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Sample records for emitting pulsar wind

  1. VHE gamma-ray Emitting Pulsar Wind Nebulae Discovered by H.E.S.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Y.A.; Carrigan, S.; Djannati-Atai, A.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J.A.; Hoppe, S.; de Jager, O.C.; Khelifi, B.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Lemiere, A. Masterson, C.; /Dublin Inst.

    2008-06-05

    Recent advances in very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new observational window on the physics of pulsars. The high sensitivity of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, and in particular of the H.E.S.S. array, has already led to the discovery of about a dozen VHE-emitting pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and PWN candidates. These include the plerions in the composite supernova remnants MSH 15-52, G21.5-0.9, Kes 75, and Vela, two sources in the Kookaburra, and the nebula of PSR B1823-13. This VHE emission is generally interpreted as inverse Compton emission from the relativistic electrons and positrons accelerated by the pulsar and its wind; as such, it can yield a more direct spatial and spectral view of the accelerated particles than can be inferred from observations of their synchrotron emission. The VHE-emitting PWNe detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes are reviewed and the implications for pulsar physics discussed.

  2. VHE {gamma}-ray emitting pulsar wind nebulae discovered by H.E.S.S

    SciTech Connect

    Gallant, Y. A.; Komin, Nu.; Djannati-Ataie, A.; Lemiere, A.; Funk, S.; Hinton, J. A.; Jager, O. C. de; Khelifi, B.

    2008-02-27

    Recent advances in very-high-energy (VHE) gamma-ray astronomy have opened a new observational window on the physics of pulsars. The high sensitivity of current imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, and in particular of the H.E.S.S. array, has already led to the discovery of about a dozen VHE-emitting pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) and PWN candidates. These include the plerions in the composite supernova remnants MSH 15-52, G21.5-0.9, Kes 75, and Vela, two sources in the Kookaburra, and the nebula of PSR B1823-13. This VHE emission is generally interpreted as inverse Compton emission from the relativistic electrons and positrons accelerated by the pulsar and its wind; as such, it can yield a more direct spatial and spectral view of the accelerated particles than can be inferred from observations of their synchrotron emission. The VHE-emitting PWNe detected by the H.E.S.S. telescopes are reviewed and the implications for pulsar physics discussed.

  3. X-RAY INVESTIGATION OF THE DIFFUSE EMISSION AROUND PLAUSIBLE {gamma}-RAY EMITTING PULSAR WIND NEBULAE IN KOOKABURRA REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Bamba, Aya; Uchiyama, Yasunobu

    2012-05-10

    We report on the results from Suzaku X-ray observations of the radio complex region called Kookaburra, which includes two adjacent TeV {gamma}-ray sources HESS J1418-609 and HESS J1420-607. The Suzaku observation revealed X-ray diffuse emission around a middle-aged pulsar PSR J1420-6048 and a plausible pulsar wind nebula (PWN) Rabbit with elongated sizes of {sigma}{sub X} = 1.'66 and {sigma}{sub X} = 1.'49, respectively. The peaks of the diffuse X-ray emission are located within the {gamma}-ray excess maps obtained by H.E.S.S. and the offsets from the {gamma}-ray peaks are 2.'8 for PSR J1420-6048 and 4.'5 for Rabbit. The X-ray spectra of the two sources were well reproduced by absorbed power-law models with {Gamma} = 1.7-2.3. The spectral shapes tend to become softer according to the distance from the X-ray peaks. Assuming the one-zone electron emission model as the first-order approximation, the ambient magnetic field strengths of HESS J1420-607 and HESS J1418-609 can be estimated as 3 {mu}G and 2.5 {mu}G, respectively. The X-ray spectral and spatial properties strongly support that both TeV sources are PWNe, in which electrons and positrons accelerated at termination shocks of the pulsar winds are losing their energies via the synchrotron radiation and inverse Compton scattering as they are transported outward.

  4. Theory of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciantini, N.

    2008-02-01

    Our understanding of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), has greatly improved in the last years thanks to unprecedented high resolution images taken from the HUBBLE, CHANDRA and XMM satellites. The discovery of complex but similar inner features, with the presence of unexpected axisymmetric rings and jets, has prompted a new investigation into the dynamics of the interaction of the pulsar winds with the surrounding SNR, which, thanks to the improvement in the computational resources, has let to a better understanding of the properties of these objects. On the other hand the discovery of non-thermal emission from bow shock PWNe, and of systems with a complex interaction between pulsar and SNR, has led to the development of more reliable evolutionary models. I will review the standard theory of PWNe, their evolution, and the current status in the modeling of their emission properties, in particular I will show that our evolutionary models are able to describe the observations, and that the X-ray emission can now be reproduced with sufficient accuracy, to the point that we can use these nebulae to investigate fundamental issues as the properties of relativistic outflows and particle acceleration.

  5. High energy neutrinos from pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Palma, Irene

    2017-09-01

    Several Pulsar Wind Nebulae have been detected in the TeV band in the last decade.The TeV emission is typically interpreted in a purely leptonic scenario, but this usually requires that the magnetic field in the Nebula be much lower than the equipartition value and the assumption of an enhanced target radiation at IR frequencies. In this work we consider the possibility that, in addition to the relativistic electrons, also relativistic hadrons are present in these nebulae. Assuming that part of the emitted TeV photons are of hadronic origin, we compute the associated flux of ∼ 1 ‑ 100 TeV neutrinos. We use the IceCube non detection to put constraints on the fraction of TeV photons that might be contributed by hadrons and estimate the number of neutrino events that can be expected from these sources in IceCube, ANTARES and in KM3Net.

  6. Acceleration by pulsar winds in binary systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Gaisser, T. K.

    1990-01-01

    In the absence of accretion torques, a pulsar in a binary system will spin down due to electromagnetic dipole radiation and the spin-down power will drive a wind of relativistic electron-positron pairs. Winds from pulsars with short periods will prevent any subsequent accretion but may be confined by the companion star atmosphere, wind, or magnetosphere to form a standing shock. The authors investigate the possibility of particle acceleration at such a pulsar wind shock and the production of very high energy (VHE) and ultra high energy (UHE) gamma rays from interactions of accelerated protons in the companion star's wind or atmosphere. They find that in close binaries containing active pulsars, protons will be shock accelerated to a maximum energy dependent on the pulsar spin-down luminosity. If a significant fraction of the spin-down power goes into particle acceleration, these systems should be sources of VHE and possibly UHE gamma rays. The authors discuss the application of the pulsar wind model to binary sources such as Cygnus X-3, as well as the possibility of observing VHE gamma-rays from known binary radio pulsar systems.

  7. Multiwavelength Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. Such observations reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and newly formed dust. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very-high-energy γ-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  8. Sporadically Emitting Pulsars at Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, B. W.; Tremblay, S. E.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Shannon, R. M.

    2017-01-01

    Sporadic emission from pulsars has long been observed, however, the mechanism which causes the intermittency is still a mystery. The proposed observations of three nulling pulsars (J0659+1414, J2048-1616 and J1456-6843), two Rotating Radio Transients (J0410-31 and J1423-56) and one intermittent pulsar (J1107-5907) will provide information on pulsar emission over a variety of time scales. Studying these objects at low frequencies allows us to explore the links between the different populations and how the sporadic emission evolves with frequency. Ultimately, studying these extraordinary pulsars gives us new insight into the dynamic nature of the emission processes and pulsar magnetosphere. This information is imperative for linking models and theories regarding pulsar radio emission physics to the myriad sporadic emission phenomena we observe.

  9. GAMMA-RAY SIGNAL FROM THE PULSAR WIND IN THE BINARY PULSAR SYSTEM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    SciTech Connect

    Khangulyan, Dmitry; Bogovalov, Sergey V.; Ribo, Marc E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es

    2011-12-01

    Binary pulsar systems emit potentially detectable components of gamma-ray emission due to Comptonization of the optical radiation of the companion star by relativistic electrons of the pulsar wind, both before and after termination of the wind. The recent optical observations of binary pulsar system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 revealed radiation properties of the companion star which differ significantly from previous measurements. In this paper, we study the implications of these observations for the interaction rate of the unshocked pulsar wind with the stellar photons and the related consequences for fluxes of high energy and very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. We show that the signal should be strong enough to be detected with Fermi close to the periastron passage, unless the pulsar wind is strongly anisotropic or the Lorentz factor of the wind is smaller than 10{sup 3} or larger than 10{sup 5}. The higher luminosity of the optical star also has two important implications: (1) attenuation of gamma rays due to photon-photon pair production and (2) Compton drag of the unshocked wind. While the first effect has an impact on the light curve of VHE gamma rays, the second effect may significantly decrease the energy available for particle acceleration after termination of the wind.

  10. Gamma-Ray Signal from the Pulsar Wind in the Binary Pulsar System PSR B1259-63/LS 2883

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khangulyan, Dmitry; Aharonian, Felix A.; Bogovalov, Sergey V.; Ribó, Marc

    2011-12-01

    Binary pulsar systems emit potentially detectable components of gamma-ray emission due to Comptonization of the optical radiation of the companion star by relativistic electrons of the pulsar wind, both before and after termination of the wind. The recent optical observations of binary pulsar system PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 revealed radiation properties of the companion star which differ significantly from previous measurements. In this paper, we study the implications of these observations for the interaction rate of the unshocked pulsar wind with the stellar photons and the related consequences for fluxes of high energy and very high energy (VHE) gamma rays. We show that the signal should be strong enough to be detected with Fermi close to the periastron passage, unless the pulsar wind is strongly anisotropic or the Lorentz factor of the wind is smaller than 103 or larger than 105. The higher luminosity of the optical star also has two important implications: (1) attenuation of gamma rays due to photon-photon pair production and (2) Compton drag of the unshocked wind. While the first effect has an impact on the light curve of VHE gamma rays, the second effect may significantly decrease the energy available for particle acceleration after termination of the wind.

  11. Pulsar Wind Bubble Blowout from a Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, John M.; Chevalier, Roger A.

    2017-08-01

    For pulsars born in supernovae, the expansion of the shocked pulsar wind nebula is initially in the freely expanding ejecta of the supernova. While the nebula is in the inner flat part of the ejecta density profile, the swept-up, accelerating shell is subject to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. We carried out two- and three-dimensional simulations showing that the instability gives rise to filamentary structure during this initial phase but does not greatly change the dynamics of the expanding shell. The flow is effectively self-similar. If the shell is powered into the outer steep part of the density profile, the shell is subject to a robust Rayleigh-Taylor instability in which the shell is fragmented and the shocked pulsar wind breaks out through the shell. The flow is not self-similar in this phase. For a wind nebula to reach this phase requires that the deposited pulsar energy be greater than the supernova energy, or that the initial pulsar period be in the ms range for a typical 1051 erg supernova. These conditions are satisfied by some magnetar models for Type I superluminous supernovae. We also consider the Crab Nebula, which may be associated with a low energy supernova for which this scenario applies.

  12. PULSAR WIND NEBULAE WITH THICK TOROIDAL STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Chevalier, Roger A.; Reynolds, Stephen P. E-mail: reynolds@ncsu.edu

    2011-10-10

    We investigate a class of pulsar wind nebulae that show synchrotron emission from a thick toroidal structure. The best studied such object is the small radio and X-ray nebula around the Vela pulsar, which can be interpreted as the result of interaction of a mildly supersonic inward flow with the recent pulsar wind. Such a flow near the center of a supernova remnant can be produced in a transient phase when the reverse shock reaches the center of the remnant. Other nebulae with a thick toroidal structure are G106.6+2.9 and G76.9+1.0. Their structure contrasts with young pulsar nebulae like the Crab Nebula and 3C 38, which show a more chaotic, filamentary structure in the synchrotron emission. In both situations, a torus-jet structure is present where the pulsar wind passes through a termination shock, indicating the flow is initially toroidal. We suggest that the difference is due to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability that operates when the outer boundary of the nebula is accelerating into freely expanding supernova ejecta. The instability gives rise to mixing in the Crab and related objects, but is not present in the nebulae with thick toroidal regions.

  13. Multiwavelength Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2010-03-01

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. High-energy observations, in particular, reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and emission from late-phase nebulae that are extremely faint in other bands. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very high energy gamma-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  14. Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chekhtman, A.; Cheung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Angelis, A.; de Luca, A.; de Palma, F.; Digel, S. W.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Favuzzi, C.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Hobbs, G.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Makeev, A.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Naumann-Godo, M.; Nolan, P. L.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ripken, J.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sander, A.; Parkinson, P. M. Saz; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-12-13

    The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates ($\\dot{E}$) from ~3 × 1033 erg s–1 to 5 × 1038 erg s–1 and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the γ-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023–5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023–575. Here, we further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Lastly, flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies.

  15. Fermi-LAT Search for Pulsar Wind Nebulae around gamma-ray Pulsars

    DOE PAGES

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Baldini, L.; ...

    2010-12-13

    The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates (more » $$\\dot{E}$$) from ~3 × 1033 erg s–1 to 5 × 1038 erg s–1 and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the γ-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023–5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023–575. Here, we further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Lastly, flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies.« less

  16. FERMI-LAT SEARCH FOR PULSAR WIND NEBULAE AROUND GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.

    2011-01-01

    The high sensitivity of the Fermi-LAT (Large Area Telescope) offers the first opportunity to study faint and extended GeV sources such as pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). After one year of observation the LAT detected and identified three PWNe: the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and the PWN inside MSH 15-52. In the meantime, the list of LAT detected pulsars increased steadily. These pulsars are characterized by high energy loss rates ( E-dot ) from {approx}3 x 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1} to 5 x 10{sup 38} erg s{sup -1} and are therefore likely to power a PWN. This paper summarizes the search for PWNe in the off-pulse windows of 54 LAT-detected pulsars using 16 months of survey observations. Ten sources show significant emission, seven of these likely being of magnetospheric origin. The detection of significant emission in the off-pulse interval offers new constraints on the {gamma}-ray emitting regions in pulsar magnetospheres. The three other sources with significant emission are the Crab Nebula, Vela-X, and a new PWN candidate associated with the LAT pulsar PSR J1023-5746, coincident with the TeV source HESS J1023-575. We further explore the association between the HESS and the Fermi source by modeling its spectral energy distribution. Flux upper limits derived for the 44 remaining sources are used to provide new constraints on famous PWNe that have been detected at keV and/or TeV energies.

  17. A MODEL OF THE SPECTRAL EVOLUTION OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shuta J.; Takahara, Fumio

    2010-06-01

    We study the spectral evolution of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) taking into account the energy injected when they are young. We model the evolution of the magnetic field inside a uniformly expanding PWN. Considering time-dependent injection from the pulsar and coolings by radiative and adiabatic losses, we solve the evolution of the particle distribution function. The model is calibrated by fitting the calculated spectrum to the observations of the Crab Nebula at an age of a thousand years. The spectral evolution of the Crab Nebula in our model shows that the flux ratio of TeV {gamma}-rays to X-rays increases with time, which implies that old PWNe are faint in X-rays, but not in TeV {gamma}-rays. The increase of this ratio is because the magnetic field decreases with time and is not because the X-ray emitting particles are cooled more rapidly than the TeV {gamma}-ray emitting particles. Our spectral evolution model matches the observed rate of the radio flux decrease of the Crab Nebula. This result implies that our magnetic field evolution model is close to the reality. Finally, from the viewpoint of the spectral evolution, only a small fraction of the injected energy from the Crab Pulsar needs to go to the magnetic field, which is consistent with previous studies.

  18. Geminga’s Puzzling Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Pavlov, G. G.; Slane, P. O.; Romani, R.; Bucciantini, N.; Bykov, A. M.; Kargaltsev, O.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2017-01-01

    We report on six new Chandra observations of the Geminga pulsar wind nebula (PWN). The PWN consists of three distinct elongated structures—two ≈ 0.2{d}250 pc long lateral tails and a segmented axial tail of ≈ 0.05{d}250 pc length, where {d}250=d/(250 {pc}). The photon indices of the power-law spectra of the lateral tails, {{Γ }}≈ 1, are significantly harder than those of the pulsar ({{Γ }}≈ 1.5) and the axial tail ({{Γ }}≈ 1.6). There is no significant diffuse X-ray emission between the lateral tails—the ratio of the X-ray surface brightness between the south tail and this sky area is at least 12. The lateral tails apparently connect directly to the pulsar and show indications of moving footpoints. The axial tail comprises time-variable emission blobs. However, there is no evidence for constant or decelerated outward motion of these blobs. Different physical models are consistent with the observed morphology and spectra of the Geminga PWN. In one scenario, the lateral tails could represent an azimuthally asymmetric shell whose hard emission is caused by the Fermi acceleration mechanism of colliding winds. In another scenario, the lateral tails could be luminous, bent polar outflows, while the blobs in the axial tail could represent a crushed torus. In a resemblance to planetary magnetotails, the blobs of the axial tail might also represent short-lived plasmoids, which are formed by magnetic field reconnection in the relativistic plasma of the pulsar wind tail.

  19. Recent Progress in Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The synchrotron-emitting nebulae formed by energetic winds from young pulsars provide information on a wide range phenomena that contribute to their structure. High resolution X-ray observations reveal jets and toroidal structures in many systems, along with knot-like structures whose emission is observed to be time-variable. Large-scale filaments seen in optical and radio images mark instability regions where the expanding nebulae interact with the surrounding ejecta, and spectral studies reveal the presence of these ejecta in the form of thermal X-ray emission. Infrared studies probe the frequency region where evolutionary and magnetic field effects conspire to change the broadband synchrotron spectrum dramatically, and studies of the innermost regions of the nebulae provide constraints on the spectra of particles entering the nebula. At the highest energies, TeV gamma-ray observations provide a probe of the spectral region that, for low magnetic fields, corresponds to particles with energies just below the X-ray-emitting regime. Here I summarize the structure of pulsar wind nebulae and review several new observations that have helped drive a recent resurgence in theoretical modeling of these systems.

  20. PARTICLE TRANSPORT IN YOUNG PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tang Xiaping; Chevalier, Roger A. E-mail: rac5x@virginia.edu

    2012-06-20

    The model for pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) as a result of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) downstream flow from a shocked, relativistic pulsar wind has been successful in reproducing many features of the nebulae observed close to central pulsars. However, observations of well-studied young nebulae like the Crab Nebula, 3C 58, and G21.5-0.9 do not show the toroidal magnetic field on a larger scale that might be expected in the MHD flow model; in addition, the radial variation of spectral index due to synchrotron losses is smoother than expected in the MHD flow model. We find that pure diffusion models can reproduce the basic data on nebular size and spectral index variation for the Crab, 3C 58, and G21.5-0.9. Most of our models use an energy-independent diffusion coefficient; power-law variations of the coefficient with energy are degenerate with variation in the input particle energy distribution index in the steady state, transmitting boundary case. Energy-dependent diffusion is a possible reason for the smaller diffusion coefficient inferred for the Crab. Monte Carlo simulations of the particle transport allowing for advection and diffusion of particles suggest that diffusion dominates over much of the total nebular volume of the Crab. Advection dominates close to the pulsar and is likely to play a role in the X-ray half-light radius. The source of diffusion and mixing of particles is uncertain, but may be related to the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at the outer boundary of a young PWN or to instabilities in the toroidal magnetic field structure.

  1. Pulsar wind model for the spin-down behavior of intermittent pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L.; Tong, H.; Yan, W. M.; Yuan, J. P.; Wang, N.; Xu, R. X.

    2014-06-10

    Intermittent pulsars are part-time radio pulsars. They have higher slow down rates in the on state (radio-loud) than in the off state (radio-quiet). This gives evidence that particle wind may play an important role in pulsar spindown. The effect of particle acceleration is included in modeling the rotational energy loss rate of the neutron star. Applying the pulsar wind model to the three intermittent pulsars (PSR B1931+24, PSR J1841–0500, and PSR J1832+0029) allows their magnetic fields and inclination angles to be calculated simultaneously. The theoretical braking indices of intermittent pulsars are also given. In the pulsar wind model, the density of the particle wind can always be the Goldreich-Julian density. This may ensure that different on states of intermittent pulsars are stable. The duty cycle of particle wind can be determined from timing observations. It is consistent with the duty cycle of the on state. Inclination angle and braking index observations of intermittent pulsars may help to test different models of particle acceleration. At present, the inverse Compton scattering induced space charge limited flow with field saturation model can be ruled out.

  2. The Puzzling Jet and Pulsar Wind Nebula of Igr J11014-6103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavan, Lucia; Bordas, Pol; Pühlhofer, Gerd; Filipovic, Miroslav D.; de Horta, Ain; O'Brien, Andrew; Crawford, Evan; Balbo, Matteo; Walter, Roland; Bozzo, Enrico; Ferrigno, Carlo; Stella, Luigi

    2014-03-01

    IGR J11014-6103 is a hard X-ray source discovered by INTEGRAL. Follow-up X-ray and radio observations revealed an elongated pulsar wind nebula formed by a neutron star escaping supersonically its parent supernova remnant SNR MSH 11-61A. The pulsar also emits highly collimated jets extending perpendicularly to the direction of motion. The jet has a continuous helical structure extending up to more than 10 parsecs. IGR J11014-6103 is a laboratory to study jet ejection in the wind of a pulsar and to constrain the core collapse supernova mechanism responsible for the observed pulsar kick velocity in excess of 1000 km/s.

  3. Electron Acceleration at Pulsar Wind Termination Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giacchè, S.; Kirk, John G.

    2017-02-01

    We study the acceleration of electrons and positrons at an electromagnetically modified, ultrarelativistic shock in the context of pulsar wind nebulae. We simulate the outflow produced by an obliquely rotating pulsar in proximity of its termination shock with a two-fluid code that uses a magnetic shear wave to mimic the properties of the wind. We integrate electron trajectories in the test-particle limit in the resulting background electromagnetic fields to analyze the injection mechanism. We find that the shock-precursor structure energizes and reflects a sizable fraction of particles, which becomes available for further acceleration. We investigate the subsequent first-order Fermi process sustained by small-scale magnetic fluctuations with a Monte Carlo code. We find that the acceleration proceeds in two distinct regimes: when the gyroradius {r}{{g}} exceeds the wavelength of the shear λ, the process is remarkably similar to first-order Fermi acceleration at relativistic, parallel shocks. This regime corresponds to a low-density wind that allows the propagation of superluminal waves. When {r}{{g}}< λ , which corresponds to the scenario of driven reconnection, the spectrum is softer.

  4. Turbulent Magnetic Relaxation in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrake, Jonathan; Arons, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    We present a model for magnetic energy dissipation in a pulsar wind nebula. A better understanding of this process is required to assess the likelihood that certain astrophysical transients may be powered by the spin-down of a “millisecond magnetar.” Examples include superluminous supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and anticipated electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave detections of binary neutron star coalescence. Our model leverages recent progress in the theory of turbulent magnetic relaxation to specify a dissipative closure of the stationary magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) wind equations, yielding predictions of the magnetic energy dissipation rate throughout the nebula. Synchrotron losses are self-consistently treated. To demonstrate the model’s efficacy, we show that it can reproduce many features of the Crab Nebula, including its expansion speed, radiative efficiency, peak photon energy, and mean magnetic field strength. Unlike ideal MHD models of the Crab (which lead to the so-called σ-problem), our model accounts for the transition from ultra to weakly magnetized plasma flow and for the associated heating of relativistic electrons. We discuss how the predicted heating rates may be utilized to improve upon models of particle transport and acceleration in pulsar wind nebulae. We also discuss implications for the Crab Nebula’s γ-ray flares, and point out potential modifications to models of astrophysical transients invoking the spin-down of a millisecond magnetar.

  5. Theory of pulsar magnetosphere and wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, Jérôme

    2016-10-01

    > leptons or does it contain a non-negligible fraction of protons and/or ions? Is it almost entirely filled or mostly empty except for some small anecdotal plasma filled regions? Answers to these questions will strongly direct the description of the magnetosphere to seemingly contradictory results leading sometimes to inconsistencies. Nevertheless, accounts are given as to the latest developments in the theory of pulsar magnetospheres and winds, the existence of a possible electrosphere and physical insight obtained from related observational signatures of multi-wavelength pulsed emission.

  6. The imprint of pulsar parameters on the morphology of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, Rolf; Giomi, Matteo

    2016-11-01

    The morphology of young Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) is largely determined by the properties of the wind injected by the pulsar. We have used a recent parametrization of the wind obtained from force-free electrodynamics simulations of pulsar magnetospheres to simulate nebulae for different sets of pulsar parameters. We performed axisymmetric relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations to test the morphology dependence of the nebula on the obliquity of the pulsar and on the magnetization of the pulsar wind. We compare these simulations to the morphology of the Vela and Crab PWN. We find that the morphology of Vela can be reproduced qualitatively if the pulsar obliquity angle is α ≈ 45° and the magnetization of the wind is high (σ0 ≈ 3.0). A morphology similar to the one of the Crab nebula is only obtained for low-magnetization simulations with α ≳ 45°. Interestingly, we find that Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities produce small-scale turbulences downstream of the reverse shock of the pulsar wind.

  7. Evolution of Pulsar Wind Nebulae inside Supernova Remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temim, T.

    2016-06-01

    Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) are those consisting of both a central pulsar that produces a wind of synchrotron-emitting relativistic particle and a supernova (SN) blast wave that expands into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The evolution of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is coupled to the evolution of its host SNR and characterized by distinct stages, from the PWN's early expansion into the unshocked SN ejecta to its late-phase interaction with the SNR reverse shock. I will present an overview of the various evolutionary stages of composite SNRs and show how the signatures of the PWN/SNR interaction can reveal important information about the SNR and PWN dynamics, the SN progenitor and explosion asymmetry, the properties of the SN ejecta and newly-formed dust, particle injection and loss processes, and the eventual escape of energetic particles into the ISM. I will also discuss recent multi-wavelength observations and hydrodynamical modeling of evolved systems in which the PWN interacts with the SNR reverse shock and discuss their implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  8. DA 495: An Aging Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kothes, R.; Landecker, T. L.; Reich, W.; Safi-Harb, S.; Arzoumanian, Z.

    2008-11-01

    We present a radio continuum study of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) DA 495 (G65.7+1.2), including images of total intensity and linear polarization from 408 to 10550 MHz based on the Canadian Galactic Plane Survey and observations with the Effelsberg 100 m Radio Telescope. Removal of flux density contributions from a superimposed H II region and from compact extragalactic sources reveals a break in the spectrum of DA 495 at 1.3 GHz, with a spectral index α = - 0.45 +/- 0.20 below the break and α = - 0.87 +/- 0.10 above it (Sν propto να). The spectral break is more than 3 times lower in frequency than the lowest break detected in any other PWN. The break in the spectrum is likely the result of synchrotron cooling, and DA 495, at an age of ~20,000 yr, may have evolved from an object similar to the Vela X nebula, with a similarly energetic pulsar. We find a magnetic field of ~1.3 mG inside the nebula. After correcting for the resulting high internal rotation measure, the magnetic field structure is quite simple, resembling the inner part of a dipole field projected onto the plane of the sky, although a toroidal component is likely also present. The dipole field axis, which should be parallel to the spin axis of the putative pulsar, lies at an angle of ~50° east of the north celestial pole and is pointing away from us toward the southwest. The upper limit for the radio surface brightness of any shell-type supernova remnant emission around DA 495 is Σ1GHz ~ 5.4 × 10-23 W m-2 Hz-1 sr-1 (assuming a radio spectral index of α = - 0.5), lower than the faintest shell-type remnant known to date.

  9. PROPAGATION AND STABILITY OF SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mochol, Iwona; Kirk, John G. E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase velocity can propagate in the winds around isolated pulsars, and around some pulsars in binary systems. Using a short-wavelength approximation, we find and analyze an integrable system of equations that govern their evolution in spherical geometry. A confined mode is identified that stagnates to finite pressure at large radius and can form a precursor to the termination shock. Using a simplified criterion, we find this mode is stable for most isolated pulsars, but may be unstable if the external pressure is high, such as in the pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies and in W44. Pulsar winds in eccentric binary systems, such as PSR 1259-63, may go through phases with stable and unstable electromagnetic precursors, as well as phases in which the density is too high for these modes to propagate.

  10. Revised Predictions of Neutrino Fluxes from Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Palma, Irene; Guetta, Dafne; Amato, Elena

    2017-02-01

    Several pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) have been detected in the TeV band in the last decade. TeV emission is typically interpreted in a purely leptonic scenario, but this often requires that the magnetic field in the nebula be much lower than the equipartition value, as well as the assumption of an enhanced density of target radiation at IR frequencies. In this work, we consider the possibility that, in addition to the relativistic electrons and positrons, relativistic hadrons are also present in these nebulae. Assuming that some of the emitted TeV photons are of hadronic origin, we compute the associated flux of ∼ 1{--}100 TeV neutrinos. We use IceCube non-detection to put constraints on the fraction of TeV photons that might be contributed by hadrons and estimate the number of neutrino events that can be expected from these sources in ANTARES and KM3Net.

  11. X-ray observations of the Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula and Rapidly Moving Pulsar in SNR MSH 15-56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick O.; Plucinsky, Paul P.; Castro, Daniel; Gelfand, Joseph

    2017-08-01

    Composite supernova remnants (SNRs) are those consisting of both a central pulsar that produces a wind of synchrotron-emitting relativistic particle and a supernova (SN) blast wave that expands into the surrounding interstellar medium (ISM). The evolution of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is coupled to the evolution of its host SNR and characterized by distinct stages, from the PWN’s early expansion into the unshocked SN ejecta to its late-phase interaction with the SNR reverse shock. The signatures of this PWN/SNR interaction can reveal important information about the SNR and PWN dynamics, the ambient medium, particle injection and loss processes, and the eventual escape of PWN’s energetic particles into the interstellar medium. I will present the analysis of recent X-ray observations of the evolved composite SNR MSH 15-56 that appears to have undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SN reverse shock. Such an asymmetric interaction can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and/or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the SNR. The 15-year baseline of the Chandra observations allowed us to measure the proper motion of the pulsar, which indeed shows that it is moving at a high velocity. This analysis provides new insight into the evolution of this complex SNR and the late-phase evolution of composite SNRs in general.

  12. The Structure and Evolution of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick O.

    2010-01-01

    The extended nebulae formed as pulsar winds expand into their surroundings provide information about the composition of the winds, the injection history from the host pulsar, and the material into which the nebulae are expanding. Observations from across the electromagnetic spectrum provide constraints on the evolution of the nebulae, the density and composition of the surrounding ejecta, the geometry of the central engines, and the long-term fate of the energetic particles produced in these systems. Such observations reveal the presence of jets and wind termination shocks, time-varying compact emission structures, shocked supernova ejecta, and newly formed dust. Here I provide a broad overview of the structure of pulsar wind nebulae, with specific examples from observations extending from the radio band to very high energy gamma-rays that demonstrate our ability to constrain the history and ultimate fate of the energy released in the spin-down of young pulsars.

  13. An axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic model for the Crab pulsar wind bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1992-01-01

    We extend Kennel and Coroniti's (1984) spherical magnetohydrodynamic models for the Crab Nebula to include the pinching effect of the toroidal magnetic field. Since the bulk nebular flow is likely to be very submagnetosonic, a quasi-static treatment is possible. We show that the pinching effect can be responsible for the observed elongation of the pulsar wind bubble, as indicated by the surface brightness contours of optical synchrotron radiation. From the observed elongation we estimate a value for sigma, the ratio of Poynting flux to plasma kinetic energy flux in the free pulsar wind, which is consistent with previous results from spherical models. Using the inferred magnetic field configuration inside the pulsar wind bubble, combined with the observed dimensions of the X-ray nebula, we are able to constrain the particle distribution function. We conclude that, for a power-law injection function, the maximum energy has to be much larger in the pulsar equatorial region than in the polar region.

  14. An axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic model for the Crab pulsar wind bubble

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begelman, Mitchell C.; Li, Zhi-Yun

    1992-01-01

    We extend Kennel and Coroniti's (1984) spherical magnetohydrodynamic models for the Crab Nebula to include the pinching effect of the toroidal magnetic field. Since the bulk nebular flow is likely to be very submagnetosonic, a quasi-static treatment is possible. We show that the pinching effect can be responsible for the observed elongation of the pulsar wind bubble, as indicated by the surface brightness contours of optical synchrotron radiation. From the observed elongation we estimate a value for sigma, the ratio of Poynting flux to plasma kinetic energy flux in the free pulsar wind, which is consistent with previous results from spherical models. Using the inferred magnetic field configuration inside the pulsar wind bubble, combined with the observed dimensions of the X-ray nebula, we are able to constrain the particle distribution function. We conclude that, for a power-law injection function, the maximum energy has to be much larger in the pulsar equatorial region than in the polar region.

  15. The Wind Interaction Regions of the VELA Pulsar: a Pulsar Jet and Bow Shock Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, Craig Bishop

    The Vela pulsar is a nearby young pulsar actively radiating radio to γ-rays. We present evidence in this work that the Vela pulsar is also interacting with its surroundings via a relativistic wind, which manifests itself as two different nebular structures. ROSAT PSPC observations of the Vela pulsar show that a 45 arcmin long collimated X-ray feature projects from the pulsar. We favor the interpretation that the feature is a 'cocoon' of heated gas formed when a jet outflow from the Vela pulsar interacts with the interior medium of the supernova remnant. This interpretation is consistent with the observed center-filled morphology and spectrum of the cocoon structure. Combined ROSAT + ASCA observations of the 'head' of the cocoon, the point where the jet is believed to interact with the supernova remnant, demonstrate that the spectrum has a thermal peak near 1 keV, but extends to at least 7 keV. No distinct spectral lines are seen. The spectral parameters of the cocoon could be produced by a cocoon with a pulsar jet whose speed is at least 800 km s-1, depending on the angle of inclination. The mechanical power driving the jet is ≥1036 erg s-1, consistent with the Vela pulsar's rotational energy loss rate. On smaller spatial scales, it has been known that the Vela pulsar is surrounded by a 2 arcmin diameter 'compact' nebula which has power law spectral emission. Our ROSAT HRI observations of the region show that the nebula very likely a bow shock structure formed by a nearly isotropic pulsar wind interacting with the supernova remnant. The axis of the nebula is aligned with the pulsar's known proper motion vector. The high particle energies and magnetic fields near the pulsar make the bow shock an ideal environment for generating X-ray synchrotron emission. We show that a full three dimensional model of the nebula, taking into account what is known about the geometry and pulsar wind physics, is consistent with the observations.

  16. Guitar with a bow: a jet-like X-ray-emitting feature associated a fast-moving pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel

    2011-09-01

    The Guitar Nebula is known to be a ram-pressure confined pulsar wind nebula associated with the very fast-moving pulsar B2224+65. Existing observations at two epochs have shown an unexpected 2 arcmin long X-ray-emitting jet-like feature emanating from the pulsar and offset from its proper motion direction by 118 degree. We propose a deep third epoch observation of this system in order to measure the X-ray spectral gradient across the feature as well as to confirm its proper motion, its morphological variation with time, and the presence of a counter jet. We will then critically test scenarios proposed to explain this system, which represents a class of similarly enigmatic objects recently discovered locally and in the central region of our Galaxy.

  17. Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The original proposal for this LTSA grant was for X-ray studies of pulsars, and especially pulsar wind nebulae and what they could tell us about pulsar properties, especially their space velocities. By any metric, this program has been very successful. No fewer than 14 papers on directly related topics (and several dozen more on related topics) have been published in refereed journals with the PI as lead or co-author, all observational results that have had significant impact on the field. These include the first X-ray detection of the "Duck" pulsar, a clear demonstration that estimated pulsar ages can be off by over an order of magnitude (via observations of the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3) and the detection of the first pulsar wind nebula around a millisecond pulsar. These publications have also resulted in 4 press releases. Moreover, they also represent the thesis work of two PhD students at MIT (Froney Crawford and Mike Pivovaroff) and one postdoctoral fellow, Bryan Gaensler, now Assistant Professor at Harvard.

  18. Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The original proposal for this LTSA grant was for X-ray studies of pulsars, and especially pulsar wind nebulae and what they could tell us about pulsar properties, especially their space velocities. By any metric, this program has been very successful. No fewer than 14 papers on directly related topics (and several dozen more on related topics) have been published in refereed journals with the PI as lead or co-author, all observational results that have had significant impact on the field. These include the first X-ray detection of the "Duck" pulsar, a clear demonstration that estimated pulsar ages can be off by over an order of magnitude (via observations of the young supernova remnant G11.2-0.3) and the detection of the first pulsar wind nebula around a millisecond pulsar. These publications have also resulted in 4 press releases. Moreover, they also represent the thesis work of two PhD students at MIT (Froney Crawford and Mike Pivovaroff) and one postdoctoral fellow, Bryan Gaensler, now Assistant Professor at Harvard.

  19. High-energy flux evolution of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Mattana, F.; Falanga, M.; Goetz, D.

    2008-12-24

    The very high energy {gamma}-ray spectra of Pulsar Wind Nebulae are interpreted as due to inverse Compton scattering of ultrarelativistic electrons on the ambient photons, whereas their X-ray spectra are due to synchrotron emission. We investigate the relation between the {gamma}- and X-ray emission and the pulsars' spin-down luminosity and characteristic age. We find that the {gamma}-to X-ray flux ratio of the nebulae is inversely proportional to the spin-down luminosity ({proportional_to}E{sup -1.9}) and to the characteristic age ({proportional_to}{tau}{sub c}{sup 2.2}) of the parent pulsar. We interpret these results as due to the evolution of the electron energy distribution and the nebular dynamics, supporting the idea of so-called relic pulsar wind nebulae. These empirical relations provide a new tool to classify unidentified diffuse {gamma}-ray sources and to estimate the spin-down luminosity and characteristic age for four rotation powered pulsars with no detected pulsation from the X- and {gamma}--ray properties of the associated pulsar wind nebulae.

  20. Gamma-rays from pulsar wind nebulae in starburst galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannheim, Karl; Elsässer, Dominik; Tibolla, Omar

    2012-07-01

    Recently, gamma-ray emission at TeV energies has been detected from the starburst galaxies NGC253 (Acero et al., 2009) [1] and M82 (Acciari et al., 2009) [2]. It has been claimed that pion production due to cosmic rays accelerated in supernova remnants interacting with the interstellar gas is responsible for the observed gamma rays. Here, we show that the gamma-ray pulsar wind nebulae left behind by the supernovae contribute to the TeV luminosity in a major way. A single pulsar wind nebula produces about ten times the total luminosity of the Sun at energies above 1 TeV during a lifetime of 105 years. A large number of 3 × 104 pulsar wind nebulae expected in a typical starburst galaxy at a distance of 4 Mpc can readily produce the observed TeV gamma rays.

  1. Constraining the Turbulence Scale and Mixing of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Chi Yung; Ma, Y. K.; Bucciantini, Niccolo; Slane, Patrick O.; Gaensler, Bryan M.; Temim, Tea

    2016-04-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are synchrotron-emitting nebulae resulting from the interaction between pulsars' relativistic particle outflows and the ambient medium. The Snail PWN in supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 is a rare system that has recently been crushed by supernova reverse shock. We carried out radio polarization observations with the Australia Telescope Compact Array and found highly ordered magnetic field structure in the nebula. This result is surprising, given the turbulent environment expected from hydrodynamical simulations. We developed a toymodel and compared simple simulations with observations to constrain the characteristic turbulence scale in the PWN and the mixing with supernova ejecta. We estimate that the turbulence scale is about one-eighth to one-sixth of the nebula radius and a pulsar wind filling factor of 50-75%. The latter implies substantial mixing of the pulsar wind with the surrounding supernova ejecta.This work is supported by an ECS grant of the Hong Kong Government under HKU 709713P. The Australia Telescope is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO.

  2. Production of Gamma-Rays in the Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, W.; Bartosik, M.

    2004-10-01

    We construct the time dependent hadronic-leptonic radiation model for the high energy processes inside the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). This model is based on the hypothesis that heavy nuclei are effi- ciently accelerated in the vicinity of young pulsars. Different energy loss processes of nuclei and accel- erated by them leptons are considered in order to obtain the equilibrium spectra of these particles in- side the nebula at an arbitrary time after the pulsar formation. We calculate the multiwavelength spec- tra from specific PWNe expected from different lep- tonic and hadronic processes. From normalization of the calculated synchrotron spectrum to the observed spectrum at low energies, the expected TeV gamma- ray fluxes from a few PWNe are predicted and its possible detectability by the future TeV telescopes is discussed. Key words: Pulsars: nebulae - radiation mecha- nisms: gamma-rays.

  3. Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stappers, Benjamin W.

    2012-04-01

    Pulsars can be considered as the ultimate time-variable source. They show variations on time-scales ranging from nanoseconds to as long as years, and they emit over almost the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The dominant modulation is associated with the rotation period, which can vary from slighty more than a millisecond to upwards of ten seconds (if we include the magnetars). Variations on time-scales shorter than the pulse period are mostly associated with emission processes and are manifested as giant pulses, microstructure and sub-pulses (to name a few). On time-scales of a rotation to a few hundred rotations are other phenomena also associated with the emission, such as nulling, moding, drifting and intermittency. By probing these and slightly longer time-scales we find that pulsars exhibit ``glitches'', which are rapid variations in spin rates. They are believed to be related to the interaction between the superfluid interior of the neutron star and the outer crust. Detailed studies of glitches can reveal much about the properties of the constituents of neutron stars-the only way to probe the physics of material at such extreme densities. Time-scales of about an hour or longer reveal that some pulsars are in binary systems, in particular the most rapidly rotating systems. Discovering and studying those binary systems provides vital clues to the evolution of massive stars, while some of the systems are also the best probes of strong-field gravity theories; the elusive pulsar-black hole binary would be the ultimate system. Pulsars are tools that allow us to probe a range of phenomena and time-scales. It is possible to measure the time of arrival of pulses from some pulsars to better than a few tens of nanoseconds over years, making them some of the most accurate clocks known. Concerning their rotation, deviations from sphericity may cause pulsars to emit gravitational waves which might then be detected by next-generation gravitational-wave detectors. Pulsars

  4. Multi-D magnetohydrodynamic modelling of pulsar wind nebulae: recent progress and open questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Mignone, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the last decade, the relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of pulsar wind nebulae, and of the Crab nebula in particular, has been highly successful, with many of the observed dynamical and emission properties reproduced down to the finest detail. Here, we critically discuss the results of some of the most recent studies: namely the investigation of the origin of the radio emitting particles and the quest for the acceleration sites of particles of different energies along the termination shock, by using wisp motions as a diagnostic tool; the study of the magnetic dissipation process in high magnetization nebulae by means of new long-term three-dimensional simulations of the pulsar wind nebula evolution; the investigation of the relativistic tearing instability in thinning current sheets, leading to fast reconnection events that might be at the origin of the Crab nebula gamma-ray flares.

  5. Chandra Confirmation of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in DA 495

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arzoumanian, Z.; Safi-Harb, S.; Landecker, T.L.; Kothes, R.; Camilo, F.

    2008-01-01

    As part of a multiwavelength study of the unusual radio supernova remnant DA 495, we present observations made with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Imaging and spectroscopic analysis confirms the previously detected X-ray source at the heart of the annular radio nebula, establishing the radiative properties of two key emission components: a soft unresolved source with a blackbody temperature of 1 MK consistent with a neutron star, surrounded by a nontherma1 nebula 40" in diameter exhibiting a power-law spectrum with photon index Gamma = 1.63, typical of a pulsar wind nebula. Morphologically, the nebula appears to be slightly extended along a direction, in projection on the sky, previously demonstrated to be of significance in radio and ASCA observations; we argue that this represents the orientation of the pulsar spin axis. At smaller scales, a narrow X-ray feature is seen extending out 5" from the point source, but energetic arguments suggest that it is not the resolved termination shock of the pulsar wind against the ambient medium. Finally, we argue based on synchrotron lifetimes in the nebular magnetic field that DA 495 represents the first example of a pulsar wind nebula in which electromagnetic flux makes up a significant part, together with particle flux, of the neutron star's wind.

  6. A high-sigma model of pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyutikov, Maxim

    2010-07-01

    Pulsars and central engines of long gamma-ray bursts - collapsars - may produce highly magnetized (Poynting-flux-dominated) outflows expanding in dense surroundings (interstellar medium or stellar material). For certain injection conditions, the magnetic flux of the wind cannot be accommodated within the cavity. In this case, ideal (non-dissipative) magnetohydrodynamics models, similar to the Kennel & Coroniti model of the Crab nebula, break down (the so-called `sigma problem'). This is typically taken to imply that the wind should become particle-dominated on scales much smaller than the size of the cavity. The wind is then slowed down by a fluid-type (low magnetization) reverse shock. Recent Fermi results, indicating that the synchrotron spectrum of the Crab nebula extends well beyond the upper limit of the most efficient radiation-reaction-limited acceleration, contradict the presence of a low-sigma reverse shock. We propose an alternative possibility, that in nearly aligned pulsars the excessive magnetic flux is destroyed in a reconnection-like process in two regions: near the rotational axis and near the equator. We construct an example of such a highly magnetized wind having two distinct reconnection regions and suggest that these reconnection sites are observed as tori and jets in pulsar wind nebulae. The model reproduces, qualitatively, the observed morphology of the Crab nebula. In parts of the nebula dissipation occurs in a relativistically moving wind, alleviating requirements on the acceleration rate.

  7. A Stochastic Acceleration Model of Radio Emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, S.; Asano, K.

    2016-06-01

    The broadband emission of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) is well described by non-thermal emissions from accelerated electrons and positrons. However, the difference of spectral indices at radio and X-rays are not reproduced by the standard shock particle acceleration and cooling processes, and then, for example, the broken power-law spectrum for the particle energy distribution at the injection has been groundlessly adopted. Here, we propose a possible resolution for the particle distribution; the radio emitting particles are not accelerated at the pulsar wind termination shock but are stochastically accelerated by turbulence inside the PWNe. The turbulence may be induced by the interaction of the pulsar wind with the supernova ejecta. We upgrade our one-zone spectral evolution model including the stochastic acceleration and apply it to the Crab Nebula. We consider both continuous and impulsive injections of particles to the stochastic acceleration process. The radio emission in the Crab Nebula is reproduced by our stochastic acceleration model. The required forms of the momentum diffusion coefficient will be discussed.

  8. X-ray Analysis of the Pulsar Wind Nebula DA 495 and its Central Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpova, A.; Zyuzin, D.; Danilenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu

    2016-11-01

    We report the results of a simultaneous analysis of the Chandra and XMM- Newton data on the pulsar wind nebula DA 495 and its central object, J1952.2+2925, which is presumably a pulsar. The J1952.2+2925 pure thermal spectrum can be equally well described either by the blackbody model with a temperature of 215 eV and an emitting area radius of 0.6 km or magnetized neutron star atmosphere models with temperatures of 80-90 eV. We also used the high temporal resolution XMM-Newton/EPIC-pn data to search for pulsations from J1952.2+2925. No pulsations were found so we set an upper limit for the pulsed fraction which is 40%. Using of the interstellar absorption-distance relation allowed us to estimate the distance to DA 495, which lies between 1 and 5 kpc.

  9. Newest insights from MHD numerical modeling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.; Amato, E.; Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.

    2016-06-01

    Numerical MHD models are considered very successful in accounting for many of the observed properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe), especially those concerning the high energy emission morphology and the inner nebula dynamics. Although PWNe are known to be among the most powerful accelerators in nature, producing particles up to PeV energies, the mechanisms responsible of such an efficient acceleration are still a deep mystery. Indeed, these processes take place in one of the most hostile environment for particle acceleration: the relativistic and highly magnetized termination shock of the pulsar wind. The newest results from numerical simulations of the Crab Nebula, the PWN prototype, will be presented, with special attention to the problem of particle acceleration. In particular it will be shown how a multi-wavelengths analysis of the wisps properties can be used to constrain the particle acceleration mechanisms working at the Crab's termination shock, by identifying the particle acceleration site at the shock front.

  10. Rotational evolution of the Crab pulsar in the wind braking model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kou, F. F.; Tong, H.

    2015-06-01

    The pulsar wind model is updated by considering the effect of particle density and pulsar death. It can describe both the short-term and long-term rotational evolution of pulsars consistently. It is applied to model the rotational evolution of the Crab pulsar. The pulsar is spun down by a combination of magnetic dipole radiation and particle wind. The parameters of the Crab pulsar, including magnetic field, inclination angle, and particle density are calculated. The primary particle density in acceleration region is about 103 times the Goldreich-Julian charge density. The lower braking index between glitches is due to a larger outflowing particle density. This may be glitch induced magnetospheric activities in normal pulsars. Evolution of braking index and the Crab pulsar in P-dot{P} diagram are calculated. The Crab pulsar will evolve from magnetic dipole radiation dominated case towards particle wind-dominated case. Considering the effect of pulsar `death', the Crab pulsar (and other normal pulsars) will not evolve to the cluster of magnetars but downwards to the death valley. Different acceleration models are also considered. Applications to other sources are also discussed, including pulsars with braking index measured, and the magnetar population.

  11. Three-dimensional analytical description of magnetized winds from oblique pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tchekhovskoy, Alexander; Philippov, Alexander; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2016-04-01

    Rotating neutron stars, or pulsars and magnetars, are plausibly the source of power behind many astrophysical systems, such as gamma-ray bursts, supernovae, pulsar wind nebulae, and supernova remnants. In the past several years, three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations made it possible to compute pulsar spin-down luminosity from first principles and revealed that oblique pulsar winds are more powerful than aligned ones. However, what causes this enhanced power output of oblique pulsars is not understood. In this work, using time-dependent 3D magnetohydrodynamic and force-free simulations, we show that, contrary to the standard paradigm, the open magnetic flux, which carries the energy away from the pulsar, is laterally non-uniform. We argue that this non-uniformity is the primary reason for the increased luminosity of oblique pulsars. To demonstrate this, we construct simple analytic descriptions of aligned and orthogonal pulsar winds and combine them to obtain an accurate 3D description of the pulsar wind for any obliquity. Our approach describes both the warped magnetospheric current sheet and the smooth variation of pulsar wind properties outside of it. We find that the jump in magnetic field components across the current sheet decreases with increasing obliquity, which could be a mechanism that reduces dissipation in near-orthogonal pulsars. Our analytical description of the pulsar wind can be used for constructing models of pulsar gamma-ray emission, pulsar wind nebulae, neutron star powered ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and magnetar-powered core-collapse gamma-ray bursts and supernovae.

  12. THE PROPER MOTION AND X-RAY ANALYSIS OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA, PSR J1741-2054 USING CHANDRA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick O.; Romani, Roger W.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.

    2014-08-01

    A pulsar dissipates its rotational energy by generating relativistic winds, which in turn produces a population of high energy electrons and positions that we observe as a synchrotron emitting nebula. If the pulsar has a high space velocity, the corresponding nebula will have a bow-shock morphology due to the pulsar wind being confined by ram pressure. Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) provide a good test bed to study the dynamics and interaction of relativistic outflows with their environment and the corresponding shocks that result from these interactions. They can also aid in understanding the evolution of the neutron star and the properties of the local medium with which they are interacting. Here we report on the X-ray analysis of PSR J1741-2054 carried out as a part of the Chandra XVP program (6 ACIS-S observations, totalling ~300 ks over 5 months). By registering this new epoch of observations using X-ray point sources in the field of view to an archival observation taken 3.2 years earlier, we are able to measure the proper motion of the pulsar with >3σ significance. We also investigate the spatial and spectral properties of the pulsar, its compact nebula and extended tail. We find that the compact nebula can be well described with an absorbed power-law with photon index of Γ=1.6+/-0.2, while the tail shows no evidence of variation in the spectral index with the distance from the pulsar. We have also investigated the X-ray spectrum of the neutron star. We find nonthermal emission accompanied by a significant thermal component and will provide constraints on the overall nature of the emission.

  13. Modelling Jets, Tori and Flares in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver; Buehler, Rolf; Olmi, Barbara; Komissarov, Serguei; Lamberts, Astrid; Amato, Elena; Yuan, Yajie; Rudy, Alexander

    2017-07-01

    In this contribution we review the recent progress in the modelling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN). We start with a brief overview of the relevant physical processes in the magnetosphere, the wind-zone and the inflated nebula bubble. Radiative signatures and particle transport processes obtained from 3D simulations of PWN are discussed in the context of optical and X-ray observations. We then proceed to consider particle acceleration in PWN and elaborate on what can be learned about the particle acceleration from the dynamical structures called GwispsG observed in the Crab nebula. We also discuss recent observational and theoretical results of gamma-ray flares and the inner knot of the Crab nebula, which had been proposed as the emission site of the flares. We extend the discussion to GeV flares from binary systems in which the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind from a companion star. The chapter concludes with a discussion of solved and unsolved problems posed by PWN.

  14. Modelling Jets, Tori and Flares in Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, Oliver; Buehler, Rolf; Olmi, Barbara; Komissarov, Serguei; Lamberts, Astrid; Amato, Elena; Yuan, Yajie; Rudy, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution we review the recent progress in the modelling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN). We start with a brief overview of the relevant physical processes in the magnetosphere, the wind-zone and the inflated nebula bubble. Radiative signatures and particle transport processes obtained from 3D simulations of PWN are discussed in the context of optical and X-ray observations. We then proceed to consider particle acceleration in PWN and elaborate on what can be learned about the particle acceleration from the dynamical structures called GwispsG observed in the Crab nebula. We also discuss recent observational and theoretical results of gamma-ray flares and the inner knot of the Crab nebula, which had been proposed as the emission site of the flares. We extend the discussion to GeV flares from binary systems in which the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind from a companion star. The chapter concludes with a discussion of solved and unsolved problems posed by PWN.

  15. Modelling jets, tori and flares in pulsar wind nebulae

    DOE PAGES

    Porth, Oliver; Buehler, Rolf; Olmi, Barbara; ...

    2017-03-22

    In this contribution we review the recent progress in the modelling of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN). We start with a brief overview of the relevant physical processes in the magnetosphere, the wind-zone and the inflated nebula bubble. Radiative signatures and particle transport processes obtained from 3D simulations of PWN are discussed in the context of optical and X-ray observations. We then proceed to consider particle acceleration in PWN and elaborate on what can be learned about the particle acceleration from the dynamical structures called GwispsG observed in the Crab nebula. We also discuss recent observational and theoretical results of gamma-raymore » flares and the inner knot of the Crab nebula, which had been proposed as the emission site of the flares. Here, we extend the discussion to GeV flares from binary systems in which the pulsar wind interacts with the stellar wind from a companion star. The chapter concludes with a discussion of solved and unsolved problems posed by PWN.« less

  16. The Puzzles of the Vela Pulsar-Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, G. G.

    2008-03-01

    Very few pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) can be studied at the level of detail comparable to that achieved for the Crab PWN. The nearby Vela PWN is the best candidate for such an in-depth study. Using Chandra ACIS observations of 2000-2002, we produced a "movie" which shows that not only the NW outer jet, reported by Pavlov et al. (2003), but also the entire bright Vela PWN is remarkably variable. The most dramatic changes occur in the outer arc, the SE inner jet, and the bright knots in the SE part of the inner PWN. On a time scale of 1-3 weeks, the outer arc changes its brightness, shape, and spectrum, the knots move, disappear and appear again, while the SE inner jet changes its brightness and size. In contrast with the Crab PWN, we see no moving "wisps". The observed changes can be attributed to instabilities in the pulsar wind and to varying density/pressure in the ambient medium. Deep combined images show that the inner arc is part of a ring, but the pulsar is offset from its plane. The large width of the SE outer "jet" suggests either an intrinsic asymmetry of the SE and NW polar outflows or that the SE jet broadens in a low-pressure cavity behind the moving pulsar. We also found a puzzling "bar" at the base of the inner SE jet, possibly a shock in a polar outflow. An adaptively binned spectral map demonstrates that the inner PWN elements have extremely hard spectra (significantly harder than those of the Crab inner PWN), incompatible with those predicted by the shock acceleration models. Overall, the Vela PWN shows a wealth of puzzling features, different from the Crab; their nature can be understood in a specially designed series of Chandra ACIS observations.

  17. TeV-detected young pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cillis, Analia; Torres, D. F.; Martin, J.; de Oña, E.

    2014-01-01

    More than 20 young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been detected at very high energies (VHE) by the current Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACT). Such sources constitute the largest population of Galactic sources in this energy range. They are associated to very energetic, young pulsars and usually show an extended emission up to a few tens of parsecs. In this work we present spectral characterization for the young PWNe detected at VHE, using a time-dependent model, spanning over 20 decades in frequency. The PWNe that have been studied in this work are: Crab Nebula, G54.1+0.3, G0.9 +0.1, G21.5-0.9, MSH 15-52, G292.2-0.5, Kes 75 , HESS J1356-645 , CTA 1, HESS J1813-178 . Other young PWNe that have been detected at VHE have not been incorporated due to controversies in the association between the PWN and pulsar or lack of observational data at radio and X-ray frequencies. Some of the most robust findings, which are not affected by the uncertainties of the model, is that all detected PWNe in TeV are particle dominated with magnetic fractions that do not exceed a few percent. None of the PWNe detected at high energies and youth is in equipartition. With respect to the spectrum of particle injection, our result suggest that the process of acceleration in the termination shock wave from the pulsar wind, cooling, advection and diffusion of the accelerated particles is common in young PWNe.

  18. Non-thermal radiation from a pulsar wind interacting with an inhomogeneous stellar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Cita, V. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Paredes-Fortuny, X.; Khangulyan, D.; Perucho, M.

    2017-02-01

    Context. Binaries hosting a massive star and a non-accreting pulsar are powerful non-thermal emitters owing to the interaction of the pulsar and the stellar wind. The winds of massive stars are thought to be inhomogeneous, which could have an impact on the non-thermal emission. Aims: We study numerically the impact of the presence of inhomogeneities or clumps in the stellar wind on the high-energy non-thermal radiation of high-mass binaries hosting a non-accreting pulsar. Methods: We compute the trajectories and physical properties of the streamlines in the shocked pulsar wind without clumps, with a small clump, and with a large clump. This information is used to characterize the injection and the steady state distribution of non-thermal particles accelerated at shocks formed in the pulsar wind. The synchrotron and inverse Compton emission from these non-thermal particles is calculated, accounting also for the effect of gamma-ray absorption through pair creation. A specific study is done for PSR B1259-63/LS2883. Results: When stellar wind clumps perturb the two-wind interaction region, the associated non-thermal radiation in the X-ray band, of synchrotron origin, and in the GeV-TeV band, of inverse Compton origin, is affected by several equally important effects: (i) strong changes in the plasma velocity direction that result in Doppler boosting factor variations; (ii) strengthening of the magnetic field that mainly enhances the synchrotron radiation; (iii) strengthening of the pulsar wind kinetic energy dissipation at the shock, potentially available for particle acceleration; and (iv) changes in the rate of adiabatic losses that affect the lower energy part of the non-thermal particle population. The radiation above 100 GeV detected, presumably, during the post-periastron crossing of the Be star disc in PSR B1259-63/LS2883, can be roughly reproduced assuming that the crossing of the disc is modelled as the encounter with a large inhomogeneity. Conclusions

  19. TeV Gamma Ray Emission from Nearby Pulsar Wind Nebulae with HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao; Salesa Greus, Francisco; López-Coto, Rubén; Benzvi, Segev; Casanova, Sabrina; HAWC Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae are considered efficient electron/positron accelerators in our Galaxy. It has been suggested that particles accelerated by nearby pulsar wind nebulae, such as Geminga, would possibly account for the observed multi-GeV positron excess. The Geminga pulsar is one of the closest middle-aged pulsars and its pulsations were first discovered in X-rays. Milagro reported an extended TeV source spatially coincident with the Geminga pulsar, but IACT observations using standard analysis techniques have only provided upper limits. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, located in central Mexico at 4100 m above sea level, is sensitive to gamma rays between 100 GeV and 100 TeV. With a field of view of 2 steradians, HAWC has a good sensitivity to extended sources such as pulsar wind nebulae. Early data collected with HAWC reveals an extended source coincident with the Geminga pulsar, similar to what Milagro has reported. We will present results of spectral and morphological analyses on extended TeV gamma-ray emission from Geminga and other nearby pulsar wind nebulae with HAWC data. The interpretation of whether positrons from nearby pulsar wind nebulae can explain the observed positron excess will be discussed as well.

  20. The Emerging Population of Pulsar Wind Nebulae in Hard X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattana, F.; Götz, D.; Terrier, R.; Renaud, M.; Falanga, M.

    2009-05-01

    The hard X-ray synchrotron emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae probes energetic particles, closely related to the pulsar injection power at the present time. INTEGRAL has disclosed the yet poorly known population of hard X-ray pulsar/PWN systems. We summarize the properties of the class, with emphasys on the first hard X-ray bow-shock (CTB 80 powered by PSR B1951+32), and highlight some prospects for the study of Pulsar Wind Nebulae with the Simbol-X mission.

  1. Bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae passing through density discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae are a subset of pulsar-wind nebulae that form when the pulsar has high velocity due to the natal kick during the supernova explosion. The interaction between the relativistic wind from the fast-moving pulsar and the interstellar medium produces a bow-shock and a trail, which are detectable in Hα emission. Among such bow-shock pulsar-wind nebulae, the Guitar Nebula stands out for its peculiar morphology, which consists of a prominent bow-shock head and a series of bubbles further behind. We present a scenario in which multiple bubbles can be produced when the pulsar encounters a series of density discontinuities in the ISM. We tested the scenario using 2D and 3D hydrodynamic simulations. The shape of the Guitar Nebula can be reproduced if the pulsar traversed a region of declining low density. We also show that if a pulsar encounters an inclined density discontinuity, it produces an asymmetric bow-shock head, consistent with observations of the bow-shock of the millisecond pulsar J2124-3358.

  2. Crab/Vela Winds and Pulsar model topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, F. C.; Smith, I. A.

    2000-10-01

    Recent observations of the Crab and Vela by HST and Chandra have revealed that the winds seem to form polar jets and equatorial outflows. Features in the Crab winds flow with velocities comparable to c, which is no surprise theoretically. But the theoretically assumed wind patterns typically were more or less uniform outflows (e.g., Melatos and Melrose 1996, Fig. 1), unlike the jet/equatorial patterning. Interestingly, however, this geometry exactly parallels the expected distribution of trapped plasma around an aligned rotator (Krause-Polstorff and Michel 1985): plasma of one sign of charge is concentrated over the magnetic polar caps while the opposite sign plasma is concentrated in the equatorial regions. Unfortunately, it is not obvious how the wind is formed. We have examined several mechanisms (Smith, Thacker, and Michel 2000) and so far are forced to conclude that inclination of the dipole is essential and that plasma must be forced away by the resultant large-amplitude waves in the wave zone (a.k.a. light-cylinder). The KPM simulations showed that the popular Goldreich-Julian (1969) model was incorrect because two incompatible assumptions were made: (1) that the charged particles come from the neutron star surface and (2) that the magnetosphere is entirely filled by these particles. The KPM simulation initially adopted only assumption (1). Recently Contopoulos et al. (1999) found numerical solutions adopting assumption (2). Neither solution is GJ. However, assumption 2 would require ionization processes at implausible distances for typical pulsars. These results are of particular relevance to the popular assumptions that 1. Radio emission comes from the magnetic polar caps, 2. Plasma is accelerated from the magnetic polar caps, 3. Inclination of the dipole simply rotates the beam, 4. An aligned rotator would function as an "unpulsed" pulsar, and 5. Plasma is centrifugally ejected at the light-cylinder.

