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Sample records for emotion sex politics

  1. Emotion and Language Politics: The Brazilian Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajagopalan, Kanavillil

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to make a case for the claim that exclusive focus on the rational has only helped isolate linguists and prevented them from having a say on important political issues relating to language. One important feature of the ordinary person's view of and involvement with language is that emotions play an important role in…

  2. Elusive Sex Acts: Pleasure and Politics in Norwegian Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svendsen, Stine H. Bang

    2012-01-01

    While there is little political opposition towards sex education as such in Norway, recent attempts at reforming the subject reveal underlying heteronormative presumptions that seem resistant to reform. While a focus on homosexuality is included in the national curriculum at all levels of compulsory education, the sexual practices involved in…

  3. [Sex workers: from stigma to political consciousness].

    PubMed

    Lamas, M

    1996-01-01

    This work provides an overview of the different types of female sex workers in Mexico City, and discusses the recent trend toward politicizing of female sex workers. The sex industry, traditionally known as prostitution, encompasses a variety of activities that are economically and socially hierarchical, and that may be clandestine, public, or semiofficial. The penal code in Mexico does not outlaw prostitution as such, but specifies procuring as an infraction, while the police regulations contain a category of offenses against morals and good customs, which is used to control prostitution. The laws have lent themselves to exploitation and mistreatment of prostitutes, who are also systematically exploited by their "representatives." The stigma of prostitution has prevented political organization of sex industry workers. In Mexico, the AIDS epidemic directly affected prostitutes' lives and initiated their political awakening. In some AIDS-control campaigns, prostitution came to be spoken of as a means of earning a living rather than as a sin, vice, or destiny. AIDS control activities also gave some indication of preoccupation with the human rights of prostitutes. Efforts are underway to form a national organization of prostitutes that would seek to improve their working conditions and social status. To the extent that prostitutes reflect on their circumstances and organize to defend their basic rights, including recognition of their work, they redefine the symbolic terms of gender in which female sexuality is repressed and women are dichotomized as good women or prostitutes. Prostitution is a social institution reflecting the hierarchy of gender. Prostitution should be analyzed as a political problem and not just a personal or individual problem. It should also be studied as a problem of social relations, with attention to the demand side as well as the supply.

  4. Sex differences in chemosensation: sensory or emotional?

    PubMed

    Ohla, Kathrin; Lundström, Johan N

    2013-01-01

    Although the first sex-dependent differences in chemosensory processing were reported in the scientific literature over 60 years ago, the underlying mechanisms are still unknown. Generally, more pronounced sex-dependent differences are noted with increased task difficulty or with increased levels of intranasal irritation produced by the stimulus. Whether differences between the sexes arise from differences in chemosensory sensitivity of the two intranasal sensory systems involved or from differences in cognitive processing associated with emotional evaluation of the stimulants is still not known. We used simultaneous and complementary measures of electrophysiological (EEG), psychophysiological, and psychological responses to stimuli varying in intranasal irritation and odorousness to investigate whether sex differences in the processing of intranasal irritation are mediated by varying sensitivity of the involved sensory systems or by differences in cognitive and/or emotional evaluation of the irritants. Women perceived all stimulants more irritating and they exhibited larger amplitudes of the late positive deflection of the event-related potential than men. No significant differences in sensory sensitivity, anxiety, and arousal responses could be detected. Our findings suggest that men and women process intranasal irritation differently. Importantly, the differences cannot be explained by variation in sensory sensitivity to irritants, differences in anxiety, or differences in physiological arousal. We propose that women allocate more attention to potentially noxious stimuli than men do, which eventually causes differences in cognitive appraisal and subjective perception. PMID:24133429

  5. Sex differences in anxiety and emotional behavior

    PubMed Central

    Donner, Nina C.; Lowry, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Research has elucidated causal links between stress exposure and the development of anxiety disorders, but due to the limited use of female or sex-comparative animal models, little is known about the mechanisms underlying sex differences in those disorders. This is despite an overwhelming wealth of evidence from the clinical literature that the prevalence of anxiety disorders is about twice as high in women compared to men, in addition to gender differences in severity and treatment efficacy. We here review human gender differences in generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety-relevant biological functions, discuss the limitations of classic conflict anxiety tests to measure naturally occurring sex differences in anxiety-like behaviors, describe sex-dependent manifestation of anxiety states after gestational, neonatal, or adolescent stressors, and present animal models of chronic anxiety states induced by acute or chronic stressors during adulthood. Potential mechanisms underlying sex differences in stress-related anxiety states include emerging evidence supporting the existence of two anatomically and functionally distinct serotonergic circuits that are related to the modulation of conflict anxiety and panic-like anxiety, respectively. We discuss how these serotonergic circuits may be controlled by reproductive steroid hormone-dependent modulation of crfr1 and crfr2 expression in the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus and by estrous stage-dependent alterations of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurotransmission in the periaqueductal gray, ultimately leading to sex differences in emotional behavior. PMID:23588380

  6. Alfred C. Kinsey and the politics of sex research.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, John

    2004-01-01

    In view of the recent phase of political opposition to sex research and intense public interest in Alfred C. Kinsey, this paper considers the impact that Kinsey's research has had on the political process in the past 50 years. Initial reactions to Kinsey's research that remain relevant today include "normal" people don't participate in sex surveys, sex surveys are intended to promote homosexuality, and asking people about their sex lives in a nonjudgmental fashion promotes immorality. Episodes of political opposition are documented, and the long-running anti-Kinsey campaign and its impact on the political process are described and discussed. Reasons why people might still oppose sex research are considered, and conclusions are reached about how sex researchers might deal with this problem. PMID:16913278

  7. Political Emotions: Toward a Fresh Perspective on Collective Emotion in Composition Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilfus, Jonna Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines theories of emotion in politically contentious discourse in order to better understand the implications for teachers and students in composition classrooms where critical pedagogical practices lead to contentious political work. I suggest that partly as a result of the social and political turn in composition studies,…

  8. Expression and Perception of Emotion: Race and Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitter, A. George; Black, Harvey

    A 2 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), sex of expressor, race of perceiver and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and sadness) was analyzed in terms of three dependent variables: (1)…

  9. Sex education for emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schoenholtz, S W; Horowitz, H A; Shtarkshall, R

    1989-02-01

    Under investigation were effects of a course in sex education on a population of emotionally disturbed adolescents who were enrolled as day patients in a school program that is part of the Adolescent Treatment Program of the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital. Subjects included 7 females, and 8 males, aged 15-18, with severe socio-emotional and educational problems. Pre-and posttesting were used to measure changes. Measures included a short form questionnaire assessing sexual knowledge and attitudes, the Draw-a-Person test, and behavioral observations by teachers, faculty, and Adolescent Treatment Program staff. The results of the study indicated that patients responded age appropriately and gained knowledge and an increased openness about sexuality issues. On the knowledge section of the questionnaire areas addressed in class, such as contraception, were the areas that students showed improvement in student response. The attitudes section revealed an increase in uncertainty about their own values, or conversely, an increase in establishing their values more firmly. In the Draw-a-Person test there was a greater degree of openness and less defensiveness in the posttest drawings. Most postcourse drawings also included more sexual signs and showed nudity. Behavioral changes were noted in the student's increased class contributions and participation, as well as in a more frequent focus of issues relating to sexuality and maturation. In addition, there was no regression or dysfunction as a result of the materials presented, and therapeutic and educational processes were not disrupted by the patient's involvement in the course. It was concluded that a sex education course is clinically and educationally useful on many levels within a therapeutic setting. PMID:12342338

  10. Political conservatism predicts asymmetries in emotional scene memory.

    PubMed

    Mills, Mark; Gonzalez, Frank J; Giuseffi, Karl; Sievert, Benjamin; Smith, Kevin B; Hibbing, John R; Dodd, Michael D

    2016-06-01

    Variation in political ideology has been linked to differences in attention to and processing of emotional stimuli, with stronger responses to negative versus positive stimuli (negativity bias) the more politically conservative one is. As memory is enhanced by attention, such findings predict that memory for negative versus positive stimuli should similarly be enhanced the more conservative one is. The present study tests this prediction by having participants study 120 positive, negative, and neutral scenes in preparation for a subsequent memory test. On the memory test, the same 120 scenes were presented along with 120 new scenes and participants were to respond whether a scene was old or new. Results on the memory test showed that negative scenes were more likely to be remembered than positive scenes, though, this was true only for political conservatives. That is, a larger negativity bias was found the more conservative one was. The effect was sizeable, explaining 45% of the variance across subjects in the effect of emotion. These findings demonstrate that the relationship between political ideology and asymmetries in emotion processing extend to memory and, furthermore, suggest that exploring the extent to which subject variation in interactions among emotion, attention, and memory is predicted by conservatism may provide new insights into theories of political ideology.

  11. The role of emotional promiscuity in unprotected sex.

    PubMed

    Jones, Daniel N; Paulhus, Delroy L

    2012-01-01

    Sexual promiscuity is a known risk factor for unprotected sex. A related variable, emotional promiscuity, has conceptual relevance but has yet to be studied with respect to unprotected sex. Data from four studies (total N = 908) indicated that both sexual promiscuity and emotional promiscuity were associated with womens' reports of unprotected sex. Independent of those contributions, the interaction between sexual promiscuity and emotional promiscuity was also significant for women: Scoring high on both variables was associated with the highest number of unprotected partners. This synergistic interaction emerged whether the question about number of unprotected partners referred to the past year or lifetime total. The interaction held up even after controlling for other relevant factors (lifetime partners, romantic beliefs, and attachment styles). In sum, among sexually active women, the susceptibility to falling in love puts them at risk for unprotected sex. Our discussion addresses possible mechanisms and why the key interaction only emerged in women. PMID:22260274

  12. Sex Differences in the Rapid Detection of Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Sawada, Reiko; Sato, Wataru; Kochiyama, Takanori; Uono, Shota; Kubota, Yasutaka; Yoshimura, Sayaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that females and males differ in the processing of emotional facial expressions including the recognition of emotion, and that emotional facial expressions are detected more rapidly than are neutral expressions. However, whether the sexes differ in the rapid detection of emotional facial expressions remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We measured reaction times (RTs) during a visual search task in which 44 females and 46 males detected normal facial expressions of anger and happiness or their anti-expressions within crowds of neutral expressions. Anti-expressions expressed neutral emotions with visual changes quantitatively comparable to normal expressions. We also obtained subjective emotional ratings in response to the facial expression stimuli. RT results showed that both females and males detected normal expressions more rapidly than anti-expressions and normal-angry expressions more rapidly than normal-happy expressions. However, females and males showed different patterns in their subjective ratings in response to the facial expressions. Furthermore, sex differences were found in the relationships between subjective ratings and RTs. High arousal was more strongly associated with rapid detection of facial expressions in females, whereas negatively valenced feelings were more clearly associated with the rapid detection of facial expressions in males. Conclusion Our data suggest that females and males differ in their subjective emotional reactions to facial expressions and in the emotional processes that modulate the detection of facial expressions. PMID:24728084

  13. Posttraumatic stress and worry as mediators and moderators between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children.

    PubMed

    Khamis, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to assess whether the symptoms of posttraumatic stress mediate or moderate the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in Palestinian children. It was hypothesized that (a) posttraumatic stress and worry mediate the effect of political stressors on behavioral and emotional disorders and (b) the relationship between political stressors and behavioral and emotional disorders should be attenuated for children with low levels of worry and posttraumatic stress and strengthened for children with high levels of worry and posttraumatic stress. The total sample was 1267 school age children of both sexes with a mean age of 11.97 years. Interviews were conducted with children at school. As hypothesized, the results indicated that posttraumatic stress and worry mediated and moderated the relationship between political stressors and emotional and behavioral disorders in children. Cognitive-behavioral therapy may be used to reduce the incidence of posttraumatic stress and decrease self-reported worry, somatic symptoms, general anxiety, and depression among children exposed to political trauma. Cognitive-behavioral treatment that exclusively targets excessive worry can lead to clinical change in the other interacting subsystems at the cognitive, physiological, affective and behavioral levels.

  14. The emotional, political, and analytical labor of engaged anthropology amidst violent political conflict.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosa Cordillera

    2015-01-01

    Given the harsh realities that people live through in southern Philippines, where there is rife human rights violations and violent political conflict, it becomes difficult and arguably unethical for anthropologists to assume a position of neutrality. Following calls for engaged anthropology, I contend that engagement entails simultaneously an emotional, political, and analytical labor and troubles the separation of the self and other. I suggest that a way to labor through these challenges of researching suffering, and the reciprocal obligations this implicates, is to utilize feminist reflexivity and epistemic reflexivity. These necessitate an objectification of the self and one's intellectual field to achieve an epistemological break that would lead to an understanding of the other and their realities.

  15. The emotional, political, and analytical labor of engaged anthropology amidst violent political conflict.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosa Cordillera

    2015-01-01

    Given the harsh realities that people live through in southern Philippines, where there is rife human rights violations and violent political conflict, it becomes difficult and arguably unethical for anthropologists to assume a position of neutrality. Following calls for engaged anthropology, I contend that engagement entails simultaneously an emotional, political, and analytical labor and troubles the separation of the self and other. I suggest that a way to labor through these challenges of researching suffering, and the reciprocal obligations this implicates, is to utilize feminist reflexivity and epistemic reflexivity. These necessitate an objectification of the self and one's intellectual field to achieve an epistemological break that would lead to an understanding of the other and their realities. PMID:25203771

  16. Fear among the extremes: how political ideology predicts negative emotions and outgroup derogation.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Krouwel, André P M; Boiten, Max; Eendebak, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    The "rigidity of the right" hypothesis predicts that particularly the political right experiences fear and derogates outgroups. We propose that above and beyond that, the political extremes (at both sides of the spectrum) are more likely to display these responses than political moderates. Results of a large-scale sample reveal the predicted quadratic term on socio-economic fear. Moreover, although the political right is more likely to derogate the specific category of immigrants, we find a quadratic effect on derogation of a broad range of societal categories. Both extremes also experience stronger negative emotions about politics than politically moderate respondents. Finally, the quadratic effects on derogation of societal groups and negative political emotions were mediated by socio-economic fear, particularly among left- and right-wing extremists. It is concluded that negative emotions and outgroup derogation flourish among the extremes. PMID:25652084

  17. Fear among the extremes: how political ideology predicts negative emotions and outgroup derogation.

    PubMed

    van Prooijen, Jan-Willem; Krouwel, André P M; Boiten, Max; Eendebak, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    The "rigidity of the right" hypothesis predicts that particularly the political right experiences fear and derogates outgroups. We propose that above and beyond that, the political extremes (at both sides of the spectrum) are more likely to display these responses than political moderates. Results of a large-scale sample reveal the predicted quadratic term on socio-economic fear. Moreover, although the political right is more likely to derogate the specific category of immigrants, we find a quadratic effect on derogation of a broad range of societal categories. Both extremes also experience stronger negative emotions about politics than politically moderate respondents. Finally, the quadratic effects on derogation of societal groups and negative political emotions were mediated by socio-economic fear, particularly among left- and right-wing extremists. It is concluded that negative emotions and outgroup derogation flourish among the extremes.

  18. The influence of stimulus sex and emotional expression on the attentional blink.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, Hilary E; Vanous, Jesse B

    2015-08-01

    Past studies have demonstrated that angry faces used as the first target (T1) in an attentional blink paradigm interfere with processing of a second, neutral target (T2). However, despite research that suggests that the sex and emotional expression of a face are confounded, no study has investigated whether the sex of a stimulus might interact with emotional expression to influence the attentional blink. In the current study, both the sex and emotional expression of a T1 stimulus were manipulated to assess participants' ability to report the presences of a subsequent neutral target. Although the findings revealed limited evidence to support an interaction between sex and emotion, both the sex and emotional expression of the T1 stimulus were found to independently affect reporting of T2. These findings suggest that both emotional expression and stimulus sex are important in the temporal allocation of attentional resources to faces.

  19. Integrating sex and attachment in emotionally focused couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Susan; Zuccarini, Dino

    2010-10-01

    In this article, sexual functioning is placed in the context of love as an attachment bond. Attachment theory offers the most coherent and empirically validated theory of adult love and is summarized together with the implications of this theory for the practice of couple therapy in which sexual issues are often addressed. Recent research on attachment and sexuality is outlined and a model of healthy sexuality where attachment and sexuality are integrated is offered. The principles of an attachment-oriented approach to sex issues are set out and illustrated with reference to the process of emotionally focused couple therapy. Case descriptions and brief in-session transcripts are included.

  20. Emotions, Public Opinion, and U.S. Presidential Approval Rates: A 5-Year Analysis of Online Political Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Bailon, Sandra; Banchs, Rafael E.; Kaltenbrunner, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    This article examines how emotional reactions to political events shape public opinion. We analyze political discussions in which people voluntarily engage online to approximate the public agenda: Online discussions offer a natural approach to the salience of political issues and the means to analyze emotional reactions as political events take…

  1. Facial emotion perception in schizophrenia: Does sex matter?

    PubMed Central

    Mote, Jasmine; Kring, Ann M

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To review the literature on sex differences in facial emotion perception (FEP) across the schizophrenia spectrum. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of empirical articles that were included in five separate meta-analyses of FEP across the schizophrenia spectrum, including meta-analyses that predominantly examined adults with chronic schizophrenia, people with early (onset prior to age 18) or recent-onset (experiencing their first or second psychotic episode or illness duration less than 2 years) schizophrenia, and unaffected first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia. We also examined articles written in English (from November 2011 through June 2015) that were not included in the aforementioned meta-analyses through a literature search in the PubMed database. All relevant articles were accessed in full text. We examined all studies to determine the sample sizes, diagnostic characteristics, demographic information, methodologies, results, and whether each individual study reported on sex differences. The results from the meta-analyses themselves as well as the individual studies are reported in tables and text. RESULTS: We retrieved 134 articles included in five separate meta-analyses and the PubMed database that examined FEP across the schizophrenia spectrum. Of these articles, 38 examined sex differences in FEP. Thirty of these studies did not find sex differences in FEP in either chronically ill adults with schizophrenia, early-onset or recently diagnosed people with schizophrenia, or first-degree relatives of people with schizophrenia. Of the eight studies that found sex differences in FEP, three found that chronically ill women outperformed men, one study found that girls with early-onset schizophrenia outperformed boys, and two studies found that women (including first-degree relatives, adults with schizophrenia, and the healthy control group) outperformed men on FEP tasks. In total, six of the eight studies that examined sex differences

  2. Growing Up Amid Ethno-Political Conflict: Aggression and Emotional Desensitization Promote Hostility to Ethnic Outgroups.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L R; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira D

    2016-09-01

    Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. This study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n = 600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in three age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Furthermore, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic outgroups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes.

  3. Growing Up Amid Ethno-Political Conflict: Aggression and Emotional Desensitization Promote Hostility to Ethnic Outgroups.

    PubMed

    Niwa, Erika Y; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L R; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira D

    2016-09-01

    Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. This study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n = 600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in three age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, and 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Furthermore, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic outgroups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes. PMID:27684400

  4. Sex Differences in Emotion: A Critical Review of the Literature and Implications for Counseling Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wester, Stephen R.; Vogel, David L.; Pressly, Page K.; Heesacker, Martin

    2002-01-01

    This article examines the findings of several reviews of the empirical literature on biological sex and emotion, focusing on the degree to which perceived sex differences in emotionality are, and in most cases are not, supported while at the same time addressing the implications this body of research has for counseling psychologists. This article…

  5. Emotion Regulation as the Foundation of Political Attitudes: Does Reappraisal Decrease Support for Conservative Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Sohn, Yunkyu; Fowler, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive scientists, behavior geneticists, and political scientists have identified several ways in which emotions influence political attitudes, and psychologists have shown that emotion regulation can have an important causal effect on physiology, cognition, and subjective experience. However, no work to date explores the possibility that emotion regulation may shape political ideology and attitudes toward policies. Here, we conduct four studies that investigate the role of a particular emotion regulation strategy – reappraisal in particular. Two observational studies show that individual differences in emotion regulation styles predict variation in political orientations and support for conservative policies. In the third study, we experimentally induce disgust as the target emotion to be regulated and show that use of reappraisal reduces the experience of disgust, thereby decreasing moral concerns associated with conservatism. In the final experimental study, we show that use of reappraisal successfully attenuates the relationship between trait-level disgust sensitivity and support for conservative policies. Our findings provide the first evidence of a critical link between emotion regulation and political attitudes. PMID:24367583

  6. Empathy and recognition of facial expressions of emotion in sex offenders, non-sex offenders and normal controls.

    PubMed

    Gery, Isabelle; Miljkovitch, Raphaële; Berthoz, Sylvie; Soussignan, Robert

    2009-02-28

    Research conducted on empathy and emotional recognition in sex offenders is contradictory. The present study was aimed to clarify this issue by controlling for some affective and social variables (depression, anxiety, and social desirability) that are presumed to influence emotional and empathic measures, using a staged multicomponent model of empathy. Incarcerated sex offenders (child molesters), incarcerated non-sex offenders, and non-offender controls (matched for age, gender, and education level) performed a recognition task of facial expressions of basic emotions that varied in intensity, and completed various self-rating scales designed to assess distinct components of empathy (perspective taking, affective empathy, empathy concern, and personal distress), as well as depression, anxiety, and social desirability. Sex offenders were less accurate than the other participants in recognizing facial expressions of anger, disgust, surprise and fear, with problems in confusing fear with surprise, and disgust with anger. Affective empathy was the only component that discriminated sex offenders from non-sex offenders and was correlated with accuracy recognition of emotional expressions. Although our findings must be replicated with a larger number of participants, they support the view that sex offenders might have impairments in the decoding of some emotional cues conveyed by the conspecifics' face, which could have an impact on affective empathy.

  7. Do you see what I see? Sex differences in the discrimination of facial emotions during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nikki C; Krabbendam, Lydia; White, Thomas P; Meeter, Martijn; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Flor, Herta; Frouin, Vincent; Heinz, Andreas; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Ittermann, Bernd; Mann, Karl; Paillère Martinot, Marie-Laure; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomas; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Robbins, Trevor; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Smolka, Michael N; Gallinat, Juergen; Schumann, Gunther; Shergill, Sukhi S

    2013-12-01

    During adolescence social relationships become increasingly important. Establishing and maintaining these relationships requires understanding of emotional stimuli, such as facial emotions. A failure to adequately interpret emotional facial expressions has previously been associated with various mental disorders that emerge during adolescence. The current study examined sex differences in emotional face processing during adolescence. Participants were adolescents (n = 1951) with a target age of 14, who completed a forced-choice emotion discrimination task. The stimuli used comprised morphed faces that contained a blend of two emotions in varying intensities (11 stimuli per set of emotions). Adolescent girls showed faster and more sensitive perception of facial emotions than boys. However, both adolescent boys and girls were most sensitive to variations in emotion intensity in faces combining happiness and sadness, and least sensitive to changes in faces comprising fear and anger. Furthermore, both sexes overidentified happiness and anger. However, the overidentification of happiness was stronger in boys. These findings were not influenced by individual differences in the level of pubertal maturation. These results indicate that male and female adolescents differ in their ability to identify emotions in morphed faces containing emotional blends. The findings provide information for clinical studies examining whether sex differences in emotional processing are related to sex differences in the prevalence of psychiatric disorders within this age group.

  8. Writing trauma: emotion, ethnography, and the politics of suffering among Somali returnees in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Zarowsky, Christina

    2004-06-01

    By comparing Somali narratives of emotion and suffering with literature about emotion in relation to trauma and "the refugee experience," this paper contributes to the understanding of emotion, suffering, and trauma in different cultural and sociopolitical contexts, and interrogates the roles and methods of ethnographies of trauma in situations of high political, social, and economic stakes. In the mid-1990s, emotional distress among Ethiopian Somali returnees was about social rupture and injustice and not simply about private suffering. Emotion is critical to creating, recognizing, reinforcing, and mobilizing the moral webs on which both individual and collective survival depend. In the aftermath of dispossession and war, and amidst ongoing hunger and destitution, certain expressions of emotion carry a particularly important valence: anger, passion, and rhetorics of demoralization revolving around a collective narrative of dispossession and demands for restitution. "Experience near" descriptions of Somali emotion expressions cannot be conflated with "psychological" analyses or "Posttraumatic Stress Disorder." Somali refugee narratives index and challenge the embodiment in lived experience of local, national, and global institutions' (in)action and inequality. To the extent that academic debates over emotion and trauma help to shape, reinforce, or challenge the assumptions and practices of institutions affecting millions of lives, we researchers must address in our analyses the practical and political implications of how we interpret and write about emotion, trauma, and politics.

  9. Sex, secularism and religious influence in US politics.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth; Jakobsen, Janet R

    2010-01-01

    Through an analysis of alliances between secular and religious actors in US politics and a specific case study on anti-trafficking policy, we show that the intertwining of religion and politics in the US comes from two sources: 1) the secular political and cultural institutions of American public life that have developed historically out of Protestantism, and which predominantly operate by presuming Protestant norms and values; and 2) the direct influence on US politics of religious groups and organisations, particularly in the past quarter-century of lobby groups and political action committees identified with conservative evangelical Christianity. The sources of policies that promote gender and sexual inequality in the US are both secular and religious and we conclude that it is inaccurate to assume that religious influence in politics is necessarily conservative or that more secular politics will necessarily be more progressive than the religious varieties. PMID:20857575

  10. Sex differences in brain activation to emotional stimuli: a meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Jennifer S; Hamann, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Substantial sex differences in emotional responses and perception have been reported in previous psychological and psychophysiological studies. For example, women have been found to respond more strongly to negative emotional stimuli, a sex difference that has been linked to an increased risk of depression and anxiety disorders. The extent to which such sex differences are reflected in corresponding differences in regional brain activation remains a largely unresolved issue, however, in part because relatively few neuroimaging studies have addressed this issue. Here, by conducting a quantitative meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies, we were able to substantially increase statistical power to detect sex differences relative to prior studies, by combining emotion studies which explicitly examined sex differences with the much larger number of studies that examined only women or men. We used an activation likelihood estimation approach to characterize sex differences in the likelihood of regional brain activation elicited by emotional stimuli relative to non-emotional stimuli. We examined sex differences separately for negative and positive emotions, in addition to examining all emotions combined. Sex differences varied markedly between negative and positive emotion studies. The majority of sex differences favoring women were observed for negative emotion, whereas the majority of the sex differences favoring men were observed for positive emotion. This valence-specificity was particularly evident for the amygdala. For negative emotion, women exhibited greater activation than men in the left amygdala, as well as in other regions including the left thalamus, hypothalamus, mammillary bodies, left caudate, and medial prefrontal cortex. In contrast, for positive emotion, men exhibited greater activation than women in the left amygdala, as well as greater activation in other regions including the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and right fusiform gyrus. These meta

  11. A Queer Politics of Emotion: Reimagining Sexualities and Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Aoife; Gray, Breda; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2016-01-01

    This paper draws together [Hochschild's (1979) "Emotion Work, Feeling Rules and Social Structure." "American Journal of Sociology" 85: 551-575; (1983) "The Managed Heart: Commercialisation of Human Feeling." London: University of California Press] concepts of "emotional labour" and "feeling rules"…

  12. Emotional distress and its socio-political correlates in Salvadoran refugees: analysis of a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Farias, P J

    1991-06-01

    The emotional distress responses of refugees cannot be adequately understood using the traditional notions of stress and adaptation. In these populations it is necessary to consider the relations between emotional distress and socio-political context, particularly the processes of terror and intimidation and the conditions of migratory illegality and social marginality. This study analyses the patterns of emotional distress in a clinical sample of 71 Salvadoran refugees in an urban center of the United States. Case histories are presented and patterns of trauma, distress and associated life problems analyzed. It is argued that distress patterns reflect the particular socio-political conditions of women and men and represent the embodiment of the conflicts that refugees face. The concept of illness is used to link distress patterns and socio-political context and to avoid the reductionism of psychiatric categories. PMID:1874002

  13. Emotional prosody: sex differences in sensitivity to speech melody.

    PubMed

    Besson, Mireille; Magne, Cyrille; Schön, Daniele

    2002-10-01

    Emotional prosody is defined as the ability to express emotions through variations of different parameters of the human speech, such as pitch contour, intensity and duration. A recent study has discovered clear differences between men and women in the time course of emotional prosodic processing. There are several interpretations of these intriguing results that hold promise for future studies on language comprehension.

  14. Perception of Emotion: Differences in Mode of Presentation, Sex of Perceiver, and Race of Expressor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozel, Nicholas J.; Gitter, A. George

    A 2 x 2 x 4 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of sex of perceiver, race of expressor (Negro and White), and mode of presentation of stimuli (audio and visual, visual only, audio only, and still pictures) on perception of emotion (POE). Perception of seven emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, pain, and…

  15. A Signal-Detection Analysis of Sex Differences in the Perception of Emotional Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Gina M.; Bulman-Fleming, M. Barbara; Ngo, Cam

    2004-01-01

    A signal-detection task was used to assess sex differences in emotional face recognition under conditions of uncertainty. Computer images of Ekman faces showing sad, angry, happy, and fearful emotional states were presented for 50ms to thirty-six men and thirty-seven women. All participants monitored for presentation of either happy, angry, or sad…

  16. Sex, Kids, and Politics. Health Services in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emihovich, Catherine; Herrington, Carolyn D.

    This book examines practical, cultural, and political implications of placing health service programs in public schools, detailing three cases of Florida school districts, where a controversial statewide initiative for health services in schools recently went into effect. The plan supports programs to promote the health of medically underserved…

  17. Illiberal Education: The Politics of Race and Sex on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Dinesh

    This book addresses the issue of angry campus confrontations over issues of race, gender, and ethnicity, and more broadly, the dilemma of the college's and university's ability and desire to attain the goals of liberal education while also desiring to be "politically correct." It is noted that student activists have split the university on moral…

  18. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    PubMed

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage.

  19. The Sex Differences in Regulating Unpleasant Emotion by Expressive Suppression: Extraversion Matters

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Ayan; Lou, Yixue; Long, Quanshan; Yuan, Jiajin

    2016-01-01

    Males are known for more suppression of emotional displays than females. However, when the emotion regulation effect of expressive suppression is greater in males, and how this sex difference varies with emotion display-related personality (e.g., extraversion), are undetermined. Event-related potentials were recorded while male and female participants different in extraversion were required to attend to or suppress emotional expression to negative pictures. Sex and extraversion did not modulate self-reported emotional experience. However, late positive potential (LPP) amplitudes showed an extraversion-moderated sex difference in the 2000–3000 ms and the 3000–4000 ms time epochs. LPP amplitudes were decreased during suppression versus viewing conditions in ambivert males, while this effect was absent in ambivert females. However, the LPP amplitudes of extraverts were similar for suppression and viewing conditions, irrespective of sex and timing. Regardless of early, middle, or late time windows, LPP amplitudes were positively related to self-reported emotion. These results suggest a male advantage for using expressive suppression for emotion regulation in non-extraverted, ambivert individuals. PMID:27458408

  20. Picturing Sex Education: Notes on the Politics of Visual Stratification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Diederik F.

    2006-01-01

    This paper addresses the scarcity of research on depictions and layout in sex education materials. It is argued that pictures and layout can inform an analysis of social stratification based on visual access. This process of social organization is located using four theoretical models. However these models do not lend themselves to a close reading…

  1. Sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding influence emotional memory for gist and detail.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2013-11-01

    Sex influences on emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, only a subset of this previous work explored the influence of sex on memory for central information (gist) and peripheral detail in emotional versus neutral contexts. Here we examined the influence of sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding on memory for either an emotional or neutral story, specifically with respect to the retention of gist and peripheral detail. Healthy naturally cycling women and men viewed a brief, narrated, three-phase story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. The results indicate that naturally cycling women in the luteal (high hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle at encoding show enhanced memory for peripheral details, but not gist, when in the emotional compared with neutral stories (p<.05). In contrast, naturally cycling women in the follicular (low hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle at encoding did not show enhanced memory for gist or peripheral details in the emotional compared with neutral stories. Men show enhanced memory for gist, but not peripheral details, in the emotional versus neutral stories (p<.05). In addition, these sex influences on memory cannot be attributed to differences in attention or arousal; luteal women, follicular women, and men performed similarly on measures of attention (fixation time percentage) and arousal (pupil diameter changes) during the most arousing phase of the emotional story. These findings suggest that sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding influence long term memory for different types of emotional information.

  2. Sex Complexity and Politics in Black Dogs by Ian McEwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasiyannejad, Mina; Talif, Rosli

    Ian McEwan's Black Dogs (BD) is a story of socio-political conflict during the critical era of the Cold War. Black Dogs is riddled with party (political) domination and its outcomes in society. Europe is still suffering the consequences of the Second World War, perhaps the biggest war of the twentieth century. In the aftermath of such worldwide upheaval, the conflicts that were in tandem with the scramble for political domination emerged in diverse ways, affecting nations and their human populations. Systematic sexual assault during the war years showed that sex was used both for intimidation and humiliation. This study attempts to picture the multidimensional aspects of politics which are practically related to the most intimate human relationship, that is, sex. It pictures how personal is equated with the political and vice versa. The theory of sexual politics is the theoretical framework used to scrutinize power-structure relationship. By reviewing the major conflicts in such a scenario, as the Cold War, and societal restriction, this study concludes that conflict in the macrocosm (world and society) affects the microcosm (individual) in McEwan's Black Dogs. It provides a rather broad picture of politics and sexuality and highlights the stresses of wider society on human dysfunctional relationships. Rape as a tactic of war for a political goal demonstrates another aspect of sex. Reviewing the period in which the story takes place and relating it to the conflicts in society, the study goes beyond simple cause and effect problems among individuals and portrays a holistic view of sexuality and society.

  3. There's a Hole in the Bucket: The Politics, Policy and Practice of Sex and Relationships Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blake, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the recent politics, policy and practice of sex and relationships education (SRE) in the UK. It defines SRE and offers best-practice principles. The paper briefly examines why sexual pleasure is not addressed in SRE and concludes with some issues and challenges to ensure that the entitlement of future generations of young…

  4. The effects of age, sex, and hormones on emotional conflict-related brain response during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Cservenka, Anita; Stroup, Madison L; Etkin, Amit; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-10-01

    While cognitive and emotional systems both undergo development during adolescence, few studies have explored top-down inhibitory control brain activity in the context of affective processing, critical to informing adolescent psychopathology. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain response during an Emotional Conflict (EmC) Task across 10-15-year-old youth. During the EmC Task, participants indicated the emotion of facial expressions, while disregarding emotion-congruent and incongruent words printed across the faces. We examined the relationships of age, sex, and gonadal hormones with brain activity on Incongruent vs. Congruent trials. Age was negatively associated with middle frontal gyrus activity, controlling for performance and movement confounds. Sex differences were present in occipital and parietal cortices, and were driven by activation in females, and deactivation in males to Congruent trials. Testosterone was negatively related with frontal and striatal brain response in males, and cerebellar and precuneus response in females. Estradiol was negatively related with fronto-cerebellar, cingulate, and precuneus brain activity in males, and positively related with occipital response in females. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the effects of age, sex, and sex steroids during an emotion-cognition task in adolescents. Further research is needed to examine longitudinal development of emotion-cognition interactions and deviations in psychiatric disorders in adolescence.

  5. Stimulus set size modulates the sex-emotion interaction in face categorization.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Ottmar V; Karnadewi, Fika; Craig, Belinda M; Cronin, Sophie L

    2015-05-01

    Previous research has shown that invariant facial features-for example, sex-and variant facial features-for example, emotional expressions-interact during face categorization. The nature of this interaction is a matter of dispute, however, and has been reported as either asymmetrical, such that sex cues influence emotion perception but emotional expressions do not affect the perception of sex, or symmetrical, such that sex and emotion cues each reciprocally influence the categorization of the other. In the present research, we identified stimulus set size as the critical factor leading to this disparity. Using faces drawn from different databases, in two separate experiments we replicated the finding of a symmetrical interaction between face sex and emotional expression when larger sets of posers were used. Using a subset of four posers, in the same setups, however, did not provide evidence for a symmetrical interaction, which is also consistent with prior research. This pattern of results suggests that different strategies may be used to categorize aspects of faces that are encountered repeatedly. PMID:25737259

  6. Sex differences in the recognition of emotional prosody in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Takashi X; Shinohara, Kazuyuki

    2011-09-01

    We examined sex-related differences in the ability to recognize emotional prosody in late childhood (9-12 year olds) and adolescence (13-15 year olds) in relation to salivary testosterone levels. In order to examine both the accuracy and the sensitivity in labeling emotional prosody expressions, five intensities (20, 40, 60, 80, and 100%) for each of three emotion categories were used as stimuli. Totals of 25 male and 22 female children and 28 male and 28 female adolescents were tested on their recognition of happy, angry and sad prosody at the different intensities. The results showed that adolescent females were more sensitive to happy and sad prosody than males but not to angry prosody, whereas there were no sex-related differences in emotional prosody in late childhood for any of the emotional categories. Furthermore, salivary testosterone levels were higher in males than females in adolescence, but not in late childhood, suggesting that the sex differences for emotional prosody recognition emerges in adolescence during which testosterone levels become higher in males than females.

