pilots were warned of the weather conditions, they were more likely to fly their aircraft into it, but

  18. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  19. Do controlling maternal behaviours increase state anxiety in children's responses to a social threat? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    de Wilde, Alice; Rapee, Ronald M

    2008-12-01

    Past research has demonstrated a link between controlling parenting and child anxiety. However, the causal nature of this association has not yet been established since most previous studies have utilised cross-sectional designs. The aim of the current study was to implement an experimental design to examine the impact of maternal control on children's state anxiety when faced with a social threat. Mothers of 26 children aged 7-13 years were randomly allocated to conditions in which they were either required to be overly controlling or minimally controlling during preparation of a practice speech by their child. In a subsequent speech that children were required to prepare alone, children whose mothers had previously been overly controlling during the practice showed greater anxiety than did children whose mothers had previously been minimally controlling. This pilot study describes a novel paradigm that has the potential to address issues related to the causal role of specific parenting behaviours in the experience of negative emotions.

  20. Effects of aeration method and aeration rate on greenhouse gas emissions during composting of pig feces in pilot scale.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Tao; Li, Guoxue; Tang, Qiong; Ma, Xuguang; Wang, Gang; Schuchardt, Frank

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to uncover ways to mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and reduce energy consumption during the composting process. We assessed the effects of different aeration rates (0, 0.18, 0.36, and 0.54 L/(kg dry matter (dm)·min)) and methods (continuous and intermittent) on GHG emissions. Pig feces and corn stalks were mixed at a ratio of 7:1. The composting process lasted for 10 weeks, and the compost was turned approximately every 2 weeks. Results showed that both aeration rate and method significantly affected GHG emissions. Higher aeration rates increased NH3 and N2O losses, but reduced CH4 emissions. The exception is that the CH4 emission of the passive aeration treatment was lower than that of the low aeration rate treatment. Without forced aeration, the CH4 diffusion rates in the center of the piles were very low and part of the CH4 was oxidized in the surface layer. Intermittent aeration reduced NH3 and CH4 losses, but significantly increased N2O production during the maturing periods. Intermittent aeration increased the nitrification/denitrification alternation and thus enhanced the N2O production. Forced aeration treatments had higher GHG emission rates than the passive aeration treatment. Forced aeration accelerated the maturing process, but could not improve the quality of the end product. Compared with continuous aeration, intermittent aeration could increase the O2 supply efficiency and reduced the total GHG emission by 17.8%, and this reduction increased to 47.4% when composting was ended after 36 days.