  3. Probing the origin of Pulsar wind with a Black widow pulsar 2FGL J2339.6-0532

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, Yoichi; Shibata, Shinpei; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Kataoka, Jun; Saito, Yoshihiko

    Multi-wavelength observations of a black widow binary system 2FGL2339.6-0532 are presented. Black widow pulsars are believed to be in the intermediate stage between LMXB and isolated millisecond pulsars(MSPs). In a typical black widow system, the recycled MSP is evaporating up its companion star by the powerful pulsar wind. Fermi gamma-ray source 2FGL2339.6-0532 is recently categorized as an black widow pulsar. It possesses a K-star companion orbiting at a period of 4.63 h that corresponds to an orbit radius of about 10(11) cm for a standard NS mass. Our optical observations utilizing OISTER show clear sinusoidal light curves at various wavelength covering Ks B band. Phase resolved SED precisely constrained the size of the companion star and temperature. X-ray spectra taken with Suzaku revealed steady soft X-ray excess below 1 keV energy range that may be originated in blackbody emission from the neutron surface. While In hard X-ray energy band the X-ray light curve shows double peak modulation synchronized with the orbital motion indicating that the hard X-ray may be from the surface of the companion star. To explain the hard X-ray behavior we examined a simple geometry and estimated the physical state of the pulsar wind at immediate vicinity of the light cylinder of the pulsar.

  4. Probing the Pulsar Wind Nebula of PSR B0355+54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, K. E.; Vestrand, W. T.; Kennea, J. A.; Zane, S.; Cropper, M.; Córdova, F. A.

    2006-08-01

    We present XMM-Newton and Chandra X-ray observations of the middle-aged radio pulsar PSR B0355+54. Our X-ray observations reveal emission not only from the pulsar itself, but also from a compact diffuse component extending ~50" in the opposite direction to the pulsar's proper motion. There is also evidence for the presence of fainter diffuse emission extending ~5' from the point source. The compact diffuse feature is well fitted with a power law, the index of which is consistent with the values found for other pulsar wind nebulae. The morphology of the diffuse component is similar to the ram-pressure-confined pulsar wind nebulae detected for other sources. The X-ray emission from the pulsar itself is well described by a thermal plus power-law fit, with the thermal emission most likely originating in a hot polar cap.

  5. Gamma-ray connection of Pulsars-Pulsar Wind Nebulae: From GeV to TeV energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, Rubén; de Ona Wilhelmi, Emma

    2015-08-01

    Pulsars are the remnants of massive star explosions and Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) are the bubbles of relativistic particles and magnetic field surrounding pulsars. The acceleration in PWNe is produced when the pulsar's relativistic wind interacts with its surrounding medium and particles are accelerated at the shock region. The non-thermal photon emission ranges from the radio to the very-high-energy (VHE) range and it is believed to be originated in synchrotron, curvature and inverse Compton processes.So far, pulsars and PWNe represent the largest population of identified GeV and TeV sources. In this contribution, we will describe the recent measurements on young PWNe such as the Crab whose inverse Compton peak was recently accurately determined. We will also discuss the origin of the GeV gamma-ray flares and their non-detection at any other wavelength, together with the recent reports of pulsed emission up to TeV energies. This result evidences the extreme acceleration of electrons in the surrounding of the Crab pulsar, up to Lorenz factors of 5 × 106. We will also put in context the recent discovery of VHE pulsed emission from the Vela pulsar. We will discuss the case of the inefficient pulsar at the center of 3C 58, a PWN discovered by Fermi at GeV energies and by MAGIC at TeV. In addition, we will also present population studies comparing several properties of the central engine such as age or spin-down power with the gamma-ray luminosity of their surrounding PWNe. We will finally show the measurement prospects for this kind of sources with the future Cherenkov Telescope Array.

  6. Numerical MHD modelling of composite SNR: The effect of pulsar birth period on pulsar wind parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jager, Ocker

    The γ-ray flux Fγ of a pulsar wind nebula in the GLAST/LAT domain can be shown to depend 2 on the pulsar birth period P0 as Fγ ∝ 1/P0 . Furthermore, it is also known that the PWN size depends on P0 , with the PWN radius overtaking the SNR forward shock if P0 is in the few millisecond domain. Whereas this is an interesting field of study, longer birth periods lead to slower PWN expansion, in which case the reverse shock compresses the PWN, One can therefore follow the time history of adiabatic losses versus adiabatic heating, which is important for multiwavelength modelling. We model composite SNRs as the time evolution of a PWN with its associated SNR forward/reverse shock and reflection wave. The effect of magnetic field is included via Faraday's induction equation. A high resolution numerical simulation scheme is followed whereby the explosion of a SNR with total explosion energy Esnr , ejecta mass Mej , ISM density ρISM and PWN energy via its pulsar birth period P0 , are followed through the Euler equations, describing inviscid flow. They are solved giving ρi (density), vi (velocity) and Pi (the pressure) with time. These equations correspond to the Navier-Stokes equations with zero viscosity and heat conduction terms. They describe the balance of mass, momentum and energy of different fluids, e.g. i = 1, 2, 3, ... and the interaction between these fluids are described by a source term Q(t), which, in the case of the PWN, is described by the spindown of the pulsar. We consider a two fluid scenario with non-relativistic (SNR) and relativistic (PWN) speeds (i = 1, 2), i.e. adiabatic indices of 5/3 and 4/3 respectively. The compressed ISM magnetic field is calculated through Faraday's Law. Note however that this is not a full MHD treatment since no backreaction on the fluid is considered. For the SNR we only consider the field of the ISM which gets compressed as the ISM is swept-up by the forward shock of the SNR. The same induction equation is also used to

  7. Future GLAST Observations of Supernova Remnants And Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    SciTech Connect

    Funk, S.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2007-09-26

    Shell-type Supernova remnants (SNRs) have long been known to harbour a population of ultra-relativistic particles, accelerated in the Supernova shock wave by the mechanism of diffusive shock acceleration. Experimental evidence for the existence of electrons up to energies of 100 TeV was first provided by the detection of hard X-ray synchrotron emission as e.g. in the shell of the young SNR SN1006. Furthermore using theoretical arguments shell-type Supernova remnants have long been considered as the main accelerator of protons - Cosmic rays - in the Galaxy; definite proof of this process is however still missing. Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWN) - diffuse structures surrounding young pulsars - are another class of objects known to be a site of particle acceleration in the Galaxy, again through the detection of hard synchrotron X-rays such as in the Crab Nebula. Gamma-rays above 100 MeV provide a direct access to acceleration processes. The GLAST Large Area telescope (LAT) will be operating in the energy range between 30 MeV and 300 GeV and will provide excellent sensitivity, angular and energy resolution in a previously rather poorly explored energy band. We will describe prospects for the investigation of these Galactic particle accelerators with GLAST.

  8. A NuSTAR Observation of the Gamma-Ray Emitting Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1723-2837

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y.; Takata, J.; Li, K. L.; Tam, P. H. T.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the first NuSTAR observation of the gamma-ray emitting millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1723-2837. X-ray radiation up to 79 keV is clearly detected, and the simultaneous NuSTAR and Swift spectrum is well described by an absorbed power law with a photon index of ˜1.3. We also find X-ray modulations in the 3-10, 10-20, 20-79, and 3-79 keV bands at the 14.8 hr binary orbital period. All of these are entirely consistent with previous X-ray observations below 10 keV. This new hard X-ray observation of PSR J1723-2837 provides strong evidence that the X-rays are from the intrabinary shock via an interaction between the pulsar wind and the outflow from the companion star. We discuss how the NuSTAR observation constrains the physical parameters of the intrabinary shock model.

  9. Abrupt acceleration of a 'cold' ultrarelativistic wind from the Crab pulsar.

    PubMed

    Aharonian, F A; Bogovalov, S V; Khangulyan, D

    2012-02-15

    Pulsars are thought to eject electron-positron winds that energize the surrounding environment, with the formation of a pulsar wind nebula. The pulsar wind originates close to the light cylinder, the surface at which the pulsar co-rotation velocity equals the speed of light, and carries away much of the rotational energy lost by the pulsar. Initially the wind is dominated by electromagnetic energy (Poynting flux) but later this is converted to the kinetic energy of bulk motion. It is unclear exactly where this takes place and to what speed the wind is accelerated. Although some preferred models imply a gradual acceleration over the entire distance from the magnetosphere to the point at which the wind terminates, a rapid acceleration close to the light cylinder cannot be excluded. Here we report that the recent observations of pulsed, very high-energy γ-ray emission from the Crab pulsar are explained by the presence of a cold (in the sense of the low energy of the electrons in the frame of the moving plasma) ultrarelativistic wind dominated by kinetic energy. The conversion of the Poynting flux to kinetic energy should take place abruptly in the narrow cylindrical zone of radius between 20 and 50 light-cylinder radii centred on the axis of rotation of the pulsar, and should accelerate the wind to a Lorentz factor of (0.5-1.0) × 10(6). Although the ultrarelativistic nature of the wind does support the general model of pulsars, the requirement of the very high acceleration of the wind in a narrow zone not far from the light cylinder challenges current models.

  10. Location of the emitting regions in the mode-switching radio pulsar PSR 1926 + 18

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowakowski, L. A.

    1994-01-01

    We present an analysis of average single-frequency profiles of the radio pulsar PSR 1926 + 18 in two different modes. Assuming a purely dipolar field and taking into account retardation, aberration, magnetic line curvature, and ignoring the magnetic field line sweepback, we come to the following conclusions: (1) mode switching in PSR 1926 + 18 at 430 MHz may be understood in terms of different emission heights of the two modes; (2) the weaker mode appears when regions emitting the first two components move away from the star by an additional distance of not more than several kilometers from their original locations; (3) the trailing conal component is emitted essentially from the same layer of the magnetosphere in both modes, in contrast to the first conal component, which appears to change its location in the magnetosphere; (4) core and conal components are emitted from distinctly different emission heights: core components not more than 75 km, and conal components not less than 215 km from the surface of the star. Our model infers three-dimensional information about the emitting region from single-frequency observations. It has been tested previously with a mode switching pulsar that had one component in the average profile in two modes. This paper shows that the same model can explain positions and widths of the components in a more complex profile during mode switching, provided that the components can be traced from one mode to another.

  11. A corrugated termination shock in pulsar wind nebulae?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Successful phenomenological models of pulsar wind nebulae assume efficient dissipation of the Poynting flux of the magnetized electron-positron wind as well as efficient acceleration of the pairs in the vicinity of the termination shock, but how this is realized is not yet well understood. This paper suggests that the corrugation of the termination shock, at the onset of nonlinearity, may lead towards the desired phenomenology. Nonlinear corrugation of the termination shock would convert a fraction of order unity of the incoming ordered magnetic field into downstream turbulence, slowing down the flow to sub-relativistic velocities. The dissipation of turbulence would further preheat the pair population on short length scales, close to equipartition with the magnetic field, thereby reducing the initial high magnetization to values of order unity. Furthermore, it is speculated that the turbulence generated by the corrugation pattern may sustain a relativistic Fermi process, accelerating particles close to the radiation reaction limit, as observed in the Crab nebula. The required corrugation could be induced by the fast magnetosonic modes of downstream nebular turbulence; but it could also be produced by upstream turbulence, either carried by the wind or seeded in the precursor by the accelerated particles themselves.

  12. SPATIALLY RESOLVED SPECTROSCOPY OF A PULSAR WIND NEBULA IN MSH 15-56

    SciTech Connect

    Yatsu, Yoichi; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yano, Yuki; Asano, Katsuaki; Nakamori, Takeshi

    2013-08-10

    We report the study of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-56. High-resolution X-ray imaging observations using XMM-Newton and Chandra provided clear images of its comet-like structure, as seen in other PWNe moving rapidly through interstellar mediums. At the PWN apex, Chandra detected a point source emitting a power-law spectrum with a photon index of {Gamma} = 1.3. The photon index of the PWN steepens from 1.7 to 2.5 along the flow line from the apex toward the tail, implying that the PWN is powered by the point source. The opening angle of the tail implies a pulsar velocity of v{sub PSR} = 1900 km s{sup -1}. We also discovered a thin X-ray filament at the edge of the SNR and just near the PWN. Assuming that the SNR is in the Sedov phase, the shell is expanding at 860 km s{sup -1}, which is consistent with the existence of the non-thermal filament. Based on the physical relationship, the PWN will run through the blast wave in the near future.

  13. Spatially Resolved Spectroscopy of a Pulsar Wind Nebula in MSH 15-56

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, Yoichi; Asano, Katsuaki; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Yano, Yuki; Nakamori, Takeshi

    2013-08-01

    We report the study of a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the middle-aged supernova remnant (SNR) MSH 15-56. High-resolution X-ray imaging observations using XMM-Newton and Chandra provided clear images of its comet-like structure, as seen in other PWNe moving rapidly through interstellar mediums. At the PWN apex, Chandra detected a point source emitting a power-law spectrum with a photon index of Γ = 1.3. The photon index of the PWN steepens from 1.7 to 2.5 along the flow line from the apex toward the tail, implying that the PWN is powered by the point source. The opening angle of the tail implies a pulsar velocity of v PSR = 1900 km s-1. We also discovered a thin X-ray filament at the edge of the SNR and just near the PWN. Assuming that the SNR is in the Sedov phase, the shell is expanding at 860 km s-1, which is consistent with the existence of the non-thermal filament. Based on the physical relationship, the PWN will run through the blast wave in the near future.

  14. High-energy emission from the pulsar striped wind: a synchrotron model for gamma-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, Jérôme

    2012-08-01

    Gamma-ray pulsars constitute a class of high and very high energy emitters for which the known population is steadily increasing thanks to the Fermi/Large Area Telescope. More than a hundred such pulsars have been detected, offering a reasonable sample on to which to apply statistical techniques in order to outline relevant trends in the averaged properties of this (maybe not so) special class of pulsars. In this paper, their gamma-ray luminosity and spectral features are explained in the framework of synchrotron radiation from particles located in the stripe of the pulsar wind. Apart from radiative losses, particles are also subject to a constant re-acceleration and reheating for instance by a magnetic-reconnection-induced electric field. The high-energy luminosity scales as Lγ ≈ 2 × 1026 W (Lsd/1028 W)1/2 (P/1 s)-1/2, where Lsd is the pulsar spin-down luminosity and P its period. From this relation, we derive important parameters of pulsar magnetosphere and wind theories. Indeed, we find the bulk Lorentz factor of the wind scaling as Γv≈10 τrec1/5(Lsd/1028 W)1/2, pair multiplicity κ related to the magnetization parameter σ by κ σ τrec1/5≈108 and efficiency η of spin-down luminosity conversion into particle kinetic energy according to the relation η σ ≈ 1. A good guess for the associated reconnection rate is then τrec ≈ 0.5 (Lsd/1028 W)-5/12. Finally, pulses in gamma-rays are visible only if Lsd/P ≳ 1027 W s-1. This model differs from other high-energy emission mechanisms because it makes allowance not only for rotational kinetic energy release but also for an additional reservoir of energy anchored to the magnetic field of the stripe and released for instance by some magnetic reconnection processes.

  15. Properties of young pulsar wind nebulae: TeV detectability and pulsar properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuta J.; Takahara, Fumio

    2013-03-01

    Among dozens of young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe), some have been detected in TeV γ-rays (TeV PWNe), while others have not (non-TeV PWNe). The TeV emission detectability is not correlated with either the spin-down power or the characteristic age of the central pulsars and it is an open question as to what determines the detectability. To study this problem, we investigate the spectral evolution of five young non-TeV PWNe: 3C 58, G310.6-1.6, G292.0+1.8, G11.2-0.3 and SNR B0540-69.3. We use a spectral evolution model that was developed in our previous works to be applied to young TeV PWNe. The TeV γ-ray flux upper limits of non-TeV PWNe give upper or lower limits on parameters such as the age of the PWN and the fraction of spin-down power going into magnetic energy injection (the fraction parameter). Combined with other independent observational and theoretical studies, we can guess a plausible value of the parameters for each object. For 3C 58, we prefer parameters with an age of 2.5 kyr and fraction parameter of 3.0 × 10-3, although the spectral modelling alone does not rule out a lower age and a higher fraction parameter. The fraction parameter of 3.0 × 10-3 is also consistent for other non-TeV PWNe and thus the value is regarded as common to young PWNe, including TeV PWNe. Moreover, we find that the intrinsic properties of the central pulsars are similar: 1048-50 erg for the initial rotational energy and 1042-44 erg for the magnetic energy (2 × 1012-3 × 1013 G for the dipole magnetic field strength at the surface). The TeV detectability is correlated with the total injected energy and the energy density of the interstellar radiation field around PWNe. Except for the case of G292.0+1.8, broken power-law injection of the particles reproduces the broad-band emission from non-TeV PWNe well.

  16. Suzaku Observations of PSR B1259-63: A New Manifestation of Relativistic Pulsar Wind

    SciTech Connect

    Uchiyama, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Takaaki; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Mori, Koji; Nakazawa, Kazuhiro

    2009-04-27

    We observed PSR B1259-63, a young non-accreting pulsar orbiting around a Be star SS 2883, eight times with the Suzaku satellite from July to September 2007, to characterize the X-ray emission arising from the interaction between a pulsar relativistic wind and Be star outflows. The X-ray spectra showed a featureless continuum in 0.6-10 keV, modeled by a power law with a wide range of photon index 1.3-1.8. When combined with the Suzaku PIN detector which allowed spectral analysis in the hard 15-50 keV band, X-ray spectra do show a break at {approx} 5 keV in a certain epoch. Regarding the PSR B1259-63 system as a compactified pulsar wind nebula, in which e{sup {+-}} pairs are assumed to be accelerated at the inner shock front of the pulsar wind, we attribute the X-ray spectral break to the low-energy cutoff of the synchrotron radiation associated with the Lorentz factor of the relativistic pulsar wind {gamma}{sub 1} {approx} 4 x 10{sup 5}. Our result indicates that Comptonization of stellar photons by the unshocked pulsar wind will be accessible (or tightly constrained) by observations with the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope during the next periastron passage. The PSR B1259-63 system allows us to probe the fundamental properties of the pulsar wind by a direct means, being complementary to the study of large-scale pulsar wind nebulae.

  17. Pulsar Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Pulsars are thought to emit relatively narrow radio beams, shown as green in this animation. If these beams don't sweep toward Earth, astronomers cannot detect the radio signals. Pulsar gamma-ray e...

  18. Simulations of stellar/pulsar-wind interaction along one full orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.; Khangulyan, D.; Perucho, M.

    2012-08-01

    Context. The winds from a non-accreting pulsar and a massive star in a binary system collide forming a bow-shaped shock structure. The Coriolis force induced by orbital motion deflects the shocked flows, strongly affecting their dynamics. Aims: We study the evolution of the shocked stellar and pulsar winds on scales in which the orbital motion is important. Potential sites of non-thermal activity are investigated. Methods: Relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in two dimensions, performed with the code PLUTO and using the adaptive mesh refinement technique, are used to model interacting stellar and pulsar winds on scales ~80 times the distance between the stars. The hydrodynamical results suggest the suitable locations of sites for particle acceleration and non-thermal emission. Results: In addition to the shock formed towards the star, the shocked and unshocked components of the pulsar wind flowing away from the star terminate by means of additional strong shocks produced by the orbital motion. Strong instabilities lead to the development of turbulence and an effective two-wind mixing in both the leading and trailing sides of the interaction structure, which starts to merge with itself after one orbit. The adopted moderate pulsar-wind Lorentz factor already provides a good qualitative description of the phenomena involved in high-mass binaries with pulsars, and can capture important physical effects that would not appear in non-relativistic treatments. Conclusions: Simulations show that shocks, instabilities, and mass-loading yield efficient mass, momentum, and energy exchanges between the pulsar and the stellar winds. This renders a rapid increase in the entropy of the shocked structure, which will likely be disrupted on scales beyond the simulated ones. Several sites of particle acceleration and low- and high-energy emission can be identified. Doppler boosting will have significant and complex effects on radiation. A movie of the simulation is available in

  19. Spatially-resolved Spectroscopy of the IC443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swartz, D. A.; Weisskopf, M. C.; Zavlin, V. E.; Bucciantini, N.; Clarke, T. E.; Karovska, M.; Pavlov, G. G.; O'Dell, S. L.; vanderHorst, A J.; Yukita, M.

    2013-01-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222117, in the supernova remnant IC443 reveal, for the first time, a ring-like morphology surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like structure oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar location. The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar interpretation, (2) the non-thermal surrounding nebula is likely powered by the pulsar wind, and (3) the thermal-dominated spectrum at greater distances is consistent with emission from the supernova remnant. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion towards the southwest (or, equivalently, flow of ambient medium to the northeast), appears to be subsonic; there is no evidence for a strong bow shock, and the circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium.

  20. On ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration at the termination shock of young pulsar winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoine, Martin; Kotera, Kumiko; Pétri, Jérôme

    2015-07-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are outstanding accelerators in Nature, in the sense that they accelerate electrons up to the radiation reaction limit. Motivated by this observation, this paper examines the possibility that young pulsar wind nebulae can accelerate ions to ultra-high energies at the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We consider here powerful PWNe, fed by pulsars born with ~ millisecond periods. Assuming that such pulsars exist, at least during a few years after the birth of the neutron star, and that they inject ions into the wind, we find that protons could be accelerated up to energies of the order of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off, for a fiducial rotation period P ~ 1 msec and a pulsar magnetic field Bstar ~ 1013 G, implying a fiducial wind luminosity Lp ~ 1045 erg/s and a spin-down time tsd ~ 3× 107 s. The main limiting factor is set by synchrotron losses in the nebula and by the size of the termination shock; ions with Z>= 1 may therefore be accelerated to even higher energies. We derive an associated neutrino flux produced by interactions in the source region. For a proton-dominated composition, our maximum flux lies slightly below the 5-year sensitivity of IceCube-86 and above the 3-year sensitivity of the projected Askaryan Radio Array. It might thus become detectable in the next decade, depending on the exact level of contribution of these millisecond pulsar wind nebulae to the ultra-high energy cosmic ray flux.

  1. On ultra-high energy cosmic ray acceleration at the termination shock of young pulsar winds

    SciTech Connect

    Lemoine, Martin; Kotera, Kumiko; Pétri, Jérôme E-mail: kotera@iap.fr

    2015-07-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are outstanding accelerators in Nature, in the sense that they accelerate electrons up to the radiation reaction limit. Motivated by this observation, this paper examines the possibility that young pulsar wind nebulae can accelerate ions to ultra-high energies at the termination shock of the pulsar wind. We consider here powerful PWNe, fed by pulsars born with ∼ millisecond periods. Assuming that such pulsars exist, at least during a few years after the birth of the neutron star, and that they inject ions into the wind, we find that protons could be accelerated up to energies of the order of the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin cut-off, for a fiducial rotation period P ∼ 1 msec and a pulsar magnetic field B{sub *} ∼ 10{sup 13} G, implying a fiducial wind luminosity L{sub p} ∼ 10{sup 45} erg/s and a spin-down time t{sub sd} ∼ 3× 10{sup 7} s. The main limiting factor is set by synchrotron losses in the nebula and by the size of the termination shock; ions with Z≥ 1 may therefore be accelerated to even higher energies. We derive an associated neutrino flux produced by interactions in the source region. For a proton-dominated composition, our maximum flux lies slightly below the 5-year sensitivity of IceCube-86 and above the 3-year sensitivity of the projected Askaryan Radio Array. It might thus become detectable in the next decade, depending on the exact level of contribution of these millisecond pulsar wind nebulae to the ultra-high energy cosmic ray flux.

  2. THERMAL X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE SHOCKED STELLAR WIND OF PULSAR GAMMA-RAY BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Zabalza, V.; Paredes, J. M.; Bosch-Ramon, V.

    2011-12-10

    Gamma-ray-loud X-ray binaries are binary systems that show non-thermal broadband emission from radio to gamma rays. If the system comprises a massive star and a young non-accreting pulsar, their winds will collide producing broadband non-thermal emission, most likely originated in the shocked pulsar wind. Thermal X-ray emission is expected from the shocked stellar wind, but until now it has neither been detected nor studied in the context of gamma-ray binaries. We present a semi-analytic model of the thermal X-ray emission from the shocked stellar wind in pulsar gamma-ray binaries, and find that the thermal X-ray emission increases monotonically with the pulsar spin-down luminosity, reaching luminosities of the order of 10{sup 33} erg s{sup -1}. The lack of thermal features in the X-ray spectrum of gamma-ray binaries can then be used to constrain the properties of the pulsar and stellar winds. By fitting the observed X-ray spectra of gamma-ray binaries with a source model composed of an absorbed non-thermal power law and the computed thermal X-ray emission, we are able to derive upper limits on the spin-down luminosity of the putative pulsar. We applied this method to LS 5039, the only gamma-ray binary with a radial, powerful wind, and obtain an upper limit on the pulsar spin-down luminosity of {approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Given the energetic constraints from its high-energy gamma-ray emission, a non-thermal to spin-down luminosity ratio very close to unity may be required.

  3. Formation of the dark bays in the Crab optical synchrotron nebula - Is the Crab pulsar wind bubble interacting with its progenitor's wind?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Zhi-Yun; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1992-01-01

    Models are presented for the formation of the two dark bays in the Crab optical synchrotron nebula, from which the optical synchrotron-emitting particles seem to be excluded. It is proposed that the bays are formed by the advance of the Crab pulsar's wind bubble into an ambient medium possessing a stratified density distribution with higher density in the plane of the bays than in other directions. The ambient density and degree of stratification required to produce the bays depends on whether the medium consists of a general interstellar medium, a progenitor stellar wind, or fast-moving supernova ejecta. In the case of an interstellar medium, the bays would be expected to move apart much more slowly than observed, and the required density would have to be implausibly high. It is concluded that the pulsar wind bubble is probably interacting with the slow wind from its progenitor, and it is shown that bays formed in this way agree with the observations reasonably well.

  4. Detection of gamma-ray emission from the Vela pulsar wind nebula with AGILE.

    PubMed

    Pellizzoni, A; Trois, A; Tavani, M; Pilia, M; Giuliani, A; Pucella, G; Esposito, P; Sabatini, S; Piano, G; Argan, A; Barbiellini, G; Bulgarelli, A; Burgay, M; Caraveo, P; Cattaneo, P W; Chen, A W; Cocco, V; Contessi, T; Costa, E; D'Ammando, F; Del Monte, E; De Paris, G; Di Cocco, G; Di Persio, G; Donnarumma, I; Evangelista, Y; Feroci, M; Ferrari, A; Fiorini, M; Fuschino, F; Galli, M; Gianotti, F; Hotan, A; Labanti, C; Lapshov, I; Lazzarotto, F; Lipari, P; Longo, F; Marisaldi, M; Mastropietro, M; Mereghetti, S; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Pacciani, L; Palfreyman, J; Perotti, F; Picozza, P; Pittori, C; Possenti, A; Prest, M; Rapisarda, M; Rappoldi, A; Rossi, E; Rubini, A; Santolamazza, P; Scalise, E; Soffitta, P; Striani, E; Trifoglio, M; Vallazza, E; Vercellone, S; Verrecchia, F; Vittorini, V; Zambra, A; Zanello, D; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Antonelli, A; Salotti, L; D'Amico, N; Bignami, G F

    2010-02-05

    Pulsars are known to power winds of relativistic particles that can produce bright nebulae by interacting with the surrounding medium. These pulsar wind nebulae are observed by their radio, optical, and x-ray emissions, and in some cases also at TeV (teraelectron volt) energies, but the lack of information in the gamma-ray band precludes drawing a comprehensive multiwavelength picture of their phenomenology and emission mechanisms. Using data from the AGILE satellite, we detected the Vela pulsar wind nebula in the energy range from 100 MeV to 3 GeV. This result constrains the particle population responsible for the GeV emission and establishes a class of gamma-ray emitters that could account for a fraction of the unidentified galactic gamma-ray sources.

  5. ENHANCED DISSIPATION RATE OF MAGNETIC FIELD IN STRIPED PULSAR WINDS BY THE EFFECT OF TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Takamoto, Makoto; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro E-mail: inouety@phys.aoyama.ac.jp

    2012-08-10

    In this paper, we report on turbulent acceleration of the dissipation of the magnetic field in the post-shock region of a Poynting flux-dominated flow, such as the Crab pulsar wind nebula. We have performed two-dimensional resistive relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of subsonic turbulence driven by the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability at the shock fronts of the Poynting flux-dominated flows in pulsar winds. We find that turbulence stretches current sheets which substantially enhances the dissipation of the magnetic field, and that most of the initial magnetic field energy is dissipated within a few eddy-turnover times. We also develop a simple analytical model for turbulent dissipation of the magnetic field that agrees well with our simulations. The analytical model indicates that the dissipation rate does not depend on resistivity even in the small resistivity limit. Our findings can possibly alleviate the {sigma}-problem in the Crab pulsar wind nebulae.

  6. TIME-DEPENDENT MODELING OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Vorster, M. J.; Ferreira, S. E. S.; Tibolla, O.; Kaufmann, S. E-mail: omar.tibolla@gmail.com

    2013-08-20

    A spatially independent model that calculates the time evolution of the electron spectrum in a spherically expanding pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is presented, allowing one to make broadband predictions for the PWN's non-thermal radiation. The source spectrum of electrons injected at the termination shock of the PWN is chosen to be a broken power law. In contrast to previous PWN models of a similar nature, the source spectrum has a discontinuity in intensity at the transition between the low- and high-energy components. To test the model, it is applied to the young PWN G21.5-0.9, where it is found that a discontinuous source spectrum can model the emission at all wavelengths better than a continuous one. The model is also applied to the unidentified sources HESS J1427-608 and HESS J1507-622. Parameters are derived for these two candidate nebulae that are consistent with the values predicted for other PWNe. For HESS J1427-608, a present day magnetic field of B{sub age} = 0.4 {mu}G is derived. As a result of the small present day magnetic field, this source has a low synchrotron luminosity, while remaining bright at GeV/TeV energies. It is therefore possible to interpret HESS J1427-608 within the ancient PWN scenario. For the second candidate PWN HESS J1507-622, a present day magnetic field of B{sub age} = 1.7 {mu}G is derived. Furthermore, for this candidate PWN a scenario is favored in the present paper in which HESS J1507-622 has been compressed by the reverse shock of the supernova remnant.

  7. The dynamics of Bow-shock Pulsar Wind Nebula: Reconstruction of multi-bubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Doosoo; Heinz, Sebastian

    2014-08-01

    Bow-shock pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) exhibit a characteristic cometary shape due to the supersonic motion of the pulsar interacting with the interstellar medium (ISM). One of the spectacular bow-shock is the Guitar Nebula, which is produced by the fast pulsar PSR B2224+65 (vpsr > 1000 km s-1 ), and consists of a bright head, a faint neck, a two larger bubbles. We present that the peculiar mophology arises from variations in the interstellar medium density. We perform 3-D hydrodynamic simulation to understand the evolution of the pulsar as its moves through the density discontinuity. We found that when the pulsar encounters the low-density medium, the pressure balance at the head of the bow shock begins to collapse, producing the second bubble. The expansion rate of the bubble is related to the properties of both the pulsar and the ambient medium. Assuming that the pulsar’s properties, including spin-down energy, are constant, we conclude that the ambient density around the second bubble should be 4.46 times larger than around the first bubble in the Guitar body. We further found that when the pulsar encounters the inclined density dicontinuity, it can produce the asymmetric shape of the bow shock observed in a subset of bow-shock PWNe including J2124-3358.

  8. Fermi -LAT constraints on the pulsar wind nebula nature of HESS J1857+026

    DOE PAGES

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M. -H.; Van Etten, A.; ...

    2012-07-17

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857 + 026 is a spatially extended γ-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856 + 0245. Here, we search for γ-ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase-fold 36 months of γ-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete γ-ray spectral and morphological analysis. No γ-ray pulsations were detected from PSR J1856+0245. But, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857 + 026. The γ-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power-law with a spectral index of Γ = 1.53 ± 0.11stat ± 0.55syst and an energy flux of G(0.1–100 GeV) = (2.71 ± 0.52stat ± 1.51syst) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. The γ-ray luminosity is LPWNγ (0.1–100 GeV)=(2.5 ± 0.5stat ± 1.5syst) × 1035 (d/9 kpc)2 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 9 kpc. This implies a γ-ray efficiency of ~5% formore » $$\\dot{E}$$ = 4.6 × 1036 erg s-1, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. This detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.« less

  9. Fermi-LAT Constraints on the Pulsar Wind Nebula Nature of HESS J1857+026

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M.-H.; VanEtten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857+026 is a spatially extended gamma-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856+0245. Aims. We search for -ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Methods. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase.fold 36 months of gamma-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete gamma-ray spectral and morphological analysis. Results. No pulsation was detected from PSR J1856+0245. However, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857+026. The gamma-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power law with a spectral index of Gamma = 1.53 +/- 0.11(sub stat) +/- 0.55(sub syst) and an energy flux of G(0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.71 +/- 0.52(sub stat) +/- 1.51(sub syst) X 10(exp -11) ergs/ sq cm/s. This implies a gamma.ray efficiency of approx 5 %, assuming a distance of 9 kpc, the gamma-ray luminosity of L(sub gamma) (sub PWN) (0.1 C100 GeV) = (2.5 +/- 0.5(sub stat) +/- 1.5(sub syst)) X 10(exp 35)(d/(9kpc))(exp 2) ergs/s and E-dot = 4.6 X 10(exp 36) erg /s, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. Detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  10. Radio Emission from Pulsar Wind Nebulae without Surrounding Supernova Ejecta: Application to FRB 121102

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Z. G.; Wang, J. S.; Yu, Y. W.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new scenario in which a rapidly rotating strongly magnetized pulsar without any surrounding supernova ejecta repeatedly produces fast radio bursts (FRBs) via a range of possible mechanisms; simultaneously, an ultra-relativistic electron/positron pair wind from the pulsar sweeps up its ambient dense interstellar medium, giving rise to a non-relativistic pulsar wind nebula (PWN). We show that the synchrotron radio emission from such a PWN is bright enough to account for the recently discovered persistent radio source associated with the repeating FRB 121102 within reasonable ranges of the model parameters. Our PWN scenario is consistent with the non-evolution of the dispersion measure inferred from all of the repeating bursts observed in four years.

  11. X-Ray Spectra of Young Pulsars and Their Wind Nebulae: Dependence on Spin-Down Energy Loss Rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gotthelf, E. V.

    2003-01-01

    An observational model is presented for the spectra of young rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae based on a study of nine bright Crab-like pulsar systems observed with the Chandra X-ray observatory. A significant correlation is discovered between the X-ray spectra of these pulsars and that of their associated pulsar wind nebulae, both of which are observed to be a function of the spin-down energy loss rate, E. The 2-10 keV spectra of these objects are well characterized by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices, Gamma, in the range of 0.6 < Gamma (sub PSR) < 2.1 and 1.3 < Gamma(sub PWN) < 2.3, for the pulsars and their nebulae, respectively. A linear regression fit relating these two sets of indexes yields Gamma(sub PWN) = 0.91 +/- 0.18 + (0.66 +/- 0.11) Gamma (sub PSR), with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.97. The spectra of these pulsars are found to steepen as Gamma = Gamma(sub max) + alpha E (exp -1/2), with Gamma(sub max) providing an observational limit on the spectral slopes of young rotation-powered pulsars. These results reveal basic properties of young pulsar systems, allow new observational constraints on models of pulsar wind emission, and provide a means of predicting the energetics of pulsars lacking detected pulsations.

  12. The magnetic wake of planets and small bodies in a pulsar's wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mottez, F.; Heyvaerts, J.

    2012-09-01

    We investigate the electromagnetic interaction of a relativistic and magnetized stellar wind with a planet or a smaller body in orbit around a pulsar. This may be relevant to objects such as PSR B1257+12 and PSR B1620-26 that are expected to hold a planetary system, or to other pulsars with suspected asteroids or comets. Most models predict that, albeit highly relativistic, pulsar's winds are slower than Alfvén waves. In that case, a pair of stationary Alfvén waves, called Alfvén wings (AW), is expected to form on the sides of the planet. They are the magnetic wake of the body into the plasma flow, like the wake of a boat left into the sea (with a similar shape). The theory of Alfvén wings was initially developed in the context of the Io- Jupiter interaction. We have extended it to relativistic winds, and we have studied the possible consequences that could be relevant for observations : possible radio emissions from pulsar's planets, and a magnetic force configuration that can deeply modify the orbit of the smaller bodies (asteroids, comets).

  13. The properties of the progenitor, neutron star, and pulsar wind in the supernova remnant Kes 75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, J. D.; Slane, P. O.; Temim, T.

    2014-03-01

    By studying composite supernova remnants (SNRs), remnants which contain a pulsar wind nebula (PWN), it is possible to estimate physical properties of the progenitor explosion, central neutron star, and its pulsar wind that are difficult to measure directly. This is best done by fitting the dynamical and broadband spectral properties of a PWN with an evolutionary model for a PWN inside an SNR. We apply such a model to the composite SNR Kes 75, whose associated pulsar PSR J1846-0258 is thought to have an extremely strong surface magnetic field. If ˜ 3 M_⊙ of mass was ejected in the supernova, our model suggests a normal or slightly subenergetic supernova in a low density environment. Additionally, for the measured pre-outburst braking index of p=2.65, our model prefers an age of {˜ 430} years and an initial spin period P_0 ˜ 0.2 s. Lastly, the magnetization of the pulsar wind and energy spectrum of particles injected at the termination shock are similar to those observed from other PWNe powered by less magnetized neutron stars. While further study is needed to verify these results, they are nominally inconsistent with strong neutron star magnetic fields resulting from very fast initial rotation.

  14. A phenomenological pulsar model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1978-01-01

    Particle injection energies and rates previously calculated for the stellar wind generation by rotating magnetized neutron stars are adopted. It is assumed that the ambient space-charge density being emitted to form this wind is bunched. These considerations immediately place the coherent radio frequency luminosity from such bunches near 10 to the 28th erg/s for typical pulsar parameters. A comparable amount of incoherent radiation is emitted for typical (1 second) pulsars. For very rapid pulsars, however, the latter component grows more rapidly than the available energy sources. The comparatively low radio luminosity of the Crab and Vela pulsars is attributed to both components being limited in the same ratio. The incoherent radiation essentially has a synchotron spectrum and extends to gamma-ray energies; consequently the small part of the total luminosity that is at optical wavelengths is unobservable. Assuming full coherence at all wavelengths short of a critical length gives a spectral index for the flux density of -8/3 at higher frequencies. The finite energy available from the injected particles would force the spectrum to roll over below about 100 MHz, although intrinsic morphological factors probably enter for any specific pulsar as well.

  15. Energetic X-ray-emitting jets from the fast-moving middle-aged pulsar B2224+65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Johnson, Seth

    2017-08-01

    We present evidence for jets from the nearby pulsar, B2224+65, based on three epochs of Chandra X-ray observations, separated by 6 years from each other. This relatively slow rotating pulsar is well known for its extreme velocity of proper motion and associated "Guitar"-shaped optical nebula in the opposite direction. The main jet-like X-ray-emitting feature is extremely narrow and significantly curved near the pulsar, but further away remains amazingly straight and is directed about 62 degrees away from the nebula, the X-ray emission of which is also detected. We find the consistent proper motions of the pulsar and the feature. The substructure of the feature varies among the epochs, while its spectrum is well characterized by a power law with a photon index of 1.2, is significantly harder than that of the pulsar, and remains remarkably consistent spatially and with the time. These results can be explained most intuitively by ballistic, relativistic, and probably magnetic field-dominated jets from the pulsar, similar to those from active galactic nuclei. Indeed, we also detect the extended X-ray emission from the putative counter-jet, albeit at a much fainter level and a much smaller scale. The luminosity of these features is 7e30 erg/s in the Chandra band, accounting for about 1% of the spin-down energy rate of the pulsar. Because of the flat nonthermal X-ray spectrum, this fraction increases with the photon energy. The total power required to generate the jets is likely greater than 10% of the rate. Much of the acceleration of the particles for the (synchrotron) X-ray emission to energies > 100 TeV likely occurs within the jets, probably via magnetic field re-connection. This jet scenario and the underlying physics can be further tested by a carefully designed X-ray monitoring of the substructure and by a measurement of the radio polarization of the pulsar, as its spin axis is expected to be aligned with the jets. We speculate that the energetic jet ejection

  16. Pulsar Wind Nebulae, Space Velocities and Supernova Remnant Associations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    I am pleased to be able to report significant progress in my research relevant to my LTSA grant. This progress I believe is demonstrated by a long list of publications in 2002, as detailed below. I summarize the research results my collaborators and I obtained in 2002. First, my group announced the major discovery of soft-gamma-repeater-like X-ray bursts from the anomalous X-ray pulsars lE-1048.1$-$5937 and lE-2259+586, using the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. This result provides an elegant and long-sought-after confirmation that this class of objects and the soft gamma repeaters share a common nature, namely that they are magnetars. Magnetars are a novel manifestation of young neutron stars, quite different from conventional Crab-like radio pulsars. This discovery was made as part of our regular monitoring program, among the goals of which was to detect such outbursts.

  17. RADIATIVE DAMPING AND EMISSION SIGNATURES OF STRONG SUPERLUMINAL WAVES IN PULSAR WINDS

    SciTech Connect

    Mochol, Iwona; Kirk, John G. E-mail: john.kirk@mpi-hd.mpg.de

    2013-10-10

    We analyze the damping of strong, superluminal electromagnetic waves by radiation reaction and Compton drag in the context of pulsar winds. The associated radiation signature is found by estimating the efficiency and the characteristic radiation frequencies. Applying these estimates to the gamma-ray binary containing PSR B1259–63, we show that the GeV flare observed by the Fermi Large Area Telescope can be understood as inverse-Compton emission by particles scattering photons from the companion star, if the pulsar wind termination shock acquires a precursor of superluminal waves roughly 30 days after periastron. This requirement constrains the mass-loading factor of the wind μ=L/ N-dot mc{sup 2}, where L is the luminosity and N-dot is the rate of loss of electrons and positrons, to be roughly 6 × 10{sup 4}.

  18. Theoretical Study of Compact Objects: Pulsars, Thermally Emitting Neutron Stars and Magnetars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Dong

    This proposal focuses on understanding the various observational manifestations of magnetized neutron stars (NSs), including pulsars, radio-quiet thermally emitting NSs and magnetars. This is motivated by the recent and ongoing observational progress in the study of isolated NSs, made possible by space telescopes such as Chandra and XMM-Newton, and the prospect of near-future observations by NASA's Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX (GEMS) mission (to be launched in 2014). Recent observations have raised a number of puzzles/questions that beg for theoretical understanding and modeling. The proposed research projects are grouped into two parts: (1) Theoretical modeling of surface (or near surface) X-ray emission from magnetized NSs, including the study of the physics of electron/ion cyclotron lines, radiative transfer during magnetar bursts, dense plasma refractive effect, partially ionized atmospheres, and calculations of X-ray polarization signatures of isolated and accreting magnetic NSs, in anticipation of their detections by GEMS. (2) Theoretical study and observational constraint on the internal structure and evolution of magnetic fields in young neutron stars in supernova remnants. The proposed research will improve our understanding of different populations of NSs and their underlying physical processes (including the extreme physics of strong-field quantum electrodynamics) and enhance the scientific return from the current and future NASA astrophysics missions. It is relevant to NASA's objective, ``Discover the origin, structure, evolution, and destiny of the universe''.

  19. A Chandra Search for a Pulsar Wind Nebula around PSR B1055-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posselt, B.; Spence, G.; Pavlov, G. G.

    2015-10-01

    The nearby, middle-aged PSR B1055-52 has many properties in common with the Geminga pulsar. Motivated by the Geminga's enigmatic and prominent pulsar wind nebula (PWN), we searched for extended emission around PSR B1055-52 with Chandra ACIS. For an energy range 0.3-1 keV, we found a 4σ flux enhancement in a 4\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 9-20\\prime\\prime annulus around the pulsar. There is a slight asymmetry in the emission close, 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5-4\\prime\\prime , to the pulsar. The excess emission has a luminosity of about 1029 erg s-1 in an energy range 0.3-8 keV for a distance of 350 pc. Overall, the faint extended emission around \\text{PSR B1055-52} is consistent with a PWN of an aligned rotator moving away from us along the line of sight with supersonic velocity, but a contribution from a dust scattering halo cannot be excluded. Comparing the properties of other nearby, middle-aged pulsars, we suggest that the geometry—the orientations of rotation axis, magnetic field axis, and the sight-line—is the deciding factor for a pulsar to show a prominent PWN. We also report on an ≳ 30% flux decrease of PSR B1055-52 between the 2000 XMM-Newton and our 2012 Chandra observation. We tentatively attribute this flux decrease to a cross-calibration problem, but further investigations of the pulsar are required to exclude actual intrinsic flux changes.

  20. Deep Chandra Observations of the Pulsar Wind Nebula Created by PSR B0355+54

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Noel; Rangelov, Blagoy; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Slane, Patrick; Temim, Tea; Ng, C.-Y.; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Bykov, Andrei; Swartz, Douglas A.; Buehler, Rolf

    2016-12-01

    We report on Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO) observations of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) associated with PSR B0355+54 (eight observations with a 395 ks total exposure, performed over an eight month period). We investigated the spatial and spectral properties of the emission coincident with the pulsar, compact nebula (CN), and extended tail. We find that the CN morphology can be interpreted in a way that suggests a small angle between the pulsar spin axis and our line of sight, as inferred from the radio data. On larger scales, emission from the 7\\prime (≈ 2 pc) tail is clearly seen. We also found hints of two faint extensions nearly orthogonal to the direction of the pulsar’s proper motion. The spectrum extracted at the pulsar position can be described with an absorbed power-law + blackbody model. The nonthermal component can be attributed to magnetospheric emission, while the thermal component can be attributed to emission from either a hot spot (e.g., a polar cap) or the entire neutron star surface. Surprisingly, the spectrum of the tail shows only a slight hint of cooling with increasing distance from the pulsar. This implies either a low magnetic field with fast flow speed, or particle reacceleration within the tail. We estimate physical properties of the PWN and compare the morphologies of the CN and the extended tail with those of other bow shock PWNe observed with long CXO exposures.

  1. High Spatial Resolution X-Ray Spectroscopy of the IC 443 Pulsar Wind Nebula and Environs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Pavlov, George G.; Clarke, Tracy; Castelletti, Gabriela; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Karovska, Margarita; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Yukita, Mihoko; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2015-07-01

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 reveal an ˜5″ radius ring-like structure surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like feature oriented roughly north-south across the ring and through the pulsar's location at 06h17m5.ˢ200 + 22°21‧27.″52 (J2000.0 coordinates). The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the SNR. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion toward the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence either spectrally or morphologically for a bow shock or contact discontinuity; the nearly circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium; and the shape near the apex of the nebula is narrow. Comparing this observation with previous observations of the same target, we set a 99% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 44 mas yr-1 (310 km s-1 for a distance of 1.5 kpc), with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) projected direction toward the west.

  2. HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY OF THE IC 443 PULSAR WIND NEBULA AND ENVIRONS

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, Douglas A.; Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.; Pavlov, George G.; Clarke, Tracy; Castelletti, Gabriela; Bucciantini, Niccolò; Karovska, Margarita; Horst, Alexander J. van der; Yukita, Mihoko; Weisskopf, Martin C.

    2015-07-20

    Deep Chandra ACIS observations of the region around the putative pulsar, CXOU J061705.3+222127, in the supernova remnant (SNR) IC 443 reveal an ∼5″ radius ring-like structure surrounding the pulsar and a jet-like feature oriented roughly north–south across the ring and through the pulsar's location at 06{sup h}17{sup m}5.{sup s}200 + 22°21′27.″52 (J2000.0 coordinates). The observations further confirm that (1) the spectrum and flux of the central object are consistent with a rotation-powered pulsar, (2) the non-thermal spectrum and morphology of the surrounding nebula are consistent with a pulsar wind, and (3) the spectrum at greater distances is consistent with thermal emission from the SNR. The cometary shape of the nebula, suggesting motion toward the southwest, appears to be subsonic: There is no evidence either spectrally or morphologically for a bow shock or contact discontinuity; the nearly circular ring is not distorted by motion through the ambient medium; and the shape near the apex of the nebula is narrow. Comparing this observation with previous observations of the same target, we set a 99% confidence upper limit to the proper motion of CXOU J061705.3+222127 to be less than 44 mas yr{sup −1} (310 km s{sup −1} for a distance of 1.5 kpc), with the best-fit (but not statistically significant) projected direction toward the west.

  3. CIRCULAR POLARIZATION OF PULSAR WIND NEBULAE AND THE COSMIC-RAY POSITRON EXCESS

    SciTech Connect

    Linden, Tim

    2015-02-01

    Recent observations by the PAMELA and AMS-02 telescopes have uncovered an anomalous rise in the positron fraction at energies above 10 GeV. One possible explanation for this excess is the production of primary electron/positron pairs through electromagnetic cascades in pulsar magnetospheres. This process results in a high multiplicity of electron/positron pairs within the wind-termination shock of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). A consequence of this scenario is that no circular polarization should be observed within PWNe, since the contributions from electrons and positrons exactly cancel. Here we note that current radio instruments are capable of setting meaningful limits on the circular polarization of synchrotron radiation in PWNe, which observationally test the model for pulsar production of the local positron excess. The observation of a PWN with detectable circular polarization would cast strong doubt on pulsar interpretations of the positron excess, while observations setting strong limits on the circular polarization of PWNe would lend credence to these models. Finally, we indicate which PWNe are likely to provide the best targets for observational tests of the AMS-02 excess.

  4. Pulsar Wind Nebulae with Bow Shocks: Non-thermal Radiation and Cosmic Ray Leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, A. M.; Amato, E.; Petrov, A. E.; Krassilchtchikov, A. M.; Levenfish, K. P.

    2017-07-01

    Pulsars with high spin-down power produce relativistic winds radiating a non-negligible fraction of this power over the whole electromagnetic range from radio to gamma-rays in the pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). The rest of the power is dissipated in the interactions of the PWNe with the ambient interstellar medium (ISM). Some of the PWNe are moving relative to the ambient ISM with supersonic speeds producing bow shocks. In this case, the ultrarelativistic particles accelerated at the termination surface of the pulsar wind may undergo reacceleration in the converging flow system formed by the plasma outflowing from the wind termination shock and the plasma inflowing from the bow shock. The presence of magnetic perturbations in the flow, produced by instabilities induced by the accelerated particles themselves, is essential for the process to work. A generic outcome of this type of reacceleration is the creation of particle distributions with very hard spectra, such as are indeed required to explain the observed spectra of synchrotron radiation with photon indices Γ≲ 1.5. The presence of this hard spectral component is specific to PWNe with bow shocks (BSPWNe). The accelerated particles, mainly electrons and positrons, may end up containing a substantial fraction of the shock ram pressure. In addition, for typical ISM and pulsar parameters, the e+ released by these systems in the Galaxy are numerous enough to contribute a substantial fraction of the positrons detected as cosmic ray (CR) particles above few tens of GeV and up to several hundred GeV. The escape of ultrarelativistic particles from a BSPWN—and hence, its appearance in the far-UV and X-ray bands—is determined by the relative directions of the interstellar magnetic field, the velocity of the astrosphere and the pulsar rotation axis. In this respect we review the observed appearance and multiwavelength spectra of three different types of BSPWNe: PSR J0437-4715, the Guitar and Lighthouse nebulae, and

  5. Structure of relativistic shocks in pulsar winds: A model of the wisps in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallant, Yves A.; Arons, Jonathan

    1994-01-01

    We propose a model of a optical 'wisps' of the Crab Nebula, features observed in the nebular synchrotron surface brightness near the central pulsar, as manifestations of the internal structure of the shock terminating the pulsar wind. We assume that this wind is composed of ions and a much denser plasma of electrons and positrons, frozen together to a toroidal magnetic field and flowing relativistically. We construct a form of solitary wave model of the shock structure in which we self-consistently solve for the ion orbits and the dynamics of the relativistically hot, magnetized e(+/-) background flow. We ignore dispersion in the ion energies, and we treat the pairs as an adiabatic fluid. The synchrotron emission enhancements, observed as the wisps, are then explained as the regions where reflection of the ions in the self-consistent magnetic field causes compressions of the e(+/-).

  6. A Search for Gamma-ray Emission from Wind-Wind Interactions in Black Widow and Redback Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Tyrel J.; Ray, Paul S.; Camilo, Fernando M.; Roberts, Mallory S. E.; Fermi Large Area Telescope Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Recent radio surveys, particularly those targeting unassociated Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) sources with pulsar-like characteristics, have greatly increased the number of known millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in binary systems with short orbital periods (less than a day) and low-mass companions (of order 0.2 Solar masses for redbacks and less than 0.08 Solar masses for black widows). These systems are likely laboratories for studying wind-wind interactions, and we here describe a search for unpulsed gamma-ray emission, possibly arising from these interactions, in the off-peak intervals. We will also search the off-peak and phase-averaged data for evidence of modulation at the orbital periods, correcting for exposure variations, and stack the off-peak intervals in the event that the emission is below threshold in any given source. Studying this emission will allow us to better understand the pulsar wind and how these systems evolve. Portions of this research performed at the US Naval Research Laboratory are sponsored by NASA DPR S-15633-Y and Fermi GO proposal 061103.

  7. Pulsars - The New Celestial Clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, D. C.

    Pulsars A Brief History of Neutron Stars Standard Model of Pulsars Origin and Evolution of Isolated Neutron Stars Radio Astronomy Fundamentals Radiation Properties Radio Telescopes Radio Astronomy Receivers Propogation in the Interstellar Medium Search Techniques Pulsar Timing Systems Further Topics on Radio Wave Propagation Absorption Birefringence Scattering Solar Wind and Ionosphere Relativistic Delay in Solar System Potential Pulsar Timing Arrival Time Measurement Time Correction Space Correction Pulsar Parameter Estimation Rotation Noise Astrometry Binary, Millisecond and Globular Cluster Pulsars Origin and Evolution Keplerian Binary Pulsar Timing Relativistic Binary Pulsars Globular Cluster Pulsars Planets Around Pulsars Pulsar Timing Array Time Coordinate Space Coordinate Gravitational Wave Background Pulsar Timing Array Experiments References

  8. MULTI-ZONE MODELING OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825-137

    SciTech Connect

    Van Etten, Adam; Romani, Roger W.

    2011-12-01

    The pulsar wind nebula associated with PSR J1826-1334, HESS J1825-137, is a bright very high energy (VHE) source with an angular extent of {approx}1 Degree-Sign and spatially resolved spectroscopic TeV measurements. The gamma-ray spectral index is observed to soften with increasing distance from the pulsar, likely the result of cooling losses as electrons traverse the nebula. We describe analysis of X-ray data of the extended nebula, as well as three-dimensional time-dependent spectral energy distribution modeling, with emphasis on the spatial variations within HESS J1825-137. The multi-wavelength data place significant constraints on electron injection, transport, and cooling within the nebula. The large size and high nebular energy budget imply a relatively rapid initial pulsar spin period of 13 {+-} 7 ms and an age of 40 {+-} 9 kyr. The relative fluxes of each VHE zone can be explained by advective particle transport with a radially decreasing velocity profile with v(r){proportional_to}r{sup -0.5}. The evolution of the cooling break requires an evolving magnetic field which also decreases radially from the pulsar, B(r,t){proportional_to}r{sup -0.7} E-dot (t){sup 1/2}. Detection of 10 TeV flux {approx}80 pc from the pulsar requires rapid diffusion of high-energy particles, contrary to the common assumption of toroidal magnetic fields with strong magnetic confinement. The model predicts a rather uniform Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) surface brightness out to {approx}1 Degree-Sign from the pulsar, in good agreement with the recently discovered LAT source centered 0.{sup 0}5 southwest of PSR J1826-1334 with extension 0.{sup 0}6 {+-} 0.{sup 0}1.

  9. A (semi)-analytic view of the inner structure of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandiera, R.; Olmi, B.; del Zanna, L.; Bucciantini, N.; Amato, E.

    2016-06-01

    When the wind of an active pulsar impacts on the surrounding medium, it forms a termination shock (TS) that feeds a relativistic and magnetized bubble, known as "Pulsar Wind Nebula". About thirty years ago, Kennel Coroniti investigated this scenario, but unfortunately their results failed to match the observed morphologies. That model was in principle correct, but its main drawback was the assumption of a spherical symmetry. More recently, numerical codes have been used to simulate in detail the dynamical structure of PWNe: they have shown complex morphologies, with a closer resemblance with observations. We show how Kennel Coroniti model can be generalized to two dimensions, by solving the jump equations for an oblique TS, and then the relativistic MHD equations in the downstream regions closest to the TS. In this way we can obtain two dimensional, steady state solutions, which in the inner regions agree quite well with the numerical ones. This method is semi-analytic and computationally rather light: given the shape of the TS (in an analytic form), the spatial behaviour of the physical quantities (like velocity, pressure, magnetic field) is derived. Maps of the synchrotron emission are also obtained. A final goal is to use semi-analytic modelling, together with numerical simulations, to improve inversion techniques, aimed at deriving the pulsar-wind parameters from observations.

  10. Chandra Observation of PSR B1823-13 and Its Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, G. G.; Kargaltsev, O.; Brisken, W. F.

    2008-03-01

    An observation of the Vela-like pulsar B1823-13 and its synchrotron nebula with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory allowed us to resolve the pulsar and the fine structure of the nebula. The pulsar's spectrum fits a power-law model with a photon index ΓPSR ≈ 2.4 for the plausible hydrogen column density nH = 1 × 1022 cm-2, corresponding to the luminosity LPSR ≈ 8 × 1031 ergs s-1 in the 0.5-8 keV band, at a distance of 4 kpc. The pulsar radiation likely includes magnetospheric and thermal components, but they cannot be reliably separated, because of the small number of counts detected and strong interstellar absorption. The pulsar is surrounded by a compact, ~25'' × 10'', pulsar wind nebula (PWN) elongated in the east-west direction, which includes a brighter inner component ≈7'' × 3'', elongated in the northeast-southwest direction. The slope of the compact PWN spectrum is Γcomp ≈ 1.3, and the 0.5-8 keV luminosity is Lcomp ~ 3 × 1032 ergs s-1. The compact PWN is surrounded by asymmetric diffuse emission (extended PWN) seen up to at least 2.4' south of the pulsar, with a softer spectrum (Γext ≈ 1.9 for nH = 1 × 1022 cm-2), and the 0.5-8 keV luminosity Lext ~ 1033-1034 ergs s-1. We also measured the pulsar's proper motion using archival VLA data, μα = 23.0 +/- 2.5 mas yr-1 and μδ = - 3.9 +/- 3.1 mas yr-1 (in LSR), which corresponds to the transverse velocity v⊥ ≈ 440 km s-1. The direction of the proper motion is approximately parallel to the elongation of the compact PWN, but it is nearly perpendicular to that of the extended PWN and to the direction toward the center of the bright VHE γ-ray source HESS J1825-137, which is believed to be powered by PSR B1823-13.

  11. The implications of a companion enhanced wind on millisecond pulsar production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedley, Sarah L.; Tout, Christopher A.; Ferrario, Lilia; Wickramasinghe, Dayal T.

    2017-01-01

    The most frequently seen binary companions to millisecond pulsars (MSPs) are helium white dwarfs. The standard rejuvenation mechanism, in which a low- to intermediate-mass companion to a neutron star fills its Roche lobe between central hydrogen exhaustion and core helium ignition, is the most plausible formation mechanism. We have investigated whether the observed population can realistically be formed via this mechanism. We used the Cambridge STARS code to make models of Case B Roche-lobe overflow with Reimers' mass-loss from the donor. We find that the range of initial orbital periods required to produce the currently observed range of orbital periods of MSPs is extremely narrow. To reduce this fine tuning, we introduce a companion enhanced wind (CEW) that strips the donor of its envelope more quickly so that systems can detach at shorter periods. Our models indicate that the fine tuning can be significantly reduced if a CEW is active. Because significant mass is lost owing to a CEW, we expect some binary pulsars to accrete less than the 0.1 M⊙ needed to spin them up to millisecond periods. This can account for mildly recycled pulsars present along the entire Mc-Porb relation. Systems with Pspin > 30 ms are consistent with this, but too few of these mildly recycled pulsars have yet been observed to make a significant comparison.

  12. FERMI large area telescope observations of the vela-x pulsar wind nebula

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-03-18

    Here, we report on gamma-ray observations in the off-pulse window of the Vela pulsar PSR B0833–45 using 11 months of survey data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This pulsar is located in the 8° diameter Vela supernova remnant, which contains several regions of non-thermal emission detected in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT lies within one of these regions, the 2° × 3° area south of the pulsar known as Vela-X. The LAT flux is significantly spatially extended with a best-fit radius of 0°more » $$_.$$88 ± 0°$$_.$$12 for an assumed radially symmetric uniform disk. The 200 MeV to 20 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 2.41 ± 0.09 ± 0.15 and integral flux above 100 MeV of (4.73 ± 0.63 ± 1.32) × 10–7 cm–2 s–1. The first errors represent the statistical error on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses give strong constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the pulsar wind nebula system and favor a scenario with two distinct electron populations.« less

  13. FERMI large area telescope observations of the vela-x pulsar wind nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Burnett, T. H.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Chekhtman, A.; Chung, C. C.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; de Angelis, A.; de Palma, F.; Dormody, M.; do Couto e Silva, E.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Focke, W. B.; Fortin, P.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giavitto, G.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lee, S. -H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Marelli, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Meurer, C.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Noutsos, A.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ray, P. S.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F. -W.; Sanchez, D.; Sander, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Van Etten, A.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-03-18

    Here, we report on gamma-ray observations in the off-pulse window of the Vela pulsar PSR B0833–45 using 11 months of survey data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). This pulsar is located in the 8° diameter Vela supernova remnant, which contains several regions of non-thermal emission detected in the radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray bands. The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT lies within one of these regions, the 2° × 3° area south of the pulsar known as Vela-X. The LAT flux is significantly spatially extended with a best-fit radius of 0°$_.$88 ± 0°$_.$12 for an assumed radially symmetric uniform disk. The 200 MeV to 20 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 2.41 ± 0.09 ± 0.15 and integral flux above 100 MeV of (4.73 ± 0.63 ± 1.32) × 10–7 cm–2 s–1. The first errors represent the statistical error on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses give strong constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the pulsar wind nebula system and favor a scenario with two distinct electron populations.

  14. New insights into pulsar wind nebula evolution with H.E.S.S. I and II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klepser, S.; Aharonian, F.; Angüner, E. O.; Casanova, S.; Hahn, J.; Mariaud, C.; Mayer, M.; Mitchell, A.; Oya, I.; Valerius, K.; Zefi, F.

    2017-01-01

    The most numerous TeV sources in the Milky Way are pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe); giant plasma clouds built up from the outflow of pulsars after stellar death. All PWNe observed with the H.E.S.S. I array have been reanalysed in the context of the H.E.S.S. Galactic Plane Survey data release. This allowed for a comprehensive population study to shed light on the evolutionary sequence of PWNe during the first 105 years after the birth of the pulsar. A prototypical example of a middle-aged PWN is the very extended HESS J1825-137. It has been observed with the H.E.S.S. II array, leading to a lower energy threshold and, in combination with previous observations, substantially increased datasets. We can therefore present new spectral studies and unprecedentedly rich images that map out the out flow process of the shocked particle wind. The data also gave rise to a new study of its neighboring source HESS J1826-130, which is one of the hardest spectrum sources in the Galaxy.