  7. Do sex hormones influence emotional modulation of pain and nociception in healthy women?

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Jamie L; Bartley, Emily J; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L; Kuhn, Bethany L; Martin, Satin L; Delventura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L

    2013-12-01

    Sex hormones may contribute to inter- and intra-individual differences in pain by influencing emotional modulation of pain and nociception. To study this, a well-validated picture-viewing paradigm was used to assess emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR; physiologic measure of nociception) during mid-follicular, ovulatory, and late-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in healthy normally cycling women (n=40). Salivary estradiol, progesterone, and testosterone were assessed at each testing session. Emotional modulation of pain/NFR did not differ across menstrual phases, but low estradiol was associated with weaker emotional modulation of NFR (during all phases) and emotional modulation of pain (ovulatory and late-luteal phases). Given evidence that a failure to emotionally modulate pain might be a risk factor for chronic pain, low estradiol may promote chronic pain via this mechanism. However, future research is needed to extend these findings to women with disturbances of pain, emotion, and/or sex hormones.

  8. Same-Sex Peer Relations and Romantic Relationships during Early Adolescence: Interactive Links to Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendgen, Mara; Vitaro, Frank; Doyle, Anna Beth; Markiewicz, Dorothy; Bukowski, William M.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the relationship between early adolescents' involvement in romantic relationships and their emotional, behavioral, and academic adjustment, depending on same-sex peer relationships. Found a negative relationship between romantic involvement and emotional and behavioral adjustment for adolescents who were unpopular with same-sex peers.…

  9. Role of corticosteroid binding globulin in emotional reactivity sex differences in mice.

    PubMed

    Minni, A M; de Medeiros, G F; Helbling, J C; Duittoz, A; Marissal-Arvy, N; Foury, A; De Smedt-Peyrusse, V; Pallet, V; Moisan, M P

    2014-12-01

    Sex differences exist for stress reactivity as well as for the prevalence of depression, which is more frequent in women of reproductive age and often precipitated by stressful events. In animals, the differential effect of stress on male's and female's emotional behavior has been well documented. Crosstalk between the gonadal and stress hormones, in particular between estrogens and glucocorticoids, underlie these sex differences on stress vulnerability. We have previously shown that corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) deficiency in a mouse model (Cbg k.o.) leads, in males, to an increased despair-like behavior caused by suboptimal corticosterone stress response. Because CBG displays a sexual dimorphism and is regulated by estrogens, we have now investigated whether it plays a role in the sex differences observed for emotional reactivity in mice. By analyzing Cbg k.o. and wild-type (WT) animals of both sexes, we detected sex differences in despair-like behavior in WT mice but not in Cbg k.o. animals. We showed through ovariectomy and estradiol (E2) replacement that E2 levels explain the sex differences found in WT animals. However, the manipulation of E2 levels did not affect the emotional behavior of Cbg k.o. females. As Cbg k.o. males, Cbg k.o. females have markedly reduced corticosterone levels across the circadian cycle and also after stress. Plasma free corticosterone levels in Cbg k.o. mice measured immediately after stress were blunted in both sexes compared to WT mice. A trend for higher mean levels of ACTH in Cbg k.o. mice was found for both sexes. The turnover of a corticosterone bolus was increased in Cbg k.o. Finally, the glucocorticoid-regulated immediate early gene early growth response 1 (Egr1) showed a blunted mRNA expression in the hippocampus of Cbg k.o. mutants while mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors presented sex differences but equivalent mRNA expression between genotypes. Thus, in our experimental conditions, sex differences for

  10. Role of corticosteroid binding globulin in emotional reactivity sex differences in mice.

    PubMed

    Minni, A M; de Medeiros, G F; Helbling, J C; Duittoz, A; Marissal-Arvy, N; Foury, A; De Smedt-Peyrusse, V; Pallet, V; Moisan, M P

    2014-12-01

    Sex differences exist for stress reactivity as well as for the prevalence of depression, which is more frequent in women of reproductive age and often precipitated by stressful events. In animals, the differential effect of stress on male's and female's emotional behavior has been well documented. Crosstalk between the gonadal and stress hormones, in particular between estrogens and glucocorticoids, underlie these sex differences on stress vulnerability. We have previously shown that corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) deficiency in a mouse model (Cbg k.o.) leads, in males, to an increased despair-like behavior caused by suboptimal corticosterone stress response. Because CBG displays a sexual dimorphism and is regulated by estrogens, we have now investigated whether it plays a role in the sex differences observed for emotional reactivity in mice. By analyzing Cbg k.o. and wild-type (WT) animals of both sexes, we detected sex differences in despair-like behavior in WT mice but not in Cbg k.o. animals. We showed through ovariectomy and estradiol (E2) replacement that E2 levels explain the sex differences found in WT animals. However, the manipulation of E2 levels did not affect the emotional behavior of Cbg k.o. females. As Cbg k.o. males, Cbg k.o. females have markedly reduced corticosterone levels across the circadian cycle and also after stress. Plasma free corticosterone levels in Cbg k.o. mice measured immediately after stress were blunted in both sexes compared to WT mice. A trend for higher mean levels of ACTH in Cbg k.o. mice was found for both sexes. The turnover of a corticosterone bolus was increased in Cbg k.o. Finally, the glucocorticoid-regulated immediate early gene early growth response 1 (Egr1) showed a blunted mRNA expression in the hippocampus of Cbg k.o. mutants while mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors presented sex differences but equivalent mRNA expression between genotypes. Thus, in our experimental conditions, sex differences for

  11. Aligning identities, emotions, and beliefs to create commitment to sustainable social and political action.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Emma F; McGarty, Craig; Mavor, Kenneth I

    2009-08-01

    In this article the authors explore the social psychological processes underpinning sustainable commitment to a social or political cause. Drawing on recent developments in the collective action, identity formation, and social norm literatures, they advance a new model to understand sustainable commitment to action. The normative alignment model suggests that one solution to promoting ongoing commitment to collective action lies in crafting a social identity with a relevant pattern of norms for emotion, efficacy, and action. Rather than viewing group emotion, collective efficacy, and action as group products, the authors conceptualize norms about these as contributing to a dynamic system of meaning, which can shape ongoing commitment to a cause. By exploring emotion, efficacy, and action as group norms, it allows scholars to reenergize the theoretical connections between collective identification and subjective meaning but also allows for a fresh perspective on complex questions of causality.

  12. Hyperactivity, Shyness, and Sex: Development and Socio-Emotional Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rydell, Ann-Margret; Diamantopoulou, Sofia; Thorell, Lisa B.; Bohlin, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    Based on formulations about the possible consequences for adaptation of gender non-normative behaviour, we investigated predictive and concurrent relations of hyperactivity and shyness to various aspects of adaptation focusing on possible effects of sex. At ages 5-6, parents and preschool teachers rated hyperactivity and shyness for 151 children…

  13. Sex Differential Item Functioning in the Inventory of Early Development III Social-Emotional Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Jessica L.; French, Brian F.; Finch, W. Holmes; Ullrich-French, Sarah C.

    2014-01-01

    Social-emotional (SE) skills in the early developmental years of children influence outcomes in psychological, behavioral, and learning domains. The adult ratings of a child's SE skills can be influenced by sex stereotypes. These rating differences could lead to differential conclusions about developmental progress or risk. To ensure that…

  14. Effects of Emotionally or Intellectually Biased Television Programs on Juror Decisions in Sex Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Monica L.; Nightingale, Narina Nunez

    1997-01-01

    Examined how intellectually and emotionally biased media presentations influenced mock jurors' decisions in sex abuse cases. Results show that, when assessed immediately, videos significantly influenced verdicts. However, with a significant time delay (four weeks) and no obvious connection between presentation and trial, no effects on verdicts…

  15. Sex Differences in Facial, Prosodic, and Social Context Emotional Recognition in Early-Onset Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Loyo, Julieta; Mora-Reynoso, Leonor; Sánchez-Loyo, Luis Miguel; Medina-Hernández, Virginia

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine sex differences in facial, prosodic, and social context emotional recognition in schizophrenia (SCH). Thirty-eight patients (SCH, 20 females) and 38 healthy controls (CON, 20 females) participated in the study. Clinical scales (BPRS and PANSS) and an Affective States Scale were applied, as well as tasks to evaluate facial, prosodic, and within a social context emotional recognition. SCH showed lower accuracy and longer response times than CON, but no significant sex differences were observed in either facial or prosody recognition. In social context emotions, however, females showed higher empathy than males with respect to happiness in both groups. SCH reported being more identified with sad films than CON and females more with fear than males. The results of this study confirm the deficits of emotional recognition in male and female patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy subjects. Sex differences were detected in relation to social context emotions and facial and prosodic recognition depending on age. PMID:22970365

  16. A continuum of risk? The management of health, physical and emotional risks by female sex workers.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Teela

    2004-07-01

    This paper describes the findings from a 10-month ethnographic study of the female sex industry in a large British city. I argue that sex workers construct a continuum of risk which prioritizes certain types of dangers depending on the perceived consequences and the degree of control individuals consider they have over minimising the likelihood of a risk occurring. Although health-related matters are a real concern to many women, because they generally have comprehensive strategies to manage health risks at work, this risk category is given a low priority compared with other risks. The risk of violence is considered a greater anxiety because of the prevalence of incidents in the sex work community. However, because of comprehensive screening and protection strategies to minimise violence, this type of harm is not given the same level of attention that emotional risks receive. By using a continuum of risk to understand how sex workers perceive occupational hazards in prostitution, further understanding can be gained about the nature of risk in prostitution, sex workers' routines and the organisational features of the sex industry. In addition, the implications for health policy are discussed, suggesting that the emotional consequences of selling sex should be considered as much as the tangible, physical risks of prostitution.

  17. Longitudinal Pathways between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: The Role of Emotional Security about the Community in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Merrilees, Christine E.; Schermerhorn, Alice C.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-01-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory…

  18. Seeing Red, Feeling Blue: The Impact of State Political Leaning on State Identification Rates for Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Andrew; Siperstein, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of why students with emotional disturbance (ED) are underidentified in special education have often focused on economic factors and problems with the definition of ED. The present study focuses on variation in underidentification across states and its relationship to political ideology. State-level political, economic, and…

  19. Effects of sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on distress related to emotional and sexual infidelity.

    PubMed

    Leeker, Olivia; Carlozzi, Al

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of participant sex, sexual orientation, infidelity expectations, and love on emotional responses to emotional and sexual infidelity. Participants (72 lesbian women, 114 heterosexual women, 53 gay men, and 57 heterosexual men) completed a demographic form, continuous emotion ratings in response to hypothetical infidelity scenarios, the Infidelity Expectations Questionnaire (IEQ), and the Triangular Love Scale. Sex, sexual orientation, and commitment and intimacy among partners were significant predictors of various emotional responses to sexual and emotional infidelity. Alternatively, passion among partners and expectations about a partner's likelihood of committing infidelity were not significant predictors of emotional reactions to infidelity. Across participants, sexual infidelity elicited more distressing feelings than emotional infidelity. Group differences were also found, with women responding with stronger emotions to emotional and sexual infidelity than men, and heterosexuals rating emotional and sexual infidelity as more emotionally distressing than lesbian and gay individuals. Sex and sexual orientation differences emerged regarding the degree to which specific emotions were reported in response to sexual and emotional infidelity. Clinical implications are offered, including how mental health professionals might use these findings to help clients cope with the negative effects of infidelity on romantic relationships.

  20. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    PubMed

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. PMID:26921411

  1. Politeness, emotion, and gender: A sociophonetic study of voice pitch modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuasa, Ikuko

    The present dissertation is a cross-gender and cross-cultural sociophonetic exploration of voice pitch characteristics utilizing speech data derived from Japanese and American speakers in natural conversations. The roles of voice pitch modulation in terms of the concepts of politeness and emotion as they pertain to culture and gender will be investigated herein. The research interprets the significance of my findings based on the acoustic measurements of speech data as they are presented in the ERB-rate scale (the most appropriate scale for human speech perception). The investigation reveals that pitch range modulation displayed by Japanese informants in two types of conversations is closely linked to types of politeness adopted by those informants. The degree of the informants' emotional involvement and expressions reflected in differing pitch range widths plays an important role in determining the relationship between pitch range modulation and politeness. The study further correlates the Japanese cultural concept of enryo ("self-restraint") with this phenomenon. When median values were examined, male and female pitch ranges across cultures did not conspicuously differ. However, sporadically occurring women's pitch characteristics which culturally differ in width and height of pitch ranges may create an 'emotional' perception of women's speech style. The salience of these pitch characteristics appears to be the source of the stereotypically linked sound of women's speech being identified as 'swoopy' or 'shrill' and thus 'emotional'. Such women's salient voice characteristics are interpreted in light of camaraderie/positive politeness. Women's use of conspicuous paralinguistic features helps to create an atmosphere of camaraderie. These voice pitch characteristics promote the establishment of a sense of camaraderie since they act to emphasize such feelings as concern, support, and comfort towards addressees, Moreover, men's wide pitch ranges are discussed in view

  2. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories.

    PubMed

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  3. Sex Differences in Emotional Evaluation of Film Clips: Interaction with Five High Arousal Emotional Categories

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Antonio; Vencato, Valentina; Angrilli, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate gender differences in the emotional evaluation of 18 film clips divided into six categories: Erotic, Scenery, Neutral, Sadness, Compassion, and Fear. 41 female and 40 male students rated all clips for valence-pleasantness, arousal, level of elicited distress, anxiety, jittery feelings, excitation, and embarrassment. Analysis of positive films revealed higher levels of arousal, pleasantness, and excitation to the Scenery clips in both genders, but lower pleasantness and greater embarrassment in women compared to men to Erotic clips. Concerning unpleasant stimuli, unlike men, women reported more unpleasantness to the Compassion, Sadness, and Fear compared to the Neutral clips and rated them also as more arousing than did men. They further differentiated the films by perceiving greater arousal to Fear than to Compassion clips. Women rated the Sadness and Fear clips with greater Distress and Jittery feelings than men did. Correlation analysis between arousal and the other emotional scales revealed that, although men looked less aroused than women to all unpleasant clips, they also showed a larger variance in their emotional responses as indicated by the high number of correlations and their relatively greater extent, an outcome pointing to a masked larger sensitivity of part of male sample to emotional clips. We propose a new perspective in which gender difference in emotional responses can be better evidenced by means of film clips selected and clustered in more homogeneous categories, controlled for arousal levels, as well as evaluated through a number of emotion focused adjectives. PMID:26717488

  4. Effect of Perceived Politics and Perceived Support on Bullying and Emotional Exhaustion: The Moderating Role of Type A Personality.

    PubMed

    Naseer, Saima; Raja, Usman; Donia, Magda Bezerra Leite

    2016-07-01

    Recognizing that bullying can occur in varying degrees of severity, the current study suggest the importance of individual traits in individual perceptions of being targets of bullying and ensuing emotional exhaustion. The present study extends the work environment hypothesis and trait activation theory by a joint investigation of the mediating role of (a) workplace bullying in linking perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion and (b) the moderating role of Type A behavioral pattern in influencing the mediation. Using a field sample of 262 employees working in different organizations of Pakistan, this study tested a moderated mediation model. Results were consistent with the hypothesized model, in that workplace bullying mediated the relationship of perceived organization politics and perceived organization support with emotional exhaustion. Type A behavior moderated the perceived politics-bullying, perceived support-bullying, and bullying-emotional exhaustion relationships. The mediation of bullying varied with levels of Type A behavior in these relationships.

  5. Reliving emotional personal memories: affective biases linked to personality and sex-related differences.

    PubMed

    Denkova, Ekaterina; Dolcos, Sanda; Dolcos, Florin

    2012-06-01

    Although available evidence suggests that the emotional valence and recollective properties of autobiographical memories (AMs) may be influenced by personality- and sex-related differences, overall these relationships remain poorly understood. The present study investigated these issues by comparing the effect of general personality traits (extraversion and neuroticism) and specific traits linked to emotion regulation (ER) strategies (reappraisal and suppression) on the retrieval of emotional AMs and on the associated postretrieval emotional states, in men and women. First, extraversion predicted recollection of positive AMs in both men and women, whereas neuroticism predicted the proportion of negative AMs in men and the frequency of rehearsing negative AMs in women. Second, reappraisal predicted positive AMs in men, and suppression predicted negative AMs in women. Third, while reliving of positive memories had an overall indirect effect on postretrieval positive mood through extraversion, reliving of negative AMs had a direct effect on postretrieval negative mood, which was linked to inefficient engagement of suppression in women. Our findings suggest that personality traits associated with positive affect predict recollection of positive AMs and maintenance of a positive mood, whereas personality traits associated with negative affect, along with differential engagement of habitual ER strategies in men and women, predict sex-related differences in the recollection and experiencing of negative AMs. These findings provide insight into the factors that influence affective biases in reliving AMs, and into their possible link to sex-related differences in the susceptibility to affective disorders.

  6. Sex-specific neural circuits of emotion regulation in the centromedial amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Li, Huandong; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Song, Ming; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Sex-related differences in emotion regulation (ER) in the frequency power distribution within the human amygdala, a brain region involved in emotion processing, have been reported. However, how sex differences in ER are manifested in the brain networks which are seeded on the amygdala subregions is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate this issue from a brain network perspective. Utilizing resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis, we found that the sex-specific functional connectivity patterns associated with ER trait level were only seeded in the centromedial amygdala (CM). Women with a higher trait-level ER had a stronger negative RSFC between the right CM and the medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), and stronger positive RSFC between the right CM and the anterior insula (AI) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG). But men with a higher trait-level ER was associated with weaker negative RSFC of the right CM-mSFG and positive RSFCs of the right CM-left AI, right CM-right AI/STG, and right CM-left STG. These results provide evidence for the sex-related effects in ER based on CM and indicate that men and women may differ in the neural circuits associated with emotion representation and integration. PMID:27004933

  7. Sex-specific neural circuits of emotion regulation in the centromedial amygdala.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Li, Huandong; Zhou, Yuan; Yu, Jian; Zhang, Yuanchao; Song, Ming; Qin, Wen; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Sex-related differences in emotion regulation (ER) in the frequency power distribution within the human amygdala, a brain region involved in emotion processing, have been reported. However, how sex differences in ER are manifested in the brain networks which are seeded on the amygdala subregions is unclear. The goal of this study was to investigate this issue from a brain network perspective. Utilizing resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) analysis, we found that the sex-specific functional connectivity patterns associated with ER trait level were only seeded in the centromedial amygdala (CM). Women with a higher trait-level ER had a stronger negative RSFC between the right CM and the medial superior frontal gyrus (mSFG), and stronger positive RSFC between the right CM and the anterior insula (AI) and the superior temporal gyrus (STG). But men with a higher trait-level ER was associated with weaker negative RSFC of the right CM-mSFG and positive RSFCs of the right CM-left AI, right CM-right AI/STG, and right CM-left STG. These results provide evidence for the sex-related effects in ER based on CM and indicate that men and women may differ in the neural circuits associated with emotion representation and integration. PMID:27004933

  8. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men. PMID:27109769

  9. Emotional intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Woodyatt, Cory R; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-10-01

    Intimate partner violence research has focused almost exclusively on physical and sexual intimate partner violence in opposite-sex relationships, paying little attention to the intimate partner violence experienced by men in same-sex relationships. Emerging research focusing on intimate partner violence among male-male couples has focused largely on physical and sexual violence, with little consideration of the unique forms of emotional violence experienced by gay men. Ten focus-group discussions with gay and bisexual men were conducted to examine perceived typologies, antecedents and experiences of emotional violence that occur between male partners. Participants described emotional violence as the most threatening form of intimate partner violence, driven largely by factors including power differentials, gender roles and internalised homophobia. Results indicate that gay and bisexual men perceive emotional intimate partner violence to be commonplace. A better understanding of emotional violence within male-male relationships is vital to inform intimate partner violence prevention efforts and the more accurate measurement of intimate partner violence for gay men.

  10. Trajectories of adolescent emotional and cognitive development: effects of sex and risk for drug use.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M; Tzilos, Golfo K; Pimentel, Patricia J; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2004-06-01

    Adolescence has been widely accepted as a time for notable alterations in brain functioning. The objective of this longitudinal study was to compare trajectories of emotional and cognitive development in adolescent girls and boys with low- versus high-risk for future drug use. Nineteen healthy adolescents (aged 13.9 +/- 2.0 years; 10 girls), stratified into low- and high-risk groups based on family history of drug abuse, were examined at baseline and after one year. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory, the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children, and the Perceived Stress Scale. The neurocognitive test battery was designed to evaluate academic achievement, executive function, verbal memory and learning, and included the Wide Range Achievement Test, Stroop Color-Word Interference Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and Digit Span and Digit Symbol subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised. Improvements in academic achievement, executive function, and working memory were observed at the one-year follow-up. Notable sex differences also were evident in emotional intelligence, academic achievement, and memory. Interestingly, these sex-related differences interacted with risk status; improvement in cognitive performance in boys and low-risk girls was generally superior to high-risk girls, who tended to show modest, if any, improvement at the one-year follow-up. These preliminary findings provide evidence of sex differences in emotion intelligence and cognitive function. Furthermore, these data also suggest that history of familial drug abuse may have a more pronounced impact on emotional and cognitive development in adolescent girls than boys.

  11. Examining the sex difference in lateralisation for processing facial emotion: does biological sex or psychological gender identity matter?

    PubMed

    Bourne, Victoria J; Maxwell, Adele M

    2010-04-01

    The research examining sex differences in functional lateralisation has shown varying results. While some provide evidence for males being more strongly lateralised than females, a number have shown either no relationship or the opposite pattern of findings. In this study we consider whether psychological gender identity might clarify some of the conflicting results in this area of research. Eight five participants (39 males) aged from 18 to 49 years old were tested. We found that psychological masculinity was associated with stronger patterns of lateralisation for the processing of a range of emotional expressions. We also found an interaction between biological sex and psychological gender identity, with a positive relationship between psychological masculinity and lateralisation found for males, but a negative relationship found for females. The possible role of hormonal exposure in this relationship is discussed.

  12. Perception of emotion in facial stimuli: The interaction of ADRA2A and COMT genotypes, and sex.

    PubMed

    Tamm, Gerly; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Harro, Jaanus

    2016-01-01

    Emotional facial stimuli are important social signals that are essential to be perceived and recognized in order to make appropriate decisions and responses in everyday communication. The ability to voluntarily guide attention to perceive and recognize emotions, and react to them varies largely across individuals, and has a strong genetic component (Friedman et al., 2008). Two key genetic variants of the catecholamine system that have been related to emotion perception and attention are the catechol-O-methyl transferase genetic variant (COMT Val158Met) and the α2A-receptor gene promoter polymorphism (ADRA2A C-1291G) accordingly. So far, the interaction of the two with sex in emotion perception has not been studied. Multilevel modeling method was applied to study how COMT Val158Met, ADRA2A C-1291G and sex are associated with measures of emotion perception in a large sample of young adults. Participants (n=506) completed emotion recognition and behavioral emotion detection tasks. It was found that COMT Val158Met genotype in combination with the ADRA2A C-1291G and sex predicts emotion detection, and perception of valence and arousal. In simple visual detection, the ADRA2A C-1291G G-allele leads to slower detection of a highly arousing face (scheming), which is modulated by each additional COMT Val158Met Met-allele and male sex predicting faster responses. The combination of G-allele, Met-allele and male sex also predicts higher perceived negativity in sad faces. No effects of C-1291G, Val158Met, and sex were found on verbal emotion recognition. Applying the findings to study the interplay between catecholamine-O-methyl transferase activity and α2A-receptors in emotion perception disorders (such as ADHD, autism and schizophrenia) in men and women would be the next step towards understanding individual differences in emotion perception.

  13. Why can't a man be more like a woman? Sex, power, and politics.

    PubMed

    Potts, Malcolm

    2005-11-01

    Conflicts between male and female reproductive agendas continue to play out in contemporary issues of sex, power, and politics. Viewing gender through the lens of biologic evolutionary psychology reveals persistent controversies surrounding women's rights. The history of oral contraceptives compared with that of erectile dysfunction drugs is just one example of the disparity between female and male reproductive choices. Contraceptives, maternal mortality, abortion, and domestic violence are issues directly influenced by politics, religion, and gender biases. Ultimately, everything that can we can do to give women control over their bodies and their fertility is not only just and humane, but it also changes the world for the better. The United States must restore its leadership in international family planning--ensuring reproductive freedoms could be the genesis of other freedoms.

  14. A queer anxiety: assimilation politics and cinematic hedonics in Relax . . . It's Just Sex.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    This essay explores the commodification of queer identities in independent cinema, offering particular attention to P. J. Castellaneta's 1998 film, Relax . . . It's Just Sex. Like many contemporary queer independent productions, Relax is ensnared in a representational cinematic hedonics, aspiring to sustain a traditional gay and lesbian politics and simultaneously produce pleasure for multiple audiences. While Relax attempts to position itself as a queer film that resists normative conceptions of sexuality, the feature inadvertently appropriates more essentialized understandings of identity closely aligned to liberation rhetoric. PMID:17287188

  15. Redefining neuroendocrinology: stress, sex and cognitive and emotional regulation

    PubMed Central

    McEwen, Bruce S.; Gray, Jason D.; Nasca, Carla

    2015-01-01

    The discovery of steroid hormone receptors in brain regions that mediate every aspect of brain function has broadened the definition of “neuroendocrinology” to include the reciprocal communication between the brain and the body via hormonal and neural pathways. The brain is the central organ of stress and adaptation to stress because it perceives and determines what is threatening, as well as the behavioral and physiological responses to the stressor. The adult and developing brain possess remarkable structural and functional plasticity in response to stress, including neuronal replacement, dendritic remodeling, and synapse turnover. Stress causes an imbalance of neural circuitry subserving cognition, decision-making, anxiety and mood that can alter expression of those behaviors and behavioral states. This imbalance, in turn, affects systemic physiology via neuroendocrine, autonomic, immune and metabolic mediators. In the short term, as for increased fearful vigilance and anxiety in a threatening environment, these changes may be adaptive. But, if the danger passes and the behavioral state persists along with the changes in neural circuitry, such maladaptation may need intervention with a combination of pharmacological and behavioral therapies, as is the case for chronic anxiety and depression. There are important sex differences in the brain responses to stressors that are in urgent need of further exploration. Moreover, adverse early-life experience, interacting with alleles of certain genes, produce lasting effects on brain and body over the life-course via epigenetic mechanisms. While prevention is most important, the plasticity of the brain gives hope for therapies that take into consideration brain-body interactions. PMID:25934706

  16. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country. PMID:25011407

  17. Gender differences in emotions, forgiveness and tolerance in relation to political violence.

    PubMed

    Conejero, Susana; Etxebarria, Itziar; Montero, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    This study, which forms part of a broader research project, analyzes gender differences in: the intensity of diverse emotions, the justification of violence, attitudes towards the terrorist group ETA, forgiveness and tolerance. Participants comprised 728 people (45.5% men and 54.5% women) resident in either Basque Country or Navarra (Spain), representative of all national identities and political ideologies existing in this context. An ad hoc questionnaire was designed and administered between November 2005 and February 2006, a short time before ETA declared a ceasefire. Women reported more intensity in fear for political reasons and scored higher in two of the six measures of empathy included in the study (empathy with prisoners and empathy with those who suffer and think like oneself). Men scored higher in positive emotionality, indifference and Schadenfreude. Women perceived apology and forgiveness as more necessary elements for achieving peace than men. These results suggest that it may be beneficial for women to play a more prominent role in relation to the resolution of intergroup conflicts such as the one existing in the Basque Country.

  18. The politics of school sex education policy in England and Wales from the 1940s to the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, James

    2005-04-01

    This article explores the political history of school sex education policy in England and Wales. Focusing on the period from the 1940s to the 1960s, it shows how sex education developed as a controversial political issue through an analysis of the differing institutional cultures and agendas of health and education administrators. The article argues that serious consideration of school sex education by central government was first prompted by concern about venereal disease during the Second World War. Thereafter, two groups of actors emerged with conflicting ideas about the role of government in prescribing school sex education. The medical establishment, including the Ministry of Health, was broadly supportive of a national policy, whereas the Department of Education, which had ultimate responsibility for any such policy in schools, sought to avoid decision-making about the issue. The article explores how a public health consensus on sex education developed and then explains why the Department of Education resisted this consensus.

  19. A reconsideration of sex differences in response to sexual and emotional infidelity.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2014-10-01

    Previous studies have found that males are more upset over sexual infidelity than females whereas females are more upset over emotional infidelity than males. We hypothesized that such sex differences are explained by explicit sexual imagery by males. The hypothesis was tested in a laboratory using vivid infidelity scenarios and photographs to induce detailed and sexually oriented imagery of a partner's infidelity. In the main experiment, participants included 64 males and 64 females who were currently in committed relationships. The results showed that participants became more upset when they imagined sexual infidelity vividly and realistically than when they did not and there were no significant sex differences in jealousy found when sexual infidelity was imagined in this matter. Overall, our findings suggested that the sex differences in jealousy resulted from males' tendency to imagine sexual infidelity more vividly than females.

  20. Longitudinal pathways between political violence and child adjustment: the role of emotional security about the community in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Merrilees, Christine E; Schermerhorn, Alice C; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2011-02-01

    Links between political violence and children's adjustment problems are well-documented. However, the mechanisms by which political tension and sectarian violence relate to children's well-being and development are little understood. This study longitudinally examined children's emotional security about community violence as a possible regulatory process in relations between community discord and children's adjustment problems. Families were selected from 18 working class neighborhoods in Belfast, Northern Ireland. Participants (695 mothers and children, M = 12.17, SD = 1.82) were interviewed in their homes over three consecutive years. Findings supported the notion that politically-motivated community violence has distinctive effects on children's externalizing and internalizing problems through the mechanism of increasing children's emotional insecurity about community. Implications are considered for understanding relations between political violence and child adjustment from a social ecological perspective.

  1. Race and Sex Differences Among Children in Perception of Emotion. Boston University Communication Research Center Report No. 27.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitter, A. George; Quincy, Arthur J., Jr.

    A 2x2x2 factorial design was utilized to investigate the effects of race of expressor (black and white), race of perceiver, and sex of perceiver on perception of emotion (POE) in children. Perception of four emotions (anger, happiness, surprise, and pain) was analyzed in terms of three scores as DV's: (1) overall accuracy scores, (2) correct…

  2. He Throws like a Girl (but Only when He's Sad): Emotion Affects Sex-Decoding of Biological Motion Displays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Kerri L.; McKay, Lawrie S.; Pollick, Frank E.

    2011-01-01

    Gender stereotypes have been implicated in sex-typed perceptions of facial emotion. Such interpretations were recently called into question because facial cues of emotion are confounded with sexually dimorphic facial cues. Here we examine the role of visual cues and gender stereotypes in perceptions of biological motion displays, thus overcoming…

  3. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests.

  4. Different stage, different performance: the protective strategy of role play on emotional health in sex work.

    PubMed

    Abel, Gillian M

    2011-04-01

    This paper uses Arlie Hochschild's (1983) concept of emotion management and "surface" and "deep acting" to explore how sex workers separate and distance themselves from their public role. Experiences of stigmatisation prevail among sex workers and how stigma is resisted or managed has an impact on their health. In-depth interviews were carried out between August 2006 and April 2007 with 58 sex workers in five cities in New Zealand following decriminalisation of the sex industry. Most participants drew on ideas of professionalism in sustaining a psychological distance between their private and public lives. They utilised "deep acting", transmuting private experiences for use in the work environment, to accredit themselves as professional in their business practices. They also constructed different meanings for sex between public and private relationships with the condom providing an important symbol in separating the two. A few (mostly female street-based) participants were less adept at "deep acting" and relied on drugs to maintain a separation of roles. This paper argues that in an occupation which is highly stigmatised and in which depersonalisation as an aspect of burn-out has been reported as a common occurrence, the ability to draw on strategies which require "deep acting" provides a healthy estrangement between self and role and can be seen as protective. The separation of self from work identity is not damaging as many radical feminists would claim, but an effective strategy to manage emotions. Hochschild, A. (1983). The managed heart: Commercialization of human feeling. Berkeley: University of California Press. PMID:21392874

  5. Examining the Role of Emotional Intelligence and Political Skill to Educational Leadership and Their Effects to Teachers' Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taliadorou, Nikoletta; Pashiardis, Petros

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine whether emotional intelligence and political skill (PS) of school principals influence the way they exercise leadership and the job satisfaction of their teachers. Design/methodology/approach: As regards to the methodology, quantitative research methods were used to conduct the research.…

  6. Conflict, negative emotion, and reports of partners' relationship maintenance in same-sex couples.

    PubMed

    Ogolsky, Brian G; Gray, Christine R

    2016-03-01

    The literature on relationship maintenance has focused primarily on the beneficial outcomes of maintenance, and, as a result, little is known about relational processes that may interfere with reports of partners' maintenance. The authors examine how daily conflict influences individuals' reports of their partners' maintenance, and how a constructive communication style buffers this influence by reducing negative emotion on conflict days. In a daily diary study of 98 same-sex couples in romantic relationships, they found that the negative association between conflict and reports of a partner's relationship maintenance was mediated by negative emotion. That is, there was an indirect effect by which daily conflict was associated with higher levels of daily negative emotion, which was associated with reports of lower levels of partners' relationship maintenance. This indirect effect was moderated by couples' overall level of constructive communication such that higher levels diminished the degree to which couples experienced negative emotion on days with episodes of relational conflict. The authors discuss results in the context of interpersonal theory and provide implications for clinicians and practitioners.

  7. Speech Volume Indexes Sex Differences in the Social-Emotional Effects of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Fairbairn, Catharine E.; Sayette, Michael A.; Amole, Marlissa C.; Dimoff, John D.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Girard, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Men and women differ dramatically in their rates of alcohol use disorder (AUD), and researchers have long been interested in identifying mechanisms underlying male vulnerability to problem drinking. Surveys suggest that social processes underlie sex differences in drinking patterns, with men reporting greater social enhancement from alcohol than women, and all-male social drinking contexts being associated with particularly high rates of hazardous drinking. But experimental evidence for sex differences in social-emotional response to alcohol has heretofore been lacking. Research using larger sample sizes, a social context, and more sensitive measures of alcohol’s rewarding effects may be necessary to better understand sex differences in the etiology of AUD. This study explored the acute effects of alcohol during social exchange on speech volume –an objective measure of social-emotional experience that was reliably captured at the group level. Social drinkers (360 male; 360 female) consumed alcohol (.82g/kg males; .74g/kg females), placebo, or a no-alcohol control beverage in groups of three over 36-minutes. Within each of the three beverage conditions, equal numbers of groups consisted of all males, all females, 2 females and 1 male, and 1 female and 2 males. Speech volume was monitored continuously throughout the drink period, and group volume emerged as a robust correlate of self-report and facial indexes of social reward. Notably, alcohol-related increases in group volume were observed selectively in all-male groups but not in groups containing any females. Results point to social enhancement as a promising direction for research exploring factors underlying sex differences in problem drinking. PMID:26237323

  8. Flexible and inflexible task sets: asymmetric interference when switching between emotional expression, sex, and age classification of perceived faces.

    PubMed

    Schuch, Stefanie; Werheid, Katja; Koch, Iring

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated whether the processing characteristics of categorizing emotional facial expressions are different from those of categorizing facial age and sex information. Given that emotions change rapidly, it was hypothesized that processing facial expressions involves a more flexible task set that causes less between-task interference than the task sets involved in processing age or sex of a face. Participants switched between three tasks: categorizing a face as looking happy or angry (emotion task), young or old (age task), and male or female (sex task). Interference between tasks was measured by global interference and response interference. Both measures revealed patterns of asymmetric interference. Global between-task interference was reduced when a task was mixed with the emotion task. Response interference, as measured by congruency effects, was larger for the emotion task than for the nonemotional tasks. The results support the idea that processing emotional facial expression constitutes a more flexible task set that causes less interference (i.e., task-set "inertia") than processing the age or sex of a face.

  9. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: the politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, abolitionist feminist and evangelical Christian activists have directed increasing attention toward the “traffic in women” as a dangerous manifestation of global gender inequalities. Despite renowned disagreements around the politics of sex and gender, these groups have come together to advocate for harsher penalties against traffickers, prostitutes’ customers, and nations deemed to be taking insufficient steps to stem the flow of trafficked women. In this essay, I argue that what has served to unite this coalition of "strange bedfellows" is not simply an underlying commitment to conservative ideals of sexuality, as previous commentators have offered, but an equally significant commitment to carceral paradigms of justice and to militarized humanitarianism as the preeminent mode of engagement by the state. I draw upon my ongoing ethnographic research with feminist and evangelical antitrafficking movement leaders to argue that the alliance that has been so efficacious in framing contemporary antitrafficking politics is the product of two historically unique and intersecting trends: a rightward shift on the part of many mainstream feminists and other secular liberals away from a redistributive model of justice and toward a politics of incarceration, coincident with a leftward sweep on the part of many younger evangelicals toward a globally oriented social justice theology. In the final section of this essay, I consider the resilience of these trends given a newly installed and more progressive Obama administration, positing that they are likely to continue even as the terrain of militarized humanitarian action shifts in accordance with new sets of geopolitical interests. PMID:20827852

  10. The female advantage: sex as a possible protective factor against emotion recognition impairment following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Rigon, Arianna; Turkstra, Lyn; Mutlu, Bilge; Duff, Melissa

    2016-10-01

    Although moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to facial affect recognition impairments in up to 39% of individuals, protective and risk factors for these deficits are unknown. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of sex on emotion recognition abilities following TBI. We administered two separate emotion recognition tests (one static and one dynamic) to 53 individuals with moderate to severe TBI (females = 28) and 49 demographically matched comparisons (females = 22). We then investigated the presence of a sex-by-group interaction in emotion recognition accuracy. In the comparison group, there were no sex differences. In the TBI group, however, females significantly outperformed males in the dynamic (but not the static) task. Moreover, males (but not females) with TBI performed significantly worse than comparison participants in the dynamic task. Further analysis revealed that sex differences in emotion recognition abilities within the TBI group could not be explained by lesion location, TBI severity, or other neuropsychological variables. These findings suggest that sex may serve as a protective factor for social impairment following TBI and inform clinicians working with TBI as well as research on the neurophysiological correlates of sex differences in social functioning. PMID:27245826

  11. Emotional and Behavioral Problems among Impoverished Kenyan Youth: Factor Structure and Sex-Differences

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Valerie S.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Burke, Heather M.; Rettew, David C.; Ivanova, Masha Y.; Ndetei, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Data on youth emotional and behavioral problems from societies in Sub-Saharan Africa are lacking. This may be due to the fact that few youth mental health assessments have been tested for construct validity of syndrome structure across multicultural societies that include developing countries, and almost none have been tested in Sub-Saharan Africa. The Youth Self-Report (YSR), for example, has shown great consistency of its syndrome structure across many cultures, yet data from only one developing country in Sub-Saharan Africa have been included. In this study, we test the factor structure of YSR syndromes among Kenyan youth ages 11–18 years from an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya and examine sex-differences in levels of emotional and behavioral problems. We find the eight syndrome structure of the YSR to fit these data well (Root Mean Square Error of Approximation=.049). While Kenyan girls have significantly higher internalizing (Anxious/Depressed, Withdrawn/Depressed, Somatic) problem scores than boys, these differences are of similar magnitude to published multicultural findings. The results support the generalizability of the YSR syndrome structure to Kenyan youth and are in line with multicultural findings supporting the YSR as an assessment of emotional and behavioral problems in diverse societies. PMID:25419046

  12. Relations between political violence and child adjustment: a four-wave test of the role of emotional insecurity about community.

    PubMed

    Cummings, E Mark; Taylor, Laura K; Merrilees, Christine E; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-12-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children's trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age, and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children's emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children's adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time.

  13. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2015-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children’s emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a four-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the four-waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83), 13.61 (SD = 1.99), and 14.66 years (SD = 1.96), respectively. Building on previous studies of the role of emotional insecurity in child adjustment, the current study examines within-person change in emotional insecurity using latent growth curve analyses. The results showed that children’s trajectories of emotional insecurity about community were related to risk for developing conduct and emotion problems. These findings controlled for earlier adjustment problems, age and gender, and took into account the time-varying nature of experience with sectarian violence. Discussion considers the implications for children’s emotional insecurity about community for relations between political violence and children’s adjustment, including the significance of trajectories of emotional insecurity over time. PMID:23527495

  14. Sex-Related Hemispheric Lateralization of Amygdala Function in Emotionally Influenced Memory: An fMRI Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Larry; Uncapher, Melina; Kilpatrick, Lisa; Alkire, Mike T.; Turner, Jessica

    2004-01-01

    The amygdala appears necessary for enhanced long-term memory associated with emotionally arousing events. Recent brain imaging investigations support this view and indicate a sex-related hemispheric lateralization exists in the amygdala relationship to memory for emotional material. This study confirms and further explores this finding. Healthy men and women underwent functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) while viewing a series of standardized slides that were rated by the subjects as ranging from emotionally neutral to highly arousing. Two weeks later, memory for the slides was assessed in an incidental recognition test. The results demonstrate a significantly stronger relationship in men than in women between activity of the right hemisphere amygdala and memory for those slides judged as arousing, and a significantly stronger relationship in women than in men between activity of the left hemisphere amygdala and memory for arousing slides. An ANOVA confirmed a significant interaction between sex and hemisphere regarding amygdala function in memory. These results provide the strongest evidence to date of a sex-related hemispheric lateralization of amygdala function in memory for emotional material. Furthermore, they underscore the view that investigations of neural mechanisms underlying emotionally influenced memory must anticipate, and begin to account for, the apparently substantial influence of sex. PMID:15169855

  15. Where Sex Ends and Emotions Begin: Love and HIV Risk among Female Sex Workers and their Intimate, Non-Commercial Partners along the Mexico-U.S. Border

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Robertson, Angela M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Martinez, Gustavo; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the affective dimensions of female sex workers’ relationships with their intimate, non-commercial partners and assesses how emotions shape each partner’s sexual and drug-related risk within their relationship. We draw on qualitative data from a study of HIV, sexually transmitted infections, and high risk behaviours among female sex workers and their non-commercial partners in Tijuana and Ciudad Juárez, Mexico, to illustrate that these couples share relationships based on love, trust, respect, and emotional and material support. These relationships ranged in emotional intensity, which shaped partners’ decisions not to use condoms with each other. Drugs were important in most couples’ relationships. Among injectors, syringe sharing was common and represented both a sign of care and a pragmatic reaction to conditions of material scarcity. Our findings suggest that couple-based HIV interventions to address dual sexual and drug-related risks should be tailored to the emotional dynamics of sex workers’ intimate relationships. PMID:23473586

  16. "There's no chasing involved": cis/trans relationships, "tranny chasers," and the future of a sex-positive trans politics.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Avery Brooks

    2014-01-01

    This article adds to a small, but growing, body of work on trans sexualities and partnerships, and provides a much-needed inquiry into the complex and contested politics of desire when we take trans identities, bodies, and sexualities into account. Using digital ethnographic data from YouTube videos along with in-person observational data from LGBTQ and trans conferences in the U.S., Tompkins argues that a sex-positive trans politics cannot emerge in trans and trans-allied communities if the rhetoric of the "tranny chaser" continues to inform discourses of desire and attraction to trans people.

  17. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Henningsson, S; Madsen, K H; Pinborg, A; Heede, M; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16 ± 3 days post intervention. At both sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol to menopausal levels, which was accompanied by an increase in subclinical depressive symptoms relative to placebo. Women who displayed larger GnRHa-induced increase in depressive symptoms had a larger increase in both negative and positive emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula. When considering the post-GnRHa scan only, depressive responses were associated with emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula and amygdala. The effect on regional activity in anterior insula was not associated with the estradiol net decline, only by the GnRHa-induced changes in mood. Our data implicate enhanced insula recruitment during emotional processing in the emergence of depressive symptoms following sex-hormone fluctuations. This may correspond to the emotional hypersensitivity frequently experienced by women postpartum. PMID:26624927

  18. Role of emotional processing in depressive responses to sex-hormone manipulation: a pharmacological fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, S; Madsen, K H; Pinborg, A; Heede, M; Knudsen, G M; Siebner, H R; Frokjaer, V G

    2015-01-01

    Sex-hormone fluctuations may increase risk for developing depressive symptoms and alter emotional processing as supported by observations in menopausal and pre- to postpartum transition. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled study, we used blood−oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate if sex-steroid hormone manipulation with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) influences emotional processing. Fifty-six healthy women were investigated twice: at baseline (follicular phase of menstrual cycle) and 16±3 days post intervention. At both sessions, fMRI-scans during exposure to faces expressing fear, anger, happiness or no emotion, depressive symptom scores and estradiol levels were acquired. The fMRI analyses focused on regions of interest for emotional processing. As expected, GnRHa initially increased and subsequently reduced estradiol to menopausal levels, which was accompanied by an increase in subclinical depressive symptoms relative to placebo. Women who displayed larger GnRHa-induced increase in depressive symptoms had a larger increase in both negative and positive emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula. When considering the post-GnRHa scan only, depressive responses were associated with emotion-elicited activity in the anterior insula and amygdala. The effect on regional activity in anterior insula was not associated with the estradiol net decline, only by the GnRHa-induced changes in mood. Our data implicate enhanced insula recruitment during emotional processing in the emergence of depressive symptoms following sex-hormone fluctuations. This may correspond to the emotional hypersensitivity frequently experienced by women postpartum. PMID:26624927

  19. Seeing the Partner: A Video Recall Study of Emotional Behavior in Same- and Mixed-Sex Late Adolescent Romantic Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A.

    2009-01-01

    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the…

  20. The impact of childhood abuse on inpatient substance users: specific links with risky sex, aggression, and emotion dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Banducci, Anne N; Hoffman, Elana M; Lejuez, C W; Koenen, Karestan C

    2014-05-01

    Adults with substance use disorders (SUDs) report a high prevalence of childhood abuse. Research in the general population suggests specific types of abuse lead to particular negative outcomes; it is not known whether this pattern holds for adults with SUDs. We hypothesized that specific types of abuse would be associated with particular behavioral and emotional outcomes among substance users. That is, childhood sexual abuse would be associated with risky sex behaviors, childhood physical abuse with aggression, and childhood emotional abuse with emotion dysregulation. 280 inpatients (M age=43.3; 69.7% male; 88.4% African American) in substance use treatment completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), HIV Risk-Taking Behavior Scale, Addiction Severity Index, Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS), and Affect Intensity and Dimensions of Affiliation Motivation (AIM). Consistent with our hypotheses, the CTQ sexual abuse subscale uniquely predicted exchanging sex for cocaine and heroin, number of arrests for prostitution, engaging in unprotected sex with a casual partner during the prior year, and experiencing low sexual arousal when sober. The physical abuse subscale uniquely predicted number of arrests for assault and weapons offenses. The emotional abuse subscale uniquely predicted the DERS total score, AIM score, and DTS score. Among substance users, different types of abuse are uniquely associated with specific negative effects. Assessment of specific abuse types among substance users may be informative in treatment planning and relapse prevention. PMID:24521524

  1. Disgust and the politics of sex: exposure to a disgusting odorant increases politically conservative views on sex and decreases support for gay marriage.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas G; Stewart, Patrick A; Blanchar, John C

    2014-01-01

    Disgust has been implicated as a potential causal agent underlying socio-political attitudes and behaviors. Several recent studies have suggested that pathogen disgust may be a causal mechanism underlying social conservatism. However, the specificity of this effect is still in question. The present study tested the effects of disgust on a range of policy preferences to clarify whether disgust is generally implicated in political conservatism across public policy attitudes or is uniquely related to specific content domains. Self-reported socio-political attitudes were compared between participants in two experimental conditions: 1) an odorless control condition, and 2) a disgusting odor condition. In keeping with previous research, the present study showed that exposure to a disgusting odor increased endorsement of socially conservative attitudes related to sexuality. In particular, there was a strong and consistent link between induced disgust and less support for gay marriage.

  2. Disgust and the Politics of Sex: Exposure to a Disgusting Odorant Increases Politically Conservative Views on Sex and Decreases Support for Gay Marriage

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Thomas G.; Stewart, Patrick A.; Blanchar, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Disgust has been implicated as a potential causal agent underlying socio-political attitudes and behaviors. Several recent studies have suggested that pathogen disgust may be a causal mechanism underlying social conservatism. However, the specificity of this effect is still in question. The present study tested the effects of disgust on a range of policy preferences to clarify whether disgust is generally implicated in political conservatism across public policy attitudes or is uniquely related to specific content domains. Self-reported socio-political attitudes were compared between participants in two experimental conditions: 1) an odorless control condition, and 2) a disgusting odor condition. In keeping with previous research, the present study showed that exposure to a disgusting odor increased endorsement of socially conservative attitudes related to sexuality. In particular, there was a strong and consistent link between induced disgust and less support for gay marriage. PMID:24798457

  3. Disgust and the politics of sex: exposure to a disgusting odorant increases politically conservative views on sex and decreases support for gay marriage.

    PubMed

    Adams, Thomas G; Stewart, Patrick A; Blanchar, John C

    2014-01-01

    Disgust has been implicated as a potential causal agent underlying socio-political attitudes and behaviors. Several recent studies have suggested that pathogen disgust may be a causal mechanism underlying social conservatism. However, the specificity of this effect is still in question. The present study tested the effects of disgust on a range of policy preferences to clarify whether disgust is generally implicated in political conservatism across public policy attitudes or is uniquely related to specific content domains. Self-reported socio-political attitudes were compared between participants in two experimental conditions: 1) an odorless control condition, and 2) a disgusting odor condition. In keeping with previous research, the present study showed that exposure to a disgusting odor increased endorsement of socially conservative attitudes related to sexuality. In particular, there was a strong and consistent link between induced disgust and less support for gay marriage. PMID:24798457

  4. Seeing the partner: a video recall study of emotional behavior in same- and mixed-sex late adolescent romantic couples.

    PubMed

    Darling, Nancy; Clarke, Sara A

    2009-08-01

    Fifty-three college-aged same- and mixed-sex romantic couples (83% White, 63% female, mean age, 20.8) engaged in a video recall task in which they rated their own and their partners' behaviors and emotions. Females reported feeling more connected to partners and reported fewer negative behaviors than males. Females with male partners reported the highest feelings of connection and the fewest negative behaviors. Males with male partners reported the lowest connection and most negative behaviors. Behavioral mirroring and empathic accuracy did not vary by sex of the actor or of their partner. Partners' self-reported connection and negative behaviors were similar and they accurately perceived each others' average behavioral and emotional states. The data showed little evidence that partners' behaviors mirrored one another temporally across time segments, however. Results suggest that college-aged same and mixed-sex romantic couples show greater similarities than differences in functioning.

  5. The roles of sex and serotonin transporter levels in age- and stress-related emotionality in mice.

    PubMed

    Joeyen-Waldorf, Jennifer; Edgar, Nicole; Sibille, Etienne

    2009-08-25

    Mood disorders are influenced by genetic make-up and differentially affect men and women. The s/l promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene moderates both trait emotion and the vulnerability to develop depressive states in humans. Similarly, male mice lacking SERT (Knockout/KO) display an elevated emotionality phenotype. We now report that the SERT-KO phenotype is maintained throughout late-adulthood, and that female KO mice develop a larger emotionality phenotype with increasing age. Thus, to test the hypothesis that these findings reflected a putative sexual dimorphism in SERT-mediated modulation of emotionality, we submitted adult male and female wild-type, heterozygous (HZ) and KO mice to unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and assessed behavioral changes. In males, the elevated SERT-KO emotion-related behavior converged with other groups after UCMS. Conversely, female SERT-KO displayed a normal non-stressed baseline, but highest UCMS-induced emotionality. SERT-HZ displayed variable and intermediate phenotypes in both experiments. Thus, consistent results across different biological modalities (age, stress) revealed a high contribution of SERT genotype for baseline "trait" emotionality in males, and low contribution for females. In contrast, age-correlated and stress-induced behavioral changes resulted in a high SERT genotype-mediated behavioral variance in females, but low in males. This suggests that high emotionality states associated with low SERT were differentially achieved in males (high baseline/trait) compared to females (increased vulnerability to develop high emotionality). This sex-by-SERT double dissociation provides a framework to investigate molecular substrates of emotionality regulation in concert with serotonin function and may contribute to the sexually dimorphic features of mood disorders. PMID:19577546

  6. The effect of anticipation and the specificity of sex differences for amygdala and hippocampus function in emotional memory.

    PubMed

    Mackiewicz, Kristen L; Sarinopoulos, Issidoros; Cleven, Krystal L; Nitschke, Jack B

    2006-09-19

    Prior research has shown memory is enhanced for emotional events. Key brain areas involved in emotional memory are the amygdala and hippocampus, which are also recruited during aversion and its anticipation. This study investigated whether anticipatory processes signaling an upcoming aversive event contribute to emotional memory. In an event-related functional MRI paradigm, 40 healthy participants viewed aversive and neutral pictures preceded by predictive warning cues. Participants completed a surprise recognition task directly after functional MRI scanning or 2 weeks later. In anticipation of aversive pictures, bilateral dorsal amygdala and anterior hippocampus activations were associated with better immediate recognition memory. Similar associations with memory were observed for activation of those areas in response to aversive pictures. Anticipatory activation predicted immediate memory over and above these associations for picture viewing. Bilateral ventral amygdala activations in response to aversive pictures predicted delayed memory only. We found that previously reported sex differences of memory associations with left amygdala for women and with right amygdala for men were confined to the ventral amygdala during picture viewing and delayed memory. Results support an established animal model elucidating the functional neuroanatomy of the amygdala and hippocampus in emotional memory, highlight the importance of anticipatory processes in such memory for aversive events, and extend neuroanatomical evidence of sex differences for emotional memory.

  7. Sex differences in childhood sexual abuse characteristics and victims’ emotional and behavioral problems: Findings from a national sample of youth

    PubMed Central

    Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics---penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment---in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with victims’ emotional and behavioral problems. Methods The sample was drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, a sample of children investigated by United States child welfare services. Youth in the current study (n = 573, including 234 adolescents) were investigated for alleged sexual abuse. Logistic regression and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test for sex differences in abuse characteristics, and to determine whether sex moderated associations between abuse characteristics and emotional and behavioral problems. Results Girls were more likely than boys to have their abuse substantiated and to experience penetrative abuse (although differences in penetration status did not emerge among adolescents). Substantiation status and child age were positively associated with caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Sex did not moderate the relationship between abuse characteristics and youth emotional and behavioral problems. Conclusions Sexual abuse characteristics might not be highly predictive factors when making decisions about services needs. Furthermore, there may not be a strong empirical basis for operating on the assumption that one sex is more vulnerable to negative consequences of abuse than the other, or that abuse affects girls and boys differently. The processes explaining why some victims exhibit more impairment than others are likely complex. PMID:20400178

  8. Citizenship Education and the Politics of Public Participation: The Case of Same-Sex Marriage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diorio, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Citizenship education programs promote political participation by young people. These programs risk misrepresenting politics to students by encouraging them to believe that there are universally accepted principles which govern the definition of citizenship and who is entitled to participate in its various dimensions. The article argues that…

  9. How (Not) to Feel: Culture and the Politics of Emotion in the American Parenting Advice Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    This interpretive critique of the US parenting advice literature explores the underlying cultural values and assumptions concerning emotion and power that are revealed in discourses on child behavior management. The analysis reveals a clear emphasis on the pedagogical and therapeutic role of an emotionally knowledgeable parent in relation to a…

  10. Contingency Management Reduces Symptoms of Psychological and Emotional Distress among Homeless, Substance-dependent Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jesse B.; Shoptaw, Steven; Peck, James A.; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background This prospective analysis evaluated the efficacy of a contingency management (CM) intervention to improve the psychological health of non-treatment seeking, homeless, substance-dependent, men who have sex with men in Los Angeles. It was hypothesized that administration of CM would be associated with reductions in participants’ symptoms of psychological and emotional distress. Methods One hundred and thirty-one participants were randomized into either a voucher-based contingency management (CM; n = 64) condition reinforcing substance abstinence and prosocial/health-promoting behaviors, or to a control condition (n = 67). Participants’ symptoms of psychological and emotional distress were assessed at intake and at 12-months post-randomization. Results Participants randomized into the CM intervention exhibited significantly lower levels of psychological distress in all measured symptom domains up to one year post randomization, reductions not evidenced in the control arm. Omnibus tests resultant from seemingly unrelated regression analysis confirmed that CM was significantly associated with reductions in symptoms of psychological and emotional distress, even when controlling for biomarker-confirmed substance use outcomes (χ2(9) = 17.26; p < 0.05). Conclusions Findings demonstrate that a CM intervention reduced symptoms of psychological and emotional distress among a sample of non-treatment seeking, homeless, substance-dependent men who have sex with men. PMID:25364379

  11. Emotional dysregulation and risky sex among incarcerated women with a history of interpersonal violence

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Caroline; Johnson, Jennifer; Rosen, Rochelle; Wechsberg, Wendee; Gobin, Robyn L.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Peabody, Marlanea; Zlotnick, Caron

    2013-01-01

    Incarcerated women, in comparison to non-incarcerated women, are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and many have experienced interpersonal violence. The psychological construct of emotional dysregulation – which includes heightened intensity of emotions, poor understanding of emotions, negative reactivity to emotion state, inability to control behaviors when experiencing emotional distress, and maladaptive emotion management responses – is a possible pathway to explain the link between interpersonal violence exposure and STI risk. The present study examined maladaptive emotion management responses for emotional dysregulation (i.e., avoidance and numbing, and dissociation) occurring in the context of risky sexual behavior. We collected qualitative data from 4 focus groups with a sample of n=21 incarcerated women (18+ years) from facilities in urban New England. Qualitative data were analyzed using a thematic analysis approach. Findings indicated that incarcerated women reported engaging in a variety of maladaptive responses for emotion management during sexual encounters. These maladaptive responses for emotion management appear to increase sexual risk behaviors and alter women's ability to implement STI protective behaviors such as sexual negotiation and condom use. Preventive interventions to reduce sexual risk behaviors should incorporate strategies to promote emotional regulation among incarcerated women with histories of interpersonal violence. PMID:24965256

  12. Sex-specific effects of intranasal oxytocin on autonomic nervous system and emotional responses to couple conflict

    PubMed Central

    Nater, Urs M.; Schaer, Marcel; La Marca, Roberto; Bodenmann, Guy; Ehlert, Ulrike; Heinrichs, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Unhappy couple relationships are associated with impaired individual health, an effect thought to be mediated through ongoing couple conflicts. Little is known, however, about the underlying mechanisms regulating psychobiological stress, and particularly autonomic nervous system (ANS) reactivity, during negative couple interaction. In this study, we tested the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin on ANS reactivity during couple conflict in a standardized laboratory paradigm. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled design, 47 heterosexual couples (total n = 94) received oxytocin or placebo intranasally prior to instructed couple conflict. Participants’ behavior was videotaped and salivary alpha-amylase (sAA), a measure of sympathetic activity, and emotional arousal were repeatedly measured during the experiment. Oxytocin significantly reduced sAA during couple conflict in women, whereas men showed increases in sAA levels (sex × group interaction: B = −49.36, t = −2.68, P = 0.009). In men, these increases were related to augmented emotional arousal (r = 0.286, P = 0.028) and more positive behavior (r = 0.291, P = 0.026), whereas there was no such association in women. Our results imply sex-specific effects of oxytocin on sympathetic activity, to negative couple interaction, with the neuropeptide reducing sAA responses and emotional arousal in women while increasing them in men. PMID:22842905

  13. The Contribution of Emotional Partners to Sexual Risk Taking and Violence among Female Sex Workers in Mombasa, Kenya: A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bosire, Wilkister; Nelson, Gill; Kingola, Nzioki; Zhang, Xu-Dong; Temmerman, Marleen; Chersich, Matthew F.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess sexual risk-taking of female sex workers (FSWs) with emotional partners (boyfriends and husbands), compared to regular and casual clients. Experiences of violence and the degree of relationship control that FSWs have with emotional partners are also described. Design Cohort study with quarterly follow-up visit over 12-months. Methods Four hundred HIV-uninfected FSWs older than 16 years were recruited from their homes and guesthouses in Mombasa, Kenya. A structured questionnaire assessed participant characteristics and study outcomes at each visit, and women received risk-reduction counselling, male and female condoms, and HIV testing. Results Four or more unprotected sex acts in the past week were reported by 21.3% of women during sex with emotional partners, compared to 5.8% with regular and 4.8% with casual clients (P<0.001). Total number of unprotected sex acts per week was 5–6-fold higher with emotional partners (603 acts with 259 partners) than with regular or casual clients (125 acts with 456, and 98 acts with 632 clients, respectively; P<0.001). Mostly, perceptions of “trust” underscored unprotected sex with emotional partners. Low control over these relationships, common to many women (36.9%), was linked with higher partner numbers, inconsistent condom use, and being physically forced to have sex by their emotional partners. Half experienced sexual or physical violence in the past year, similarly associated with partner numbers and inconsistent condom use. Conclusions High-risk sexual behaviour, low control and frequent violence in relationships with emotional partners heighten FSWs' vulnerability and high HIV risk, requiring targeted interventions that also encompass emotional partners. PMID:23950879

  14. The Politics of Youth, Sex, and Health Care in American Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Button, James W.; Rienzo, Barbara A.

    Noting that partnership between health and education is an inexpensive and expedient way to meet the pressing physical and social problems affecting students in low-income families, this book explores the history, nature, and political dynamics involved in building and sustaining school-based health clinics (SBHCs). The chapters of the book are as…

  15. Sex Differences in Political Communication: A Study of Female and Male State Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leenhouts, Thelma K.

    In an investigation of the communication similarities and differences between male and female legislators, the nine female representatives in the Michigan House of Representatives were matched with nine male representatives on four variables: political party, length of legislative service, district represented, and race. The representatives were…

  16. Ethnic Group Policy and the Politics of Sex: The Seattle Indian Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Tranberg

    1979-01-01

    Argues that the shifting urban American Indian organizational scene is elicited by outside factors that make organizations dependent on city, state, and federal bodies. Implications of the distinction between policy and politics for explaining ethnic group activity are discussed in relation to the American Indian Women's Service League. (Author/GC)

  17. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  18. What To Tell the Kids about Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hymowitz, Kay S.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the history of the controversy over comprehensive sex education versus abstinence education, focusing on the politics of the issue; support for abstinence education; how abstinence programs appeal to students' emotions; the influence of character education on abstinence education; how abstinence education can change students' decisions…

  19. Sex differences in aversive memory in rats: possible role of extinction and reactive emotional factors.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Godinho, Monique R; Fernandes, Valéria S; Munguba, Hermany; Melo, Thieza G; Barbosa, Marla T; Eufrasio, Raí A; Cabral, Alícia; Izídio, Geison S; Silva, Regina H

    2010-11-01

    Studies usually show better spatial learning in males and stronger emotional memory in females. Spatial memory differences could relate to diverse strategies, while dissimilar stress reactions could cause emotional memory differences. We compared male and female rats in two emotional (classical emotional conditioning and aversive discrimination memory) and two emotionally "neutral" tasks: (1) plus-maze discriminative avoidance, containing two open and two enclosed arms, one of which presenting aversive stimuli (light/noise). No differences were found in learning, retrieving, or basal emotional levels, while only male rats presented extinction of the task; (2) contextual fear conditioning--a cage was paired to mild foot shocks. Upon reexposure, freezing behavior was decreased in females; (3) spontaneous alternation--the animals were expected to alternate among the arms of a four-arm maze. No differences between genders were found and (4) open-field habituation was addressed in an arena which the rats were allowed to explore for 10 min. Habituation was similar between genders. Differences were found only in tasks with strong emotional contexts, where different fear responses and stress effects could be determinant. The lack of extinction of discriminative avoidance by females points out to stronger consolidation and/or impaired extinction of aversive memories.

  20. Mbaraan and the shifting political economy of sex in urban Senegal.

    PubMed

    Foley, Ellen E; Drame, Fatou Maria

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines transactional sex in Dakar as a window into broader processes of social and economic change in urban Senegal. Patterns of heterosexual behaviour in Senegal's capital (late and increasing age at first marriage for women, a relatively high divorce rate and a rise in transactional sex) reflect a confluence of socioeconomic forces that curtail some forms of heterosexual union and facilitate others. Our analysis focuses on the rise of mbaraan, a practice in which single, married and divorced women have multiple male partners. We argue that while mbaraan is in part an expression of women's agency and a transgression of dominant gender norms, it also reflects women's social and economic subordination and their inability to achieve self-sufficiency independent of men's financial support. We suggest that this urban phenomenon is the outcome of contradictory opportunities and constraints that women face as they grapple with material insecurity and marital disappointments. PMID:23181265

  1. Place of Residence Moderates the Relationship Between Emotional Closeness and Syringe Sharing Among Injection Drug Using Clients of Sex Workers in the US-Mexico Border Region.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Karla D; Pitpitan, Eileen V; Valente, Thomas W; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Rusch, Melanie; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Chavarin, Claudia V; Patterson, Thomas L

    2015-06-01

    Injection drug-using men from the US and Mexico who purchase sex in Tijuana, Mexico are at risk for transmitting HIV to their contacts in both countries via syringe sharing. We used social network methods to understand whether place of residence (US vs. Mexico) moderated the effect of emotional closeness on syringe sharing. We interviewed 199 drug-using men who reported paying/trading for sex in Tijuana, Mexico using an epidemiological and social network survey and collected samples for HIV/STI testing. Seventy-two men reported using injection drugs with 272 network contacts. Emotional closeness was strongly associated with syringe sharing in relationship where the partner lives in the US, while the relationship between emotional closeness and syringe sharing was considerably less strong in dyads where the partner lives in Mexico. Efforts to reduce HIV risk behaviors in emotionally close relationships are needed, and could benefit from tailoring to the environmental context of the relationship.

  2. Place of Residence Moderates the Relationship Between Emotional Closeness and Syringe Sharing Among Injection Drug Using Clients of Sex Workers in the US-Mexico Border Region

    PubMed Central

    Pitpitan, Eileen V.; Valente, Thomas W.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Rusch, Melanie; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Chavarin, Claudia V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2015-01-01

    Injection drug-using men from the US and Mexico who purchase sex in Tijuana, Mexico are at risk for transmitting HIV to their contacts in both countries via syringe sharing. We used social network methods to understand whether place of residence (US vs. Mexico) moderated the effect of emotional closeness on syringe sharing. We interviewed 199 drug-using men who reported paying/trading for sex in Tijuana, Mexico using an epidemiological and social network survey and collected samples for HIV/STI testing. Seventy-two men reported using injection drugs with 272 network contacts. Emotional closeness was strongly associated with syringe sharing in relationship where the partner lives in the US, while the relationship between emotional closeness and syringe sharing was considerably less strong in dyads where the partner lives in Mexico. Efforts to reduce HIV risk behaviors in emotionally close relationships are needed, and could benefit from tailoring to the environmental context of the relationship. PMID:25613593

  3. The Emotional Regimes of Reconciliation in History Textbook Revision: Reflections on the Politics of Resentment and the Politics of Empathy in Post-Conflict Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2016-01-01

    The present paper focuses on the "emotional regimes" that may be invoked, molded or used in history education engagements with the past as part of reconciliation processes. In the first part, the paper examines briefly how emotions are related to the process of reconciliation and discusses the ways in which emotional regimes grow out of…

  4. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  5. A Longitudinal Study of the Development of Emotional Deception Detection Within New Same-Sex Friendships.

    PubMed

    Morris, Wendy L; Sternglanz, R Weylin; Ansfield, Matthew E; Anderson, D Eric; Snyder, Jillian L H; DePaulo, Bella M

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies show that close friends improve at lie detection over time. However, is this improvement due to an increase in the ability to decode the feelings of close friends or a change in how close friends communicate their true and deceptive emotions? In a study of 45 pairs of friends, one friend from each pair (the "sender") was videotaped showing truthful and faked affect in response to pleasant and unpleasant movie clips. The other friend from each pair (the "judge") guessed the true emotions of both the friend and a stranger 1 month and 6 months into the friendship. Judges were better at guessing the true emotions of friends than strangers, and this advantage in judging friends increased among close friends over time. Surprisingly, improvement over time was due mostly to a change in the sender's communication, rather than an increase in judges' ability to decode their friends' feelings. PMID:26646431

  6. The value of outside support for male and female politicians involved in a political sex scandal.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Dennis D; Rose, Roger P; Rosales, Felixia M; Rudney, Philip D; Lehner, Tasha A; Miltich, Gemma; Snyder, Cassie; Sadecki, Brianna

    2013-01-01

    This research examined how third party statements impact the evaluation of male and female politicians caught in a scandal (i.e., extramarital affair). Governor's sex was crossed with three types of support statements: third party supportive (TPS), third party non-supportive (TPNS), and governor self-supportive (GSS). In Experiment 1, a female politician was evaluated more positively than a male politician. The TPS and the GSS conditions were both evaluated more positively than the TPNS condition. Experiment 2's design was similar to Experiment l's, except it involved multiple affairs. In Experiment 2, participants used the third party's statements as an information source and thus reduced their use of gender stereotypes in the TPS and TPNS conditions compared to the GSS condition. We also found that male respondents gave more negative evaluations of the female governor than female respondents. Implications for the gender stereotype and social influence literatures are discussed.

  7. Socio-economic, socio-political and socio-emotional variables explaining school bullying: a country-wide multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    Chaux, Enrique; Molano, Andrés; Podlesky, Paola

    2009-01-01

    Why do some countries, regions and schools have more bullying than others? What socio-economic, socio-political and other larger contextual factors predict school bullying? These open questions inspired this study with 53.316 5th- and 9th-grade students (5% of the national student population in these grades), from 1,000 schools in Colombia. Students completed a national test of citizenship competencies, which included questions about bullying and about families, neighborhoods and their own socio-emotional competencies. We combined these data with community violence and socio-economic conditions of all Colombian municipalities, which allowed us to conduct multilevel analyses to identify municipality- and school-level variables predicting school bullying. Most variance was found at the school level. Higher levels of school bullying were related to more males in the schools, lower levels of empathy, more authoritarian and violent families, higher levels of community violence, better socio-economic conditions, hostile attributional biases and more beliefs supporting aggression. These results might reflect student, classroom and school contributions because student-level variables were aggregated at the school level. Although in small portions, violence from the decades-old-armed conflict among guerrillas, paramilitaries and governmental forces predicted school bullying at the municipal level for 5th graders. For 9th graders, inequality in land ownership predicted school bullying. Neither poverty, nor population density or homicide rates contributed to explaining bullying. These results may help us advance toward understanding how the larger context relates to school bullying, and what socio-emotional competencies may help us prevent the negative effects of a violent and unequal environment. PMID:19739091

  8. Sex and the capital city: the political framing of syphilis and prostitution in early republican Ankara.

    PubMed

    Evered, Emine Ö; Evered, Kyle T

    2013-04-01

    In its initial years, the nascent Turkish republic established the Ministry of Health and Social Assistance in order to promote public health. Beyond simply facilitating its modernizing agenda for the emergent nation-state as it sought to define itself against an Ottoman past, this institution was also geared toward remedying a self-defined population crisis by prioritizing and confronting particular diseases and health conditions. One of the maladies of utmost concern was syphilis. Based upon an analysis of official primary sources, this article engages with how the developing republic distinguished and consequently politically constructed-or framed-the syphilis problem from the vantage of its new forward capital, Ankara. Integral to this project of confronting this sexually transmitted disease, public health officials projected upon both this ailment and their understanding of the suitable means for its treatment their own views of what constituted appropriate sexual practices and relations. In doing so, certain subgroups of the population, especially prostitutes, were particularized as targets for surveillance and policing through regimes of licensing and compulsory medical examinations. Stemming from the state's framing of the disease-and its definition of appropriate sexual practices-this article also examines the subsequent legislative and public health education projects that followed.

  9. Sex Differences in Brain Activity Related to General and Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jausovec, Norbert; Jausovec, Ksenija

    2005-01-01

    The study investigated gender differences in resting EEG (in three individually determined narrow [alpha] frequency bands) related to the level of general and emotional intelligence. Brain activity of males decreased with the level of general intelligence, whereas an opposite pattern of brain activity was observed in females. This difference was…

  10. Physiological-Cognitive-Emotional Responses to Defense-Arousing Communication: Overview and Sex Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ronald D.

    A 328-item checklist, suitable for the self-reporting of responses to any stimulus event, was administered to 107 upper division college students in an attempt to investigate the physiological-cognitive-emotional responses to defense arousing communication and to discover a greater range of the key features of the phenomena of "defensiveness."…

  11. Reactions to Rape Victims: Effects of Rape Circumstances, Victim's Emotional Response, and Sex of Helper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krulewitz, Judith E.

    1982-01-01

    Female and male undergraduates judged impact of the rape experience on victims' psychological adjustment and indicated their likely counseling goals. Results are discussed in terms of popular assumptions about rape victims and sex differences in identification with and empathy for female rape victims. Implications for training are noted. (Author)

  12. Why Emotion Work Matters: Sex, Gender, and the Division of Household Labor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erickson, Rebecca J.