  15. Fermi Detection Of The Pulsar Wind Nebula Hess J1640–465

    DOE PAGES

    Slane, P.; Castro, D.; Funk, S.; ...

    2010-08-09

    We present observations of HESS J1640–465 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. The source is detected with high confidence as an emitter of high-energy gamma-rays. The spectrum lacks any evidence for the characteristic cutoff associated with emission from pulsars, indicating that the emission arises primarily from the pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Broadband modeling implies an evolved nebula with a low magnetic field resulting in a high γ-ray to X-ray flux ratio. The Fermi emission exceeds predictions of the broadband model, and has a steeper spectrum, possibly resulting from a distinct excess of low energy electrons similar to what is inferred formore » both the Vela X and Crab PWNe.« less

  16. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae as seen by the MAGIC Cherenkov Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Cea Del Pozo, Elsa; Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra Gonzalez, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; de Angelis, A.; de Cea Del Pozo, E.; de Los Reyes, R.; de Lotto, B.; de Maria, M.; de Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Dominguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernandez, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; Garcia Lopez, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Hoehne-Moench, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; Lopez, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martinez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci1, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldon, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prada Moroni, P. G.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribo, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Rugamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sanchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpaa, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; MAGIC Collaboration

    Supernova remnants are widely considered to be the strongest candidates for the source of cosmic rays at ultra high energies (around 1015 eV), producing gamma-rays through hadronic and/or electromagnetic scenarios. Pulsar wind nebulae are synchrotron nebulae powered by the spin-down of energetic young pulsars, and one of the most abundant very high energy gamma-ray source classes. The two 17m diameter MAGIC telescopes, located on La Palma (Canary Island), are the most sensitive ground-based instruments for gamma-ray astronomy below 200 GeV. Here we present a summary of the most prominent results performed by the MAGIC collaboration on these topics.

  17. Fermi Detection Of The Pulsar Wind Nebula Hess J1640–465

    SciTech Connect

    Slane, P.; Castro, D.; Funk, S.; Uchiyama, Y.; Lemiere, A.; Gelfand, J. D.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.

    2010-08-09

    We present observations of HESS J1640–465 with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope. The source is detected with high confidence as an emitter of high-energy gamma-rays. The spectrum lacks any evidence for the characteristic cutoff associated with emission from pulsars, indicating that the emission arises primarily from the pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Broadband modeling implies an evolved nebula with a low magnetic field resulting in a high γ-ray to X-ray flux ratio. The Fermi emission exceeds predictions of the broadband model, and has a steeper spectrum, possibly resulting from a distinct excess of low energy electrons similar to what is inferred for both the Vela X and Crab PWNe.

  18. POST-PERIASTRON GAMMA-RAY FLARE FROM PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 AS A RESULT OF COMPTONIZATION OF THE COLD PULSAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Khangulyan, Dmitry; Bogovalov, Sergey V.; Ribo, Marc E-mail: felix.aharonian@dias.ie E-mail: mribo@am.ub.es

    2012-06-10

    We argue that the bright flare of the binary pulsar PSR B1259-63/LS2883 detected by the Fermi Large Area Telescope is due to the inverse Compton scattering of the unshocked electron-positron pulsar wind with a Lorentz factor {Gamma}{sub 0} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 4}. The combination of two effects both linked to the circumstellar disk (CD) is a key element in the proposed model. The first effect is related to the impact of the surrounding medium on the termination of the pulsar wind. Inside the disk, the 'early' termination of the wind results in suppression of its gamma-ray luminosity. When the pulsar escapes the disk, the conditions for termination of the wind undergo significant changes. This would lead to a dramatic increase of the pulsar wind zone, and thus to the proportional increase of the gamma-ray flux. On the other hand, if the parts of the CD disturbed by the pulsar can supply infrared photons of density high enough for efficient Comptonization of the wind, almost the entire kinetic energy of the pulsar wind would be converted to radiation, thus the gamma-ray luminosity of the wind could approach the level of the pulsar's spin-down luminosity as reported by the Fermi Collaboration.

  19. EXTENDED HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM THE VELA PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Mattana, F.; Terrier, R.; Zurita Heras, J. A.; Goetz, D.; Caballero, I.; Soldi, S.; Schanne, S.; Ponti, G.; Falanga, M.; Renaud, M.

    2011-12-10

    The nebula powered by the Vela pulsar is one of the best examples of an evolved pulsar wind nebula, allowing access to the particle injection history and the interaction with the supernova ejecta. We report on the INTEGRAL discovery of extended emission above 18 keV from the Vela nebula. The northern side has no known counterparts and it appears larger and more significant than the southern one, which is in turn partially coincident with the cocoon, the soft X-ray, and TeV filament toward the center of the remnant. We also present the spectrum of the Vela nebula in the 18-400 keV energy range as measured by IBIS/ISGRI and SPI on board the INTEGRAL satellite. The apparent discrepancy between IBIS/ISGRI, SPI, and previous measurements is understood in terms of the point-spread function, supporting the hypothesis of a nebula more diffuse than previously thought. A break at {approx}25 keV is found in the spectrum within 6' from the pulsar after including the Suzaku XIS data. Interpreted as a cooling break, this points out that the inner nebula is composed of electrons injected in the last {approx}2000 years. Broadband modeling also implies a magnetic field higher than 10 {mu}G in this region. Finally, we discuss the nature of the northern emission, which might be due to fresh particles injected after the passage of the reverse shock.

  20. Evidence of a pulsar wind nebula in supernova remnant IC 443

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olbert, Charles M.; Clearfield, Christopher R.; Williams, Nikolas E.; Keohane, Jonathan W.; Frail, Dale A.

    2001-05-01

    New Chandra X-Ray Observatory and Very Large Array observations of the hard X-ray feature along the southern edge of the supernova remnant IC 443 have revealed a comet-shaped nebula of hard emission with a soft X-ray point source at its apex. Based on the X-ray spectrum, X-ray and radio morphology, and the radio polarization properties, we argue that this object is a synchrotron nebula powered by the compact source. The derived parameters of the system favor an interpretation in which the central object is a young, energetic neutron star physically associated with IC 443. The cometary morphology of the nebula originates from the supersonic motion of the pulsar (VPSR~=250+/-50 km s-1), which causes the relativistic wind of the pulsar to terminate in a bow shock and trail behind as a synchrotron tail. This velocity is consistent with an age of 30,000 years for the SNR and its associated pulsar. .

  1. High resolution radio imaging study of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, W.-Y.; Ng, C.-Y.

    2016-06-01

    We present a new high-resolution radio imaging study of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52, also dubbed as "the hand of God", with the Australia Telescope Compact Array observations. The system is powered by a young and energetic radio pulsar B1509-58 with high spin down luminosity of E(dot) = 2 x 10^37 erg/s. Previous X-ray images have shown that the PWN has a complex hand-shape morphology extending over 10 pc with features like jets, arc, filaments and enhanced emission knots in the HII region RCW 89. The new 6cm and 3cm radio images show different morphology than the X-ray counterpart. No radio counterpart of the X-ray jet is detected, instead we found enhanced emission in a sheath surrounding the jet. Additional small-scale features including a polarized linear filament next to the pulsar have also been discovered. Our polarisation measurements show that the intrinsic orientation of magnetic field aligns with the sheath. Finally, spectral analysis results indicate a steep spectrum for the system, which is rather unusual among PWNe. Implications of these findings will be discussed. The Australia Telescope Compact Array is part of the Australia Telescope National Facility which is funded by the Commonwealth of Australia for operation as a National Facility managed by CSIRO. This work is supported by an ECS grant under HKU 709713P.

  2. Correcting for the solar wind in pulsar timing observations: the role of simultaneous and low-frequency observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Ze-Xi; Hobbs, George; Wang, Jing-Bo; Dai, Shi

    2017-09-01

    The primary goal of pulsar timing array projects is to detect ultra-low-frequency gravitational waves. Pulsar data sets are affected by numerous noise processes including varying dispersive delays in the interstellar medium and from the solar wind. The solar wind can lead to rapidly changing variations that, with existing telescopes, can be hard to measure and then remove. In this paper we study the possibility of using a low frequency telescope to aid in such correction for the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array (PPTA) and also discuss whether the ultra-wide-bandwidth receiver for the FAST telescope is sufficient to model solar wind variations. Our key result is that a single wide-bandwidth receiver can be used to model and remove the effect of the solar wind. However, for pulsars that pass close to the Sun such as PSR J1022 + 1022, the solar wind is so variable that observations at two telescopes separated by a day are insufficient to correct the solar wind effect.

  3. THE BALMER-DOMINATED BOW SHOCK AND WIND NEBULA STRUCTURE OF {gamma}-RAY PULSAR PSR J1741-2054

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger W.; Shaw, Michael S.; Camilo, Fernando; Cotter, Garret; Sivakoff, Gregory R. E-mail: msshaw@stanford.ed

    2010-12-01

    We have detected an H{alpha} bow shock nebula around PSR J1741-2054, a pulsar discovered through its GeV {gamma}-ray pulsations. The pulsar is only {approx}1.''5 behind the leading edge of the shock. Optical spectroscopy shows that the nebula is non-radiative, dominated by Balmer emission. The H{alpha} images and spectra suggest that the pulsar wind momentum is equatorially concentrated and implies a pulsar space velocity {approx}150 km s{sup -1}, directed 15{sup 0} {+-} 10{sup 0} out of the plane of the sky. The complex H{alpha} profile indicates that different portions of the post-shock flow dominate line emission as gas moves along the nebula and provide an opportunity to study the structure of this unusual slow non-radiative shock under a variety of conditions. CXO ACIS observations reveal an X-ray pulsar wind nebula within this nebula, with a compact {approx}2.''5 equatorial structure and a trail extending several arcminutes behind. Together these data support a close ({<=}0.5 kpc) distance, a spin geometry viewed edge-on, and highly efficient {gamma}-ray production for this unusual, energetic pulsar.

  4. DETECTION OF THE ENERGETIC PULSAR PSR B1509-58 AND ITS PULSAR WIND NEBULA IN MSH 15-52 USING THE FERMI-LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Asano, K.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M. E-mail: grondin@cenbg.in2p3.f E-mail: nakamori@hp.phys.titech.ac.j

    2010-05-01

    We report the detection of high-energy {gamma}-ray emission from the young and energetic pulsar PSR B1509 - 58 and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the composite supernova remnant G320.4 - 1.2 (aka MSH 15 - 52). Using 1 yr of survey data with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT), we detected pulsations from PSR B1509 - 58 up to 1 GeV and extended {gamma}-ray emission above 1 GeV spatially coincident with the PWN. The pulsar light curve presents two peaks offset from the radio peak by phases 0.96 {+-} 0.01 and 0.33 {+-} 0.02. New constraining upper limits on the pulsar emission are derived below 1 GeV and confirm a severe spectral break at a few tens of MeV. The nebular spectrum in the 1-100 GeV energy range is well described by a power law with a spectral index of (1.57 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.13) and a flux above 1 GeV of (2.91 {+-} 0.79 {+-} 1.35) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. The LAT spectrum of the nebula connects nicely with Cherenkov observations, and indicates a spectral break between GeV and TeV energies.

  5. Near-Infrared, Kilosecond Variability of the Wisps And Jet in the Crab Pulsar Wind Nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Melatos, Andrew; Scheltus, D.; Whiting, M.T.; Eikenberry, S.S.; Romani, R.W.; Rigaut, F.; Spitkovsky, A.; Arons, J.; Payne, D.J.B.; /Melbourne U.

    2006-01-11

    We present a time-lapse sequence of 20 near-infrared (J- and K'-band) snapshots of the central 20'' x 20'' of the Crab pulsar wind nebula, taken at sub-arcsecond resolution with the Hokupa'a/QUIRC adaptive optics camera on the Gemini North Telescope, and sampled at intervals of 10 minutes and 24 hours. It is observed that the equatorial wisps and polar knots in the termination shock of the pulsar wind appear to fluctuate in brightness on kilosecond time-scales. Maximum flux variations of {+-}24 {+-} 4 and {+-}14 {+-} 4 per cent relative to the mean (in 1.2 ks) are measured for the wisps and knots respectively, with greatest statistical significance in J band where the nebula background is less prominent. The J and K' flux densities imply different near-infrared spectra for the nonthermal continuum emission from the wisps and outermost polar knot (''sprite''), giving F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -0.56{+-}0.12} and F{sub {nu}} {proportional_to} {nu}{sup -0.21{+-}0.13} respectively. The data are compared with existing optical and UV photometry and applied to constrain theories of the variability of the wisps (relativistic ion-cyclotron instability) and knots (relativistic fire hose instability).

  6. THE EFFECT OF DIFFUSION ON THE PARTICLE SPECTRA IN PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Vorster, M. J.; Moraal, H.

    2013-03-01

    A possible way to calculate particle spectra as a function of position in pulsar wind nebulae is to solve a Fokker-Planck transport equation. This paper presents numerical solutions to the transport equation with the processes of convection, diffusion, adiabatic losses, and synchrotron radiation included. In the first part of the paper, the steady-state version of the transport equation is solved as a function of position and energy. This is done to distinguish the various effects of the aforementioned processes on the solutions to the transport equation. The second part of the paper deals with a time-dependent solution to the transport equation, specifically taking into account the effect of a moving outer boundary. The paper highlights the fact that diffusion can play a significant role in reducing the amount of synchrotron losses, leading to a modification in the expected particle spectra. These modified spectra can explain the change in the photon index of the synchrotron emission as a function of position. The solutions presented in this paper are not limited to pulsar wind nebulae, but can be applied to any similar central source system, e.g., globular clusters.

  7. Discovery of gamma-ray emission from the extragalactic pulsar wind nebula N 157B with H.E.S.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Atäı, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O.'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fernandez, D.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; G´rard, L.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; de Jager, O. C.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; K´ski, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; K´lifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; K´niak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; M´hault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Lstrok; .; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-09-01

    We present the significant detection of the first extragalactic pulsar wind nebula (PWN) detected in gamma rays, N 157B, located in the large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Pulsars with high spin-down luminosity are found to power energised nebulae that emit gamma rays up to energies of several tens of TeV. N 157B is associated with PSR J0537-6910, which is the pulsar with the highest known spin-down luminosity. The High Energy Stereoscopic System telescope array observed this nebula on a yearly basis from 2004 to 2009 with a dead-time corrected exposure of 46 h. The gamma-ray spectrum between 600 GeV and 12 TeV is well-described by a pure power-law with a photon index of 2.8 ± 0.2stat ± 0.3syst and a normalisation at 1 TeV of (8.2 ± 0.8stat ± 2.5syst) × 10-13 cm-2 s-1 TeV-1. A leptonic multi-wavelength model shows that an energy of about 4 × 1049 erg is stored in electrons and positrons. The apparent efficiency, which is the ratio of the TeV gamma-ray luminosity to the pulsar's spin-down luminosity, 0.08% ± 0.01%, is comparable to those of PWNe found in the Milky Way. The detection of a PWN at such a large distance is possible due to the pulsar's favourable spin-down luminosity and a bright infrared photon-field serving as an inverse-Compton-scattering target for accelerated leptons. By applying a calorimetric technique to these observations, the pulsar's birth period is estimated to be shorter than 10 ms. Data set is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/545/L2

  8. The Vela-X pulsar wind nebula revisited with four years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, A. K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-08-21

    Here, the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833–45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2° × 3° south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy γ-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  9. The VELA-X-Pulsar Wind Nebula Revisited with Four Years of Fermi Large Area Telescope Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Guillemot, L.; Harding, Alice K.; Reposeur, T.

    2013-01-01

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2deg × 3deg south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy ?-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  10. THE VELA-X PULSAR WIND NEBULA REVISITED WITH FOUR YEARS OF FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Reposeur, T.; Harding, A. K.

    2013-09-10

    The Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833-45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2 Degree-Sign Multiplication-Sign 3 Degree-Sign south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy {gamma}-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysis of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.

  11. The Vela-X pulsar wind nebula revisited with four years of Fermi Large Area Telescope observations

    DOE PAGES

    Grondin, M. -H.; Romani, R. W.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; ...

    2013-08-21

    Here, the Vela supernova remnant (SNR) is the closest SNR to Earth containing an active pulsar, the Vela pulsar (PSR B0833–45). This pulsar is an archetype of the middle-aged pulsar class and powers a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN), Vela-X, spanning a region of 2° × 3° south of the pulsar and observed in the radio, X-ray, and very high energy γ-ray domains. The detection of the Vela-X PWN by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) was reported in the first year of the mission. Subsequently, we have reinvestigated this complex region and performed a detailed morphological and spectral analysismore » of this source using 4 yr of Fermi-LAT observations. This study lowers the threshold for morphological analysis of the nebula from 0.8 GeV to 0.3 GeV, allowing for the inspection of distinct energy bands by the LAT for the first time. We describe the recent results obtained on this PWN and discuss the origin of the newly detected spatial features.« less

  12. Constraining the geometry of PSR J0855-4644: A nearby pulsar wind nebula with double torus/jet morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maitra, C.; Acero, F.; Venter, C.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: PSR J0855-4644 is a fast-spinning, energetic pulsar discovered at radio wavelengths near the south-eastern rim of the supernova remnant RX J0852.0-4622. A follow-up XMM-Newton observation revealed the X-ray counterpart of the pulsar and a slightly asymmetric pulsar wind nebula, which suggests possible jet structures. Lying at a distance d ≤ 900 pc, PSR J0855-4644 is a pulsar with one of the highest Ė/d2 from which no GeV γ-ray pulsations have been detected. With a dedicated Chandra observation we aim to further resolve the possible jet structures of the nebula and study the pulsar geometry to understand the lack of γ-ray pulsations. Methods: We performed detailed spatial modelling to constrain the geometry of the pulsar wind nebula and in particular the pulsar line of sight (observer angle) ζPSR, which is defined as the angle between the direction of the observer and the pulsar spin axis. We also performed geometric radio and γ-ray light-curve modelling using a hollow-cone radio beam model together with two-pole caustic and outer gap models to further constrain ζPSR and the magnetic obliquity α defined as the angle between the magnetic and spin axes of the pulsar. Results: The Chandra observation reveals that the compact XMM source, thought to be the X-ray pulsar, can be further resolved into a point source surrounded by an elongated axisymmetric nebula with a longitudinal extent of 10''. The pulsar flux represents only 1% of the XMM compact source, and its spectrum is well described by a blackbody of temperature kT = 0.2 keV, while the surrounding nebula has a much harder spectrum (Γ = 1.1 for a power-law model). Assuming the origin of the extended emission is a double torus yields ζPSR = 32.5° ± 4.3°. The detection of thermal X-rays from the pulsar may point to a low value of | ζ-α | if this emission originates from a heated polar cap. Independent constraints from geometric light-curve modelling yield α ≲ 55° and ζ ≲ 55°, and 10°

  13. The effects of magnetic field, age and intrinsic luminosity on Crab-like pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, D. F.; Martín, J.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Cillis, Analia

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the time-dependent behaviour of Crab-like pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) generating a set of models using four different initial spin-down luminosities (L0 = {1, 0.1, 0.01, 0.001} × L0,Crab), eight values of magnetic fraction (η = 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.5, 0.9, 0.99 and 0.999, i.e. from fully particle dominated to fully magnetically dominated nebulae) and three distinctive ages: 940, 3000 and 9000 years. We find that the self-synchrotron Compton (SSC) contribution is irrelevant for LSD = 0.1, 1 and 10 per cent of the Crab power, disregarding the age and the magnetic fraction. SSC only becomes relevant for highly energetic (˜70 per cent of the Crab), particle dominated nebulae at low ages (of less than a few kyr), located in a far-infrared (FIR) background with relatively low energy density. Since no pulsar other than Crab is known to have these features, these results clarify why the Crab nebula, and only it, is SSC dominated. No young PWN would be detectable at TeV energies if the pulsar's spin-down power is 0.1 per cent Crab or lower. For 1 per cent of the Crab spin-down, only particle-dominated nebulae can be detected by HESS-like telescopes when young enough (with details depending on the precise injection and environmental parameters). Above 10 per cent of the Crab's power, all PWNe are detectable by HESS-like telescopes if they are particle dominated, no matter the age. The impact of the magnetic fraction on the final spectral energy distribution is varied and important, generating order of magnitude variations in the luminosity output for systems that are otherwise the same (equal P, dot{P}, injection and environment).

  14. Search for Very High Energy Gamma-ray Emission from Pulsar-Pulsar Wind Nebula Systems with the MAGIC Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderhub, H.; Antonelli, L. A.; Antoranz, P.; Backes, M.; Baixeras, C.; Balestra, S.; Barrio, J. A.; Bastieri, D.; Becerra González, J.; Becker, J. K.; Bednarek, W.; Berger, al K.; Bernardini, E.; Biland, A.; Bock, R. K.; Bonnoli, G.; Bordas, P.; Borla Tridon, D.; Bosch-Ramon, V.; Bose, D.; Braun, I.; Bretz, T.; Britzger, D.; Camara, M.; Carmona, E.; Carosi, A.; Colin, P.; Commichau, S.; Contreras, J. L.; Cortina, J.; Costado, M. T.; Covino, S.; Dazzi, F.; De Angelis, A.; de Cea del Pozo, E.; De los Reyes, R.; De Lotto, B.; De Maria, M.; De Sabata, F.; Delgado Mendez, C.; Domínguez, A.; Dominis Prester, D.; Dorner, D.; Doro, M.; Elsaesser, D.; Errando, M.; Ferenc, D.; Fernández, E.; Firpo, R.; Fonseca, M. V.; Font, L.; Galante, N.; García López, R. J.; Garczarczyk, M.; Gaug, M.; Godinovic, N.; Goebel, F.; Hadasch, D.; Herrero, A.; Hildebrand, D.; Höhne-Mönch, D.; Hose, J.; Hrupec, D.; Hsu, C. C.; Jogler, T.; Klepser, S.; Kranich, D.; La Barbera, A.; Laille, A.; Leonardo, E.; Lindfors, E.; Lombardi, S.; Longo, F.; López, M.; Lorenz, E.; Majumdar, P.; Maneva, G.; Mankuzhiyil, N.; Mannheim, K.; Maraschi, L.; Mariotti, M.; Martínez, M.; Mazin, D.; Meucci, M.; Miranda, J. M.; Mirzoyan, R.; Miyamoto, H.; Moldón, J.; Moles, M.; Moralejo, A.; Nieto, D.; Nilsson, K.; Ninkovic, J.; Orito, R.; Oya, I.; Paoletti, R.; Paredes, J. M.; Pasanen, M.; Pascoli, D.; Pauss, F.; Pegna, R. G.; Perez-Torres, M. A.; Persic, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Prada, F.; Prandini, E.; Puchades, N.; Puljak, I.; Reichardt, I.; Rhode, W.; Ribó, M.; Rico, J.; Rissi, M.; Robert, A.; Rügamer, S.; Saggion, A.; Saito, T. Y.; Salvati, M.; Sánchez-Conde, M.; Satalecka, K.; Scalzotto, V.; Scapin, V.; Schweizer, T.; Shayduk, M.; Shore, S. N.; Sierpowska-Bartosik, A.; Sillanpää, A.; Sitarek, J.; Sobczynska, D.; Spanier, F.; Spiro, S.; Stamerra, A.; Stark, L. S.; Suric, T.; Takalo, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Temnikov, P.; Tescaro, D.; Teshima, M.; Torres, D. F.; Turini, N.; Vankov, H.; Wagner, R. M.; Zabalza, V.; Zandanel, F.; Zanin, R.; Zapatero, J.; Cognard, I.

    2010-02-01

    The MAGIC collaboration has searched for high-energy gamma-ray emission of some of the most promising pulsar candidates above an energy threshold of 50 GeV, an energy not reachable up to now by other ground-based instruments. Neither pulsed nor steady gamma-ray emission has been observed at energies of 100 GeV from the classical radio pulsars PSR J0205+6449 and PSR J2229+6114 (and their nebulae 3C58 and Boomerang, respectively) and the millisecond pulsar PSR J0218+4232. Here, we present the flux upper limits for these sources and discuss their implications in the context of current model predictions.

  15. THE ROLE OF SUPERLUMINAL ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES IN PULSAR WIND TERMINATION SHOCKS

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Takanobu; Kirk, John G.

    2013-06-10

    The dynamics of a standing shock front in a Poynting-flux-dominated relativistic flow is investigated by using a one-dimensional, relativistic, two-fluid simulation. An upstream flow containing a circularly polarized, sinusoidal magnetic shear wave is considered, mimicking a wave driven by an obliquely rotating pulsar. It is demonstrated that this wave is converted into large-amplitude electromagnetic waves with superluminal phase speeds by interacting with the shock when the shock-frame frequency of the wave exceeds the proper plasma frequency. The superluminal waves propagate in the upstream, modify the shock structure substantially, and form a well-developed precursor region ahead of a subshock. Dissipation of Poynting flux occurs in the precursor as well as in the downstream region through a parametric instability driven by the superluminal waves. The Poynting flux remaining in the downstream region is carried entirely by the superluminal waves. The downstream plasma is therefore an essentially unmagnetized, relativistically hot plasma with a non-relativistic flow speed, as suggested by observations of pulsar wind nebulae.

  16. A high-energy catalogue of Galactic supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safi-Harb, Samar; Ferrand, Gilles; Matheson, Heather

    2013-03-01

    Motivated by the wealth of past, existing, and upcoming X-ray and gamma-ray missions, we have developed the first public database of high-energy observations of all known Galactic Supernova Remnants (SNRs): http://www.physics.umanitoba.ca/snr/SNRcat The catalogue links to, and complements, other existing related catalogues, including Dave Green's radio SNRs catalogue. We here highlight the features of the high-energy catalogue, including allowing users to filter or sort data for various purposes. The catalogue is currently targeted to Galactic SNR observations with X-ray and gamma-ray missions, and is timely with the upcoming launch of X-ray missions (including Astro-H in 2014). We are currently developing the existing database to include an up-to-date Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe)-dedicated webpage, with the goal to provide a global view of PWNe and their associated neutron stars/pulsars. This extensive database will be useful to both theorists to apply their models or design numerical simulations, and to observers to plan future observations or design new instruments. We welcome input and feedback from the SNR/PWN/neutron stars community.

  17. Chandra Detection of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated With Supernova Remnant 3C 396

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olbert, C. M.; Keohane, J. W.; Arnaud, K. A.; Dyer, K. K.; Reynolds, S. P.; Safi-Harb, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present a 100 ks observation of the Galactic supernova remnant 3C396 (G39.2-0.3) with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory that we compare to a 20cm map of the remnant from the Very Large Array. In the Chandra images, a nonthermal nebula containing an embedded pointlike source is apparent near the center of the remnant which we interpret as a synchrotron pulsar wind nebula surrounding a yet undetected pulsar. From the 2-10 keV spectrum for the nebula (N(sub H) = 5.3 plus or minus 0.9 x 10(exp 22) per square centimeter, GAMMA =1.5 plus or minus 0.3) we derive an unabsorbed x-ray flux of S(sub z)=1.62 x 10(exp -12) erg per square centimeter per second, and from this we estimate the spin-down power of the neutron star to be E(sup dot) = 7.2 x 10(exp 36) ergs per second. The central nebula is morphologically complex, showing bent, extended structure. The radio and X-ray shells of the remnant correlate poorly on large scales, particularly on the eastern half of the remnant, which appears very faint in X-ray images. At both radio and X-ray wavelengths the western half of the remnant is substantially brighter than the east.

  18. The Variable Pulsar Wind Nebula of PSR J1809-1917

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Noel; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Pavlov, George G.; Posselt, Bettina

    2017-08-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are sources of nonthermal X-ray emission and prominent sites of particle acceleration. We report on three Chandra observations of the PWN created by the young and energetic PSR J1809-1917. We discuss the morphology of the elongated compact nebula (CN), the significant changes in morphology it exhibits over timescales of months, and the connection to possible small-scale jets seen along the elongation axis. The extended PWN exhibits a relatively hard spectrum with no evidence of cooling across the 3-pc extent of the nebula. We discuss the PWN's relation to the nearby HESS J1809-193, the candidate TeV counterpart to the PWN.

  19. Current Sheets in Pulsar Magnetospheres and Winds: Particle Acceleration and Pulsed Gamma Ray Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arons, Jonathan

    The research proposed addresses understanding of the origin of non-thermal energy in the Universe, a subject beginning with the discovery of Cosmic Rays and continues, including the study of relativistic compact objects - neutron stars and black holes. Observed Rotation Powered Pulsars (RPPs) have rotational energy loss implying they have TeraGauss magnetic fields and electric potentials as large as 40 PetaVolts. The rotational energy lost is reprocessed into particles which manifest themselves in high energy gamma ray photon emission (GeV to TeV). Observations of pulsars from the FERMI Gamma Ray Observatory, launched into orbit in 2008, have revealed 130 of these stars (and still counting), thus demonstrating the presence of efficient cosmic accelerators within the strongly magnetized regions surrounding the rotating neutron stars. Understanding the physics of these and other Cosmic Accelerators is a major goal of astrophysical research. A new model for particle acceleration in the current sheets separating the closed and open field line regions of pulsars' magnetospheres, and separating regions of opposite magnetization in the relativistic winds emerging from those magnetopsheres, will be developed. The currents established in recent global models of the magnetosphere will be used as input to a magnetic field aligned acceleration model that takes account of the current carrying particles' inertia, generalizing models of the terrestrial aurora to the relativistic regime. The results will be applied to the spectacular new results from the FERMI gamma ray observatory on gamma ray pulsars, to probe the physics of the generation of the relativistic wind that carries rotational energy away from the compact stars, illuminating the whole problem of how compact objects can energize their surroundings. The work to be performed if this proposal is funded involves extending and developing concepts from plasma physics on dissipation of magnetic energy in thin sheets of

  20. Broadband Photon Spectrum and its Radial Profile of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizaki, Wataru; Tanaka, Shuta J.; Asano, Katsuaki; Terasawa, Toshio

    2017-04-01

    The observed radial profiles of the X-ray emission from pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been claimed to contradict the standard 1D steady model. However, the 1D model has not been tested to simultaneously reproduce the volume-integrated spectrum and the radial profile of the surface brightness. We revisit the 1D steady model and apply it to PWNe 3C 58 and G21.5‑0.9. We find that the parameters of the pulsar wind, the radius of the termination shock {r}{{s}}, and magnetization σ greatly affect both the photon spectrum and radial profile of the emission. We have shown that the parameters constrained by the entire spectrum lead to an X-ray nebula smaller than the observed nebula. We have also tested the case that reproduces only the observations in X- and gamma-rays, ignoring the radio and optical components. In this case, there are parameter sets that reproduce both the spectrum and emission profile, but the advection time to the edge of the nebula becomes much smaller than the age. Our detailed discussion clarifies that the standard 1D steady model has severe difficulty to simultaneously reproduce both the volume-integrated spectrum and the surface brightness. This implies that the model should be improved by taking into account extra physical processes such as spatial diffusion of particles. Additionally, we calculate the surface brightness profile of the radio, optical, and TeV gamma-rays. The future observations in these wavelengths are also important to probe the spatial distributions of the relativistic plasma and the magnetic field of PWNe.

  1. Magnetic fields in Supernova Remnants and Pulsar-Wind Nebulae: Deductions from X-ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic field strengths B in synchrotron sources are notoriously difficult to measure. Simple arguments such as equipartition of energy can give values for which the total energy is a minimum, but there is no guarantee that Nature obeys it, or even if so, what particle population (just electrons? electrons plus ions?) should have an energy density comparable to that in magnetic field. However, the operation of synchrotron losses can provide additional information, if those losses are manifested in the synchrotron spectra as steepenings of the spectral-energy distribution above some characteristic frequency often called a "break" (though it is more typically a gradual curvature). A source of known age, if it has been accelerating particles continuously, will have such a break above the energy at which particle radiative lifetimes equal the source age, and this can give B. However, in spatially resolved sources such as supernova remnants (SNRs) and pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe), systematic advection of particles, if at a known rate, gives a second measure of particle age to compare with radiative lifetimes. In most young SNRs, synchrotron X-rays make a contribution to the X-ray spectrum, and are usually found in thin rims at the remnant edges. If the rims are thin in the radial direction due to electron energy losses, a magnetic-field strength can be estimated. I present recent modeling of this process, along with models in which rims are thin due to decay of magnetic turbulence, and apply them to the remnants of SN 1006 and Tycho. In PWNe, outflows of relativistic plasma behind the pulsar wind termination shock are likely quite inhomogeneous, so magnetic-field estimates based on source lifetimes and assuming spatial uniformity can give misleading values for B. I shall discuss inhomogeneous PWN models and the effects they can have on B estimates.

  2. Detection of the energetic pulsar PSR B1509–58 and its pulsar wind nebula in MSH 15–52 using the FERMI-large area telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-04-15

    Here, we report the detection of high-energy γ-ray emission from the young and energetic pulsar PSR B1509 – 58 and its pulsar wind nebula (PWN) in the composite supernova remnant G320.4 – 1.2 (aka MSH 15 – 52). Using 1 yr of survey data with the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT), we detected pulsations from PSR B1509 – 58 up to 1 GeV and extended γ-ray emission above 1 GeV spatially coincident with the PWN. The pulsar light curve presents two peaks offset from the radio peak by phases 0.96 ± 0.01 and 0.33 ± 0.02. New constraining upper limits onmore » the pulsar emission are derived below 1 GeV and confirm a severe spectral break at a few tens of MeV. The nebular spectrum in the 1-100 GeV energy range is well described by a power law with a spectral index of (1.57 ± 0.17 ± 0.13) and a flux above 1 GeV of (2.91 ± 0.79 ± 1.35) × 10–9 cm–2 s–1. Finally, the first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. The LAT spectrum of the nebula connects nicely with Cherenkov observations, and indicates a spectral break between GeV and TeV energies.« less

  3. High-Energy X-Ray Imaging of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-52: Constraints on Particle Acceleration and Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fryer, Chris L.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Zhang, William W.

    2014-01-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52 in the hard X-ray band (8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron emitting electron distribution at approximately 200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B1509-58, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50 of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N(sub H) map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  4. High-energy X-ray imaging of the pulsar wind nebula MSH 15–52: constraints on particle acceleration and transport

    SciTech Connect

    An, Hongjun; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Madsen, Kristin K.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Fryer, Chris L.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15–52 in the hard X-ray band (≳8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron-emitting electron distribution at ∼200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B1509–58, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50'' of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N {sub H} map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  5. High-Energy X-Ray Imaging of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-52: Constraints on Particle Acceleration and Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fryer, Chris L.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52 in the hard X-ray band (8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron emitting electron distribution at approximately 200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B1509-58, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50 of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N(sub H) map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  6. High-energy X-Ray Imaging of the Pulsar Wind Nebula MSH 15-52: Constraints on Particle Acceleration and Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hongjun; Madsen, Kristin K.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Fryer, Chris L.; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2014-10-01

    We present the first images of the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52 in the hard X-ray band (gsim8 keV), as measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR). Overall, the morphology of the PWN as measured by NuSTAR in the 3-7 keV band is similar to that seen in Chandra high-resolution imaging. However, the spatial extent decreases with energy, which we attribute to synchrotron energy losses as the particles move away from the shock. The hard-band maps show a relative deficit of counts in the northern region toward the RCW 89 thermal remnant, with significant asymmetry. We find that the integrated PWN spectra measured with NuSTAR and Chandra suggest that there is a spectral break at 6 keV, which may be explained by a break in the synchrotron-emitting electron distribution at ~200 TeV and/or imperfect cross calibration. We also measure spatially resolved spectra, showing that the spectrum of the PWN softens away from the central pulsar B1509-58, and that there exists a roughly sinusoidal variation of spectral hardness in the azimuthal direction. We discuss the results using particle flow models. We find non-monotonic structure in the variation with distance of spectral hardness within 50'' of the pulsar moving in the jet direction, which may imply particle and magnetic-field compression by magnetic hoop stress as previously suggested for this source. We also present two-dimensional maps of spectral parameters and find an interesting shell-like structure in the N H map. We discuss possible origins of the shell-like structure and their implications.

  7. Crab Flares due to Turbulent Dissipation of the Pulsar Striped Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zrake, Jonathan

    2016-05-01

    We interpret γ-ray flares from the Crab Nebula as the signature of turbulence in the pulsar’s electromagnetic outflow. Turbulence is triggered upstream by dynamical instability of the wind’s oscillating magnetic field and accelerates non-thermal particles. On impacting the wind-termination shock, these particles emit a distinct synchrotron component {F}ν ,{flare}, which is constantly modulated by intermittency of the upstream plasma flow. Flares are observed when the high-energy cutoff of {F}ν ,{flare} emerges above the fast-declining nebular emission around 0.1-1 GeV. Simulations carried out in the force-free electrodynamics approximation predict the striped wind to become fully turbulent well ahead of the wind-termination shock, provided its terminal Lorentz factor is ≲ {10}4.

  8. Fermi -LAT constraints on the pulsar wind nebula nature of HESS J1857+026

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.; Grondin, M. -H.; Van Etten, A.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Bogdanov, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Arzoumanian, Z.; Camilo, F.; Casandjian, J. M.; Espinoza, C. M.; Johnston, S.; Lyne, A. G.; Smith, D. A.; Stappers, B. W.; Caliandro, G. A.

    2012-07-17

    Since its launch, the Fermi satellite has firmly identified 5 pulsar wind nebulae plus a large number of candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. HESS J1857 + 026 is a spatially extended γ-ray source detected by H.E.S.S. and classified as a possible pulsar wind nebula candidate powered by PSR J1856 + 0245. Here, we search for γ-ray pulsations from PSR J1856+0245 and explore the characteristics of its associated pulsar wind nebula. Using a rotational ephemeris obtained from the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank Observatory at 1.5 GHz, we phase-fold 36 months of γ-ray data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) aboard Fermi. We also perform a complete γ-ray spectral and morphological analysis. No γ-ray pulsations were detected from PSR J1856+0245. But, significant emission is detected at a position coincident with the TeV source HESS J1857 + 026. The γ-ray spectrum is well described by a simple power-law with a spectral index of Γ = 1.53 ± 0.11stat ± 0.55syst and an energy flux of G(0.1–100 GeV) = (2.71 ± 0.52stat ± 1.51syst) × 10-11 erg cm-2 s-1. The γ-ray luminosity is LPWNγ (0.1–100 GeV)=(2.5 ± 0.5stat ± 1.5syst) × 1035 (d/9 kpc)2 erg s-1, assuming a distance of 9 kpc. This implies a γ-ray efficiency of ~5% for $\\dot{E}$ = 4.6 × 1036 erg s-1, in the range expected for pulsar wind nebulae. This detailed multi-wavelength modeling provides new constraints on its pulsar wind nebula nature.

  9. PSR J1907+0602: A radio-faint gamma-ray pulsar powering a bright TeV pulsar wind nebula

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.

    2010-02-06

    Here, we present multiwavelength studies of the 106.6 ms γ-ray pulsar PSR J1907+06 near the TeV source MGRO J1908+06. Timing observations with Fermi result in a precise position determination for the pulsar of R.A. = 19h07m54more » $$s\\atop{.}$$7(2), decl. = +06°02'16(2)'' placing the pulsar firmly within the TeV source extent, suggesting the TeV source is the pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602. Pulsed γ-ray emission is clearly visible at energies from 100 MeV to above 10 GeV. The phase-averaged power-law index in the energy range E > 0.1 GeV is Γ = 1.76 ± 0.05 with an exponential cutoff energy Ec = 3.6 ± 0.5 GeV. We present the energy-dependent γ-ray pulsed light curve as well as limits on off-pulse emission associated with the TeV source. We also report the detection of very faint (flux density of sime 3.4 μJy) radio pulsations with the Arecibo telescope at 1.5 GHz having a dispersion measure DM = 82.1 ± 1.1 cm–3 pc. This indicates a distance of 3.2 ± 0.6 kpc and a pseudo-luminosity of L 1400 sime 0.035 mJy kpc2. Furthermore, a Chandra ACIS observation revealed an absorbed, possibly extended, compact (lesssim4'') X-ray source with significant nonthermal emission at R.A. = 19h07m54$$s\\atop{.}$$76, decl. = +06°02'14farcs6 with a flux of 2.3+0.6 –1.4 × 10–14 erg cm–2 s–1. From archival ASCA observations, we place upper limits on any arcminute scale 2-10 keV X-ray emission of ~1 × 10–13 erg cm–2 s–1. The implied distance to the pulsar is compatible with that of the supernova remnant G40.5 – 0.5, located on the far side of the TeV nebula from PSR J1907+0602, and the S74 molecular cloud on the nearer side which we discuss as potential birth sites.« less

  10. Ionization break-out from millisecond pulsar wind nebulae: an X-ray probe of the origin of superluminous supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzger, Brian D.; Vurm, Indrek; Hascoët, Romain; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic spin-down of a rapidly rotating (millisecond) neutron star has been proposed as the power source of hydrogen-poor `superluminous' supernovae (SLSNe-I). However, producing an unambiguous test that can distinguish this model from alternatives, such as circumstellar interaction, has proven challenging. After the supernova explosion, the pulsar wind inflates a hot cavity behind the expanding stellar ejecta: the nascent millisecond pulsar wind nebula. Electron/positron pairs injected by the wind cool through inverse Compton scattering and synchrotron emission, producing a pair cascade and hard X-ray spectrum inside the nebula. These X-rays ionize the inner exposed side of the ejecta, driving an ionization front that propagates outwards with time. Under some conditions this front can breach the ejecta surface within months after the optical supernova peak, allowing ˜0.1-1 keV photons to escape the nebula unattenuated with a characteristic luminosity LX ˜ 1043-1045 erg s-1. This `ionization break-out' may explain the luminous X-ray emission observed from the transient SCP 06F, providing direct evidence that this SLSN was indeed engine powered. Luminous break-out requires a low ejecta mass and that the spin-down time of the pulsar be comparable to the photon diffusion time-scale at optical maximum, the latter condition being similar to that required for a supernova with a high optical fluence. These relatively special requirements may explain why most SLSNe-I are not accompanied by detectable X-ray emission. Global asymmetry of the supernova ejecta increases the likelihood of an early break-out along the direction of lowest density. Atomic states with lower threshold energies are more readily ionized at earlier times near optical maximum, allowing `UV break-out' across a wider range of pulsar and ejecta properties than X-ray break-out, possibly contributing to the blue/UV colours of SLSNe-I.

  11. Spatial dependence of high energy electrons and their radiations in pulsar wind nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fang-Wu; Gao, Quan-Gui; Zhang, Li

    2016-06-01

    We investigate the spatial dependence of high energy electrons and their radiations in pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). By assuming a time-dependent broken power-law injection and spatial dependence of convection velocity, magnetic field strength and diffusion coefficient on the radial distance of an expanding system, we numerically solve the Fokker-Planck transport equation including convection, diffusion, adiabatic loss and radiative loss in spherical coordinates, and investigate the effects of magnetic field, PWN age, maximum energy of electrons, and diffusion coefficient on electron spectra and non-thermal photon emissions. Our results indicate that (1) electron spectra and the corresponding photon spectra are a function of radial distance r of the expanding system; (2) for a given expansion velocity, the increase of the PWN age causes a slower decrease of the convection velocity (V ∝ r -β) and a more rapid decrease of the magnetic field strength (B ∝ r -1+β), but a more rapid increase of the diffusion coefficient (κ ∝ r 1-β) because the index β decreases with the PWN age; and (3) the lower energy part of the electron spectra is dominated by convection and adiabatic loss, but the higher energy part is dominated by the competition between synchrotron loss and diffusion, and such a competition is a function of radial distance. Therefore the diffusion effect has an important role in the evolution of electron spectra as well as non-thermal photon spectra in a PWN.

  12. Observations of supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae at gamma-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, John W.; Lemoine-Goumard, Marianne

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age thanks to two major breakthroughs: Cherenkov telescopes on the ground and the Large Area Telescope (LAT) onboard the Fermi satellite. The sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) detected at gamma-ray energies is now much larger: it goes from evolved supernova remnants interacting with molecular clouds up to young shell-type supernova remnants and historical supernova remnants. Studies of SNRs are of great interest, as these analyses are directly linked to the long standing issue of the origin of the Galactic cosmic rays. In this context, pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) need also to be considered since they evolve in conjunction with SNRs. As a result, they frequently complicate interpretation of the gamma-ray emission seen from SNRs and they could also contribute directly to the local cosmic ray spectrum, particularly the leptonic component. This paper reviews the current results and thinking on SNRs and PWNe and their connection to cosmic ray production.

  13. Discovery of a Pulsar Wind Nebula Candidate in the Cygnus Loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katsuda, Satoru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru

    2012-01-01

    We report on a discovery of a diffuse nebula containing a point-like source in the southern blowout region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. The X-ray spectra from the nebula and the point-like source are well represented by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices of 2.2+/-0.1 and 1.6+/-0.2, respectively. The photon indices as well as the flux ratio of F(sub nebula)/F(sub point-like) approx. 4 lead us to propose that the system is a pulsar wind nebula, although pulsations have not yet been detected. If we attribute its origin to the Cygnus Loop supernova, then the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of the nebula is computed to be 2.1x10(exp 31)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergss/2, where d is the distance to the Loop. This implies a spin-down loss-energy E approx. 2.6x10(exp 35)(d/540pc)(exp 2)ergs/s. The location of the neutron star candidate, approx.2deg away from the geometric center of the Loop, implies a high transverse velocity of approx.1850(theta/2deg)(d/540pc)(t/10kyr)/k/s assuming the currently accepted age of the Cygnus Loop.

  14. Joint Likelihood study of Crab pulsar wind nebula with VERITAS and HAWC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udara Abeysekara, Anushka

    2017-08-01

    The Crab Pulsar Wind Nebula (PWN) has been generally considered a steady source in the fields of high-energy and very-high-energy astronomy. The Fermi-LAT and AGILE satellites detected Crab PWN flux variations, questioning the steadiness of the Crab PWN emission. Significant flux variability has been observed in the MeV energy regime, whereas only marginal flux variability has been observed in the GeV energy regime. However, no variability has been detected in the TeV energy regime. Several viable models have been proposed to explain this behavior. To constrain these models, more sensitive observations of the Crab PWN are needed.The HAWC and VERITAS gamma-ray observatories have observed the Crab PWN at energies greater than very-high-energies (E > 100 GeV), and have already published independent spectral measurements from each instrument. However, jointly these two instruments are able to cover the extended energy range from 100 GeV to 100 TeV. In addition, a joint Crab PWN observation ismore sensitive than the observation of either independent instrument. This presentation reports on the progress of the ongoing VERITAS-HAWC joint likelihood study of the Crab PWN energy spectrum. This presentation will also report on the use of simultaneous observations of the Crab PWN to cross-calibrate the energy scale and detection aperture of the two observatories.

  15. DISCOVERY OF A PULSAR WIND NEBULA CANDIDATE IN THE CYGNUS LOOP

    SciTech Connect

    Katsuda, Satoru; Yamada, Shin'ya; Tamagawa, Toru; Tsunemi, Hiroshi; Mori, Koji; Uchida, Hiroyuki; Petre, Robert

    2012-07-20

    We report on a discovery of a diffuse nebula containing a pointlike source in the southern blowout region of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant, based on Suzaku and XMM-Newton observations. The X-ray spectra from the nebula and the pointlike source are well represented by an absorbed power-law model with photon indices of 2.2 {+-} 0.1 and 1.6 {+-} 0.2, respectively. The photon indices as well as the flux ratio of F{sub nebula}/F{sub pointlike} {approx} 4 lead us to propose that the system is a pulsar wind nebula, although pulsations have not yet been detected. If we attribute its origin to the Cygnus Loop supernova, then the 0.5-8 keV luminosity of the nebula is computed to be 2.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} (d/540 pc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}, where d is the distance to the Loop. This implies a spin-down loss-energy E-dot {approx}2.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 35} (d/540 pc){sup 2} erg s{sup -1}. The location of the neutron star candidate, {approx}2 Degree-Sign away from the geometric center of the Loop, implies a high transverse velocity of {approx}1850 ({theta}/2 Degree-Sign ) (d/540 pc) (t/10 kyr){sup -1} km s{sup -1}, assuming the currently accepted age of the Cygnus Loop.

  16. Rapid X-Ray Variations of the Geminga Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hui, C. Y.; Lee, Jongsu; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Takata, J.; Cheng, K. S.; Ryu, Dongsu

    2017-09-01

    A recent study by Posselt et al. reported the deepest X-ray investigation of the Geminga pulsar wind nebula (PWN) by using Chandra X-ray Observatory. In comparison with previous studies of this system, a number of new findings have been reported, and we found that these suggest the possible variabilities in various components of this PWN. This motivates us to carry out a dedicated search for the morphological and spectral variations of this complex nebula. We have discovered variabilities on timescales from a few days to a few months from different components of the nebula. The fastest change occurred in the circumstellar environment at a rate of 80% of the speed of light. One of the most spectacular results is the wiggling of a half light-year long tail as an extension of the jet, which is significantly bent by the ram pressure. The jet wiggling occurred at a rate of about 20% of the speed of light. This twisted structure could possibly be a result of a propagating torsional Alfv´en wave. We have also found evidence of spectral hardening along this tail for a period of about nine months.

  17. Molecular environment, reverberation, and radiation from the pulsar wind nebula in CTA 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, Jonatan; Torres, Diego F.; Pedaletti, Giovanna

    2016-07-01

    We estimate the molecular mass around CTA 1 using data from Planck and the Harvard CO survey. We observe that the molecular mass in the vicinity of the complex is not enough to explain the TeV emission observed by VERITAS, even under favorable assumptions for the cosmic ray acceleration properties of the supernova remnant. This supports the idea that the TeV emission comes from the pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Here, we model the spectrum of the PWN at possible different stages of its evolution, including both the dynamics of the PWN and the supernova remnant and their interaction via the reverse shock. We have included in the model the energy lost via radiation by particles and the particles escape when computing the pressure produced by the gas. This leads to an evolving energy partition, since for the same instantaneous sharing of the injection of energy provided by the rotational power, the field and the particles are affected differently by radiation and losses. We present the model, and study in detail how the spectrum of a canonical isolated PWN is affected during compression and re-expansion and how this may impact on the CTA 1 case. By exploring the phase-space of parameters that lead to radii in agreement with those observed, we then analyse different situations that might represent the current stage of the CTA 1 PWN, and discuss caveats and requirements of each one.

  18. NuSTAR Imaging of Pulsar Wind Nebulae MSH 15-52 and the Crab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Kristin; Reynolds, S. P.; Harrison, F.; Grefenstette, B.; Miyasaka, H.; Stern, D.; Zoglauer, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Fryer, C.; Hailey, C. J.; Nynka, M.; Kaspi, V. M.; An, H.; Kitaguchi, T.; Forster, K.; Craig, W. W.; Wik, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR imaging and spectral analysis of the two Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) MSH 15-52 and the Crab. PWNe are center-filled synchrotron nebulae with complex structures that provide clues to the understanding of particle acceleration and diffusion in relativistic shocks. We show NuSTAR imaging from 3 -- 78 keV of both objects and demonstrate that both nebulae reduce their size with increasing photon energy due to synchrotron burn-off. For the Crab the rate of shrinkage is consistent with theoretical estimates in the plane of the torus, but towards the N-W in the direction of the counter jet, the rate is almost a factor of 2 higher. In both PWNe, we observe the spectral index to steepen with increasing radius as a consequence of synchrotron burn-off, but we will show that for the Crab, the spatially dependent spectrum is more complex that previously assumed, and that the line-of-sight integrated spectrum is better represented by a broken power-law with a break at ~10 keV.

  19. Supernova remnants and pulsar wind nebulae with Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eger, Peter

    2015-08-01

    The observation of very-high-energy (VHE, E > 100 GeV) gamma rays is an excellent tool to study the most energetic and violent environments in the Galaxy. This energy range is only accessible with ground-based instruments such as Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) that reconstruct the energy and direction of the primary gamma ray by observing the Cherenkov light from the induced extended air showers in Earths atmosphere. The main goals of Galactic VHE gamma-ray science are the identification of individual sources of cosmic rays (CRs), such as supernova remnants (SNRs), and the study of other extreme astrophysical objects at the highest energies, such as gamma-ray binaries and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). One of the main challenges is the discrimination between leptonic and hadronic gamma-ray production channels. To that end, the gamma-ray signal from each individual source needs to be brought into context with the multi-wavelength environment of the astrophysical object in question, particularly with observations tracing the density of the surrounding interstellar medium, or synchrotron radiation from relativistic electrons. In this review presented at the European Cosmic Ray Symposium 2014 (ECRS2014), the most recent developments in the field of Galactic VHE gamma-ray science are highlighted, with particular emphasis on SNRs and PWNe.

  20. Diffusion in pulsar wind nebulae: an investigation using magnetohydrodynamic and particle transport models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porth, O.; Vorster, M. J.; Lyutikov, M.; Engelbrecht, N. E.

    2016-08-01

    We study the transport of high-energy particles in pulsar wind nebulae (PWN) using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and test-particle simulations, as well as a Fokker-Planck particle transport model. The latter includes radiative and adiabatic losses, diffusion, and advection on the background flow of the simulated MHD nebula. By combining the models, the spatial evolution of flux and photon index of the X-ray synchrotron emission is modelled for the three nebulae G21.5-0.9, the inner regions of Vela, and 3C 58, thereby allowing us to derive governing parameters: the magnetic field strength, average flow velocity, and spatial diffusion coefficient. For comparison, the nebulae are also modelled with the semi-analytic Kennel & Coroniti model but the Porth et al. model generally yields better fits to the observational data. We find that high velocity fluctuations in the turbulent nebula (downstream of the termination shock) give rise to efficient diffusive transport of particles, with average Péclet number close to unity, indicating that both advection and diffusion play an important role in particle transport. We find that the diffusive transport coefficient of the order of ˜ 2 × 1027(Ls/0.42 Ly) cm2 s- 1 (Ls is the size of the termination shock) is independent of energy up to extreme particle Lorentz factors of γp ˜ 1010.

  1. On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.

  2. On the power spectra of the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orlandini, Mauro; Morfill, G. E.

    1992-01-01

    A phenomenological model of accretion which is applied to the wind-fed X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2 is developed, assuming that the accretion onto the neutron star does not occur from a continuous flux of plasma, but from blobs of matter which are threaded by the magnetic field lines onto the magnetic polar caps of the neutron star. These 'lumps' are produced at the magnetospheric limit by magnetohydrodynamical instability, introducing a 'noise' in the accretion process, due to the discontinuity in the flux of matter onto the neutron star. This model is able to describe the change of slope observed in the continuum component of the power spectra of the X-ray binary pulsar GX 301 - 2, in the frequency range 0.01 - 0.1 Hz. The physical properties of the infalling blobs derived in the model are in agreement with the constraints imposed by observations.

  3. Detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars through blind frequency searches using the Fermi LAT.

    PubMed

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Ajello, M; Anderson, B; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bignami, G F; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bonamente, E; Borgland, A W; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Cecchi, C; Celik, O; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Conrad, J; Cutini, S; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Luca, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dormody, M; do Couto e Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Fegan, S J; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Gwon, C; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kawai, N; Kerr, M; Knödlseder, J; Kocian, M L; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Latronico, L; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marelli, M; Mazziotta, M N; McConville, W; McEnery, J E; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohsugi, T; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Paneque, D; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Pierbattista, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Primack, J R; Rainò, S; Rando, R; Ray, P S; Razzano, M; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Romani, R W; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Sgrò, C; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Starck, J-L; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Tibolla, O; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Uchiyama, Y; Usher, T L; Van Etten, A; Vasileiou, V; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; Waite, A P; Wang, P; Watters, K; Winer, B L; Wolff, M T; Wood, K S; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-08-14

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. We report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Direct detection of gamma-ray pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants.

  4. Detection of 16 Gamma-Ray Pulsars Through Blind Frequency Searches Using the Fermi LAT

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2009-07-02

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating, highly magnetized neutron stars emitting radiation across the electromagnetic spectrum. Although there are more than 1800 known radio pulsars, until recently only seven were observed to pulse in gamma rays, and these were all discovered at other wavelengths. The Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) makes it possible to pinpoint neutron stars through their gamma-ray pulsations. In this paper, we report the detection of 16 gamma-ray pulsars in blind frequency searches using the LAT. Most of these pulsars are coincident with previously unidentified gamma-ray sources, and many are associated with supernova remnants. Finally, direct detection of gamma-raymore » pulsars enables studies of emission mechanisms, population statistics, and the energetics of pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants.« less

  5. Cosmic Ray Positrons from Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2010-01-01

    Pulsars are potential Galactic sources of positrons through pair cascades in their magnetospheres. There are, however, many uncertainties in establishing their contribution to the local primary positron flux. Among these are the local density of pulsars, the cascade pair multiplicities that determine the injection rate of positrons from the pulsar, the acceleration of the injected particles by the pulsar wind termination shock, their rate of escape from the pulsar wind nebula, and their propagation through the interstellar medium. I will discuss these issues in the context of what we are learning from the new Fermi pulsar detections and discoveries.

  6. PSR J1907+0602: A radio-faint gamma-ray pulsar powering a bright TeV pulsar wind nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.

    2010-02-06

    Here, we present multiwavelength studies of the 106.6 ms γ-ray pulsar PSR J1907+06 near the TeV source MGRO J1908+06. Timing observations with Fermi result in a precise position determination for the pulsar of R.A. = 19h07m54$s\\atop{.}$7(2), decl. = +06°02'16(2)'' placing the pulsar firmly within the TeV source extent, suggesting the TeV source is the pulsar wind nebula of PSR J1907+0602. Pulsed γ-ray emission is clearly visible at energies from 100 MeV to above 10 GeV. The phase-averaged power-law index in the energy range E > 0.1 GeV is Γ = 1.76 ± 0.05 with an exponential cutoff energy Ec = 3.6 ± 0.5 GeV. We present the energy-dependent γ-ray pulsed light curve as well as limits on off-pulse emission associated with the TeV source. We also report the detection of very faint (flux density of sime 3.4 μJy) radio pulsations with the Arecibo telescope at 1.5 GHz having a dispersion measure DM = 82.1 ± 1.1 cm–3 pc. This indicates a distance of 3.2 ± 0.6 kpc and a pseudo-luminosity of L 1400 sime 0.035 mJy kpc2. Furthermore, a Chandra ACIS observation revealed an absorbed, possibly extended, compact (lesssim4'') X-ray source with significant nonthermal emission at R.A. = 19h07m54$s\\atop{.}$76, decl. = +06°02'14farcs6 with a flux of 2.3+0.6 –1.4 × 10–14 erg cm–2 s–1. From archival ASCA observations, we place upper limits on any arcminute scale 2-10 keV X-ray emission of ~1 × 10–13 erg cm–2 s–1. The implied distance to the pulsar is compatible with that of the supernova remnant G40.5 – 0.5, located on the far side of the TeV nebula from PSR J1907+0602, and the S74 molecular cloud on the nearer side which we discuss as potential birth sites.

  7. A Self-consistent and Spatially Dependent Model of the Multiband Emission of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fang-Wu; Gao, Quan-Gui; Zhang, Li

    2017-01-01

    A self-consistent and spatially dependent model is presented to investigate the multiband emission of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe). In this model, a spherically symmetric system is assumed and the dynamical evolution of the PWN is included. The processes of convection, diffusion, adiabatic loss, radiative loss, and photon-photon pair production are taken into account in the electron’s evolution equation, and the processes of synchrotron radiation, inverse Compton scattering, synchrotron self-absorption, and pair production are included for the photon’s evolution equation. Both coupled equations are simultaneously solved. The model is applied to explain observed results of the PWN in MSH 15-52. Our results show that the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of both electrons and photons are all a function of distance. The observed photon SED of MSH 15-52 can be well reproduced in this model. With the parameters obtained by fitting the observed SED, the spatial variations of photon index and surface brightness observed in the X-ray band can also be well reproduced. Moreover, it can be derived that the present-day diffusion coefficient of MSH 15-52 at the termination shock is {κ }0=6.6× {10}24 {{cm}}2 {{{s}}}-1, the spatial average has a value of \\bar{κ }=1.4× {10}25 {{cm}}2 {{{s}}}-1, and the present-day magnetic field at the termination shock has a value of {B}0=26.6 μ {{G}} and the spatial averaged magnetic field is \\bar{B}=14.9 μ {{G}}. The spatial changes of the spectral index and surface brightness at different bands are predicted.

  8. High-energy Emissions from the Pulsar/Be Binary System PSR J2032+4127/MT91 213

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takata, J.; Tam, P. H. T.; Ng, C. W.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Hui, C. Y.; Cheng, K. S.

    2017-02-01

    PSR J2032+4127 is a radio-loud gamma-ray-emitting pulsar; it is orbiting around a high-mass Be type star with a very long orbital period of 25–50 years, and is approaching periastron, which will occur in late 2017/early 2018. This system comprises a young pulsar and a Be type star, which is similar to the so-called gamma-ray binary PSR B1259–63/LS2883. It is expected therefore that PSR J2032+4127 shows an enhancement of high-energy emission caused by the interaction between the pulsar wind and Be wind/disk around periastron. Ho et al. recently reported a rapid increase in the X-ray flux from this system. In this paper, we also confirm a rapid increase in the X-ray flux along the orbit, while the GeV flux shows no significant change. We discuss the high-energy emissions from the shock caused by the pulsar wind and stellar wind interaction and examine the properties of the pulsar wind in this binary system. We argue that the rate of increase of the X-ray flux observed by Swift indicates (1) a variation of the momentum ratio of the two-wind interaction region along the orbit, or (2) an evolution of the magnetization parameter of the pulsar wind with the radial distance from the pulsar. We also discuss the pulsar wind/Be disk interaction at the periastron passage, and propose the possibility of formation of an accretion disk around the pulsar. We model high-energy emissions through the inverse-Compton scattering process of the cold-relativistic pulsar wind off soft photons from the accretion disk.

  9. GAMMA-RAY AND HARD X-RAY EMISSION FROM PULSAR-AIDED SUPERNOVAE AS A PROBE OF PARTICLE ACCELERATION IN EMBRYONIC PULSAR WIND NEBULAE

    SciTech Connect

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Kiuchi, Kenta; Bartos, Imre

    2015-05-20

    It has been suggested that some classes of luminous supernovae (SNe) and gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are driven by newborn magnetars. Fast-rotating proto-neutron stars have also been of interest as potential sources of gravitational waves (GWs). We show that for a range of rotation periods and magnetic fields, hard X-rays and GeV gamma rays provide us with a promising probe of pulsar-aided SNe. It is observationally known that young pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) in the Milky Way are very efficient lepton accelerators. We argue that, if embryonic PWNe satisfy similar conditions at early stages of SNe (in ∼1–10 months after the explosion), external inverse-Compton emission via upscatterings of SN photons is naturally expected in the GeV range as well as broadband synchrotron emission. To fully take into account the Klein–Nishina effect and two-photon annihilation process that are important at early times, we perform detailed calculations including electromagnetic cascades. Our results suggest that hard X-ray telescopes such as NuSTAR can observe such early PWN emission by follow-up observations in months to years. GeV gamma-rays may also be detected by Fermi for nearby SNe, which serve as counterparts of these GW sources. Detecting the signals will give us an interesting probe of particle acceleration at early times of PWNe, as well as clues to driving mechanisms of luminous SNe and GRBs. Since the Bethe–Heitler cross section is lower than the Thomson cross section, gamma rays would allow us to study subphotospheric dissipation. We encourage searches for high-energy emission from nearby SNe, especially SNe Ibc including super-luminous objects.

  10. Expansion and Variability in the Pulsar-Wind Nebula in Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3) with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2017-08-01

    We report new Chandra X-ray observations of the shell supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3), containing a pulsar and pulsar-wind nebula (PWN). Expansion of both shell and PWN is apparent across the three epochs, 2000, 2006, and 2016, but brightness and morphology changes of the PWN make a quantitative measurement difficult. One image comparison method gives an expansion rate between 2006 and 2016 of the NW edge of the PWN of about (0.2 -- 0.25)%/yr, for an expansion age R/(dR/dt) of 400 -- 500 yr. Consistent results are obtained between 2000 and 2016. Since 2008, the pulsar has had a period of 328 ms and a braking index n of 2.19 (Archibald et al. 2015), giving a spindown age tsd = P/ ((n - 1) dP/dt) of 1230 yr, an upper limit to the true age under the normal assumptions of magnetic-dipole energy loss with constant n (though n has changed from 2.65 to its current value for this pulsar). Our result indicates that the initial spindown time τ = tsd - t is of order t, the true age. For t < τ, simple models predict the PWN radius to grow as R6/5, so that the true age is 1.2 times the expansion age, or about 500 -- 600 yr. For the current braking index, the pulsar's initial luminosity was larger than the current value by a factor of 4 -- 6, while the initial period was within a factor of 2 of its current value. We confirm directly that Kes 75 contains the youngest known PWN in the Galaxy, independent of assumptions about the pulsar spindown. The PWN contains a jet whose structure and brightness have evolved significantly since 2000. The brighter northern part of the jet at the center of the PWN has faded by about 35%, while the southern part is roughly constant in brightness. Changes in morphology of the southern jet may be expansion; if so, a change in position of one feature indicates a velocity of ~0.03c, much faster than the PWN as a whole.

  11. Pulse structure of four pulsars.

    PubMed

    Drake, F D; Craft, H D

    1968-05-17

    The pulse structure of the four known pulsars is given. The pulse is about 38 milliseconds for the two pulsars of longest period, and within the pulsewidth three subpulses typically appear. The pulsar of next longest period typically radiates two pulses separated about 23 milliseconds in time. The one short-period pulsar emits single pulses of constant shape. The first subpulses of all pulsars have nearly the same shape. The shape of the first subpulse agrees well with the pulse shape expected from a radio-emitting sphere which is excited by a spherically expanding disturbance, and in which the radio emission, once excited, decays exponentially.

  12. Constraints on the galactic population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae using Fermi Large Area Telescope observations

    DOE PAGES

    Acero, F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2013-07-29

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe.more » Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. As a result, a population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.« less

  13. CONSTRAINTS ON THE GALACTIC POPULATION OF TeV PULSAR WIND NEBULAE USING FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Acero, F.; Brandt, T. J.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bechtol, K.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Buehler, R.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Bastieri, D.; Buson, S.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P. E-mail: joshualande@gmail.com E-mail: rousseau@cenbg.in2p3.fr [Laboratoire Leprince-Ringuet, Ecole polytechnique, CNRS and others

    2013-08-10

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV {gamma}-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) {gamma}-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV {gamma}-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5 Degree-Sign of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their {gamma}-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. A population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  14. The pulsar force-free magnetosphere linked to its striped wind: time-dependent pseudo-spectral simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétri, J.

    2012-07-01

    Pulsar activity and its related radiation mechanism are usually explained by invoking some plasma processes occurring inside the magnetosphere, be it polar caps, outer/slot gaps or the transition region between the quasi-static magnetic dipole regime and the wave zone, like the striped wind. Despite many detailed local investigations, the global electrodynamics around those neutron stars remains poorly described with only little quantitative studies on the largest scales, i.e. of several light-cylinder radii rL. A better understanding of these compact objects requires a deep and accurate knowledge of their immediate electromagnetic surrounding within the magnetosphere and its link to the relativistic pulsar wind. This is compulsory to make any reliable predictions about the whole electric circuit, energy losses, sites of particle acceleration and the possibly associated emission mechanisms. The aim of this work is to present accurate solutions to the nearly stationary force-free pulsar magnetosphere and its link to the striped wind, for various spin periods and arbitrary inclination. To this end, the time-dependent Maxwell equations are solved in spherical geometry in the force-free approximation using a vector spherical harmonic expansion of the electromagnetic field. An exact analytical enforcement of the divergencelessness of the magnetic part is obtained by a projection method. Special care has been given to designing an algorithm able to look deeply into the magnetosphere with physically realistic ratios of stellar R* to light-cylinder rL radius. However, currently available computational resources allow us only to set R*/rL= 10-1 corresponding to pulsars with a period of 2 ms. The spherical geometry permits a proper and mathematically well-posed imposition of self-consistent physical boundary conditions on the stellar crust. We checked our code against several analytical solutions, like the Deutsch vacuum rotator solution and the Michel monopole field. We

  15. Analytical and Hydrodynamical Investigation of the Effect of Supernova Asymmetry on the Shape of Pulsar Wind-blown Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, J. R.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Blondin, J.

    2003-03-01

    In the simplest model of the expansion of a pulsar wind-blown bubble, the density of the supernova (SN) ejecta is assumed to be spherically symmetric, and thus not contributing to any asymmetries in the bubble itself. However, wind-blown bubbles are observed to be asymmetric. A possible cause of this asymmetry is intrinsic asymmetry in the SN ejecta, because it is now well established that SN explosions are not spherically symmetric. Analytical work has been done to determine how polar asymmetry in SN ejecta would affect the shape of the bubble. Giuliani's thin-shell approximation has been used to model the swept shell enclosing the bubble. The magnetic fields surrounding the pulsar are assumed to be turbulent, and thus not contributing to any asymmetry. At late times it is assumed that the bubble asymptotically attains a self-similar solution over time as it expands into the ejecta. At early times, when the pulsar starts blowing a bubble after an initial delay, the bubble may also be described by a self-similar solution. In both cases the bubble shape is asymmetric and time invariant. Surprisingly, multiple solutions are allowed within the framework of the thin-shell approximation. Hydrodynamical simulations with the VH-1 hydrocode have been performed to corroborate these analytical findings. At late times the Raleigh-Taylor instability in the accelerating bubble reduces its asymmetry much below the analytical predictions. At early times a better agreement is found between the analytical predictions and the simulations. We explore a transition between these two self-similar stages through hydrodynamical simulations.

  16. Pulsar-Wind Nebulae and Magnetar Outflows: Observations at Radio, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Klingler, Noel; Renaud, Matthieu; Mereghetti, Sandro

    2017-03-01

    We review observations of several classes of neutron-star-powered outflows: pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe) inside shell supernova remnants (SNRs), PWNe interacting directly with interstellar medium (ISM), and magnetar-powered outflows. We describe radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of PWNe, focusing first on integrated spectral-energy distributions (SEDs) and global spectral properties. High-resolution X-ray imaging of PWNe shows a bewildering array of morphologies, with jets, trails, and other structures. Several of the 23 so far identified magnetars show evidence for continuous or sporadic emission of material, sometimes associated with giant flares, and a few "magnetar-wind nebula" have been recently identified.

  17. Pulsar-Wind Nebulae and Magnetar Outflows: Observations at Radio, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Klingler, Noel; Renaud, Matthieu; Mereghetti, Sandro

    2017-07-01

    We review observations of several classes of neutron-star-powered outflows: pulsar-wind nebulae (PWNe) inside shell supernova remnants (SNRs), PWNe interacting directly with interstellar medium (ISM), and magnetar-powered outflows. We describe radio, X-ray, and gamma-ray observations of PWNe, focusing first on integrated spectral-energy distributions (SEDs) and global spectral properties. High-resolution X-ray imaging of PWNe shows a bewildering array of morphologies, with jets, trails, and other structures. Several of the 23 so far identified magnetars show evidence for continuous or sporadic emission of material, sometimes associated with giant flares, and a few "magnetar-wind nebula" have been recently identified.

  18. Orbital evolution of colliding star and pulsar winds in 2D and 3D: effects of dimensionality, EoS, resolution, and grid size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Ramon, V.; Barkov, M. V.; Perucho, M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. The structure formed by the shocked winds of a massive star and a non-accreting pulsar in a binary system suffers periodic and random variations of orbital and non-linear dynamical origins. The characterization of the evolution of the wind interaction region is necessary for understanding the rich phenomenology of these sources. Aims: For the first time, we simulate in 3 dimensions the interaction of isotropic stellar and relativistic pulsar winds along one full orbit, on scales well beyond the binary size. We also investigate the impact of grid resolution and size, and of different state equations: a γ̂-constant ideal gas, and an ideal gas with γ̂ dependent on temperature. Methods: We used the code PLUTO to carry out relativistic hydrodynamical simulations in 2 and 3 dimensions of the interaction between a slow dense wind and a mildly relativistic wind with Lorentz factor 2, along one full orbit in a region up to ~100 times the binary size. The different 2-dimensional simulations were carried out with equal and larger grid resolution and size, and one was done with a more realistic equation of state than in 3 dimensions. Results: The simulations in 3 dimensions confirm previous results in 2 dimensions, showing: a strong shock induced by Coriolis forces that terminates the pulsar wind also in the opposite direction to the star; strong bending of the shocked-wind structure against the pulsar motion; and the generation of turbulence. The shocked flows are also subject to a faster development of instabilities in 3 dimensions, which enhances shocks, two-wind mixing, and large-scale disruption of the shocked structure. In 2 dimensions, higher resolution simulations confirm lower resolution results, simulations with larger grid sizes strengthen the case for the loss of the general coherence of the shocked structure, and simulations with two different equations of state yield very similar results. In addition to the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, discussed in

  19. A FAST X-RAY DISK WIND IN THE TRANSIENT PULSAR IGR J17480-2446 IN TERZAN 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Jon M.; Maitra, Dipankar; Cackett, Edward M.; Bhattacharyya, Sudip; Strohmayer, Tod E.

    2011-04-10

    Accretion disk winds are revealed in Chandra gratings spectra of black holes. The winds are hot and highly ionized (typically composed of He-like and H-like charge states) and show modest blueshifts. Similar line spectra are sometimes seen in 'dipping' low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs), which are likely viewed edge-on; however, that absorption is tied to structures in the outer disk, and blueshifts are not typically observed. Here, we report the detection of blueshifted He-like Fe XXV (3100 {+-} 400 km s{sup -1}) and H-like Fe XXVI (1000 {+-} 200 km s{sup -1}) absorption lines in a Chandra/HETG spectrum of the transient pulsar and LMXB IGR J17480-2446 in Terzan 5. These features indicate a disk wind with at least superficial similarities to those observed in stellar-mass black holes. The wind does not vary strongly with numerous weak X-ray bursts or flares. A broad Fe K emission line is detected in the spectrum, and fits with different line models suggest that the inner accretion disk in this system may be truncated. If the stellar magnetic field truncates the disk, a field strength of B= (0.7-4.0)x10{sup 9} G is implied, which is in line with estimates based on X-ray timing techniques. We discuss our findings in the context of accretion flows onto neutron stars and stellar-mass black holes.

  20. Detection of the pulsar wind nebula HESS J1825-137 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Grondin, M. -H.; Funk, S.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; ...

    2011-08-10

    Here, we announce the discovery of 1-100 GeV gamma-ray emission from the archetypal TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825–137 using 20 months of survey data from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT is significantly spatially extended, with a best-fit rms extension of σ = 0°.56 ± 0°.07 for an assumed Gaussian model. The 1-100 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 1.38 ± 0.12 ± 0.16 and an integral flux above 1 GeV of (6.50 ± 0.21 ± 3.90) × 10–9 cm–2more » s–1. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses bring new constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the PWN system. As a result, the spatial extent and hard spectrum of the GeV emission are consistent with the picture of an inverse Compton origin of the GeV-TeV emission in a cooling-limited nebula powered by the pulsar PSR J1826–1334.« less

  1. Radio observations of the region around the pulsar wind nebula HESS J1303-631 with ATCA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sushch, Iurii; Oya, Igor; Schwanke, Ullrich; Johnston, Simon; Dalton, Matthew L.

    2017-09-01

    Radio observations of the region surrounding PSR J1301-6305 at 5.5 GHz and 7.5 GHz were conducted with ATCA on September 5, 2013. The observations were dedicated to the search of the radio counterpart of the evolved pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1303-631, which has been detected in X-rays and GeV-TeV γ-rays. The collected data do not reveal any significant extended emission associated with PSR J1301-6305. In addition, archival 1.384 GHz and 2.368 GHz data do not show any evidence for a radio counterpart of HESS J1303-631. Archival 1.384 GHz observations reveal the detection of an extended structure centred at an angular distance of 19' from the pulsar. This extended structure might be a supernova remnant (SNR) and a potential birth place of PSR J1301-6305. The implications of the lack of a radio counterpart of HESS J1303-631 on the understanding of the nature of the PWN are discussed.

  2. Detection of the pulsar wind nebula HESS J1825-137 with the Fermi Large Area Telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M. -H.; Funk, S.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Van Etten, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Espinoza, C. M.; Freire, P. C. C.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Johnston, S.; Kramer, M.; Lande, J.; Michelson, P.; Possenti, A.; Romani, R. W.; Skilton, J. L.; Theureau, G.; Weltevrede, P.

    2011-08-10

    Here, we announce the discovery of 1-100 GeV gamma-ray emission from the archetypal TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825–137 using 20 months of survey data from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT is significantly spatially extended, with a best-fit rms extension of σ = 0°.56 ± 0°.07 for an assumed Gaussian model. The 1-100 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 1.38 ± 0.12 ± 0.16 and an integral flux above 1 GeV of (6.50 ± 0.21 ± 3.90) × 10–9 cm–2 s–1. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses bring new constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the PWN system. As a result, the spatial extent and hard spectrum of the GeV emission are consistent with the picture of an inverse Compton origin of the GeV-TeV emission in a cooling-limited nebula powered by the pulsar PSR J1826–1334.

  3. DETECTION OF THE PULSAR WIND NEBULA HESS J1825-137 WITH THE FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, M.-H.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Hinton, J. A.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Theureau, G.; Freire, P. C. C.; Guillemot, L.; Grove, J. E.; Johnston, S.; Possenti, A.; Skilton, J. L. E-mail: lemoine@cenbg.in2p3.fr E-mail: ave@stanford.edu

    2011-09-01

    We announce the discovery of 1-100 GeV gamma-ray emission from the archetypal TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) HESS J1825-137 using 20 months of survey data from the Fermi-Large Area Telescope (LAT). The gamma-ray emission detected by the LAT is significantly spatially extended, with a best-fit rms extension of {sigma} = 0.{sup 0}56 {+-} 0.{sup 0}07 for an assumed Gaussian model. The 1-100 GeV LAT spectrum of this source is well described by a power law with a spectral index of 1.38 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.16 and an integral flux above 1 GeV of (6.50 {+-} 0.21 {+-} 3.90) x 10{sup -9} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The first errors represent the statistical errors on the fit parameters, while the second ones are the systematic uncertainties. Detailed morphological and spectral analyses bring new constraints on the energetics and magnetic field of the PWN system. The spatial extent and hard spectrum of the GeV emission are consistent with the picture of an inverse Compton origin of the GeV-TeV emission in a cooling-limited nebula powered by the pulsar PSR J1826-1334.

  4. Resolving the Hα-emitting Region in the Wind of η Carinae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ya-Lin; Smith, Nathan; Close, Laird M.; Males, Jared R.; Morzinski, Katie M.

    2017-05-01

    The massive evolved star η Carinae is the most luminous star in the Milky Way and has the highest steady wind mass-loss rate of any known star. Radiative transfer models of the spectrum by Hillier et al. predict that Hα is mostly emitted in regions of the wind at radii of 6-60 au from the star (2.5-25 mas at 2.35 kpc). We present diffraction-limited images (FWHM ˜ 25 mas) with Magellan adaptive optics in two epochs, showing that η Carinae consistently appears ˜2.5-3 mas wider in Hα emission compared to the adjacent 643 nm continuum. This implies that the Hα line-forming region may have a characteristic emitting radius of 12 mas or ˜30 au, in very good agreement with the Hillier stellar-wind model. This provides direct confirmation that the physical wind parameters of that model are roughly correct, including the mass-loss rate of \\dot{M}={10}-3 {M}⊙ {{yr}}-1, plus the clumping factor, and the terminal velocity. Comparison of the Hα images (ellipticity and PA) to the continuum images reveals no significant asymmetries at Hα. Hence, any asymmetry induced by a companion or by the primary’s rotation do not strongly influence the global Hα emission in the outer wind.

  5. Probing the Physics of Core-Collapse Supernovae and Ultra-Relativistic Outflows using Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Joseph

    Core-collapse supernovae, the powerful explosions triggered by the gravitational collapse of massive stars, play an important role in evolution of star-forming galaxies like our Milky Way. Not only do these explosions eject the outer envelope of the progenitor star with extremely high velocities, creating a supernova remnant (SNR), the rotational energy of the resultant neutron star powers an ultra-relativistic outflow called a pulsar wind which creates a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) as it expands into its surroundings. Despite almost a century of study, many fundamental questions remain, including: How is a neutron star formed during a core-collapse supernova? How are particles created in the neutron star magnetosphere? How are particles accelerated to the PeV energies inside PWNe? Answering these questions requires measuring the properties of the progenitor star and pulsar wind for a diverse collection of neutron stars. Currently, this is best done by studying those PWNe inside a SNR, since their evolution is very sensitive to the initial spin period of the neutron star, the mass and initial kinetic energy of the supernova ejecta, and the magnetization and particle spectrum of the pulsar wind - quantities critical for answering the above questions. To this end, we propose to measure these properties for 17 neutron stars whose spin-down inferred dipole surface magnetic field strengths and characteristic ages differ by 1.5 orders of magnitude by fitting the broadband spectral energy distribution (SED) and dynamical properties of their associated PWNe with a model for the dynamical and spectral evolution of a PWN inside SNR. To do so, we will first re-analyze all archival X-ray (e.g., XMM, Chandra, INTEGRAL, NuSTAR) and gamma-ray (e.g., Fermi-LAT Pass 8) data on each PWN to ensure consistent measurements of the volume-integrated properties (e.g., X-ray photon index and unabsorbed flux, GeV spectrum) needed for this analysis. Additionally, we will use a Markoff Chain

  6. Electron Acceleration in Pulsar-wind Termination Shocks: An Application to the Crab Nebula Gamma-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Finke, Justin D.; Dermer, Charles D.

    2016-12-01

    The γ-ray flares from the Crab Nebula observed by AGILE and Fermi-LAT reaching GeV energies and lasting several days challenge the standard models for particle acceleration in pulsar-wind nebulae because the radiating electrons have energies exceeding the classical radiation-reaction limit for synchrotron. Previous modeling has suggested that the synchrotron limit can be exceeded if the electrons experience electrostatic acceleration, but the resulting spectra do not agree very well with the data. As a result, there are still some important unanswered questions about the detailed particle acceleration and emission processes occurring during the flares. We revisit the problem using a new analytical approach based on an electron transport equation that includes terms describing electrostatic acceleration, stochastic wave-particle acceleration, shock acceleration, synchrotron losses, and particle escape. An exact solution is obtained for the electron distribution, which is used to compute the associated γ-ray synchrotron spectrum. We find that in our model the γ-ray flares are mainly powered by electrostatic acceleration, but the contributions from stochastic and shock acceleration play an important role in producing the observed spectral shapes. Our model can reproduce the spectra of all the Fermi-LAT and AGILE flares from the Crab Nebula, using magnetic field strengths in agreement with the multi-wavelength observational constraints. We also compute the spectrum and duration of the synchrotron afterglow created by the accelerated electrons, after they escape into the region on the downstream side of the pulsar-wind termination shock. The afterglow is expected to fade over a maximum period of about three weeks after the γ-ray flare.

  7. Studies of Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443: Preliminary Observations from the Chandra Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyibi, E. A.

    2009-10-01

    Preliminary observations of the Chandra data were made in order to study the Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Supernova Remnant IC443. The Chandra X-ray observatory short observation on IC443 was centred on 13 chip ACIS. The CIAO analytical programme was used for the data analysis. The data were separated into point source, with an energy range of 2.1 to 10.0 keV, and diffuse source with energy less than 2.1 Kev. The resulting spectra were fitted to a power law. The observed density numbers and the normalised counts of both the point source and the diffuse source were used to describe the X-ray source. Afin d'étudier la "Pulsar wind Nebula" dans le reste de la Supernova IC 443, nous avons mené une exploitation préliminaire des observations provenant du satellite spatiale Chandra. L'observation brêve de IC 443, par Chandra fut centrée sur les composantes du spectromètre identifiées par la séquence 13. Le programme informatique CIAO fut utilisé pour l'analyse des données. Les données furent groupées en sources ponctuelles, chacune ayant des énergies allant de 2.1 a 10.0 kev ; et en sources diffuses chacune avec des énergies de moins de 2.1 kev. Les spectres obtenus furent interpolés à l'aide de fonction puissance. La densité de flux ainsi que le décompte des particules induites au détecteur par le rayonnement provenant des sources ponctuelles et diffuses furent utilisés pour décrire la source de rayon-X.

  8. The Amazing Pulsar Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Large Area Telescope, Fermi

    2014-01-01

    How rotation-powered pulsars accelerate particles to PeV energies and radiate pulsed emission from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths has remained a mystery for over 40 years. But in the last few years, the Fermi Large Area Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsars and allowed us to peer deeper into the inner workings of this incredibly efficient natural accelerator. Thanks to Fermi discoveries, we now know that the high-energy emission is radiated in the outer magnetosphere, near the light cylinder, that millisecond pulsars are extremely efficient at emitting gamma-ray pulses and that the Crab nebula undergoes dramatic flaring that challenges particle acceleration theory. I will review how these discoveries, together with recent progress in global simulation of pulsar magnetospheres, are changing our models of pulsar particle acceleration, cascade pair production and high-energy emission.

  9. Ideal Magnetohydrodynamic Solution to the σ Problem in Crab-like Pulsar Winds and General Asymptotic Analysis of Magnetized Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, Nektarios

    2004-01-01

    Using relativistic, steady, axisymmetric, ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), we analyze the super-Alfvénic regime of a pulsar wind by solving the momentum equation along the flow, as well as in the transfield direction. Employing a self-similar model, we demonstrate that ideal MHD can account for the full acceleration from high (>>1) to low (<<1) values of σ, the Poynting-to-matter energy flux ratio. The solutions also show a transition from a current-carrying to a return-current regime, partly satisfying the current-closure condition. We discuss the kind of boundary conditions near the base of the ideal MHD regime that are necessary in order to have the required transition from high to low σ in realistic distances and argue that this is a likely case for an equatorial wind. Examining the MHD asymptotics in general, we extend the analysis of Heyvaerts & Norman and Chiueh, Li, & Begelman by including two new elements: classes of quasi-conical and parabolic field line shapes that do not preclude an efficient and much faster than logarithmic acceleration, and the transition σ=σc after which the centrifugal forces (poloidal and azimuthal) are the dominant terms in the transfield force-balance equation.

  10. A Compact X-Ray Source in the Radio Pulsar-wind Nebula G141.2+5.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2016-01-01

    We report the results of a 50 ks Chandra observation of the recently discovered radio object G141.2+5.0, presumed to be a pulsar-wind nebula. We find a moderately bright unresolved X-ray source that we designate CXOU J033712.8 615302 coincident with the central peak radio emission. An absorbed power-law fit to the 241 counts describes the data well, with absorbing column {N}H=6.7(4.0,9.7)× {10}21 cm-2 and photon index {{Γ }}=1.8(1.4,2.2). For a distance of 4 kpc, the unabsorbed luminosity between 0.5 and 8 keV is {1.7}-0.3+0.4× {10}32 erg s-1 (90% confidence intervals). Both LX and Γ are quite typical of pulsars in PWNe. No extended emission is seen; we estimate a conservative 3σ upper limit to the surface brightness of any X-ray PWN near the point source to be 3× {10}-17 erg cm-2 s-1 arcsec-2 between 0.5 and 8 keV, assuming the same spectrum as the point source; for a nebula of diameter 13\\prime\\prime , the flux limit is 6% of the flux of the point source. The steep radio spectrum of the PWN (α ˜ -0.7), if continued to the X-ray without a break, predicts {L}{{X}} {{(nebula)}}˜ 1× {10}33 erg s-1, so additional spectral steepening between radio and X-rays is required, as is true of all known PWNe. The high Galactic latitude gives a z-distance of 350 pc above the Galactic plane, quite unusual for a Population I object.

  11. The X-Ray Structure and Spectrum of the Pulsar Wind Nebula Surrounding PSR B1853+01 in W44

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petre, R.; Kuntz, K. D.; Shelton, R. L.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We present the result of a Chandra ACIS observation of the pulsar PSR B1853+01 and its associated pulsar wind nebula (PWN), embedded within the supernova remnant W44. A hard band ACIS map cleanly distinguishes the PWN from the thermal emission of W44. The nebula is extended in the north-south direction, with an extent about half that of the radio emission. Morphological differences between the X-ray and radio images are apparent. Spectral fitting reveals a clear difference in spectral index between the hard emission from PSR B1853+01 (Gamma approx. 1.4) and the extended nebula (Gamma approx. 2.2). The more accurate values for the X-ray flux and spectral index are used refine estimates for PWN parameters, including magnetic field strength, the average Lorentz factor gamma of the particles in the wind, the magnetization parameter sigma, and the ratio k of electrons to other particles.

  12. The dynamic X-ray nebula powered by the pulsar B1259-63

    SciTech Connect

    Kargaltsev, Oleg; Volkov, Igor; Hare, Jeremy; Pavlov, George G.; Durant, Martin

    2014-04-01

    We present observations of the eccentric γ-ray binary B1259-63/LS 2883 with the Chandra X-ray Observatory. The images reveal a variable, extended (about 4'', or ∼1000 times the binary orbit size) structure, which appears to be moving away from the binary with the velocity of 0.05 of the speed of light. The observed emission is interpreted as synchrotron radiation from relativistic particles supplied by the pulsar. However, the fast motion through the circumbinary medium would require the emitting cloud to be loaded with a large amount of baryonic matter. Alternatively, the extended emission can be interpreted as a variable extrabinary shock in the pulsar wind outflow launched near binary apastron. The resolved variable X-ray nebula provides an opportunity to probe pulsar winds and their interaction with stellar winds in a previously inaccessible way.

  13. NuSTAR observations of the TeV detected pulsar wind nebular MSH 15-52 and the Central Power Source PSR B1509-58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hongjun

    The X-ray bright rotation-powered pulsar PSR B1509-58 is young, has very strong surface dipolar magnetic field (>10(13) \\ G), and powers the TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MSH 15-52. We report on the pulsar's temporal and spectral properties measured with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) and compare our results with the previous measurements. The PWN MSH 15-52, powered by the pulsar PSR B1509-58, was well studied in the soft X-ray band (<10 keV), and has many interesting structures in it such as jets and arcs. However, hard X-ray imaging (>10 keV) has not previously been done for this source due to the lack of focusing telescope in that band. We report on the broadband X-ray properties of MSH 15-52 using new observations made with NuSTAR and archival Chandra data. We present images and spatially resolved spectra of the source in the broad X-ray band (0.5-79 keV). We interpret our results using particle outflow models based on advection or diffusion of relativistic pulsar wind electron/positron pairs. Using the models, we infer the properties of the particle outflow and the PWN environment. Furthermore, we present 2-D maps of the spectral parameters: flux, spectral index, and hydrogen column density. Although a 3-D model is required in order to quantitatively interpret the results, we discuss some interesting features we have found thus far in the maps.

  14. Observational properties of pulsars.

    PubMed

    Manchester, R N

    2004-04-23

    Pulsars are remarkable clocklike celestial sources that are believed to be rotating neutron stars formed in supernova explosions. They are valuable tools for investigations into topics such as neutron star interiors, globular cluster dynamics, the structure of the interstellar medium, and gravitational physics. Searches at radio and x-ray wavelengths over the past 5 years have resulted in a large increase in the number of known pulsars and the discovery of new populations of pulsars, posing challenges to theories of binary and stellar evolution. Recent images at radio, optical, and x-ray wavelengths have revealed structures resulting from the interaction of pulsar winds with the surrounding interstellar medium, giving new insights into the physics of pulsars.

  15. RADIO POLARIZATION OBSERVATIONS OF THE SNAIL: A CRUSHED PULSAR WIND NEBULA IN G327.1–1.1 WITH A HIGHLY ORDERED MAGNETIC FIELD

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, Y. K.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bucciantini, N.; Slane, P. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Temim, T.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are suggested to be acceleration sites of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. While the magnetic field plays an important role in the acceleration process, previous observations of magnetic field configurations of PWNe are rare, particularly for evolved systems. We present a radio polarization study of the “Snail” PWN inside the supernova remnant G327.1−1.1 using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This PWN is believed to have been recently crushed by the supernova (SN) reverse shock. The radio morphology is composed of a main circular body with a finger-like protrusion. We detected a strong linear polarization signal from the emission, which reflects a highly ordered magnetic field in the PWN and is in contrast to the turbulent environment with a tangled magnetic field generally expected from hydrodynamical simulations. This could suggest that the characteristic turbulence scale is larger than the radio beam size. We built a toy model to explore this possibility, and found that a simulated PWN with a turbulence scale of about one-eighth to one-sixth of the nebula radius and a pulsar wind filling factor of 50%–75% provides the best match to observations. This implies substantial mixing between the SN ejecta and pulsar wind material in this system.

  16. Radio Polarization Observations of the Snail: A Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in G327.1-1.1 with a Highly Ordered Magnetic Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Y. K.; Ng, C.-Y.; Bucciantini, N.; Slane, P. O.; Gaensler, B. M.; Temim, T.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are suggested to be acceleration sites of cosmic rays in the Galaxy. While the magnetic field plays an important role in the acceleration process, previous observations of magnetic field configurations of PWNe are rare, particularly for evolved systems. We present a radio polarization study of the “Snail” PWN inside the supernova remnant G327.1-1.1 using the Australia Telescope Compact Array. This PWN is believed to have been recently crushed by the supernova (SN) reverse shock. The radio morphology is composed of a main circular body with a finger-like protrusion. We detected a strong linear polarization signal from the emission, which reflects a highly ordered magnetic field in the PWN and is in contrast to the turbulent environment with a tangled magnetic field generally expected from hydrodynamical simulations. This could suggest that the characteristic turbulence scale is larger than the radio beam size. We built a toy model to explore this possibility, and found that a simulated PWN with a turbulence scale of about one-eighth to one-sixth of the nebula radius and a pulsar wind filling factor of 50%-75% provides the best match to observations. This implies substantial mixing between the SN ejecta and pulsar wind material in this system.

  17. X-RAY PHOTOIONIZED BUBBLE IN THE WIND OF VELA X-1 PULSAR SUPERGIANT COMPANION

    SciTech Connect

    Krticka, Jiri; Skalicky, Jan; Kubat, Jiri

    2012-10-01

    Vela X-1 is the archetype of high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs), composed of a neutron star and a massive B supergiant. The supergiant is a source of a strong radiatively driven stellar wind. The neutron star sweeps up this wind and creates a huge amount of X-rays as a result of energy release during the process of wind accretion. Here, we provide detailed NLTE models of the Vela X-1 envelope. We study how the X-rays photoionize the wind and destroy the ions responsible for the wind acceleration. The resulting decrease of the radiative force explains the observed reduction of the wind terminal velocity in a direction to the neutron star. The X-rays create a distinct photoionized region around the neutron star filled with a stagnating flow. The existence of such photoionized bubbles is a general property of HMXBs. We unveil a new principle governing these complex objects, according to which there is an upper limit to the X-ray luminosity the compact star can have without suspending the wind due to inefficient line driving.

  18. Pulsar Wind Nebulae as a source of the observed electron and positron excess at high energy: The case of Vela-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Torre, S.; Gervasi, M.; Rancoita, P. G.; Rozza, D.; Treves, A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate, in terms of production from pulsars and their nebulae, the cosmic ray positron and electron fluxes above ∼10 GeV, observed by the AMS-02 experiment up to 1 TeV. We concentrate on the Vela-X case. Starting from the gamma-ray photon spectrum of the source, generated via synchrotron and inverse Compton processes, we estimated the electron and positron injection spectra. Several features are fixed from observations of Vela-X and unknown parameters are borrowed from the Crab nebula. The particle spectra produced in the pulsar wind nebula are then propagated up to the Solar System, using a diffusion model. Differently from previous works, the omnidirectional intensity excess for electrons and positrons is obtained as a difference between the AMS-02 data and the corresponding local interstellar spectrum. An equal amount of electron and positron excess is observed and we interpreted this excess (above ∼100 GeV in the AMS-02 data) as a supply coming from Vela-X. The particle contribution is consistent with models predicting the gamma-ray emission at the source. The input of a few more young pulsars is also allowed, while below ∼100 GeV more aged pulsars could be the main contributors.

  19. Radio emission from Sgr A*: pulsar transits through the accretion disc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christie, I. M.; Petropoulou, M.; Mimica, P.; Giannios, D.

    2017-06-01

    Radiatively inefficient accretion flow models have been shown to accurately account for the spectrum and luminosity observed from Sgr A* in the X-ray regime down to mm wavelengths. However, observations at a few GHz cannot be explained by thermal electrons alone but require the presence of an additional non-thermal particle population. Here, we propose a model for the origin of such a population in the accretion flow via means of a pulsar orbiting the supermassive black hole in our Galaxy. Interactions between the relativistic pulsar wind with the disc lead to the formation of a bow shock in the wind. During the pulsar's transit through the accretion disc, relativistic pairs, accelerated at the shock front, are injected into the disc. The radio-emitting particles are long lived and remain within the disc long after the pulsar's transit. Periodic pulsar transits through the disc result in regular injection episodes of non-thermal particles. We show that for a pulsar with spin-down luminosity Lsd ∼ 3 × 1035 erg s-1 and a wind Lorentz factor of γw ∼ 104 a quasi-steady synchrotron emission is established with luminosities in the 1-10 GHz range comparable to the observed one.

  20. X-Radiation from the Millisecond Pulsar J0437-4715

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, V. E.; Pavlov, G. G.; Sanwal, D.; Manchester, R. N.; Truemper, J.; Halpern, J. P.; Becker, W.

    2002-01-01

    We report on spectral and timing observations of the nearest millisecond pulsar, 50437-471 5, with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory. The pulsar spectrum, detected up to 7 keV, cannot be described by a simple one-component model. We suggest that it consists of two components: a nonthermal power-law spectrum generated in the pulsar magnetosphere, with a photon index gamma approx. = 2, and a thermal spectrum emitted by heated polar caps, with a temperature decreasing outward from 2 to 0.5 MK. The lack of spectral features in the thermal component suggests that the neutron star surface is covered by a hydrogen (or helium) atmosphere. The timing analysis shows one X-ray pulse per period, with a pulsed fraction of about 40% and the peak at the same pulse phase as the radio peak. No synchrotron pulsar-wind nebula is seen in X-rays.

  1. Discovery of TeV gamma-ray emission from the pulsar wind nebula 3C 58 by MAGIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Coto, Rubén

    2016-07-01

    The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) 3C 58 is one of the historical very-high-energy (VHE; E>100 GeV) gamma-ray source candidates. It has been compared to the Crab Nebula due to their morphological similarities. This object was detected by Fermi-LAT with a spectrum extending beyond 100 GeV. We analyzed 81 hours of 3C 58 data taken with the MAGIC telescopes and we detected VHE gamma-ray emission for the first time at TeV energies with a significance of 5.7 sigma and an integral flux of 0.65% C.U. above 1 TeV. According to our results 3C 58 is the least luminous PWN ever detected at VHE and the one with the lowest flux at VHE to date. We compare our results with the expectations of time-dependent models in which electrons up-scatter photon fields. The best representation favors a distance to the PWN of 2 kpc and Far Infrared (FIR) comparable to CMB photon fields. Hadronic contribution from the hosting supernova remnant (SNR) requires unrealistic energy budget given the density of the medium, disfavoring cosmic ray acceleration in the SNR as origin of the VHE gamma-ray emission.

  2. FORMATION OF BINARY MILLISECOND PULSARS BY ACCRETION-INDUCED COLLAPSE OF WHITE DWARFS UNDER WIND-DRIVEN EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Ablimit, Iminhaji; Li, Xiang-Dong

    2015-02-20

    Accretion-induced collapse (AIC) of massive white dwarfs (WDs) has been proposed to be an important channel to form binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Recent investigations on thermal timescale mass transfer in WD binaries demonstrate that the resultant MSPs are likely to have relatively wide orbit periods (≳ 10 days). Here we calculate the evolution of WD binaries taking into account the excited wind from the companion star induced by X-ray irradiation of the accreting WD, which may drive rapid mass transfer even when the companion star is less massive than the WD. This scenario can naturally explain the formation of the strong-field neutron star in the low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1822–37. After AIC the mass transfer resumes when the companion star refills its Roche lobe, and the neutron star is recycled owing to mass accretion. A large fraction of the binaries will evolve to become binary MSPs with an He WD companion, with the orbital periods distributed between ≳ 0.1 days and ≲ 30 days, while some of them may follow the cataclysmic variable-like evolution toward very short orbits. If we instead assume that the newborn neutron star appears as an MSP and that part of its rotational energy is used to ablate its companion star, the binaries may also evolve to be the redback-like systems.

  3. Modeling the effect of small-scale magnetic turbulence on the X-ray properties of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucciantini, N.; Bandiera, R.; Olmi, B.; Del Zanna, L.

    2017-10-01

    Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe) constitute an ideal astrophysical environment to test our current understanding of relativistic plasma processes. It is well known that magnetic fields play a crucial role in their dynamics and emission properties. At present, one of the main issues concerns the level of magnetic turbulence present in these systems, which in the absence of space resolved X-ray polarization measures cannot be directly constrained. In this work, we investigate, for the first time using simulated synchrotron maps, the effect of a small-scale fluctuating component of the magnetic field on the emission properties in X-ray. We illustrate how to include the effects of a turbulent component in standard emission models for PWNe and which consequences are expected in terms of net emissivity and depolarization, showing that the X-ray surface brightness maps can provide already some rough constraints. We then apply our analysis to the Crab and Vela nebulae and by comparing our model with Chandra and Vela data, we found that the typical energies in the turbulent component of the magnetic field are about 1.5-3 times the one in the ordered field.

  4. The effect of drift on the evolution of the electron/positron spectra in an axisymmetric pulsar wind nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Vorster, Michael J.; Moraal, Harm

    2014-06-20

    Charged particles propagating through a structured magnetic field are subject to drift motion. The primary aim of the present paper is therefore to investigate the effects of gradient, curvature, and neutral sheet drift on the evolution of the electron and positron spectra in a pulsar wind nebula, where the drift motion is a direct result of the magnetic field having an Archimedean spiral structure. In order to investigate the evolution of the spectra, the steady-state, axisymmetric Fokker-Planck transport equation is solved numerically using a finite-difference scheme. Apart from drift motion, the transport processes of convection and diffusion, along with the energy loss processes of adiabatic cooling and synchrotron radiation, are also included in the model. It is found that drift, particularly neutral sheet drift, can lead to a quantitative difference in the evolution of the electron and positron spectra. This difference may be of importance when interpreting the positron excess observed by PAMELA and AMS-02 near Earth.

  5. Particle-In-Cell Simulations of a Nonlinear Transverse Electromagnetic Wave in a Pulsar Wind Termination Shock

    SciTech Connect

    Skjaeraasen, Olaf; Melatos, A.; Spitkovsky, A.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-08-15

    A 2.5-dimensional particle-in-cell code is used to investigate the propagation of a large-amplitude, superluminal, nearly transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave in a relativistically streaming electron-positron plasma with and without a shock. In the freestreaming, unshocked case, the analytic TEM dispersion relation is verified, and the streaming is shown to stabilize the wave against parametric instabilities. In the confined, shocked case, the wave induces strong, coherent particle oscillations, heats the plasma, and modifies the shock density profile via ponderomotive effects. The wave decays over {approx}> 10{sup 2} skin depths; the decay length scale depends primarily on the ratio between the wave frequency and the effective plasma frequency, and on the wave amplitude. The results are applied to the termination shock of the Crab pulsar wind, where the decay length-scale ({approx}> 0.05''?) might be comparable to the thickness of filamentary, variable substructure observed in the optical and X-ray wisps and knots.

  6. Investigating CXOU J163802.6-471358: A New Pulsar Wind Nebula in the Norma Region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsen, Simone J.; Tomsick, John A.; Watson, Darach; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6-471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N H =1.5^{+0.7}_{-0.5}\\times 10^{23}\\, cm{^{-2}} and \\Gamma =1.1^{+0.7}_{-0.6} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L_X\\sim 4.8\\times 10^{33}d_{10}^2 erg s-1 with d 10 = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

  7. Modeling the Multiwavelength Light Curves of PSR B1259-63/LS 2883. II. The Effects of Anisotropic Pulsar Wind and Doppler Boosting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, S. W.; Cheng, K. S.; Huang, Y. F.

    2012-07-01

    PSR B1259-63/LS 2883 is a binary system in which a 48 ms pulsar orbits around a Be star in a high eccentric orbit with a long orbital period of about 3.4 yr. It is special for having asymmetric two-peak profiles in both the X-ray and TeV light curves. Recently, an unexpected GeV flare has been detected by the Fermi gamma-ray observatory several weeks after the last periastron passage. In this paper, we show that this observed GeV flare could be produced by the Doppler-boosted synchrotron emission in the bow-shock tail. An anisotropic pulsar wind model, which mainly affects the energy flux injection into the termination shock in a different orbital phase, is also used in this paper, and we find that the anisotropy in the pulsar wind can play a significant role in producing the asymmetric two-peak profiles in both X-ray and TeV light curves. The X-ray and TeV photons before periastron are mainly produced by the shocked electrons around the shock apex, and the light curves after periastron are contributed by the emission from the shock apex and the shock tail together, which result in asymmetric two-peak light curves.

  8. Chandra Observations of the Pulsar B1929+10 and Its Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misanovic, Z.; Pavlov, G. G.; Garmire, G. P.

    2008-10-01

    We report on two Chandra observations of the 3 Myr old pulsar B1929+10, which reveal a faint compact (~9'' × 5'') nebula elongated in the direction perpendicular to the pulsar's proper motion, two patchy wings, and a possible short (~3'') jet emerging from the pulsar. In addition, we detect a tail extending up to at least 4' in the direction opposite to the pulsar's proper motion, aligned with the ~15' long tail detected in ROSAT and XMM-Newton observations. The overall morphology of the nebula suggests that the shocked pulsar wind is confined by the ram pressure due to the pulsar's supersonic speed. The shape of the compact nebula in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar seems to be consistent with the current MHD models. However, since these models do not account yet for the change of the flow velocity at larger distances from the pulsar, they are not able to constrain the extent of the long pulsar tail. The luminosity of the whole nebula as seen by Chandra is LPWN ~ 1030 ergs s-1 in the 0.3-8 keV band, for the distance of 361 pc. Using the Chandra and XMM-Newton data, we found that the pulsar spectrum is composed of nonthermal (magnetospheric) and thermal components. The nonthermal component can be described by a power-law model with photon index Γ ≈ 1.7 and luminosity LnonthPSR ≈ 1.7 × 1030 ergs s-1 in the 0.3-10 keV band. The blackbody fit for the thermal component, which presumably emerges from hot polar caps, gives the temperature kT ≈ 0.3 keV and projected emitting area A⊥ ~ 3 × 103 m2, corresponding to the bolometric luminosity Lbol ~ (1-2) × 1030 ergs s-1.

  9. THE DOUBLE PULSAR ECLIPSES. I. PHENOMENOLOGY AND MULTI-FREQUENCY ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, R. P.; Kaspi, V. M.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lyutikov, M.; Kramer, M.; Stairs, I. H.; Ransom, S. M.; Ferdman, R. D.; Camilo, F.; Possenti, A.

    2012-03-10

    The double pulsar PSR J0737-3039A/B displays short, 30 s eclipses that arise around conjunction when the radio waves emitted by pulsar A are absorbed as they propagate through the magnetosphere of its companion pulsar B. These eclipses offer a unique opportunity to directly probe the magnetospheric structure and the plasma properties of pulsar B. We have performed a comprehensive analysis of the eclipse phenomenology using multi-frequency radio observations obtained with the Green Bank Telescope. We have characterized the periodic flux modulations previously discovered at 820 MHz by McLaughlin et al. and investigated the radio frequency dependence of the duration and depth of the eclipses. Based on their weak radio frequency evolution, we conclude that the plasma in pulsar B's magnetosphere requires a large multiplicity factor ({approx}10{sup 5}). We also found that, as expected, flux modulations are present at all radio frequencies in which eclipses can be detected. Their complex behavior is consistent with the confinement of the absorbing plasma in the dipolar magnetic field of pulsar B as suggested by Lyutikov and Thompson and such a geometric connection explains that the observed periodicity is harmonically related to pulsar B's spin frequency. We observe that the eclipses require a sharp transition region beyond which the plasma density drops off abruptly. Such a region defines a plasmasphere that would be well inside the magnetospheric boundary of an undisturbed pulsar. It is also two times smaller than the expected standoff radius calculated using the balance of the wind pressure from pulsar A and the nominally estimated magnetic pressure of pulsar B.

  10. A study of Pulsar Wind Nebulae and non-thermal filaments with the NuSTAR observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nynka, Melania

    NuSTAR, the first high-energy focusing X-ray telescope, has provided an unprecedented view of the universe above 10 keV. I first briefly describe the fabrication and calibration campaign of the NuSTAR optics at Columbia University. I then present two main areas of research with NuSTAR: the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G21.5-0.9, and the investigation of several filamentary structures within 0.5 deg. of the Galactic Center. G21.5-0.9 is a well-studied PWN, and was observed by NuSTAR with ˜ 280 ks in the first months of its mission. I used both spectral and spatial image analysis of the emission to probe the validity of various magnetohydrodynamic models. Image deconvolution reveals the existence of non-thermal emission up to 20 keV, likely the supernova shell. Next I discuss three non-thermal filaments found near the Galactic Center. The Cannonball is a known high-velocity neutron star escaping the radio shell of Sgr A East with an extended radio and soft X-ray tail. NuSTAR extended its non-thermal spectrum to 30 keV and measured a magnetic field of ˜ 313-550muG. I analyze filament G359.97-0.038 by incorporating broad-band morphological and spectral data from radio (5.5 and 8.3 GHz) and gamma-ray data with NuSTAR data. I conclude that it is not a PWN but more likely the result of an interaction between the Sgr A East remnant and the nearby molecular cloud. Lastly I observe the filament G0.13-0.11, likely a PWN elongated by the ram pressure from the nearby Radio Arc.

  11. G141.2+5.0, A NEW PULSAR WIND NEBULA DISCOVERED IN THE CYGNUS ARM OF THE MILKY WAY

    SciTech Connect

    Kothes, R.; Foster, T. J.; Sun, X. H.; Reich, W.

    2014-04-01

    We report the discovery of the new pulsar wind nebula (PWN) G141.2+5.0 in data observed with the Dominion Radio Astrophysical Observatory's Synthesis Telescope at 1420 MHz. The new PWN has a diameter of about 3.'5, which translates to a spatial extent of about 4 pc at a distance of 4.0 kpc. It displays a radio spectral index of α ≈ –0.7, similar to the PWN G76.9+1.1. G141.2+5.0 is highly polarized up to 40% with an average of 15% in the 1420 MHz data. It is located in the center of a small spherical H I bubble, which is expanding at a velocity of 6 km s{sup –1} at a systemic velocity of v {sub LSR} = –53 km s{sup –1}. The bubble could be the result of the progenitor star's mass loss or the shell-type supernova remnant (SNR) created by the same supernova explosion in a highly advanced stage. The systemic LSR velocity of the bubble shares the velocity of H I associated with the Cygnus spiral arm, which is seen across the second and third quadrants and an active star-forming arm immediately beyond the Perseus arm. A kinematical distance of 4 ± 0.5 kpc is found for G141.2+5.0, similar to the optical distance of the Cygnus arm (3.8 ± 1.1 kpc). G141.2+5.0 represents the first radio PWN discovered in 17 years and the first SNR discovered in the Cygnus spiral arm, which is in stark contrast with the Perseus arm's overwhelming population of shell-type remnants.

  12. The Fermi LAT Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2011-08-01

    The Large Area Telescope on the Fermi satellite is an impressive pulsar discovery machine, with over 75 pulse detections and counting. The populations of radio-selected, γ-selected and millisecond pulsars are now large enough to display observational patterns in the light curves and luminosities. These patterns are starting to teach us about the physics of the emission zone, which seems dominated by open field lines near the speed of light cylinder. The sample also provides initial inferences about the pulsar population. Apparently a large fraction of neutron stars have a young energetic γ-ray emitting phase, making these objects a good probe of massive star evolution. The long-lived millisecond γ-ray pulsars are even more ubiquitous and may produce a significant fraction of the γ-ray background. In any event, it is clear that the present LAT pulsar sample is dominated by nearby objects, and there is every expectation that the number, and quality, of pulsar detections will increase in years to come.

  13. Late-Time Evolution of Composite Supernova Remnants: Deep Chandra Observations and Hydrodynamical Modeling of a Crushed Pulsar Wind Nebula in SNR G327.1-1.1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John; Hughes, John P.; Bucciantini, Niccolo

    2015-01-01

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 ks Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology; a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock(RS) that can occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a approx. 17,000 yr old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar's motion. We also show that the RSPWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to gamma-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  14. Constraints on the galactic population of TeV pulsar wind nebulae using Fermi Large Area Telescope observations

    SciTech Connect

    Acero, F.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Cecchi, C.; Charles, E.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; Dalton, M.; D'Ammando, F.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Venere, L. Di; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Fukazawa, Y.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Grégoire, T.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hayashi, K.; Hays, E.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Inoue, Y.; Jackson, M. S.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, A. S.; Kamae, T.; Kawano, T.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohsugi, T.; Okumura, A.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Porter, T. A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Takeuchi, Y.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Werner, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wood, K. S.; Yang, Z.

    2013-07-29

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) have been established as the most populous class of TeV γ-ray emitters. Since launch, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) has identified five high-energy (100 MeV < E < 100 GeV) γ-ray sources as PWNe and detected a large number of PWN candidates, all powered by young and energetic pulsars. The wealth of multi-wavelength data available and the new results provided by Fermi-LAT give us an opportunity to find new PWNe and to explore the radiative processes taking place in known ones. The TeV γ-ray unidentified (UNID) sources are the best candidates for finding new PWNe. Using 45 months of Fermi-LAT data for energies above 10 GeV, an analysis was performed near the position of 58 TeV PWNe and UNIDs within 5° of the Galactic plane to establish new constraints on PWN properties and find new clues on the nature of UNIDs. Of the 58 sources, 30 were detected, and this work provides their γ-ray fluxes for energies above 10 GeV. The spectral energy distributions and upper limits, in the multi-wavelength context, also provide new information on the source nature and can help distinguish between emission scenarios, i.e., between classification as a pulsar candidate or as a PWN candidate. Six new GeV PWN candidates are described in detail and compared with existing models. As a result, a population study of GeV PWN candidates as a function of the pulsar/PWN system characteristics is presented.

  15. X-ray Emission from Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, Vyacheslav

    2006-01-01

    Isolated (solitary or non-accreting) millisecond pulsars with observed X-ray emission can be divided in two distinct groups: those emitting nonthermal (magnetospheric) radiation and pulsars with the bulk of X-rays of a thermal origin, presumably emitted from small hot spots around the magnetic poles on the neutron star surface (polar caps). I will discuss properties of X-ray emission detected with Chandra and XMM-Newton from a number of millisecond pulsars, with emphasis on those of the thermal component, and compare them with predictions of radio pulsar models.

  16. X-Ray Analysis of the Proper Motion and Pulsar Wind Nebula for PSR J1741-2054

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Ng, C-Y.; Temim, Tea; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bykov, Andrei; Swartz, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    We obtained six observations of PSR J1741-2054 using the Chandra ACIS-S detector totaling approx.300 ks. By registering this new epoch of observations to an archival observation taken 3.2 yr earlier using X-ray point sources in the field of view, we have measured the pulsar proper motion at micron = 109 +/- 10 mas yr(exp. -1) in a direction consistent with the symmetry axis of the observed H(alpha) nebula. We investigated the inferred past trajectory of the pulsar but find no compelling association with OB associations in which the progenitor may have originated. We confirm previous measurements of the pulsar spectrum as an absorbed power law with photon index gamma = 2.68 +/- 0.04, plus a blackbody with an emission radius of (4.5(+3.2/-2.5))d(0.38) km, for a DM-estimated distance of 0.38d(0.38) kpc and a temperature of 61.7 +/- 3.0 eV. Emission from the compact nebula is well described by an absorbed power law model with a photon index of gamma = 1.67 +/- 0.06, while the diffuse emission seen as a trail extending northeast of the pulsar shows no evidence of synchrotron cooling. We also applied image deconvolution techniques to search for small-scale structures in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar, but found no conclusive evidence for such structures.

  17. X-Ray Analysis of the Proper Motion and Pulsar Wind Nebula for PSR J1741-2054

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auchettl, Katie; Slane, Patrick; Romani, Roger W.; Posselt, Bettina; Pavlov, George G.; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Ng, C-Y.; Temim, Tea; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Bykov, Andrei; hide

    2015-01-01

    We obtained six observations of PSR J1741-2054 using the Chandra ACIS-S detector totaling approx.300 ks. By registering this new epoch of observations to an archival observation taken 3.2 yr earlier using X-ray point sources in the field of view, we have measured the pulsar proper motion at micron = 109 +/- 10 mas yr(exp. -1) in a direction consistent with the symmetry axis of the observed H(alpha) nebula. We investigated the inferred past trajectory of the pulsar but find no compelling association with OB associations in which the progenitor may have originated. We confirm previous measurements of the pulsar spectrum as an absorbed power law with photon index gamma = 2.68 +/- 0.04, plus a blackbody with an emission radius of (4.5(+3.2/-2.5))d(0.38) km, for a DM-estimated distance of 0.38d(0.38) kpc and a temperature of 61.7 +/- 3.0 eV. Emission from the compact nebula is well described by an absorbed power law model with a photon index of gamma = 1.67 +/- 0.06, while the diffuse emission seen as a trail extending northeast of the pulsar shows no evidence of synchrotron cooling. We also applied image deconvolution techniques to search for small-scale structures in the immediate vicinity of the pulsar, but found no conclusive evidence for such structures.

  18. The Young Core-Collapse Supernova Remnant G11.2-0.3: An Asymmetric Circumstellar Medium and a Variable Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Moseby, A.; Reynolds, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    G11.2-0.3 is a young supernova remnant (SNR) that has been suggested to be associated with a historical supernova of 386 AD. In addition to a bright radio and X-ray shell, it contains a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and a 65 ms pulsar. We present first results from new deep (about 400 ks in duration) Chandra observations from 2013 May and September. Ahead of the main shell, there are a number of outlying X-ray protrusions surrounded by bow shocks, presumably produced by dense ejecta knots. Pronounced spectral variations are seen in thermal X-ray spectra of the main shell, indicating the presence of shocks with a wide range in shock speeds and large spatial variations in intervening absorption. A band of soft X-ray emission is clearly seen at the remnant's center. We interpret this band as a result of the interaction of supernova ejecta with the strongly asymmetric wind produced by a red supergiant SN progenitor shortly before its explosion. We study interstellar absorption in the central region of the remnant, finding high absorption everywhere. This rules out the association of G11.2-0.3 with SN 386. The PWN is dominated by a bright "jet" whose spatial morphology is markedly different between our May and September observations.

  19. Free-fall accretion and emitting caustics in wind-fed X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illarionov, Andrei F.; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2001-05-01

    In wind-fed X-ray binaries the accreting matter is Compton-cooled and falls freely on to the compact object. The matter has a modest angular momentum l and accretion is quasi-spherical at large distances from the compact object. Initially small non-radial velocities grow in the converging supersonic flow and become substantial in the vicinity of the accretor. The streamlines with l>(GMR*)1/2 (where M and R* are the mass and radius of the compact object) intersect outside R* and form a two-dimensional caustic which emits X-rays. The streamlines with low angular momentum, l<(GMR*)1/2, run into the accretor. If the accretor is a neutron star, a large X-ray luminosity results. We show that the distribution of accretion rate/luminosity over the star surface is sensitive to the angular momentum distribution of the accreting matter. The apparent luminosity depends on the side from which the star is observed and can change periodically with the orbital phase of the binary. The accretor then appears as a `Moon-like' X-ray source.

  20. The Radio Emission, X-Ray Emission, and Hydrodynamics of G328.4+0.2: A Comprehensive Analysis of a Luminous Pulsar Wind Nebula, Its Neutron Star, and the Progenitor Supernova Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfand, Joseph D.; Gaensler, B. M.; Slane, Patrick O.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Hughes, John P.; Camilo, Fernando

    2007-07-01

    We present new observational and modeling results obtained for the Galactic nonthermal radio source G328.4+0.2. Using X-ray data obtained by XMM-Newton, we confirm that its X-ray emission is heavily absorbed, has a spectrum best fitted by a power-law model of photon index Γ=2 with no evidence for a thermal component, comes from a region significantly smaller than the radio emission, and that the X-ray and radio emissions are significantly offset from each other. We also present the results of a new high-resolution (7") 1.4 GHz image of G328.4+0.2 obtained using ATCA and a deep search for radio pulsations using the Parkes radio telescope. By comparing this 1.4 GHz image with a similar resolution image at 4.8 GHz, we find that the radio emission has a flat spectrum (α~0 Sν~να). Additionally, we are able to limit the pseudoluminosity of any pulsar to L1400≡S1400400d2<~30 mJy kpc2 for the central radio pulsar, assuming a distance of 17 kpc. In light of these observational results, we test whether G328.4+0.2 is a pulsar wind nebula or an SNR that contains a large pulsar wind nebula using a simple hydrodynamic model for the evolution of a pulsar wind nebula inside an SNR. As a result of this analysis, we conclude that G328.4+0.2 is a young (<~10,000 years old) pulsar wind nebula formed by a low magnetic field (<~1012 G) neutron star born spinning rapidly (<~10 ms) expanding into an undetected SNR formed by an energetic (>~1051 ergs), low ejecta mass (Mej<~5 Msolar) supernova explosion that occurred in a low-density (n~0.03 cm-3) environment.

  1. Optical study of pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanwal, Divas

    The Crab Pulsar emits radiation at all wavelengths from radio to extreme γ-rays including the optical. We have performed extremely high time resolution multicolor photometry of the Crab Pulsar at optical wavelengths to constrain the high energy emission models for pulsars. Our observations with 1 microsecond time resolution are a factor of 20 better than the previous best observations. We have completely resolved the peak of the main pulse of the Crab Pulsar in optical passbands. The peaks of the main pulse and the interpulse move smoothly from the rising branch to the falling branch with neither a flat top nor a cusp. We find that the peak of the Crab Pulsar main pulse in the B band arrives 140 microseconds before the peak of the radio pulse. The color of the emission changes across the phase. The maximum variation in the color ratio is about 25%. The bluest color occurs in the bridge region between the main pulse and the interpulse. The Crab Pulsar has faded by 2 +/- 2.8% since the previous observations in 1991 using the same instrument. The statistics of photon arrival times are consistent with atmospheric scintillation causing most of the variations in addition to the mean pulse variations in the shape. However, the autocorrelation function (ACF) of the Crab Pulsar light curve shows extra correlations at very short time scales. We identify two time scales, one at about 20 microseconds and another one at about 1000 microseconds at which we observe a break in the ACF. We conclude that these short timescale correlations are internal to the pulsar. We attribute the extra correlation observed in our data to microstructures. This is the first time evidence for microstructures has been observed outside the radio wavelengths. The upturn in the ACF at short time scales depends on the color. The U band shows about 10% more correlation at short time scales while the R band shows only about 3% change. We have also observed the young X-ray pulsar PSR 0656+14 at optical

  2. LATE-TIME EVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE SUPERNOVA REMNANTS: DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS AND HYDRODYNAMICAL MODELING OF A CRUSHED PULSAR WIND NEBULA IN SNR G327.1-1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Kolb, Christopher; Blondin, John; Hughes, John P.; Bucciantini, Niccoló

    2015-07-20

    In an effort to better understand the evolution of composite supernova remnants (SNRs) and the eventual fate of relativistic particles injected by their pulsars, we present a multifaceted investigation of the interaction between a pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and its host SNR G327.1-1.1. Our 350 Chandra X-ray observations of SNR G327.1-1.1 reveal a highly complex morphology: a cometary structure resembling a bow shock, prong-like features extending into large arcs in the SNR interior, and thermal emission from the SNR shell. Spectral analysis of the non-thermal emission offers clues about the origin of the PWN structures, while enhanced abundances in the PWN region provide evidence for a mixing of supernova ejecta with PWN material. The overall morphology and spectral properties of the SNR suggest that the PWN has undergone an asymmetric interaction with the SNR reverse shock (RS), whichcan occur as a result of a density gradient in the ambient medium and/or a moving pulsar that displaces the PWN from the center of the remnant. We present hydrodynamical simulations of G327.1-1.1 that show that its morphology and evolution can be described by a ∼17,000-year-old composite SNR that expanded into a density gradient with an orientation perpendicular to the pulsar’s motion. We also show that the RS/PWN interaction scenario can reproduce the broadband spectrum of the PWN from radio to γ-ray wavelengths. The analysis and modeling presented in this work have important implications for our general understanding of the structure and evolution of composite SNRs.

  3. X-RAY OBSERVATIONS OF THE SUPERNOVA REMNANT CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2): AN EVOLVED PULSAR WIND NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Matheson, H.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R. E-mail: samar@physics.umanitoba.ca

    2013-09-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) studies with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory have opened a new window to address the physics of pulsar winds, zoom on their interaction with their hosting supernova remnant (SNR) and interstellar medium, and identify their powering engines. We here present a new 70 ks, plus an archived 18 ks, Chandra ACIS observation of the SNR CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2), classified as a PWN with unusual radio properties and poorly studied in X-rays. We find that the peak of the X-ray emission is clearly offset from the peak of the radio emission by {approx}100'' and located at the southeastern edge of the radio nebula. We detect a point source-the putative pulsar-at the peak of the X-ray emission and study its spectrum separately from the PWN. This new point source, CXOU J201609.2+371110, is surrounded by a compact nebula displaying a torus-like structure and possibly a jet. A more extended diffuse nebula is offset from the radio nebula, extending from the point source to the northwest for {approx}250''. The spectra of the point source, compact nebula, and extended diffuse nebula are all well described by a power-law model with a photon index of 1.1 (0.7-1.6), 1.2 (0.9-1.4), and 1.7 (1.5-1.8), respectively, for a column density N{sub H} = 1.38 (1.21-1.57) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2} (90% confidence). The total X-ray luminosity of the source is {approx}1.6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1} at an assumed distance of 6.1 kpc, with {approx}2% and 6% contribution from the point source and compact nebula, respectively. The observed properties suggest that CTB 87 is an evolved ({approx}5-28 kyr) PWN, with the extended radio emission likely a ''relic'' PWN, as in Vela-X and G327.1-1.1. To date, however, there is no evidence for thermal X-ray emission from this SNR, and the SNR shell is still missing, suggesting expansion into a low-density medium (n{sub 0} < 0.2 D{sup -1/2}{sub 6.1} cm{sup -3}), likely caused by a stellar wind bubble blown by the

  4. NuSTAR observations of the supergiant X-ray pulsar IGR J18027-2016: accretion from the stellar wind and possible cyclotron absorption line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutovinov, Alexander A.; Tsygankov, Sergey S.; Postnov, Konstantin A.; Krivonos, Roman A.; Molkov, Sergey V.; Tomsick, John A.