    2005-01-01

    Attempting to explain why biological sex remains the primary predictor of household labor allocation, gender theorists have suggested that husbands and wives perform family work in ways that facilitate culturally appropriate constructions of gender. To date, however, researchers have yet to consider the theoretical and empirical significance of…

  13. Youth in contexts of political violence: A developmental approach to the study of youth identity and emotional security in their communities

    PubMed Central

    Merrilees, Christine E.; Taylor, Laura K.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cummings, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Going beyond the association between youth exposure to political violence and psychopathology, the current paper examines within-person change in youth strength of identity with their ethno-political group and youth reports of the insecurity in their communities. Conceptually related but growing out of different paradigms, both group identity and emotional insecurity have been examined as key variables impacting youth responses to threats from other group members. The goal of the current study is to review previous studies examining these two key variables and to contribute new analyses, modeling within-person change in both variables and examining co-variation in their growth The current paper uses data from 823 Belfast adolescents over 4 years. The results suggest youth are changing linearly over age in both constructs and that there are ethno-political group differences in how youth are changing. The results also indicate that change in insecurity is related to strength of identity at age 18, and strength of identity and emotional insecurity are related at age 18. Implications and directions for future work in the area of youth and political violence are discussed. PMID:26633936

  14. Emotional Closeness in Mexican-Origin Adolescents’ Relationships with Mothers, Fathers, and Same-Sex Friends

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Sue A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.; Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J.

    2014-01-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51% female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls’ intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys’ intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents’ perceptions of parents’ warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence. PMID:23999997

  15. Emotional closeness in Mexican-origin adolescents' relationships with mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Sue A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Updegraff, Kimberly A; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J

    2014-12-01

    Research on the associations between parent-adolescent relationships and friendships among Latinos is limited. Drawing on developmental and ecological perspectives, we examined bidirectional associations between parental warmth and friendship intimacy with same-sex peers from early to late adolescence using a longitudinal cross-lag panel design. Parent-adolescent immigration status and adolescent gender were examined as moderators of these associations. Home interviews were conducted with 246 Mexican American adolescents (51 % female) when they were in early (M = 12.55; SD = .60 years), middle (M = 14.64; SD = .59 years), and late adolescence (M = 17.67; SD = .57 years). Modest declines in paternal warmth were evident from early to late adolescence, but maternal warmth was high and stable across this time period. Girls' intimacy with same-sex friends also was high and stable from early to late adolescence, but boys' intimacy with same-sex friends increased over this time period. In general, findings revealed that adolescents' perceptions of parents' warmth in early adolescence were associated positively with friendship intimacy in middle adolescence, and friendship intimacy in middle adolescence was associated positively with parental warmth in late adolescence. Some associations were moderated by adolescent gender and parent-adolescent immigration status. For example, there was an association from maternal warmth in early adolescence to friendship intimacy in late adolescence only for immigrant youth. These findings suggest that among Mexican American adolescents, their relationships with their mothers, fathers, and same-sex friends are intertwined closely and that gender and immigration status shape some of these associations during adolescence.

  16. Spatial distance regulates sex-specific feelings to suspected sexual and emotional infidelity.

    PubMed

    Schützwohl, Achim; Morjaria, Sheena; Alvis, Shahin

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the hitherto neglected influence of the spatial distance between the jealous person, the partner, and a potential rival as a proximate contextual factor regulating emotion intensity. The study tested four predictions. (1) The jealousy mechanism responds with mild negative feelings at most as long as the partner is close to the jealous person. (2) The negative feelings increase when the partner is far from the jealous person but the rival is close. (3) The most uncomfortable feelings result when the partner and the rival are close together and both far from the jealous person. (4) Based on the evolutionary psychological considerations, men report stronger negative feelings than women when suspecting sexual infidelity. Conversely, women report stronger negative feelings than men when suspecting emotional infidelity. The results confirmed predictions 1 and 4. Reversing predictions 2 and 3, the close rival consistently elicited the most uncomfortable feelings. Implications and limitations of the present study are discussed and suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:22947983

  17. The politics of sex research and constructions of female sexuality: what relevance to sexual health work with young women?

    PubMed

    Few, C

    1997-03-01

    By examining the relationship between the cultural construction of female sexuality and the lack of potential for many young heterosexual women to be truly sexually healthy this paper submits that messages for women within HIV prevention programmes can be confused, confining and at times dangerous to women's health and well-being. It is suggested that these messages also reinforce a traditional, biologically determined medical understanding of female sexuality that does not take note of social or culturally based research or commentary on female experience or female desire, but rather confines many women to sexual restrictions, doing little to empower women to prevent sexual risk-taking. The ideological basis of the discussion within this paper is informed by the awareness that applications and understandings of 'sexuality' are diverse and contested within sex research traditions and will influence the choice of research concerns. The 'deterministic' explanation of sexuality that 'sexuality' (the abstract noun referring to the quality of being 'sexual', Williams 1983) is your fate or destiny and that biology causes the patterns of sexual life, is abandoned in this paper in favour of a search for a definition of sexuality which brings together a host of different biological and mental possibilities which are given meaning only in social relations. This allows for a framework for the study of sexuality that relates it to other social phenomena, particularly economic, political and social structures (Foucault 1979); in other words, a study of the 'social construction' of sexuality. This paper suggests that health care professionals need to develop an awareness of the diversities within female sexuality and gain insight into their own values and assumptions about female sexuality if these are not to inhibit effective approaches and interventions in the areas of HIV and sexual health.

  18. A Review of Sex Differences in Peer Relationship Processes: Potential Trade-offs for the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Girls and Boys

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2011-01-01

    Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls’ and boys’ development. This paper provides a critical review of sex differences in: several peer-relationship processes, including behavioral and social-cognitive styles, stress and coping, and relationship provisions. Based on this review, a speculative peer-socialization model is presented that considers the implications of these sex differences for girls’ and boys’ emotional and behavioral development. Central to this model is the idea that sex-linked relationship processes have costs and benefits for girls’ and boys’ adjustment. Finally, we present recent research testing certain model components and propose approaches for testing understudied aspects of the model. PMID:16435959

  19. Prenatal stress effects on emotion regulation differ by genotype and sex in prepubertal rats.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Mariana; Sultany, Tom; Weller, Aron

    2013-03-01

    Behavioral effects of different prenatal stress (PNS) schedules were examined in prepubertal "depressive/anxious-like" WKY and control Wistar rats. Pregnant dams received 1 hr daily restraint stress on gestational days 14-20 or on 7 randomly scheduled days, or remained undisturbed. Offspring were tested during postnatal days 29-35 in social play, forced swim-test, open field, and novelty tests. PNS induced an increase in anxiety-like behaviors in WKY, particularly in females, while seemingly reducing depressive-like behavior in the swim test. However, very high post-stress corticosterone levels were found, suggesting that the reductions in swim-test immobility reflect an extremely over-responsive HPA axis, rather than normalization in stress reactivity leading to a less depressive-like profile. In Wistar, PNS produced weight loss, hyperactivity and risk taking behavior, especially in males. The results support the importance of the environment during gestation and its interaction with sex and genetics on long-term anxiety and depressive like behaviors.

  20. Are there sex differences in emotional and biological responses in spousal caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Thompson, Russel L; Lewis, Sharon L; Murphy, Margaret R; Hale, Jennifer M; Blackwell, Paula H; Acton, Gayle J; Clough, Dorothy H; Patrick, Graham J; Bonner, Peter N

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare emotional and biological responses of men and women who are spousal caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Quality-of-life measurements, bioinstrumentation data, and immunophenotype assessments were obtained from female and male spousal caregivers of patients with AD. Spousal caregivers (women, n = 45 with average age 69.7; men, n = 16 with average age 71.4 years) completed questionnaires that assessed psychosocial variables. Blood was drawn and lymphocyte subsets (including natural killer [NK] cell number) were determined using flow cytometry. The degree of relaxation was determined measuring muscle tension (EMG) in the frontalis and trapezius muscles, skin conductance, skin temperature, and heart rate. Male spousal caregivers, as compared to female spousal caregivers, had significantly lower levels of stress, depression, caregiver burden (subjective), anxiety, anger-hostility, and somatic symptoms and higher levels of mental health, sense of coherence, NK cell number, and social and physical functioning. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups in social support, coping resources, or T, T suppressor, or activated T cells. Women had more T helper cells and fewer NK cells than men. Men had fewer manifestations of a physiological stress response, as indicated by bioinstrumentation parameters. Unique sex-specific issues need to be considered when strategies are implemented to assist the increasing number of caregivers as our society ages.

  1. Service-Learning and Critical Emotion Studies: On the Perils of Empathy and the Politics of Compassion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langstraat, Lisa; Bowdon, Melody

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the mutually enriching bodies of scholarship in service-learning and Critical Emotion Studies with a focus on empathy and compassion, which, perhaps more than any other emotions, hold a prominent place in service-learning literature. We offer an overview of nascent research on empathy and compassion in Critical Emotion…

  2. Sex-dependent role of the amygdala in the development of emotional and neuroendocrine reactivity to threatening stimuli in infant and juvenile rhesus monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Raper, Jessica; Wallen, Kim; Sanchez, Mar M.; Stephens, Shannon B. Z.; Henry, Amy; Villareal, Trina; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction and abnormal fear and stress reactivity are common features of several developmental neuropsychiatric disorders. Yet, little is known about the exact role the amygdala plays in the development of threat detection and emotional modulation. The current study examined the effects of neonatal amygdala lesions on defensive, emotional, and neuroendocrine reactivity of infant rhesus monkeys reared with their mothers in large species-typical social groups. Monkeys received either bilateral MRI-guided ibotenic acid amygdala (Neo-A; n = 16) or sham (Neo-C; n = 12) lesions at 24.8 ± 1.2 days of age, or served as behavioral control (Neo-BC; n = 3). Defensive and emotional responses were assessed using the Human Intruder Paradigm as infants and as juveniles (2.5 and 12 months of age, respectively), whereas neuroendocrine reactivity was only examined during the juvenile period. As infants, Neo-A animals expressed similar levels of freezing and hostile behaviors as compared to controls, whereas during the juvenile period Neo-A animals expressed significantly less freezing compared to controls. Interestingly, the sex of the infant modulated the behavioral effects of neonatal amygdalectomy, leading to different patterns of behavior depending on the sex and lesion status of the infant. Unlike controls, Neo-A infants did not modulate their behavioral responses based on the salience of the threat. The impact of neonatal amygdalectomy increased with age, such that Neo-A juveniles exhibited fewer emotional behaviors and increased cortisol response to the stressor as compared to controls. These data indicate that the amygdala plays a critical role in the development of both emotional and neuroendocrine reactivity as well as the expression of sexually dimorphic emotional expression. PMID:23380162

  3. The Role of Reactance and Positive Emotions in Persuasive Health Messages: Refining the Theory of Psychological Reactance and the Politeness Theory and Testing the Theories of Positive Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eunsoon

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to expand research on persuasion 1) by examining psychological reactance as a function of threats to positive identity above and beyond threats to freedom and 2) by examining the role of positive emotions. An online survey recruited 478 students from undergraduate courses at several universities in the U.S. The study…

  4. Who's Afraid of Sex at School? The Politics of Researching Culture, Religion and Sexuality at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Louisa; Rasmussen, Mary Lou; Quinlivan, Kathleen; Aspin, Clive; Sanjakdar, Fida; Brömdal, Annette

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the methodological politics of researching at the intersections of sexuality, culture and religion in secondary schools. It draws on experiences during a project concerned with how to address cultural and religious diversity in sexuality education in Australia and New Zealand. The paper focuses on two methodological sticking…

  5. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  6. The associations between emotional eating and consumption of energy-dense snack foods are modified by sex and depressive symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Camilleri, Géraldine M; Méjean, Caroline; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Bellisle, France; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, emotional eating (EmE) has incited substantial research interest as an important psychologic determinant of food intake and overweight. However, little is known about factors that might modulate its relations with dietary habits. The objective of this study was to examine the association between EmE and consumption of energy-dense snack food and assess the 2-way interaction of EmE with sex and depressive symptoms. A total of 7378 men and 22,862 women from the NutriNet-Santé cohort (France, 2009-2013) who completed ≥6 self-reported 24-h food records were included in this cross-sectional analysis. EmE was evaluated via the revised 21-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were assessed by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. The associations between EmE and energy-dense food consumption were assessed by multivariable logistic and linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. Higher EmE was associated with higher consumption of energy-dense snacks and, in particular, with consumption of sweet-and-fatty foods across most categories studied. However, these associations were stronger in women with depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.43, 2.20; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.45, 2.26) compared with those without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.52, 95% CI: 1.36, 1.69; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.29, 1.61). In contrast, the significant positive associations observed in men without depressive symptoms (e.g., high consumption of chocolate, OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.16, 1.52; cakes/biscuits/pastries, OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.48) were not found in men with depressive symptoms. In conclusion, in women, EmE was positively associated with consumption of energy-dense snack food, particularly in those with depressive symptoms. For men, the relation between EmE and energy-dense snack foods was

  7. Emotional Intelligence as the Predictor of Pragmatic Competence: A Closer Look at Iranian EFL Learners' Politeness Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirazi, Masoumeh Ahmadi; Nadoushani, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    Interlanguage pragmatics concerns the inspection of interactions among people in society while they are aware of the effects that interaction imposes on them regarding culture, social values and individuals' peculiar interpretations. Of high value in social interaction, politeness is an essential constituent of interlanguage pragmatics. If…

  8. Relations between Political Violence and Child Adjustment: A Four-Wave Test of the Role of Emotional Insecurity about Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, E. Mark; Taylor, Laura K.; Merrilees, Christine E.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Shirlow, Peter; Cairns, Ed

    2013-01-01

    This study further explored the impact of sectarian violence and children's emotional insecurity about community on child maladjustment using a 4-wave longitudinal design. The study included 999 mother-child dyads in Belfast, Northern Ireland (482 boys, 517 girls). Across the 4 waves, child mean age was 12.19 (SD = 1.82), 13.24 (SD = 1.83),…

  9. Sex Differences in Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Victims' Emotional and Behavioral Problems: Findings from a National Sample of Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich-Fong, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The first objective of this study was to test for sex differences in four childhood sexual abuse characteristics--penetration, substantiation, perpetrator familial status, and multi-maltreatment--in a national sample of youth. The second objective was to test for sex differences in how these abuse characteristics were associated with…

  10. Nonpolitical images evoke neural predictors of political ideology.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Kishida, Kenneth T; Gu, Xiaosi; Lohrenz, Terry; Harvey, Ann; Alford, John R; Smith, Kevin B; Yaffe, Gideon; Hibbing, John R; Dayan, Peter; Montague, P Read

    2014-11-17

    Political ideologies summarize dimensions of life that define how a person organizes their public and private behavior, including their attitudes associated with sex, family, education, and personal autonomy. Despite the abstract nature of such sensibilities, fundamental features of political ideology have been found to be deeply connected to basic biological mechanisms that may serve to defend against environmental challenges like contamination and physical threat. These results invite the provocative claim that neural responses to nonpolitical stimuli (like contaminated food or physical threats) should be highly predictive of abstract political opinions (like attitudes toward gun control and abortion). We applied a machine-learning method to fMRI data to test the hypotheses that brain responses to emotionally evocative images predict individual scores on a standard political ideology assay. Disgusting images, especially those related to animal-reminder disgust (e.g., mutilated body), generate neural responses that are highly predictive of political orientation even though these neural predictors do not agree with participants' conscious rating of the stimuli. Images from other affective categories do not support such predictions. Remarkably, brain responses to a single disgusting stimulus were sufficient to make accurate predictions about an individual subject's political ideology. These results provide strong support for the idea that fundamental neural processing differences that emerge under the challenge of emotionally evocative stimuli may serve to structure political beliefs in ways formerly unappreciated.

  11. The associations among the dopamine D2 receptor Taq1, emotional intelligence, creative potential measured by divergent thinking, and motivational state and these associations' sex differences

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M.; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females. PMID:26217259

  12. The associations among the dopamine D2 receptor Taq1, emotional intelligence, creative potential measured by divergent thinking, and motivational state and these associations' sex differences.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Tomita, Hiroaki; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kikuchi, Yoshie; Ono, Chiaki; Yu, Zhiqian; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos M; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2015-01-01

    Previous neuroscientific studies have shown that the dopaminergic system plays an important role in creative potential measured by divergent thinking (CPMDT), emotional control, and motivational state. However, although associations between two of these four components have been previously established (e.g., the association between CPMDT and emotional control, the association between CPMDT and motivational state, etc.), the interactions between these four remain unknown. The purpose of this study was to reveal these interactions using path analyses. The Taq1A polymorphism of the dopamine D2 receptor (DRD2) gene was used for this purpose. For measuring emotional intelligence (EI), we used the Japanese version of the Emotional Intelligence Scale. CPMDT was measured using the S-A creativity test. Motivational state was measured using the Vigor subscale of the Japanese version of the Profile of Mood Scale (POMS). Data from 766 healthy, right-handed individuals (426 men and 340 women; 20.7 ± 1.9 years of age) were used in this study. There were significant and robust positive relationships among measures of CPMDT, EI, and motivational state across sex. In addition, the polymorphism of the DRD2 gene was significantly associated with EI, specifically in females. Path analysis in females indicates that the model in which (a) the DRD2 polymorphism primarily facilitates EI, (b) EI in turn facilitates CPMDT and leads to a better motivational state, and (c) a better motivational state also directly facilitates CPMDT explains the data in the most accurate manner. This study suggested a comprehensive picture of the cascade of the associations among dopamine, EI, motivational state, and CPMDT at least in females. PMID:26217259

  13. The effects of sertraline administration from adolescence to adulthood on physiological and emotional development in prenatally stressed rats of both sexes

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Figueiredo, Inês; Sancho, Consuelo; Carro, Juan; Castellano, Orlando; López, Dolores E.

    2014-01-01

    Sertraline (SERT) is a clinically effective Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) known to increase and stabilize serotonin levels. This neurotransmitter plays an important role in adolescent brain development in both rodents and humans, and its dysregulation has been correlated with deficits in behavior and emotional regulation. Since prenatal stress may disturb serotoninergic homeostasis, the aim of this study was to examine the long-lasting effects of exposure to SERT throughout adolescence on behavioral and physiological developmental parameters in prenatally stressed Wistar rats. SERT was administered (5 mg/kg/day p.o.) from the age of 1–3 months to half of the progeny, of both sexes, of gestating dams stressed by use of a restraint (PS) or not stressed. Our data reveal that long-term SERT treatment slightly reduced weight gain in both sexes, but reversed the developmental disturbed “catch-up” growth found in PS females. Neither prenatal stress nor SERT treatment induced remarkable alterations in behavior and had no effects on mean startle reflex values. However, a sex-dependent effects of PS was found: in males the PS paradigm slightly increased anxiety-like behavior in the open field, while in females, it impaired startle habituation. In both cases, SERT treatment reversed the phenomena. Additionally, the PS animals exhibited a disturbed leukocyte profile in both sexes, which was reversed by SERT. The present findings are evidence that continuous SERT administration from adolescence through adulthood is safe in rodents and lessens the impact of prenatal stress in rats. PMID:25147514

  14. Emotion in political discourse: contrasting approaches to stem cell governance in the USA, UK, Israel and Germany.

    PubMed

    Gottweis, Herbert; Prainsack, Barbara

    2006-11-01

    In August 2004, Stojkovic and Murdoch from the University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK, were granted the UK's first license to create human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) using cell nuclear replacement. While this news made headlines around the globe, a spokesman for the German Ministry of Research warned scientists in his country of the illegality of advising their English colleagues on hESC research. Meanwhile, US Members of Congress had asked President Bush to revoke his decision to limit federal funding to research on a limited number of hESC lines created before 9 August, 2001 (a decision that he confirmed in July 2006, while nonfederally funded research on hESC continues to be unrestricted). In Israel, where hESC research is legal and has never been a contested political issue, a bioethicist argued that, in light of the potential to alleviate human suffering, "banning research is against human dignity". How can such striking differences in the regulation of hESC research be explained? PMID:17465763

  15. The changing political economy of sex in South Africa: the significance of unemployment and inequalities to the scale of the AIDS pandemic.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Mark

    2007-02-01

    Between 1990 and 2005, HIV prevalence rates in South Africa jumped from less than 1% to around 29%. Important scholarship has demonstrated how racialized structures entrenched by colonialism and apartheid set the scene for the rapid unfolding of the AIDS pandemic, like other causes of ill-health before it. Of particular relevance is the legacy of circular male-migration, an institution that for much of the 20th century helped to propel the transmission of sexually transmitted infections among black South Africans denied permanent urban residence. But while the deep-rooted antecedents of AIDS have been noted, less attention has been given to more recent changes in the political economy of sex, including those resulting from the post-apartheid government's adoption of broadly neo-liberal policies. As an unintentional consequence, male migration and apartheid can be seen as almost inevitably resulting in AIDS, a view that can disconnect the pandemic from contemporary social and economic debates. Combining ethnographic, historical, and demographic approaches, and focusing on sexuality in the late apartheid and early post-apartheid periods, this article outlines three interlinked dynamics critical to understanding the scale of the AIDS pandemic: (1) rising unemployment and social inequalities that leave some groups, especially poor women, extremely vulnerable; (2) greatly reduced marital rates and the subsequent increase of one person households; and (3) rising levels of women's migration, especially through circular movements between rural areas and informal settlements/urban areas. As a window into these changes, the article gives primary attention to the country's burgeoning informal settlements--spaces in which HIV rates are reported to be twice the national average--and to connections between poverty and money/sex exchanges.

  16. Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

  17. Stonewalling Emotion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is an exploration of emotion by a therapist. It focuses on how emotion is managed in the stories of growing up and living with atypical sex anatomies--how (much) is emotion (not) discussed, and what are the effects of forestalling emotive dialogue. Emotion care in the narratives is often sidelined in favor of medical doings. Rather than creating a haven to keep normative pressures at bay, so as to enable the affected parents, adolecents and adults to process their situations, some of the storytellers reveal how medicine has concentrated its efforts on the erasure and silencing of their bodily differences. The most frequently mentioned emotion management strategy is 'stonewalling', as some of the affected children and adults were silently left to take in what was reflected in the eyes of the large number of people inspecting their naked bodies. Emotional suffering continued for many years for some individuals. An apology might ease suffering but is rarely bestowed. Learning to become more comfortable with emotion may open up more possibilities for helpful conversations between care users and providers and within families. Feelings of joy became more available to the storytellers who as adults learned to embrace their differences and connected with like-minded people.

  18. Stonewalling Emotion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is an exploration of emotion by a therapist. It focuses on how emotion is managed in the stories of growing up and living with atypical sex anatomies--how (much) is emotion (not) discussed, and what are the effects of forestalling emotive dialogue. Emotion care in the narratives is often sidelined in favor of medical doings. Rather than creating a haven to keep normative pressures at bay, so as to enable the affected parents, adolecents and adults to process their situations, some of the storytellers reveal how medicine has concentrated its efforts on the erasure and silencing of their bodily differences. The most frequently mentioned emotion management strategy is 'stonewalling', as some of the affected children and adults were silently left to take in what was reflected in the eyes of the large number of people inspecting their naked bodies. Emotional suffering continued for many years for some individuals. An apology might ease suffering but is rarely bestowed. Learning to become more comfortable with emotion may open up more possibilities for helpful conversations between care users and providers and within families. Feelings of joy became more available to the storytellers who as adults learned to embrace their differences and connected with like-minded people. PMID:26300147

  19. Sex Education. Chapter Seventeen.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caster, Jerry A.

    Information and a framework that permits teachers to plan and initiate a successful sex education program for students with mental disabilities is provided. A major aspect of sex education should be its focus on social relationships, emotions, choice-making, and responsibilities to self and others. Sex education should not be viewed as a…

  20. Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

    2012-02-01

    Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help. PMID:22489389

  1. Psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the political skill inventory.

    PubMed

    Shi, Junqi; Chen, Zhuo

    2012-02-01

    Ferris and colleagues defined political skill in organizations as "the ability to effectively understand others at work and to use such knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one's personal and/or organizational objectives." In this study, the psychometric properties of a Chinese translation of the Political Skill Inventory were investigated, supporting construct, convergent, discriminant, and criterion validities. The results suggested that the Chinese translation retained a four-factor structure. Political skill was positively correlated with self-monitoring, conscientiousness, political savvy, emotional intelligence, extraversion, agreeableness, and proactive personality, and was negatively correlated with trait anxiety and external locus of control. After controlling for age, sex, and job tenure, political skill was predictive of task performance, work contribution, and interpersonal help.

  2. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model. PMID:16902237

  3. The scent of stress: environmental challenge in the peripartum environment of mice affects emotional behaviours of the adult offspring in a sex-specific manner.

    PubMed

    Lerch, S; Dormann, C; Brandwein, C; Gass, P; Chourbaji, S

    2016-06-01

    Early adverse experiences are known to influence the risk of developing psychiatric disorders later. To shed further light on the development of laboratory mice, we systematically examined the influence of a prenatal or postnatal olfactory stressor, namely unfamiliar male mouse faeces, presented to pregnant or nursing mouse dams. Maternal and offspring behaviours were then examined. Maternal behaviours relative to controls revealed changes in nest building by the pregnant dams exposed to the unfamiliar faeces. There were no differences among groups on pup retrieval or exploration by the dams. Behavioural phenotyping of male and female offspring as adults included measures of exploration, anxiety, social and depressive-like behaviours. Additionally, serum corticosterone was assessed as a marker of physiological stress response. Group differences were dependent on the sex of the adult offspring. Males raised by dams that were stressed during pregnancy presented elevated emotionality as indicated by increased numbers of faecal boluses in the open field paradigm. Consistent with the effects of prenatal stress on the males only the prenatally stressed females had higher body weights than their respective controls. Indeed, males in both experimental groups had higher circulating corticosterone levels. By contrast, female offspring of dams exposed to the olfactory stressor after parturition were more anxious in the O-maze as indicated by increased latencies in entering the exposed areas of the maze. These findings emphasize the necessity for researchers to consider the pre- and postnatal environments, even of mice with almost identical genetic backgrounds, in designing experiments and interpreting their data. PMID:26408077

  4. Music and aggression: the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggression-related thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias

    2006-09-01

    Three studies examined the impact of sexual-aggressive song lyrics on aggressive thoughts, emotions, and behavior toward the same and the opposite sex. In Study 1, the authors directly manipulated whether male or female participants listened to misogynous or neutral song lyrics and measured actual aggressive behavior. Male participants who were exposed to misogynous song lyrics administered more hot chili sauce to a female than to a male confederate. Study 2 shed some light on the underlying psychological processes: Male participants who heard misogynous song lyrics recalled more negative attributes of women and reported more feelings of vengeance than when they heard neutral song lyrics. In addition, men-hating song lyrics had a similar effect on aggression-related responses of female participants toward men. Finally, Study 3 replicated the findings of the previous two studies with an alternative measure of aggressive behavior as well as a more subtle measure of aggressive cognitions. The results are discussed in the framework of the General Aggression Model.

  5. Courses on Women in Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, Suzanne P.

    1977-01-01

    Presents concerns expressed by instructors teaching university courses on women in politics: course organization, interdepartmental communication between instructors of women's courses, field focus of course, question of role of sex in politics, instructor's pedagogical style, consciousness-raising, and methodological implications. (ND)

  6. A Review of Sex Differences in Peer Relationship Processes: Potential Trade-Offs for the Emotional and Behavioral Development of Girls and Boys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Amanda J.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2006-01-01

    Theory and research on sex differences in adjustment focus largely on parental, societal, and biological influences. However, it also is important to consider how peers contribute to girls' and boys' development. This article provides a critical review of sex differences in several peer relationship processes, including behavioral and…

  7. The controversy surrounding "The man who would be queen": a case history of the politics of science, identity, and sex in the Internet age.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Alice D

    2008-06-01

    In 2003, psychology professor and sex researcher J. Michael Bailey published a book entitled The Man Who Would Be Queen: The Science of Gender-Bending and Transsexualism. The book's portrayal of male-to-female (MTF) transsexualism, based on a theory developed by sexologist Ray Blanchard, outraged some transgender activists. They believed the book to be typical of much of the biomedical literature on transsexuality-oppressive in both tone and claims, insulting to their senses of self, and damaging to their public identities. Some saw the book as especially dangerous because it claimed to be based on rigorous science, was published by an imprint of the National Academy of Sciences, and argued that MTF sex changes are motivated primarily by erotic interests and not by the problem of having the gender identity common to one sex in the body of the other. Dissatisfied with the option of merely criticizing the book, a small number of transwomen (particularly Lynn Conway, Andrea James, and Deirdre McCloskey) worked to try to ruin Bailey. Using published and unpublished sources as well as original interviews, this essay traces the history of the backlash against Bailey and his book. It also provides a thorough exegesis of the book's treatment of transsexuality and includes a comprehensive investigation of the merit of the charges made against Bailey that he had behaved unethically, immorally, and illegally in the production of his book. The essay closes with an epilogue that explores what has happened since 2003 to the central ideas and major players in the controversy.

  8. Special Education Teachers' Perceptions of Students with Emotional Impairments and Their Same-Sex Behaviors: A Multiple Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrieta, Stefanie A.; Palladino, John M.

    2014-01-01

    Although recent trends in educational research have addressed the educational plight of LGBT [lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, and queer/questioning] students, a dearth of literature exists about the subpopulation of LGBT youth with disabilities, namely those with verified emotional-behavior disorders (EBDs). Discussions throughout what…

  9. Sex Education For Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    1973-01-01

    Currently, sex education covers the mechanics of reproduction; details of venereal disease, and birth control information. This paper argues that this field should be augmented by the inclusion of the emotionally enriching, interpersonal, and sociocultural elements of human sexuality. A fundamentally Freudian sketch of sexual development is…

  10. Sex Therapy and Mastectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witkin, Mildred Hope

    1975-01-01

    Because the emotional trauma associated with a mastectomy exceeds the physical trauma, the recovery of the woman is greatly affected by the response of her husband or lover. Sex therapy, therefore, involves the couple. The approach described is aimed at assisting the couple to confront and integrate the mastectomy experience. (Author)

  11. Office Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  12. Positive politics.

    PubMed

    Saberton, S

    1990-05-01

    The term "playing politics" usually brings to mind undesirable qualities such as manipulation, power abuse and overt self-interest. Yet politics is a constant in daily life and indeed is very necessary in gaining support for both personal and corporate projects. This article discusses how, through communication and leadership, political skills can be used to realize common goals in an organization.

  13. Sex, Technology and Morality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Verna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Provides an overview of the course "Sex, Technology, and Morality" which focuses on the human reproductive process and examines the advances in reproductive technology. The course emphasizes the social, political, and ethical implications of actual and possible technologies associated with human reproduction. (ML)

  14. Teaching Politically without Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graff, Gerald

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how to bring political issues into the classroom, highlighting the influence of local context and noting conservative and liberal criticisms of political correctness. Suggests the need for a different idea of how to teach politically from the advocacy pedagogy advanced by recent critical educators, explaining that bringing students into…

  15. [Political psychology].

    PubMed

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  16. How Aging Affects the Recognition of Emotional Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulmann, Silke; Pell, Marc D.; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2008-01-01

    To successfully infer a speaker's emotional state, diverse sources of emotional information need to be decoded. The present study explored to what extent emotional speech recognition of "basic" emotions (anger, disgust, fear, happiness, pleasant surprise, sadness) differs between different sex (male/female) and age (young/middle-aged) groups in a…

  17. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  18. Sex differences in right hemisphere tasks.

    PubMed

    Crucian, G P; Berenbaum, S A

    1998-04-01

    We tested the hypothesis that sex differences in spatial ability and emotional perception are due to sex differences in intrahemispheric organization of the right hemisphere. If the right hemisphere is differently organized by sex-primarily specialized for spatial ability in men, but primarily specialized for emotional perception in women-then there should be a negative correlation between spatial ability and emotional perception within sex, and the greatest disparity between abilities should be found in people with characteristic arousal of the right hemisphere. Undergraduate men (N = 86) and women (N = 132) completed tests of Mental Rotation, Surface Development, Profile of Nonverbal Sensitivity, Progressive Matrices, and Chimeric Faces. Although the expected pattern of sex differences was observed, there was no evidence for the hypothesized negative correlation between spatial ability and emotional perception, even after statistical control of general intelligence. PMID:9647685

  19. Processing the War in Iraq while Learning about American Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, David M.

    2010-01-01

    When political knowledge is scarce, affective attitudes, which can consist of emotion-driven feelings regarding political figures, government, country, and foreign nations, often assist policy judgment. Based on pre- and post-surveys administered in Introduction to American Politics courses, fall 2003-fall 2005, this study examines how political…

  20. Nurses' political involvement: responsibility versus privilege.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Carol; Cannon, Sharon; Miller, Joyce

    2005-01-01

    Nursing apathy toward participation in the political process is pandemic. Never more so than today has the profession needed a strong united stand within the political arena. Political involvement encompasses being knowledgeable about issues, laws, and health policy. Barriers to political activism are thought to encompass several spectra including heavy workloads, feelings of powerlessness, time constraints, sex issues, and lack of understanding of a complex political process. The implementation of a political role for a nurse is based on three levels of commitment including survival, success, and significance. Survival includes individual involvement within communities. Success accepts challenges in addressing injustices especially within the health-care arena. Significant involvement uses visionary nurses toward the betterment of the nurse profession. Strategies for involvement include political awareness, incorporation of course/program expectations on both undergraduate and graduate levels and teamwork. As patient advocates, nurses cannot continue to be spectators in the political arena.

  1. Women in Politics: Images and Voter Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Gary B.

    The purpose of this study was threefold: (1) to investigate the general image of women who are active in politics and compare that image with the general image of men who are politically active, (2) to examine the general area of sex-related voting patterns when a major woman condidate is involved, and (3) to determine whether or not a female…

  2. Covering Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Ryan; Wind, Andrew; Trevidi, Neema

    2000-01-01

    Presents four articles considering: (1) the media's role in the coverage of politics; (2) the influence of photography particularly in terms of the president; (3) an event where an Iowa student had a chance to work with professionals while covering politics; and (4) considering scholastic reporters covering national candidates as they learn and…

  3. Nonverbal Messages in Televised Presidential Political Advertising--Pragmatic Politics with Electoral Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conti, Delia B.

    Television politics, emphasizing emotions over rational decision making, has been accused of warping the political process, especially in the election of the president. In the incomplete medium--the collection of dots--that is television, the viewer completes the circle of communication, filling in the image with his or her own attitudes. The…

  4. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided.

  5. Sex education in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Frade, A; Vilar, D

    1991-05-01

    The article on sex education in Portugal covers background, the educational system, the clashes of the 1960's over sex education, the Committee for the Study of Sexuality and Education (CSSE), the policies, politics and social movements during the period 1974 - 1984, the discussions in Parliament, the 1988 Reform of the Educational System, the Family Planning Association (FPA) and sex education, and the future role of the FPA. It was not until the institution of the multiparity parliamentary system in 1974 that discussing social and political changes was possible, culminating in 1984 with new legislation on abortion, family planning, and sex education. School reform came in 1987/8 with the Ministry of Education primarily responsible for curricula. The 1960's brought with it the influence of the Catholic Church. Change came in the form of progressivism among Catholics who replaced dogma with dialogue and listening. Sex education was considered as preparation for marriage, but masturbation, contraception, and prostitution were also discussed. In addition, the founder of FPA chaired the CSSE in 1971 and opened up debate on sex issues and drafted a bill to establish co-education in Portuguese schools. The revolution of 1974 brought an end to censorship and brought forth a policy of developing family planning. Changed in the Family Code gave women greater equality. UNFPA supported teacher training in non-sexist education. With human reproduction included in the natural sciences, there was still no school sex education policy and contraception was only sometimes represented in the biology curriculum. The focus of FPA was on contraception and abortion. Finally in the 1980's, the first sex education programs were developed for out-of-school youth. Even though in the 1970's there were leftists groups promoting sex education, it took leftist parliamentary power to get legislation on sex education in the schools adopted. The Ministry of Education however was pressured by the

  6. Political News and Political Consciousness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  7. Automobile Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paterson, Matthew

    2006-11-01

    The car, and the range of social and political institutions which sustain its dominance, play an important role in many of the environmental problems faced by contemporary society. But in order to understand the possibilities for moving towards sustainability and 'greening cars', it is first necessary to understand the political forces that have made cars so dominant. This book identifies these forces as a combination of political economy and cultural politics. From the early twentieth century, the car became central to the organization of capitalism and deeply embedded in individual identities, providing people with a source of value and meaning but in a way which was broadly consistent with social imperatives for mobility. Projects for sustainability to reduce the environmental impacts of cars are therefore constrained by these forces but must deal with them in order to shape and achieve their goals. Addresses the increasingly controversial debate on the place of the car in contemporary society and its contribution to environmental problems Questions whether automobility is sustainable and what political, social and economic forces might prevent this Will appeal to scholars and advanced students from a wide range of disciplines including environmental politics, political economy, environmental studies, cultural studies and geography

  8. Chronic delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol during adolescence provokes sex-dependent changes in the emotional profile in adult rats: behavioral and biochemical correlates.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Tiziana; Vigano', Daniela; Realini, Natalia; Guidali, Cinzia; Braida, Daniela; Capurro, Valeria; Castiglioni, Chiara; Cherubino, Francesca; Romualdi, Patrizia; Candeletti, Sanzio; Sala, Mariaelvina; Parolaro, Daniela

    2008-10-01

    Few and often contradictory reports exist on the long-term neurobiological consequences of cannabinoid consumption in adolescents. The endocannabinoid system plays an important role during the different stages of brain development as cannabinoids influence the release and action of different neurotransmitters and promote neurogenesis. This study tested whether long-lasting interference by cannabinoids with the developing endogenous cannabinoid system during adolescence caused persistent behavioral alterations in adult rats. Adolescent female and male rats were treated with increasing doses of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for 11 days (postnatal day (PND) 35-45) and left undisturbed until adulthood (PND 75) when behavioral and biochemical assays were carried out. CB1 receptor level and CB1/G-protein coupling were significantly reduced by THC exposure in the amygdala (Amyg), ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc) of female rats, whereas male rats had significant alterations only in the amygdala and hippocampal formation. Neither female nor male rats showed any changes in anxiety responses (elevated plus maze and open-field tests) but female rats presented significant 'behavioral despair' (forced swim test) paralleled by anhedonia (sucrose preference). In contrast, male rats showed no behavioral despair but did present anhedonia. This different behavioral picture was supported by biochemical parameters of depression, namely CREB alteration. Only female rats had low CREB activity in the hippocampal formation and prefrontal cortex and high activity in the NAc paralleled by increases in dynorphin expression. These results suggest that heavy cannabis consumption in adolescence may induce subtle alterations in the emotional circuit in female rats, ending in depressive-like behavior, whereas male rats show altered sensitivity to rewarding stimuli.