    2017-04-01

    We report on the first focused hard X-ray view of the absorbed supergiant system IGR J18027-2016 performed with the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observatory. The pulsations are clearly detected with a period of Pspin = 139.866(1) s and a pulse fraction of about 50-60 per cent at energies from 3 to 80 keV. The source demonstrates an approximately constant X-ray luminosity on a time-scale of more than dozen years with an average spin-down rate of dot{P}≃ 6× 10^{-10} s s-1. This behaviour of the pulsar can be explained in terms of the wind accretion model in the settling regime. The detailed spectral analysis at energies above 10 keV was performed for the first time and revealed a possible cyclotron absorption feature at energy ∼23 keV. This energy corresponds to the magnetic field B ≃ 3 × 1012 G at the surface of the neutron star, which is typical for X-ray pulsars.

  5. HIGH-ENERGY X-RAYS FROM J174545.5-285829, THE CANNONBALL: A CANDIDATE PULSAR WIND NEBULA ASSOCIATED WITH Sgr A EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Zhang, Shuo; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2013-12-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v {sub proj} ∼ 500 km s{sup –1}) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located ∼2' north-east from Sgr A*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a Γ ∼ 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 × 10{sup 34} erg s{sup –1}. The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the Sgr A East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  6. High-energy X-Rays from J174545.5-285829, the Cannonball: A Candidate Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated with Sgr A East

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W.

    2013-12-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few-arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v proj ~ 500 km s-1) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located ~2' north-east from Sgr A*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a Γ ~ 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 × 1034 erg s-1. The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the Sgr A East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  7. High-Energy X-rays from J174545.5-285829, the Cannonball: a Candidate Pulsar Wind Nebula Associated with Sgr a East

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nynka, Melania; Hailey, Charles J.; Mori, Kaya; Baganoff, Frederick K.; Bauer, Franz E.; Boggs, Steven E.; Craig, William W.; Christensen, Finn E.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Hong, Jaesub; Perez, Kerstin M.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, William W.

    2013-01-01

    We report the unambiguous detection of non-thermal X-ray emission up to 30 keV from the Cannonball, a few arcsecond long diffuse X-ray feature near the Galactic Center, using the NuSTAR X-ray observatory. The Cannonball is a high-velocity (v(proj) approximately 500 km s(exp -1)) pulsar candidate with a cometary pulsar wind nebula (PWN) located approximately 2' north-east from Sgr A*, just outside the radio shell of the supernova remnant Sagittarius A (Sgr A) East. Its non-thermal X-ray spectrum, measured up to 30 keV, is well characterized by a Gamma is approximately 1.6 power law, typical of a PWN, and has an X-ray luminosity of L(3-30 keV) = 1.3 × 10(exp 34) erg s(exp -1). The spectral and spatial results derived from X-ray and radio data strongly suggest a runaway neutron star born in the Sgr A East supernova event. We do not find any pulsed signal from the Cannonball. The NuSTAR observations allow us to deduce the PWN magnetic field and show that it is consistent with the lower limit obtained from radio observations.

  8. DEEP CHANDRA OBSERVATIONS OF THE CRAB-LIKE PULSAR WIND NEBULA G54.1+0.3 AND SPITZER SPECTROSCOPY OF THE ASSOCIATED INFRARED SHELL

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Slane, Patrick; Raymond, John C.; Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2010-02-10

    G54.1+0.3 is a young pulsar wind nebula (PWN), closely resembling the Crab, for which no thermal shell emission has been detected in X-rays. Recent Spitzer observations revealed an infrared (IR) shell containing a dozen point sources arranged in a ring-like structure, previously proposed to be young stellar objects. An extended knot of emission located in the NW part of the shell appears to be aligned with the pulsar's X-ray jet, suggesting a possible interaction with the shell material. Surprisingly, the IR spectrum of the knot resembles the spectrum of freshly formed dust in Cas A, and is dominated by an unidentified dust emission feature at 21 {mu}m. The spectra of the shell also contain various emission lines and show that some are significantly broadened, suggesting that they originate in rapidly expanding supernova (SN) ejecta. We present the first evidence that the PWN is driving shocks into expanding SN ejecta and we propose an alternative explanation for the origin of the IR emission in which the shell is composed entirely of SN ejecta. In this scenario, the freshly formed SN dust is being heated by early-type stars belonging to a cluster in which the SN exploded. Simple dust models show that this interpretation can give rise to the observed shell emission and the IR point sources.

  9. Multi-wavelength emissions from the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 during an accretion active state

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Leung, Gene C. K.; Wu, E. M. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Li, K. L.; Kong, A. K. H.; Tam, P. H. T.; Hui, C. Y.; Xing, Yi; Wang, Zhongxiang; Cao, Yi; Tang, Sumin E-mail: akong@phys.nthu.edu.tw

    2014-04-20

    Recent observations strongly suggest that the millisecond pulsar binary PSR J1023+0038 has developed an accretion disk since 2013 June. We present a multi-wavelength analysis of PSR J1023+0038, which reveals that (1) its gamma-rays suddenly brightened within a few days in 2013 June/July and has remained at a high gamma-ray state for several months; (2) both UV and X-ray fluxes have increased by roughly an order of magnitude; and (3) the spectral energy distribution has changed significantly after the gamma-ray sudden flux change. Time variabilities associated with UV and X-rays are on the order of 100-500 s and 50-100 s, respectively. Our model suggests that a newly formed accretion disk, due to the sudden increase of the stellar wind, could explain the changes of all these observed features. The increase of UV is emitted from the disk, and a new component in gamma-rays is produced by inverse Compton scattering between the new UV component and pulsar wind. The increase of X-rays results from the enhancement of injection pulsar wind energy into the intra-binary shock due to the increase of the stellar wind. We also predict that the radio pulses may be blocked by the evaporated winds from the disk, and the pulsar is still powered by rotation.

  10. Identification of HESS J1303-631 as a pulsar wind nebula through γ-ray, X-ray, and radio observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    H.E.S.S. Collaboration; Abramowski, A.; Acero, F.; Aharonian, F.; Akhperjanian, A. G.; Anton, G.; Balenderan, S.; Balzer, A.; Barnacka, A.; Becherini, Y.; Becker, J.; Bernlöhr, K.; Birsin, E.; Biteau, J.; Bochow, A.; Boisson, C.; Bolmont, J.; Bordas, P.; Brucker, J.; Brun, F.; Brun, P.; Bulik, T.; Büsching, I.; Carrigan, S.; Casanova, S.; Cerruti, M.; Chadwick, P. M.; Charbonnier, A.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Cheesebrough, A.; Cologna, G.; Conrad, J.; Couturier, C.; Dalton, M.; Daniel, M. K.; Davids, I. D.; Degrange, B.; Deil, C.; Dickinson, H. J.; Djannati-Ataï, A.; Domainko, W.; Drury, L. O'C.; Dubus, G.; Dutson, K.; Dyks, J.; Dyrda, M.; Egberts, K.; Eger, P.; Espigat, P.; Fallon, L.; Farnier, C.; Fegan, S.; Feinstein, F.; Fernandes, M. V.; Fiasson, A.; Fontaine, G.; Förster, A.; Füßling, M.; Gajdus, M.; Gallant, Y. A.; Garrigoux, T.; Gast, H.; Gérard, L.; Giebels, B.; Glicenstein, J. F.; Glück, B.; Göring, D.; Grondin, M.-H.; Häffner, S.; Hague, J. D.; Hahn, J.; Hampf, D.; Harris, J.; Hauser, M.; Heinz, S.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henri, G.; Hermann, G.; Hillert, A.; Hinton, J. A.; Hofmann, W.; Hofverberg, P.; Holler, M.; Horns, D.; Jacholkowska, A.; Jahn, C.; Jamrozy, M.; Jung, I.; Kastendieck, M. A.; Katarzyński, K.; Katz, U.; Kaufmann, S.; Khélifi, B.; Klochkov, D.; Kluźniak, W.; Kneiske, T.; Komin, Nu.; Kosack, K.; Kossakowski, R.; Krayzel, F.; Laffon, H.; Lamanna, G.; Lenain, J.-P.; Lennarz, D.; Lohse, T.; Lopatin, A.; Lu, C.-C.; Marandon, V.; Marcowith, A.; Masbou, J.; Maurin, G.; Maxted, N.; Mayer, M.; McComb, T. J. L.; Medina, M. C.; Méhault, J.; Menzler, U.; Moderski, R.; Mohamed, M.; Moulin, E.; Naumann, C. L.; Naumann-Godo, M.; de Naurois, M.; Nedbal, D.; Nekrassov, D.; Nguyen, N.; Nicholas, B.; Niemiec, J.; Nolan, S. J.; Ohm, S.; de Oña Wilhelmi, E.; Opitz, B.; Ostrowski, M.; Oya, I.; Panter, M.; Paz Arribas, M.; Pekeur, N. W.; Pelletier, G.; Perez, J.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Peyaud, B.; Pita, S.; Pühlhofer, G.; Punch, M.; Quirrenbach, A.; Raue, M.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renaud, M.; de los Reyes, R.; Rieger, F.; Ripken, J.; Rob, L.; Rosier-Lees, S.; Rowell, G.; Rudak, B.; Rulten, C. B.; Sahakian, V.; Sanchez, D. A.; Santangelo, A.; Schlickeiser, R.; Schulz, A.; Schwanke, U.; Schwarzburg, S.; Schwemmer, S.; Sheidaei, F.; Skilton, J. L.; Sol, H.; Spengler, G.; Stawarz, Ł.; Steenkamp, R.; Stegmann, C.; Stinzing, F.; Stycz, K.; Sushch, I.; Szostek, A.; Tavernet, J.-P.; Terrier, R.; Tluczykont, M.; Valerius, K.; van Eldik, C.; Vasileiadis, G.; Venter, C.; Viana, A.; Vincent, P.; Völk, H. J.; Volpe, F.; Vorobiov, S.; Vorster, M.; Wagner, S. J.; Ward, M.; White, R.; Wierzcholska, A.; Zacharias, M.; Zajczyk, A.; Zdziarski, A. A.; Zech, A.; Zechlin, H.-S.

    2012-12-01

    Aims: The previously unidentified very high-energy (VHE; E > 100 GeV) γ-ray source HESS J1303-631, discovered in 2004, is re-examined including new data from the H.E.S.S. Cherenkov telescope array in order to identify this object. Archival data from the XMM-Newton X-ray satellite and from the PMN radio survey are also examined. Methods: Detailed morphological and spectral studies of VHE γ-ray emission as well as of the XMM-Newton X-ray data are performed. Radio data from the PMN survey are used as well to construct a leptonic model of the source. The γ-ray and X-ray spectra and radio upper limit are used to construct a one zone leptonic model of the spectral energy distribution (SED). Results: Significant energy-dependent morphology of the γ-ray source is detected with high-energy emission (E > 10 TeV) positionally coincident with the pulsar PSR J1301-6305 and lower energy emission (E < 2 TeV) extending 0.4° to the southeast of the pulsar. The spectrum of the VHE source can be described with a power-law with an exponential cut-off N0 = (5.6 ± 0.5) × 10-12 TeV-1 cm-2 s-1, Γ = 1.5 ± 0.2) and Ecut = (7.7 ± 2.2) TeV. The pulsar wind nebula (PWN) is also detected in X-rays, extending 2-3' from the pulsar position towards the center of the γ-ray emission region. A potential radio counterpart from the PMN survey is also discussed, showing a hint for a counterpart at the edge of the X-ray PWN trail and is taken as an upper limit in the SED. The extended X-ray PWN has an unabsorbed flux of F_2{-10 keV ˜ 1.6+0.2-0.4× 10-13 erg cm-2 s-1} and is detected at a significance of 6.5σ. The SED is well described by a one zone leptonic scenario which, with its associated caveats, predicts a very low average magnetic field for this source. Conclusions: Significant energy-dependent morphology of this source, as well as the identification of an associated X-ray PWN from XMM-Newton observations enable identification of the VHE source as an evolved PWN associated to the

  11. A NuSTAR Observation of the Gamma-ray-emitting X-ray Binary and Transitional Millisecond Pulsar Candidate 1RXS J154439.4-112820

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko

    2016-07-01

    I present a 40 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation of the recently identified low-luminosity X-ray binary and transitional millisecond pulsar (tMSP) candidate 1RXS J154439.4-112820, which is associated with the high-energy γ-ray source 3FGL J1544.6-1125. The system is detected up to ˜30 keV with an extension of the same power-law spectrum and rapid large-amplitude variability between two flux levels observed in soft X-rays. These findings provide further evidence that 1RXS J154439.4-112820 belongs to the same class of objects as the nearby bona fide tMSPs PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 and therefore almost certainly hosts a millisecond pulsar accreting at low luminosity. I also examine the long-term accretion history of 1RXS J154439.4-112820 based on archival optical, ultraviolet, X-ray, and γ-ray light curves covering approximately the past decade. Throughout this period, the source has maintained similar flux levels at all wavelengths, which is an indication that it has not experienced prolonged episodes of a non-accreting radio pulsar state but may spontaneously undergo such events in the future.

  12. The H-band emitting region of the luminous blue variable P Cygni: Spectrophotometry and interferometry of the wind

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, N. D.; Gies, D. R.; Baron, F.; Parks, J. R.; Matson, R. A.; Touhami, Y.; Aldoretta, E. J.; McAlister, H. A.; Schaefer, G. H.; Ten Brummelaar, T. A.; Sturmann, J.; Sturmann, L.; Chesneau, O.; Monnier, J. D.; Che, X.; Clemens, D. P.; Taylor, B.; Morrison, N. D.; Kraus, S.; Ridgway, S. T.; and others

    2013-06-01

    We present the first high angular resolution observations in the near-infrared H band (1.6 μm) of the luminous blue variable star P Cygni. We obtained six-telescope interferometric observations with the CHARA Array and the MIRC beam combiner. These show that the spatial flux distribution is larger than expected for the stellar photosphere. A two-component model for the star (uniform disk) plus a halo (two-dimensional Gaussian) yields an excellent fit of the observations, and we suggest that the halo corresponds to flux emitted from the base of the stellar wind. This wind component contributes about 45% of the H-band flux and has an angular FWHM = 0.96 mas, compared to the predicted stellar diameter of 0.41 mas. We show several images reconstructed from the interferometric visibilities and closure phases, and they indicate a generally spherical geometry for the wind. We also obtained near-infrared spectrophotometry of P Cygni from which we derive the flux excess compared to a purely photospheric spectral energy distribution. The H-band flux excess matches that from the wind flux fraction derived from the two-component fits to the interferometry. We find evidence of significant near-infrared flux variability over the period from 2006 to 2010 that appears similar to the variations in the Hα emission flux from the wind.

  13. X-Ray Observations of the Supernova Remnant CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2): An Evolved Pulsar Wind Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matheson, H.; Safi-Harb, S.; Kothes, R.

    2013-09-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) studies with the Chandra X-Ray Observatory have opened a new window to address the physics of pulsar winds, zoom on their interaction with their hosting supernova remnant (SNR) and interstellar medium, and identify their powering engines. We here present a new 70 ks, plus an archived 18 ks, Chandra ACIS observation of the SNR CTB 87 (G74.9+1.2), classified as a PWN with unusual radio properties and poorly studied in X-rays. We find that the peak of the X-ray emission is clearly offset from the peak of the radio emission by ~100'' and located at the southeastern edge of the radio nebula. We detect a point source—the putative pulsar—at the peak of the X-ray emission and study its spectrum separately from the PWN. This new point source, CXOU J201609.2+371110, is surrounded by a compact nebula displaying a torus-like structure and possibly a jet. A more extended diffuse nebula is offset from the radio nebula, extending from the point source to the northwest for ~250''. The spectra of the point source, compact nebula, and extended diffuse nebula are all well described by a power-law model with a photon index of 1.1 (0.7-1.6), 1.2 (0.9-1.4), and 1.7 (1.5-1.8), respectively, for a column density N H = 1.38 (1.21-1.57) × 1022 cm-2 (90% confidence). The total X-ray luminosity of the source is ~1.6 × 1034 erg s-1 at an assumed distance of 6.1 kpc, with ~2% and 6% contribution from the point source and compact nebula, respectively. The observed properties suggest that CTB 87 is an evolved (~5-28 kyr) PWN, with the extended radio emission likely a "relic" PWN, as in Vela-X and G327.1-1.1. To date, however, there is no evidence for thermal X-ray emission from this SNR, and the SNR shell is still missing, suggesting expansion into a low-density medium (n_0 < 0.2 D^{-1/2}_{6.1} cm-3), likely caused by a stellar wind bubble blown by the progenitor star.

  14. First X-ray Observations of the Young Pulsar J1357-6429

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavlin, Vyacheslav E.

    2007-01-01

    The first short Chandra and XMM-Newton observations of the young and energetic pulsar J1357-6429 provided strong indications of a tail-like pulsar-wind nebula associated with this object, as well as strong pulsations of its X-ray flux with a pulsed fraction above 40% and a thermal component dominating at lower photon energies (below 2 keV). The elongated nebular is very compact in size. about 1" x 1.5" and might be interpreted as a pulsar jet. The thermal radiation is most plausibly emitted from the entire neutron star surface of an effective temperature about 1 MK covered with a magnetized hydrogen atmosphere At higher energies the pulsar's emission is of a nonthermal (magnetospheric) origin, with a power-law spectrum of a photon index Gamma approx. equals 1.1. This makes the X-ray properties of PSR J1357-6429 very similar to those of the youngest pulsars J1119-6127 and Vela with a detected thermal radiation.

  15. An x-ray nebula associated with the millisecond pulsar B1957+20.

    PubMed

    Stappers, B W; Gaensler, B M; Kaspi, V M; van der Klis, M; Lewin, W H G

    2003-02-28

    We have detected an x-ray nebula around the binary millisecond pulsar B1957+20. A narrow tail, corresponding to the shocked pulsar wind, is seen interior to the known Halpha bow shock and proves the long-held assumption that the rotational energy of millisecond pulsars is dissipated through relativistic winds. Unresolved x-ray emission likely represents the shock where the winds of the pulsar and its companion collide. This emission indicates that the efficiency with which relativistic particles are accelerated in the postshock flow is similar to that for young pulsars, despite the shock proximity and much weaker surface magnetic field of this millisecond pulsar.

  16. Properties of a B0 I stellar wind and interstellar grains derived from Ginga observations of the binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538-52

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, George W.; Woo, Jonathan W.; Nagase, Fumiaki

    1994-01-01

    From measurements of the X-ray eclipse phenomena of the binary X-ray pulsar 4U 1538-52, we derive properties of the stellar wind of its B0 I companion, QV Nor, and a constraint on models of interstellar grains. Estimates of the wind density as a function of the distance from the center of QV Nor are obtained from an analysis of the variation of X-ray attenuation during an eclipse egress. A Monte Carlo computation of the absorption and scattering of X-rays in the X-ray-ionized wind accounts for approximately two-thirds of the spectrum of X-rays with energies above 4.5 keV observed during the eclipse. Our upper limit on R(sub XV) is 0.06/mag, which implies that the X-ray scattering efficiency of interstellar dust is less than expected for solid grains with a size distribution of the form n(sub g)(a) approximately a(exp -3.5) in the range from 0.005 to 0.25 microns and composed of silicate (R(sub XV) = 0.22/mag) or a silicate-graphite mixture (R(sub XV) = 0.11/mag) as derived from the calculations of Martin & Rouleau (1991). This lends support to the idea (Mathis & Whiffen 1989) that interstellar grains are 'fluffy' aggregates with an average bulk density less than that of their constitutent particles. Such aggregates would have a smaller ratio of X-ray scattering efficiency to optical extinction efficiency compared with solid grains of the same material.

  17. A Chandra X-Ray Observation of the Binary Millisecond Pulsar PSR J1023+0038

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; Archibald, Anne M.; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Lorimer, Duncan; McLaughlin, Maura A.; Ransom, Scott M.; Stairs, Ingrid H.

    2011-12-01

    We present a Chandra X-Ray Observatory ACIS-S variability, spectroscopy, and imaging study of the peculiar binary containing the millisecond pulsar J1023+0038. The X-ray emission from the system exhibits highly significant (12.5σ) large-amplitude (factor of two to three) orbital variability over the five consecutive orbits covered by the observation, with a pronounced decline in the flux at all energies at superior conjunction. This can be naturally explained by a partial geometric occultation by the secondary star of an X-ray-emitting intrabinary shock, produced by the interaction of outflows from the two stars. The depth and duration of the eclipse imply that the intrabinary shock is localized near or at the surface of the companion star and close to the inner Lagrangian point. The energetics of the shock favor a magnetically dominated pulsar wind that is focused into the orbital plane, requiring close alignment of the pulsar spin and orbital angular momentum axes. The X-ray spectrum consists of a dominant non-thermal component and at least one thermal component, likely originating from the heated pulsar polar caps, although a portion of this emission may be from an optically thin "corona." We find no evidence for extended emission due to a pulsar wind nebula or bow shock down to a limiting luminosity of L X <~ 3.6 × 1029 erg s-1 (0.3-8 keV), <~ 7 × 10-6 of the pulsar spin-down luminosity, for a distance of 1.3 kpc and an assumed power-law spectrum with photon index Γ = 1.5.

  18. Observations of Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chiu, John; Finger, Mark H.; Koh, Danny T.; Nelson, Robert W.; Prince, Thomas A.; Rubin, Bradley C.; Scott, D. Matthew; Stollberg, Mark; hide

    1997-01-01

    We summarize 5 years of continuous monitoring of accretion-powered pulsars with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Our 20-70 keV observations have determined or refined the orbital parameters of 13 binaries, discovered five new transient accreting pulsars, measured the pulsed flux history during outbursts of 12 transients (GRO J1744-28, 4U 0115+634, GRO J1750-27, GS 0834-430, 2S 1417-624, GRO J1948+32, EXO 2030+375, GRO J1008-57, A0535+26, GRO J2058+42, 4U 1145-619, and A1118-616), and also measured the accretion torque history during outbursts of six of those transients whose orbital param- eters were also known. We have also continuously measured the pulsed flux and spin frequency for eiaht persistently accreting pulsars (Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, OAO 1657-415, GX 301-2, 4U 1626-67, 4U 1538-52, and GX 1+4). Because of their continuity and uniformity over a long baseline, BATSE observations have provided new insights into the long-term behavior of accreting magnetic neutron stars. We have found that all accreting pulsars show stochastic variations in their spin frequencies and luminosities, including those displaying secular spin-up or spin-down on long timescales, which blurs the con- ventional distinction between disk-fed and wind-fed binaries. Pulsed flux and accretion torque are strongly correlated in outbursts of transient accreting pulsars but are uncorrelated, or even anti- correlated, in persistent sources. We describe daily folded pulse profiles, frequency, and flux measurements that are available through the Compton Observatory Science Support Center at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center.

  19. Observations of Accreting Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Chiu, John; Finger, Mark H.; Koh, Danny T.; Nelson, Robert W.; Prince, Thomas A.; Rubin, Bradley C.; Scott, D. Matthew; Stollberg, Mark; hide

    1997-01-01

    We summarize five years of continuous monitoring of accretion-powered pulsars with the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. Our 20-70 keV observations have determined or refined the orbital parameters of 13 binaries, discovered 5 new transient accreting pulsars, measured the pulsed flux history during outbursts of 12 transients (GRO J1744-28, 4U 0115+634, GRO J1750-27, GS 0834-430, 2S 1417-624, GRO J1948+32, EXO 2030+375, GRO J1008-57, A 0535+26, GRO J2058+42, 4U 1145-619 and A 1118-616), and also measured the accretion torque history of during outbursts of 6 of those transients whose orbital parameters were also known. We have also continuously measured the pulsed flux and spin frequency for eight persistently accreting pulsars (Her X-1, Cen X-3, Vela X-1, OAO 1657-415, GX 301-2, 4U 1626-67, 4U 1538-52, and GX 1+4). Because of their continuity and uniformity over a long baseline, BATSE observations have provided new insights into the long-term behavior of accreting magnetic stars. We have found that all accreting pulsars show stochastic variations in their spin frequencies and luminosities, including those displaying secular spin-up or spin-down on long time scales, blurring the conventional distinction between disk-fed and wind-fed binaries. Pulsed flux and accretion torque are strongly correlated in outbursts of transient accreting pulsars, but uncorrelated, or even anticorrelated, in persistent sources. We describe daily folded pulse profiles, frequency, and flux measurements that are available through the Compton Observatory Science Support Center at NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center.

  20. Pulsar-irradiated stars in dense globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the properties of stars irradiated by millisecond pulsars in 'hard' binaries of dense globular clusters. Irradiation by a relativistic pulsar wind as in the case of the eclipsing millisecond pulsar PSR 1957+20 alter both the magnitude and color of the companion star. Some of the blue stragglers (BSs) recently discovered in dense globular clusters can be irradiated stars in binaries containing powerful millisecond pulsars. The discovery of pulsar-driven orbital modulations of BS brightness and color with periods of a few hours together with evidence for radio and/or gamma-ray emission from BS binaries would valuably contribute to the understanding of the evolution of collapsed stars in globular clusters. Pulsar-driven optical modulation of cluster stars might be the only observable effect of a new class of binary pulsars, i.e., hidden millisecond pulsars enshrouded in the evaporated material lifted off from the irradiated companion star.

  1. Gamma ray pulsars. [electron-photon cascades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oegelman, H.; Ayasli, S.; Hacinliyan, A.

    1977-01-01

    Data from the SAS-2 high-energy gamma-ray experiment reveal the existence of four pulsars emitting photons above 35 MeV. An attempt is made to explain the gamma-ray emission from these pulsars in terms of an electron-photon cascade that develops in the magnetosphere of the pulsar. Although there is very little material above the surface of the pulsar, the very intense magnetic fields (10 to the 12th power gauss) correspond to many radiation lengths which cause electrons to emit photons by magnetic bremsstrahlung and which cause these photons to pair-produce. The cascade develops until the mean photon energy drops below the pair-production threshold which is in the gamma-ray range; at this stage, the photons break out from the source.

  2. Investigating CXOU J163802.6–471358: A new pulsar wind nebula in the norma region?

    SciTech Connect

    Jakobsen, Simone J.; Watson, Darach; Tomsick, John A.; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2014-06-01

    We present the first analysis of the extended source CXOU J163802.6–471358, which was discovered serendipitously during the Chandra X-ray survey of the Norma region of the Galactic spiral arms. The X-ray source exhibits a cometary appearance with a point source and an extended tail region. The complete source spectrum is fitted well with an absorbed power law model and jointly fitting the Chandra spectrum of the full source with one obtained from an archived XMM-Newton observation results in best fit parameters N {sub H} =1.5{sub −0.5}{sup +0.7}×10{sup 23} cm{sup −2} and Γ=1.1{sub −0.6}{sup +0.7} (90% confidence uncertainties). The unabsorbed luminosity of the full source is then L{sub X}∼4.8×10{sup 33}d{sub 10}{sup 2} erg s{sup –1} with d {sub 10} = d/10 kpc, where a distance of 10 kpc is a lower bound inferred from the large column density. The radio counterpart found for the source using data from the Molonglo Galactic Plane Survey epoch-2 shows an elongated tail offset from the X-ray emission. No infrared counterpart was found. The results are consistent with the source being a previously unknown pulsar driving a bow shock through the ambient medium.

  3. Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beskin, V. S.; Chernov, S. V.; Gwinn, C. R.; Tchekhovskoy, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Almost 50 years after radio pulsars were discovered in 1967, our understanding of these objects remains incomplete. On the one hand, within a few years it became clear that neutron star rotation gives rise to the extremely stable sequence of radio pulses, that the kinetic energy of rotation provides the reservoir of energy, and that electromagnetic fields are the braking mechanism. On the other hand, no consensus regarding the mechanism of coherent radio emission or the conversion of electromagnetic energy to particle energy yet exists. In this review, we report on three aspects of pulsar structure that have seen recent progress: the self-consistent theory of the magnetosphere of an oblique magnetic rotator; the location, geometry, and optics of radio emission; and evolution of the angle between spin and magnetic axes. These allow us to take the next step in understanding the physical nature of the pulsar activity.

  4. Spin-down of Pulsars, and Their Electromagnetic and Gravitational Wave Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue-zhu, Zhang; Yan-yan, Fu; Yi-huan, Wei; Cheng-min, Zhang; Shao-hua, Yu; Yuan-yue, Pan; Yuan-qi, Guo; De-hua, Wang

    2016-04-01

    Pulsars posses extremely strong magnetic fields, and their magnetic axis does not coincide with their rotation axis, this causes the pulsars to emit electromagnetic radiations. Pulsars rely on their rotational energy to compensate for the energy loss caused by the electromagnetic radiation, which leads to the gradually decelerated spin of pulsars. According to the theoretical deduction, we have calculated the initial period of the Crab Nebula pulsar, and derived the period evolution of the pulsar at any time in the future under the effect of the electromagnetic radiation. Considered the possible existence of quadrupole moment in the mass distribution of a pulsar, the gravitational wave radiation will also make the pulsar spin down, hence the variation of spin period of the Crab pulsar under the effect of gravitational wave radiation is further analyzed. Finally, combining the two kinds of radiation mechanisms, the evolution of spin period of the Crab pulsar under the joint action of these two kinds of radiation mechanisms is analyzed.

  5. Pulsars Magnetospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Timokhin, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Current density determines the plasma flow regime. Cascades are non-stationary. ALWAYS. All flow regimes look different: multiple components (?) Return current regions should have particle accelerating zones in the outer magnetosphere: y-ray pulsars (?) Plasma oscillations in discharges: direct radio emission (?)

  6. Radio-quiet Gamma-ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lupin Chun-Che

    2016-09-01

    A radio-quiet γ-ray pulsar is a neutron star that has significant γ-ray pulsation but without observed radio emission or only limited emission detected by high sensitivity radio surveys. The launch of the Fermi spacecraft in 2008 opened a new epoch to study the population of these pulsars. In the 2nd Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog of γ-ray pulsars, there are 35 (30 % of the 117 pulsars in the catalog) known samples classified as radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars with radio flux density (S1400) of less than 30 μJy. Accompanying the observations obtained in various wavelengths, astronomers not only have the opportunity to study the emitting nature of radio-quiet γ-ray pulsars but also have proposed different models to explain their radiation mechanism. This article will review the history of the discovery, the emission properties, and the previous efforts to study pulsars in this population. Some particular cases known as Geminga-like pulsars (e.g., PSR J0633+1746, PSR J0007+7303, PSR J2021+4026, and so on) are also specified to discuss their common and specific features.

  7. Pulsars for the Beginner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLavore, Phillip; Wayland, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history of the discovery of pulsars, observations that have been made on pulsar radiation, and theories that have been presented for its presence and origin. Illustrations using pulsar's properties are presented in mechanics, electromagnetic radiation and thermodynamics. (DS)

  8. Pulsars for the Beginner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiLavore, Phillip; Wayland, James R.

    1971-01-01

    Presents the history of the discovery of pulsars, observations that have been made on pulsar radiation, and theories that have been presented for its presence and origin. Illustrations using pulsar's properties are presented in mechanics, electromagnetic radiation and thermodynamics. (DS)

  9. The Guitar Nebula, Bow Shocks From High Velocity Pulsars, and Companions of Recycled Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundgren, S. C.; Cordes, J. M.; Romani, R. W.

    1992-12-01

    We report results of optical studies of neutron star interactions with companion objects and the surrounding medium. In Hα observations of 11 high velocity, high spindown energy pulsars we have discovered one spectacular bow shock nebula, the Guitar Nebula, produced by the motion of the pulsar, PSR 2224+65, through partially neutral gas. One other pulsar, PSR 0136+57, has a faint feature near the pulsar position with a nonstellar morphology. We discuss the possibility that this is another shock and give upper limits on shock emission for the rest of the pulsars. Further, we consider possible scaling of shock emission with pulsar spindown energy and velocity, and detectability of shocks in other pulsars. Shocks may even reveal the existence of neutron stars not detectable as pulsars due to beaming or lack of pulsed radio emission. Our observations of several binary millisecond pulsars show some intriquing counterparts in some cases and allow strong limits to be placed on the magnitude of any counterparts in others. In pulsars 1534+12 and 1953+29 optical counterparts near the pulsar position are most likely chance coincidence with foreground stars. We imaged PSR 1257+12 in the hope of seeing the remnants of the disk which resulted in formation of planets or another pulsar wind driven shock nebula. We place upper limits on optical emission from nebulosity in the vicinity of the pulsar. This work was supported by grants from NSF, NASA and the National Astronomy and Ionosphere Center which operates Arecibo Observatory under contract with the NSF.

  10. Formation of Planets around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banit, M.; Ruderman, M. A.; Shaham, J.; Applegate, J. H.

    1993-10-01

    Pulse arrival-time delays PSR 1257+ 12 suggest the existence of at least two planets in nearly circular orbits around it. In this paper we discuss different scenarios for the formation of planets in circular orbits around pulsars. Among other topics, we look in some detail at wind emission mechanisms that are particularly relevant to the process of evaporation of planets around pulsars and discuss their possible role in orbit circularization. We conclude that the formation of such planets may occur in a very late phase of low-mass X-ray binary (LMXB) or binary millisecond pulsar (BMP) evolution. Evaporation of the companion star in these phases supplies matter to a circumbinary "excretion" disk in which the physical conditions, similar to those appropriate for the BMP 1957+20 system, may allow the formation of planets like those observed in PSR 1257+12.

  11. X-ray jets from B2224+65: A Middle-aged Pulsar's New Trick

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q. Daniel; Johnson, Seth

    2015-01-01

    Pulsars, though typically not aged ones, are believed to be an important source of energetic cosmic rays. Therefore, it may not be too surprising to detect an X-ray jet associated with the middle-aged radio/X-ray pulsar B2224+65, which is well known for its very high proper motion and its trailing ``Guitar Nebula''. Most unexpected, however, is that this jet is offset from its proper motion direction by 118 degree. Furthermore, an X-ray counter jet and a faint X-ray trail associated with the ``Guitar Nebula'' are now identified in the combined data set of three epoch Chandra observations with a total exposure of 200 ks. We are carrying out a detailed measurements of the X-ray spectral variation with time and across the jets and are critically testing scenarios proposed to explain this enigmatic phenomenon. The study should have strong implications for understanding the origin of cosmic rays, as well as similar linear nonthermal X-ray-emitting features that are associated with more distant pulsars, especially pulsar wind nebula candidates in the central 100 pc region of the Galaxy.

  12. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  13. EGRET upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars in nearby globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelson, P. F.; Bertsch, D. L.; Brazier, K.; Chiang, J.; Dingus, B. L.; Fichtel, C. E.; Fierro, J.; Hartman, R. C.; Hunter, S. D.; Kanbach, G.

    1994-01-01

    We report upper limits to the high-energy gamma-ray emission from the millisecond pulsars (MSPs) in a number of globular clusters. The observations were done as part of an all-sky survey by the energetic Gamma Ray Experiment Telescope (EGRET) on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) during Phase I of the CGRO mission (1991 June to 1992 November). Several theoretical models suggest that MSPs may be sources of high-energy gamma radiation emitted either as primary radiation from the pulsar magnetosphere or as secondary radiation generated by conversion into photons of a substantial part of the relativistic e(+/-) pair wind expected to flow from the pulsar. To date, no high-energy emission has been detected from an individual MSP. However, a large number of MSPs are expected in globular cluster cores where the formation rate of accreting binary systems is high. Model predictions of the total number of pulsars range in the hundreds for some clusters. These expectations have been reinforced by recent discoveries of a substantial number of radio MSPs in several clusters; for example, 11 have been found in 47 Tucanae (Manchester et al.). The EGRET observations have been used to obtain upper limits for the efficiency eta of conversion of MSP spin-down power into hard gamma rays. The upper limits are also compared with the gamma-ray fluxes predicted from theoretical models of pulsar wind emission (Tavani). The EGRET limits put significant constraints on either the emission models or the number of pulsars in the globular clusters.

  14. Outflows from Supersonically-Moving Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingler, Noel; Kargaltsev, Oleg; Rangelov, Blagoy; Pavlov, George

    2015-08-01

    Pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) are sources of nonthermal X-ray emission and prominent sites of particle acceleration. Among other parameters, the PWN appearance depends on the pulsar velocity. If a pulsar moves with a supersonic speed, the ram pressure exceeds the ambient medium pressure, resulting in a bow shock PWN with a tail behind the pulsar. We report on Chandra observations of extended pulsar tails behind PSR J1509-5850 and J1747-2958 ("the Mouse"), and the discovery of a puzzling outflow (in the J1509-5850 PWN) strongly misaligned with the pulsar's direction of motion. We resolve the structures of the heads of the two PWNe and interpret them in light of pulsar wind models. We perform spatially resolved spectral measurements and find only marginal evidence of cooling in the long tail of PSR J1509-5850. The morphologies of the PWN heads and the extended tails are discussed and compared with those of other bow shock PWNe detected by Chandra. A possible unifying scheme will be discussed.

  15. An Analytic Particle Acceleration Model in Pulsar Wind Termination Shocks Applied to the Crab Nebula Gamma-Ray Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroon, John J.; Becker, Peter A.; Justin, Finke; Dermer, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The Crab nebula is a persistent source of gamma-rays up to about 100 MeV due to synchrotron radiation from electrons/positrons emitting in an ambient magnetic field thought to be of magnitude B~200 μG. The radiating electrons are limited by radiation-reaction forces which place an upper limit of about 100 MeV on the gamma-ray photons it can produce. This normally quiescent nebula has been observed by AGILE and Fermi to undergo bright transients lasting about a week and characterized by a significant increase in gamma-ray flux far above the classical radiation-reaction limit, with energies often reaching 3 GeV. The flares imply a population of PeV electrons accelerated on sub-day timescales. The very short acceleration timescales and the observed emission above the radiation-reaction limit place severe constraints on contemporary shock acceleration models such as diffusive shock acceleration which cannot account for the temporal and energetic properties of the gamma-ray flares. In this component of my dissertation research, I revisit the problem and find an analytic solution to the Fokker-Planck equation which incorporates a variety of acceleration and loss terms. I find that the model can reproduce the various Fermi-LAT flare spectra well and that electrostatic acceleration is the most significant contributor to the underlying mechanisms responsible for the most energetic astrophysical particle population ever observed. I find that the spectra of all the Fermi-LAT flares from the Crab nebula can be reproduced with this model using magnetic fields that are in agreement with multi-wavelength observations.

  16. A Pulsar Eases Off the Brakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In 2006, pulsar PSR 18460258 unexpectedly launched into a series of energetic X-ray outbursts. Now a study has determined that this event may have permanently changed the behavior of this pulsar, raising questions about our understanding of how pulsars evolve.Between CategoriesA pulsar a highly magnetized, rotating neutron star that emits a beam of electromagnetic radiation can be powered by one of three mechanisms:Rotation-powered pulsars transform rotational energy into radiation, gradually slowing down in a predictable way.Accretion-powered pulsars convert the gravitational energy of accreting matter into radiation.Magnetars are powered by the decay of their extremely strong magnetic fields.Astronomical classification often results in one pesky object that doesnt follow the rules. In this case, that object is PSR 18460258, a young pulsar categorized as rotation-powered. But in 2006, PSR 18460258 suddenly emitted a series of short, hard X-ray bursts and underwent a flux increase behavior that is usually only exhibited by magnetars. After this outburst, it returned to normal, rotation-powered-pulsar behavior.Since the discovery of this event, scientists have been attempting to learn more about this strange pulsar that seems to straddle the line between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars.Unprecedented DropOne way to examine whats going on with PSR 18460258 is to evaluate whats known as its braking index, a measure of how quickly the pulsars rotation slows down. For a rotation-powered pulsar, the braking index should be roughly constant. The pulsar then slows down according to a fixed power law, where the slower it rotates, the slower it slows down.In a recent study, Robert Archibald (McGill University) and collaborators report on 7 years worth of timing observations of PSR 18460258 after its odd magnetar-like outburst. They then compare these observations to 6.5 years of data from before the outburst. The team finds that the braking index for this bizarre

  17. Anomalous Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malov, I. F.

    Many astrophysicists believe that Anomalous X-Ray Pulsars (AXP), Soft Gamma-Ray Repeaters (SGR), Rotational Radio Transients (RRAT), Compact Central Objects (CCO) and X-Ray Dim Isolated Neutron Stars (XDINS) belong to different classes of anomalous objects with neutron stars as the central bodies inducing all their observable peculiarities. We have shown earlier [1] that AXPs and SGRs could be described by the drift model in the framework of the preposition on usual properties of the central neutron star (rotation periods P 0.01 - 1 sec and, surface magnetic fields B ~ 10^11-10^13 G). Here we shall try to show that some differences of the sources under consideration will be explained by their geometry (particularly, by the angle β between their rotation and magnetic axes). If β <~ 100 (the aligned rotator) the drift waves at the outer layers of the neutron star magnetosphere should play a key role in the observable periodicity. For large values of β (the case of the nearly orthogonal rotator) an accretion from the surrounding medium (for example, from the relic disk) can cause some modulation and transient events in received radiation. Recently Kramer et al. [2] and Camilo et al. [3] have shown that AXPs J1810-197 and 1E 1547.0 - 5408 have both small angles β, that is these sources are nearly aligned rotators, and the drift model should be used for their description. On the other hand, Wang et al. [4] detected IR radiation from the cold disk around the isolated young X-ray pulsar 4U 0142+61. This was the first evidence of the disk-like matter around the neutron star. Probably there is the bimodality of anomalous pulsars. AXPs, SGRs and some radio transients belong to the population of aligned rotators with the angle between the rotation axis and the magnetic moment β < 200. These objects are described by the drift model, and their observed periods are connected with a periodicity of drift waves. Other sources have β ~ 900, and switching on's and switching off

  18. Electromagnetic cascades in pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daugherty, J. K.; Harding, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    The development of pair photon cascades initiated by high energy electrons above a pulsar polar cap is simulated numerically. The calculation uses the energy of the primary electron, the magnetic field strength, and the period of rotation as parameters and follows the curvature radiation emitted by the primary, the conversion of this radiation e(+) - e(-) pairs in the intense fields, and the quantized synchrotron radiation by the secondary pairs. A recursive technique allows the tracing of an indefinite number of generations using a Monte Carlo method. Gamma ray and pair spectra are calculated for cascades in different parts of the polar cap and with different acceleration models. It is found that synchrotron radiation from secondary pairs makes an important contribution to the gamma ray spectrum above 25 MeV, and that the final gamma ray and pair spectra are insensitive to the height of the accelerating region, as long as the acceleration of the primary electrons is not limited by radiation reaction.

  19. Multi-wavelength analysis of young pulsars: an overview.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maritz, J. M.; Meintjes, P. J.; Buchner, S. J.

    Young pulsars emit a broad spectrum of radiation that range from radio to gamma ray energies. These pulsars are considered as rotation powered pulsars that spin rapidly and are strongly magnetized. Following the discovery of pulsars nearly four decades ago, the population of known pulsars already reached a number of roughly two thousand. This known population of pulsars includes both millisecond and normal pulsars that were discovered by several telescopes. We analyze both HartRAO radio data and Fermi gamma ray data of the Vela pulsar. We also explore a proposed method of probing the electron column density of the instellar gas through analyzing the gamma ray diffuse data associated with the Fermi two-year observation. This paper serves as an overview of gamma ray and radio timing analysis of bright young pulsars with respect to the use of open source timing analysis tools (Tempo2, Psrchive, Enrico and the Fermi tools). We reason that the multi-wavelength picture of pulsars can help clarify questions regarding the origin of pulsed radiation emission mechanisms in several energy bands, but that radio observations will prove adequate for timing noise analysis, given the accurate and long radio data sets. The process of identifying gravitational waves in timing data, rests on gaining a deeper insight into the timing noise phenomena.

  20. Pulsar Search Using Supervised Machine Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, John M.

    2017-05-01

    Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars which emit a strong beam of energy through mechanisms that are not entirely clear to physicists. These very dense stars are used by astrophysicists to study many basic physical phenomena, such as the behavior of plasmas in extremely dense environments, behavior of pulsar-black hole pairs, and tests of general relativity. Many of these tasks require a large ensemble of pulsars to provide enough statistical information to answer the scientific questions posed by physicists. In order to provide more pulsars to study, there are several large-scale pulsar surveys underway, which are generating a huge backlog of unprocessed data. Searching for pulsars is a very labor-intensive process, currently requiring skilled people to examine and interpret plots of data output by analysis programs. An automated system for screening the plots will speed up the search for pulsars by a very large factor. Research to date on using machine learning and pattern recognition has not yielded a completely satisfactory system, as systems with the desired near 100% recall have false positive rates that are higher than desired, causing more manual labor in the classification of pulsars. This work proposed to research, identify, propose and develop methods to overcome the barriers to building an improved classification system with a false positive rate of less than 1% and a recall of near 100% that will be useful for the current and next generation of large pulsar surveys. The results show that it is possible to generate classifiers that perform as needed from the available training data. While a false positive rate of 1% was not reached, recall of over 99% was achieved with a false positive rate of less than 2%. Methods of mitigating the imbalanced training and test data were explored and found to be highly effective in enhancing classification accuracy.

  1. On the Radio-emitting Particles of the Crab Nebula: Stochastic Acceleration Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Shuta J.; Asano, Katsuaki

    2017-06-01

    The broadband emission of pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe) is well described by non-thermal emissions from accelerated electrons and positrons. However, the standard shock acceleration model of PWNe does not account for the hard spectrum in radio wavelengths. The origin of the radio-emitting particles is also important to determine the pair production efficiency in the pulsar magnetosphere. Here, we propose a possible resolution for the particle energy distribution in PWNe; the radio-emitting particles are not accelerated at the pulsar wind termination shock but are stochastically accelerated by turbulence inside PWNe. We upgrade our past one-zone spectral evolution model to include the energy diffusion, i.e., the stochastic acceleration, and apply the model to the Crab Nebula. A fairly simple form of the energy diffusion coefficient is assumed for this demonstrative study. For a particle injection to the stochastic acceleration process, we consider the continuous injection from the supernova ejecta or the impulsive injection associated with supernova explosion. The observed broadband spectrum and the decay of the radio flux are reproduced by tuning the amount of the particle injected to the stochastic acceleration process. The acceleration timescale and the duration of the acceleration are required to be a few decades and a few hundred years, respectively. Our results imply that some unveiled mechanisms, such as back reaction to the turbulence, are required to make the energies of stochastically and shock-accelerated particles comparable.

  2. Pulsars and supernova remnants

    SciTech Connect

    Narayan, R.; Schaudt, K.J.

    1988-02-01

    With the recent discovery of the pulsar PSR 1951 + 22 in CTB 80, four pulsars are now known in supernova remnants (SNRs) of the plerion and composite classes. It is argued that this success rate of pulsar detections implies that young fast pulsars have long fan-beams that enable them to be seen from most directions. Based on calculations that use a pulsar luminosity model and allow for selection effects, it is suggested that the best SNRs for future pulsar searches are 3C 58, MSH 11-62, G24.7 + 0.6, and MSH 15-56. It is also concluded that the failure to detect pulsars in shell SNRs implies either that there are no pulsars in these SNRs or that the pulsars are unusually weak, possibly due to slow rotation or weak magnetic fields. 25 references.

  3. Chandra observation of the interaction between the plasma nebula RCW89 and the pulsar jet of PSR B1509-58

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsu, Y.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Tamura, K.; Brinkmann, W.

    We present the observations of the interaction between the hot plasma nebula RCW89 and the pulsar jet of PSR B1509--58 by the hape Chandra X-ray Observatory. RCW89 is part of a supernova remnant G320.4--01.2 which has a bilateral radio shell-like structures. At the center of the SNR, the energetic young pulsar PSR B1509--58 with a bright pulsar wind nebula (PWN) and jet-like features exists. Since RCW89 is located at the terminus of the counter jet, it has been suggested that the plasma nebula is powered by the pulsar via the jet flow. The high resolution observation by hape Chandra showed that the nebula has a complicated clumpy structure and the emitting knots are distributed in the shape of a ``horse-shoe.'' We extracted the photons from each of the emitting regions and carried out spectroscopy of the individual knots. It was found that the temperatures and the ionization timescales of knots depend on their locations and become higher and shorter, respectively, when going round clockwise along the edge of the ``hourse-shoe.''

  4. A periodically active pulsar giving insight into magnetospheric physics.

    PubMed

    Kramer, M; Lyne, A G; O'Brien, J T; Jordan, C A; Lorimer, D R

    2006-04-28

    PSR B1931+24 (J1933+2421) behaves as an ordinary isolated radio pulsar during active phases that are 5 to 10 days long. However, when the radio emission ceases, it switches off in less than 10 seconds and remains undetectable for the next 25 to 35 days, then switches on again. This pattern repeats quasi-periodically. The origin of this behavior is unclear. Even more remarkably, the pulsar rotation slows down 50% faster when it is on than when it is off. This indicates a massive increase in magnetospheric currents when the pulsar switches on, proving that pulsar wind plays a substantial role in pulsar spin-down. This allows us, for the first time, to estimate the magnetospheric currents in a pulsar magnetosphere during the occurrence of radio emission.

  5. Radio pulsar disk electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    Macroscopic physics are discussed for the case of a disk close to an isolated, magnetized, rotating neutron star that acts as a Faraday disk dynamo, while the disk acts as both a load and a neutral sheet. This sheet allows the polar cap current to return to the neutron star, splitting a dipolar field into two monopolar halves. The dominant energy loss is from the stellar wind torque, and the next contribution is dissipation in the auroral zones, where the current returns to the star in a 5 cm-thick sheet. The disk itself may be a source of visible radiation comparable to that in pulsed radio frequency emission. As the pulsar ages, the disk expands and narrows into a ring which, it is suggested, may lead to a cessation of pulsed emission at periods of a few sec.

  6. Radio pulsar disk electrodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michel, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    Macroscopic physics are discussed for the case of a disk close to an isolated, magnetized, rotating neutron star that acts as a Faraday disk dynamo, while the disk acts as both a load and a neutral sheet. This sheet allows the polar cap current to return to the neutron star, splitting a dipolar field into two monopolar halves. The dominant energy loss is from the stellar wind torque, and the next contribution is dissipation in the auroral zones, where the current returns to the star in a 5 cm-thick sheet. The disk itself may be a source of visible radiation comparable to that in pulsed radio frequency emission. As the pulsar ages, the disk expands and narrows into a ring which, it is suggested, may lead to a cessation of pulsed emission at periods of a few sec.

  7. Age Discrepancy Throws Pulsar Theories into Turmoil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-03-01

    Space Research at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, another one of the researchers. By tracking the pulsar's motion for more than a decade, the astronomers were able to calculate that it is traveling through space at more than 500,000 miles per hour. At that speed, the pulsar required about 64,000 years to travel from its birthplace -- the site of the supernova explosion -- to its present location. That means, the astronomers say, that the pulsar is about 64,000 years old. This age, however, differs significantly from the age estimated by another method which has been used by astronomers for decades. This method uses measurements of the rotation rate of the neutron star and the tiny amount by which that rotation slows over time to arrive at an estimate called the pulsar's "characteristic age." For B1951+32, that method produced an estimated age of 107,000 years. "Now we have a pulsar that is much younger than we thought. In 2000, a different pulsar was shown to be significantly older than we thought. That means that some of the assumptions that have gone into estimating the ages of these objects are unjustified," Migliazzo said. The pulsar's rotation is thought to slow because the neutron star's powerful magnetic field acts as a giant dynamo, emitting light, radio waves and other electromagnetic radiation as the star rotates. The energy lost by emitting the radiation results in the star's rotation slowing down. Previous estimates of pulsar ages have assumed that all pulsars are born spinning much faster than we see them now, that the physical characteristics of the pulsar such as its mass and magnetic-field strength do not change with time, and that the slowdown rate can be estimated by applying the physics of a magnet spinning in a vacuum. "With one pulsar older than the estimates and one younger, we now realize that we have to question all three of these assumptions," said Gaensler. Further research, the scientists say, should help them understand more about

  8. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2008-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1800. There are now 83 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 140 pulsars in 26 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights include the discovery of the young relativistic binary system PSR J1906+0746, a rejuvination in globular cluster pulsar research including growing numbers of pulsars with masses in excess of 1.5 M⊙, a precise measurement of relativistic spin precession in the double pulsar system and a Galactic millisecond pulsar in an eccentric (e = 0.44) orbit around an unevolved companion.

  9. Very-high-energy gamma-ray observations of pulsar wind nebulae and cataclysmic variable stars with MAGIC and development of trigger systems for IACTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Coto, Ruben

    2015-07-01

    lowest possible energy threshold with the LSTs of CTA. Together with this work, the trigger of the MAGIC telescopes was improved. We have simulated, tested and commissioned a new concept of stereoscopic trigger. This new system, that uses the information of the position of the showers on each of the MAGIC cameras, is dubbed "Topo-trigger". The scientific fraction of the thesis deals with galactic sources observed with the MAGIC telescopes. In Part III, I talk about the analysis of the VHE γ-ray emission of Pulsar Wind Nebulae (PWNe): the discovery of VHE γ-ray emission from the puzzling PWN 3C 58, the likely remnant of the SN 1181 AD and the weakest PWN detected at VHE to date; the characterization of the VHE tail of the Crab nebula by observing it at the highest zenith angles; and the search for an additional inverse Compton component during the Crab nebula flares reported by Fermi-LAT in the synchrotron regime. Part IV is concerned with searches for VHE γ-ray emission of cataclysmic variable stars. I studied, on a multiwavelength context, the VHE γ-ray nature of the previously claimed pulsed γ-ray emission of the cataclysmic variable AE Aqr. I also performed observations of novae and a dwarf nova to pinpoint the ac- celeration mechanisms taking place in this kind of objects and to discover a putative hadronic component of the soft γ-ray emission. A conclusion chapter summarizes all the work performed and lists prospects related with the topics treated in this thesis.

  10. The pulsar planet production process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, E. S.; Hansen, B. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Most plausible scenarios for the formation of planets around pulsars end with a disk of gas around the pulsar. The supplicant author then points to the solar system to bolster faith in the miraculous transfiguration of gas into planets. We here investigate this process of transfiguration. We derive analytic sequences of quasi-static disks which give good approximations to exact solutions of the disk diffusion equation with realistic opacity tables. These allow quick and efficient surveys of parameter space. We discuss the outward transfer of mass in accretion disks and the resulting timescale constraints, the effects of illumination by the central source on the disk and dust within it, and the effects of the widely different elemental compositions of the disks in the various scenarios, and their extensions to globular clusters. We point out where significant uncertainties exist in the appropriate grain opacities, and in the effect of illumination and winds from the neutron star.

  11. The pulsar planet production process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phinney, E. S.; Hansen, B. M. S.

    1993-01-01

    Most plausible scenarios for the formation of planets around pulsars end with a disk of gas around the pulsar. The supplicant author then points to the solar system to bolster faith in the miraculous transfiguration of gas into planets. We here investigate this process of transfiguration. We derive analytic sequences of quasi-static disks which give good approximations to exact solutions of the disk diffusion equation with realistic opacity tables. These allow quick and efficient surveys of parameter space. We discuss the outward transfer of mass in accretion disks and the resulting timescale constraints, the effects of illumination by the central source on the disk and dust within it, and the effects of the widely different elemental compositions of the disks in the various scenarios, and their extensions to globular clusters. We point out where significant uncertainties exist in the appropriate grain opacities, and in the effect of illumination and winds from the neutron star.

  12. CHANGES IN THE CRAB PULSAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are learning more about how pulsars work by studying a series of Hubble Space Telescope images of the heart of the Crab Nebula. The images, taken over a period of several months, show that the Crab is a far more dynamic object than previously understood. At the center of the nebula lies the Crab Pulsar. The pulsar is a tiny object by astronomical standards -- only about six miles across -- but has a mass greater than that of the Sun and rotates at a rate of 30 times a second. As the pulsar spins its intense magnetic field whips around, acting like a sling shot, accelerating subatomic particles and sending them hurtling them into space at close to the speed of light. The tiny pulsar and its wind are the powerhouse for the entire Crab Nebula, which is 10 light-years across -- a feat comparable to an object the size of a hydrogen atom illuminating a volume of space a kilometer across. The three pictures shown here, taken from the series of Hubble images, show dramatic changes in the appearance of the central regions of the nebula. These include wisp-like structures that move outward away from the pulsar at half the speed of light, as well as a mysterious 'halo' which remains stationary, but grows brighter then fainter over time. Also seen are the effects of two polar jets that move out along the rotation axis of the pulsar. The most dynamic feature seen -- a small knot that 'dances around' so much that astronomers have been calling it a 'sprite' -- is actually a shock front (where fast-moving material runs into slower-moving material)in one of these polar jets. The telescope captured the images with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 using a filter that passes light of wavelength around 550 nanometers, near the middle of the visible part of the spectrum. The Crab Nebula is located 7,000 light-years away in the constellation Taurus. Credit: Jeff Hester and Paul Scowen (Arizona State University), and NASA

  13. The pulsar B2224+65 and its jets: a two epoch X-ray analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, S. P.; Wang, Q. D.

    2010-10-01

    We present an X-ray morphological and spectroscopic study of the pulsar B2224+65 and its apparent jet-like X-ray features based on two epoch Chandra observations. The main X-ray feature, which shows a large directional offset from the ram-pressure confined pulsar wind nebula (Guitar nebula), is broader in apparent width and shows evidence for spectral hardening (at 95 per cent confidence) in the second epoch compared to the first. Furthermore, the sharp leading edge of the feature is found to have a proper motion consistent with that of the pulsar (~180 mas yr-1). The combined data set also provides evidence for the presence of a counter feature, albeit substantially fainter and shorter than the main one. Additional spectral trends along the major and minor axes of the feature are only marginally detected in the two epoch data, including softening counter to the direction of proper motion. Possible explanations for the X-ray features include diffuse energetic particles being confined by an organized ambient magnetic field as well as a simple ballistic jet interpretation; however, the former may have difficulty in explaining observed spectral trends between epochs and along the feature's major axis, whereas the latter may struggle to elucidate its linearity. Given the low counting statistics available in the two epoch observations, it remains difficult to determine a physical production scenario for these enigmatic X-ray emitting features with any certainty.

  14. TIMING AND INTERSTELLAR SCATTERING OF 35 DISTANT PULSARS DISCOVERED IN THE PALFA SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Nice, D. J.; Altiere, E.; Farrington, D.; Popa, L.; Wang, Y.; Bogdanov, S.; Camilo, F.; Cordes, J. M.; Brazier, A.; Chatterjee, S.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lyne, A. G.; Stappers, B. W.; Ransom, S. M.; Sanpa-arsa, S.; Allen, B.; Bhat, N. D. R.; Champion, D. J.; Crawford, F.; and others

    2013-07-20

    We have made extensive observations of 35 distant slow (non-recycled) pulsars discovered in the ongoing Arecibo PALFA pulsar survey. Timing observations of these pulsars over several years at Arecibo Observatory and Jodrell Bank Observatory have yielded high-precision positions and measurements of rotation properties. Despite being a relatively distant population, these pulsars have properties that mirror those of the previously known pulsar population. Many of the sources exhibit timing noise, and one underwent a small glitch. We have used multifrequency data to measure the interstellar scattering properties of these pulsars. We find scattering to be higher than predicted along some lines of sight, particularly in the Cygnus region. Finally, we present XMM-Newton and Chandra observations of the youngest and most energetic of the pulsars, J1856+0245, which has previously been associated with the GeV-TeV pulsar wind nebula HESS J1857+026.

  15. A novel mechanism for creating double pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sigurdsson, Steinn; Hernquist, Lars

    1992-01-01

    Simulations of encounters between pairs of hard binaries, each containing a neutron star and a main-sequence star, reveal a new formation mechanism for double pulsars in dense cores of globular clusters. In many cases, the two normal stars are disrupted to form a common envelope around the pair of neutron stars, both of which will be spun up to become millisecond pulsars. We predict that a new class of pulsars, double millisecond pulsars, will be discovered in the cores of dense globular clusters. The genesis proceeds through a short-lived double-core common envelope phase, with the envelope ejected in a fast wind. It is possible that the progenitor may also undergo a double X-ray binary phase. Any circular, short-period double pulsar found in the galaxy would necessarily come from disrupted disk clusters, unlike Hulse-Taylor class pulsars or low-mass X-ray binaries which may be ejected from clusters or formed in the galaxy.

  16. Pulsar Search Results from the Arecibo Remote Command Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Miguel; Stovall, Kevin; Banaszak, Shawn A.; Becker, Alison; Biwer, Christopher M.; Boehler, Keith; Caballero, Keeisi; Christy, Brian; Cohen, Stephanie; Crawford, Fronefield; Cuellar, Andres; Danford, Andrew; Percy Dartez, Louis; Day, David; Flanigan, Joseph D.; Fonrouge, Aldo; Gonzalez, Adolfo; Gustavson, Kathy; Handzo, Emma; Hinojosa, Jesus; Jenet, Fredrick A.; Kaplan, David L. A.; Lommen, Andrea N.; Longoria, Chasity; Lopez, Janine; Lunsford, Grady; Mahany, Nicolas; Martinez, Jose; Mata, Alberto; Miller, Andy; Murray, James; Pankow, Chris; Ramirez, Ivan; Reser, Jackie; Rojas, Pablo; Rohr, Matthew; Rolph, Kristina; Rose, Caitlin; Rudnik, Philip; Siemens, Xavier; Tellez, Andrea; Tillman, Nicholas; Walker, Arielle; Wells, Bradley L.; Zaldivar, Jonathan; Zermeno, Adrienne; Gbncc Consortium, Palfa Consortium, Gbtdrift Consortium, Ao327 Consortium

    2015-01-01

    This poster presents the pulsar discoveries made by students in the Arecibo Remote Command Center (ARCC) program. The ARCC program was started at the University of Texas - Brownsville (UTB) within the Center for Advanced Radio Astronomy (CARA) as a group of scientists, faculty, graduate, undergraduate, and high school students interested in astrophysics. It has since expanded to form other ARCC programs at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee (UWM) and Franklin and Marshall College (F&M). The students in the ARCC group control the world's largest radio telescopes to search and discover pulsars. Pulsars are exotic neutron stars that emit beams of electromagnetic radiation. ARCC students use a web application to view and rate the images of radio pulsar candidates based on their signal characteristics. To date, ARCC students have searched through thousands of candidates and have discovered 61 pulsars to date.

  17. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, D. S.; Gao, Y. P.; Zhao, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observational data are not evenly sampled, and the internals between data points range from several hours to more than half a month. What's more, these data sets are sparse. And all these make it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, we use cubic spline interpolation to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points even. Then, we employ the Vondrak filter to smooth the data set, and get rid of high-frequency noise, finally adopt the weighted average method to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The pulsar timing residuals represent clock difference between the pulsar time and atomic time, and the high precision pulsar timing data mean the clock difference measurement between the pulsar time and atomic time with a high signal to noise ratio, which is fundamental to generate pulsar time. We use the latest released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set is from the newest NANOGRAV data release, which includes 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars using the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and 305-meter Arecibo telescope. We find that the algorithm used in this paper can lower the influence caused by noises in timing residuals, and improve long-term stability of pulsar time. Results show that the long-term (> 1 yr) frequency stability of the pulsar time is better than 3.4×10-15.

  18. Enhanced light extraction efficiency of chip-on board light-emitting diodes through micro-lens array fabricated by ion wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jingcao; Lei, Xiang; Wu, Jiading; Peng, Yang; Liu, Sheng; Yang, Qian; Zheng, Huai

    2017-03-01

    Low light extraction efficiency (LEE) is a key challenge of chip-on board (COB) packaging light-emitting diodes (LEDs). In this paper, a facile preparation of micro-lens array was proposed based on the ion wind patterning. The geometries and sizes of the micro-lens arrays were controlled through adjusting the voltage parameter of the ion wind generation. Consequently, the micro-lens array with the diameter of 180 μm and the gap distance of 15 μm has been fabricated. Benefitting from this micro-lens array, the LEE of COB packaging LEDs was enhanced by 9%. This facile fabrication of micro-lens array would be a promising method to improve the LEE of COB packaging LEDs.

  19. Binary and Millisecond Pulsars.

    PubMed

    Lorimer, Duncan R

    2005-01-01

    We review the main properties, demographics and applications of binary and millisecond radio pulsars. Our knowledge of these exciting objects has greatly increased in recent years, mainly due to successful surveys which have brought the known pulsar population to over 1700. There are now 80 binary and millisecond pulsars associated with the disk of our Galaxy, and a further 103 pulsars in 24 of the Galactic globular clusters. Recent highlights have been the discovery of the first ever double pulsar system and a recent flurry of discoveries in globular clusters, in particular Terzan 5.

  20. MULTIWAVELENGTH CONSTRAINTS ON PULSAR POPULATIONS IN THE GALACTIC CENTER

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, R. S.; Chatterjee, S.; Cordes, J. M.; Deneva, J. S.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-07-10

    The detection of radio pulsars within the central few parsecs of the Galaxy would provide a unique probe of the gravitational and magneto-ionic environments in the Galactic center (GC) and, if close enough to Sgr A*, precise tests of general relativity in the strong-field regime. While it is difficult to find pulsars at radio wavelengths because of interstellar scattering, the payoff from detailed timing of pulsars in the GC warrants a concerted effort. To motivate pulsar surveys and help define search parameters for them, we constrain the pulsar number and spatial distribution using a wide range of multiwavelength measurements. These include the five known radio pulsars within 15' of Sgr A*, non-detections in high-frequency pulsar surveys of the central parsec, radio and gamma-ray measurements of diffuse emission, a catalog of radio point sources from an imaging survey, infrared observations of massive star populations in the central few parsecs, candidate pulsar wind nebulae in the inner 20 pc, and estimates of the core-collapse supernova rate based on X-ray measurements. We find that under current observational constraints, the inner parsec of the Galaxy could harbor as many as {approx}10{sup 3} active radio pulsars that are beamed toward Earth. Such a large population would distort the low-frequency measurements of both the intrinsic spectrum of Sgr A* and the free-free absorption along the line of sight of Sgr A*.

  1. Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, D. A.; Guillemot, L.; Camilo, F.; ...

    2008-10-27

    Here, we describe a comprehensive pulsar monitoring campaign for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The detection and study of pulsars in gamma rays give insights into the populations of neutron stars and supernova rates in the Galaxy, into particle acceleration mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres, and into the “engines” driving pulsar wind nebulae. LAT's unprecedented sensitivity between 20 MeV and 300 GeV together with its 2.4 sr field-of-view makes detection of many gamma-ray pulsars likely, justifying the monitoring of over two hundred pulsars with large spin-down powers. To search for gamma-ray pulsationsmore » from most of these pulsars requires a set of phase-connected timing solutions spanning a year or more to properly align the sparse photon arrival times. We describe the choice of pulsars and the instruments involved in the campaign. Attention is paid to verifications of the LAT pulsar software, using for example giant radio pulses from the Crab and from PSR B1937+21 recorded at Nançay, and using X-ray data on PSR J0218+4232 from XMM-Newton. We demonstrate accuracy of the pulsar phase calculations at the microsecond level.« less

  2. Observing peculiar γ-ray pulsars with AGILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilia, M.; Pellizzoni, A.

    2011-08-01

    The AGILE γ-ray satellite provides large sky exposure levels (>=109 cm2 s per year on the Galactic Plane) with sensitivity peaking at E ~100 MeV where the bulk of pulsar energy output is typically released. Its ~1 μs absolute time tagging capability makes it perfectly suited for the study of γ-ray pulsars. AGILE collected a large number of γ-ray photons from EGRET pulsars (>=40,000 pulsed counts for Vela) in two years of observations unveiling new interesting features at sub-millisecond level in the pulsars' high-energy light-curves, γ-ray emission from pulsar glitches and Pulsar Wind Nebulae. AGILE detected about 20 nearby and energetic pulsars with good confidence through timing and/or spatial analysis. Among the newcomers we find pulsars with very high rotational energy losses, such as the remarkable PSR B1509-58 with a magnetic field in excess of 1013 Gauss, and PSR J2229+6114 providing a reliable identification for the previously unidentified EGRET source 3EG2227+6122. Moreover, the powerful millisecond pulsar B1821-24, in the globular cluster M28, is detected during a fraction of the observations.

  3. The 3D Space and Spin Velocities of a Gamma-ray Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2016-04-01

    PSR J2030+4415 is a LAT-discovered 0.5My-old gamma-ray pulsar with an X-ray synchrotron trail and a rare Halpha bowshock. We have obtained GMOS IFU spectroscopic imaging of this shell, and show a sweep through the remarkable Halpha structure, comparing with the high energy emission. These data provide a unique 3D map of the momentum distribution of the relativistic pulsar wind. This shows that the pulsar is moving nearly in the plane of the sky and that the pulsar wind has a polar component misaligned with the space velocity. The spin axis is shown to be inclined some 95degrees to the Earth line of sight, explaining why this is a radio-quiet, gamma-only pulsar. Intriguingly, the shell also shows multiple bubbles that suggest that the pulsar wind power has varied substantially over the past 500 years.

  4. Pulsar time scale

    SciTech Connect

    Il'in, V.G.; Llyasov, Yu.P.; Kuz'min, A.D.; Pushkin, S.B.; Palii, G.N.; Shabanova, T.V.; Shchitov, Yu.P.

    1984-05-01

    In this article a new time scale is proposed, that of pulsar time PT which is based on the regular sequence of time intervals between pulses of a pulsar's radio emissions. In discussing variations in the arrival times of pulsar radio emissions, three kinds of variations in the radiation periods are described. PSR 0834 + 06 is used as the basic reference pulsar. Time scales are also determined for reference pulsars PSR 0905 + 08 and 1919 + 21. The initial parameters for the three reference pulsars needed for managing a PT scale are presented. The basic PT scale is defined as the continuous sequence of time intervals between radio-emission pulses of the basic reference pulsar.

  5. High-energy pulsar models: Developments and new questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-03-01

    understanding of particle acceleration, emission, and magnetosphere geometry. One may now also study evolutionary trends of the measured or inferred quantities, and probe pulsar visibility and population properties such as radiation beam sizes of different pulsar classes, as well as the distribution of spin-down power, γ-ray luminosity, conversion efficiency, spectral index, and cutoff energy across the population. Lastly, the recent detection of very-high-energy (VHE) pulsations from the Crab pulsar generated quite a few ideas to explain this emission, leading to an extension of standard models and possibly even a bridge between the physics of pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe).

  6. High-Energy Pulsar Models: Developments and New Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venter, C.; Harding, A. K.

    2014-01-01

    our understanding of particle acceleration, emission, and magnetosphere geometry. One may now also study evolutionary trends of the measured or inferred quantities, and probe pulsar visibility and population properties such as radiation beam sizes of different pulsar classes, as well as the distribution of spin-down power, gamma-ray luminosity, conversion efficiency, spectral index, and cutoff energy across the population. Lastly, the recent detection of very-high-energy (VHE) pulsations from the Crab pulsar generated quite a few ideas to explain this emission, leading to an extension of standard models and possibly even a bridge between the physics of pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae (PWNe).

  7. TOWARD AN EMPIRICAL THEORY OF PULSAR EMISSION. XI. UNDERSTANDING THE ORIENTATIONS OF PULSAR RADIATION AND SUPERNOVA “KICKS”

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, Joanna M.

    2015-05-10

    Two entwined problems have remained unresolved since pulsars were discovered nearly 50 yr ago: the orientation of their polarized emission relative to the emitting magnetic field and the direction of putative supernova “kicks” relative to their rotation axes. The rotational orientation of most pulsars can be inferred only from the (“fiducial”) polarization angle of their radiation, when their beam points directly at the Earth and the emitting polar fluxtube field is ∥ to the rotation axis. Earlier studies have been unrevealing owing to the admixture of different types of radiation (core and conal, two polarization modes), producing both ∥ or ⊥ alignments. In this paper we analyze some 50 pulsars having three characteristics: core radiation beams, reliable absolute polarimetry, and accurate proper motions (PMs). The “fiducial” polarization angle of the core emission, we then find, is usually oriented ⊥ to the PM direction on the sky. The primary core emission is polarized ⊥ to the projected magnetic field in Vela and other pulsars where X-ray imaging reveals the orientation. This shows that the PMs usually lie ∥ to the rotation axes on the sky. Two key physical consequences then follow: first, to the extent that supernova “kicks” are responsible for pulsar PMs, they are mostly ∥ to the rotation axis; and, second, most pulsar radiation is heavily processed by the magnetospheric plasma such that the lowest altitude “parent” core emission is polarized ⊥ to the emitting field, propagating as the extraordinary (X) mode.

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaspi, V. M.

    2008-03-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has come a long way in the 40 years since the discovery of the first pulsar by Bell and Hewish. From humble beginnings as bits of 'scruff' on the Cambridge University group's chart recorder paper, the field of pulsars has blossomed into a major area of mainstream astrophysics, with an unparalleled diversity of astrophysical applications. These range from Nobel-celebrated testing of general relativity in the strong-field regime to constraining the equation-of-state of ultradense matter; from probing the winds of massive stars to globular cluster evolution. Previous notable books on the subject of pulsars have tended to focus on some particular topic in the field. The classic text Pulsars by Manchester and Taylor (1977 San Francisco, CA: Freeman) targeted almost exclusively rotation-powered radio pulsars, while the Mészáros book High-Energy Radiation from Magnetized Neutron Stars (1992 Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press) considered both rotation- and accretion-powered neutron stars, but focused on their radiation at x-ray energies and above. The recent book Neutron Stars 1 by Haensel et al (2007 Berlin: Springer) considers only the equation of state and neutron-star structure. Into this context appears Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars, by Pranab Ghosh. In contrast to other books, here the author takes an encyclopedic approach and attempts to synthesize practically all of the major aspects of the two main types of neutron star. This is ambitious. The only comparable undertaking is the useful but more elementary Lyne and Graham-Smith text Pulsar Astronomy (1998 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), or Compact Stellar X-ray Sources (eds Lewin and van der Klis, 2006 Cambridge: Cambridge University Press), an anthology of technical review articles that also includes black hole topics. Rotation and Accretion Powered Pulsars thus fills a clear void in the field, providing a readable, graduate-level book that covers nearly everything you

  9. Gravitational wave emission from oscillating millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alford, Mark G.; Schwenzer, Kai

    2015-02-01

    Neutron stars undergoing r-mode oscillation emit gravitational radiation that might be detected on the Earth. For known millisecond pulsars the observed spin-down rate imposes an upper limit on the possible gravitational wave signal of these sources. Taking into account the physics of r-mode evolution, we show that only sources spinning at frequencies above a few hundred Hertz can be unstable to r-modes, and we derive a more stringent universal r-mode spin-down limit on their gravitational wave signal. We find that this refined bound limits the gravitational wave strain from millisecond pulsars to values below the detection sensitivity of next generation detectors. Young sources are therefore a more promising option for the detection of gravitational waves emitted by r-modes and to probe the interior composition of compact stars in the near future.

  10. A process-based evaluation of dust-emitting winds in the CMIP5 simulation of HadGEM2-ES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiedler, Stephanie; Knippertz, Peter; Woodward, Stephanie; Martin, Gill M.; Bellouin, Nicolas; Ross, Andrew N.; Heinold, Bernd; Schepanski, Kerstin; Birch, Cathryn E.; Tegen, Ina

    2016-02-01

    Despite the importance of dust aerosol in the Earth system, state-of-the-art models show a large variety for North African dust emission. This study presents a systematic evaluation of dust emitting-winds in 30 years of the historical model simulation with the UK Met Office Earth-system model HadGEM2-ES for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5. Isolating the effect of winds on dust emission and using an automated detection for nocturnal low-level jets (NLLJs) allow an in-depth evaluation of the model performance for dust emission from a meteorological perspective. The findings highlight that NLLJs are a key driver for dust emission in HadGEM2-ES in terms of occurrence frequency and strength. The annually and spatially averaged occurrence frequency of NLLJs is similar in HadGEM2-ES and ERA-Interim from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts. Compared to ERA-Interim, a stronger pressure ridge over northern Africa in winter and the southward displaced heat low in summer result in differences in location and strength of NLLJs. Particularly the larger geostrophic winds associated with the stronger ridge have a strengthening effect on NLLJs over parts of West Africa in winter. Stronger NLLJs in summer may rather result from an artificially increased mixing coefficient under stable stratification that is weaker in HadGEM2-ES. NLLJs in the Bodélé Depression are affected by stronger synoptic-scale pressure gradients in HadGEM2-ES. Wintertime geostrophic winds can even be so strong that the associated vertical wind shear prevents the formation of NLLJs. These results call for further model improvements in the synoptic-scale dynamics and the physical parametrization of the nocturnal stable boundary layer to better represent dust-emitting processes in the atmospheric model. The new approach could be used for identifying systematic behavior in other models with respect to meteorological processes for dust emission. This would help to improve dust

  11. The Ages, Speeds and Offspring of Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Bradley Miles Stougaard

    1996-01-01

    We investigate the cooling of low mass white dwarfs with helium cores. We construct a detailed numerical model using the most modern input physics, including our own calculations of low temperature hydrogen opacities. We use our models to constrain the ages of binary millisecond pulsars from the optical observations of their white dwarf companions. We use this to place limits on the initial spin periods, magnetic field decay times and accretion histories of the millisecond pulsars. Our models can also be used along with observations of spectroscopic gravities and radial velocities to place interesting constraints on the neutron star equation of state. We provide grids of temperature and luminosity as a function of age for various white dwarf masses and surface compositions to facilitate future analyses. We have investigated the effect of the pulsar wind on the atmospheric composition of binary companions. The spallation of atmospheric helium to hydrogen increases the cooling age of the white dwarf. We find that all white dwarf companions in binaries with orbital period < 300 days should cool as DA (hydrogen surface layer) white dwarfs, irrespective of their original hydrogen content. We investigate the effect of various wind compositions and note that, if almost all the hydrogen on the surface of a pulsar companion is the result of spallation of an ionic wind, then the D/H ratio is large. We investigate the processes by which planets might form around a millisecond pulsar such as PSR B1257 + 12. We study the evolution of accretion disks of different mass, angular momentum and composition, corresponding to various proposed formation scenarios. We find that most formation scenarios require a high efficiency of conversion of metal-rich material into planets if they are to produce the observed parameters of the 1257 + 12 planetary system. We have studied the distribution of pulsar proper motions in the light of the recent analysis of Lyne & Lorimer (1994). Using a

  12. Future Gamma-Ray Observations of Pulsars and their Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae seen at gamma-ray energies offer insight into particle acceleration to very high energies under extreme conditions. Pulsed emission provides information about the geometry and interaction processes in the magnetospheres of these rotating neutron stars, while the pulsar wind nebulae yield information about high-energy particles interacting with their surroundings. During the next decade, a number of new and expanded gamma-ray facilities will become available for pulsar studies, including Astro-rivelatore Gamma a Immagini LEggero (AGILE) and Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST) in space and a number of higher-energy ground-based systems. This review describes the capabilities of such observatories to answer some of the open questions about the highest-energy processes involving neutron stars.

  13. Pulsar H(alpha) Bowshocks probe Neutron Star Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romani, Roger W.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a KOALA/AAOmega study of southern pulsar bow shocks. These rare, Balmer-dominated, non-radiative shocks provide an ideal laboratory to study the interaction of the relativistic pulsar wind with the ISM. We will cover H(alpha) at high spectral resolution to measure the kinematics of the upstream ISM and the post-shock flow, while the blue channel measures the Balmer decrement and probes for a faint cooling component. These data, with MHD models, allow us to extract the 3D flow geometry and the orientation and asymmetry of the pulsar wind. These data can also measure the pulsar spindown power, thus estimating the neutron star moment of inertia and effecting a fundamental test of dense matter physics.

  14. Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2011-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope has revolutionized the study of pulsar physics with the detection of over 80 gamma-ray pulsars. Several new populations have been discovered, including 24 radio quiet pulsars found through gamma-ray pulsations alone and about 20 millisecond gamma-ray pulsars. The gamma-ray pulsations from millisecond pulsars were discovered by both folding at periods of known radio millisecond pulsars or by detecting them as gamma-ray sources that are followed up by radio pulsar searches. The second method has resulted in a phenomenally successful synergy, with -35 new radio MSPs (to date) having been discovered at Fermi unidentified source locations and the gamma-ray pulsations having then been detected in a number of these using the radio timing solutions. The higher sensitivity and larger energy range of the Fermi Large Area Telescope has produced detailed energy-dependent light curves and phase-resolved spectroscopy on brighter pulsars, that have ruled out polar cap models as the major source of the emission in favor of outer magnetosphere accelerators. The large number of gamma-ray pulsars now allows for the first time meaningful population and sub-population studies that are revealing surprising properties of these fascinating sources.

  15. Revised Pulsar Spindown

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2005-12-14

    We address the issue of electromagnetic pulsar spindown by combining our experience from the two limiting idealized cases which have been studied in great extent in the past: that of an aligned rotator where ideal MHD conditions apply, and that of a misaligned rotator in vacuum. We construct a spindown formula that takes into account the misalignment of the magnetic and rotation axes, and the magnetospheric particle acceleration gaps. We show that near the death line aligned rotators spin down much slower than orthogonal ones. In order to test this approach, we use a simple Monte Carlo method to simulate the evolution of pulsars and find a good fit to the observed pulsar distribution in the P-{dot P} diagram without invoking magnetic field decay. Our model may also account for individual pulsars spinning down with braking index n < 3, by allowing the corotating part of the magnetosphere to end inside the light cylinder. We discuss the role of magnetic reconnection in determining the pulsar braking index. We show, however, that n {approx} 3 remains a good approximation for the pulsar population as a whole. Moreover, we predict that pulsars near the death line have braking index values n > 3, and that the older pulsar population has preferentially smaller magnetic inclination angles. We discuss possible signatures of such alignment in the existing pulsar data.

  16. Particle in Cell Simulations of the Pulsar Y-Point -- Nature of the Accelerating Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, Mikhail

    2016-06-01

    Over the last decade, satellite observations have yielded a wealth of data on pulsed high-energy emission from pulsars. Several different models have been advanced to fit this data, all of which “paint” the emitting region onto a different portion of the magnetosphere.In the last few years, particle in cell simulations of pulsar magnetospheres have reached the point where they are able to self-consistently model particle acceleration and dissipation. One of the key findings of these simulations is that the region of the current sheet in and around the Y-point provides the highest rate of dissipation of Poynting flux (Belyaev 2015a). On the basis of this physical evidence, it is quite plausible that this region should be associated with the pulsed high energy emission from pulsars. We present high resolution PIC simulations of an axisymmetric pulsar magnetosphere, which are run using PICsar (Belyaev 2015b). These simulations focus on the particle dynamics and electric fields in and around the Y-point region. We run two types of simulations -- first, a force-free magnetosphere and second, a magnetosphere with a gap between the return current layer and the outflowing plasma in the polar wind zone. The latter setup is motivated by studies of pair production with general relativity (Philippov et al. 2015, Belyaev & Parfrey (in preparation)). In both cases, we find that the Y-point and the current sheet in its direct vicinity act like an “electric particle filter” outwardly accelerating particles of one sign of charge while returning the other sign of charge back to the pulsar. We argue that this is a natural behavior of the plasma as it tries to adjust to a solution that is as close to force-free as possible. As a consequence, a large E dot J develops in the vicinity of the Y-point leading to dissipation of Poynting flux. Our work is relevant for explaining the plasma physical mechanisms underlying pulsed high energy emission from pulsars.

  17. Simulations of the magnetospheres of accreting millisecond pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parfrey, Kyle; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2017-08-01

    Accreting pulsars power relativistic jets and display a complex spin phenomenology. These behaviours may be closely related to the large-scale configuration of the star's magnetic field, shaped by its interaction with the surrounding accretion disc. Here, we present the first relativistic simulations of the interaction of a pulsar magnetosphere with an accretion flow. Our axisymmetric simulations treat the magnetospheric, or coronal, regions using a resistive extension of force-free electrodynamics. The magnetic field is also evolved inside the disc, which is a defined volume with a specified velocity field and conductivity profile, found using an α-disc model. We study a range of disc α-parameters, thicknesses, magnetic Prandtl numbers and inner truncation radii. We find that a large fraction of the magnetic flux in the pulsar's closed zone is opened by the intrusion of the disc, leading to an enhancement of the power extracted by the pulsar wind and the spin-down torque applied to the pulsar. In our simulations, most of the spin-down contribution to the stellar torque acts on open field lines. The efficiency of field-line opening is high in the simulations' long-term quasi-steady states, which implies that a millisecond pulsar's electromagnetic wind could be strong enough to power the observed neutron-star radio jets, and may significantly affect the pulsar's spin evolution.

  18. Probing Microstructure in Interstellar Plasma with Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backer, Donald

    1999-11-01

    Pulsars provide excellent probes of small structure in the interstellar plasma. The list of observable effects includes dispersion, Faraday rotation, diffraction and refraction. Of great interest recently has been episodes of lensing and dual path propagation when the plasma perturbation has just the right focal length for the pulsar-perturber-earth geometry at a given frequency. I will discuss a recent study of the variable dispersion, refraction and diffraction of the millisecond pulsar B1937+21. This is based mainly on daily observations at 327 and 610 MHz with a pulsar monitoring telescope in Green Bank, WV. Further observations at 820 and 1395 MHz allow us to investigate the limits on dispersion measure determination set by diffraction. Length scales in the medium from 10^10 to 10^15 cm are probed. A second study focuses on a rare event in the Crab pulsar where the dispersion measure jumped by 0.1 pc cm-3 within one week and, prior to the jump, a faint and delayed ghost of the pulsed emission was observed. These phenomena can be explained in terms of a plasma wedge crossing the line of sight. The most likely location of this wedge is in the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable interface between the expanding supernova remains and the pre-supernova stellar wind debris.

  19. Polarization Properties of Rotation Powered Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding Alice K.

    2009-01-01

    Polarization measurements of rotation-powered pulsars and their nebulae have unique diagnostic potential. The polarization position angle of the pulsar wind nebula, as is know for the Crab pulsar, can tell us the orientation of the spin axis. Phase-resolved polarimetry of pulsars has had enormous diagnostic capability at radio and optical wavelengths and could also be a powerful diagnostic in the X-ray range. Measurement of the polarization properties as a function of pulse phase can therefore provide a multidimensional mapping of the pulsar emission. In the 'rotating vector' model, radiation originating near a magnetic pole is expected to show a characteristic S-shaped swing of the position angle vs. pulse phase. In this case it is possible to determine the magnetic inclination and viewing angles. Radiation originating further from the poles or further above the neutron star surface will have a more complex polarization signature, as a result of relativistic effects of aberration and time-of-flight delays and may also cause depolarization of the signal. I will discuss predicted polarization properties of pulsed emission in polar cap models, where radiation originates near the neutron star surface at the magnetic poles, and in slot gap and outer gap models, where radiation originates over a range of altitudes out to the speed-of-light cylinder.

  20. Parameters of radio pulsars in binary systems and globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loginov, A. A.; Malov, I. F.

    2017-02-01

    The parameters of radio pulsars in binary systems and globular clusters are investigated. It is shown that such pulsars tend to have short periods (of the order of several milliseconds). Themagnetic fields of most of the pulsars considered are weak (surface fields of the order of 108-109 G). This corresponds to the generally accepted view that short-period neutron stars are spun up by angular momentum associated with the stellar wind from a companion. However, the fields at the light cylinders in these objects are two to three orders of magnitude higher than for the main population of single neutron stars. The dependence of the pulse width on the period does not differ from the corresponding dependences for single pulsars, assuming the emission is generated inside the polar cap, at moderate distances from the surface or near the light cylinder. The radio luminosities of pulsars in binary systems do not show the correlation with the rate of loss of rotational energy that is characteristic for single pulsars, probably due to the influence of accreting matter from a companion. Moreover, accretion apparently decreases the power of the emergent radiation, and can explain the observed systematic excess of the radio luminosity of single pulsars compared to pulsars in binary systems. The distributions and dependences presented in the article support generally accepted concepts concerning the processes occurring in binary systems containing neutron stars.

  1. Observations of the γ-ray pulsar J1932+1916 in X-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpova, A.; Shternin, P.; Zyuzin, D.; Danilenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu.

    2017-04-01

    We present the analysis of the archival Suzaku and Swift X-ray observations of the young γ-ray pulsar J1932+1916 field. The data revealed a point-like object at the γ-ray position of the pulsar and diffuse X-ray emission around it. Spectra of the point-like source and diffuse emission are well-described by absorbed power-law models with spectral parameters typical for pulsar plus pulsar wind nebula systems. Therefore, we suggest that Suzaku and Swift detected the X-ray counterpart of PSR J1932+1916. Assuming this interpretation, we constrain the distance to the pulsar in the range of 2-6 kpc. We also suggest possible association of the pulsar with the nearby supernova remnant G54.4-0.3 and discuss its implications for the pulsar proper motion, age and distance.

  2. Exploring Radio Pulsars With New Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torne, Pablo

    2017-04-01

    simultaneous observations): the Nançay 94-m equivalent, the Effelsberg 100-m, the IRAM 30-m, and the APEX 12-m radio telescopes, allowing us to cover a frequency range from 2.54 to 472 GHz. The observations at the short millimetre range made use of new broad-band instrumentation never before used for pulsar observations. These observations resulted in the detection of SGR J1745-2900 from 2.54 to 291 GHz, providing measurements of its variable flux density, its also-varying spectrum, and evidence for polarized millimetre emission. The detections above 144 GHz are the highest radio frequency detections of pulsed emission from neutron stars to date, results that set new constraints on the still poorly-understood radio emission mechanism of pulsars. Since the study of the properties of pulsar emission at very high radio frequencies is relevant for understanding the radio emission process, further observations of a sample of six normal pulsars between 87 and 154 GHz were carried out using the IRAM 30-m. The initial results of this ongoing project include the detections of PSR B0355+54 up to 138 GHz, together with flux density measurements. For the other five pulsars, no obvious detections were achieved. Above 87 GHz, our detections of PSR B0355+54 are the highest-frequency detections of emission from a normal pulsar in the radio band, showing that normal pulsars continue emitting in the short millimetre regime. We found no evidence of a flattening or turn-up in the spectrum, a feature that could provide information about the emission mechanism. The intensity of this pulsar apparently decreases at and above 87 GHz, but our results suffer from uncertainties in the calibration and the possible intrinsic intensity variability of the pulsar. Forthcoming precise calibration information about the instrument will allow us to revisit the data providing stronger conclusions on the the nature of PSR B0355+54's apparent varying intensity at the millimetre wavelengths. In addition to the

  3. Inferring the Composition of Super-Jupiter Mass Companions of Pulsars with Radio Line Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Alak; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-02-01

    We propose using radio line spectroscopy to detect molecular absorption lines (such as OH at 1.6–1.7 GHz) before and after the total eclipse of black widow and other short orbital period binary pulsars with low-mass companions. The companion in such a binary may be ablated away by energetic particles and high-energy radiation produced by the pulsar wind. The observations will probe the eclipsing wind being ablated by the pulsar and constrain the nature of the companion and its surroundings. Maser emission from the interstellar medium stimulated by a pulsar beam might also be detected from the intrabinary medium. The short temporal resolution allowed by the millisecond pulsars can probe this medium with the high angular resolution of the pulsar beam.

  4. Possible Evolution of the Pulsar Braking Index from Larger than Three to About One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, H.; Kou, F. F.

    2017-03-01

    The coupled evolution of pulsar rotation and inclination angle in the wind braking model is calculated. The oblique pulsar tends to align. The pulsar alignment affects its spin-down behavior. As a pulsar evolves from the magneto-dipole radiation dominated case to the particle wind dominated case, the braking index first increases and then decreases. In the early time, the braking index may be larger than three. During the following long time, the braking index is always smaller than three. The minimum braking index is about one. This can explain the existence of a high braking index larger than three and a low braking index simultaneously. The pulsar braking index is expected to evolve from larger than three to about one. The general trend is for the pulsar braking index to evolve from the Crab-like case to the Vela-like case.

  5. Rotation powered pulsars in the x-rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arumugasamy, Prakash

    non-recycled X-ray pulsars, PSR J0108-3430 tauc = 166 Myr and E = 5.8 x 1030 erg s -1. The pulsar's spectrum likely consists of a thermal component, emitted from a hot polar cap, and a non-thermal component, emitted from its magnetosphere. The X-ray pulse profile shows a single, asymmetric peak which could be explained by an axially-asymmetric temperature distribution at the pole or by the non-thermal emission from the outer gap. The three pulsars represent important stages in the evolutionary path that a hypothetical single young pulsar like J2022+3842 might take, as it passes through stages close to gamma-ray emission turn-off (like J1836+5925) and X-ray turn-off (similar to J0108-3430). Pulsars in binaries can follow an alternative path. By accreting matter from their companions they can be 'recycled' to short millisecond periods and emit X-rays and gamma-rays for billions of years. I also present a special class of such recycled pulsars which are believed to be in the process of fatally ablating their companions. I present the X-ray analysis of PSR J1446-4701, an E = 3.6 x 1034 erg s-1 pulsar in a 6.7 hr binary orbit, and PSR J1311-3430, an E = 4.9 x 1034 erg s-1 pulsar in an extreme 1.6 hr binary orbit. PSR J1446-4701 turned out to be a non-eclipser with possibly low (face-on) orbital inclination, with emission from both the pulsar and the intra-binary shock observable throughout the binary orbit. PSR J1311-3430 is a known eclipser, in which hints of spectral variability have been found, between pulsar superior and inferior conjunction phases. I also present a comprehensive comparison of the sample of such extremely low-mass binary pulsars. We reveal the true nature of pulsars, slowly and steadily, usually one target at a time, but eventually we expect useful patterns to emerge that improves our understanding of the population of rotation powered pulsars.

  6. Ensemble Pulsar Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong-shan, Yin; Yu-ping, Gao; Shu-hong, Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Millisecond pulsars can generate another type of time scale that is totally independent of the atomic time scale, because the physical mechanisms of the pulsar time scale and the atomic time scale are quite different from each other. Usually the pulsar timing observations are not evenly sampled, and the internals between two data points range from several hours to more than half a month. Further more, these data sets are sparse. All this makes it difficult to generate an ensemble pulsar time scale. Hence, a new algorithm to calculate the ensemble pulsar time scale is proposed. Firstly, a cubic spline interpolation is used to densify the data set, and make the intervals between data points uniform. Then, the Vondrak filter is employed to smooth the data set, and get rid of the high-frequency noises, and finally the weighted average method is adopted to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. The newly released NANOGRAV (North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves) 9-year data set is used to generate the ensemble pulsar time scale. This data set includes the 9-year observational data of 37 millisecond pulsars observed by the 100-meter Green Bank telescope and the 305-meter Arecibo telescope. It is found that the algorithm used in this paper can reduce effectively the influence caused by the noises in pulsar timing residuals, and improve the long-term stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale. Results indicate that the long-term (> 1 yr) stability of the ensemble pulsar time scale is better than 3.4 × 10-15.

  7. Multi-messenger Tests for Fast-spinning Newborn Pulsars Embedded in Stripped-envelope Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashiyama, Kazumi; Murase, Kohta; Bartos, Imre; Kiuchi, Kenta; Margutti, Raffaella

    2016-02-01

    Fast-spinning strongly magnetized newborn neutron stars (NSs), including nascent magnetars, are popularly implemented as the engine of luminous stellar explosions. Here, we consider the scenario that they power various stripped-envelope (SE) supernovae (SNe), not only superluminous SNe Ic but also broad-line (BL) SNe Ibc and possibly some ordinary SNe Ibc. This scenario is also motivated by the hypothesis that Galactic magnetars largely originate from fast-spinning NSs as remnants of SE SNe. By consistently modeling the energy injection from magnetized wind and {}56{Ni} decay, we show that proto-NSs with ≳ 10 {ms} rotation and a poloidal magnetic field of {B}{{dip}}≳ 5× {10}14 {{G}} can be harbored in ordinary SNe Ibc. On the other hand, millisecond proto-NSs can solely power BL SNe Ibc if they are born with {B}{{dip}}≳ 5× {10}14 {{G}} and superluminous SNe Ic with {B}{{dip}}≳ {10}13 {{G}}. Then, we study how multi-messenger emission can be used to discriminate such pulsar-driven SN models from other competitive scenarios. First, high-energy X-ray and gamma-ray emission from embryonic pulsar wind nebulae can probe the underlying newborn pulsar. Follow-up observations of SE SNe using NuSTAR ∼ 50{--}100 {days} after the explosion are strongly encouraged for nearby objects. We also discuss possible effects of gravitational waves (GWs) on the spin-down of proto-NSs. If millisecond proto-NSs with {B}{{dip}}\\lt {{a}} {few}× {10}13 {{G}} emit GWs through, e.g., non-axisymmetric rotation deformed by the inner toroidal fields of {B}{{t}}≳ {10}16 {{G}}, the GW signal can be detectable from ordinary SNe Ibc in the Virgo cluster by Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo, and KAGRA.

  8. Observations of the Eclipsing Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1990-12-01

    FRUCHTER et al. (1988a) HAVE RECENTLY DISCOVERED a 1.6 MSEC PULSAR (PSR 1957+20) IN A 9.2 HOUR ECLIPSING BINARY SYSTEM. THE UNUSUAL BEHAVIOR OF THE DISPERSION MEASURE AS A FUNCTION OF ORBITAL PHASE, AND THE DISAPPEARANCE OF THE PULSAR SIGNAL FOR 50 MINUTES DURING EACH ORBIT, IMPLIES THAT THE ECLIPSES ARE DUE TO A PULSAR-INDUCED WIND FLOWING OFF OF THE COMPANION. THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IS A 21ST MAGNITUDE OBJECT WHICH VARIES IN INTENSITY OVER THE BINARY PERIOD; ACCURATE GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS ARE PREVENTED BY THE PROXIMITY (0.7") OF A 20TH MAGNITUDE K DWARF. WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE OPTICAL COUNTERPART IN A TWO-PART STUDY. FIRST, THE WF/PC WILL PROVIDE ACCURATE MULTICOLOR PHOTOMETRY, ENABLING US TO DETERMINE UNCONTAMINATED MAGNITUDES AND COLORS BOTH AT MAXIMUM (ANTI-ECLIPSE) AS WELL AS AT MINIMUM (ECLIPSE). SECOND, WE PROPOSE TO OBSERVE THE EXPECTED UV LINE EMISSION WITH FOS, ALLOWING FOR AN INTIAL DETERMINATION OF THE TEMPERATURE AND DENSITY STRUCTURE AND ABUNDANCES OF THE WIND THAT IS BEING ABLATED FROM THE COMPANION. STUDY OF THIS UNIQUE SYSTEM HOLDS ENORMOUS POTENTIAL FOR THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE RADIATION FIELD OF A MILLISECOND PULSAR AND THE EVOLUTION OF LMXRBs AND MSPs IN GENERAL. WE EXPECT THESE OBSERVATIONS TO PLACE VERY SIGNIFICANT CONTRAINTS ON MODELS OF THIS UNIQUE OBJECT.

  9. Arecibo Pulsar Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Here we present some of the recent interesting pulsar research that has been conducted from the Arecibo Observatory (AO). Many of these results are only possible because of the unique capabilities of AO's 305 meter telescope. Along with this, we state several possible improvements to AO's capabilities that would aid pulsar studies in the immediate future.

  10. The Pulsar Quartet: Listening to a Galactic Symphony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiziltan, Bülent

    2014-06-01

    Pulsars are exotic dead stars that emit very regular radio pulses. These pulses are attributed to their regular rotation. Some pulsars are spinning fast enough that the audio equivalent waveform of their pulses fall within our hearing range. If human ears were tuned to radio waves it would have been possible to ‘hear’ these very compact stars. We produced the audio waveform of these pulsar signals and mapped them onto a frequency chart to find the corresponding musical notes. We use these ‘audible' pulsars like musical instruments in a symphony orchestra to play a full quartet. At the same time, an accompanying visual interface shows the realistic distribution of all pulsars in our own Galaxy. Pulsars shine as they play each note in the quartet with realistic brightening and subsequent dimming proportional to their rotational energies. This can serve as an educational tool at all levels to demonstrate many interesting aspects of stellar evolution and articulate an aesthetic connection of us with the cosmos. Interested in watching the light show while the Milky Way Pulsar Orchestra plays a quartet?

  11. AB INITIO PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE: THREE-DIMENSIONAL PARTICLE-IN-CELL SIMULATIONS OF AXISYMMETRIC PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Philippov, Alexander A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2014-04-20

    We perform ''first-principles'' relativistic particle-in-cell simulations of aligned pulsar magnetosphere. We allow free escape of particles from the surface of a neutron star and continuously populate the magnetosphere with neutral pair plasma to imitate pair production. As pair plasma supply increases, we observe the transition from a charge-separated ''electrosphere'' solution with trapped plasma and no spin-down to a solution close to the ideal force-free magnetosphere with electromagnetically dominated pulsar wind. We calculate the magnetospheric structure, current distribution, and spin-down power of the neutron star. We also discuss particle acceleration in the equatorial current sheet.

  12. Is the Enigma of Pulsar Radio Emission Solved?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Janusz A.; Melikidze, George I.

    2011-08-01

    An intriguing paper has recently been published claiming that the long-sought Rosetta Stone needed to decipher the nature of pulsar radio emission has been finally identified as the bifurcated features in averaged pulsar profiles. The authors argued that highly symmetric bifurcated features observed in PSR J1012+5307 and other pulsars are produced by a split-fan beams of extraordinary-mode curvature radiation emitted by thin streams of sources conducted by a very narrow bundles of magnetic field lines. We examined the arguments leading to such a profound conclusion and found at least one fatal flaw. Using an elementary pulsar physics we showed that there is not enough energy to power the bifurcated feature in J1012+5307 within a split-fan beams model. If the source streams are indeed so thin that their emission can reveal the signatures of elementary radiation mechanism, then the energy deficit reaches several orders of magnitude.

  13. Glitches in southern pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Manchester, R. N.; Pace, R. T.; Bailes, M.; Kaspi, V. M.; Stappers, B. W.; Lyne, A. G.

    2000-10-01

    Timing observations of 40 mostly young pulsars using the ATNF Parkes radio telescope between 1990 January and 1998 December are reported. In total, 20 previously unreported glitches and 10 other glitches were detected in 11 pulsars. These included 12 glitches in PSR J1341-6220, corresponding to a glitch rate of 1.5 glitches per year. We also detected the largest known glitch, in PSR J1614-5047, with Δνgν~6.5×10-6, where ν=1/P is the pulse frequency. Glitch parameters were determined both by extrapolating timing solutions to interglitch intervals and by phase-coherent timing fits across the glitch(es). These fits also give improved positions and dispersion measures for many of the pulsars. Analysis of glitch parameters, both from this work and from previously published results, shows that most glitches have a fractional amplitude Δνgν of between 10-8 and 10-6. There is no consistent relationship between glitch amplitude and the time since the previous glitch or the time to the following glitch, either for the ensemble or for individual pulsars. As previously recognized, the largest glitch activity is seen in pulsars with ages of order 104yr, but for about 30per cent of such pulsars, no glitches were detected in the 8-year data span. There is some evidence for a new type of timing irregularity in which there is a significant increase in pulse frequency over a few days, accompanied by a decrease in the magnitude of the slow-down rate. Fits of an exponential recovery to post-glitch data show that for most older pulsars, only a small fraction of the glitch decays. In some younger pulsars a large fraction of the glitch decays, but in others there is very little decay. Apart from the Crab pulsar, there is no clear dependence of recovery time-scale on pulsar age.

  14. The second FERMI large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  15. THE SECOND FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE CATALOG OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Bloom, E. D.; Bottacini, E.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Brigida, M.; and others

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  16. The Second Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-Ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-10-01

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence >=0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  17. The second FERMI large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  18. The second fermi large area telescope catalog of gamma-ray pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Abdo, A. A.; Ajello, M.; Allafort, A.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Belfiore, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Bhattacharyya, B.; Bissaldi, E.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Bottacini, E.; Brandt, T. J.; Bregeon, J.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buehler, R.; Burgay, M.; Burnett, T. H.; Busetto, G.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chaty, S.; Chaves, R. C. G.; Chekhtman, A.; Chen, A. W.; Chiang, J.; Chiaro, G.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cognard, I.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Cominsky, L. R.; Conrad, J.; Cutini, S.; D'Ammando, F.; de Angelis, A.; DeCesar, M. E.; De Luca, A.; den Hartog, P. R.; de Palma, F.; Dermer, C. D.; Desvignes, G.; Digel, S. W.; Di Venere, L.; Drell, P. S.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C. M.; Falletti, L.; Favuzzi, C.; Ferrara, E. C.; Focke, W. B.; Franckowiak, A.; Freire, P. C. C.; Funk, S.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giommi, P.; Giordano, F.; Giroletti, M.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M. -H.; Grove, J. E.; Guillemot, L.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Hanabata, Y.; Harding, A. K.; Hayashida, M.; Hays, E.; Hessels, J.; Hewitt, J.; Hill, A. B.; Horan, D.; Hou, X.; Hughes, R. E.; Jackson, M. S.; Janssen, G. H.; Jogler, T.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, R. P.; Johnson, A. S.; Johnson, T. J.; Johnson, W. N.; Johnston, S.; Kamae, T.; Kataoka, J.; Keith, M.; Kerr, M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kramer, M.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Larsson, S.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marelli, M.; Massaro, F.; Mayer, M.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Mehault, J.; Michelson, P. F.; Mignani, R. P.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monzani, M. E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakamori, T.; Nemmen, R.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Orienti, M.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Perkins, J. S.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Pierbattista, M.; Piron, F.; Pivato, G.; Pletsch, H. J.; Porter, T. A.; Possenti, A.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Razzano, M.; Rea, N.; Reimer, A.; Reimer, O.; Renault, N.; Reposeur, T.; Ritz, S.; Romani, R. W.; Roth, M.; Rousseau, R.; Roy, J.; Ruan, J.; Sartori, A.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.; Scargle, J. D.; Schulz, A.; Sgrò, C.; Shannon, R.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, D. A.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stappers, B. W.; Strong, A. W.; Suson, D. J.; Takahashi, H.; Thayer, J. G.; Thayer, J. B.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Tibaldo, L.; Tibolla, O.; Tinivella, M.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Troja, E.; Uchiyama, Y.; Usher, T. L.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Vasileiou, V.; Venter, C.; Vianello, G.; Vitale, V.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.; Winer, B. L.; Wolff, M. T.; Wood, D. L.; Wood, K. S.; Wood, M.; Yang, Z.

    2013-09-19

    This catalog summarizes 117 high-confidence ≥0.1 GeV gamma-ray pulsar detections using three years of data acquired by the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi satellite. Half are neutron stars discovered using LAT data through periodicity searches in gamma-ray and radio data around LAT unassociated source positions. The 117 pulsars are evenly divided into three groups: millisecond pulsars, young radio-loud pulsars, and young radio-quiet pulsars. We characterize the pulse profiles and energy spectra and derive luminosities when distance information exists. Spectral analysis of the off-peak phase intervals indicates probable pulsar wind nebula emission for four pulsars, and off-peak magnetospheric emission for several young and millisecond pulsars. We compare the gamma-ray properties with those in the radio, optical, and X-ray bands. We provide flux limits for pulsars with no observed gamma-ray emission, highlighting a small number of gamma-faint, radio-loud pulsars. The large, varied gamma-ray pulsar sample constrains emission models. Fermi's selection biases complement those of radio surveys, enhancing comparisons with predicted population distributions.

  19. Neutrinos from binary pulsars. [generated by high energy particles striking companion star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that binary systems containing moderately young pulsars may emit high-energy neutrinos (between 1 and 100 TeV) at detectable levels. The pulsars are assumed to have total luminosities of the order of 10 to the 38th erg/sec. The neutrinos are produced by high energy particles (e.g. protons) from the pulsar striking the companion. Cyg X3 may be detectable in high-energy neutrinos if it emits greater than about 10 to the 35th erg/sec in high-energy protons. There may be a whole class of objects like Cyg X3, but obscured by thick accretion clouds.

  20. Neutrinos from binary pulsars. [generated by high energy particles striking companion star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eichler, D.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that binary systems containing moderately young pulsars may emit high-energy neutrinos (between 1 and 100 TeV) at detectable levels. The pulsars are assumed to have total luminosities of the order of 10 to the 38th erg/sec. The neutrinos are produced by high energy particles (e.g. protons) from the pulsar striking the companion. Cyg X3 may be detectable in high-energy neutrinos if it emits greater than about 10 to the 35th erg/sec in high-energy protons. There may be a whole class of objects like Cyg X3, but obscured by thick accretion clouds.

  1. WIDE RADIO BEAMS FROM {gamma}-RAY PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, V.; Manchester, R. N.; Hobbs, G.

    2010-06-10

    We investigate the radio and {gamma}-ray beaming properties of normal and millisecond pulsars (MSPs) by selecting two samples from the known populations. The first, Sample G, contains pulsars which are detectable in blind searches of {gamma}-ray data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope. The second, Sample R, contains pulsars detectable in blind radio searches which have spin-down luminosities E>10{sup 34} erg s{sup -1}. We analyze the fraction of the {gamma}-ray-selected Sample G which have detectable radio pulses and the fraction of the radio-selected Sample R which have detectable {gamma}-ray pulses. Twenty of our 35 Sample G pulsars have already observed radio pulses. This rules out low-altitude polar-cap beaming models if, as is currently believed, {gamma}-ray beams are generated in the outer magnetosphere and are very wide. We further find that, for the highest-E pulsars, the radio and {gamma}-ray beams have comparable beaming factors, i.e., the beams cover similar regions of the sky as the star rotates. For lower-E {gamma}-ray emitting pulsars, the radio beams have about half of the {gamma}-ray sky coverage. These results suggest that, for high-E young and MSPs, the radio emission originates in wide beams from regions high in the pulsar magnetosphere, probably close to the null-charge surface and to the {gamma}-ray emitting regions. Furthermore, it suggests that for these high-E pulsars, as in the {gamma}-ray case, features in the radio profile represent caustics in the emission beam pattern.

  2. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1

  3. Chandra Associates Pulsar and Historic Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    in the same area of the sky. Past attempts to identify the pulsar with G11.2-0.3, and hence the ancient Chinese observations, have been controversial. The location of the pulsar at the center of the remnant provides new evidence that it is associated with the remnant. Since pulsars are known to move rapidly away from where they are formed, a pulsar near the center of the remnant implies the system must be very young, since not enough time has elapsed for the pulsar to travel far from its birthplace. "We believe that the pulsar and the supernova remnant G11.2-0.3 are both likely to be left over from the explosion seen by the Chinese observers over 1600 years ago," said Roberts. "While this is exciting by itself, it also raises new questions about what we know about pulsars especially during their infancies." These questions follow from a discrepancy that arose when the ASCA team applied the present spin rate to current models to determine the pulsar’s estimated lifetime and compare it to the age of G11.2-0.3. The result was an age of roughly 24,000 years - far predating the birth year of 386 AD. To explain this contradiction, the Chandra team argues that this pulsar may have had approximately the same spin rate today as it did at its birth, as had been suggested by the ASCA data. If this is true, then it could have important implications for the conventional wisdom regarding pulsars, which, may be born spinning more slowly than has been thought. "We now have strong evidence that the standard age estimate for this pulsar is probably wrong, and it is much younger than previously believed," said Kaspi. "This, in turn, suggests that other standard pulsar age estimates may be wrong as well, and this has important implications for the population as a whole." In addition to these results, the Chandra observations of G11.2-0.3 have, for the first time, revealed the bizarre appearance of the pulsar wind nebula (also known as "plerions") at the center of the supernova remnant

  4. Radio efficiency of pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Szary, Andrzej; Melikidze, George I.; Gil, Janusz; Zhang, Bing; Xu, Ren-Xin E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu

    2014-03-20

    We investigate radio emission efficiency, ξ, of pulsars and report a near-linear inverse correlation between ξ and the spin-down power, E-dot , as well as a near-linear correlation between ξ and pulsar age, τ. This is a consequence of very weak, if any, dependences of radio luminosity, L, on pulsar period, P, and the period derivative, P-dot , in contrast to X-ray or γ-ray emission luminosities. The analysis of radio fluxes suggests that these correlations are not due to a selection effect, but are intrinsic to the pulsar radio emission physics. We have found that, although with a large variance, the radio luminosity of pulsars is ≈10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1}, regardless of the position in the P-- P-dot diagram. Within such a picture, a model-independent statement can be made that the death line of radio pulsars corresponds to an upper limit in the efficiency of radio emission. If we introduce the maximum value for radio efficiency into the Monte Carlo-based population syntheses we can reproduce the observed sample using the random luminosity model. Using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test on a synthetic flux distribution reveals a high probability of reproducing the observed distribution. Our results suggest that the plasma responsible for generating radio emission is produced under similar conditions regardless of pulsar age, dipolar magnetic field strength, and spin-down rate. The magnetic fields near the pulsar surface are likely dominated by crust-anchored, magnetic anomalies, which do not significantly differ among pulsars, leading to similar conditions for generating electron-positron pairs necessary to power radio emission.

  5. Stellar evolution and pulsars.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, H.-Y.

    1972-01-01

    It has been found that pulsars are rotating magnetic neutron stars, which are created during catastrophic collapses of old stars whose nuclear fuel has long since been used up. The maximum size of pulsars, based on the fastest rotation period of 33 msec, cannot exceed 100 km. The densest star the theory predicts is the neutron star. Its diameter is only 10 km. The processes producing radiation from pulsars are discussed, giving attention to a process similar to that by which a klystron operates and to a process based on a maser mechanism.

  6. Pulsar Artist Concept

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-06

    This artist's concept shows a pulsar, which is like a lighthouse, as its light appears in regular pulses as it rotates. Pulsars are dense remnants of exploded stars, and are part of a class of objects called neutron stars. Magnetars are different kinds of neutron stars -- they have violent, high-energy outbursts of X-ray and gamma ray light. A mysterious object called PSR J1119-6127 has been seen behaving as both a pulsar and a magnetar, suggesting that it could be a "missing link" between these objects. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21085

  7. Pulsar Candidate in Andromeda

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-23

    NASA's Nuclear Spectroscope Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, has identified a candidate pulsar in Andromeda -- the nearest large galaxy to the Milky Way. This likely pulsar is brighter at high energies than the Andromeda galaxy's entire black hole population. The inset image shows the pulsar candidate in blue, as seen in X-ray light by NuSTAR. The background image of Andromeda was taken by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer in ultraviolet light. Andromeda is a spiral galaxy like our Milky Way but larger in size. It lies 2.5 million light-years away in the Andromeda constellation. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20970

  8. THE RADIATIVE X-RAY AND GAMMA-RAY EFFICIENCIES OF ROTATION-POWERED PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev and Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the {gamma}-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and {gamma}-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient {gamma}-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young ({tau}{sub c} < 1.7 x 10{sup 4} yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and {gamma}-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L{sub X}{proportional_to} P-dot{sup 3}/P{sup 6}. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency {eta}{identical_to}L{sub X}/ E-dot{sub rot}{approx}8x10{sup -5}. For the {gamma}-ray luminosity we confirm that L{sub {gamma}} {proportional_to} {radical}E-dot{sub rot}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  9. The Radiative X-ray and Gamma-ray Efficiencies of Rotation-powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Jacco; Bamba, Aya; Yamazaki, Ryo

    2011-02-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the X-ray luminosity of rotation-powered pulsars and their surrounding nebulae using the sample of Kargaltsev & Pavlov, and we complement this with an analysis of the γ-ray emission of Fermi-detected pulsars. We report a strong trend in the efficiency with which spin-down power is converted to X-ray and γ-ray emission with characteristic age: young pulsars and their surrounding nebulae are efficient X-ray emitters, whereas in contrast old pulsars are efficient γ-ray emitters. We divided the X-ray sample in a young (τ c < 1.7 × 104 yr) and old sample and used linear regression to search for correlations between the logarithm of the X-ray and γ-ray luminosities and the logarithms of the periods and period derivatives. The X-ray emission from young pulsars and their nebulae are both consistent with L_X ∝ \\dot{P}^3/P^6. For old pulsars and their nebulae the X-ray luminosity is consistent with a more or less constant efficiency η ≡ L_X/\\dot{E}_{rot} ≈ 8× 10^{-5}. For the γ-ray luminosity we confirm that L_γ ∝ √{\\dot{E}_{rot}}. We discuss these findings in the context of pair production inside pulsar magnetospheres and the striped wind model. We suggest that the striped wind model may explain the similarity between the X-ray properties of the pulsar wind nebulae and the pulsars themselves, which according to the striped wind model may both find their origin outside the light cylinder, in the pulsar wind zone.

  10. Geriatric Pulsar Still Kicking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    The oldest isolated pulsar ever detected in X-rays has been found with NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory. This very old and exotic object turns out to be surprisingly active. The pulsar, PSR J0108-1431 (J0108 for short) is about 200 million years old. Among isolated pulsars -- ones that have not been spun-up in a binary system -- it is over 10 times older than the previous record holder with an X-ray detection. At a distance of 770 light years, it is one of the nearest pulsars known. Pulsars are born when stars that are much more massive than the Sun collapse in supernova explosions, leaving behind a small, incredibly weighty core, known as a neutron star. At birth, these neutron stars, which contain the densest material known in the Universe, are spinning rapidly, up to a hundred revolutions per second. As the rotating beams of their radiation are seen as pulses by distant observers, similar to a lighthouse beam, astronomers call them "pulsars". Astronomers observe a gradual slowing of the rotation of the pulsars as they radiate energy away. Radio observations of J0108 show it to be one of the oldest and faintest pulsars known, spinning only slightly faster than one revolution per second. The surprise came when a team of astronomers led by George Pavlov of Penn State University observed J0108 in X-rays with Chandra. They found that it glows much brighter in X-rays than was expected for a pulsar of such advanced years. People Who Read This Also Read... Chandra Data Reveal Rapidly Whirling Black Holes Milky Way’s Giant Black Hole Awoke from Slumber 300 Years Ago Erratic Black Hole Regulates Itself Celebrate the International Year of Astronomy Some of the energy that J0108 is losing as it spins more slowly is converted into X-ray radiation. The efficiency of this process for J0108 is found to be higher than for any other known pulsar. "This pulsar is pumping out high-energy radiation much more efficiently than its younger cousins," said Pavlov. "So, although it

  11. Wide Band Artificial Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, Zackary

    2017-01-01

    The Wide Band Artificial Pulsar (WBAP) is an instrument verification device designed and built by the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Green Bank, West Virgina. The site currently operates the Green Bank Ultimate Pulsar Processing Instrument (GUPPI) and the Versatile Green Bank Astronomical Spectrometer (VEGAS) digital backends for their radio telescopes. The commissioning and continued support for these sophisticated backends has demonstrated a need for a device capable of producing an accurate artificial pulsar signal. The WBAP is designed to provide a very close approximation to an actual pulsar signal. This presentation is intended to provide an overview of the current hardware and software implementations and to also share the current results from testing using the WBAP.

  12. Fermi Pulsar Analysis

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation illustrates how analysis of Fermi data reveals new pulsars. Fermi's LAT records the precise arrival time and approximate direction of the gamma rays it detects, but to identify a pul...

  13. Properties and geometry of radio pulsar emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smits, Johannes Martinus

    2006-10-01

    This thesis consists of a number of studies on the radio emission of pulsars. The central topics are polarisation and multi frequency observations, which both lead to important information on the geometry of the emission. The first chapter introduces different aspects of pulsars that are related to the research that has been done in this thesis. In particular it deals with different aspects concerning the geometry of pulsar emission. Chapter 2 is about the nature of the radio emission. It shows the result of an attempt to confirm and expand on work that has been published by Jenet et al. (2001) on the detection of coherence in pulsar radiation. From an analysis of high time resolution observations, we found that the detection of coherence is consistent with the effects of interstellar scintillation. In chapter 3 a study is carried out on the orthogonal polarisation mode behaviour as a function of frequency of 18 pulsars. By making the assumption that the radiation consists of two 100% polarised completely orthogonal superposed modes, both modes could be separated In chapter 4 PSR B0031-07 is studied at two frequencies using two observations that were carried out simultaneously. It is shown that from the three known drift modes, only one drift mode is seen at high frequency. Based on this result we suggest a geometrical model in which different modes are emitted in concentric rings around the magnetic axis, with each mode having a different radius. The fifth chapter follows the suggestions made in chapter 4 to create a geometrical model of PSR B0031-07 for two of the drift modes. The results can be used to limit the possible geometries of PSR B0031-07. The final chapter consists of documentation of software that was written in C and utilised for this thesis for handling and analysing data files in the EPN format

  14. Pulsar statistics and their interpretations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnett, W. D.; Lerche, I.

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that a lack of knowledge concerning interstellar electron density, the true spatial distribution of pulsars, the radio luminosity source distribution of pulsars, the real ages and real aging rates of pulsars, the beaming factor (and other unknown factors causing the known sample of about 350 pulsars to be incomplete to an unknown degree) is sufficient to cause a minimum uncertainty of a factor of 20 in any attempt to determine pulsar birth or death rates in the Galaxy. It is suggested that this uncertainty must impact on suggestions that the pulsar rates can be used to constrain possible scenarios for neutron star formation and stellar evolution in general.

  15. A State Change In The Missing Link Binary Pulsar System Psr J1023+0038

    SciTech Connect

    Stappers, B. W.; Archibald, A. M.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Bassa, C. G.; Bogdanov, S.; Janssen, G. H.; Kaspi, V. M.; Lyne, A. G.; Patruno, A.; Tendulkar, S.; Hill, A. B.; Glanzman, T.

    2014-07-01

    We present radio, X-ray, and γ-ray observations which reveal that the binary millisecond pulsar / low-mass X-ray binary transition system PSR J1023+0038 has undergone a transformation in state. Whereas until recently the system harbored a bright millisecond radio pulsar, the radio pulsations at frequencies between 300 to 5000MHz have now become undetectable. Concurrent with this radio disappearance, the γ-ray flux of the system has quintupled. We conclude that, though the radio pulsar is currently not detectable, the pulsar mechanism is still active and the pulsar wind, as well as a newly formed accretion disk, are together providing the necessary conditions to create the γ-ray increase. The system is the first example of a transient, compact, low-mass γ-ray binary and will continue to provide an exceptional test bed for better understanding the formation of millisecond pulsars as well as accretion onto neutron stars in general.

  16. Observations of accreting pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prince, Thomas A.; Bildsten, Lars; Chakrabarty, Deepto; Wilson, Robert B.; Finger, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss recent observations of accreting binary pulsars with the all-sky BATSE instrument on the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory. BATSE has detected and studied nearly half of the known accreting pulsar systems. Continuous timing studies over a two-year period have yielded accurate orbital parameters for 9 of these systems, as well as new insights into long-term accretion torque histories.

  17. Pulse Portraiture: Pulsar timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennucci, Timothy T.; Demorest, Paul B.; Ransom, Scott M.

    2016-06-01

    Pulse Portraiture is a wideband pulsar timing code written in python. It uses an extension of the FFTFIT algorithm (Taylor 1992) to simultaneously measure a phase (TOA) and dispersion measure (DM). The code includes a Gaussian-component-based portrait modeling routine. The code uses the python interface to the pulsar data analysis package PSRCHIVE (ascl:1105.014) and also requires the non-linear least-squares minimization package lmfit (ascl:1606.014).

  18. Known Pulsars Identified in the GMRT 150 MHz All-sky Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frail, D. A.; Jagannathan, P.; Mooley, K. P.; Intema, H. T.

    2016-10-01

    We have used the 150 MHz radio continuum survey (TGSS ADR) from the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) to search for phase-averaged emission toward all well-localized radio pulsars north of -53° decl. We detect emission toward 200 pulsars with high confidence (≥slant 5σ ) and another 88 pulsars at fainter levels. We show that most of our identifications are likely from pulsars, except for a small number where the measured flux density is confused by an associated supernova or pulsar-wind nebula, or a globular cluster. We investigate the radio properties of the 150 MHz sample and find an unusually high number of gamma-ray binary millisecond pulsars with very steep spectral indices. We also note a discrepancy in the measured flux densities between GMRT and LOFAR pulsar samples, suggesting that the flux density scale for the LOFAR pulsar sample may be in error by approximately a factor of two. We carry out a separate search of 30 well-localized gamma-ray, radio-quiet pulsars in an effort to detect a widening of the radio beam into the line of sight at lower frequencies. No steep-spectrum emission was detected either toward individual pulsars or in a weighted stack of all 30 images.

  19. Black Widow Pulsar radiation hydrodynamics simulation using Castro: Methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios Sazo, Maria; Zingale, Michael; Zhang, Weiqun

    2017-01-01

    A black widow pulsar (BWP) is a millisecond pulsar in a tight binary system with a low mass star. The fast rotating pulsar emits intense radiation, which injects energy and ablates the companion star. Observation of the ablation is seen as pulsar eclipses caused by a larger object than the companion star Roche lobe. This phenomenon is attributed to a cloud surrounding the evaporating star. We will present the methodology for modeling the interaction between the radiation coming from the pulsar and the companion star using the radiation hydrodynamics code Castro. Castro is an adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) code that solves the compressible hydrodynamic equations for astrophysical flows with simultaneous refinement in space and time. The code also includes self-gravity, nuclear reactions and radiation. We are employing the gray-radiation solver, which uses a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics under the flux-limited diffusion approximation. In our setup, we are modeling the companion star with the radiation field as a boundary condition, coming from one side of the domain. In addition to a model setup in 2-d axisymmetry, we also have a 3-d setup, which is more physical given the nature of the system considering the companion is facing the pulsar on one side. We discuss the progress of our calculations, first results, and future work.The work at Stony Brook was supported by DOE/Office of Nuclear Physics grant DE-FG02-87ER40317

  20. STRONG FIELD EFFECTS ON PULSAR ARRIVAL TIMES: GENERAL ORIENTATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Yan; Creighton, Teviet; Price, Richard H.; Jenet, Frederick A.

    2009-11-10

    A pulsar beam passing close to a black hole can provide a probe of very strong gravitational fields even if the pulsar itself is not in a strong field region. In the case that the spin of the hole can be ignored, we have previously shown that all strong field effects on the beam can be understood in terms of two 'universal' functions: F(phi{sub in}) and T(phi{sub in}) of the angle of beam emission phi{sub in}; these functions are universal in that they depend only on a single parameter, the pulsar/black hole distance from which the beam is emitted. Here we apply this formalism to general pulsar-hole-observer geometries, with arbitrary alignment of the pulsar spin axis and arbitrary pulsar beam direction and angular width. We show that the analysis of the observational problem has two distinct elements: (1) the computation of the location and trajectory of an observer-dependent 'keyhole' direction of emission in which a signal can be received by the observer; and (2) the determination of an annulus that represents the set of directions containing beam energy. Examples of each are given along with an example of a specific observational scenario.