  9. Developing Social and Emotional Aspects of Learning: The American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elias, Maurice J.; Moceri, Dominic C.

    2012-01-01

    Developments in American policy, research and professional development to promote social and emotional learning in schools have drawn on work carried out by the Collaborative for Academic, Social, and Emotional Learning (CASEL), encouraged by the popular and political catalyst of Daniel Goleman's work on emotional intelligence. Based on CASEL's…

  10. Engaging Education: Developing Emotional Literacy, Equity and Coeducation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Brian

    2005-01-01

    This is the first book to link the issues of emotional literacy, equity and social justice, and the education of the whole child, thus providing the social and political context for emotional literacy. In connecting emotional literacy and equity with the structure of schooling, it establishes that co-educational schools can contribute to enabling…

  11. Sex workers talk about sex work: six contradictory characteristics of legalised sex work in Melbourne, Australia.

    PubMed

    Begum, Sufia; Hocking, Jane S; Groves, Jan; Fairley, Christopher K; Keogh, Louise A

    2013-01-01

    Despite research suggesting that legal sex work is safe and that emotional risks and social stigma are of greater concern than health risks, much research on sex work has focused on health risks. Given the legalisation of sex work in Victoria, Australia, it is timely to look beyond health. Three focus groups were conducted with a total of 14 female sex workers on their experience of legal sex work, both positive and negative, and the social acceptability of their profession. Thematic analysis was used to identify the key ways that sex workers described sex work. Women saw legal sex work as safer than illegal sex work, but still not socially acceptable. However, they also described six contradictory elements of sex work, which was seen as: financially rewarding and entrapping; empowering and demeaning; increasing some opportunities while reducing others; flexible and demanding; offering both intimacy and competition; and leading to a 'double life'. While legalisation has improved the safety of sex work, stigma and discrimination persist.

  12. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  13. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  14. Licensed Practical Nurses' Sex Role Stereotypes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallston, Barbara Strudler; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Examined whether sex-role stereotypes would affect nurses' (N=32) attitudes toward simulations of male and female patients. Emotional style and patients' diagnosis were manipulated. Results showed significant sex-role differences and stereotypical attitudes. Male patients were rated more positively, and were more likely to possess traditional male…

  15. Sex Education. Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Instructional Objectives Exchange, Los Angeles, CA.

    This collection of fifty objectives, related sample items, and directions for administering and scoring, is divided into three sections. The first, growth and development, deals with basic factual information relating to sex education; both animal and human biology are included. The second section, social and emotional growth, deals with the…

  16. Sex Films

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francoeur, Robert T.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a new concept in sex education, the sexual attitudes reassessment workshop. This workshop satiates, saturates, desensitizes, and demythologizes sex. It bypasses the intellect and forces people to deal with feeling and attitudes. (Author/AM)

  17. Priming Macho Attitudes and Emotions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, Erik D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Investigated the effects of reading one of four priming stimuli stories (control, consenting sex, rape, or family) on males' evaluations of, and emotional reactions to, two videotaped date-rape scenarios. Results supported the concepts of a macho personality and revealed interactive effects for both the rape and family prime. (RJM)

  18. Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Diane F.

    This book examines the science and politics of cognitive sex differences, reflecting theories and research in the area over the past several years. Eight chapters discuss: (1) "Introduction and Overview" (e.g., theoretical approaches, values and science, and terminology); (2) "Searching for Sex Differences in Cognitive Abilities" (e.g., the need…

  19. Political bugs.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    Certain decisions, problems, and successes are selected to recall the great impact of the 1950s on the history of rocketry, and particularly the inauguration of the space age. In reviewing the history of the Redstone, Juno, and Jupiter, some of the largest stepping stones to space, problems stand out in three areas: technical or engineering, management, and political.

  20. Politics 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  1. Academic Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William R.

    The internal politics of colleges and the influence of a current emphasis on efficiency on the traditional independence of the academician are analyzed. It is suggested that the academician does not work in the same differentiated, and therefore interdependent, way as someone in industry or a bureaucracy. Academic activity is segmented, which…

  2. Parole officers' experiences of the symptoms of secondary trauma in the supervision of sex offenders.

    PubMed

    Severson, Margaret; Pettus-Davis, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    The work of parole officers who supervise sex offenders rarely comes to the public's attention unless something goes wrong. Research suggests that those providing postrelease supervision of convicted sex offenders likely experience trauma as a result of their work and that little support is available to respond to their emotional needs. This manuscript explores parole officers' and parole officer supervisors' experiences of the symptoms of secondary trauma, defined as the emotional and cognitive experiences of hearing stories that recount one or more traumatic events. The qualitative study described here builds on existing literature by providing a detailed exploration, presented in their own words, of the experiences of specialist parole officers, about how they cope with the symptoms of secondary trauma, and about what they need to help them continue to do the job that the public and the politic want done well. Recognizing and understanding the symptoms of secondary trauma among supervising officers have important implications for maintaining a healthy workforce and for providing effective management of sex offenders in the community.

  3. Emotional sensitivity for motherhood: late pregnancy is associated with enhanced accuracy to encode emotional faces.

    PubMed

    Pearson, R M; Lightman, S L; Evans, J

    2009-11-01

    Previous research suggests that female sex hormones can increase the sensitivity of women's emotion processing systems. The largest rises in sex hormone levels in a woman's life are from early to late pregnancy. The current study, therefore, investigated whether changes in emotion processing are seen across pregnancy. Hypervigilant emotion processing has been implicated in the aetiology of anxiety. Therefore enhanced emotion processing across pregnancy has implications for women's vulnerability to anxiety. Ability to encode facial expressions of emotion was assessed in 101 women during early pregnancy and again in 76 of these women during late pregnancy. Symptoms of anxiety were measured using a clinical interview (The CIS-R). Consistent with previous research, the presence of anxiety symptoms was associated with greater accuracy to encode faces signalling threat (fearful and angry faces). We found that women had higher accuracy scores to encode emotional expressions signalling threat or harm (fearful, angry and disgusted faces) but also a more general negative emotion (sadness) during late, compared with early, pregnancy. Enhanced ability to encode emotional faces during late pregnancy may be an evolutionary adaption to prepare women for the protective and nurturing demands of motherhood by increasing their general emotional sensitivity and their vigilance towards emotional signals of threat, aggression and contagion. However, the results also suggest that, during late pregnancy, women's emotion processing style is similar to that seen in anxiety. The results have implications for our understanding of normal pregnant women's processing of emotional cues and their vulnerability to symptoms of anxiety.

  4. The Politics of Political Correctness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minsky, Leonard

    1992-01-01

    This article reacts to President Bush's entry into the dispute over "political correctness" on college campuses. The paper summarizes discussions of students, faculty, and others in the Washington, D.C. area which concluded that this seeming defense of free speech is actually an attack on affirmative action and multiculturalism stemming from the…

  5. ``Political'' Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  6. Eating Pathology, Emotion Regulation, and Emotional Overeating in Obese Adults with Binge Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Gianini, Loren M.; White, Marney A.; Masheb, Robin M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship among emotional regulation, emotional overeating, and general eating pathology in a treatment seeking sample of adults with Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Method The sample was composed of 326 adults (248 women, 78 men) who were obese and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for BED. Prior to treatment, participants completed the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS), Emotional Overeating Questionnaire (EOQ), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q) as part of a larger assessment battery. Results A series of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that difficulties with emotion regulation accounted for unique variance in both emotional overeating and general eating pathology above and beyond sex and negative affect. Discussion Emotion regulation may play a significant role in the maintenance of emotional overeating and eating pathology in obese adults with BED. PMID:23910772

  7. Sex Education on Film. A Guide to Visual Aids & Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Laura J.; Buskin, Judith

    This is an annotated guide to visual aids and programs in sex education covering the topics of family relationships, physical and emotional development, the creation of life, masculinity and feminity, attitudes and values, marriage, social problems, philosophy and implementation of sex education, together with a sample program in sex education for…

  8. Emotion recognition following pediatric traumatic brain injury: longitudinal analysis of emotional prosody and facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Adam T; Hanten, Gerri R; Li, Xiaoqi; Orsten, Kimberley D; Levin, Harvey S

    2010-08-01

    Children with closed head injuries often experience significant and persistent disruptions in their social and behavioral functioning. Studies with adults sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) indicate deficits in emotion recognition and suggest that these difficulties may underlie some of the social deficits. The goal of the current study was to examine if children sustaining a TBI exhibit difficulties with emotion recognition in terms of emotional prosody and face emotion recognition and to determine (1) how these abilities change over time and (2) what, if any, additional factors such as sex, age, and socioeconomic status (SES) affected the findings. Results provide general support for the idea that children sustaining a TBI exhibit deficits in emotional prosody and face emotion recognition performance. Further, although some gains were noted in the TBI group over the two-years following injury, factors such as SES and age at injury influenced the trajectory of recovery. The current findings indicate the relationship between TBI and emotion recognition is complex and may be influenced by a number of developmental and environmental factors. Results are discussed in terms of their similarity to previous investigations demonstrating the influence of environmental factors on behavioral recovery following pediatric TBI, and with regard to future investigations that can further explore the link between emotion recognition deficits and long-term behavioral and psychosocial recovery.

  9. Sex, love and gender norms: sexual life and experience of a group of young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hoa Ngan; Liamputtong, Pranee

    2007-03-01

    This paper discusses the impacts of gender norms on the sexual life and experience of a group of young Vietnamese people. It is based on a qualitative study on sexuality and abortion among young people in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. There were two general attitudes towards premarital sex. One view supported young people in a serious, loving relationship engaging in sex before marriage; the other opposed premarital sex because it affected the reputation of girls and their families. These general attitudes were similar to the views on virginity: one group believed strongly in girls maintaining their virginity and the other group emphasised love, emotion and trust, not virginity, as the most important criteria for marriage. Among women there were more supporters than opponents of the traditional view of premarital sex and virginity. Premarital sex was more acceptable for young people in a serious, loving relationship with certain commitment to marriage. Young men considered sex a way to express their love and to become more intimate. Women's view was that premarital sex only occurred within a serious, loving relationship or when there was a serious commitment to marriage. It is clear that young people's sexual life is shaped and constrained by gender norms through political interventions, sexual education and moral judgements. Under the pressure of these norms, young people face many difficulties in order to fulfill a safe and satisfying sexual life.

  10. Emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Danielle; Nicol, Adelheid A M

    2002-04-01

    The relationship between emotional intelligence and prosocial behaviors and sex differences in 134 adolescents involved in a 6-wk. training camp run by the military was investigated. They were asked to evaluate themselves on emotional intelligence and randomly chosen peers evaluated them on prosocial behaviors, indicated by organizational citizenship behaviors, a measure used in work organizations. Ratings of emotional intelligence significantly correlated with scores on two of the five organizational citizenship behavior factors: Altruism (r = .25, p < .01) and Civic virtue (r = .24, p < .01). The girls scored somewhat, but not significantly, higher than the boys on Emotional Intelligence, Altruism, Conscientiousness, and Civic virtue, an observation which might be explored further. PMID:12061571

  11. Affect, Citizenship, Politics: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the role of emotions in the constitution of political identity and boundary formation, and discusses the educational implications of that analysis in the context of citizenship education. The author begins by examining how affect is fundamental to the formation of borders, nationhood and citizenship, and discusses the role of…

  12. The Kenyan Political Conflict and Children's Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…

  13. The Politics of becoming:...Making Time...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearce, Cathie; Kidd, Debora; Patterson, Rebecca; Hanley, Una

    2012-01-01

    This article seeks to explore a politics of becoming. Emphasizing the dynamics of both time and the affects produced with it, we engage by following the questions that are taken up, which bubble through the middle and which niggle at the margins of our thoughts. In sensing out the imperatives that seek to tie emotions to subjects, we argue that…

  14. Stability of emotionality scores.

    PubMed

    Campos, A; Sueiro, E

    1991-12-01

    We hypothesized the stability of scores on emotionality given by 111 young adults, whose mean age was 16.6 yr, 132 adults, whose mean age was 29.9 yr., and 48 older adults, whose mean age was 53.3 yr. Significant correlations were obtained between scores given to 210 words across age and sex groups. Pearson correlations were calculated over words and not over subjects. The correlations between scores of young people and adults were .90, between young and older people .80, and between adults and older people .87. Men's and women's scores correlated .89.

  15. Circadian typology and emotional intelligence in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Antúnez, Juan Manuel; Navarro, José Francisco; Adan, Ana

    2013-10-01

    Several aspects related to health, such as satisfaction with life, perceived well-being, and psychopathological symptomatology have been associated with circadian typology and with emotional intelligence. Nevertheless, the relationships between circadian typology and emotional intelligence have not been explored yet. The purpose of the present study is to examine the relationships between circadian typology and emotional intelligence, taking into account the possible interactions between sex and physical exercise, and controlling for age. A sample of 1011 participants (649 women), aged between 18 and 50 yrs (26.92 ± 6.53) completed the reduced Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (rMEQ) and the Trait Meta-Mood Scale-24 (TMMS-24). The TMMS-24 considers three dimensions of emotional intelligence: emotional attention, emotional clarity, and emotional repair. Women showed higher values for emotional attention, whereas men showed higher values for emotional repair (p < 0.035, in both cases). Subjects who do physical exercise weekly showed higher values for emotional repair (p = 0.001) regardless of circadian typology or sex. Circadian typology presents differences in all scores of emotional intelligence dimensions. Morning-type had lower emotional attention than evening- and neither-type; neither-type had lower emotional repair than morning-type, and lower emotional clarity than both evening- and morning-type (p < 0.046, in all cases). Moreover, circadian typology modulated the sex differences in emotional attention, and only morning-type men showed a low emotional attention score. From the results of emotional intelligence we can conclude that morning typology may be a protective factor in terms of general health, whereas we should be aware that the neither-type may present a possible vulnerability to develop psychological problems.

  16. Attitudes toward emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M; Gable, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The present work outlines a theory of attitudes toward emotions, provides a measure of attitudes toward emotions, and then tests several predictions concerning relationships between attitudes toward specific emotions and emotional situation selection, emotional traits, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation. The present conceptualization of individual differences in attitudes toward emotions focuses on specific emotions and presents data indicating that 5 emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear, and disgust) load on 5 separate attitude factors (Study 1). Attitudes toward emotions predicted emotional situation selection (Study 2). Moreover, attitudes toward approach emotions (e.g., anger, joy) correlated directly with the associated trait emotions, whereas attitudes toward withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) correlated inversely with associated trait emotions (Study 3). Similar results occurred when attitudes toward emotions were used to predict state emotional reactivity (Study 4). Finally, attitudes toward emotions predicted specific forms of emotion regulation (Study 5).

  17. Preliminary Support for a Generalized Arousal Model of Political Conservatism

    PubMed Central

    Tritt, Shona M.; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B.

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  18. Preliminary support for a generalized arousal model of political conservatism.

    PubMed

    Tritt, Shona M; Inzlicht, Michael; Peterson, Jordan B

    2013-01-01

    It is widely held that negative emotions such as threat, anxiety, and disgust represent the core psychological factors that enhance conservative political beliefs. We put forward an alternative hypothesis: that conservatism is fundamentally motivated by arousal, and that, in this context, the effect of negative emotion is due to engaging intensely arousing states. Here we show that study participants agreed more with right but not left-wing political speeches after being exposed to positive as well as negative emotion-inducing film-clips. No such effect emerged for neutral-content videos. A follow-up study replicated and extended this effect. These results are consistent with the idea that emotional arousal, in general, and not negative valence, specifically, may underlie political conservatism. PMID:24376687

  19. [Sex education and population policies].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, G

    1991-01-01

    Controversy about sex education programs has hampered sustained actin or curricular extension in Mexico beyond programs directly related to demographic policies. The 1st sex education in Mexico perhaps dated back to 1908 when physicians and other health professionals, inspired by the eugenics movement, offered sex education to prevent venereal diseases and maternal and/infant mortality. A 2nd attempt occurred in 1916 in the context of the women's suffrage movement. The 2 perspectives were integrated in a sex education project in 1933, as part of the program of "revolutionary education" legitimized by the progressive and modernizing government of the time. Conservative groups including some parents' associations and religious organizations insisted on their exclusive right to provide sex education, and in following decades they opposed social programs related to primary health care and women's rights. In the 1960, the introduction to Mexico of modern contraceptives and the questioning by young people of virginity and the double standard of sexual morality were not aided by any formal program of sex education in Mexico. In the early 1970s, the need to transform fertility patterns led to establishment of formal sex education programs at the national level. The focus was on reproduction and demographic aspects. Most students were exposed to classes and textbooks covering puberty, human reproduction, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. The intense activity of the early years did not continue in the subsequent program, but currently, the threat of AIDS and economic and social pressures are prompting a new political will in favor of sex education. Sex education is seen as the main strategy for AIDS prevention programs. Homosexual groups are demonstrating a new political pressure as civil organizations integrated into a new sector demanding sex education. At the same time, population policies are assuming a predominant position in official discourse as a

  20. [Sex education and population policies].

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, G

    1991-01-01

    Controversy about sex education programs has hampered sustained actin or curricular extension in Mexico beyond programs directly related to demographic policies. The 1st sex education in Mexico perhaps dated back to 1908 when physicians and other health professionals, inspired by the eugenics movement, offered sex education to prevent venereal diseases and maternal and/infant mortality. A 2nd attempt occurred in 1916 in the context of the women's suffrage movement. The 2 perspectives were integrated in a sex education project in 1933, as part of the program of "revolutionary education" legitimized by the progressive and modernizing government of the time. Conservative groups including some parents' associations and religious organizations insisted on their exclusive right to provide sex education, and in following decades they opposed social programs related to primary health care and women's rights. In the 1960, the introduction to Mexico of modern contraceptives and the questioning by young people of virginity and the double standard of sexual morality were not aided by any formal program of sex education in Mexico. In the early 1970s, the need to transform fertility patterns led to establishment of formal sex education programs at the national level. The focus was on reproduction and demographic aspects. Most students were exposed to classes and textbooks covering puberty, human reproduction, contraception, and sexually transmitted diseases. The intense activity of the early years did not continue in the subsequent program, but currently, the threat of AIDS and economic and social pressures are prompting a new political will in favor of sex education. Sex education is seen as the main strategy for AIDS prevention programs. Homosexual groups are demonstrating a new political pressure as civil organizations integrated into a new sector demanding sex education. At the same time, population policies are assuming a predominant position in official discourse as a

  1. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-12-31

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  2. Interstate waste transport -- Emotions, energy, and environment

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    1993-01-01

    This report applies quantitative analysis to the debate of waste transport and disposal. Moving from emotions and politics back to numbers, this report estimates potential energy, employment and environmental impacts associated with disposing a ton of municipal solid waste under three different disposal scenarios that reflect interstate and intrastate options. The results help provide a less emotional, more quantitative look at interstate waste transport restrictions.

  3. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  4. Sexism in Political Thought and Its Refutation: A Schematic Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Siegrun F.

    The document examines Western political thought in terms of women's and men's expected spheres of concern, the proper male and female nature, and the sex-specific allocation of social values. In addition, the author applies her conclusions to contemporary political issues in the United States. Aristotle, Cicero, Aquinas, Rousseau, and Hegel made a…

  5. American Political Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This text presents high school students with up-to-date findings of social scientists about political behavior in order to increase their political knowledge and sophistication. Case studies which describe the various political activities of typical citizens and political leaders are used throughout the work. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  6. Nuclear politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranson, John

    2009-04-01

    The sentiments expressed by Sidney Drell in his forum article "The nuclear threat: a new start" (February pp16-17) are laudable, but it was disappointing to find this almost entirely political story in isolation. The article, which outlined the prospects for reducing weapons stockpiles under the new US administration, would have been more pertinent as an introduction to a series describing the technology used in detecting nuclear-testing activity. It would have been interesting to discuss the specific equipment and methods used, together with the analysis and correlation techniques - along with an indication of how sensitive and reliable they are (if the information is not classified). It is far easier to detect an explosive event than it is to detect and quantify weapons stores, which is a key factor for any negotiated solution. Apart from deductions based on actual inspection and satellite surveillance, are there other techniques that can be applied to this issue?

  7. Gay Marriage, Same-Sex Parenting, and America's Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meezan, William; Rauch, Jonathan

    2005-01-01

    Same-sex marriage, barely on the political radar a decade ago, is a reality in America. How will it affect the well-being of children? Some observers worry that legalizing same-sex marriage would send the message that same-sex parenting and opposite-sex parenting are interchangeable, when in fact they may lead to different outcomes for children.…

  8. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths. PMID:8207282

  9. Safe sex.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, G; Ghosh, T K

    1994-01-01

    The main objectives of health care for people with AIDS are to help them adjust to changing sexual status and to provide them with information on safe sex. Sections consider the risks of various types of sexual activity and safe sex education. With regard to the risk of transmitting or contracting HIV, sexual activities may be high risk, medium risk, low risk, or no risk. High-risk activities include unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse, oral-anal sexual contact, sharing sex toys, and traumatic sexual activity. Medium-risk activities include anal and vaginal intercourse using a latex condom with or without spermicide, and sex using a vaginal diaphragm or contraceptive vaginal sponge. Oral sex on a woman or oral sex on a man without ejaculation into the mouth are low-risk activities. Mutual masturbation, erotic touching, caressing and massage, kissing and non-genital licking pose no risk of infection. All general practitioners and family physicians should teach about safe sex. Prevention messages may be conveyed through individual and social counseling as well as with printed media and other forms of mass media. Messages should definitely reach prostitutes and brothel owners, as well as pre-pubertal children and older youths.

  10. Sex differences in attitudes toward partner infidelity.

    PubMed

    Tagler, Michael J; Jeffers, Heather M

    2013-08-06

    Sex differences in reactions to partner infidelity have often been studied by comparing emotional reactions to scenarios of sexual versus emotional infidelity. Men, relative to women, tend to react with more distress to partner sexual infidelity than to emotional infidelity. Evolutionary theorists interpret this difference as evidence of sexually dimorphic selection pressures. In contrast, focusing only on the simple effects within each sex, social-cognitive theorists suggest that men and women do not differ in their reactions to partner infidelity. As evidenced by recent rival meta-analytic reports, these diverging perspectives remain largely unresolved and contentious. The present study was designed to take a new approach by measuring attitudes toward partner infidelity. Results were consistent with the evolutionary perspective: Men, to a significantly larger degree than women, evaluated partner sexual infidelity more negatively than emotional infidelity.

  11. Sex education in France.

    PubMed

    Gallard, C

    1991-05-01

    The French Family Planning Movement (MFPF) has actively been involved in sex education within schools. In 1989, more than 1500 presentations were made to 23,000 pupils. Another activity is monitoring the application of statutes and regulations, for abortion, contraception, and sex education, and fighting to save and advance the rights of sexuality experts. Because of MFPF prominence in serious risks such as AIDs, sexual abuse, and rape, credibility has been enhanced. MFPF serves as a vehicle to change attitudes on male/female relationships. The government has permitted involvement in the preparation of a teaching program dealing with sexual abuse. The dominant influence of the Catholic Church on education has been evident since 1807. Up to WWI, religious morality was dominant. With Freud's contributions to the importance of sexuality in individual life, there were questions raised and a call for change in values and customs. In 1967, the statute was passed which authorized contraception, and sex education became an important issue. In 1973, Fontanet as Minister of Education outlined the recommendation for sex information and education in schools, including reproduction. Further official supportive recommendations were not made until 1985 when life education was entered into the primary syllabus. There was no provision even for teacher training; hence a wide variability in skills, commitment, and attitudes prevailed. MFPF reflects a position on tolerance in listening to others, expression and analysis of differences and critical thinking, identifying difficulties in talking about sex with respect to cultural and religious diversity, and help for the young in learning about their bodies, expressing feelings, and taking charge of emotions.

  12. The Science and Politics of Comparing Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.

    1995-01-01

    Considers claims from sex-comparative research that sex-related differences are small, unusually unstable across studies, very often artifactual, and inconsistent with the content of gender stereotypes. The article contends that feminism created a political climate that has led to research that inaccurately minimizes psychological gender…

  13. Teaching Youngsters About Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunkins, Francis P.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses four possible approaches for teaching political science in the classroom, including analyzing the classroom as a political arena, employing case studies, using simulation games, and orchestrating encounters with political figures. (Author/JG)

  14. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  15. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  16. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  17. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  18. 29 CFR 34.4 - Specific discriminatory actions prohibited on the ground of race, color, religion, sex, national...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... race, color, religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or..., religion, sex, national origin, age, political affiliation or belief, citizenship, or participation in JTPA. (a) For the purposes of this section, prohibited ground means race, color, religion, sex,...

  19. Emotional Intelligence--A New Evaluation for Management Development?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley, Andrew

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of emotional intelligence competencies in senior and middle managers showed that senior managers scored significantly higher in the personal competencies of emotional awareness, innovation, and commitment and the social competencies of political awareness, leadership, change catalyst, and teamwork. The usefulness of emotional…

  20. Correlates of same-sex attractions and behaviors among self-identified heterosexual university students.

    PubMed

    Morales Knight, Luis F; Hope, Debra A

    2012-10-01

    Few studies have focused on intragroup variations in sexual orientation and fewer on self-identified heterosexuals with same-sex attractions, fantasies, and/or behaviors. Self-identified heterosexual students at a large public midwestern university (N = 263) completed measures of sexuality and gender, attitudes toward lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) people, religious and political beliefs, emotional well-being, and demographics. The sample included 82 individuals (31%; labeled "H+") who endorsed same-sex attraction, fantasy, and/or behavior and 181 (69%; labeled "H") who did not. Women were more likely to be categorized as H+ than men. H+ participants had more positive attitudes toward lesbians and gay and bisexual men and reported more support for LGB-positive public policies than did H participants. H+ participants reported less literalistic beliefs about religious scripture than did H participants. H and H+ groups did not differ significantly on measures of emotional well-being. Results were discussed in the context of recent literature arguing for a more nuanced and gender-differentiated approach toward assessing sexual orientation, as well as literature on the flexibility of sexual orientation and on heterosexual identity development.

  1. Experiencing release: sex environments and escapism for HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Vicioso, Kalil J; Parsons, Jeffrey T; Nanin, Jose E; Purcell, David W; Woods, William J

    2005-02-01

    There are nonsexual reasons that may motivate people to seek out sexual activity with others. Some men who have sex with men may seek out sex environments to engage in sexual behavior. Among the nonsexual reasons that exist for men who have sex with men is a desire to escape from distressing thoughts and feelings. The amplified sexuality and other unique characteristics of sex environments allow men to have more intense emotional experiences around sex. Using the cognitive escape model as a theoretical foundation, this analysis focuses on the emotional vulnerability that some of the men who visit these venues may be avoiding and how their experiences at these venues might act as releasing mechanisms to alleviate dissonant thoughts and feelings. Implications for public health services and future research are discussed.

  2. Rethinking political correctness.

    PubMed

    Ely, Robin J; Meyerson, Debra E; Davidson, Martin N

    2006-09-01

    Legal and cultural changes over the past 40 years ushered unprecedented numbers of women and people of color into companies' professional ranks. Laws now protect these traditionally underrepresented groups from blatant forms of discrimination in hiring and promotion. Meanwhile, political correctness has reset the standards for civility and respect in people's day-to-day interactions. Despite this obvious progress, the authors' research has shown that political correctness is a double-edged sword. While it has helped many employees feel unlimited by their race, gender, or religion,the PC rule book can hinder people's ability to develop effective relationships across race, gender, and religious lines. Companies need to equip workers with skills--not rules--for building these relationships. The authors offer the following five principles for healthy resolution of the tensions that commonly arise over difference: Pause to short-circuit the emotion and reflect; connect with others, affirming the importance of relationships; question yourself to identify blind spots and discover what makes you defensive; get genuine support that helps you gain a broader perspective; and shift your mind-set from one that says, "You need to change," to one that asks, "What can I change?" When people treat their cultural differences--and related conflicts and tensions--as opportunities to gain a more accurate view of themselves, one another, and the situation, trust builds and relationships become stronger. Leaders should put aside the PC rule book and instead model and encourage risk taking in the service of building the organization's relational capacity. The benefits will reverberate through every dimension of the company's work.

  3. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept

    PubMed Central

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M.; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity. PMID:26236181

  4. Interactive effects of culture and sex hormones on the sex role self-concept.

    PubMed

    Pletzer, Belinda; Petasis, Ourania; Ortner, Tuulia M; Cahill, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Sex role orientation, i.e., a person's masculinity or femininity, influences cognitive and emotional performance, like biological sex. While it is now widely accepted that sex differences are modulated by the hormonal status of female participants (menstrual cycle, hormonal contraceptive use), the question, whether hormonal status and sex hormones also modulate participants sex role orientation has hardly been addressed previously. The present study assessed sex role orientation and hormonal status as well as sex hormone levels in three samples of participants from two different cultures (Northern American, Middle European). Menstrual cycle phase did not affect participant's masculinity or femininity, but had a significant impact on reference group. While women in their follicular phase (low levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to men, women in their luteal phase (high levels of female sex hormones) determined their masculinity and femininity in reference to women. Hormonal contraceptive users rated themselves as significantly more feminine and less masculine than naturally cycling women. Furthermore, the impact of biological sex on the factorial structure of sex role orientation as well as the relationship of estrogen to masculinity/femininity was modulated by culture. We conclude that culture and sex hormones interactively affect sex role orientation and hormonal status of participants should be controlled for when assessing masculinity and/or femininity.

  5. Cognitive-Perceptual Factors in the Political Alienation Process: A Test of Six Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Samuel

    The effectiveness of sex research models which measure adolescents' feelings of political alienation is investigated and discussed and a new model is formulated. The six models include life dissatisfaction, personal depreciation, critical perceptions of political reality, irrational beliefs, perceptions of political threat, and cognitive…

  6. Critical Emotional Praxis for Reconciliation Education: Emerging Evidence and Pedagogical Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2012-01-01

    This paper draws on psychoanalytic and socio-political perspectives of trauma and emotion to examine how "critical emotional praxis" may serve as a pedagogical tool for reconciliation education. A major challenge for teachers in traumatized societies struggling to enact reconciliation education is that emotions of trauma are often appropriated by…

  7. The Kenyan political conflict and children's adjustment.

    PubMed

    Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M; Myers, Sonya S

    2010-01-01

    This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an important protective factor postdisaster. Specifically, severity of the disaster experience was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior. Emotion regulation was associated with less aggression and more prosocial behavior postconflict. Findings are discussed in the context of a developmental, systems-oriented perspective of the impact of disasters on child adjustment.

  8. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  9. Language and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  10. Talking Politics, Practicing Citizenship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacKinnon, Mary Pat

    2008-01-01

    The message emerging from a recent research series on youth civic and political participation is clear: today's youth are not disengaged from associational and small "p" political life, but they are increasingly disenchanted with formal political institutions and practices. Generation Y (those born after 1979) has less formal political knowledge…

  11. Validity of Social, Moral and Emotional Facets of Self-Description Questionnaire II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Kim Chau; Marsh, Herbert W.; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Abduljabbar, Adel S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies adopting a construct validity approach can be categorized into within- and between-network studies. Few studies have applied between-network approach and tested the correlations of the social (same-sex relations, opposite-sex relations, parent relations), moral (honesty-trustworthiness), and emotional (emotional stability) facets of the…

  12. Individual and collective dimensions of resilience within political violence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy A; Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M; Feldman, Guy; Lee, Jessica

    2013-07-01

    Research has documented a link between political violence and the functioning of individuals and communities. Yet, despite the hardships that political violence creates, evidence suggests remarkable fortitude and resilience within both individuals and communities. Individual characteristics that appear to build resilience against political violence include demographic factors such as gender and age, and internal resources, such as hope, optimism, determination, and religious convictions. Research has also documented the protective influence of individuals' connection to community and their involvement in work, school, or political action. Additionally, research on political violence and resilience has increasingly focused on communities themselves as a unit of analysis. Community resilience, like individual resilience, is a process supported by various traits, capacities, and emotional orientations toward hardship. This review addresses various findings related to both individual and community resilience within political violence and offers recommendations for research, practice, and policy.

  13. Sex Roles: A Product of Socialization or a Biological Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaha, Steven H.

    This paper reviews selected studies of aggression in males and females and concludes that physiological, emotional and behavioral differences exist between the sexes. Primate studies, conducted by Harlow, are employed as evidence that sex differences in aggression are primarily biological and not primarily cultural phenomena. It is further…

  14. Sex Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sue

    1991-01-01

    This discussion of sex education for individuals with intellectual disabilities outlines Delys Sergeant's "coat hanger theory," which involves three coats or phases of sexuality: a physiological stimulus response coat; a reproductive coat; and a coat of attitudes, values, and self-esteem. Influences acting on individuals' sexuality include family,…

  15. A Historical Sociology of Sex and Love.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clanton, Gordon

    1987-01-01

    Describes how a survey of the history of sex, love, and marriage in Western cultures is used in an undergraduate course on the sociology of emotions. Identifies several periods of history particularly suited to this use and describes assignments and course requirements. (AEM)

  16. Social-Emotional Effects of Day Care. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Marcia Z.; Grote, Barbara H.

    This study compared the effects of group day care, family day care, and full parental care on such aspects of children's social-emotional adjustment as curiosity, attachment, self-concept, sex role, achievement motivation, impulse control, cooperation, and sharing. Initial differences between groups were controlled by matching on race, sex, number…

  17. The Contribution of Inhibitory Control to Preschoolers' Social-Emotional Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhoades, Brittany L.; Greenberg, Mark T.; Domitrovich, Celene E.

    2009-01-01

    Social-emotional competence is a key developmental task during early childhood. This study examined concurrent relationships between maternal education and employment status, children's sex, ethnicity, age, receptive vocabulary, emotional knowledge, attention skills, inhibitory control and social-emotional competence in a sample of 146 preschool,…

  18. Emotions in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  19. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  20. Teenage Sexuality: What Are the Emotional Effects?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Bebe C.

    Much attention has been given to the physical ramifications of early sexual activity, but little has been said about emotional and psychological repercussions. The breakdown of the American family may be a contributing factor in causing premature sexual activity, along with the strong adolescent sex drive, the fear of loneliness and the media. An…

  1. Same, Different, Equal: Rethinking Single-Sex Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomone, Rosemary C.

    This book presents an argument for supporting single-sex education. It examines the history and politics of gender and schooling; philosophical and psychological theories of sameness and differences; findings on educational achievement and performance; research evidence on single-sex schooling; and the legal questions that arise from single-sex…

  2. Same-Sex Adoption as a Welfare Alternative? Conservatism, Neoliberal Values, and Support for Adoption by Same-Sex Couples.

    PubMed

    Perry, Samuel L; Whitehead, Andrew L

    2015-01-01

    Despite conservatives' long-term opposition to gay and lesbian parenting, scholars theorize that a strong commitment to neoliberalism may influence conservative Americans to become more tolerant of same-sex adoption as a way to relieve the government from subsidizing poor families. Drawing on national survey data (2010 Baylor Religion Survey), we test whether holding neoliberal values is associated with greater support for same-sex adoption in general and across political or religious conservatives. We find no support for either theory-emphatically the opposite, in fact. Neoliberal values are negatively associated with support for same-sex adoption for Americans in general and among political and religious conservatives. We find little evidence of a tension among conservatives regarding same-sex adoption as both their neoliberal values and moral beliefs incline them to oppose same-sex adoption along with other same-sex family relationships.

  3. Adolescent Political Education and Political Participation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewellen, James R.

    This research report studies the impact of informal extracurricular activities and formal social studies curriculum on the political socialization process of high school students. The hypothesis is that involvement in extracurricular activities, school partisan political activities, and exposure to formal course work in social studies is…

  4. [Lethal sex].

    PubMed

    Rabinerson, David; Ben-Shitrit, Gadi; Glezerman, Marek

    2011-03-01

    Asphyxiophilic sex is a form of autoerotic activity, in which the user creates mechanical means (such as hanging or bondage) in order to achieve cerebral hypoxia, which, in turn, enhances sexual, as well as orgasmic, stimulus. Failure of safety mechanisms, created by the user, may lead to instant death as a result of asphyxiation or strangulation. This kind of sexual practice is more prevalent among men than in women. In cases of death, it is difficult to relate it to the sexual practice itself. Suicide and homicide are the main differential diagnoses. Closely related derivatives of asphyxiophilic sex are anesthesiophilia (inhalation of variable volatile substances) and electrophilia (use of electric current during sexual activity)--both also intended to enhance the sexual stimulation. These forms of sexual practice are less prevalent than asphyxiophilia. PMID:21574359

  5. When Sex Is Painful

    MedlinePlus

    ... AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS GYNECOLOGIC PROBLEMS FAQ020 When Sex Is Painful • How common is painful sex? • What causes pain during sex? • Where is pain during sex felt? • When should ...

  6. Deliberative Democracy and Emotional Intelligence: An Internal Mechanism to Regulate the Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Martyn

    2012-01-01

    Deliberative democracy, it is claimed, is essential for the legitimisation of public policy and law. It is built upon an assumption that citizens will be capable of constructing and defending reasons for their moral and political beliefs. However, critics of deliberative democracy suggest that citizens' emotions are not properly considered in this…

  7. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  8. Impaired emotional facial expression recognition in alcoholics: are these deficits specific to emotional cues?

    PubMed

    Foisy, Marie-Line; Kornreich, Charles; Petiau, Cédric; Parez, Agathe; Hanak, Catherine; Verbanck, Paul; Pelc, Isidore; Philippot, Pierre

    2007-02-28

    Previous studies have repeatedly linked alcoholism is to impairment in emotional facial expression decoding. The present study aimed at extending previous findings while controlling for exposure times of stimuli. Further, a control task was added on the decoding of non-emotional facial features. Twenty-five alcoholic participants were compared to 26 control participants matched for age, sex and educational level. Participants performed two computer tasks consisting of presentation of photographs of faces for either 250 or 1000 ms. The first task required "yes" or "no" responses as rapidly as possible to questions regarding non-emotional features of the face (gender, age range and cultural identity). The second task involved a different set of photographs implicating emotional facial expression decoding, with the same exposure times. Again, rapid "yes" or "no" responses to trials combining 32 emotional facial expressions by eight emotional labels (happiness, sadness, fear, anger, disgust, surprise, shame, and contempt) were required from participants. Reaction times were recorded for both tasks. Alcoholic and control participants showed similar results in both tasks in terms of response accuracy. Yet, in the emotional facial expression task, alcoholic participants' responses matched more negative emotional labels, especially sadness. Further, alcoholics were slower than control participants specifically to answer emotional questions on emotional facial expression. No differences appeared on reaction times in the control task. Contrary to expectations, no interaction of stimulus time exposure and group was observed. Overall, these findings replicate and extend previous results on emotional facial expression decoding ability: Alcoholics are specifically impaired on emotional non-verbal behavior information processing: They are slower to correctly identify an emotion. PMID:17267048

  9. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement.

  10. What If I Woke Up as the Other Sex: Botswana Youth Perspectives on Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commeyras, Michelle; Montsi, Mercy

    2000-01-01

    Examined essays written by youths age 14-20 in Botswana, a country that significantly discriminates against women, about how life would change if they woke up one day as the opposite sex. Overall, 40 percent of respondents had mixed emotions about waking up as the other sex. Both sexes were painfully aware of the overwhelming disadvantage of being…

  11. Teaching Politically Correct Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsehelska, Maryna

    2006-01-01

    This article argues that teaching politically correct language to English learners provides them with important information and opportunities to be exposed to cultural issues. The author offers a brief review of how political correctness became an issue and how being politically correct influences the use of language. The article then presents…

  12. Unique Rural District Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2009-01-01

    The politics of rural educational leadership are both intense and concentrated. Rural educational leaders need to be savvy and politically skilled if they are to inspire educational stakeholders and accomplish organizational objectives. The local school system is an organization with a political culture that can be characterized as a competitive…

  13. Tracking Politics with POWER

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  14. What is Political Psychology?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  15. Political Education in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  16. Sex and Eating: Relationships Based on Wanting and Liking

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ying; Zheng, Lijun; Zheng, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Sex and eating may have behavioral and psychological relationships and have cortical regions in common. This research investigated the general relationship between sex and eating from a reward perspective among the general population. Two-hundred and sixty-one Chinese participants were recruited via the internet (136 males, 125 females, mean age 30.46 years) to fill in questionnaires about wanting and liking for sex and eating. The results revealed that first, there was a positive correlation between wanting for sex and wanting to eat only for males. Second, the relationship between liking for sex and eating was also positive for males and not significant in females. Third, the correlation between sociosexual orientation and wanting to eat was significant only in females, and there was no significant correlation between sociosexual orientation and liking for eating. Fourth, emotional sex cravings (or emotional sexual activity) was positively correlated with emotional food cravings (or emotional eating behavior), with a higher magnitude correlation in males than females. Finally, analysis of wanting (liking) models of sex and eating for males and females revealed three models for wanting among females: high wanting, low wanting for eating, and low wanting for sex; and two models for wanting among males: high wanting and low wanting. Liking for sex and eating among females consisted of two types of model: high liking and low liking; whereas three type models existed for males: high liking for sex, high liking for eating, and low liking. In general, our research revealed that, as with other natural reward, sex and eating have considerable commonality and are related in numerous ways. PMID:26793154

  17. Sex Education in Modern and Contemporary China: Interrupted Debates across the Last Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aresu, Alessandra

    2009-01-01

    Since the late 1980s sex education has been widely promoted in the PRC, but this is not the first time in China's modern history that attempts to develop sex education have been made. The present essay traces the development of sex education debates over the last century, identifying the historical, political and social contexts in which they…

  18. Feeling Good and Doing Good for the Environment: The Use of Emotional Appeals in Pro-Environmental Public Service Announcements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Searles, Kathleen

    2010-01-01

    Research in political psychology suggests that politicians successfully manipulate emotions through campaign advertisements. While work in environmental psychology emphasizes emotional connection to the environment, scholars have yet to examine the potential of emotional appeals in non-campaign messages. I am interested in the use of emotional…

  19. On the Image of Hate in Education: Desirable Emotions, Learning, and the Visibility of Bodies in Educational Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryther, Cathrine

    2016-01-01

    In this article I explore how images of hate from the work of feminist, psychoanalytical educational thinkers Deborah Britzman and Alice Pitt, and from Sara Ahmed's investigation into the cultural politics of emotion, function to shift the ideal-image of pedagogically desired emotions and complicate the emotional landscape of educational…

  20. What price politics? Scientists and political controversy.

    PubMed

    Nye, M J

    1999-01-01

    There is a long tradition within scientific communities that encourages governments, patrons and citizens to enlist scientific expertise in the service of the public good. However, since the 17th century, scientists who have engaged in public political controversy have often been judged harshly by scientific colleagues, as well as by political adversaries. Some prominent scientists were politically active in Germany, France and England during the 1920s and 1930s; controversial stands were taken by the British physicist P.M.S. Blackett and the American chemist Linus C. Pauling against their countries' nuclear weapons policy following the Second World War. PMID:10643131

  1. Female sex workers as health educators with men who buy sex: utilising narratives of rationalisations.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Teela

    2006-05-01

    This paper reports on findings from an ethnographic study of female sex workers who work in the indoor sex markets in a British city. An unexpected finding was the collective narratives that sex workers construct to rationalise their involvement in the sex industry. Fifty-five respondents who took part in in-depth interviews maintained that prostitution is a useful occupation and function in society. Narratives included providing emotional support to male clients; a service for men who are socially or physically disabled; preventing men having adulterous affairs; and health education, disease prevention and as therapists for sexual dysfunction. This paper evaluates how the latter narrative of sexual health promotion is an example of how sex workers are ideally placed to work as health educators with men who buy sex. Arguing against gender specific sexual health policies, men who buy sex are described as a 'high risk' group who are also a hidden population. Limitations posed by ideological, ethical and practical concerns relating to the specific conditions of the sex industry suggest that this proposal could be partially successful. In conclusion, I suggest the sexual health of the nation and the place of sex workers in society must be considered with regard to recent policy debates on the management of prostitution and the cultural construction of the sex worker.

  2. On medicine and politics.

    PubMed Central

    Krakauer, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between medicine and politics, between medical management of the human body and governmental management of the body politic. It argues that the increasing complexity both of society and of governmental administration of society in the modern age has made it impossible completely to separate medicine from politics. It demonstrates that, along with great potential for social benefit, "medico-politics" brought with it great danger; much harm has been done purportedly to heal the body politic. The paper concludes by suggesting a way for physicians to minimize this danger. Images FIG. 1 PMID:1285451

  3. Emotional intelligence--essential for trauma nursing.

    PubMed

    Holbery, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Patients and their relatives are increasingly considered partners in health and social care decision-making. Numerous political drivers in the UK reflect a commitment to this partnership and to improving the experience of patients and relatives in emergency care environments. As a Lecturer/Practitioner in Emergency Care I recently experienced the London Trauma System as a relative. My dual perspective, as nurse and relative, allowed me to identify a gap in the quality of care akin to emotional intelligence. This paper aims to raise awareness of emotional intelligence (EI), highlight its importance in trauma care and contribute to the development of this concept in trauma nursing and education across the globe.

  4. Sex work in Tallinn, Estonia: the sociospatial penetration of sex work into society

    PubMed Central

    Aral, S O; Lawrence, J S St; Uusküla, A

    2006-01-01

    Background It is important to describe and understand the underlying patterns and dynamics that govern sex work in societies undergoing rapid political and social changes, its heterogeneity across populations, and its evolution through time in order to inform future research, sound policy formation, and programme delivery. Objectives To describe the socioeconomic and cultural determinants, organisational structure, distinct categories, and spatial patterning of sex work in Tallinn, Estonia, and identify recent temporal changes in sex work patterns. Methods In‐depth interviews with key informants; naturalistic observations of sex work and drug use venues, geo‐mapping of sex work sites, review of media, public policy, and commissioned reports, and analyses of existing data. Results Sex work takes place in a hierarchy of locations in Tallinn ranging from elite brothels and “love flats” to truck stops. These sites vary in terms of their public health importance and social organisation. There are full time, part time, and intermittent male and female sex workers. Among others, the taxi driver, madam and the bartender are central roles in the organisation of sex work in Tallinn. Cell phone and internet technology enable sex work to be highly dispersed and spatially mobile. Conclusion Future research and programmatic service delivery or outreach efforts should respond to the changing profile of sex work in Tallinn and its implications for STD/HIV epidemiology. PMID:16807288

  5. Ethics and Body Politics: Interdisciplinary Possibilities for Embodied Psychotherapeutic Practice and Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegranti, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Ethical approaches to practice and research in counselling and arts/psychotherapies demand an urgent attention to body politics. Bodies are not neutral; gender, sexuality, ethnicity and class are socio-political aspects that shape our mental, emotional and physical selves and inform our ethical values. Drawing from the author's embodied practice…

  6. EDITORIAL: Politically correct physics?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pople Deputy Editor, Stephen

    1997-03-01

    If you were a caring, thinking, liberally minded person in the 1960s, you marched against the bomb, against the Vietnam war, and for civil rights. By the 1980s, your voice was raised about the destruction of the rainforests and the threat to our whole planetary environment. At the same time, you opposed discrimination against any group because of race, sex or sexual orientation. You reasoned that people who spoke or acted in a discriminatory manner should be discriminated against. In other words, you became politically correct. Despite its oft-quoted excesses, the political correctness movement sprang from well-founded concerns about injustices in our society. So, on balance, I am all for it. Or, at least, I was until it started to invade science. Biologists were the first to feel the impact. No longer could they refer to 'higher' and 'lower' orders, or 'primitive' forms of life. To the list of undesirable 'isms' - sexism, racism, ageism - had been added a new one: speciesism. Chemists remained immune to the PC invasion, but what else could you expect from a group of people so steeped in tradition that their principal unit, the mole, requires the use of the thoroughly unreconstructed gram? Now it is the turn of the physicists. This time, the offenders are not those who talk disparagingly about other people or animals, but those who refer to 'forms of energy' and 'heat'. Political correctness has evolved into physical correctness. I was always rather fond of the various forms of energy: potential, kinetic, chemical, electrical, sound and so on. My students might merge heat and internal energy into a single, fuzzy concept loosely associated with moving molecules. They might be a little confused at a whole new crop of energies - hydroelectric, solar, wind, geothermal and tidal - but they could tell me what devices turned chemical energy into electrical energy, even if they couldn't quite appreciate that turning tidal energy into geothermal energy wasn't part of the

  7. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  8. Putting politics first.

    PubMed

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old. PMID:18474963

  9. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace. PMID:26953692

  10. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    PubMed

    He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace.

  11. Exploring Entrainment Patterns of Human Emotion in Social Media.

    PubMed

    He, Saike; Zheng, Xiaolong; Zeng, Daniel; Luo, Chuan; Zhang, Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Emotion entrainment, which is generally defined as the synchronous convergence of human emotions, performs many important social functions. However, what the specific mechanisms of emotion entrainment are beyond in-person interactions, and how human emotions evolve under different entrainment patterns in large-scale social communities, are still unknown. In this paper, we aim to examine the massive emotion entrainment patterns and understand the underlying mechanisms in the context of social media. As modeling emotion dynamics on a large scale is often challenging, we elaborate a pragmatic framework to characterize and quantify the entrainment phenomenon. By applying this framework on the datasets from two large-scale social media platforms, we find that the emotions of online users entrain through social networks. We further uncover that online users often form their relations via dual entrainment, while maintain it through single entrainment. Remarkably, the emotions of online users are more convergent in nonreciprocal entrainment. Building on these findings, we develop an entrainment augmented model for emotion prediction. Experimental results suggest that entrainment patterns inform emotion proximity in dyads, and encoding their associations promotes emotion prediction. This work can further help us to understand the underlying dynamic process of large-scale online interactions and make more reasonable decisions regarding emergency situations, epidemic diseases, and political campaigns in cyberspace. PMID:26953692

  12. American Political Behavior. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlinger, Howard D.; Patrick, John J.

    This textbook is designed to increase political knowledge and sophistication about the U.S. political system. The volume consisting of five units tries to capture the vitality and drama of politics through the use of cases that describe the political activities of typical citizens and political leaders. Simulations, games, political attitude…

  13. The politics of researching global health politics

    PubMed Central

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  14. Political Information Content and Children's Political Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandell, Karin L.; Ostroff, David H.

    1981-01-01

    A content analysis of television programs presented during times likely to have high proportions of children in the audience indicated that entertainment programs contain messages about the political system which are often negative or inaccurate. (Author/MER)

  15. Romancing the boundary: client masculinities in the Chinese sex industry.

    PubMed

    Kong, Travis S K

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus-group discussions conducted since 2012 with Hong Kong heterosexual men who buy sex in order to examine men's level of physical and emotional engagement with sex workers under two dominant sexual scripts in contemporary Hong Kong. Torn between companionate sexuality, with its companionate model of relationships, and recreational sexuality, with its promiscuous model of sexual pleasure, Hong Kong male clients seek to satisfy their sexual and affective needs through commercial sexual relationships. The term (meaning 'chicken worm', connoting a 'McSex' form of masculinity) refers to those men who seek impersonal sexual release with as many women as they wish, while the term (meaning 'sunken boat' and connoting a 'Titanic' form of masculinity) refers to those men who seek an intense level of emotional intimacy with sex workers. Between these two contrasting types, the majority of respondents fall into a form of 'bounded' masculinity characteristic of men who emphasise control and balance by seeking emotionally responsive women in a time-bound romance. By comparing clients' variations in the level of physical and emotional engagement with sex workers, this paper seeks to understand individual differences in client types and offers a new understanding of Chinese male sexuality and relationship formation, and the corresponding health risks (e.g., sexual, emotional) associated with each type.

  16. Romancing the boundary: client masculinities in the Chinese sex industry.

    PubMed

    Kong, Travis S K

    2015-01-01

    This paper draws on 24 in-depth interviews and 2 focus-group discussions conducted since 2012 with Hong Kong heterosexual men who buy sex in order to examine men's level of physical and emotional engagement with sex workers under two dominant sexual scripts in contemporary Hong Kong. Torn between companionate sexuality, with its companionate model of relationships, and recreational sexuality, with its promiscuous model of sexual pleasure, Hong Kong male clients seek to satisfy their sexual and affective needs through commercial sexual relationships. The term (meaning 'chicken worm', connoting a 'McSex' form of masculinity) refers to those men who seek impersonal sexual release with as many women as they wish, while the term (meaning 'sunken boat' and connoting a 'Titanic' form of masculinity) refers to those men who seek an intense level of emotional intimacy with sex workers. Between these two contrasting types, the majority of respondents fall into a form of 'bounded' masculinity characteristic of men who emphasise control and balance by seeking emotionally responsive women in a time-bound romance. By comparing clients' variations in the level of physical and emotional engagement with sex workers, this paper seeks to understand individual differences in client types and offers a new understanding of Chinese male sexuality and relationship formation, and the corresponding health risks (e.g., sexual, emotional) associated with each type. PMID:25686625

  17. Sex work and the claim for grassroots legislation.

    PubMed

    Fassi, Marisa N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to contribute to understanding of legal models that aim to control sex work, and the policy implications of these, by discussing the experience of developing a grassroots legislation bill proposal by organised sex workers in Córdoba, Argentina. The term 'grassroots legislation' here refers to a legal response that derives from the active involvement of local social movements and thus incorporates the experiential knowledge and claims of these particular social groupings in the proposal. The experience described in this paper excludes approaches that render sex workers as passive victims or as deviant perpetrators; instead, it conceives of sex workers in terms of their political subjectivity and of political subjectivity in its capacity to speak, to decide, to act and to propose. This means challenging current patterns of knowledge/power that give superiority to 'expert knowledge' above and beyond the claims, experiences, knowledge and needs of sex workers themselves as meaningful sources for law making.

  18. 'The ravages of permissiveness': sex education and the permissive society.

    PubMed

    Hampshire, James; Lewis, Jane

    2004-01-01

    In this article we explore how sex education in schools has become an adversarial political issue. Although sex education has never been a wholly uncontroversial subject, we show that for two decades after the Second World War there was a broad consensus among policy-makers that it offered a solution to public health and social problems, especially venereal disease. From the late 1960s, this consensus came under attack. As part of a wider effort to reverse the changes associated with the 'permissive' society and legislation of the late 1960s, moral traditionalists and pro-family campaigners sought to problematize sex education. They depicted it as morally corrupting and redefined it as a problem rather than a public health solution. Henceforth, the politics of sex education became increasingly polarized and adversarial. We conclude that the fractious debates about sex education in the 1980s and 1990s are a legacy of this reaction against the permissive society.

  19. Emotions facilitate the communication of ambiguous group memberships.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that emotions intersect with obvious social categories (e.g., race), influencing both how targets are categorized and the emotions that are read from their faces. Here, we examined the influence of emotional expression on the perception of less obvious group memberships for which, in the absence of obvious and stable physical markers, emotion may serve as a major avenue for group categorization and identification. Specifically, we examined whether emotions are embedded in the mental representations of sexual orientation and political affiliation, and whether people may use emotional expressions to communicate these group memberships to others. Using reverse correlation methods, we found that mental representations of gay and liberal faces were characterized by more positive facial expressions than mental representations of straight and conservative faces (Study 1). Furthermore, participants were evaluated as expressing more positive emotions when enacting self-defined "gay" and "liberal" versus "straight" and "conservative" facial expressions in the lab (Study 2). In addition, neutral faces morphed with happiness were perceived as more gay than when morphed with anger, and when compared to unmorphed controls (Study 3). Finally, we found that affect facilitated perceptions of sexual orientation and political affiliation in naturalistic settings (Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that emotion is a defining characteristic of person construal that people tend to use both when signaling their group memberships and when receiving those signals to categorize others. PMID:26098732

  20. Emotions facilitate the communication of ambiguous group memberships.

    PubMed

    Tskhay, Konstantin O; Rule, Nicholas O

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that emotions intersect with obvious social categories (e.g., race), influencing both how targets are categorized and the emotions that are read from their faces. Here, we examined the influence of emotional expression on the perception of less obvious group memberships for which, in the absence of obvious and stable physical markers, emotion may serve as a major avenue for group categorization and identification. Specifically, we examined whether emotions are embedded in the mental representations of sexual orientation and political affiliation, and whether people may use emotional expressions to communicate these group memberships to others. Using reverse correlation methods, we found that mental representations of gay and liberal faces were characterized by more positive facial expressions than mental representations of straight and conservative faces (Study 1). Furthermore, participants were evaluated as expressing more positive emotions when enacting self-defined "gay" and "liberal" versus "straight" and "conservative" facial expressions in the lab (Study 2). In addition, neutral faces morphed with happiness were perceived as more gay than when morphed with anger, and when compared to unmorphed controls (Study 3). Finally, we found that affect facilitated perceptions of sexual orientation and political affiliation in naturalistic settings (Study 4). Together, these studies suggest that emotion is a defining characteristic of person construal that people tend to use both when signaling their group memberships and when receiving those signals to categorize others.

  1. A prototype of behavior selection mechanism based on emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guofeng; Li, Zushu

    2007-12-01

    In bionic methodology rather than in design methodology more familiar with, summarizing the psychological researches of emotion, we propose the biologic mechanism of emotion, emotion selection role in creature evolution and a anima framework including emotion similar to the classical control structure; and consulting Prospect Theory, build an Emotion Characteristic Functions(ECF) that computer emotion; two more emotion theories are added to them that higher emotion is preferred and middle emotion makes brain run more efficiently, emotional behavior mechanism comes into being. A simulation of proposed mechanism are designed and carried out on Alife Swarm software platform. In this simulation, a virtual grassland ecosystem is achieved where there are two kinds of artificial animals: herbivore and preyer. These artificial animals execute four types of behavior: wandering, escaping, finding food, finding sex partner in their lives. According the theories of animal ethnology, escaping from preyer is prior to other behaviors for its existence, finding food is secondly important behavior, rating is third one and wandering is last behavior. In keeping this behavior order, based on our behavior characteristic function theory, the specific functions of emotion computing are built of artificial autonomous animals. The result of simulation confirms the behavior selection mechanism.

  2. Fragmented identities, frustrated politics: transsexuals, lesbians and 'queer'.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    This paper seeks to explore the complex position transsexualism has in relation to a range of personal identities and identity politics. In recent years there has been considerable debate over 'borderline identities' particularly between lesbians, transgenderists, and FTM and MTF transsexuals who transgress the identity category 'lesbian.'2 Stronger political affiliations between transsexuals, lesbians and feminists are argued for, and a greater recognition of the futility in attempting to demarcate the infinitely blurred ontological boundaries between 'sex,' gender and sexuality. Rather, we should focus on 'issue' based politics that challenge heterosexist and normative gender epistemologies and practices that restrict non-conformist subjectivities. PMID:17804373

  3. What Asexuality Contributes to the Same-Sex Marriage Discussion.

    PubMed

    Scherrer, Kristin S

    2010-01-01

    While same-sex marriage debates have captured public attention, it is but one component of a broader discussion regarding the role of marriage in a changing society. To inform this discussion, I draw on qualitative, Internet survey data from 102 self-identified asexual individuals. I find that asexual relationships are complicated and nuanced in ways that have implications for a GLBTQ political agenda, including same-sex marriage recognition. In addition, findings indicate that assumptions of sex and sexuality in relationships are problematic and that present language for describing relationships is limiting. Findings suggest a social justice agenda for marginalized sexualities should be broader in scope than same-sex marriage.

  4. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    PubMed

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  5. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  6. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  7. How Emotions Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

  8. Getting Politically Active

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Projects can, and do, succeed because of politics. And they can fail due to politics, as well. Politics does not have to be a dirty word, if it means working closely and openly with customers and stakeholder s; it is an essential approach that requires continuous dedication of time and attention. Project management is a people industry. Gainin g the trust of your followers will grant you more influence than any formal authority.

  9. Astronomy and Politics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John M.

    The relationship between astronomy and politics is a complex but important part of understanding the practice of astronomy throughout history. This chapter explores some of the ways that astronomy, astrology, and politics have interacted, placing particular focus on the way that astronomy and astrology have been used for political purposes by both people in power and people who wish to influence a ruler's policy. Also discussed are the effects that politics has had on the development of astronomy and, in particular, upon the recording and preservation of astronomical knowledge.

  10. Envy, politics, and age.

    PubMed

    Harris, Christine R; Henniger, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    In the last 5 years, the phrase "politics of envy" has appeared more than 621 times in English-language newspapers, generally in opinion essays contending that political liberalism reflects and exploits feelings of envy. Oddly, this assertion has not been tested empirically. We did so with a large adult sample (n = 357). Participants completed a Dispositional Envy Scale and questions about political ideology, socioeconomic status, and age. Envy and age were moderately correlated; younger people reported greater envy. Political ideology and envy were weakly correlated; however, this relationship was not significant when controlling for age. PMID:23471177

  11. Bodily maps of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  12. Bodily maps of emotions.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  13. Us versus them: Political attitudes and party affiliation influence neural response to faces of presidential candidates.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Jonas T; Freedman, Joshua; Iacoboni, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We investigated how political party affiliation and political attitudes modulate neural activity while viewing faces of presidential candidates. Ten registered Democrats and 10 registered Republicans were scanned in an event-related functional MRI paradigm while viewing pictures of the faces of George Bush, John Kerry, and Ralph Nader during the 2004 United States presidential campaign. We found that compared with viewing one's own candidate, viewing the candidate from the opposing political party produced signal changes in cognitive control circuitry in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate, as well as in emotional regions such as the insula and anterior temporal poles. BOLD signal in these regions correlated with subjects' self-reported ratings of how they felt emotionally about the candidates. These data suggest that brain activity when viewing a politician's face is affected by the political allegiance of the viewer and that people regulate their emotional reactions to opposing candidates by activating cognitive control networks.

  14. Sex-linked dominant

    MedlinePlus

    Inheritance - sex-linked dominant; Genetics - sex-linked dominant; X-linked dominant; Y-linked dominant ... can be either an autosomal chromosome or a sex chromosome. It also depends on whether the trait ...

  15. Moral foundations and political attitudes: The moderating role of political sophistication.

    PubMed

    Milesi, Patrizia

    2016-08-01

    Political attitudes can be associated with moral concerns. This research investigated whether people's level of political sophistication moderates this association. Based on the Moral Foundations Theory, this article examined whether political sophistication moderates the extent to which reliance on moral foundations, as categories of moral concerns, predicts judgements about policy positions. With this aim, two studies examined four policy positions shown by previous research to be best predicted by the endorsement of Sanctity, that is, the category of moral concerns focused on the preservation of physical and spiritual purity. The results showed that reliance on Sanctity predicted political sophisticates' judgements, as opposed to those of unsophisticates, on policy positions dealing with equal rights for same-sex and unmarried couples and with euthanasia. Political sophistication also interacted with Fairness endorsement, which includes moral concerns for equal treatment of everybody and reciprocity, in predicting judgements about equal rights for unmarried couples, and interacted with reliance on Authority, which includes moral concerns for obedience and respect for traditional authorities, in predicting opposition to stem cell research. Those findings suggest that, at least for these particular issues, endorsement of moral foundations can be associated with political attitudes more strongly among sophisticates than unsophisticates.

  16. Genomics of Sex and Sex Chromosomes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sex chromosomes are distinctive, not only because of their gender determining role, but also for genomic features that reflect their evolutionary history. The genomic sequences in the ancient sex chromosomes of humans and in the incipient sex chromosomes of medaka, stickleback, and papaya exhibit u...

  17. Sex Differences in Frailty.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Ruth E

    2015-01-01

    Although women live longer lives than men, they tend to have poorer health status. Here, we review the biological and socio-behavioral factors that may contribute to this sex-frailty paradox. The conceptual framework that frailty is a product of the environment and the recovery rate provides a new understanding of women's frailty burden. Even developed countries may present an environment more adverse for women, and lifestyle factors may increase women's vulnerability to stochastic subcellular events that increase recovery time. The frailty index does not reach the theoretical maximal value of 1; its limit is lower in men (0.61) compared to women (0.69). Perhaps deterministic characteristics omitted in current deficit counts, such as reduced emotional adaptability, are more prevalent in men. Alternatively, different limits may result from quantitative evolutionary design, such as a fitness-frailty pleiotropy in men or fertility-frailty pleiotropy in women. The engineering principle of safety factors (maximal capacity divided by routine functioning) may also be informative. If the human system has the same safety factor as its organs (approximately 2.5), men may be 'calibrated' around a frailty index of 0.244, compared to 0.276 for women. Because 0.25 represents the tipping point between functional independence and reliance on others, evolutionary design may have allowed for some limited dependence in women, perhaps motivated by the perinatal period. PMID:26301978

  18. [Emotional responsiveness of substance abusers under outpatient treatment].

    PubMed

    Chicharro, Juan; Pérez-García, Ana M; Sanjuán, Pilar

    2012-01-01

    The emotions predispose to action providing information from both internal and external environment. There is evidence indicating that the emotional response in drugdependent patients is different from that of the not consuming population. The present work analyzed the emotions of drugdependent under ambulatory treatment (N=57), following the Lang's theory of emotion, considering the dimensions of valence, arousal and dominance or control, across the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), individually applied. The results were contrasted with a control group of not consuming persons (N=44) of similar age, since this variable concerns emotional experience. The influence of sex was also analyzed, considering the possible differences between men and women in emotional experience. The results can be summarized in the following points: (1) There were significant differences between substance abusers and not consumers in the dimension of valence, valuing the consumers the emotional stimuli of the most extreme form (the agreeable ones as better, and the disagreeable ones as worse); (2) there were no differences between both groups in the arousal and dominance dimensions; and (3) women reported more arousal before aversive images, and less before the sexual ones, than males, independently of they were or not substance abusers. Finally, it is suggested the need to deep into the analysis of sex differences and into the images selected, as well as into the usefulness of the emotion centred therapies for the treatment of drugdependency.

  19. Jury Selection as Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowlkes, Diane L.; And Others

    Three political scientists diagnose the current state of political influence on jury selection in political trials, based upon personal experience, upon the literature of political theory, justice, and law, and upon recent action of lawyers, judges, defense committees, and some defendants. Political trials are interpreted as formal examinations of…

  20. The Politics of Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavale, Kenneth A.; Forness, Steven R.

    1998-01-01

    This analysis of the politics of learning disabilities finds that the balance between political and scientific aspects of learning disabilities has been disturbed, with political aspects being overly influential. Discussed in detail are the scientific side of learning disabilities, politics as advocacy, politics as ideology (especially Marxism),…

  1. Political Corruption in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Steven R.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Provides an overview of political corruption and its place in Japanese culture and society. Discusses recent scandals and efforts at political reform. These efforts are moving Japan from a "boss-patronage" system to a "civic-culture." Includes a table of post-war Japanese prime ministers and corruption scandals. (MJP)

  2. Sexuality, Power, and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartsock, Nancy C. M.

    The source of contemporary attitudes toward sexuality, power, and politics is found in the literature of the ancient Greeks, specifically, Plato's "Republic" and "Symposium," Aristotle's "Politics," and the plays of Aeschylus and Aristophanes. The "Symposium" can be read as an account of how sexuality can be incorporated into the public life of…

  3. ICTs and Political Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbin, Alice; Courtright, Christina; Davis, Leah

    2004-01-01

    Presents a literature review that covers the following topics related to information and communications technologies (ICTs): (1) theories of ICTs and how they frame political life; (2) normative democratic theory and concepts; (3) e-political life; and (4) research on e-government, e-governance, and e-democracy; (Contains 276 references.) (MES)

  4. Educating for Political Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitty, Clyde

    2010-01-01

    The term "political activity" can be interpreted in a myriad of different ways, but in this paper, it is taken to mean involvement in a variety of campaigns around issues affecting the way we live and the sort of society we want to live in. At a time when support for the main political parties has never been weaker, it is essential that teachers…

  5. The Politics of Encyclopaedias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fozooni, Babak

    2012-01-01

    The paper assesses the political credibility of three encyclopaedias (Encyclopaedia Britannica, Encyclopedia of Marxism and Wikipedia) in relation to three chosen topics (Friedrich Engels's biography; the political philosophy of fascism; and, the discipline of social psychology). I was interested in discerning how entries are represented and…

  6. America's Political Cartoon Heritage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heitzmann, William Ray

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of political cartoons in the United States from the first (Benjamin Franklin's "Unite or Die") in 1754 to the present. Discusses three requirements for effective cartoons, and identifies important cartoonists and their work. Characterizes political cartoons as one of the United States' liveliest, most enjoyable, and permanent…

  7. Principals' Perceptions of Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tooms, Autumn K.; Kretovics, Mark A.; Smialek, Charles A.

    2007-01-01

    This study is an effort to examine principals' perceptions of workplace politics and its influence on their productivity and efficacy. A survey was used to explore the perceptions of current school administrators with regard to workplace politics. The instrument was disseminated to principals serving public schools in one Midwestern state in the…

  8. The Politics of Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gell, Marilyn K.

    1979-01-01

    Introduces the political issues to be discussed at the first White House Conference on Library and Information Services which will focus on citizen control of the information flow in view of developing demands and technology. A desired political result of the conference is the creation of a citizens' lobby. (SW)

  9. "Structures of Feeling" in Curriculum and Teaching: Theorizing the Emotional Rules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2002-01-01

    Explores how discursive, political, and cultural aspects define the experience of teacher emotion, comparing Raymond Williams' concept of "structure of feeling" with Foucauldian poststructuralism, especially the notions of discourse analysis and power relations. The paper theorizes about the development and definition of emotional rules in…

  10. Effective Evidence-Based Interventions for Emotional Well-Being: Lessons for Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bywater, Tracey; Sharples, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    School-based programmes developed to promote social and emotional well-being aims to reduce the risk of academic failure and other negative outcomes, such as antisocial behaviour and mental health problems. This article maps the British political trajectory from understanding the importance of social and emotional well-being, to delivering…

  11. Drawing as a Tool to Promote Emotional Health in the EFL Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rajuan, Maureen; Gidoni, Yasmin

    2014-01-01

    Due to frequent exposure of Israeli pupils to political violence, it was meaningful to conduct research on ways to promote the expression of emotions in the English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in conflict-ridden contexts. Drawing, as a tool for emotional health, may serve to reduce general anxiety, as well as foreign language learning…

  12. Impaired Perception of Emotional Expression in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Seong-il; Oh, Ki-Wook; Kim, Hee-Jin; Park, Jin-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose The increasing recognition that deficits in social emotions occur in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is helping to explain the spectrum of neuropsychological dysfunctions, thus supporting the view of ALS as a multisystem disorder involving neuropsychological deficits as well as motor deficits. The aim of this study was to characterize the emotion perception abilities of Korean patients with ALS based on the recognition of facial expressions. Methods Twenty-four patients with ALS and 24 age- and sex-matched healthy controls completed neuropsychological tests and facial emotion recognition tasks [ChaeLee Korean Facial Expressions of Emotions (ChaeLee-E)]. The ChaeLee-E test includes facial expressions for seven emotions: happiness, sadness, anger, disgust, fear, surprise, and neutral. Results The ability to perceive facial emotions was significantly worse among ALS patients performed than among healthy controls [65.2±18.0% vs. 77.1±6.6% (mean±SD), p=0.009]. Eight of the 24 patients (33%) scored below the 5th percentile score of controls for recognizing facial emotions. Conclusions Emotion perception deficits occur in Korean ALS patients, particularly regarding facial expressions of emotion. These findings expand the spectrum of cognitive and behavioral dysfunction associated with ALS into emotion processing dysfunction. PMID:27095526

  13. Practical emotional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ehsan; Akbarzadeh-T, M-R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a limbic-based artificial emotional neural network (LiAENN) for a pattern recognition problem. LiAENN is a novel computational neural model of the emotional brain that models emotional situations such as anxiety and confidence in the learning process, the short paths, the forgetting processes, and inhibitory mechanisms of the emotional brain. In the model, the learning weights are adjusted by the proposed anxious confident decayed brain emotional learning rules (ACDBEL). In engineering applications, LiAENN is utilized in facial detection, and emotion recognition. According to the comparative results on ORL and Yale datasets, LiAENN shows a higher accuracy than other applied emotional networks such as brain emotional learning (BEL) and emotional back propagation (EmBP) based networks.