  1. On some electrodynamic properties of binary pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sironi, Lorenzo

    2006-07-01

    respect to the electromagnetic ones and the Lorentz force per unit volume is assumed to be zero outside the pulsar; after showing the main unsolved problems about this model, I will try to examine the origin of the leptons (positrons and electrons) which are expected to fill the pulsar magnetosphere and to continuously stream away from the star through the light cylinder (where co-rotation with the pulsar would mean traveling at the speed of light). Since even the magnetosphere of a single isolated pulsar is not well understood, my approach in considering some hitherto unexplored properties of the joint magnetosphere of a binary pulsar will mainly be qualitative, trying to understand through order-of-magnitude estimates the physical processes involved. First of all I will describe the possibility that, for binary pulsars in which the orbital separation is less than the sum of the light cylinder radii of the stars, the region at the center of the system could show a time-dependent distortion of the two co-rotating magnetospheres which could give origin to an induced electric field. I will then examine the possibility that such a field is quenched by a local production of pairs caused by the electric field itself. After showing that the electric field can not be switched-off by the pairs, I will discuss the possible observational consequences of the production of such a large number of leptons, which will be accelerated by the electric field along the magnetic field lines toward the pulsars and will then radiate their energy via curvature radiation; unfortunately, the small energy flux emitted, together with the rarity of double neutron star systems, will not likely allow us to detect the radiation emitted. Lastly, I will discuss the original idea that the strong induced electric fields could be responsible for the acceleration of cosmic rays whose energy lies between the knee and the ankle of the cosmic ray spectrum. In this case the unsolved problem is the origin for

  2. A burst in a wind bubble and the impact on baryonic ejecta: high-energy gamma-ray flashes and afterglows from fast radio bursts and pulsar-driven supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murase, Kohta; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Mészáros, Peter

    2016-09-01

    Tenuous wind bubbles, which are formed by the spin-down activity of central compact remnants, are relevant in some models of fast radio bursts (FRBs) and superluminous supernovae (SNe). We study their high-energy signatures, focusing on the role of pair-enriched bubbles produced by young magnetars, rapidly rotating neutron stars, and magnetized white dwarfs. (i) First, we study the nebular properties and the conditions allowing for escape of high-energy gamma-rays and radio waves, showing that their escape is possible for nebulae with ages of ≳10-100 yr. In the rapidly rotating neutron star scenario, we find that radio emission from the quasi-steady nebula itself may be bright enough to be detected especially at sub-mm frequencies, which is relevant as a possible counterpart of pulsar-driven SNe and FRBs. (ii) Secondly, we consider the fate of bursting emission in the nebulae. We suggest that an impulsive burst may lead to a highly relativistic flow, which would interact with the nebula. If the shocked nebula is still relativistic, pre-existing non-thermal particles in the nebula can be significantly boosted by the forward shock, leading to short-duration (maybe millisecond or longer) high-energy gamma-ray flashes. Possible dissipation at the reverse shock may also lead to gamma-ray emission. (iii) After such flares, interactions with the baryonic ejecta may lead to afterglow emission with a duration of days to weeks. In the magnetar scenario, this burst-in-bubble model leads to the expectation that nearby (≲10-100 Mpc) high-energy gamma-ray flashes may be detected by the High-Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory and the Cherenkov Telescope Array, and the subsequent afterglow emission may be seen by radio telescopes such as the Very Large Array. (iv) Finally, we discuss several implications specific to FRBs, including constraints on the emission regions and limits on soft gamma-ray counterparts.

  3. Constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton mechanism of TeV gamma ray emission from the Milagro TeV source MGRO J2019+37 within the pulsar wind nebula scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Lab; Bhattacharjee, Pijushpani

    2015-03-01

    Origin of the TeV gamma ray emission from MGRO J2019+37 discovered by the Milagro experiment is investigated within the pulsar wind nebula (PWN) scenario using multiwavelength information on sources suggested to be associated with this object. We find that the synchrotron self-Compton (SSC) mechanism of origin of the observed TeV gamma rays within the PWN scenario is severely constrained by the upper limit on the radio flux from the region around MGRO J2019+37 given by the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) as well as by the x-ray flux upper limit from SWIFT/XRT. Specifically, for the SSC mechanism to explain the observed TeV flux from MGRO J2019+37 without violating the GMRT and/or Swift/XRT flux upper limits in the radio and x-ray regions, respectively, the emission region must be extremely compact with the characteristic size of the emission region restricted to ≲ O (10-4 pc) for an assumed distance of ˜ few kpc to the source. This is at least four orders of magnitude less than the characteristic size of the emission region typically invoked in explaining the TeV emission through the SSC mechanism within the PWN scenario. On the other hand, inverse Compton (IC) scattering of the nebular high energy electrons on the cosmic microwave background (CMB) photons can, for reasonable ranges of values of various parameters, explain the observed TeV flux without violating the GMRT and/or SWIFT/XRT flux bounds.

  4. The Pulsating Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsui, K. H.

    2015-06-01

    Following the basic principles of a charge-separated pulsar magnetosphere, we consider the magnetosphere to be stationary in space, instead of corotating, and the electric field to be uploaded from the potential distribution on the pulsar surface, set up by the unipolar induction. Consequently, the plasma of the magnetosphere undergoes guiding center drifts of the gyromotion due to the forces transverse to the magnetic field. These forces are the electric force, magnetic gradient force, and field line curvature force. Since these plasma velocities are of drift nature, there is no need to introduce an emf along the field lines, which would contradict the {{E}\\parallel }={\\boldsymbol{E}} \\cdot {\\boldsymbol{B}} =0 plasma condition. Furthermore, there is also no need to introduce the critical field line separating the electron and ion open field lines. We present a self-consistent description where the magnetosphere is described in terms of electric and magnetic fields and also in terms of plasma velocities. The fields and velocities are then connected through the space-charge densities self-consistently. We solve the pulsar equation analytically for the fields and construct the standard steady-state pulsar magnetosphere. By considering the unipolar induction inside the pulsar and the magnetosphere outside the pulsar as one coupled system, and under the condition that the unipolar pumping rate exceeds the Poynting flux in the open field lines, plasma pressure can build up in the magnetosphere, in particular, in the closed region. This could cause a periodic opening up of the closed region, leading to a pulsating magnetosphere, which could be an alternative to pulsar beacons. The closed region can also be opened periodically by the build up of toroidal magnetic field through a positive feedback cycle.

  5. Pulsar lensing geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Siqi; Pen, Ue-Li; Macquart, J.-P.; Brisken, Walter; Deller, Adam

    2016-05-01

    We test the inclined sheet pulsar scintillation model (Pen & Levin) against archival very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) data on PSR 0834+06 and show that its scintillation properties can be precisely reproduced by a model in which refraction occurs on two distinct lens planes. These data strongly favour a model in which grazing-incidence refraction instead of diffraction off turbulent structures is the primary source of pulsar scattering. This model can reproduce the parameters of the observed diffractive scintillation with an accuracy at the percent level. Comparison with new VLBI proper motion results in a direct measure of the ionized interstellar medium (ISM) screen transverse velocity. The results are consistent with ISM velocities local to the PSR 0834+06 sight-line (through the Galaxy). The simple 1-D structure of the lenses opens up the possibility of using interstellar lenses as precision probes for pulsar lens mapping, precision transverse motions in the ISM, and new opportunities for removing scattering to improve pulsar timing. We describe the parameters and observables of this double screen system. While relative screen distances can in principle be accurately determined, a global conformal distance degeneracy exists that allows a rescaling of the absolute distance scale. For PSR B0834+06, we present VLBI astrometry results that provide (for the first time) a direct measurement of the distance of the pulsar. For most of the recycled millisecond pulsars that are the targets of precision timing observations, the targets where independent distance measurements are not available. The degeneracy presented in the lens modelling could be broken if the pulsar resides in a binary system.

  6. Superfluidity in Millisecond Pulsars (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pines, D.; Alpar, A.

    The authors review the evidence for superfluidity in the Vela pulsar, the Crab pulsar and PSR 0525+21, and examine the prospects for observing similar consequences of superfluidity in the already-discovered millisec pulsars. They consider, inter alia, the likelihood of observing glitches, the expected post-glitch behavior, and pulsar heating by energy dissipation due to the creep of neutron vortex lines in pinned superfluid regions of the crust.

  7. Pulsar braking: Time dependent moment of inertia?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbanec, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars rotate with extremely stable rotational frequency enabling one to measure its first and second time derivatives. These observed values can be combined to the so-called braking index. However observed values of braking index differ from the theoretical value of 3 corresponding to braking by magnetic dipole radiation being the dominant theoretical model. Such a difference can be explained by contribution of other mechanism like pulsar wind or quadrupole radiation, or by time dependency of magnetic field or moment of inertia. In this presentation we focus on influence of time dependent moment of inertia on the braking index. We will also discuss possible physical models for time-dependence of moment of inertia.

  8. Two Years of Chandra Observations: Neutron Stars and Pulsars with Emphasis on the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is entering its third year of operation. The Observatory, the premiere x-ray telescope for high-resolution imaging, has exceeded all expectations. The sub-arc second angular resolution together with other instrumental capabilities has allowed for new insights into the understanding of compact x-ray emitting objects including neutron stars and pulsars. We briefly review the Chandra Program and the first two years of observation with emphasis on these interesting objects. We detail the results of our observations of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula including the first continuum spectrum that is virtually uncontaminated by any dust-scattered radiation.

  9. Two Years of Chandra Observations: Neutron Stars and Pulsars with Emphasis on the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisskopf, Martin C.; Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory is entering its third year of operation. The Observatory, the premiere x-ray telescope for high-resolution imaging, has exceeded all expectations. The sub-arc second angular resolution together with other instrumental capabilities has allowed for new insights into the understanding of compact x-ray emitting objects including neutron stars and pulsars. We briefly review the Chandra Program and the first two years of observation with emphasis on these interesting objects. We detail the results of our observations of the pulsar in the Crab Nebula including the first continuum spectrum that is virtually uncontaminated by any dust-scattered radiation.

  10. Pulsar Astrophysics at Very High Energies in the Fermi-HAWC Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz Parkinson, Pablo; Belfiore, A.; HAWC Collaboration; Fermi LAT Collaboration

    2013-04-01

    Pulsar astrophysics has received a major boost in recent years with the tremendous progress achieved in the gamma-ray regime. In the 0.1-100 GeV energy range, where pulsars emit a large fraction of their energy, the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) is providing an abundance of high-quality data, greatly improving our understanding of the pulsar mechanism. In addition to detecting over 120 pulsars, the improved statistics from the LAT have enabled studies of some of the brightest pulsars with exquisite detail, up to unprecedented energies (in some cases above 25 GeV), finally bridging the gap with ground-based instruments. At very high energies (VHE, > 100 GeV), recent detections by VERITAS and MAGIC of pulsations from the Crab pose a serious challenge to pulsar models. It is unclear whether the Crab is unique in this respect, or whether VHE emission is common in other pulsars. Some models predict that such emission should smoothly connect with the standard GeV emission seen by the LAT, while others point instead to a different spectral (e.g. inverse Compton) component altogether. If present in other pulsars, such a component might be found at higher energies (> 1 TeV), but its flux is highly uncertain. Further VHE observations of pulsars are crucial to distinguish between (and constrain) the competing scenarios. The High Altitude Water Cherenkov Observatory (HAWC), currently under construction in Mexico, is well-suited to perform observations of pulsars above 100 GeV. The HAWC detector has a wide field of view, high duty cycle, and excellent sensitivity 15 times better than its predecessor Milagro), and its contemporaneous operation with Fermi should enable it to carry out the first comprehensive survey of northern-hemisphere gamma-ray pulsars above 100 GeV. I will discuss the motivations, goals, timeline, and sensitivity of HAWC searches for VHE emission from pulsars.

  11. Generative pulsar timing analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentati, L.; Alexander, P.; Hobson, M. P.

    2015-03-01

    A new Bayesian method for the analysis of folded pulsar timing data is presented that allows for the simultaneous evaluation of evolution in the pulse profile in either frequency or time, along with the timing model and additional stochastic processes such as red spin noise, or dispersion measure variations. We model the pulse profiles using `shapelets' - a complete orthonormal set of basis functions that allow us to recreate any physical profile shape. Any evolution in the profiles can then be described as either an arbitrary number of independent profiles, or using some functional form. We perform simulations to compare this approach with established methods for pulsar timing analysis, and to demonstrate model selection between different evolutionary scenarios using the Bayesian evidence. The simplicity of our method allows for many possible extensions, such as including models for correlated noise in the pulse profile, or broadening of the pulse profiles due to scattering. As such, while it is a marked departure from standard pulsar timing analysis methods, it has clear applications for both new and current data sets, such as those from the European Pulsar Timing Array and International Pulsar Timing Array.

  12. ON THE POLAR CAP CASCADE PAIR MULTIPLICITY OF YOUNG PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Timokhin, A. N.; Harding, A. K.

    2015-09-10

    We study the efficiency of pair production in polar caps of young pulsars under a variety of conditions to estimate the maximum possible multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres. We develop a semi-analytic model for calculation of cascade multiplicity which allows efficient exploration of the parameter space and corroborate it with direct numerical simulations. Pair creation processes are considered separately from particle acceleration in order to assess different factors affecting cascade efficiency, with acceleration of primary particles described by recent self-consistent non-stationary model of pair cascades. We argue that the most efficient cascades operate in the curvature radiation/synchrotron regime, the maximum multiplicity of pair plasma in pulsar magnetospheres is ∼few × 10{sup 5}. The multiplicity of pair plasma in magnetospheres of young energetic pulsars weakly depends on the strength of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of magnetic field lines and has a stronger dependence on pulsar inclination angle. This result questions assumptions about very high pair plasma multiplicity in theories of pulsar wind nebulae.

  13. X-Ray States of Redback Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as "redbacks," constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L X), between (6-9) × 1032 erg s-1 (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 1033 erg s-1 (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L X in the pulsar state (>1032 erg s-1).

  14. NANOGrav Millisecond Pulsar Observing Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nice, David J.; Nanograv

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves from sources such as supermassive black hole binary systems are expected to perturb times-of-flight of signals traveling from pulsars to the Earth. The NANOGrav consortium aims to measure these perturbations in high precision millisecond pulsar timing measurements and thus to directly detect gravitational waves and characterize gravitational wave sources. By observing pulsars over time spans of many years, we are most sensitive to gravitational waves at nanohertz frequencies.In this presentation we describe the NANOGrav observing program. We presently observe an array of 45 millisecond pulsars, evenly divided between the Arecibo Observatory (for pulsars with declinations between -1 and 39 degrees) and the Green Bank Telescope (for other pulsars, with two pulsars overlapping with Arecibo). Observation of a large number of pulsars allows for searches of correlated perturbations between multiple pulsar signals, which will be crucial for achieving high-significance detection of gravitational waves in the face of uncorrelated noise (from gravitational waves and rotation noise) in the individual pulsars. As new high-quality pulsars are discovered, they are added to the program.Observations of each pulsar are made with cadence of 20 to 30 days, with observations of each pulsar in two separate radio bands. Arrival times for nearly all pulsars are measured with precision better than 1 microsecond (averaged over a typical observation of 20 minutes), and in the best cases the precision is better than 100 nanoseconds.We describe the NANOGrav nine-year data release, which contains time-of-arrival measurements and high quality timing solutions from 37 pulsars observed over spans ranging between 0.7 to 9.3 years.

  15. The evolution of binary millisecond pulsars and the formation of planets around them

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banit, Menashe

    1993-01-01

    We show that the formation of planets around a millisecond pulsar may occur in a very late phase of Low-Mass X-Ray Binary (LMXB) or Binary-Millisecond-Pulsar (BMP) evolution. We propose a new mechanism in which the companion winds in these phases form through the combined action of the radiation heat on the companion's atmosphere and the radiation force on the slowly lifting wind. This mechanism can produce relatively high mass flow rates, and provided the companion is bloated, it explains the observed rapid angular momentum loss of the binary millisecond pulsar 1957 + 20. With such wind the evaporated matter can be supplied to a circumbinary 'excretion' disk in which the physical conditions, similar to those appropriate for the BMP1957 + 20 system, may allow the formation of planets like those observed in PSR1257 + 12. This model connects the conventional evolutionary scenario for the formation of a millisecond pulsar with the formation of planets around it.

  16. Pulsar Bursts Coming From Beachball-Sized Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-03-01

    In a major breakthrough for understanding what one of them calls "the most exotic environment in the Universe," a team of astronomers has discovered that powerful radio bursts in pulsars are generated by structures as small as a beach ball. VLA Image of Crab Nebula VLA Image of Crab Nebula (Click on Image for Larger Version) Pulsar Diagram Diagram of a Pulsar (Click on Image for Larger Version) "These are by far the smallest objects ever detected outside our solar system," said Tim Hankins, leader of the research team, which studied the pulsar at the center of the Crab Nebula, more than 6,000 light-years from Earth. "The small size of these regions is inconsistent with all but one proposed theory for how the radio emission is generated," he added. The other members of the team are Jeff Kern, James Weatherall and Jean Eilek. Hankins was a visiting scientist at Arecibo Observatory in Puerto Rico at the time the pulsar observations were made. He and Eilek are professors at the New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology (New Mexico Tech) in Socorro, NM. Kern is a graduate student at NM Tech and a predoctoral fellow at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro. Weatherall is an adjunct professor at NM Tech, currently working at the Federal Aviation Administration. The astronomers reported their discovery in the March 13 edition of the scientific journal Nature. Pulsars are superdense neutron stars, the remnants of massive stars that exploded as supernovae. Pulsars emit powerful beams of radio waves and light. As the neutron star spins, the beam sweeps through space like the beam of a lighthouse. When such a beam sweeps across the Earth, astronomers see a pulse from the pulsar. The Crab pulsar spins some 33 times every second. British radio astronomers discovered pulsars in 1967, one receiving the Nobel Prize for the discovery. In the years since, the method by which pulsars produce their powerful beams of electromagnetic radiation has remained a

  17. Youngest Radio Pulsar Revealed with Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-04-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's (NSF) newly commissioned Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have detected remarkably faint radio signals from an 820 year-old pulsar, making it the youngest radio-emitting pulsar known. This discovery pushes the boundaries of radio telescope sensitivity for discovering pulsars, and will enable scientists to conduct observations that could lead to a better understanding of how these stars evolve. The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope "Important questions about pulsars may be answered by long-term monitoring of objects such as the one we just detected," said Fernando Camilo of Columbia University in New York City. "Young pulsars are particularly rare, and being able to study such a young one at radio wavelengths provides an outstanding opportunity to learn critical facts about their evolution and workings." The results of this research, based on observations conducted on February 22-23, 2002, were accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal Letters. Scientists have long suspected that a pulsar - a rapidly spinning, superdense neutron star - was born when a giant star ended its life in a cataclysmic supernova explosion observed in late summer of 1181, as suggested by Japanese and Chinese historical records. For the past 20 years, astronomers have searched this supernova remnant (3C58), located 10,000 light-years away in the constellation Cassiopeia, for the telltale pulsations of a newly born pulsar. Late in 2001, data from NASA's Chandra X-ray satellite confirmed its existence, but it remained an elusive quarry for radio telescopes. "We believed from historical records and certainly knew from recent X-ray observations that this star was there," Camilo remarked, "but despite many attempts, no one had been able to find any radio pulsations from it because the signals are, it turns out, incredibly weak." For comparison, this pulsar's radio emission is some 250

  18. Pulsars:. Gigantic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Renxin

    What is the real nature of pulsars? This is essentially a question of the fundamental strong interaction between quarks at low-energy scale and hence of the non-perturbative quantum chromo-dynamics, the solution of which would certainly be meaningful for us to understand one of the seven millennium prize problems (i.e., "Yang-Mills Theory") named by the Clay Mathematical Institute. After a historical note, it is argued here that a pulsar is very similar to an extremely big nucleus, but is a little bit different from the gigantic nucleus speculated 80 years ago by L. Landau. The paper demonstrates the similarity between pulsars and gigantic nuclei from both points of view: the different manifestations of compact stars and the general behavior of the strong interaction.

  19. Modelling pulsar glitches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, Brynmor

    2016-07-01

    Pulsar glitches, i.e. sudden jumps in the spin frequency of pulsars, are thought to be due to the presence of large scale superfluid components in neutron star interiors, and offer a unique insight into the physics of matter at high densities and low temperatures. Nevertheless, more than forty years after the first observation, many open questions still exist on the nature of pulsar glitches. In this talk I will review our current theoretical understanding of glitches, of their trigger mechanisms and of the hydrodynamics of superfluid neutron stars. In particular I will focus on 'superfluid vortex avalanches' and recent advances in applying this paradigm to glitch observations, and I will discuss hydrodynamical modelling of the post-glitch recovery.

  20. Young rotation-powered pulsars as ultraluminous X-ray sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Aleksei S.; Poutanen, Juri

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate a possible contribution of the rotation-powered pulsars and pulsar wind nebulae to the population of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs). We first develop an analytical model for the evolution of the distribution function of pulsars over the spin period and find both the steady-state and the time-dependent solutions. Using the recent results on the X-ray efficiency dependence on pulsar characteristic age, we then compute the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of rotation-powered pulsars. In a general case, it has a broken power-law shape with a high-luminosity cutoff, which depends on the distributions of the birth spin period and the magnetic field. Using the observed XLF of sources in the nearby galaxies and the condition that the pulsar XLF does not exceed that, we find the allowed region for the parameters describing the birth period distribution. We find that the mean pulsar period should be greater than 10-40 ms. These results are consistent with the constraints obtained from the X-ray luminosity of core-collapse supernovae. We estimate that the contribution of the rotation-powered pulsars to the ULX population is at a level exceeding 3 per cent. For a wide birth period distribution, this fraction grows with luminosity and above 1040 erg s-1 pulsars can dominate the ULX population.

  1. Pulsar timing for the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D. A.; Guillemot, L.; Camilo, F.; Cognard, I.; Dumora, D.; Espinoza, C.; Freire, P. C. C.; Gotthelf, E. V.; Harding, A. K.; Hobbs, G. B.; Johnston, S.; Kaspi, V. M.; Kramer, M.; Livingstone, M. A.; Lyne, A. G.; Manchester, R. N.; Marshall, F. E.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Noutsos, A.; Ransom, S. M.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Romani, R. W.; Stappers, B. W.; Theureau, G.; Thompson, D. J.; Thorsett, S. E.; Wang, N.; Weltevrede, P.

    2008-10-27

    Here, we describe a comprehensive pulsar monitoring campaign for the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly GLAST). The detection and study of pulsars in gamma rays give insights into the populations of neutron stars and supernova rates in the Galaxy, into particle acceleration mechanisms in neutron star magnetospheres, and into the “engines” driving pulsar wind nebulae. LAT's unprecedented sensitivity between 20 MeV and 300 GeV together with its 2.4 sr field-of-view makes detection of many gamma-ray pulsars likely, justifying the monitoring of over two hundred pulsars with large spin-down powers. To search for gamma-ray pulsations from most of these pulsars requires a set of phase-connected timing solutions spanning a year or more to properly align the sparse photon arrival times. We describe the choice of pulsars and the instruments involved in the campaign. Attention is paid to verifications of the LAT pulsar software, using for example giant radio pulses from the Crab and from PSR B1937+21 recorded at Nançay, and using X-ray data on PSR J0218+4232 from XMM-Newton. We demonstrate accuracy of the pulsar phase calculations at the microsecond level.

  2. Gamma ray observations of the Crab pulsar - Past, present, future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes some of the high-energy observations of the Crab-Nebula pulsar, PSR0531+22. The pulse profiles of the Crab pulsar obtained in balloon-borne observations in 1967 and 1980 are presented. At present, gamma-ray scintillation detectors aboard the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) form the basis of the Burst and Transient Source Experiment (BATSE). The pulsar, which is observed daily by the BATSE, is used by all four GRO/BATSE detectors as a calibration source since it emits a steady, strong, well-known spectrum of gamma rays over the entire energy range to which detectors are sensitive. The paper presents an example of a pulse profile obtained with the BATSE.

  3. Rotating Radio Transients and Their Place Among Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke-Spolaor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Six years ago, the discovery of Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs) marked what appeared to be a new type of sparsely-emitting pulsar. Since 2006, more than 70 of these objects have been discovered in single-pulse searches of archival and new surveys. With a continual inflow of new information about the RRAT population in the form of new discoveries, multi-frequency follow ups, coherent timing solutions, and pulse rate statistics, a view is beginning to form of the place in the pulsar population RRATs hold. Here we review the properties of neutron stars discovered through single pulse searches. We first seek to clarify the definition of the term RRAT, emphasising that "the RRAT population" encompasses several phenomenologies. A large subset of RRATs appears to represent the tail of an extended distribution of pulsar nulling fractions and activity cycles; these objects present several key open questions remaining in this field.

  4. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bühler, R.; Blandford, R.

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as ‘the Crab’) have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  5. The surprising Crab pulsar and its nebula: a review.

    PubMed

    Bühler, R; Blandford, R

    2014-06-01

    The Crab nebula and its pulsar (referred to together as 'the Crab') have historically played a central role in astrophysics. True to this legacy, several unique discoveries have been made recently. The Crab was found to emit gamma-ray pulsations up to energies of 400 GeV, beyond what was previously expected from pulsars. Strong gamma-ray flares, of durations of a few days, were discovered from within the nebula, while the source was previously expected to be stable in flux on these time scales. Here we review these intriguing and suggestive developments. In this context we give an overview of the observational properties of the Crab and our current understanding of pulsars and their nebulae.

  6. Rotating Radio Transients and Their Place Among Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke-Spolaor, S.

    2012-01-01

    Six years ago, the discovery of Rotating Radio Transients (RRATs) marked what appeared to be a new type of sparsely-emitting pulsar. Since 2006, more than 70 of these objects have been discovered in single-pulse searches of archival and new surveys. With a continual inflow of new information about the RRAT population in the form of new discoveries, multi-frequency follow ups, coherent timing solutions, and pulse rate statistics, a view is beginning to form of the place in the pulsar population RRATs hold. Here we review the properties of neutron stars discovered through single pulse searches. We first seek to clarify the definition of the term RRAT, emphasising that "the RRAT population" encompasses several phenomenologies. A large subset of RRATs appears to represent the tail of an extended distribution of pulsar nulling fractions and activity cycles; these objects present several key open questions remaining in this field.

  7. What the timing of millisecond pulsars can teach us about their interior.

    PubMed

    Alford, Mark G; Schwenzer, Kai

    2014-12-19

    The cores of compact stars reach the highest densities in nature and therefore could consist of novel phases of matter. We demonstrate via a detailed analysis of pulsar evolution that precise pulsar timing data can constrain the star's composition, through unstable global oscillations (r modes) whose damping is determined by microscopic properties of the interior. If not efficiently damped, these modes emit gravitational waves that quickly spin down a millisecond pulsar. As a first application of this general method, we find that ungapped interacting quark matter is consistent with both the observed radio and x-ray data, whereas for ordinary nuclear matter some additional enhanced damping mechanism is required.

  8. Scientific uses of pulsars.

    PubMed

    Counselman, C C; Shapiro, I I

    1968-10-18

    The recently discovered celestial sources of pulsed radio energy can be used to test general relativity, to study the solar corona, and to determine the earth's orbit and ephemeris time. The vector positions and transverse velocities of pulsars can be measured with radio interferometers; in combination with pulse-arrival-time data, the distance determination will yield the average interstellar electron density.

  9. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, R.; Heatherly, S.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Boyles, J. R.; Wilson, M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) (NSF #0737641) is a joint project between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to interest high school students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics related career paths by helping them to conduct authentic scientific research. The 3 year PSC program,…

  10. The Pulsar Search Collaboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, R.; Heatherly, S.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Boyles, J. R.; Wilson, M.; Lorimer, D. R.; Lynch, R.; Ransom, S.

    2010-01-01

    The Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC) (NSF #0737641) is a joint project between the National Radio Astronomy Observatory and West Virginia University designed to interest high school students in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics related career paths by helping them to conduct authentic scientific research. The 3 year PSC program,…

  11. Nulling and intermittent pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Neil

    2011-07-01

    Pulsars are extremely magnetised, rapidly rotating neutron stars which produce beams of electromagnetic radiation that sweep across the Earth. They exhibit a variety of interesting phenomena which allow us to gain insight into the physics of the emission process in these extreme magnetic fields. Intermittent pulsars are instrumental in this study due to their meta-stable configurations which result in abrupt cessation or re-activation of their radio emission. Their behaviour is believed to be tied to transient particle flow in the radio emission region. In the case of PSR B1931+24, the long-term modulation in the radio emission has been linked with the spin-down rate of the pulsar. Thus, offering a unique opportunity to study how magnetospheric changes can affect the magnetic braking of pulsars. Since the discovery of this behaviour in B1931+24, several other sources have been found to show similar radio emission modulation. Results from the analysis of the radio emission behaviour of these sources are presented, along with an update of the work carried out on observations of PSR B1931+24.

  12. Pulsars and Acceleration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for the studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. But even forty years after their discovery, we still do not understand their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review both the basic physics of pulsars as well as the latest developments in understanding their high-energy emission. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. Fortunately the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), with launch in May 2008 will detect many new gamma-ray pulsars and test the predictions of these models with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 300 GeV.

  13. Pulsars and Acceleration Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice

    2008-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for the studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. But even forty years after their discovery, we still do not understand their pulsed emission at any wavelength. I will review both the basic physics of pulsars as well as the latest developments in understanding their high-energy emission. Special and general relativistic effects play important roles in pulsar emission, from inertial frame-dragging near the stellar surface to aberration, time-of-flight and retardation of the magnetic field near the light cylinder. Understanding how these effects determine what we observe at different wavelengths is critical to unraveling the emission physics. Fortunately the Gamma-Ray Large Area Space Telescope (GLAST), with launch in May 2008 will detect many new gamma-ray pulsars and test the predictions of these models with unprecedented sensitivity and energy resolution for gamma-rays in the range of 30 MeV to 300 GeV.

  14. The Spectrum of LMC Pulsar B0540-69; Carryover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bless, Robert

    1994-01-01

    PSR B0540-69, a 50 ms pulsar located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is the most distant pulsar known. B0540-69 is one of the few pulsars for which a second time derivative of rotational frequency has been measured. High Speed Photometer observations in a UV + visible passband (1600 - 7000 angstroms) showed a pulse profile identical to that in the X-ray region, with the same pulsed fraction (van Citters et al 1994). The rotational frequency observed by HSP, when compared with previous measurements, gave a value of 2.28 (0.02) for the braking index. B0540-69 is similar to the Crab pulsar in its rotational perior and associated synchrotron-emitting nebula (a "plerion"), but its pulse profile and braking index are strikingly different. We propose her to obtain an objective prism spectrum of B0540-69 to compare its spectral energy distribution in the UV and blue with that of the Crab pulsar and to determine the fractional part of our UV plus visible pulse profile due to UV photons. Our objective prism spectrum with the FOS Blue detector will measure the relative energy distribution between ~1850 and ~5000 angstroms.

  15. Searches for Pulsars at the Center of the Galaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majid, Walid

    2015-08-01

    Pulsars are highly magnetized, rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit a beam of electromagnetic radiation that could be detected at Earth, if the emission beam is pointing toward the Earth, analogous to the way a lighthouse can be seen when the light is pointed in the direction of the observer. Pulsars within the central parsec of our Galaxy is expected to make excellent probes of not only the environment of the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, but also in the case of pulsar/black hole binary systems expected in this region, of their own rich environment dominated by relativistic gravity effects. In this presentation I will give an overview of why it is important to search for pulsars in the center of the galaxy, and a summary of previous and ongoing efforts to survey this region with radio telescopes. I will describe the difficulties encountered with current surveys and prospects for detection of perhaps hundreds of pulsars in this region with new generations of radio telescopes now under construction.

  16. Prospects of observing continuous gravitational waves from known pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitkin, Matthew

    2011-08-01

    Several past searches for gravitational waves from a selection of known pulsars have been performed with data from the science runs of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) gravitational wave detectors. So far these have led to no detection, but upper limits on the gravitational wave amplitudes have been set. Here we study our intrinsic ability to detect, and estimate the gravitational wave amplitude for non-accreting pulsars. Using spin-down limits on emission as a guide we examine amplitudes that would be required to observe known pulsars with future detectors (Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and the Einstein Telescope), assuming that they are triaxial stars emitting at precisely twice the known rotation frequency. Maximum allowed amplitudes depend on the stars’ equation of state (e.g. a normal neutron star, a quark star, a hybrid star) and the theoretical mass quadrupoles that they can sustain. We study what range of quadrupoles, and therefore equation of state (EoS), would be consistent with being able to detect these sources. For globular cluster pulsars, with spin-downs masked by accelerations within the cluster, we examine what spin-down values gravitational wave observations would be able to set. For all pulsars we also alternatively examine what internal magnetic fields they would need to sustain observable ellipticities.

  17. Student Discovers New Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-01-01

    A West Virginia high-school student has discovered a new pulsar, using data from the giant Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT). Shay Bloxton, 15, a participant in a project in which students analyze data from the radio telescope, spotted evidence of the pulsar on October 15. Bloxton, along with NRAO astronomers observed the object again one month later. The new observation confirmed that the object is a pulsar, a rotating, superdense neutron star. Bloxton is a sophomore at Nicholas County High School in Summersville, West Virginia. "I was very excited when I found out I had actually made a discovery," Bloxton said. She went to Green Bank in November to participate in the follow-up observation. She termed that visit "a great experience." "It also helped me learn a lot about how observations with the GBT are actually done," she added. The project in which she participated, called the Pulsar Search Collaboratory (PSC), is a joint project of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) and West Virginia University, funded by a grant from the National Science Foundation. Pulsars are known for their lighthouse-like beams of radio waves that sweep through space as the neutron star rotates, creating a pulse as the beam sweeps by the Earth. First discovered in 1967, pulsars serve as valuable natural "laboratories" for physicists studying exotic states of matter, quantum mechanics and General Relativity. The GBT, dedicated in 2000, has become one of the world's leading tools for discovering and studying pulsars. The PSC, led by NRAO Education Officer Sue Ann Heatherly and Project Director Rachel Rosen, includes training for teachers and student leaders, and provides parcels of data from the GBT to student teams. The project involves teachers and students in helping astronomers analyze data from 1500 hours of observing with the GBT. The 120 terabytes of data were produced by 70,000 individual pointings of the giant, 17-million-pound telescope. Some 300 hours of the

  18. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton Observations of the X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16320-4751/AX J1691.9-4752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Kaaret, P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Malaguti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Cabanac, C.; Chernyakova, M.; Corbel, S.; hide

    2006-01-01

    We report on observations of the X-ray pulsar IGR J16320-4751 (also known as AX J1631.9-4752) performed simultaneously with International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton. We refine the source position and identify the most likely infrared counterpart. Our simultaneous coverage allows us to confirm the presence of X-ray pulsations at approximately 1300 s, that we detect above 20 keV with INTEGRAL for the first time. The pulse fraction is consistent with being constant with energy, which is compatible with a model of polar accretion by a pulsar. We study the spectral properties of IGR J16320-4751 during two major periods occurring during the simultaneous coverage with both satellites, namely a flare and a non-flare period. We detect the presence of a narrow 6.4 keV iron line in both periods. The presence of such a feature is typical of supergiant wind accretors such as Vela X-1 or GX 301-2. We inspect the spectral variations with respect to the pulse phase during the non-flare period, and show that the pulse is solely due to variations of the X-ray flux emitted by the source and not due to variations of the spectral parameters. Our results are therefore compatible with the source being a pulsar in a High Mass X-ray Binary. We detect a soft excess appearing in the spectra as a blackbody with a temperature of approximately 0.07 keV. We discuss the origin of the X-ray emission in IGR J16320-4751: while the hard X-rays are likely the result of Compton emission produced in the close vicinity of the pulsar, based on energy argument we suggest that the soft excess is likely the emission by a collisionally energized cloud in which the compact object is embedded.

  19. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton Observations of the X-Ray Pulsar IGR J16320-4751/AX J1691.9-4752

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodriquez, J.; Bodaghee, A.; Kaaret, P.; Tomsick, J. A.; Kuulkers, E.; Malaguti, G.; Petrucci, P.-O.; Cabanac, C.; Chernyakova, M.; Corbel, S.; Deluit, S.; DiCocco, G.; Ebisawa, K.; Goldwurm, A.; Henri, G.; Lebrun, F.; Paizis, A.; Walter, R.; Foschini, L.

    2006-01-01

    We report on observations of the X-ray pulsar IGR J16320-4751 (also known as AX J1631.9-4752) performed simultaneously with International Gamma-Ray Astrophysics Laboratory (INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton. We refine the source position and identify the most likely infrared counterpart. Our simultaneous coverage allows us to confirm the presence of X-ray pulsations at approximately 1300 s, that we detect above 20 keV with INTEGRAL for the first time. The pulse fraction is consistent with being constant with energy, which is compatible with a model of polar accretion by a pulsar. We study the spectral properties of IGR J16320-4751 during two major periods occurring during the simultaneous coverage with both satellites, namely a flare and a non-flare period. We detect the presence of a narrow 6.4 keV iron line in both periods. The presence of such a feature is typical of supergiant wind accretors such as Vela X-1 or GX 301-2. We inspect the spectral variations with respect to the pulse phase during the non-flare period, and show that the pulse is solely due to variations of the X-ray flux emitted by the source and not due to variations of the spectral parameters. Our results are therefore compatible with the source being a pulsar in a High Mass X-ray Binary. We detect a soft excess appearing in the spectra as a blackbody with a temperature of approximately 0.07 keV. We discuss the origin of the X-ray emission in IGR J16320-4751: while the hard X-rays are likely the result of Compton emission produced in the close vicinity of the pulsar, based on energy argument we suggest that the soft excess is likely the emission by a collisionally energized cloud in which the compact object is embedded.

  20. On the randomness of pulsar nulls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Rankin, Joanna M.

    2009-05-01

    Pulsar nulling is not always a random process; most pulsars, in fact, null non-randomly. The Wald-Wolfowitz statistical runs test is a simple diagnostic that pulsar astronomers can use to identify pulsars that have non-random nulls. It is not clear at this point how the dichotomy in pulsar nulling randomness is related to the underlying nulling phenomenon, but its nature suggests that there are at least two distinct reasons that pulsars null.

  1. The Optimization of GBT Pulsar Data for the GBNCC Pulsar Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Ashlee Nicole; Green Bank NRAO, GBNCC

    2016-01-01

    The Green Bank Telescope collects data from the Green Bank Northern Celestial Cap (GBNCC) pulsar survey in order to find new pulsars within its sensitivity and also, to confirm previously found pulsars within its sensitivity range. The collected data is then loaded into the CyberSKA website database where astronomers are tasked with rating the data sets based on its potential to be a pulsar from 0(unclassified), 1(class 1 pulsar), 2(class 2 pulsar), 3(class 3 pulsar), 4(radio frequency interference), 5(not a pulsar), 6(know pulsar), 7(harmonic of a known pulsar). This specific research done was to use previously classified pulsars to create a python script that will automatically identify the data set as a pulsar or a non-pulsar. After finding the recurring frequencies of radio frequency interference (RFI), the frequencies were then added to a pipeline to further discern pulsars from RFI.

  2. Measuring the Spin Period of a High-Velocity Pulsar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomsick, John

    2012-10-01

    X-ray observations of IGR J11014-6103 show that it has a complex morphology with a point source and two components of extended emission. Its properties indicate that it is very likely to be a pulsar wind nebula (PWN). Chandra and radio observations strongly suggest that the compact object is moving away from SNR MSH 11-61A. Based on the evolution of this supernova remnant, an association would indicate that IGR J11014-6103 has a transverse velocity of 2,400 to 2,900 km/s. The possibility of such a high kick velocity makes the proposed timing study important for proving that the compact object is a pulsar, determining its period (P), and measuring dP/dt to determine if the characteristic age is consistent with the pulsar originating in MSH 11-61A.

  3. Atomic time scales and pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, G.

    2014-12-01

    I review the atomic time scales generated by the BIPM, International Atomic Time TAI and the realization of Terrestrial Time TT(BIPM). TT(BIPM) is shown to be now accurate to within a few 10..16 in relative frequency and the performances of TAI and TT(BIPM) are compared. Millisecond pulsars have a very regular period of rotation and data from several pulsars may be used to realize an ensemble pulsar timescale. It is shown that a pulsar timescale may detect past instabilities in TAI. However TT(BIPM) is much more stable than TAI and should be used as a reference in pulsar analysis. Since the beginning of regular millisecond pulsar observations in the 1980s, primary standards and atomic time have gained one order of magnitude in accuracy every ~ 12 years, and this trend should continue for some time.

  4. Why are Pulsar Planets Rare?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Rebecca G.; Livio, Mario; Palaniswamy, Divya

    2016-12-01

    Pulsar timing observations have revealed planets around only a few pulsars. We suggest that the rarity of these planets is due mainly to two effects. First, we show that the most likely formation mechanism requires the destruction of a companion star. Only pulsars with a suitable companion (with an extreme mass ratio) are able to form planets. Second, while a dead zone (a region of low turbulence) in the disk is generally thought to be essential for planet formation, it is most probably rare in disks around pulsars, because of the irradiation from the pulsar. The irradiation strongly heats the inner parts of the disk, thus pushing the inner boundary of the dead zone out. We suggest that the rarity of pulsar planets can be explained by the low probability for these two requirements to be satisfied: a very low-mass companion and a dead zone.

  5. A New Physical Model for Pulsars as Gravitational Shielding and Oscillating Neutron Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tianxi

    2014-06-01

    Pulsars are fast rotating neutron stars that synchronously emit periodic Dirac delta shape pulses of radio-frequency radiation and Lorentzian shape oscillations of X-rays. The acceleration of particles near the magnetic poles, which derivate from the rotating axis produces coherent beams of radio emissions that are viewed as pulses of radiation whenever the magnetic poles sweep the viewers. However, the conventional lighthouse model of pulsars is only conceptual. The physical mechanism through which particles are accelerated to produce coherent beams of radio emissions is still poorly understood. The process for periodically oscillating X-rays to emit from hot spots at the inner edge of accretion disks of pulsars is also remained as an unsolved mystery. Recently, a new physical model of pulsars is proposed by the author to quantitatively interpret the emission characteristics of pulsars, in accordance with his well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein gravitational shielding theory and the physics of thermal and accelerating charged particle radiation. The results indicate that with the significant gravitational shielding by scalar field a neutron star nonlinearly oscillates and produces synchronous periodically Dirac delta shape pulse-like radio-frequency radiation (emitted by the oscillating or accelerating charged particles) as well as periodically Lorentzian shape oscillating X-rays (as the thermal radiation of neutron stars that temperature varies due to the oscillation). This physical model of pulsars as gravitational shielding and oscillating neutron stars broadens our understanding of neutron stars and develops an innovative mechanism to disclose the mystery of pulsars. In this presentation, I will show the results obtained from the quantitative studies of this new physical model of pulsars for the oscillations of neutron stars and the powers of radio pulse-like emissions and oscillating X-rays.

  6. Disentangling X-Ray Emission Processes in Vela-Like Pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaensler, Bryan; Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    We present a deep observation with the X-Ray Multimirror Mission of PSR B1823-13, a young pulsar with similar properties to the Vela pulsar. We detect two components to the X-ray emission associated with PSR B1823-13: an elongated core of extent 30 min immediately surrounding the pulsar embedded in a fainter, diffuse component of emission 5 sec in extent, seen only on the southern side of the pulsar. The pulsar itself is not detected, either as a point source or through its pulsations. Both components of the X-ray emission are well fitted by a power-law spectrum, with photon index Gamma approx. 1.6 and X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV) L(sub X) approx. 9 x 10(exp 32) ergs/s for the core and Gamma approx. 2.3 and L(sub X) approx. 3 x 10(exp 33) ergs/s for the diffuse emission, for a distance of 4 kpc. We interpret both components of emission as corresponding to a pulsar wind nebula, which we designate G18.0-0.7. We argue that the core region represents the wind termination shock of this nebula, while the diffuse component indicates the shocked downstream wind. We propose that the asymmetric morphology of the diffuse emission with respect to the pulsar is the result of a reverse shock from an associated supernova remnant, which has compressed and distorted the pulsar-powered nebula. Such an interaction might be typical for pulsars at this stage in their evolution. The associated supernova remnant is not detected directly, most likely being too faint to be seen in existing X-ray and radio observations.

  7. a Surprise from the Pulsar in the Crab Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-11-01

    New observations of the spectrum of the rapidly spinning neutron star (the `pulsar') in the Crab Nebula have been carried out with the ESO 3.5-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT) by a group of Italian astronomers [1]. Because of greatly improved spectral resolution which allows to register even very fine details in the pulsar's spectrum, they are able to determine for the first time with high accuracy the overall dependance of the emission on wavelength, i.e. the `shape' of the spectrum. Quite unexpectedly, they also detect a hitherto unknown 100 A (10 nm) broad `absorption dip', which can be securely attributed to the pulsar. These results open an exciting new window for the study of the extreme physical processes close to a pulsar. The Nature of Pulsars It is estimated that there may be as many as 100 million neutron stars in our Galaxy. A neutron star is the superdense remnant of the extremely violent supernova explosion that occurs at the end of the life of a comparatively massive star. In fact, all stars that are more than about 6 times heavier than the Sun are believed to end their lives as supernovae. During the explosion, the central core of the dying star collapses in a few milliseconds and the matter at the centre is compressed to a density comparable to that of an atomic nucleus. Due to the enormous inward pressure, the atomic particles are squeezed together into a kind of neutron jam. The outcome is the formation of a neutron star with a diameter of 10-15 kilometres, weighing as much as the Sun. In accordance with the physical law that implies that the rotation momentum of the exploding star must be conserved, newborn neutron stars will rotate very rapidly around their axis, in some cases as fast as 100 times per second. In the same way, the new neutron star is expected to possess a strong magnetic field. Of these myriads of neutron stars, about 700 have been observed to emit radio pulses (hence the name `pulsar'). A few of these can also be detected

  8. Physical Conditions in the Reconnection Layer in Pulsar Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet (CS) beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this CS inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. We develop a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment and discuss its implications for the observed pulsed gamma-ray emission. We argue that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via a hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. Using the conditions of pressure balance across these current layers, the balance between the heating by magnetic energy dissipation and synchrotron cooling, and Ampere's law, we obtain simple estimates for key parameters of the layers—temperature, density, and layer thickness. In the comoving frame of the relativistic pulsar wind just outside of the equatorial CS, these basic parameters are uniquely determined by the strength of the reconnecting upstream magnetic field. For the case of the Crab pulsar, we find them to be of order 10 GeV, 1013 cm-3, and 10 cm, respectively. After accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting due to the pulsar wind, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from the reconnecting CS can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and very high energy (~100 GeV) radiation, respectively. Also, we suggest that the rapid relative motions of the secondary plasmoids in the hierarchical chain may contribute to the production of the pulsar radio emission.

  9. Physical conditions in the reconnection layer in pulsar magnetospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Uzdensky, Dmitri A.; Spitkovsky, Anatoly E-mail: anatoly@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-01-01

    The magnetosphere of a rotating pulsar naturally develops a current sheet (CS) beyond the light cylinder (LC). Magnetic reconnection in this CS inevitably dissipates a nontrivial fraction of the pulsar spin-down power within a few LC radii. We develop a basic physical picture of reconnection in this environment and discuss its implications for the observed pulsed gamma-ray emission. We argue that reconnection proceeds in the plasmoid-dominated regime, via a hierarchical chain of multiple secondary islands/flux ropes. The inter-plasmoid reconnection layers are subject to strong synchrotron cooling, leading to significant plasma compression. Using the conditions of pressure balance across these current layers, the balance between the heating by magnetic energy dissipation and synchrotron cooling, and Ampere's law, we obtain simple estimates for key parameters of the layers—temperature, density, and layer thickness. In the comoving frame of the relativistic pulsar wind just outside of the equatorial CS, these basic parameters are uniquely determined by the strength of the reconnecting upstream magnetic field. For the case of the Crab pulsar, we find them to be of order 10 GeV, 10{sup 13} cm{sup –3}, and 10 cm, respectively. After accounting for the bulk Doppler boosting due to the pulsar wind, the synchrotron and inverse-Compton emission from the reconnecting CS can explain the observed pulsed high-energy (GeV) and very high energy (∼100 GeV) radiation, respectively. Also, we suggest that the rapid relative motions of the secondary plasmoids in the hierarchical chain may contribute to the production of the pulsar radio emission.

  10. Discovery of the optical counterparts to four energetic Fermi millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Breton, R. P.; Van Kerkwijk, M. H.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Camilo, F.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Stairs, I. H.

    2013-06-01

    In the last few years, over 43 millisecond radio pulsars have been discovered by targeted searches of unidentified γ-ray sources found by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. A large fraction of these millisecond pulsars are in compact binaries with low-mass companions. These systems often show eclipses of the pulsar signal and are commonly known as black widows and redbacks because the pulsar is gradually destroying its companion. In this paper, we report on the optical discovery of four strongly irradiated millisecond pulsar companions. All four sources show modulations of their color and luminosity at the known orbital periods from radio timing. Light curve modeling of our exploratory data shows that the equilibrium temperature reached on the companion's dayside with respect to their nightside is consistent with about 10%-30% of the available spin-down energy from the pulsar being reprocessed to increase the companion's dayside temperature. This value compares well with the range observed in other irradiated pulsar binaries and offers insights about the energetics of the pulsar wind and the production of γ-ray emission. In addition, this provides a simple way of estimating the brightness of irradiated pulsar companions given the pulsar spin-down luminosity. Our analysis also suggests that two of the four new irradiated pulsar companions are only partially filling their Roche lobe. Some of these sources are relatively bright and represent good targets for spectroscopic follow-up. These measurements could enable, among other things, mass determination of the neutron stars in these systems.

  11. SIGPROC: Pulsar Signal Processing Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorimer, D. R.

    2011-07-01

    SIGPROC is a package designed to standardize the initial analysis of the many types of fast-sampled pulsar data. Currently recognized machines are the Wide Band Arecibo Pulsar Processor (WAPP), the Penn State Pulsar Machine (PSPM), the Arecibo Observatory Fourier Transform Machine (AOFTM), the Berkeley Pulsar Processors (BPP), the Parkes/Jodrell 1-bit filterbanks (SCAMP) and the filterbank at the Ooty radio telescope (OOTY). The SIGPROC tools should help users look at their data quickly, without the need to write (yet) another routine to read data or worry about big/little endian compatibility (byte swapping is handled automatically).

  12. Gamma radiation from radio pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ruderman, Malvin

    1990-01-01

    The probable magnetospheric location and source of the gamma ray emission from some young radiopulsars is discussed. The suggested evolution of this emission as a function of pulsar period gives a diminished gamma-ray luminosity for a more rapidly spinning pre-Crab pulsar. A greatly enhanced one, similar to that of unidentified Cos B sources, is predicted for a slightly slower post-Vela pulsar, followed by a relatively rapid quenching of the gamma-ray luminosity at still longer periods. Possible anomalous exo-magnetospheric pulsed MeV and TeV-PeV radiation from the Crab pulsar is considered.

  13. PSR J0737-3039B: A PROBE OF RADIO PULSAR EMISSION HEIGHTS

    SciTech Connect

    Perera, B. B. P.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lomiashvili, D.; Gourgouliatos, K. N.; Lyutikov, M.

    2012-05-10

    In the double pulsar system PSR J0737-3039A/B, the strong wind produced by pulsar A distorts the magnetosphere of pulsar B. The influence of these distortions on the orbital-dependent emission properties of pulsar B can be used to determine the location of the coherent radio emission generation region in the pulsar magnetosphere. Using a model of the wind-distorted magnetosphere of pulsar B and the well-defined geometrical parameters of the system, we determine the minimum emission height to be {approx}20R{sub NS} in the two bright orbital longitude regions. We can determine the maximum emission height by accounting for the amount of deflection of the polar field line with respect to the magnetic axis using the analytical magnetic reconnection model of Dungey and the semi-empirical numerical model of Tsyganenko. Both of these models estimate the maximum emission height to be {approx}2500R{sub NS}. The minimum and maximum emission heights we calculate are consistent with those estimated for normal isolated pulsars.

  14. Newly Born Pulsars as Sources of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Ke; Kotera, Kumiko; Olinto, Angela V.

    2012-05-01

    Newly born pulsars offer favorable sites for the injection of heavy nuclei, and for their further acceleration to ultrahigh energies. Once accelerated in the pulsar wind, nuclei have to escape from the surrounding supernova envelope. We examine this escape analytically and numerically and discuss the pulsar source scenario in light of the latest ultrahigh energy cosmic ray (UHECR) data. Our calculations show that, at early times, when protons can be accelerated to energies E > 1020 eV, the young supernova shell tends to prevent their escape. In contrast, because of their higher charge, iron-peaked nuclei are still accelerated to the highest observed energies at later times, when the envelope has become thin enough to allow their escape. Ultrahigh energy iron nuclei escape newly born pulsars with millisecond periods and dipole magnetic fields of ~1012-1013 G, embedded in core-collapse supernovae. Due to the production of secondary nucleons, the envelope crossing leads to a transition of composition from light to heavy elements at a few EeV, as observed by the Auger Observatory. The escape also results in a softer spectral slope than that initially injected via unipolar induction, which allows for a good fit to the observed UHECR spectrum. We conclude that the acceleration of iron-peaked elements in a reasonably small fraction (lsim 0.01%) of extragalactic rotation-powered young pulsars would reproduce satisfactorily the current UHECR data. Possible signatures of this scenario are also discussed.

  15. The Extended Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Constantinos, Kalapotharakos; Demosthenes, Kazanas; Ioannis, Contopoulos

    2012-01-01

    We present the structure of the 3D ideal MHD pulsar magnetosphere to a radius ten times that of the light cylinder, a distance about an order of magnitude larger than any previous such numerical treatment. Its overall structure exhibits a stable, smooth, well-defined undulating current sheet which approaches the kinematic split monopole solution of Bogovalov 1999 only after a careful introduction of diffusivity even in the highest resolution simulations. It also exhibits an intriguing spiral region at the crossing of two zero charge surfaces on the current sheet, which shows a destabilizing behavior more prominent in higher resolution simulations. We discuss the possibility that this region is physically (and not numerically) unstable. Finally, we present the spiral pulsar antenna radiation pattern.

  16. Electrodynamics of Pulsar Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Benoît; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2016-12-01

    We review electrodynamics of rotating magnetized neutron stars, from the early vacuum model to recent numerical experiments with plasma-filled magnetospheres. Significant progress became possible due to the development of global particle-in-cell simulations which capture particle acceleration, emission of high-energy photons, and electron-positron pair creation. The numerical experiments show from first principles how and where electric gaps form, and promise to explain the observed pulsar activity from radio waves to gamma-rays.

  17. Pulsar extinction. [astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.; Baker, K.; Turk, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Radio emission from pulsars, attributed to an instability associated with the creation of electron-positron pairs from gamma rays was investigated. The condition for pair creation therefore lead to an extinction condition. The relevant physical processes were analyzed in the context of a mathematical model, according to which radiation originated at the polar caps and magnetic field lines changed from a closed configuration to an open configuration at the force balance or corotation radius.

  18. Electrodynamics of Pulsar Magnetospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerutti, Benoît; Beloborodov, Andrei M.

    2017-07-01

    We review electrodynamics of rotating magnetized neutron stars, from the early vacuum model to recent numerical experiments with plasma-filled magnetospheres. Significant progress became possible due to the development of global particle-in-cell simulations which capture particle acceleration, emission of high-energy photons, and electron-positron pair creation. The numerical experiments show from first principles how and where electric gaps form, and promise to explain the observed pulsar activity from radio waves to gamma-rays.

  19. Deep optical imaging of the γ-ray pulsar J1048-5832 with the VLT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilenko, A.; Kirichenko, A.; Sollerman, J.; Shibanov, Yu.; Zyuzin, D.

    2013-04-01

    Context. PSR J1048-5832 is a young radio-pulsar that has recently been detected in γ-rays with Fermi, and also in X-rays with Chandra and XMM-Newton. It powers a compact pulsar wind nebula visible in X-rays and is in many ways similar to the Vela pulsar. Aims: We present deep optical observations made with the ESO Very Large Telescope to search for optical counterparts of the pulsar and its nebula and to explore their multi-wavelength emission properties. Methods: The data were obtained in the V and R bands and were compared with archival data in other spectral domains. Results: We do not detect the pulsar in the optical and derive informative upper limits of R ≳ 28.m1 and V ≳ 28.m4 for its brightness. Using a red-clump star method, we estimate an interstellar extinction towards the pulsar of AV ≈ 2 mag, which is consistent with the absorbing column density derived from X-rays. The respective distance agrees with the dispersion measure distance. We reanalysed the Chandra X-ray data and compared the dereddened upper limits with the unabsorbed X-ray spectrum of the pulsar. We find that regarding its optical-X-ray spectral properties this γ-ray pulsar is not distinct from other pulsars detected in both ranges. However, like the Vela pulsar, it is very inefficient in the optical and X-rays. Among a dozen optical sources overlapping with the pulsar X-ray nebula we find one with V ≈ 26.m9 and R ≈ 26.m3, whose colour is slightly bluer than that of the field stars and is consistent with the peculiar colours typical for pulsar nebula features. It positionally coincides with a relatively bright feature of the pulsar X-ray nebula, resembling the Crab wisp and is located in ~2 from the pulsar. We suggest this source as a counterpart candidate to the feature. Conclusions: Based on the substantial interstellar extinction towards the pulsar and its optical inefficiency, additional optical studies should be carried out at longer wavelengths. Based on observations made

  20. The pulsar spectral index distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, S. D.; Lorimer, D. R.; Verbiest, J. P. W.

    2013-05-01

    The flux-density spectra of radio pulsars are known to be steep and, to first order, described by a power-law relationship of the form Sν ∝ να, where Sν is the flux density at some frequency ν and α is the spectral index. Although measurements of α have been made over the years for several hundred pulsars, a study of the intrinsic distribution of pulsar spectra has not been carried out. From the result of pulsar surveys carried out at three different radio frequencies, we use population synthesis techniques and a likelihood analysis to deduce what underlying spectral index distribution is required to replicate the results of these surveys. We find that in general the results of the surveys can be modelled by a Gaussian distribution of spectral indices with a mean of -1.4 and unit standard deviation. We also consider the impact of the so-called gigahertz-peaked spectrum pulsars proposed by Kijak et al. The fraction of peaked-spectrum sources in the population with any significant turnover at low frequencies appears to be at most 10 per cent. We demonstrate that high-frequency (>2 GHz) surveys preferentially select flatter spectrum pulsars and the converse is true for lower frequency (<1 GHz) surveys. This implies that any correlations between α and other pulsar parameters (for example age or magnetic field) need to carefully account for selection biases in pulsar surveys. We also expect that many known pulsars which have been detected at high frequencies will have shallow, or positive, spectral indices. The majority of pulsars do not have recorded flux density measurements over a wide frequency range, making it impossible to constrain their spectral shapes. We also suggest that such measurements would allow an improved description of any populations of pulsars with `non-standard' spectra. Further refinements to this picture will soon be possible from the results of surveys with the Green Bank Telescope and LOFAR.

  1. Unusual Braking Indices in Young X-ray Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederic Archibald, Robert; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Beardmore, Andrew P.; Gehrels, Neil; Kennea, Jamie; Gotthelf, Eric V.; Ferdman, Robert; Guillot, Sebastien; Harrison, Fiona; Keane, Evan; Pivovaroff, Michael; Stern, Daniel; Tendulkar, Shriharsh P.; Tomsick, John

    2016-04-01

    Pulsars spin down over time. By measuring braking indices of pulsars, effectively the change in the spin-down rate over time, we can probe the underlying driving engine of the spin-down. For a magnetic dipole in a vacuum, n is predicted to be 3. To date, all measured braking indices are less than 3, which can be explained, e.g. by particle winds, changes in the magnetic field. In all models of braking indices, n should be nearly constant on year time-scales. Here, I will discuss two recent observation results that challenge this model, interestingly both coming from young X-ray pulsars with no detected radio emission. The first, a long-lived decrease in the braking index of PSR J1846-0258 following a burst of magnetar-like activity, and secondly, the first stationary braking index greater than three. Understanding neutron-star spin evolution is key to constraining these objects' long-term energy output and has relevance to topics ranging from pulsar wind nebulae and supernova remnants to core-collapse supernova rates, physics, and expected outcomes.

  2. Chandra Observations of Pulsar Wind Nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    The high resolution capabilities provided by Chandra have provided unprecedented details about the structure of PWNe. The presence of jets, toroidal structures, shocked ejecta, and other complex structure with the nebulae provide crucial information on the conversion of spin-down energy into relativistic outflows, the spectrum of the injected particles, and the long-term evolution of these systems. Here I report on results from a series of Chandra Large Projects that have enabled detailed studies of individual PWNe to investigate their detailed structures and to provide a broad view of these systems at different stages of evolution. I concentrate, in particular, on deep observations of MSH 11-62 and G327.1-1.1, two such systems currently evolving within the confines of their host SNRs.

  3. Efficiency of Synchrotron Radiation from Rotation-powered Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2017-03-01

    Synchrotron radiation is widely considered to be the origin of the pulsed non-thermal emissions from rotation-powered pulsars in optical and X-ray bands. In this paper, we study the synchrotron radiation emitted by the created electron and positron pairs in the pulsar magnetosphere to constrain the energy conversion efficiency from the Poynting flux to the particle energy flux. We model two pair creation processes, two-photon collision, which efficiently works in young γ-ray pulsars (≲106 year), and magnetic pair creation, which is the dominant process to supply pairs in old pulsars (≳106 year). Using the analytical model, we derive the maximum synchrotron luminosity as a function of the energy conversion efficiency. From the comparison with observations, we find that the energy conversion efficiency to the accelerated particles should be an order of unity in the magnetosphere, even though we make a number of the optimistic assumptions to enlarge the synchrotron luminosity. In order to explain the luminosity of the non-thermal X-ray/optical emission from pulsars with low spin-down luminosity L sd ≲ 1034 erg s‑1, non-dipole magnetic field components should be dominant at the emission region. For the γ-ray pulsars with L sd ≲ 1035 erg s‑1, observed γ-ray to X-ray and optical flux ratios are much higher than the flux ratio between curvature and the synchrotron radiations. We discuss some possibilities such as the coexistence of multiple accelerators in the magnetosphere as suggested from the recent numerical simulation results. The obtained maximum luminosity would be useful to select observational targets in X-ray and optical bands.

  4. X-ray observations of black widow pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Gentile, P. A.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Roberts, M. S. E.; Camilo, F.; Hessels, J. W. T.; Kerr, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Stairs, I. H.

    2014-03-10

    We describe the first X-ray observations of five short orbital period (P{sub B} < 1 day), γ-ray emitting, binary millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Four of these—PSRs J0023+0923, J1124–3653, J1810+1744, and J2256–1024—are 'black-widow' pulsars, with degenerate companions of mass <<0.1 M {sub ☉}, three of which exhibit radio eclipses. The fifth source, PSR J2215+5135, is an eclipsing 'redback' with a near Roche-lobe filling ∼0.2 solar mass non-degenerate companion. Data were taken using the Chandra X-Ray Observatory and covered a full binary orbit for each pulsar. Two pulsars, PSRs J2215+5135 and J2256–1024, show significant orbital variability while PSR J1124–3653 shows marginal orbital variability. The lightcurves for these three pulsars have X-ray flux minima coinciding with the phases of the radio eclipses. This phenomenon is consistent with an intrabinary shock emission interpretation for the X-rays. The other two pulsars, PSRs J0023+0923 and J1810+1744, are fainter and do not demonstrate variability at a level we can detect in these data. All five spectra are fit with three separate models: a power-law model, a blackbody model, and a combined model with both power-law and blackbody components. The preferred spectral fits yield power-law indices that range from 1.3 to 3.2 and blackbody temperatures in the hundreds of eV. The spectrum for PSR J2215+5135 shows a significant hard X-ray component, with a large number of counts above 2 keV, which is additional evidence for the presence of intrabinary shock emission. This is similar to what has been detected in the low-mass X-ray binary to MSP transition object PSR J1023+0038.

  5. Planet formation around millisecond pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banit, Menashe; Ruderman, Malvin; Shaham, Jacob

    1993-01-01

    We present a model for the formation of planets in circular orbits around millisecond pulsars. We propose that the planets originate from a circumbinary excretion disk around a binary millisecond pulsar and show how physical conditions in such a disk lead to the eventual formation of planets.

  6. Discovery of an Unidentified Fermi Object as a Black Widow-Like Millisecond Pulsar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kong, A. K. H.; Huang, R. H. H.; Cheng, K. S.; Takata, J.; Yatsu, Y.; Cheung, C. C.; Donato, D.; Lin, L. C. C.; Kataoka, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Maeda, K.; Hui, C. Y.; Tam, P. H. T.

    2012-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has revolutionized our knowledge of the gamma-ray pulsar population, leading to the discovery of almost 100 gamma-ray pulsars and dozens of gamma-ray millisecond pulsars (MSPs). Although the outer-gap model predicts different sites of emission for the radio and gamma-ray pulsars, until now all of the known gamma-ray MSPs have been visible in the radio. Here we report the discovery of a radio-quiet" gamma-ray emitting MSP candidate by using Fermi, Chandra, Swift, and optical observations. The X-ray and gamma-ray properties of the source are consistent with known gamma-ray pulsars. We also found a 4.63-hr orbital period in optical and X-ray data. We suggest that the source is a black widow-like MSP with a approx. 0.1 Stellar Mass late-type companion star. Based on the profile of the optical and X-ray light-curves, the companion star is believed to be heated by the pulsar while the X-ray emissions originate from pulsar magnetosphere and/or from intra-binary shock. No radio detection of the source has been reported yet and although no gamma-ray/radio pulsation has been found, we estimated that the spin period of the MSP is approx. 3-5 ms based on the inferred gamma-ray luminosity.

  7. Newly Commissioned Green Bank Telescope Bags New Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-01-01

    Astronomers using the National Science Foundation's newly commissioned Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) have discovered a windfall of three previously undetected millisecond pulsars in a dense cluster of stars in the Milky Way Galaxy. The Green Bank Telescope The Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope "This globular cluster, known as Messier 62, has been very well studied, and it would have been an exciting discovery to find just one new pulsar. The fact that we were able to detect three new pulsars at one time is simply remarkable," said Bryan Jacoby, a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology who led the research team. Results of the discovery were recently announced in an International Astronomical Union Circular. Jacoby and his colleague Adam Chandler, also a graduate student at Caltech, used the GBT to search for new pulsars in addition to the three already known in this cluster. Their research was part of the GBT's Early Science Program, which allows scientific investigations during the testing and commissioning of the telescope. The researchers used the Berkeley-Caltech Pulsar Machine, a new instrument whose development was overseen by Donald Backer at the University of California at Berkeley, to process the signals from the GBT and record them for later analysis. After their data were analyzed, the researchers discovered the telltale signatures of three additional pulsars and their white dwarf companion stars. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that emit intense beams of radio waves along their misaligned magnetic axes. When these beams intersect the Earth, we see the pulsar flash on and off. Due to their exquisitely steady rotation, pulsars allow astronomers to study the basic laws of physics and the ways in which these dense clusters and exotic stellar systems are formed. Astronomers study globular clusters because they are among the oldest building blocks of our Galaxy. With their very dense stellar populations, these

  8. Searching for Planets Around Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-09-01

    Did you know that the very first exoplanets ever confirmed were found around a pulsar? The precise timing measurements of pulsar PSR 1257+12 were what made the discovery of its planetary companions possible. Yet surprisingly, though weve discovered thousands of exoplanets since then, only one other planet has ever been confirmed around a pulsar. Now, a team of CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science researchers are trying to figure out why.Formation ChallengesThe lack of detected pulsar planets may simply reflect the fact that getting a pulsar-planet system is challenging! There are three main pathways:The planet formed before the host star became a pulsar which means it somehow survived its star going supernova (yikes!).The planet formed elsewhere and was captured by the pulsar.The planet formed out of the debris of the supernova explosion.The first two options, if even possible, are likely to be rare occurrences but the third option shows some promise. In this scenario, after the supernova explosion, a small fraction of the material falls back toward the stellar remnant and is recaptured, forming what is known as a supernova fallback disk. According to this model, planets could potentially form out of this disk.Disk ImplicationsLed by Matthew Kerr, the CSIRO astronomers set out to systematically look for these potential planets that might have formed in situ around pulsars. They searched a sample of 151 young, energetic pulsars, scouring seven years of pulse time-of-arrival data for periodic variation that could signal the presence of planetary companions. Their methods to mitigate pulsar timing noise and model realistic orbits allowed them to have good sensitivity to low-mass planets.The results? They found no conclusive evidence that any of these pulsars have planets.This outcome carries with it some significant implications. The pulsar sample spans 2 Myr in age, in which planets should have had enough time to form in debris disks. The fact that none were detected

  9. Pulsar Polar Cap Heating and Surface Thermal X-ray Emission. 1; Curvature Radiation Pair Fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alexander G.; White, Nicholas E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the effect of pulsar polar cap (PC) heating produced by positrons returning from the upper pair formation front. Our calculations are based on a self-consistent treatment of the pair dynamics and the effect of electric field screening by the returning positrons. We calculate the resultant X-ray luminosities and discuss the dependence of the PC heating efficiencies on pulsar parameters, such as characteristic spin-down age, spin period, and surface magnetic field strength. In this study we concentrate on the regime where the pairs are produced in a magnetic field by curvature photons emitted by accelerating electrons. Our theoretical results are not in conflict with the available observational x-ray data and suggest that the effect of PC heating should significantly contribute to the thermal x-ray fluxes from middle-aged and old pulsars. The implications for current and future x-ray observations of pulsars are briefly outlined.

  10. Synchronous x-ray and radio mode switches: a rapid global transformation of the pulsar magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Hermsen, W; Hessels, J W T; Kuiper, L; van Leeuwen, J; Mitra, D; de Plaa, J; Rankin, J M; Stappers, B W; Wright, G A E; Basu, R; Alexov, A; Coenen, T; Grießmeier, J-M; Hassall, T E; Karastergiou, A; Keane, E; Kondratiev, V I; Kramer, M; Kuniyoshi, M; Noutsos, A; Serylak, M; Pilia, M; Sobey, C; Weltevrede, P; Zagkouris, K; Asgekar, A; Avruch, I M; Batejat, F; Bell, M E; Bell, M R; Bentum, M J; Bernardi, G; Best, P; Bîrzan, L; Bonafede, A; Breitling, F; Broderick, J; Brüggen, M; Butcher, H R; Ciardi, B; Duscha, S; Eislöffel, J; Falcke, H; Fender, R; Ferrari, C; Frieswijk, W; Garrett, M A; de Gasperin, F; de Geus, E; Gunst, A W; Heald, G; Hoeft, M; Horneffer, A; Iacobelli, M; Kuper, G; Maat, P; Macario, G; Markoff, S; McKean, J P; Mevius, M; Miller-Jones, J C A; Morganti, R; Munk, H; Orrú, E; Paas, H; Pandey-Pommier, M; Pandey, V N; Pizzo, R; Polatidis, A G; Rawlings, S; Reich, W; Röttgering, H; Scaife, A M M; Schoenmakers, A; Shulevski, A; Sluman, J; Steinmetz, M; Tagger, M; Tang, Y; Tasse, C; ter Veen, S; Vermeulen, R; van de Brink, R H; van Weeren, R J; Wijers, R A M J; Wise, M W; Wucknitz, O; Yatawatta, S; Zarka, P

    2013-01-25

    Pulsars emit from low-frequency radio waves up to high-energy gamma-rays, generated anywhere from the stellar surface out to the edge of the magnetosphere. Detecting correlated mode changes across the electromagnetic spectrum is therefore key to understanding the physical relationship among the emission sites. Through simultaneous observations, we detected synchronous switching in the radio and x-ray emission properties of PSR B0943+10. When the pulsar is in a sustained radio-"bright" mode, the x-rays show only an unpulsed, nonthermal component. Conversely, when the pulsar is in a radio-"quiet" mode, the x-ray luminosity more than doubles and a 100% pulsed thermal component is observed along with the nonthermal component. This indicates rapid, global changes to the conditions in the magnetosphere, which challenge all proposed pulsar emission theories.

  11. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  12. Pulsar timing and general relativity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backer, D. C.; Hellings, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Techniques are described for accounting for relativistic effects in the analysis of pulsar signals. Design features of instrumentation used to achieve millisecond accuracy in the signal measurements are discussed. The accuracy of the data permits modeling the pulsar physical characteristics from the natural glitches in the emissions. Relativistic corrections are defined for adjusting for differences between the pulsar motion in its spacetime coordinate system relative to the terrestrial coordinate system, the earth's motion, and the gravitational potentials of solar system bodies. Modifications of the model to allow for a binary pulsar system are outlined, including treatment of the system as a point mass. Finally, a quadrupole model is presented for gravitational radiation and techniques are defined for using pulsars in the search for gravitational waves.

  13. Magnetars and white dwarf pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobato, Ronaldo V.; Malheiro, Manuel; Coelho, Jaziel G.

    2016-07-01

    The anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs) are a class of pulsars understood as neutron stars (NSs) with super strong surface magnetic fields, namely B ≳ 1014G, and for that reason are known as magnetars. However, in the last years, some SGRs/AXPs with low surface magnetic fields B ˜ (1012-1013)G have been detected, challenging the magnetar description. Moreover, some fast and very magnetic white dwarfs (WDs) have also been observed, and at least one showed X-ray energy emission as an ordinary pulsar. Following this fact, an alternative model based on WDs pulsars has been proposed to explain this special class of pulsars. In this model, AXPs and SGRs as dense and magnetized WDs can have surface magnetic field B ˜ 107-1010 G and rotate very fast with frequencies Ω ˜ 1rad/s, consistent with the observed rotation periods P ˜ (2-12)s.

  14. Sensitivity of Pulsar Timing Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemens, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    For the better part of the last decade, the North American Nanohertz Observatory for Gravitational Waves (NANOGrav) has been using the Green Bank and Arecibo radio telescopes to monitor millisecond pulsars. NANOGrav, along with similar international collaborations, the European Pulsar Timing Array and the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array in Australia, form a consortium of consortia: the International Pulsar Timing Array (IPTA). The goal of the IPTA is to directly detect low-frequency gravitational waves which cause small changes to the times of arrival of radio pulses from millisecond pulsars. In this talk I will discuss the work of NANOGrav and the IPTA as well as our sensitivity to gravitational waves from astrophysical sources. I will show that a detection is possible by the end of the decade.

  15. Multi-wavelength intra-peak phase separations in pulsed emissions from the Crab and the Vela pulsars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanamurthy, P. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Crab and the Vela pulsars were observed to emit pulsed radiation in the radio, optical, X-ray and gamma ray windows of the electromagnetic spectrum. In all cases the emission appears in two peaks, except in the case of radio emission from the Vela pulsar which is single peaked. With accurate peak position determinations made possible by recent observations, it is interesting to see if the intra-peak separations at various wavelengths across the electromagnetic spectrum bear any relation to each other. We report here an emerging trend of a monotonic decrease of the intra-peak separation with energy. The rate of decrease is faster in the case of the Vela pulsar than in that of the Crab pulsar. Even the case of single peaked radio emission by the Vela pulsar can be viewed as being consistent with this trend. These trends provide both an opportunity and a challenge to realistic modelings of pulsed emissions by these objects.

  16. POPULATION STUDY FOR {gamma}-RAY PULSARS WITH THE OUTER GAP MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Takata, J.; Wang, Y.; Cheng, K. S. E-mail: yuwang@hku.hk

    2011-01-01

    Inspired by the increase of the population of {gamma}-ray emitting pulsars by the Fermi telescope, we perform a population study for {gamma}-ray emitting canonical pulsars. We use a Monte Carlo technique to simulate the Galactic population of neutron stars and the radio pulsars. For each simulated neutron star, we consider the {gamma}-ray emission from the outer gap accelerator in the magnetosphere. In our outer gap model, we apply the gap closure mechanism proposed by Takata et al., in which both photon-photon pair-creation and magnetic pair-creation processes are considered. Simulating the sensitivities of previous major radio surveys, our simulation predicts that there are {approx}18-23 radio-loud and {approx}26-34 {gamma}-ray-selected {gamma}-ray pulsars, which can be detected with a {gamma}-ray flux F{sub {gamma}} {>=} 10{sup -10} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Applying the sensitivity of the six month observation of the Fermi telescope, 40-61 radio-selected and 36-75 {gamma}-ray selected pulsars are detected within our simulation. We show that the distributions of various pulsar parameters for the simulated {gamma}-ray pulsars can be consistent with the observed distribution of the {gamma}-ray pulsars detected by the Fermi telescope. We also predict that {approx}64 radio-loud and {approx}340 {gamma}-ray-selected pulsars irradiate the Earth with a flux F{sub {gamma}} {>=} 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, and most of those {gamma}-ray pulsars are distributed with a distance greater than 1 kpc and a flux F{sub {gamma}} {approx} 10{sup -11} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The ratio between the radio-selected and {gamma}-ray-selected pulsars depends on the sensitivity of the radio surveys. We also discuss the Galactic distribution of the unidentified Fermi sources and the canonical {gamma}-ray pulsars.

  17. X-Ray and Rotational Luminosity Correlation and Magnetic Heating of Radio Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, S.; Watanabe, E.; Yatsu, Y.; Enoto, T.; Bamba, A.

    2016-12-01

    Previous works have suggested a correlation between the X-ray luminosity {L}{{x}} and the rotational luminosity {L}{rot} of radio pulsars. However, none of the obtained regression lines is statistically acceptable due to large scatter. We construct a statistical model that has an intrinsic {L}{{x}}-{L}{rot} relation and reproduces the observed {L}{{x}} distribution about it by using a Monte Carlo simulator, which takes into account the effects obscuring the intrinsic relation, i.e., the anisotropy of radiation, additional heating, uncertainty in distance, and the detection limit of the instruments. From the ATNF pulsar catalog we collect 57 “ordinary radio pulsars” with significant detection and 42 with upper limits. The sample does not include high-magnetic-field pulsars (>1013 G), which are analyzed separately. We obtain a statistically acceptable relation {L}{{x}}{(0.5{--}10{keV})={10}31.69({L}{rot}/{L}0)}{c1} with c 1 = 1.03 ± 0.27 and L 0 = 1035.38. The distribution about the obtained {L}{{x}}-{L}{rot} relation is reproduced well by the simulator. Pulsars with abnormally high {L}{{x}} fall into two types: one is the soft gamma-ray pulsars, and the other is pulsars that are thermally bright in comparison with the standard cooling curve. On the other hand, pulsars showing low {L}{{x}} are found to have dim pulsar wind nebulae (PWNs). We argue that there is an unknown mechanism that governs both the magnetospheric emission and the PWNs, and it might involve the production rate of electron-positron pairs. High-field pulsars form a population that is distinct from ordinary pulsars due to their excess luminosities.

  18. WIND BRAKING OF MAGNETARS

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, H.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.; Song, L. M.

    2013-05-10

    We explore the wind braking of magnetars considering recent observations challenging the traditional magnetar model. There is evidence for strong multipole magnetic fields in active magnetars, but the dipole field inferred from spin-down measurements may be strongly biased by particle wind. Recent observations challenging the traditional model of magnetars may be explained naturally by the wind braking scenario: (1) the supernova energies of magnetars are of normal value; (2) the non-detection in Fermi observations of magnetars; (3) the problem posed by low magnetic field soft gamma-ray repeaters; (4) the relation between magnetars and high magnetic field pulsars; and (5) a decreasing period derivative during magnetar outbursts. Transient magnetars with L{sub x}<- E-dot{sub rot} may still be magnetic dipole braking. This may explain why low luminosity magnetars are more likely to have radio emissions. A strong reduction of the dipole magnetic field is possible only when the particle wind is very collimated at the star surface. A small reduction of the dipole magnetic field may result from detailed considerations of magnetar wind luminosity. In the wind braking scenario, magnetars are neutron stars with a strong multipole field. For some sources, a strong dipole field may no longer be needed. A magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula will be one of the consequences of wind braking. For a magnetism-powered pulsar wind nebula, we should see a correlation between the nebula luminosity and the magnetar luminosity. Under the wind braking scenario, a braking index smaller than three is expected. Future braking index measurement of a magnetar may tell us whether magnetars are wind braking or magnetic dipole braking.

  19. Millisecond pulsars: Timekeepers of the cosmos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1995-01-01

    A brief discussion on the characteristics of pulsars is given followed by a review of millisecond pulsar discoveries including the very first, PRS B1937+21, discovered in 1982. Methods of timing millisecond pulsars and the accuracy of millisecond pulsars as clocks are discussed. Possible reasons for the pulse residuals, or differences between the observed and predicted pulse arrival times for millisecond pulsars, are given.

  20. Non-cosmological FRBs from young supernova remnant pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Liam; Sievers, Jonathan; Pen, Ue-Li

    2016-05-01

    We propose a new extra but non-cosmological explanation for fast radio bursts (FRBs) based on very young pulsars in supernova remnants. Within a few hundred years of a core-collapse supernova, the ejecta is confined within ˜1 pc, providing a high enough column density of free electrons for the observed 375-1600 pc cm-3 of dispersion measure (DM). By extrapolating a Crab-like pulsar to its infancy in an environment like that of SN 1987A, we hypothesize such an object could emit supergiant pulses sporadically which would be bright enough to be seen at a few hundred megaparsecs. We hypothesize that such supergiant pulses would preferentially occur early in the pulsar's life when the free electron density is still high, which is why we do not see large numbers of moderate DM FRBs (≲300 pc cm-3). In this scenario, Faraday rotation at the source gives rotation measures (RMs) much larger than the expected cosmological contribution. If the emission were pulsar-like, then the polarization vector could swing over the duration of the burst, which is not expected from non-rotating objects. In this model, the scattering, large DM, and commensurate RM all come from one place which is not the case for the cosmological interpretation. The model also provides testable predictions of the flux distribution and repeat rate of FRBs, and could be furthermore verified by spatial coincidence with optical supernovae of the past several decades and cross-correlation with nearby galaxy maps.

  1. Stellar structures and the enigma of pulsars rotation frequency decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira, H. O.; Marinho, R. M., Jr.; Maglhaes, N. S.

    2015-07-01

    Pulsars are astrophysical objects normally modelled as compact neutron stars that originated from the collapse of another star. This model, that we name canonical, assumes that pulsars are described by spherical magnetized dipoles that rotate, usually with the magnetic axis misaligned to the rotation axis. This misalignment would be responsible for the observation of radiation emitted in well-defined time intervals in a certain direction (lighthouse effect), the typical observational characteristic of this kind of star. It has been noticed that the rotation frequency of pulsars is slowly decaying with time (spin down), implying a gradual decrease of the rotational angular velocity (Ω). Such decay can be quantified by a dimensionless parameter called “braking index” (“n”), given by n = ΩΩ/(Ω)2, where a dot indicates a time derivative. The canonical model predicts that this index has one only value for all pulsars, equal to three. However, observational data indicate that actual braking indices are less than three, representing an enigma. The main goal of this research is the exploration of a more precise model for pulsars’ rotation frequency decay.

  2. The First Fermi Large Area Telescope Catalog of Gamma-ray Pulsars

    DOE PAGES

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; ...

    2010-03-25

    , while polar-cap emission remains plausible for a remaining few. Spatial associations imply that many of these pulsars power pulsar wind nebulae. In conclusion, these discoveries suggest that gamma-ray-selected young pulsars are born at a rate comparable to that of their radio-selected cousins and that the birthrate of all young gamma-ray-detected pulsars is a substantial fraction of the expected Galactic supernova rate.« less

  3. X-ray states of redback millisecond pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Linares, M.

    2014-11-01

    Compact binary millisecond pulsars with main-sequence donors, often referred to as 'redbacks', constitute the long-sought link between low-mass X-ray binaries and millisecond radio pulsars and offer a unique probe of the interaction between pulsar winds and accretion flows. We present a systematic study of eight nearby redbacks, using more than 100 observations obtained with Swift's X-ray Telescope. We distinguish between three main states: pulsar, disk, and outburst states. We find X-ray mode switching in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859, similar to what was found in the other redback that showed evidence for accretion: rapid, recurrent changes in X-ray luminosity (0.5-10 keV, L {sub X}), between (6-9) × 10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1} (disk-passive state) and (3-5) × 10{sup 33} erg s{sup –1} (disk-active state). This strongly suggests that mode switching—which has not been observed in quiescent low-mass X-ray binaries—is universal among redback millisecond pulsars in the disk state. We briefly explore the implications for accretion disk truncation and find that the inferred magnetospheric radius in the disk state of PSR J1023+0038 and XSS J12270-4859 lies outside the light cylinder. Finally, we note that all three redbacks that have developed accretion disks have relatively high L {sub X} in the pulsar state (>10{sup 32} erg s{sup –1}).

  4. Understanding the Pulsar High Energy Emission: Macroscopic and Kinetic Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Brambilla, Gabriele; Timokhin, Andrey; Kust Harding, Alice; Kazanas, Demos

    2017-08-01

    Pulsars are extraordinary objects powered by the rotation of magnetic fields of order 10^8, 10^12G anchored onto neutron stars and rotating with periods 10^(-3)-10s. These fields mediate the conversion of their rotational energy into MHD winds and at the same time accelerate particles to energies sufficiently high to produce GeV photons. Fermi, since its launch in 2008, has established several trends among the observed gamma-ray pulsar properties playing a catalytic role in the current modeling of the high energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. We judiciously use the guidance provided by the Fermi data to yield meaningful constraints on the macroscopic parameters of our global dissipative pulsar magnetosphere models. Our FIDO (Force-Free Inside, Dissipative Outside) models indicate that the dissipative regions lie outside the light cylinder near the equatorial current sheet. Our models reproduce the light-curve phenomenology while a detailed comparison of the model spectral properties with those observed by Fermi reveals the dependence of the macroscopic conductivity parameter on the spin-down rate providing a unique insight into the understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the high-energy emission in pulsar magnetospheres. Finally, we further exploit these important results by building self-consistent 3D global kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) models which, eventually, provide the dependence of the macroscopic parameter behavior (e.g. conductivity) on the microphysical properties (e.g. particle multiplicities, particle injection rates). Our PIC models provide field structures and particle distributions that are not only consistent with each other but also able to reproduce a broad range of the observed gamma-ray phenomenology (light curves and spectral properties) of both young and millisecond pulsars.

  5. DEATH LINE OF GAMMA-RAY PULSARS WITH OUTER GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ren-Bo; Hirotani, Kouichi E-mail: hirotani@tiara.sinica.edu.tw

    2011-08-01

    We analytically investigate the condition for a particle accelerator to be active in the outer magnetosphere of a rotation-powered pulsar. Within the accelerator (or the gap), the magnetic-field-aligned electric field accelerates electrons and positrons, which emit copious gamma-rays via the curvature process. If one of the gamma-rays emitted by a single pair materializes as a new pair on average, the gap is self-sustained. However, if the neutron-star spin-down rate decreases below a certain limit, the gap becomes no longer self-sustained and the gamma-ray emission ceases. We explicitly compute the multiplicity of cascading pairs and find that the obtained limit corresponds to a modification of the previously derived outer-gap death line. In addition to this traditional death line, we find another death line, which becomes important for millisecond pulsars, by separately considering the threshold of photon-photon pair production. Combining these traditional and new death lines, we give predictions on the detectability of gamma-ray pulsars with Fermi and AGILE. An implication for X-ray observations of heated polar-cap emission is also discussed.

  6. Synchrotron X-ray emission from old pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisaka, Shota; Tanaka, Shuta J.

    2014-09-01

    We study the synchrotron radiation as the observed non-thermal emission by the X-ray satellites from old pulsars (≳1-10 Myr) to investigate the particle acceleration in their magnetospheres. We assume that the power-law component of the observed X-ray spectra is caused by the synchrotron radiation from electrons and positrons in the magnetosphere. We consider two pair-production mechanisms of X-ray emitting particles, the magnetic and the photon-photon pair productions. High-energy photons, which ignite the pair production, are emitted via the curvature radiation of the accelerated particles. We use the analytical description for the radiative transfer and estimate the luminosity of the synchrotron radiation. We find that for pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ≲ 1033 erg s-1, the locations of the particle acceleration and the non-thermal X-ray emission are within ≲107 cm from the centre of the neutron star, where the magnetic pair production occurs. For pulsars with the spin-down luminosity Lsd ≲ 1031 erg s-1 such as J0108-1431, the synchrotron radiation is difficult to explain the observed non-thermal component even if we consider the existence of the strong and small-scale surface magnetic field structures.

  7. COSMIC-RAY POSITRONS FROM MILLISECOND PULSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Büsching, I.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.

    2015-07-10

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  8. Cosmic-ray Positrons from Millisecond Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venter, C.; Kopp, A.; Harding, A. K.; Gonthier, P. L.; Büsching, I.

    2015-07-01

    Observations by the Fermi Large Area Telescope of γ-ray millisecond pulsar (MSP) light curves imply copious pair production in their magnetospheres, and not exclusively in those of younger pulsars. Such pair cascades may be a primary source of Galactic electrons and positrons, contributing to the observed enhancement in positron flux above ∼10 GeV. Fermi has also uncovered many new MSPs, impacting Galactic stellar population models. We investigate the contribution of Galactic MSPs to the flux of terrestrial cosmic-ray electrons and positrons. Our population synthesis code predicts the source properties of present-day MSPs. We simulate their pair spectra invoking an offset-dipole magnetic field. We also consider positrons and electrons that have been further accelerated to energies of several TeV by strong intrabinary shocks in black widow (BW) and redback (RB) systems. Since MSPs are not surrounded by pulsar wind nebulae or supernova shells, we assume that the pairs freely escape and undergo losses only in the intergalactic medium. We compute the transported pair spectra at Earth, following their diffusion and energy loss through the Galaxy. The predicted particle flux increases for non-zero offsets of the magnetic polar caps. Pair cascades from the magnetospheres of MSPs are only modest contributors around a few tens of GeV to the lepton fluxes measured by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer, PAMELA, and Fermi, after which this component cuts off. The contribution by BWs and RBs may, however, reach levels of a few tens of percent at tens of TeV, depending on model parameters.

  9. PSR J1838–0537: Discovery of a young, energetic gamma-ray pulsar

    DOE PAGES

    Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; ...

    2012-07-27

    Here, we report the discovery of PSR J1838–0537, a gamma-ray pulsar found through a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsar has a spin frequency of 6.9 Hz and a frequency derivative of –2.2 × 10–11 Hz s–1, implying a young characteristic age of 4970 yr and a large spin-down power of 5.9 × 1036 erg s–1. Follow-up observations with radio telescopes detected no pulsations; thus PSR J1838–0537 appears radio-quiet as viewed from Earth. In 2009 September the pulsar suffered the largest glitch so far seen in any gamma-ray-only pulsar, causing a relative increasemore » in spin frequency of about 5.5 × 10–6. After the glitch, during a putative recovery period, the timing analysis is complicated by the sparsity of the LAT photon data, the weakness of the pulsations, and the reduction in average exposure from a coincidental, contemporaneous change in LAT's sky-survey observing pattern. Furthermore, the pulsar's sky position is coincident with the spatially extended TeV source HESS J1841–055 detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Finally, the inferred energetics suggest that HESS J1841–055 contains a pulsar wind nebula powered by the pulsar.« less

  10. Searching for the optical counterparts of two young γ-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignani, R. P.; Testa, V.; Marelli, M.; De Luca, A.; Pierbattista, M.; Razzano, M.; Salvetti, D.; Belfiore, A.; Shearer, A.; Moran, P.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the first deep optical observations of two γ-ray pulsars, both among the very first discovered by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. The two pulsars are the radio-loud PSR J1907+0602 in the TeV pulsar wind nebula (PWN) MGRO J1908+06 and the radio-quiet PSR J1809-2332 in the `Taz' radio/X-ray PWN. These pulsars are relatively young and energetic and have been both detected in the X-rays by XMM-Newton, which makes them viable targets for optical observations. We observed the pulsar fields in the B and V bands with the Very Large Telescope (VLT) in 2015 June/July to search for their optical counterparts. Neither of the two pulsars has been detected down to 3σ limiting magnitudes of mv ˜ 26.9 and ˜27.6 for PSR J1907+0602 and PSR J1809-2332, respectively. We discuss these results in the framework of the multiwavelength emission properties of pulsars.

  11. PSR J1838-0537: DISCOVERY OF A YOUNG, ENERGETIC GAMMA-RAY PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Pletsch, H. J.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Guillemot, L.; Kramer, M.; Baring, M. G.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Marelli, M.; Grove, J. E.; Ray, P. S.; Kerr, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Saz Parkinson, P. M. E-mail: guillemo@mpifr-bonn.mpg.de

    2012-08-10

    We report the discovery of PSR J1838-0537, a gamma-ray pulsar found through a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsar has a spin frequency of 6.9 Hz and a frequency derivative of -2.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11} Hz s{sup -1}, implying a young characteristic age of 4970 yr and a large spin-down power of 5.9 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 36} erg s{sup -1}. Follow-up observations with radio telescopes detected no pulsations; thus PSR J1838-0537 appears radio-quiet as viewed from Earth. In 2009 September the pulsar suffered the largest glitch so far seen in any gamma-ray-only pulsar, causing a relative increase in spin frequency of about 5.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6}. After the glitch, during a putative recovery period, the timing analysis is complicated by the sparsity of the LAT photon data, the weakness of the pulsations, and the reduction in average exposure from a coincidental, contemporaneous change in LAT's sky-survey observing pattern. The pulsar's sky position is coincident with the spatially extended TeV source HESS J1841-055 detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The inferred energetics suggest that HESS J1841-055 contains a pulsar wind nebula powered by the pulsar.

  12. PSR J1838–0537: Discovery of a young, energetic gamma-ray pulsar

    SciTech Connect

    Pletsch, H. J.; Guillemot, L.; Allen, B.; Kramer, M.; Aulbert, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Baring, M. G.; Camilo, F.; Caraveo, P. A.; Grove, J. E.; Kerr, M.; Marelli, M.; Ransom, S. M.; Ray, P. S.; Saz Parkinson, P. M.

    2012-07-27

    Here, we report the discovery of PSR J1838–0537, a gamma-ray pulsar found through a blind search of data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). The pulsar has a spin frequency of 6.9 Hz and a frequency derivative of –2.2 × 10–11 Hz s–1, implying a young characteristic age of 4970 yr and a large spin-down power of 5.9 × 1036 erg s–1. Follow-up observations with radio telescopes detected no pulsations; thus PSR J1838–0537 appears radio-quiet as viewed from Earth. In 2009 September the pulsar suffered the largest glitch so far seen in any gamma-ray-only pulsar, causing a relative increase in spin frequency of about 5.5 × 10–6. After the glitch, during a putative recovery period, the timing analysis is complicated by the sparsity of the LAT photon data, the weakness of the pulsations, and the reduction in average exposure from a coincidental, contemporaneous change in LAT's sky-survey observing pattern. Furthermore, the pulsar's sky position is coincident with the spatially extended TeV source HESS J1841–055 detected by the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). Finally, the inferred energetics suggest that HESS J1841–055 contains a pulsar wind nebula powered by the pulsar.

  13. High-energy neutrino signatures of newborn pulsars in the local universe

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Ke

    2015-06-01

    Charged particles can be accelerated to higher than PeV energies in the electro-magnetic wind of a fast-spinning newborn pulsar to produce high-energy neutrinos, through hadronuclear interactions in the supernova remnant. Here we explore the detectability and observational signatures of these high-energy neutrinos. We show that their spectral index varies approximately from 1.5 to 2, depending on the relevant pulsar properties and observation time. We also apply the scenario to existing young pulsars in the local universe and find the corresponding neutrino flux well below current detection limits. Finally, we estimate the birth rate of fast-spinning pulsars in the local Universe that can be observed by the IceCube observatory to be 0.07 per year, with an upper limit of 0.29 per year.

  14. Keck spectroscopy of millisecond pulsar J2215+5135: a moderate-M

    DOE PAGES

    Romani, Roger W.; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; ...

    2015-08-07

    We present Keck spectroscopic measurements of the millisecond pulsar binary J2215+5135. These data indicate a neutron-star (NS) massmore » $${M}_{\\mathrm{NS}}=1.6\\;{M}_{\\odot }$$, much less than previously estimated. The pulsar heats the companion face to $${T}_{D}\\approx 9000$$ K; the large heating efficiency may be mediated by the intrabinary shock dominating the X-ray light curve. At the best-fit inclination i = 88 $$^o\\atop{.}$$ 8, the pulsar should be eclipsed. Here, we find weak evidence for such eclipses in the pulsed gamma-rays; an improved radio ephemeris allows use of up to five times more Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray photons for a definitive test of this picture. If confirmed, the gamma-ray eclipse provides a novel probe of the dense companion wind and the pulsar magnetosphere.« less

  15. Keck spectroscopy of millisecond pulsar J2215+5135: a moderate-M

    SciTech Connect

    Romani, Roger W.; Graham, Melissa L.; Filippenko, Alexei V.; Kerr, Matthew

    2015-08-07

    We present Keck spectroscopic measurements of the millisecond pulsar binary J2215+5135. These data indicate a neutron-star (NS) mass ${M}_{\\mathrm{NS}}=1.6\\;{M}_{\\odot }$, much less than previously estimated. The pulsar heats the companion face to ${T}_{D}\\approx 9000$ K; the large heating efficiency may be mediated by the intrabinary shock dominating the X-ray light curve. At the best-fit inclination i = 88 $^o\\atop{.}$ 8, the pulsar should be eclipsed. Here, we find weak evidence for such eclipses in the pulsed gamma-rays; an improved radio ephemeris allows use of up to five times more Fermi-Large Area Telescope gamma-ray photons for a definitive test of this picture. If confirmed, the gamma-ray eclipse provides a novel probe of the dense companion wind and the pulsar magnetosphere.

  16. A radio pulsar/x-ray binary link.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Anne M; Stairs, Ingrid H; Ransom, Scott M; Kaspi, Victoria M; Kondratiev, Vladislav I; Lorimer, Duncan R; McLaughlin, Maura A; Boyles, Jason; Hessels, Jason W T; Lynch, Ryan; van Leeuwen, Joeri; Roberts, Mallory S E; Jenet, Frederick; Champion, David J; Rosen, Rachel; Barlow, Brad N; Dunlap, Bart H; Remillard, Ronald A

    2009-06-12

    Radio pulsars with millisecond spin periods are thought to have been spun up by the transfer of matter and angular momentum from a low-mass companion star during an x-ray-emitting phase. The spin periods of the neutron stars in several such low-mass x-ray binary (LMXB) systems have been shown to be in the millisecond regime, but no radio pulsations have been detected. Here we report on detection and follow-up observations of a nearby radio millisecond pulsar (MSP) in a circular binary orbit with an optically identified companion star. Optical observations indicate that an accretion disk was present in this system within the past decade. Our optical data show no evidence that one exists today, suggesting that the radio MSP has turned on after a recent LMXB phase.

  17. FSSC Science Tools: Pulsar Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Dave

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the typical pulsar analysis, giving tips for screening of the data, the use of time series analysis, and utility tools. Specific information about analyzing Vela data is reviewed.

  18. Fermi's New Pulsar Detection Technique

    NASA Image and Video Library

    To locate a pulsar in Fermi LAT data requires knowledge of the object’s sky position, its pulse period, and how the pulse rate slows over time. Computers check many different combinations of posi...

  19. Chandra X-ray Observations of 12 Millisecond Pulsars in the Globular Cluster M28

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, Slavko; van den Berg, Maureen; Servillat, Mathieu; Heinke, Craig O.; Grindlay, Jonathan E.; Stairs, Ingrid H.; Ransom, Scott M.; Freire, Paulo C. C.; Bégin, Steve; Becker, Werner

    2011-04-01

    We present a Chandra X-ray Observatory investigation of the millisecond pulsars in the globular cluster M28 (NGC 6626). In what is one of the deepest X-ray observations of a globular cluster, we firmly detect seven and possibly detect two of the 12 known M28 pulsars. With the exception of PSRs B1821-24 and J1824-2452H, the detected pulsars have relatively soft spectra, with X-ray luminosities 1030-1031 erg s-1 (0.3-8 keV), similar to most "recycled" pulsars in 47 Tucanae and the field of the Galaxy, implying thermal emission from the pulsar magnetic polar caps. We present the most detailed X-ray spectrum to date of the energetic PSR B1821-24. It is well described by a purely non-thermal spectrum with spectral photon index Γ = 1.23 and luminosity 1.4 × 1033Θ(D/5.5 kpc)2 erg s-1 (0.3-8 keV), where Θ is the fraction of the sky covered by the X-ray emission beam(s). We find no evidence for the previously reported line emission feature around 3.3 keV, most likely as a consequence of improvements in instrument calibration. The X-ray spectrum and pulse profile of PSR B1821-24 suggest that the bulk of unpulsed emission from this pulsar is not of thermal origin, and is likely due to low-level non-thermal magnetospheric radiation, an unresolved pulsar wind nebula, and/or small-angle scattering of the pulsed X-rays by interstellar dust grains. The peculiar binary PSR J1824-2452H shows a relatively hard X-ray spectrum and possible variability at the binary period, indicative of an intrabinary shock formed by interaction between the relativistic pulsar wind and matter from its non-degenerate companion star.

  20. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-04-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  1. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; van Paradijs, Jan

    1989-11-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  2. Millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verbunt, Frank; Lewin, Walter H. G.; Vanparadijs, Jan

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the number of millisecond radio pulsars, in globular clusters, should be larger than 100, applying the standard scenario that all the pulsars descend from low-mass X-ray binaries. Moreover, most of the pulsars are located in a small number of clusters. The prediction that Teran 5 and Liller 1 contain at least about a dozen millisecond radio pulsars each is made. The observations of millisecond radio pulsars in globular clusters to date, in particular the discovery of two millisecond radio pulsars in 47 Tuc, are in agreement with the standard scenario, in which the neutron star is spun up during the mass transfer phase.

  3. The braking index of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Wu, J.; Guillemot, L.; Camilo, F.; Johnson, T. J.; Kerr, M.; Allen, B.; Aulbert, C.; Beer, C.; Bock, O.; Cuéllar, A.; Eggenstein, H. B.; Fehrmann, H.; Kramer, M.; Machenschalk, B.; Nieder, L.

    2016-11-16

    Here, we report the discovery and timing measurements of PSR J1208-6238, a young and highly magnetized gamma-ray pulsar, with a spin period of 440 ms. The pulsar was discovered in gamma-ray photon data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during a blind-search survey of unidentified LAT sources, running on the distributed volunteer computing system Einstein@Home. No radio pulsations were detected in dedicated follow-up searches with the Parkes radio telescope, with a flux density upper limit at 1369 MHz of 30 μJy. Furthermore, by timing this pulsar's gamma-ray pulsations, we measure its braking index over five years of LAT observations to be n = 2.598 ± 0.001 ± 0.1, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second estimates the bias due to timing noise. Assuming its braking index has been similar since birth, the pulsar has an estimated age of around 2700 years, making it the youngest pulsar to be found in a blind search of gamma-ray data and the youngest known radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar. Despite its young age, the pulsar is not associated with any known supernova remnant or pulsar wind nebula. The pulsar's inferred dipolar surface magnetic field strength is 3.8 × 1013 G, almost 90% of the quantum-critical level. Finally, we investigate some potential physical causes of the braking index deviating from the simple dipole model but find that LAT data covering a longer time interval will be necessary to distinguish between these.

  4. The braking index of a radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, C. J.; Pletsch, H. J.; Wu, J.; ...

    2016-11-16

    Here, we report the discovery and timing measurements of PSR J1208-6238, a young and highly magnetized gamma-ray pulsar, with a spin period of 440 ms. The pulsar was discovered in gamma-ray photon data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) during a blind-search survey of unidentified LAT sources, running on the distributed volunteer computing system Einstein@Home. No radio pulsations were detected in dedicated follow-up searches with the Parkes radio telescope, with a flux density upper limit at 1369 MHz of 30 μJy. Furthermore, by timing this pulsar's gamma-ray pulsations, we measure its braking index over five years of LAT observationsmore » to be n = 2.598 ± 0.001 ± 0.1, where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second estimates the bias due to timing noise. Assuming its braking index has been similar since birth, the pulsar has an estimated age of around 2700 years, making it the youngest pulsar to be found in a blind search of gamma-ray data and the youngest known radio-quiet gamma-ray pulsar. Despite its young age, the pulsar is not associated with any known supernova remnant or pulsar wind nebula. The pulsar's inferred dipolar surface magnetic field strength is 3.8 × 1013 G, almost 90% of the quantum-critical level. Finally, we investigate some potential physical causes of the braking index deviating from the simple dipole model but find that LAT data covering a longer time interval will be necessary to distinguish between these.« less

  5. The LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexov, A.; Hessels, J.; Mol, J. D.; Stappers, B.; van Leeuwen, J.

    2010-12-01

    The LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) for radio astronomy is being built in the Netherlands by ASTRON, with extensions throughout Europe. LOFAR operates at radio frequencies below 250 MHz. The project is an interferometric array of radio antennas grouped into stations that are distributed over an area of hundreds of kilometers. LOFAR will revolutionise low-frequency radio astronomy. Transient radio phenomena and pulsars are one of six LOFAR Key Science Projects (KSPs). As part of the Transients KSP, the Pulsar Working Group has been developing the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline to both study known pulsars as well as search for new ones. The pipeline is being developed for the Blue Gene/P (BG/P) supercomputer and a large Linux cluster in order to utilize enormous amounts of computation capabilities (˜ 50 Tflops) and data streams of up to 23TB/hour. The LOFAR pipeline output will be using the Hierarchical Data Format 5 (HDF5) to efficiently store large amounts of numerical data, and to manage complex data encompassing a variety of data types, across distributed storage and processing architectures. We present the LOFAR Pulsar Data Pipeline overview, the pulsar beam-formed data format, the status of the pipeline processing as well as our future plans for developing additional transient pipelines.

  6. Ion-proton pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P. B.

    2016-07-01

    Evidence derived with minimal assumptions from existing published observations is presented to show that an ion-proton plasma is the source of radio-frequency emission in millisecond and in normal isolated pulsars. There is no primary involvement of electron-positron pairs. This conclusion has also been reached by studies of the plasma composition based on well-established particle-physics processes in neutron stars with positive polar-cap corotational charge density. This work has been published in a series of papers which are also summarized here. It is now confirmed by simple analyses of the observed radio-frequency characteristics, and its implications for the further study of neutron stars are outlined.

  7. Pulsars In The Headlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Puerto, C.

    1967 was the year of the so-called “war of the six days” or “third Arab Israeli war”, the year of the Che Guevara's death in Bolivia, the year of the military coup in Greece and, in medicine, the year of the first human heart transplant. Moreover, the signing of the international agreement on the use of space with peaceful means and the crash of the Russian shuttle Soyuz-1, with Cosmonaut Vladimir Kamarov on board also happened that year. Likewise, Spanish writer and professor of journalists, José Azorín, passed away. However, here we are interested in 1967 because it was the year of the detection of pulsars, which astronomers initially confused with signals from extraterrestrials or Little Green Men. Nowadays, they are still present in the headlines.

  8. On the mean profiles of radio pulsars - II. Reconstruction of complex pulsar light curves and other new propagation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, H. L.; Beskin, V. S.; Philippov, A. A.

    2017-08-01

    Our previous paper outlined the general aspects of the theory of radio light curve and polarization formation for pulsars. We predicted the one-to-one correspondence between the tilt of the linear polarization position angle of the the circular polarization. However, some of the radio pulsars indicate a clear deviation from that correlation. In this paper, we apply the theory of the radio wave propagation in the pulsar magnetosphere for the analysis of individual effects leading to these deviations. We show that within our theory the circular polarization of a given mode can switch its sign, without the need to introduce a new radiation mode or other effects. Moreover, we show that the generation of different emission modes on different altitudes can explain pulsars, that presumably have the X-O-X light-curve pattern, different from what we predict. General properties of radio emission within our propagation theory are also discussed. In particular, we calculate the intensity patterns for different radiation altitudes and present light curves for different observer viewing angles. In this context we also study the light curves and polarization profiles for pulsars with interpulses. Further, we explain the characteristic width of the position angle curves by introducing the concept of a wide emitting region. Another important feature of radio polarization profiles is the shift of the position angle from the centre, which in some cases demonstrates a weak dependence on the observation frequency. Here we demonstrate that propagation effects do not necessarily imply a significant frequency-dependent change of the position angle curve.

  9. Thermal properties of the middle-aged pulsar J1741–2054

    SciTech Connect

    Karpova, A.; Danilenko, A.; Shibanov, Yu.; Shternin, P.; Zyuzin, D.

    2014-07-10

    We present results of the spectral analysis of the X-ray emission from the middle-aged Fermi pulsar J1741–2054 using all Chandra archival data collected in 2010 and 2013. We confirm early findings by Romani et al. in 2010 that the pulsar spectrum contains a thermal emission component. The component is best described by the blackbody model with temperature ≈60 eV and emitting area radius ≈17 D{sub kpc} km. The thermal emission likely originates from the entire surface of the cooling neutron star if the distance to the pulsar is ≈0.8 kpc. The latter is supported by a large absorbing column density inferred from the X-ray fit and empirical optical extinction-distance relations along the pulsar line of sight. The neutron star surface temperature and characteristic age make it similar to the well studied middle-aged pulsar B1055–52. Like this pulsar, PSR J1741–2054 is hotter than predicted by the standard cooling scenario.

  10. Regimes of high-energy shock emission from the Be star/pulsar system PSR 1259-63

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tavani, Marco; Arons, Jonathan; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    1994-01-01

    PSR B1259-63 is a 47 ms radio pulsar in a wide, eccentric orbit with a Be star. We study the shock interaction between the pulsar and the companion's mass outflow and investigate the time evolution of radiative shock regimes. We find that for small values of the Be star's mass-loss rate, inverse-Compton scattering is likely to dominate the shock emission. Alternately, for a large mass-loss rate, synchrotron emission will dominate. Multifrequency X-ray and gamma-ray observations near periastron can distinguish between these cases and yield unique constraints on the pulsar and Be star winds. The PSR B1259-63 system provides a unique laboratory to study the time-dependent interaction of a pulsar wind with the circumbinary material from its companion star.

  11. Observing the Plasma-Physical Processes of Pulsar Radio Emission with Arecibo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, Joanna M.

    2017-01-01

    With their enormous densities and fields, neutron stars entail some of the most exotic physics in the cosmos. Similarly, the physical mechanisms of pulsar radio emission are no less exotic, and we are only now beginning to understand them. The talk will provide an introduction to the phenomenology of radio pulsar emission and focus on those aspects of the exquisite Arecibo observations that bear on their challenging emission physics.The commonalities of the radio beamforms of most slow pulsars (and some millisecond pulsars) argue strongly that their magnetic fields have a nearly dipolar structure at the height of their radio emission regions. These heights can often be determined by aberration/retardation analyses. Similarly, measurement of the orientation of the polarized radio emission with respect to the emitting magnetic field facilitates identification of the physical(X/O) emission modes and study of the plasma coupling to the electromagnetic radiation.While the physics of primary plasma generation above the pulsar polar cap is only beginning to be understood, it is clear that the radio pulsars we see are able to generate copious amounts of electron-positron plasma in their emission regions. Within the nearly dipolar field structure of these emission regions, the plasma density is near to that of the Goldreich-Julian model, and so the physical conditions in these regions can be accurately estimated.These conditions show that the plasma frequencies in the emission regions are much higher than the frequency of the emitted radiation, such that the plasma couples most easily to the extraordinary mode as observed. Therefore, the only surviving emission mechanism is curvature radiation from charged solitons, produced by the two-stream instability. Such soliton emission has probably been observed directly in the Crab pulsar; however, a physical theory of charged soliton radiation does not yet exist.

  12. Fermi Finds Youthful Pulsar Among Ancient Stars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In three years, NASA's Fermi has detected more than 100 gamma-ray pulsars, but something new has appeared. Among a type of pulsar with ages typically numbering a billion years or more, Fermi has fo...

  13. Equilibrium spin pulsars unite neutron star populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wynn; Klus, Helen; Coe, Malcolm; Andersson, Nils

    2015-08-01

    We compare the large number of recent torque measurements of accreting pulsars with a high-mass companion to the standard model for how accretion affects the pulsar spin period. We find that many long spin period (P > 100 s) pulsars must possess either extremely weak (B < 10^10 G) or extremely strong (B > 10^14 G) magnetic fields. We argue that the strong-field solution is more compelling, in which case these pulsars are near spin equilibrium. Our results provide evidence for a fundamental link between pulsars with the slowest spin periods and strong magnetic fields around high-mass companions and pulsars with the fastest spin periods and weak fields around low-mass companions. The strong magnetic fields also connect our pulsars to magnetars and strong-field isolated radio/X-ray pulsars. The strong field and old age of our sources suggests their magnetic field penetrates into the superconducting core of the neutron star.

  14. Millisecond pulsars - Nature's most stable clocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Joseph H., Jr.

    1991-07-01

    The author describes the role pulsars might play in time and frequency technology. Millisecond pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars: spherical flywheels some 20 km in diameter, 1.4 times as massive as the Sun, and spinning as fast as several thousand radians per second. Radio noise generated in a pulsar's magnetosphere by a highly beamed process is detectable over interstellar distances, as a periodic sequence of pulses similar to the ticks of an excellent clock. High-precision comparisons between pulsar time and terrestrial atomic time show that over intervals of several years, some millisecond pulsars have fractional stabilities comparable to those of the best atomic clocks. The author briefly reviews the physics of pulsars, discusses the techniques of pulsar timing measurements, and summarizes the results of careful studies of pulsar stabilities.

  15. Soft X-ray emission from the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordova, F. A.; Middleditch, J.; Hjellming, R. M.; Mason, K. O.

    1989-01-01

    A radio source with a flux density of a few mJy was found in the error region of the soft X-ray source E0656 + 14, and identified as the radio pulsar PSR 0656 + 14. The radio source has a steep, nonthermal spectrum and a high degree of linear (62 percent) and circular (19 percent) polarization. The X-ray spectrum of the pulsar is among the softest sources observed with the Einstein Observatory. The X-ray data taken with the Einstein imaging proportional counter (IPC) permit a range of blackbody temperatures of 3-6 x 10 to the 5th K, and an equivalent column density of hydrogen smaller than 4 x 10 to the 20th/sq cm. If the assumption is made that the X-ray flux is thermal radiation from surface of the neutron star, then the pulsar must be at a distance smaller than 550 pc, consistent with the low dispersion measure of PSR 0656 + 14. The X-ray timing data suggest that the X-ray emission is modulated at the pulsar's 0.385-s spin period with an amplitude of 18 percent + or - 6 percent, and that there is a 0.0002 probability that this is spurious. It was noted that PSR 0656 + 14 is close to the geometric center of a 20-deg diameter soft X-ray emitting ring called the Gemini-Monoceros enhancement. The close distance of the pulsar, together with its relatively young age of 1.1 x 10 to the 5th yr, makes it possible that the ring is a supernova remnant from the explosion of the pulsar's progenitor. A radio source extending over a region 1.2 to 3.3 arcmin south of the pulsar is a candidate for association with the pulsar.

  16. Dips in the pulse profiles of accretion powered X-ray pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devasia, Jincy; Paul, Biswajit; James, Marykutty; Indulekha, Kavila

    We will report detection of sharp dips in the pulse profiles of several persistent and transient accretion powered X-ray pulsars using RXTE observations.The pulse profiles of accretion pow-ered pulsars carry a lot of information regarding the radiative processes near the surface of the star, magnetic fields that channel the accretion flow etc. The dips in pulse profiles can be due to the interaction of accretion column with the emitting radiation as it passes through the line of sight. We have also investigated the energy dependence and phase width of these dips to get a better understanding of the nature of this feature.

  17. Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the Crab Pulsar at Pulse Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, Allyn F.; Becker, Werner; Juda, Michael X.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Murray, Stephen S.; ODell, Stephen L.; Paerels, Frits; Swartz, Douglas A.; Shibazaki, Noriaki; hide

    1999-01-01

    The Chandra X-ray Observatory observed the Crab Nebula and Pulsar using the Low-Energy Transmission Grating (LETG) with the High-Resolution Camera (HRC). Time-resolved zeroth-order images reveal that the pulsar emits x rays at all pulse phases. Analysis of the flux at minimum -- most likely nonthermal in origin -- places an upper limit (T(sub infinity) < 2.1 MK) on the surface temperature of the underlying neutron star. In addition, analysis of the pulse profile appears to confirm the absolute timing of the Observatory to within about 0.2 ms.

  18. Discovery of X-Ray Emission from the Crab Pulsar at Pulse Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tennant, Allyn F.; Becker, Werner; Juda, Michael; Elsner, Ronald F.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery J.; Murray, Stephen S.; ODell, Stephen L.; Paerels, Frits; Swartz, Douglas A.

    2001-01-01

    The Chandra X-Ray Observatory observed the Crab pulsar using the Low-Energy Transmission Grating with the High-Resolution Camera. Time-resolved zeroth-order images reveal that the pulsar emits X-rays at all pulse phases. Analysis of the flux at minimum - most likely non-thermal in origin - places an upper limit (T(sub infinity) < 2.1 MK) on the surface temperature of the underlying neutron star. In addition, analysis of the pulse profile establishes that the error in the Chandra-determined absolute time is quite small, -0.2 +/- 0.1 ms.

  19. SYSTEMATIC AND STOCHASTIC VARIATIONS IN PULSAR DISPERSION MEASURES

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, M. T.; Cordes, J. M.; Chatterjee, S.; Jones, M. L.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Armstrong, J. W.

    2016-04-10

    We analyze deterministic and random temporal variations in the dispersion measure (DM) from the full three-dimensional velocities of pulsars with respect to the solar system, combined with electron-density variations over a wide range of length scales. Previous treatments have largely ignored pulsars’ changing distances while favoring interpretations involving changes in sky position from transverse motion. Linear trends in pulsar DMs observed over 5–10 year timescales may signify sizable DM gradients in the interstellar medium (ISM) sampled by the changing direction of the line of sight to the pulsar. We show that motions parallel to the line of sight can also account for linear trends, for the apparent excess of DM variance over that extrapolated from scintillation measurements, and for the apparent non-Kolmogorov scalings of DM structure functions inferred in some cases. Pulsar motions through atomic gas may produce bow-shock ionized gas that also contributes to DM variations. We discuss the possible causes of periodic or quasi-periodic changes in DM, including seasonal changes in the ionosphere, annual variations of the solar elongation angle, structure in the heliosphere and ISM boundary, and substructure in the ISM. We assess the solar cycle’s role on the amplitude of ionospheric and solar wind variations. Interstellar refraction can produce cyclic timing variations from the error in transforming arrival times to the solar system barycenter. We apply our methods to DM time series and DM gradient measurements in the literature and assess their consistency with a Kolmogorov medium. Finally, we discuss the implications of DM modeling in precision pulsar timing experiments.

  20. Star Cluster Buzzing With Pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-01-01

    A dense globular star cluster near the center of our Milky Way Galaxy holds a buzzing beehive of rapidly-spinning millisecond pulsars, according to astronomers who discovered 21 new pulsars in the cluster using the National Science Foundation's 100-meter Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT) in West Virginia. The cluster, called Terzan 5, now holds the record for pulsars, with 24, including three known before the GBT observations. Pulsar Diagram Pulsar Diagram: Click on image for more detail. "We hit the jackpot when we looked at this cluster," said Scott Ransom, an astronomer at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory in Charlottesville, VA. "Not only does this cluster have a lot of pulsars -- and we still expect to find more in it -- but the pulsars in it are very interesting. They include at least 13 in binary systems, two of which are eclipsing, and the four fastest-rotating pulsars known in any globular cluster, with the fastest two rotating nearly 600 times per second, roughly as fast as a household blender," Ransom added. Ransom and his colleagues reported their findings to the American Astronomical Society's meeting in San Diego, CA, and in the online journal Science Express. The star cluster's numerous pulsars are expected to yield a bonanza of new information about not only the pulsars themselves, but also about the dense stellar environment in which they reside and probably even about nuclear physics, according to the scientists. For example, preliminary measurements indicate that two of the pulsars are more massive than some theoretical models would allow. "All these exotic pulsars will keep us busy for years to come," said Jason Hessels, a Ph.D student at McGill University in Montreal. Globular clusters are dense agglomerations of up to millions of stars, all of which formed at about the same time. Pulsars are spinning, superdense neutron stars that whirl "lighthouse beams" of radio waves or light around as they spin. A neutron star is what is

  1. Towards a Realistic Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice; Contopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures as well as the currents ami charge densities of pulsar magnetospberes which do not obey the ideal condition, E(raised dot) B = O. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation requires the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E(sub ll) the structure of non-Ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-Ideal pulsar maglletospheres is important because their comparison (including models for t he production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support nonzero values for E(sub ll) and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) Force-Free Electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that tltis is at most 20-40% (depending on t he non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = pc and discuss their possible implicatioll on the determination of the "on/ off" states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E(sub ll) locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  2. A New Standard Pulsar Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-01

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  3. A new standard pulsar magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Contopoulos, Ioannis; Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes

    2014-01-20

    In view of recent efforts to probe the physical conditions in the pulsar current sheet, we revisit the standard solution that describes the main elements of the ideal force-free pulsar magnetosphere. The simple physical requirement that the electric current contained in the current layer consists of the local electric charge moving outward at close to the speed of light yields a new solution for the pulsar magnetosphere everywhere that is ideal force-free except in the current layer. The main elements of the new solution are as follows: (1) the pulsar spindown rate of the aligned rotator is 23% larger than that of the orthogonal vacuum rotator; (2) only 60% of the magnetic flux that crosses the light cylinder opens up to infinity; (3) the electric current closes along the other 40%, which gradually converges to the equator; (4) this transfers 40% of the total pulsar spindown energy flux in the equatorial current sheet, which is then dissipated in the acceleration of particles and in high-energy electromagnetic radiation; and (5) there is no separatrix current layer. Our solution is a minimum free-parameter solution in that the equatorial current layer is electrostatically supported against collapse and thus does not require a thermal particle population. In this respect, it is one more step toward the development of a new standard solution. We discuss the implications for intermittent pulsars and long-duration gamma-ray bursts. We conclude that the physical conditions in the equatorial current layer determine the global structure of the pulsar magnetosphere.

  4. TOWARD A REALISTIC PULSAR MAGNETOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Kalapotharakos, Constantinos; Kazanas, Demosthenes; Harding, Alice

    2012-04-10

    We present the magnetic and electric field structures and the currents and charge densities of pulsar magnetospheres that do not obey the ideal condition, E {center_dot} B = 0. Since the acceleration of particles and the production of radiation require the presence of an electric field component parallel to the magnetic field, E{sub ||}, the structure of non-ideal pulsar magnetospheres is intimately related to the production of pulsar radiation. Therefore, knowledge of the structure of non-ideal pulsar magnetospheres is important because their comparison (including models for the production of radiation) with observations will delineate the physics and the parameters underlying the pulsar radiation problem. We implement a variety of prescriptions that support non-zero values for E{sub ||} and explore their effects on the structure of the resulting magnetospheres. We produce families of solutions that span the entire range between the vacuum and the (ideal) force-free electrodynamic solutions. We also compute the amount of dissipation as a fraction of the Poynting flux for pulsars of different angles between the rotation and magnetic axes and conclude that this is at most 20%-40% (depending on the non-ideal prescription) in the aligned rotator and 10% in the perpendicular one. We present also the limiting solutions with the property J = {rho}c and discuss their possible implication on the determination of the 'on/off' states of the intermittent pulsars. Finally, we find that solutions with values of J greater than those needed to null E{sub ||} locally produce oscillations, potentially observable in the data.

  5. What brakes the Crab pulsar?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čadež, A.; Zampieri, L.; Barbieri, C.; Calvani, M.; Naletto, G.; Barbieri, M.; Ponikvar, D.

    2016-03-01

    Context. Optical observations provide convincing evidence that the optical phase of the Crab pulsar follows the radio one closely. Since optical data do not depend on dispersion measure variations, they provide a robust and independent confirmation of the radio timing solution. Aims: The aim of this paper is to find a global mathematical description of Crab pulsar's phase as a function of time for the complete set of published Jodrell Bank radio ephemerides (JBE) in the period 1988-2014. Methods: We apply the mathematical techniques developed for analyzing optical observations to the analysis of JBE. We break the whole period into a series of episodes and express the phase of the pulsar in each episode as the sum of two analytical functions. The first function is the best-fitting local braking index law, and the second function represents small residuals from this law with an amplitude of only a few turns, which rapidly relaxes to the local braking index law. Results: From our analysis, we demonstrate that the power law index undergoes "instantaneous" changes at the time of observed jumps in rotational frequency (glitches). We find that the phase evolution of the Crab pulsar is dominated by a series of constant braking law episodes, with the braking index changing abruptly after each episode in the range of values between 2.1 and 2.6. Deviations from such a regular phase description behave as oscillations triggered by glitches and amount to fewer than 40 turns during the above period, in which the pulsar has made more than 2 × 1010 turns. Conclusions: Our analysis does not favor the explanation that glitches are connected to phenomena occurring in the interior of the pulsar. On the contrary, timing irregularities and changes in slow down rate seem to point to electromagnetic interaction of the pulsar with the surrounding environment.

  6. PREDICTING RANGES FOR PULSARS' BRAKING INDICES

    SciTech Connect

    Magalhaes, Nadja S.; Miranda, Thaysa A.; Frajuca, Carlos

    2012-08-10

    The theoretical determination of braking indices of pulsars is still an open problem. In this paper we report results of a study concerning such determination based on a modification of the canonical model, which admits that pulsars are rotating magnetic dipoles, and on data from the seven pulsars with known braking indices. In order to test the modified model, we predict ranges for the braking indices of other pulsars.

  7. Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Pulsar Timing with the Fermi LAT Paul S. Ray∗, Matthew Kerr†, Damien Parent∗∗ and the Fermi PSC‡ ∗Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Ave., SW...Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375, USA ‡Fermi Pulsar Search Consortium Abstract. We present an overview of precise pulsar timing using data from the Large...unbinned photon data. In addition to determining the spindown behavior of the pulsars and detecting glitches and timing noise, such timing analyses al