  14. The Prediction of Political Competencies by Political Action and Political Media Consumption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichert, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Political competencies are often considered a precondition for political action; however, they are not independent of previous political participation, which may also include the frequency and the kind of political media consumption. My research aims at finding out the importance of participation in political activities in the past, as well as…

  15. A Study of Play as a Predictor of Social-Emotional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Investigates whether the Piagetian forms of sensorimotor, symbolic, and constructional play--together with controlled demographics such as socioeconomic status, age, and sex--predict social-emotional variables on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale. (RH)

  16. Student life - Making politics matter.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Siobhan

    2014-12-01

    'What has politics got to do with nursing?' This is a question I hear often as a lecturer in nursing with a specialist interest in politics, as is the comment: 'I did not come into nursing to learn about politics.'

  17. Sex Differences in Stress-Related Psychiatric Disorders: Neurobiological Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Bangasser, Debra A.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress is associated with the onset and severity of several psychiatric disorders that occur more frequently in women than men, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Patients with these disorders present with dysregulation of several stress response systems, including the neuroendocrine response to stress, corticolimbic responses to negatively valenced stimuli, and hyperarousal. Thus, sex differences within their underlying circuitry may explain sex biases in disease prevalence. This review describes clinical studies that identify sex differences within the activity of these circuits, as well as preclinical studies that demonstrate cellular and molecular sex differences in stress responses systems. These studies reveal sex differences from the molecular to the systems level that increase endocrine, emotional, and arousal responses to stress in females. Exploring these sex differences is critical because this research can reveal the neurobiological underpinnings of vulnerability to stress-related psychiatric disorders and guide the development of novel pharmacotherapies. PMID:24726661

  18. Criminalization, legalization or decriminalization of sex work: what female sex workers say in San Francisco, USA.

    PubMed

    Lutnick, Alexandra; Cohan, Deborah

    2009-11-01

    Sex work is a criminal offence in San Francisco, USA, and sex work advocates have so far unsuccessfully campaigned for decriminalizing it. Some groups argue that the decriminalization movement does not represent the voices of marginalized sex workers. Using qualitative and quantitative data from the Sex Worker Environmental Assessment Team Study, we investigated the perspectives and experiences of a range of female sex workers regarding the legal status of sex work and the impact of criminal law on their work experiences. Forty women were enrolled in the qualitative phase in 2004 and 247 women in the quantitative phase in 2006-07. Overall, the women in this study seemed to prefer a hybrid of legalization and decriminalization. The majority voiced a preference for removing statutes that criminalize sex work in order to facilitate a social and political environment where they had legal rights and could seek help when they were victims of violence. Advocacy groups need to explore the compromises sex workers are willing to make to ensure safe working conditions and the same legal protections afforded to other workers, and with those who are most marginalized to better understand their immediate needs and how these can be met through decriminalization.

  19. Emotional intelligence and psychological health in a sample of Kuwaiti college students.

    PubMed

    Alkhadher, Othman

    2007-06-01

    This summary investigated correlations between emotional intelligence and psychological health amongst 191 Kuwaiti undergraduate students in psychology, 98 men and 93 women (M age=20.6 yr., SD=2.8). There were two measures of emotional intelligence, one based on the ability model, the Arabic Test for Emotional Intelligence, and the other on the mixed model, the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire. Participants' psychological health was assessed using scales from the Personality Assessment Inventory. A weak relationship between the two types of emotional intelligence was found. A correlation for scores on the Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire with the Personality Assessment Inventory was found but not with those of the Arabic Test for Emotional Intelligence. Regression analysis indicated scores on Managing Emotions and Self-awareness accounted for most of the variance in the association with the Personality Assessment Inventory. Significant sex differences were found only on the Arabic Test for Emotional Intelligence; women scored higher than men. On Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire measures, men had significantly higher means on Managing Emotions and Self-motivation. However, no significant differences were found between the sexes on the Total Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire scores.

  20. Emotion and decision making.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-01

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.

  1. Sex trafficking in South Asia.

    PubMed

    Huda, S

    2006-09-01

    Economic and social inequalities and political conflicts have led to the movement of persons within each country and across the borders in South Asia. Globalization has encouraged free mobility of capital, technology, experts and sex tourism. Illiteracy, dependency, violence, social stigma, cultural stereotypes, gender disparity and endemic poverty, among other factors, place women and children in powerless, non-negotiable situations that have contributed to the emergence and breeding of the cavernous problem of sex trafficking in the entire region. This alarming spread of sex trafficking has fuelled the spread of HIV infection in South Asia, posing a unique and serious threat to community health, poverty alleviation and other crucial aspects of human development. Although the SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) Convention on Trafficking in Women and Children has been an important breakthrough, most of the countries in the region do not have anti-trafficking legislation or means to protect the victims. Countries of the region should make a concerted effort to treat trafficking victims as "victims" of human rights violations in all anti-trafficking strategies and actions.

  2. Sex differences in brain control of prosody.

    PubMed

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Grabowska, Anna

    2007-03-14

    Affective (emotional) prosody is a neuropsychological function that encompasses non-verbal aspects of language that are necessary for recognizing and conveying emotions in communication, whereas non-affective (linguistic) prosody indicates whether the sentence is a question, an order or a statement. Considerable evidence points to a dominant role for the right hemisphere in both aspects of prosodic function. However, it has yet to be established whether separate parts of the right hemisphere are involved in processing different kinds of emotional intonation. The aim of this study was to answer this question. In addition, the issue of sex differences in the ability to understand prosody was considered. Fifty-two patients with damage to frontal, temporo-parietal or subcortical (basal) parts of the right hemisphere and 26 controls were tested for their ability to assess prosody information in normal (well-formed) sentences and in pseudo-sentences. General impairment of prosody processing was seen in all patient groups but the effect of damage was more apparent for emotional rather than linguistic prosody. Interestingly, appreciation of emotional prosody appeared to depend on the type of emotional expression and the location of the brain lesion. The patients with frontal damage were mostly impaired in comprehension of happy intonations; those with temporo-parietal damage in assessment of sad intonations, while subcortical lesions mostly affected comprehension of angry intonations. Differential effects of lesion location on the performance of men and women were also observed. Frontal lesions were more detrimental to women, whereas subcortical lesions led to stronger impairment in men. This suggests sex differences in brain organization of prosodic functions. PMID:17005213

  3. The Riddle of Sex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, Dorion; Margulis, Lynn

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the work of evolutionary biologists in determining how sexual reproduction arose. Topics explored include the nature of sex, bacterial sex, meiotic sex, and asexual reproduction. A diagram (which can be used as a duplicating master) illustrating types of bacterial sex is included. (DH)

  4. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally.

  5. Same-sex marriage: a new social phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Chamie, Joseph; Mirkin, Barry

    2011-01-01

    Same-sex marriage (SSM) is a new social phenomenon. In modern times SSM did not exist until the 21st century when an increasing number of countries began permitting same-sex couples to marry legally. This study presents statistical and related evidence concerning SSM worldwide, with special attention to the United States, where SSM has evolved into a major political and legal issue. In addition to examining data on levels and trends, differentials between men and women are investigated. The study also considers common arguments for and against SSM and likely changes in laws and policies that may occur. Although same-sex marriage now exists in a small number of countries and US states, its consequences and implications are being felt far beyond the borders of those countries and areas. In coming years same-sex marriage will remain a controversial and salient part of the legal, political, and cultural landscape, locally, nationally, and internationally. PMID:22167814

  6. The pattern of sexual politics: feminism, homosexuality and pedophilia.

    PubMed

    Mirkin, H

    1999-01-01

    Until recently sex and gender issues were thought to be biological or natural rather than political. The feminist movement largely changed perceptions of gender, and the gay and lesbian movements significantly altered conceptions of sex, so that what were once seen as permanent moral standards are now viewed as historical and political constructions. As views of these groups have moved towards social constructionism, perceptions of child sexuality have become more absolutist. Current attitudes towards child sexuality and representations of it resemble historical attitudes towards women and homosexuals. This article argues that there is a two-phase pattern of sexual politics. The first is a battle to prevent the battle, to keep the issue from being seen as political and negotiable. Psychological and moral categories are used to justify ridicule and preclude any discussions of the issue, and standard Constitutional guarantees are seen as irrelevant. The second phase more closely resembles traditional politics as different groups argue over rights and privileges. Feminist and gay/lesbian politics have recently entered the second phase, while pedophilia is in the first. PMID:10207822

  7. Explaining sex differences in reactions to relationship infidelities: comparisons of the roles of sex, gender, beliefs, attachment, and sociosexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Brase, Gary L; Adair, Lora; Monk, Kale

    2014-02-04

    To the extent that sex differences are mediated by mechanisms such as sex-roles and beliefs, individual differences in these more proximate traits should account for significant portions of relevant sex differences. Differences between women and men in reactions to sexual and emotional infidelity were assessed in a large sample of participants (n = 477), and these target reactions were evaluated as a function of many potential proximate mediators (infidelity implications beliefs, gender-role beliefs, interpersonal trust, attachment style, sociosexuality, and culture of honor beliefs) and as a function of participant sex. Results found a consistent sex difference that was not mediated by any other variables, although a handful of other variables were related to male, but not female, individual differences. These findings suggest particularly promising directions for future research on integrating evolutionarily based sex differences and proximate individual differences.

  8. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  9. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation: Evidence From Germany.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-05-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach-by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour-and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research.

  10. Political Skill and Work Attitudes: A Comparison of Multiple Social Effectiveness Constructs.

    PubMed

    Banister, Christina M; Meriac, John P

    2015-01-01

    In the realm of social effectiveness constructs, political skill has seen increased attention as a predictor of work performance and attitudes. However, the extent that political skill is distinct from related variables in this area remains an important question. The current study examined the proportion of variance explained by political skill in job satisfaction and turnover intentions above and beyond other social effectiveness variables (i.e., social intelligence, emotional intelligence, agreeableness, and conscientiousness). Results indicated that political skill was the strongest predictor of these outcomes, and explained a significant proportion of variance in them, beyond the other four social effectiveness constructs. PMID:25425484

  11. Is There a Place for Emotions within Leadership Preparation Programmes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Michele J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the argument that leadership preparation programmes in the new millennium should be required to train school leaders emotionally as well as cognitively. A number of scholars have stressed that leaders are increasingly working within roles that are politically sensitive, conflicted and complex,…

  12. Giving Youth the Social and Emotional Skills to Succeed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerin, Ginny

    2005-01-01

    In these days of tremendous political pressure for results measured by standardized tests, time constraints can make social and emotional learning (SEL) a difficult undertaking for many classroom teachers. It seemed that after-school programs would be effective learning environments for supplying the missing piece in children's education. In this…

  13. Putting the politics back into lesbianism.

    PubMed

    Raymond, J G

    1997-01-01

    Abstract This article contrasts lesbianism as a political movement to lesbianism as a lifestyle. It addresses the current emphasis in lesbian circles on "sex as salvation," and maintains that this emphasis re-sexualizes women and de-politicizes lesbianism. The liberalism of lesbian lifestylism makes the male-power modes of sexuality, such as s & m, butch-femme, and bondage and domination, sexy for women. In the name of tolerance, difference, and lesbian community, many lesbians are dissuaded from making judgments and opposing such acts. Finally, the article describes the values of a lesbian feminism that has principles, politics, and passion. It proposes a context for what lesbian sexuality might look like rooted in lesbian imagination-not lesbian fantasies. PMID:24785168

  14. Sex Stratification in Community Politics and Decision Making.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Nina G.

    Because men hold most of the high status, decision-making positions in American society, they have greater access to and control of property, power, and prestige. Women, conversely, are accorded low status because they fulfill the lower prestige roles of childbearing and childrearing. Although some city and county government positions are filled…

  15. Sex Education for Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zitner, David

    1985-01-01

    Sex education evokes a wide variety of responses in the community and from teachers. Consequently, physicians have a responsibility to present sex education material in a factual, objective way. Many people are misinformed about sexual behavior. Physicians can help patients and the community by being aware of appropriate sex education for each age group. A curriculum for sex education, and opportunities to provide sex information for patients of different ages and stages in the lifecycle, are described. PMID:21274069

  16. Marriage and Family: LGBT Individuals and Same-Sex Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gates, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Though estimates vary, as many as 2 million to 3.7 million U.S. children under age 18 may have a lesbian, gay, bisexual, or transgender parent, and about 200,000 are being raised by same-sex couples. Much of the past decade's legal and political debate over allowing same-sex couples to marry has centered on these couples' suitability as parents,…

  17. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  18. Enacting Critical Learning: Power, Politics and Emotions at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehan, Kiran; Rigg, Clare

    2015-01-01

    This article seeks to develop the understanding of critical action learning (CAL) and to make a contribution to its theory and practice. The article begins by conceptualising critical action learning and builds on the work of Revans (1982) to stimulate fresh thinking. It provides a different calibration of his coupling of action and learning. An…

  19. Political leadership and the politics of nursing.

    PubMed

    Davies, Celia

    2004-07-01

    This article provides a critical examination of the concept of political leadership as it has recently developed in the field of nursing, arguing that despite its undoubted usefulness, there are important issues that it obscures. Using five guiding questions, it is proposed that a focus on political leadership is inward-looking and individualizing. It encourages a view of the profession as immature and it emphasizes separation instead of alliance formation. An alternative perspective starting from an assumption that nursing operates in a position of cultural and structural disadvantage is proposed. A close analysis of the government's strategy for nursing in England confirms the continuing cultural ambiguity that surrounds nursing. This enables a number of questions to be posed concerning where nursing fits in relation to current health policy on workforce change and raises doubts about just how far the historical neglect of nursing in policy arenas has been overcome.

  20. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  1. Sex, Sexual Orientation, and Identification of Positive and Negative Facial Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahman, Qazi; Wilson, Glenn D.; Abrahams, Sharon

    2004-01-01

    Sex and sexual orientation related differences in processing of happy and sad facial emotions were examined using an experimental facial emotion recognition paradigm with a large sample (N=240). Analysis of covariance (controlling for age and IQ) revealed that women (irrespective of sexual orientation) had faster reaction times than men for…

  2. Lifelong Political Socialization, Consciousness and Political Agency in Israel Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, Dirk

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with the nexus between biographical experiences in political extraordinary times of crisis, disaster and terror and their influence on political orientations. At the centre of interest is the reconstruction of political orientations related to two different historical-political groups of Jewish Germans who had immigrated or…

  3. Political Socialization and Political Interest: The Role of School Reassessed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koskimaa, Vesa; Rapeli, Lauri

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing concern about the lack of political interest and engagement among Western youth. This has led to a revival of political socialization studies. One recent finding is that (late) adolescence is key to understanding the development of interest for politics. This study builds on this finding by examining political interest among…

  4. Australia's Political Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawer, Geoffrey

    1984-01-01

    Australia is an independent nation-state, federally constituted under a democratic parliamentary system. Being part of the Commonwealth of Nations, with feelings of loyalty to the Crown, Australia is also a democratic monarchy. Its political structure is discussed. (RM)

  5. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine. PMID:2042221

  6. Hispanics: A Political Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roybal, Edward R.

    1979-01-01

    Provides insight into the experience of Spanish Americans in the predominantly Anglo culture of the United States and evaluates political gains made by Hispanics since the establishment of the Congressional Hispanic Caucus in 1976. (DB)

  7. [Medical politics. Graffiti].

    PubMed

    Fugelli, P

    1991-03-20

    If doctors want to play a role in future health promotion, they have to leave their citadel, and come closer to life and society. Modern preventive medicine cannot be dissociated from basic political, cultural and religious values and processes. Genetic counseling and engineering, influencing lifestyle, community intervention and changing the health culture among patients and doctors all require ethical and political competence rather than traditional medical skills. The author advocates the development of a new discipline, medical politics, with two major commitments: -To define basic health rights -To study the public health consequences of political systems and decisions. In a polemic and provocative style the article enlightens the potentials and dangers associated with an expanded concept of preventive medicine.

  8. The Politics of Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, John

    1979-01-01

    Contends that the political philosophy underlying Mina Shaughnessy's "Errors and Expectations" is one which reinforces both the teacher's position of control and the training of minority students to follow and obey authority. (DD)

  9. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  10. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  11. Teaching Emotional Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Jerome

    In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

  12. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... about what you might do next time. continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react well are part of a bigger ... about being able to notice and identify the emotions we feel at any given moment. It is ...

  13. Music, memory and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  14. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  15. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

  16. Does Emotions Communication Ability Affect Psychological Well-Being? A Study with the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) v2.0.

    PubMed

    Lanciano, Tiziana; Curci, Antonietta

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the current study was to provide evidence regarding the relationship between emotions communication ability--in terms of emotional intelligence (EI)--and psychological well-being. Additionally, the study explored the moderating effect of sex on this relationship. Participants filled in the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, General Health Questionnaire, Psychological General Well-Being Index, and Depression Questionnaire. Results showed the moderating role of sex in the relationship between EI ability and psychological well-being. Furthermore, the associations between EI and psychological well-being measures were generally higher for men than for women, supporting the idea that sex needs to be taken into account when considering EI measures. The potential helpfulness of EI and emotions communications ability in promoting mental health is discussed.

  17. [Emotion, amygdala, and autonomic nervous system].

    PubMed

    Ueyama, Takashi

    2012-10-01

    Emotion refers to the dynamic changes of feeling accompanied by the alteration of physical and visceral activities. Autonomic nervous system (sympathetic and parasympathetic) regulates the visceral activities. Therefore, monitoring and analyzing autonomic nervous activity help understand the emotional changes. To this end, the survey of the expression of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-Fos in the brain and target organs, and the viral transneuronal labeling method using the pseudorabies virus (PRV) have enabled the visualization of the neurocircuitry of emotion. By comparing c-Fos expression and data from PRV or other neuroanatomical labeling techniques, the central sites that regulate emotional stress-induced autonomic activation can be deduced. Such regions have been identified in the limbic system (e. g., the extended amygdaloid complex; lateral septum; and infralimbic, insular, and ventromedial temporal cortical regions), as well as in several hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei. The amygdala is structurally diverse and comprises several subnuclei, which play a role in emotional process via projections from the cortex and a variety of subcortical structures. All amygdaloid subnuclei receive psychological information from other limbic systems, while the lateral and central subnuclei receive peripheral and sensory information. Output to the hypothalamus and peripheral sympathetic system mainly originates from the medial amygdala. As estrogen receptor α, estrogen receptor β, and androgen receptor are expressed in the medial amygdala, sex steroids may modulate the autonomic nervous activities.

  18. MDMA enhances emotional empathy and prosocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Hysek, Cédric M; Schmid, Yasmin; Simmler, Linda D; Domes, Gregor; Heinrichs, Markus; Eisenegger, Christoph; Preller, Katrin H; Quednow, Boris B; Liechti, Matthias E

    2014-11-01

    3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, 'ecstasy') releases serotonin and norepinephrine. MDMA is reported to produce empathogenic and prosocial feelings. It is unknown whether MDMA in fact alters empathic concern and prosocial behavior. We investigated the acute effects of MDMA using the Multifaceted Empathy Test (MET), dynamic Face Emotion Recognition Task (FERT) and Social Value Orientation (SVO) test. We also assessed effects of MDMA on plasma levels of hormones involved in social behavior using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, random-order, cross-over design in 32 healthy volunteers (16 women). MDMA enhanced explicit and implicit emotional empathy in the MET and increased prosocial behavior in the SVO test in men. MDMA did not alter cognitive empathy in the MET but impaired the identification of negative emotions, including fearful, angry and sad faces, in the FERT, particularly in women. MDMA increased plasma levels of cortisol and prolactin, which are markers of serotonergic and noradrenergic activity, and of oxytocin, which has been associated with prosocial behavior. In summary, MDMA sex-specifically altered the recognition of emotions, emotional empathy and prosociality. These effects likely enhance sociability when MDMA is used recreationally and may be useful when MDMA is administered in conjunction with psychotherapy in patients with social dysfunction or post-traumatic stress disorder.

  19. Iron and mechanisms of emotional behavior.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jonghan; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2014-11-01

    Iron is required for appropriate behavioral organization. Iron deficiency results in poor brain myelination and impaired monoamine metabolism. Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid homeostasis is modified by changes in brain iron status. Such changes produce not only deficits in memory/learning capacity and motor skills, but also emotional and psychological problems. An accumulating body of evidence indicates that both energy metabolism and neurotransmitter homeostasis influence emotional behavior, and both functions are influenced by brain iron status. Like other neurobehavioral aspects, the influence of iron metabolism on mechanisms of emotional behavior is multifactorial: brain region-specific control of behavior, regulation of neurotransmitters and associated proteins, temporal and regional differences in iron requirements, oxidative stress responses to excess iron, sex differences in metabolism, and interactions between iron and other metals. To better understand the role that brain iron plays in emotional behavior and mental health, this review discusses the pathologies associated with anxiety and other emotional disorders with respect to body iron status.

  20. The Relationship of Gender, Sex Role, and Law-and-Order Attitudes to Nuclear Opinions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effect of gender, sex role orientation, and political orientation on attitudes among 46 male and 62 female first-year university students in Perth, Australia, concerning nuclear weapons. Females were found to be more opposed to their development and use. Discusses practical implications for political behavior. (DM)

  1. Has Political Science Ignored Religion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettell, Steven

    2012-01-01

    A common complaint from political scientists involved in the study of religion is that religious issues have been largely overlooked by political science. Through a content analysis of leading political science and sociology journals from 2000 to 2010, this article considers the extent of this claim. The results show that political science…

  2. Women and Politics in Chile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwood, Julieta

    1983-01-01

    Political parties in Chile of both the left and right have focused more on drawing women into their ideologies than on considering what political issues mean to women. A look at feminist thought shows how political life for women includes not only the traditional political arena but also domestic life. (IS)

  3. The operator's emotional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilberman, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional stability in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional stability is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional stability can be determined.

  4. Beyond the 'safe sex' propaganda.

    PubMed

    Hadzic, Maja; Khajehei, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss sexual relationships among teenagers, the related issues, and suggest addressing the issues through effective education programs for both teenagers and their parents. We also discuss the main issues resulting from initiation of sexual relationship during adolescence such as unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality, abortion, sexually transmitted diseases and damaged mental health. In addition, we highlight the lack of adequate sex education in teenagers and emphasize on the negative influence of TV programs and the harmful effects of dysfunctional families. Moreover, this article proposes equipping teenagers with knowledge that will help them understand not only physical but also emotional, social, and mental dynamics of sexual relationships. We believe that this approach would intervene much earlier in their life, help teenagers make healthy decision and minimize negative consequences of their personal choices.

  5. Beyond the 'safe sex' propaganda.

    PubMed

    Hadzic, Maja; Khajehei, Marjan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss sexual relationships among teenagers, the related issues, and suggest addressing the issues through effective education programs for both teenagers and their parents. We also discuss the main issues resulting from initiation of sexual relationship during adolescence such as unwanted pregnancy, maternal mortality, abortion, sexually transmitted diseases and damaged mental health. In addition, we highlight the lack of adequate sex education in teenagers and emphasize on the negative influence of TV programs and the harmful effects of dysfunctional families. Moreover, this article proposes equipping teenagers with knowledge that will help them understand not only physical but also emotional, social, and mental dynamics of sexual relationships. We believe that this approach would intervene much earlier in their life, help teenagers make healthy decision and minimize negative consequences of their personal choices. PMID:21061922

  6. Emotional eating as a mediator between depression and weight gain.

    PubMed

    van Strien, Tatjana; Konttinen, Hanna; Homberg, Judith R; Engels, Rutger C M E; Winkens, Laura H H

    2016-05-01

    Depression is often associated with weight gain but underlying mechanisms are unclear. This study assessed whether three psychological eating styles (emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating) act as mediators between depression and weight gain. We used structural equation modelling to test the hypothesized mediation models in a sample of 298 fathers and 294 mothers by assessing self-reported eating styles (Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire), depressive feelings (Depressive Mood List) and body mass index (BMI) at baseline and BMI after five years. In the model with emotional eating we also assessed the moderation effect of 5-HTTLPR genotype in a sub-sample of 520 Caucasians. All analyses were performed separately for the two sexes. Although the overall effect of depression on weight gain was statistically non-significant in both sexes, there was a causal chain between depression, emotional eating and weight gain in the mothers. Depressive symptoms were related to higher emotional eating and emotional eating predicted greater increases in BMI independently of depression. Moreover, the indirect effect (via emotional eating) of depression on BMI change was significant (Beta = 0.18, P = 0.026). This mediation effect was found to be independent of 5-HTTLPR genotype. No such mediation effect was found for the fathers. Further, external eating and restrained eating did not act as mediators between depression and weight gain in either sex. The finding that emotional eating acted as mediator between depression and weight gain in the mothers suggests that obesity interventions should take emotional eating into account. PMID:26911261

  7. Sex Differences in Facial Scanning: Similarities and Dissimilarities between Infants and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennels, Jennifer L.; Cummings, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    When face processing studies find sex differences, male infants appear better at face recognition than female infants, whereas female adults appear better at face recognition than male adults. Both female infants and adults, however, discriminate emotional expressions better than males. To investigate if sex and age differences in facial scanning…

  8. Overexcitabilities in Gifted and Non-Gifted Adults: Does Sex Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirthwein, Linda; Becker, Carolin V.; Loehr, Eva-Maria; Rost, Detlef H.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have shown sex differences regarding "overexcitabilities": women score higher than men in emotional and sensual overexcitability whereas men tend to excel in intellectual as well as in psychomotor overexcitability. Some studies even found no sex differences at all. Many studies comprised gifted/talented subjects. Taking into account the…

  9. The Influence of Sex and Violence on the Appeal of Rock Music Videos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Christine Hall; Hansen, Ranald D.

    1990-01-01

    Examines the effects of sex and violence in rock music videos on viewers to determine the appeal of and emotional responses to the videos. Finds that videos containing the highest level of sex were judged most appealing and resulted in more positive moods. Finds also that viewers did not enjoy violent videos. (KEH)

  10. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence.

  11. Darwin and emotion expression.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This article presents Darwin's three principles in this area and then discusses some of the research topics that developed out of his theoretical vision. In particular, the focus is on five issues--(a) the question of what emotion expressions express, (b) the notion of basic emotions, (c) the universality of emotion expressions, (d) the question of emotion prototypes, and (e) the issue of animal emotions--all of which trace their roots to Darwin's discussion of his first two principles.

  12. Hormonal contraception usage is associated with altered memory for an emotional story.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ertman, Nicole; Lakhani, Yasmeen S; Cahill, Larry

    2011-09-01

    Substantial evidence now documents sex-related influences on the neurobiology of emotional memory. Robust sex influences exist, for example, on the amygdala's role in emotional memory formation, as well as on retention of central information (gist) and detail for an emotional event. Evidence also suggests that the well-documented effects of stress hormones on memory depend upon sex hormone levels. Since hormonal contraception alters sex hormone levels, and must by extension alter sex/stress hormone interactions in memory, we examined whether the use of hormonal contraception also alters memory for an emotional story. Two groups of healthy female subjects--one naturally cycling, one using hormonal contraception--viewed either a brief, emotionally arousing story, or a closely matched, but more emotionally neutral story. Each subject's eye movements and pupil dilation changes were recorded as they viewed the story. Additionally, saliva samples were taken throughout the experimental session to examine salivary alpha-amylase, a biomarker for norepinephrine. A surprise free recall test one week later measured story memory in all subjects. Naturally cycling women exhibited enhanced memory of story details, but not of central information (gist), in the emotional compared with neutral story conditions. In contrast, women using hormonal contraception exhibited enhanced memory of gist, but not story details, in the emotional compared with neutral story conditions. Analysis of eye movements made while watching the stories indicated that the differences in memory could not be attributed either to a differential attention focus or to the degree of arousal induced by the stories in the two groups. These findings suggest that the use of hormonal contraception alters memory for an emotional event, perhaps by altering sex/stress hormone interactions in memory formation. They also suggest that further investigation of the mnemonic effects of these very widely used treatments is

  13. Unisexual cucumber flowers, sex and sex differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Shu-Nong; Xu, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a universal phenomenon in the world of eukaryotes. Attempts have been made to understand regulatory mechanisms for plant sex determination by investigating unisexual flowers. The cucumber plant is one of the model systems for studying how sex determination is regulated by phytohormones. A systematic investigation of the development of unisexual cucumber flowers is summarized here, and it is suggested that the mechanism of the unisexual flower can help us to understand how the process leading to one type of gametogenesis is prevented. Based on these findings, we concluded that the unisexual cucumber flowers is not an issue of sex differentiation, but instead a mechanism for avoiding self-pollination. Sex differentiation is essentially the divergent point(s) leading to heterogametogenesis. On the basis of analyses of sex differentiation in unicellular organisms and animals as well as the core process of plant life cycle, a concept of "sexual reproduction cycle" is proposed for understanding the essential role of sex and a "progressive model" for future investigations of sex differentiation in plants.

  14. The bumpy road to socialise nature: sex education in Japan.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huiyan

    2011-09-01

    This study was prompted by an empirical puzzle: why is sex education in schools so underdeveloped in Japan compared to many other industrialised societies? On the one hand, formal pedagogy under state policy is conservative, emphasising reproductive and prophylactic purposes rather than a comprehensive understanding of sexuality. On the other hand, however, Japan has a highly visible sexual environment where a variety of commercial sex activities are tolerated and even encouraged. The aim of the paper is to provide an integrated picture of these apparently contradictory trends by examining the nexus of political, economic and sociocultural factors that affect sex education in contemporary Japan.

  15. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  16. A Sex Education Program in a Therapeutic Pre-School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ware, Lucile M.; And Others

    Described is a sex education program for preschool children with emotional and learning problems in a therapeutic center. It is explained that the "Baby Week" method combines experimental and didactic learninq sequences geared to the developmental needs of this age group. The setting, planning, and organization of the program are discussed, and…

  17. Social-emotional aspects of male escorting: experiences of men working for an agency.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael D; Grov, Christian; Seal, David W; Bernhardt, Nicholas; McCall, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Social situations and emotional correlates associated with male sex work have not been well documented. Most of the research in this area focuses on sexual activity with little mention of other aspects of the job. Yet, research with female sex workers finds significant social and emotional components to sex work. The current study focused on how male sex workers (MSWs) perceived and adapted to the social-emotional aspects of their job. As part of a larger project examining MSWs working for a single escort agency, 40 men (M age, 22.3 years, 75 % Caucasian) located in the mid-Atlantic U.S. participated in semi-structured interviews. The agency owner was also interviewed. Participants reported a range of social and emotional factors regarding sex work and employed a variety of strategies to provide good customer service and adapt to negative experiences. For most, social support was inhibited due to fear of stigmatization that might result if participants disclosed sex work to significant others outside the agency. Instead, interactions within the agency provided core work-related social support for most MSWs. Emotional and relational tasks inherent to escort work grew easier with experience and negativity about the job declined. Our data suggested that socially connected individuals seemed to be more satisfied with sex work. Social and emotional requirements represented a significant but unanticipated component of male sex work to which escorts actively adapted. Escorting may be similar to other service occupations in terms of the social-emotional situations and skills involved. PMID:25119388

  18. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  19. Person x Context Effects on Anticipated Moral Emotions Following Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roos, Sanna; Salmivalli, Christina; Hodges, Ernest V. E.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated person (sex, aggression level), context (witness type, victim reactions), and person x context effects on children's anticipated moral emotions following hypothetical acts of aggression against a peer. Children (N = 378, mean age = 11.3 years) were presented a series of hypothetical vignettes in which the presence of witnesses (no…

  20. The Development of the Young Child's Representation of Emotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireson, Judith M.; Shields, Maureen

    The purpose of this study was to trace the development of children's understanding of emotions between the ages of 4 and 12. Twenty-four children at each of five age groups (4, 6, 8, 10, and 12), equally divided by sex, served as subjects. Three groups of tasks were administered: (1) the recognition of facial expressions from photographs, (2) the…

  1. Sex Education: Another View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Jennifer

    1977-01-01

    The mother of a 14-year-old mentally retarded boy comments on the viewpoints of Dr. Sol Gordon (a sex education columnist) regarding masturbation, questions on sex, marriage, and the parents' role. (SBH)

  2. Parents and Sex Education--Looking beyond "The Birds and the Bees"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Joy

    2004-01-01

    The social and political climate of sex education over the last two decades has dramatically changed, with parents now being encouraged to work in partnership with professionals. This paper seeks to further the argument that involving parents in their child's sex education does matter and can have an impact on their child's future sexual health.…

  3. Sex Education, Homosexuality, and Social Contestation in 1970s New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    This essay examines the relationships between homosexuality and sex education in New Zealand during the 1970s. It argues that reading sex education debates and resources provides a useful way of exploring connections between the ontologies and politics of sexuality at that time. In particular, the advent of social movements concerned with sexual…

  4. Learning to Be a Woman: Feminist Theological Reflections on Sex Education in Church Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isherwood, Lisa

    2004-01-01

    This article suggests that sex education in Church schools should address the personal as political through proclaiming the liberating potential of incarnational theology. The author suggests that Christian sex educators should be alert to the construction and commodification of desire and its attendant capitalist implications. While resisting…

  5. A primer on politics.

    PubMed

    Dean, S F

    1987-03-01

    In the preceding discussion "politics" was defined as the pursuit of power, and that pursuit of power was examined in the context of the local political scene. With this information, EMTs and paramedics may be better able to make sense of the complexities of local EMS politics and thereby relieve some of the frustration that all of us must feel as we look at a system that appears to be unresponsive and unmoving. John Naisbitt in his book Megatrends and Alvin Toffler in The Third Wave both discuss the decentralization of political power in the U.S. and the movement of power away from the federal government to state and local governments. There will probably be more opportunities, not less, for EMTs and paramedics to participate in local government decisions concerning the provision of emergency medical services in their community. Using the questions in each of the models will provide EMTS and paramedics a great deal of insight into the local political process. This will enable EMTs and paramedics to do themselves and their patients a great service by influencing the decisions made by local politicians, which will have a great impact on the quality of care that patients receive.

  6. Women and political representation.

    PubMed

    Rathod, P B

    1999-01-01

    A remarkable progress in women's participation in politics throughout the world was witnessed in the final decade of the 20th century. According to the Inter-Parliamentary Union report, there were only eight countries with no women in their legislatures in 1998. The number of women ministers at the cabinet level worldwide doubled in a decade, and the number of countries without any women ministers dropped from 93 to 48 during 1987-96. However, this progress is far from satisfactory. Political representation of women, minorities, and other social groups is still inadequate. This may be due to a complex combination of socioeconomic, cultural, and institutional factors. The view that women's political participation increases with social and economic development is supported by data from the Nordic countries, where there are higher proportions of women legislators than in less developed countries. While better levels of socioeconomic development, having a women-friendly political culture, and higher literacy are considered favorable factors for women's increased political representation, adopting one of the proportional representation systems (such as a party-list system, a single transferable vote system, or a mixed proportional system with multi-member constituencies) is the single factor most responsible for the higher representation of women.

  7. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment. PMID:26283476

  8. Politics in evaluation: Politically responsive evaluation in high stakes environments.

    PubMed

    Azzam, Tarek; Levine, Bret

    2015-12-01

    The role of politics has often been discussed in evaluation theory and practice. The political influence of the situation can have major effects on the evaluation design, approach and methods. Politics also has the potential to influence the decisions made from the evaluation findings. The current study focuses on the influence of the political context on stakeholder decision making. Utilizing a simulation scenario, this study compares stakeholder decision making in high and low stakes evaluation contexts. Findings suggest that high stakes political environments are more likely than low stakes environments to lead to reduced reliance on technically appropriate measures and increased dependence on measures better reflect the broader political environment.

  9. Emotional intelligence: recognizing and regulating emotions.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Amy

    2005-04-01

    Occupational health nurses are in the unique position to influence health in the work force. To maximize this positive health influence, occupational health nurses should develop the skills of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence includes awareness of self and others and empathy. These behaviors are congruent with the mission of nursing because they improve health outcomes. Occupational health nurses who are emotionally intelligent have improved relationships with others, an important aspect of the nursing role. Emotional intelligence can be developed. The process begins with self-awareness, enhanced through self-care behaviors, such as exercise and journaling. Reading popular self-help literature also can improve self-awareness. After a nurse becomes self-aware, the next phase is to develop an awareness of others. This can be learned using the same type of techniques in the self-awareness stage. The final step is the development of empathy. This is the active step using the knowledge developed in the prior two stages. Through discipline and effort, an individual can learn to actively listen to others. This type of listening fosters empathy. By working in a positive, caring environment, personal growth in emotional intelligence can be enhanced (McMullen, 2003). Through the development of emotional intelligence, the nurse can improve personally and professionally, a win-win situation for all involved.

  10. The politics of paranoia.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    For almost 20 years, gay rights advocates and defenders of military anti-gay discrimination engaged in a phony debate about whether allowing open service would undermine unit cohesion. To be sure, a preponderance of evidence showed that open service would not undermine cohesion, and the repeal of don't ask, don't tell (DADT) required advocates to prevail on that point in the court of public opinion. But concerns about cohesion were never the basis of opposition to open service. Rather, opposition was a modern incarnation of the politics of paranoia, a dangerous tradition in American history. Acknowledging that DADT had nothing to do with cohesion and that military leaders allowed the armed forces to be implicated in the politics of paranoia could facilitate disabling paranoia as the basis for other political projects such as anti-immigrant xenophobia. For a video on DADT and paranoia, search for "Donnelly Belkin DADT" on YoutTube.

  11. Astronomy and political theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    This paper will argue that astronomical models have long been applied to political theory, from the use of the Sun as a symbol of the emperor in Rome to the application of Copernican theory to the needs of absolute monarchy. We will begin with consideration of astral divination (the use of astronomy to ascertain divine intentions) in the ancient Near East. Particular attention will be paid to the use of Newton's discovery that the universe operates according to a single set of laws in order to support concepts of political quality and eighteenth century Natural Rights theory. We will conclude with consideration of arguments that the discovery of the expanding, multi-galaxy universe, stimulated political uncertainty in the 1930s, and that photographs of the Earth from Apollo spacecraft encouraged concepts of the `global village'.

  12. Depression and Political Participation*

    PubMed Central

    Ojeda, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I propose that depression is a political phenomenon insofar as it has political sources and consequences. I then investigate one aspect of this argument—whether depression reduces participation. I hypothesize that individuals with depression lack the motivation and physical capacity to vote and engage in other forms of political participation due to somatic problems and feelings of hopelessness and apathy. Moreover, I examine how depression in adolescence can have downstream consequences for participation in young adulthood. The analyses, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal data, show that voter turnout and other forms of participation decrease as the severity of depressed mood increases. These findings are discussed in light of disability rights and potential efforts to boost participation among this group. PMID:26924857

  13. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs.

    PubMed

    Wilson, David

    2015-06-01

    There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection "Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers" highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work.

  14. HIV Programs for Sex Workers: Lessons and Challenges for Developing and Delivering Programs

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, David

    2015-01-01

    There is evidence that HIV prevention programs for sex workers, especially female sex workers, are cost-effective in several contexts, including many western countries, Thailand, India, the Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya, and Zimbabwe. The evidence that sex worker HIV prevention programs work must not inspire complacency but rather a renewed effort to expand, intensify, and maximize their impact. The PLOS Collection “Focus on Delivery and Scale: Achieving HIV Impact with Sex Workers” highlights major challenges to scaling-up sex worker HIV prevention programs, noting the following: sex worker HIV prevention programs are insufficiently guided by understanding of epidemic transmission dynamics, situation analyses, and programmatic mapping; sex worker HIV and sexually transmitted infection services receive limited domestic financing in many countries; many sex worker HIV prevention programs are inadequately codified to ensure consistency and quality; and many sex worker HIV prevention programs have not evolved adequately to address informal sex workers, male and transgender sex workers, and mobile- and internet-based sex workers. Based on the wider collection of papers, this article presents three major clusters of recommendations: (i) HIV programs focused on sex workers should be prioritized, developed, and implemented based on robust evidence; (ii) national political will and increased funding are needed to increase coverage of effective sex worker HIV prevention programs in low and middle income countries; and (iii) comprehensive, integrated, and rapidly evolving HIV programs are needed to ensure equitable access to health services for individuals involved in all forms of sex work. PMID:26079267

  15. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

  16. "Virginity Is a Virtue: Prevent Early Sex"--Teacher Perceptions of Sex Education in a Ugandan Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iyer, Padmini; Aggleton, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Sex education is a politically contentious issue in many countries, and there are numerous, competing ideologies relating to the most appropriate methods to teach young people about sexual and reproductive health. This paper examines policy and practice in Uganda in light of two contrasting ideologies, namely morally conservative and comprehensive…

  17. Global environmental politics

    SciTech Connect

    Porter, G.; Brown, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    The authors explore past international environmental negotiations and the broader political landscape in which they take place to discern some elements of success. The overridding message is that it may take a long time, but in the end some combination of new scientific evidence, domestic political pressures, and international persuasion will likely turn the tide in favor of cooperative action. The authors feel that an incremental change approach, based on current international environmental governance, is the one most likely to be followed, although global governance, with a greatly strengthened UN and environmental law, or global partnership, developmental assistance from richer countries to poorer countries, are the better choices.

  18. Sexually Dimorphic Effects of Cannabinoid Compounds on Emotion and Cognition

    PubMed Central

    Rubino, Tiziana; Parolaro, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    This review addresses the issue of sex differences in the response to cannabinoid compounds focusing mainly on behaviors belonging to the cognitive and emotional sphere. Sexual dimorphism exists in the different components of the endocannabinoid system. Males seem to have higher CB1 receptor binding sites than females, but females seem to possess more efficient CB1 receptors. Differences between sexes have been also observed in the metabolic processing of THC, the main psychoactive ingredient of marijuana. The consistent dimorphism in the endocannabinoid system and THC metabolism may justify at least in part the different sensitivity observed between male and female animals in different behavioral paradigms concerning emotion and cognition after treatment with cannabinoid compounds. On the basis of these observations, we would like to emphasize the need of including females in basic research and to analyze results for sex differences in epidemiological studies. PMID:21991251

  19. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. PMID:26263224

  20. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  1. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  2. Sex Work, Heroin Injection, and HIV Risk in Tijuana: A Love Story

    PubMed Central

    Syvertsen, Jennifer L.; Bazzi, Angela Robertson

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between female sex workers and their non-commercial male partners are typically viewed as sites of HIV risk rather than meaningful unions. This ethnographic case study presents a nuanced portrayal of the relationship between Cindy and Beto, a female sex worker who injects drugs and her intimate, non-commercial partner who live in Tijuana, Mexico. Based on ethnographic research in Tijuana and our long term involvement in a public health study, we suggest that emotions play a central role in sex workers’ relationships and contribute in complex ways to each partner’s health. We conceptualize Cindy and Beto’s relationship as a “dangerous safe haven” in which HIV risk behaviors such as unprotected sex and syringe sharing convey notions of love and trust and help sustain emotional unity amidst broader uncertainties, but nevertheless carry very real health risks. Further attention to how emotions shape vulnerable couples’ health remains a task for anthropology. PMID:26478687

  3. The politics of home birth in the United States.

    PubMed

    Declercq, Eugene

    2012-12-01

    Home birth has emerged as a political issue in several states in the United States, and this essay examines two aspects of home births politics. First, legislative battles over home birth policy do not conform to our typical models of partisan (i.e., Democratic vs Republican) politics, and attempts at advocacy cannot rely on classical strategies of alignment with a dominant party in a state. Second, the debates over home birth have increasingly begun to parallel current partisan battles in their emotion and intensity with the related gridlock and reluctance to consider compromises that are often necessary to achieve policy goals. This essay calls for a greater willingness for all sides to approach home birth less as an ideological mission and more as a health policy challenge to support consumers interested in an integrated system of care. PMID:23281945

  4. Sexing young snowy owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seidensticker, M.T.; Holt, D.W.; Detienne, J.; Talbot, S.; Gray, K.

    2011-01-01

    We predicted sex of 140 Snowy Owl (Bubo scandiacus) nestlings out of 34 nests at our Barrow, Alaska, study area to develop a technique for sexing these owls in the field. We primarily sexed young, flightless owls (3844 d old) by quantifying plumage markings on the remiges and tail, predicting sex, and collecting blood samples to test our field predictions using molecular sexing techniques. We categorized and quantified three different plumage markings: two types of bars (defined as markings that touch the rachis) and spots (defined as markings that do not touch the rachis). We predicted sex in the field assuming that males had more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on the remiges and rectrices. Molecular data indicated that we correctly sexed 100% of the nestlings. We modeled the data using random forests and classification trees. Both models indicated that the number and type of markings on the secondary feathers were the most important in classifying nestling sex. The statistical models verified our initial qualitative prediction that males have more spots than bars and females more bars than spots on flight feathers P6P10 for both wings and tail feathers T1 and T2. This study provides researchers with an easily replicable and highly accurate method for sexing young Snowy Owls in the field, which should aid further studies of sex-ratios and sex-related variation in behavior and growth of this circumpolar owl species. ?? 2011 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  5. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  6. Osho - Insights on sex

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraj, Anil Kumar Mysore

    2013-01-01

    Sex is a mysterious phenomenon, which has puzzled even great sages. Human beings have researched and mastered the biology of sex. But that is not all. Sex needs to be understood from the spiritual perspective too. The vision of Osho is an enlightening experience in this regard. Out of the thousands of lectures, five lectures on sex made Osho most notorious. Born into a Jain family of Madhya Pradesh, Rajneesh, who later wanted himself to be called Osho, is a great master. He has spoken volumes on a wide range of topics ranging from sex to super-consciousness. His contributions in the area of sex are based on the principles of “Tantra” which has its origin from Buddhism. This article focuses on his life and insights on sex, which if understood properly, can be a stepping stone for enlightenment. PMID:23858266

  7. Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer: Political Views and Political Practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, Hubert

    In this case study I compare the political views of the physicists Albert Einstein and Friedrich Dessauer between the first and second world wars, and I investigate their translation into concrete political practice. Both departed from their roles as experts in physics in favor of political engagement. The essence of Einstein's political practice seems to have been a form of political participation in exerting moral influence on people and organizations through public declarations and appeals in isolation from political mass movements. Dessauer exerted political influence both through public office (as a member of Parliament for the Catholic Center Party) and by acquiring a newspaper. The different political practice of both Einstein and Dessauer were unsuccessful in thwarting the Nazi takeover.

  8. Constituents of political cognition: Race, party politics, and the alliance detection system.

    PubMed

    Pietraszewski, David; Curry, Oliver Scott; Petersen, Michael Bang; Cosmides, Leda; Tooby, John

    2015-07-01

    Research suggests that the mind contains a set of adaptations for detecting alliances: an alliance detection system, which monitors for, encodes, and stores alliance information and then modifies the activation of stored alliance categories according to how likely they will predict behavior within a particular social interaction. Previous studies have established the activation of this system when exposed to explicit competition or cooperation between individuals. In the current studies we examine if shared political opinions produce these same effects. In particular, (1) if participants will spontaneously categorize individuals according to the parties they support, even when explicit cooperation and antagonism are absent, and (2) if party support is sufficiently powerful to decrease participants' categorization by an orthogonal but typically-diagnostic alliance cue (in this case the target's race). Evidence was found for both: Participants spontaneously and implicitly kept track of who supported which party, and when party cross-cut race-such that the race of targets was not predictive of party support-categorization by race was dramatically reduced. To verify that these results reflected the operation of a cognitive system for modifying the activation of alliance categories, and not just socially-relevant categories in general, an identical set of studies was also conducted with in which party was either crossed with sex or age (neither of which is predicted to be primarily an alliance category). As predicted, categorization by party occurred to the same degree, and there was no reduction in either categorization by sex or by age. All effects were replicated across two sets of between-subjects conditions. These studies provide the first direct empirical evidence that party politics engages the mind's systems for detecting alliances and establish two important social categorization phenomena: (1) that categorization by age is, like sex, not affected by alliance

  9. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  10. Brain mechanisms of emotions.

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1997-01-01

    At the 23rd International Congress of Physiology Sciences (Tokyo, 1965) the results of experiment led us to the conclusion that emotions were determined by the actual need and estimation of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to the earlier forecast, generates positive emotions which the subject tries to maximize, that is, to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. We named our concept the Need-Informational Theory of Emotions. According to this theory, motivation, emotion, and estimation of probability have different neuromorphological substrates. Activation through the hypothalamic motivatiogenic structures of the frontal parts of the neocortex orients the behavior to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement. At the same time the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of low probability events, which are typical for the emotionally excited brain. By comparison of motivational excitation with available stimuli or their engrams, the amygdala selects a dominant motivation, destined to be satisfied in the first instance. In the cases of classical conditioning and escape reaction the reinforcement was related to involvement of the negative emotion's hypothalamic neurons, while in the course of avoidance reaction the positive emotion's neurons were involved. The role of the left and right frontal neocortex in the appearance or positive or negative emotions depends on these informational (cognitive) functions.

  11. When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2012-08-01

    People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa.

  12. Biology and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whiting, Pat

    1977-01-01

    A state representative from Oregon uses his state as example for political action regarding critical sociobiological issues having great bearing on world ecosystems: pollution, energy-resource allocation, and population density. Discusses ozone depletion, use of fluorocarbons, and the Oregon Energy Policy. Suggests methods of involving educators.…

  13. Plants, People, and Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galston, Arthur W.

    1970-01-01

    Advocates that some established botanists should become involved in social and political problems to which botanical expertise is relevant. Discusses food production in relation to world population growth, indicating problems on which botanical knowledge and research should be brought to bear. Discusses herbicides and plant growth regulators as…

  14. Prejudice and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Charles P.; Felknor, Bruce L.

    This monograph, written in 1960, examines the part prejudice played in politics throughout our national history. Part I of the monograph discusses "The Colonial Era." The immigrants that populated the new nation brought with them varied cultural heritages and different religious faiths. Soon the colonial pattern of religious prejudice reflected…

  15. Political Communication Yearbook 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Keith R., Ed.; And Others

    Focusing on current scholarship in the evolving field of political communication, this publication is organized in three sections. Part 1, "Current Perspectives on the Spiral of Silence," features essays by Charles T. Salmon and F. Gerald Kline, Klaus Merten, Carroll J. Glynn and Jack M. McLeod, and a response by the theory's original positor,…

  16. Politics of Character Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Robert W.; Berkowitz, Marvin W.; Schaeffer, Esther F.

    2004-01-01

    Character education's history in the United States goes back to the beginning of public schools. The emphasis and profile has waxed and waned, frequently with political trends. The current standards-based environment poses particular threats and challenges to character education. In spite of these pressures, character education continues and - by…

  17. Political Correctness--Correct?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boase, Paul H.

    1993-01-01

    Examines the phenomenon of political correctness, its roots and objectives, and its successes and failures in coping with the conflicts and clashes of multicultural campuses. Argues that speech codes indicate failure in academia's primary mission to civilize and educate through talk, discussion, thought,166 and persuasion. (SR)

  18. Lifelong Learning and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Penelope L.

    1979-01-01

    States that community colleges are in a good position to be centers of lifelong education and that adult educators must engage in politics in order to promote learning opportunities for adults. Suggests legislative, administrative, judicial, and electoral strategies for adult educators to use in influencing policymakers to support lifelong…

  19. Politics 3. Memorandum Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maslow, A. H.

    Maslow's Politics 3 is a humanistic social psychological philosophy which is against any attitude or value that rests on a merely evil or good conception of human nature or of society. His thoughts and clippings on the subject which were written or collected during 1968, 1969, and 1970 are presented in two primary thought sequences: 1) what is…

  20. Political Campaign Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Political/Legal Education, Sewell, NJ.

    Techniques, materials, and coordinating efforts used in a political campaign are outlined for high school students. The objective is to familiarize students with these techniques so that they can become effective campaign volunteers. Topics include the candidate and the press, campaign publicity materials, organization of headquarters, receptions,…

  1. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect.

  2. Science Education and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jungwirth, Ehud

    1981-01-01

    Presents several examples of the interface of science teaching and politics. Supports the notion of a double function in teaching biology: (1) to educate a young person for critical observation, independent judgment, and responsible action; and (2) to prepare him for the future. (CS)

  3. Political Education Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    League of United Latin American Citizens, Washington, DC.

    Written to help Hispanics understand the electoral process more thoroughly and to encourage them to participate more actively in the political arena, this manual begins by describing the present status of the Hispanic electorate and then explains how laws are made, how Hispanics can influence legislation, and how to organize a voter registration…

  4. Conscience and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Richard G.

    1984-01-01

    The meaning and understanding of conscience in political thought are examined. The problem of distinguishing apparent and real conscience and private and public judgment is illustrated by contrasting the acts of conscience of Socrates and Thomas More with the rejection of private judgment against the state in Hobbes and Locke. (RM)

  5. Practical Politics. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Dept. of State, Columbus.

    The 12 lessons on practical politics have been designed to help high school classroom teachers in Ohio develop and implement educational programs on citizen participation and, specifically, on voting. Objectives are to familiarize students with Ohio voting and registration laws and procedures, to introduce them to voting equipment, to acquaint…

  6. The politics of insight.

    PubMed

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  7. Islam and Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, David F.

    1984-01-01

    Law is central to Islamic civilization. The classical law (the Shari'a) is the standard by which political action is measured. The history of the Shari'a and how it has influenced the world view and the cultural identity of Arab countries are examined. (RM)

  8. The Politics of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Foundations, 1991

    1991-01-01

    This special theme issue of "Educational Foundations" contains five articles on the theme of "The Politics of Education." In Marie E. Wirsing's "Academic Freedom and Teaching Foundations of Education: A Personal Memoir," the history of academic freedom, including the constant struggles to preserve it and examples of significant infringement, are…

  9. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  10. The politics of insight

    PubMed Central

    Salvi, Carola; Cristofori, Irene; Grafman, Jordan; Beeman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that liberals and conservatives differ in cognitive style. Liberals are more flexible, and tolerant of complexity and novelty, whereas conservatives are more rigid, are more resistant to change, and prefer clear answers. We administered a set of compound remote associate problems, a task extensively used to differentiate problem-solving styles (via insight or analysis). Using this task, several researches have proven that self-reports, which differentiate between insight and analytic problem-solving, are reliable and are associated with two different neural circuits. In our research we found that participants self-identifying with distinct political orientations demonstrated differences in problem-solving strategy. Liberals solved significantly more problems via insight instead of in a step-by-step analytic fashion. Our findings extend previous observations that self-identified political orientations reflect differences in cognitive styles. More specifically, we show that type of political orientation is associated with problem-solving strategy. The data converge with previous neurobehavioural and cognitive studies indicating a link between cognitive style and the psychological mechanisms that mediate political beliefs. PMID:26810954

  11. Imaging and Political Packaging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidman, Mary Beth

    This document looks at advertising and political commercials in radio. When placing an advertisement, in any media in general and radio in particular, one takes into consideration qualitative and quantitative data: how many people are listening, and who they are, and what level of education they have attained. Listeners have extremely well…

  12. Manual on Political Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schakel, Minnekus

    This guide offers teachers and senior high school students the simple facts of how he can make a difference in the operation of the two-party system in the United States at the precinct level. It also attempts to show that students, teachers, the school curriculum, and our American political structure definitely need large numbers of high school…

  13. Anti-intellectualism and political ideology in a sample of undergraduate and graduate students.

    PubMed

    Laverghetta, Antonio; Stewart, Juliana; Weinstein, Lawrence

    2007-12-01

    To estimate correlations for scores on a student anti-intellectualism scale with scores on a measure of political conservatism, 235 students were given a survey containing a student anti-intellectualism scale, a political conservatism scale, and a demographics questionnaire identifying the participants' sex, college classification, ethnicity, political party affiliation, and self-described political ideology. The political conservatism scale contained two factors, Religiosity and Economic Conservatism, both of which were scored separately in addition to an overall Conservatism score. Students' Anti-intellectualism scores were correlated with Political Conservatism scores (r = .37, p < .01), with Religiosity scores (r = .42, p < .01), and with Economic Conservatism scores (r = .17, p < .05). An analysis of variance indicated a significant difference in students' Anti-intellectualism scores based on college classification (F4,233 = 2.27, p < .04). Specifically, freshman had significantly higher scores than graduate students.

  14. Politics as Social History: Political Cartoons in the Gilded Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    Provides analyses of four political cartoons in order to suggest approaches to Gilded Age politics that reveal key issues, such as gender, religion, and ethnicity, as well as the struggles over material resources in a stratified economy. Maintains that political cartoons assist students in understanding the ideology of a past era. (CMK)

  15. Practicing Politics: Female Political Scientists as Candidates for Elective Office

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, University of Oklahoma political science professor Cindy Simon Rosenthal was elected mayor of Norman, Oklahoma, after having served as a member of its city council. Was her activity unique within the political science profession among female political scientists? Her election stimulated the curiosity of some of us in the…

  16. Learning in Politics: Teachers' Political Experiences as a Pedagogical Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John P.

    2009-01-01

    The suggestion that teaching is a political act has been a divisive issue among educators. However, there has been little analysis of the ways that teachers draw on their political experiences as pedagogical resources. Using a case study of seven teachers in Porto Alegre, Brazil who were involved in politics, this article explores the relationship…

  17. Unexplored Dimensions of 'Political' in the Politics of Education Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirst, Michael W.; Wirt, Fred

    Recent analyses of the linkages between policy analysis and politics suggests that contemporary focus on the first had been poorly attenuated to the theoretical needs of the second. This paper specifies the kinds of research in educational politics that should ensue if the politics-of-education field is to become less oriented to specific policies…

  18. Clean Air Now: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    The fourth unit to the second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course focuses on a specific, controversial, political issue. Using a documentary approach, this unit analyzes the concept of political change by examining the changes in Riverside, California, as that community confronts the issue of smog. The unit is divided into five…

  19. Jobs and Engines: Political Issues. Comparing Political Experiences, Experimental Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Judith A.; Lazarus, Stuart

    This is the fourth unit to the 12th-grade second-semester "Comparing Political Experiences" course which focuses on specific controversial political issues. The unit analyzes the concept of political development by examining the Cummins Engine Company and employee job security during the company's growth into a multinational corporation. Using the…

  20. Sex worker-led structural interventions in India: a case study on addressing violence in HIV prevention through the Ashodaya Samithi collective in Mysore

    PubMed Central

    Reza-Paul, Sushena; Lorway, Rob; O’Brien, Nadia; Lazarus, Lisa; Jain, Jinendra; Bhagya, M.; Fathima, Mary P; Venukumar, KT; Raviprakash, K.N.; Baer, James; Steen, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Structural interventions have the capacity to improve the outcomes of HIV/AIDS interventions by changing the social, economic, political or environmental factors that determine risk and vulnerability. Marginalized groups face disproportionate barriers to health, and sex workers are among those at highest risk of HIV in India. Evidence in India and globally has shown that sex workers face violence in many forms ranging from verbal, psychological and emotional abuse to economic extortion, physical and sexual violence and this is directly linked to lower levels of condom use and higher levels of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), the most critical determinants of HIV risk. We present here a case study of an intervention that mobilized sex workers to lead an HIV prevention response that addresses violence in their daily lives. Methods: This study draws on ethnographic research and project monitoring data from a community-led structural intervention in Mysore, India, implemented by Ashodaya Samithi. Qualitative and quantitative data were used to characterize baseline conditions, community responses and subsequent outcomes related to violence. Results: In 2004, the incidence of reported violence by sex workers was extremely high (> 8 incidents per sex worker, per year) but decreased by 84 per cent over 5 years. Violence by police and anti-social elements, initially most common, decreased substantially after a safe space was established for sex workers to meet and crisis management and advocacy were initiated with different stakeholders. Violence by clients, decreased after working with lodge owners to improve safety. However, initial increases in intimate partner violence were reported, and may be explained by two factors: (i) increased willingness to report such incidents; and (ii) increased violence as a reaction to sex workers’ growing empowerment. Trafficking was addressed through the establishment of a self-regulatory board (SRB). The

  1. Sex Differences in Emotional Responses to "Erotic Literature"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrell, James M.

    1975-01-01

    In this study females (N=32) and males (N=32) read two passages. One described a sexually exploitative experience for a young woman and the other described a sexually positive experience. Response by males and females varied considerably and depended on the interpersonal as well as the erotic content of the passages. (EJT)

  2. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant. PMID:9354085

  3. Pleasantness, activation, and sex differences in advertising.

    PubMed

    Whissell, C; McCall, L

    1997-10-01

    Advertisements in men's, women's, girls', and boys' magazines (n = 38,195 words) were scored objectively in terms of 15 measures of linguistic style, e.g., use of common words, use of long words, use of specific words and emotional tone (pleasantness and activation, as measured by the Dictionary of Affect). There were several sex- and age-related differences among advertisements from different sources. Advertisements from boys' magazines were extremely active, those from women's and girls' magazines were shorter and unusually pleasant. In two follow-up studies (N = 122 volunteers), objective emotional measures of advertising text proved to be related to ratings of persuasion and of success of appeal for individual advertisements. The most preferred advertisement for women was pleasant and active, that for men unpleasant and active. When men and women created advertisements, women's were shorter and more pleasant.

  4. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  5. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  6. Sex determination in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Masahisa

    2009-05-01

    The heterogametic sex is male in all mammals, whereas it is female in almost all birds. By contrast, there are two heterogametic types (XX/XY and ZZ/ZW) for genetic sex determination in amphibians. Though the original heterogametic sex was female in amphibians, the two heterogametic types were probably interchangeable, suggesting that sex chromosomes evolved several times in this lineage. Indeed, the frog Rana rugosa has the XX/XY and ZZ/ZW sex-determining systems within a single species, depending on the local population in Japan. The XY and ZW geographic forms with differentiated sex chromosomes probably have a common origin as undifferentiated sex chromosomes resulted from the hybridization between the primary populations of West Japan and Kanto forms. It is clear that the sex chromosomes are still undergoing evolution in this species group. Regardless of the presence of a sex-determining gene in amphibians, the gonadal sex of some species can be changed by sex steroids. Namely, sex steroids can induce the sex reversal, with estrogens inducing the male-to-female sex reversal, whereas androgens have the opposite effect. In R. rugosa, gonadal activity of CYP19 (P450 aromatase) is correlated with the feminization of gonads. Of particular interest is that high levels of CYP19 expression are observed in indifferent gonads at time before sex determination. Increases in the expression of CYP19 in female gonads and CYP17 (P450 17alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase) in male gonads suggest that the former plays an important role in phenotypic female determination, whereas the latter is needed for male determination. Thus, steroids could be the key factor for sex determination in R. rugosa. In addition to the role of sex steroids in gonadal sex determination in this species, Foxl2 and Sox3 are capable of promoting CYP19 expression. Since both the genes are autosomal, another factor up-regulating CYP19 expression must be recruited. The factor, which may be located on the X or W

  7. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  8. Political pugilists: recuperative gender strategies in canadian electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, Elise

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity-boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau's transition from "precariously masculine" to "sufficiently masculine" and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau's suitability for Liberal Party leadership. Cet article propose le concept de stratégies de récupération des sexes pour décrire et expliquer comment des dirigeants politiques travaillent à rétablir leurs identités sexuelles publiques. J'analyse la couverture médiatique du combat de boxe caritatif datant de mars 2012 et opposant deux politiciens canadiens : Justin Trudeau, le chef du Parti libéral du Canada, et Patrick Brazeau, un sénateur conservateur. En m'appuyant sur une analyse de discours de 222 articles de journaux nationaux publiés au sujet de ce combat, je détaille la transition de Justin Trudeau d'une forme de masculinité « précaire » à une « masculinité suffisante », et je discute de l'importance de cette transformation pour l'aptitude perçue de Trudeau comme chef du Parti libéral. PMID:25914272

  9. Political pugilists: recuperative gender strategies in canadian electoral politics.

    PubMed

    Maiolino, Elise

    2015-05-01

    This paper offers the concept recuperative gender strategies to describe how political leaders work to restore their public gender identities. The author examines a charity-boxing match between two Canadian politicians, Justin Trudeau and Patrick Brazeau. Trudeau is the current leader of the Liberal Party of Canada and son of former Prime Minister, Pierre Trudeau. Brazeau was a Conservative Senator. Through a discourse analysis of 222 national newspaper articles published on the match, this paper chronicles Justin Trudeau's transition from "precariously masculine" to "sufficiently masculine" and discusses the significance of this transformation for Trudeau's suitability for Liberal Party leadership. Cet article propose le concept de stratégies de récupération des sexes pour décrire et expliquer comment des dirigeants politiques travaillent à rétablir leurs identités sexuelles publiques. J'analyse la couverture médiatique du combat de boxe caritatif datant de mars 2012 et opposant deux politiciens canadiens : Justin Trudeau, le chef du Parti libéral du Canada, et Patrick Brazeau, un sénateur conservateur. En m'appuyant sur une analyse de discours de 222 articles de journaux nationaux publiés au sujet de ce combat, je détaille la transition de Justin Trudeau d'une forme de masculinité « précaire » à une « masculinité suffisante », et je discute de l'importance de cette transformation pour l'aptitude perçue de Trudeau comme chef du Parti libéral.

  10. Cultural Politics in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackwood, Gae

    1992-01-01

    Discusses political correctness and cultural politics in the schools. Questions whether concern over education's traditionally Eurocentric view justifies rejecting the curriculum. Observes that the issue of how teachers teach also has cultural implications. Suggests that the political correctness debate shows how long the road to cross-cultural…

  11. Political Correctness and Cultural Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, James W.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses political correctness and cultural studies, dealing with cultural studies and the left, the conservative assault on cultural studies, and political correctness in the university. Describes some of the underlying changes in the university, largely unaddressed in the political correctness debate, that provide the deep structure to the…

  12. The Nature of Organizational Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Belinda K.; Carpenter, D. Stanley

    1993-01-01

    Examines the role organizational politics play in student affairs. Sees background knowledge of politics as a concept critical to understanding idiosyncratic nature of any organization. Notes that both organizational conditions and individual behavior contribute to organization's political climate. Concludes that professionals who fail to…

  13. Computing and the Political World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danziger, James N.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a review of research on the influence of computing on government and politics. States that computing has increased information power, efficiency, and centralized control within the political world. Concludes that even though there is little current evidence that computing has revolutionized politics, the emerging impacts of advanced…

  14. The Politics of Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claxton, David

    2012-01-01

    This paper, which was given as the Dudley Allen Sargent lecture at the 2012 conference of the National Association for Kinesiology and Physical Education in Higher Education, discusses the politics of physical education. It examines how both national politics and local/campus politics affect the discipline. Drawing from the history of national…

  15. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  16. Rational Emotive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  17. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  18. Emotions and Golf Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

  19. Genetics of emotion.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2011-09-01

    Emotion is critical to most aspects of human behavior, and individual differences in systems recruited to process emotional stimuli, expressed as variation in emotionality, are characteristic of several neuropsychiatric disorders. We examine the genetic origins of individual differences in emotion processing by focusing on functional variants at five genes: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), neuropeptide Y (NPY), a glucocorticoid receptor-regulating co-chaperone of stress proteins (FKBP5) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor (ADCYAP1R1). These represent a range of effects of genes on emotion as well as the variety of mechanisms and factors, such as stress, that modify these effects. The new genomic era of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and deep sequencing may yield a wealth of new loci modulating emotion. The effects of these genes can be validated by neuroimaging, neuroendocrine and other studies accessing intermediate phenotypes, deepening our understanding of mechanisms of emotion and variation in emotionality.

  20. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  1. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  2. Emotionally Harmful Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

  3. Political involvement in nursing--politics, ethics, and strategic action.

    PubMed

    Des Jardin, K

    2001-11-01

    Political apathy in the nursing profession can be attributed to numerous factors, including a perceived ethical conflict between professional values and political involvement, as well as a lack of strategy for political action. Differences in personal and professional ethics, conflicting loyalties, and a negative image of politics create ethical tension for nurses. Political-ethical conflicts can mean choosing between job, patient care, and personal ideals. Many nurses never have considered it their place to challenge the structure of the health care system or the rules guiding that system. Supporting political action that demands change in the system, therefore, can cause tension among nurses. The political-ethical dilemma for nurses is related to outdated images of nursing, repression, fear of power, and lack of knowledge. Many guidelines exist to help nurses understand why they should get involved in the political process. By using these guidelines, nurses can evaluate issues and use a valid method to assess problems, plan for action, and evaluate the effectiveness and benefits of specific strategies. In the second of this two-part series on political involvement in nursing, political-ethical conflict is explored, along with strategies for political action.

  4. Sex, epilepsy, and epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Irfan A; Mehler, Mark F

    2014-12-01

    Epilepsy refers to a heterogeneous group of disorders that are associated with a wide range of pathogenic mechanisms, seizure manifestations, comorbidity profiles, and therapeutic responses. These characteristics are all influenced quite significantly by sex. As with other conditions exhibiting such patterns, sex differences in epilepsy are thought to arise-at the most fundamental level-from the "organizational" and "activational" effects of sex hormones as well as from the direct actions of the sex chromosomes. However, our understanding of the specific molecular, cellular, and network level processes responsible for mediating sex differences in epilepsy remains limited. Because increasing evidence suggests that epigenetic mechanisms are involved both in epilepsy and in brain sexual dimorphism, we make the case here that analyzing epigenetic regulation will provide novel insights into the basis for sex differences in epilepsy.

  5. Sex Differences in Lifespan.

    PubMed

    Austad, Steven N; Fischer, Kathleen E

    2016-06-14

    Sex differences in longevity can provide insights into novel mechanisms of aging, yet they have been little studied. Surprisingly, sex-specific longevity patterns are best known in wild animals. Evolutionary hypotheses accounting for longevity patterns in natural populations include differential vulnerability to environmental hazards, differential intensity of sexual selection, and distinct patterns of parental care. Mechanistic hypotheses focus on hormones, asymmetric inheritance of sex chromosomes and mitochondria. Virtually all intensively studied species show conditional sex differences in longevity. Humans are the only species in which one sex is known to have a ubiquitous survival advantage. Paradoxically, although women live longer, they suffer greater morbidity particularly late in life. This mortality-morbidity paradox may be a consequence of greater connective tissue responsiveness to sex hormones in women. Human females' longevity advantage may result from hormonal influences on inflammatory and immunological responses, or greater resistance to oxidative damage; current support for these mechanisms is weak. PMID:27304504

  6. The cyclical nature of depressed mood and future risk: Depression, rumination, and deficits in emotional clarity in adolescent girls

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Liza M.; Hamilton, Jessica L.; Stange, Jonathan P.; Flynn, Megan; Abramson, Lyn Y.; Alloy, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in emotional clarity, the understanding and awareness of one’s own emotions and the ability to label them appropriately, are associated with increased depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, few studies have examined factors associated with reduction in emotional clarity for adolescents, such as depressed mood and ruminative response styles. The present study examined rumination as a potential mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and changes in emotional clarity, focusing on sex differences. Participants included 223 adolescents (51.60% female, Mean age = 12.39). Controlling for baseline levels of emotional clarity, initial depressive symptoms predicted decreases in emotional clarity. Further, rumination prospectively mediated the relationship between baseline depressive symptoms and follow-up emotional clarity for girls, but not boys. Findings suggest that depressive symptoms may increase girls’ tendencies to engage in repetitive, negative thinking, which may reduce the ability to understand and label emotions, a potentially cyclical process that confers vulnerability to future depression. PMID:25931160

  7. An Emotional Control Card for Inappropriate and Appropriate Emotions in Using Rational-Emotive Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1986-01-01

    Examines the emotional control card techniques developed by Sklare, Taylor, and Hyland (1985) to help clients more effectively use the rational-emotive imagery technique of Ellis (1974). Suggests a revision of the emotional control card technique. (NB)

  8. Emotional complexity and the neural representation of emotion in motion.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Paula; Barnard, Philip J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant's emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition.

  9. Sex, drugs and gender roles: mapping the use of sex and gender based analysis in pharmaceutical policy research

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sex and gender sensitive inquiry is critical in pharmaceutical policy due to the sector's historical connection with women's health issues and due to the confluence of biological, social, political, and economic factors that shape the development, promotion, use, and effects of medicinal treatments. A growing number of research bodies internationally have issued laws, guidance or encouragement to support conducting sex and gender based analysis (SGBA) in all health related research. Methods In order to investigate the degree to which attempts to mainstream SGBA have translated into actual research practices in the field of pharmaceutical policy, we employed methods of literature scoping and mapping. A random sample of English-language pharmaceutical policy research articles published in 2008 and indexed in MEDLINE was analysed according to: 1) use of sex and gender related language, 2) application of sex and gender related concepts, and 3) level of SGBA employed. Results Two thirds of the articles (67%) in our sample made no mention of sex or gender. Similarly, 69% did not contain any sex or gender related content whatsoever. Of those that did contain some sex or gender content, the majority focused on sex. Only 2 of the 85 pharmaceutical policy articles reviewed for this study were primarily focused on sex or gender issues; both of these were review articles. Eighty-one percent of the articles in our study contained no SGBA, functioning instead at a sex-blind or gender-neutral level, even though the majority of these (86%) were focused on topics with sex or gender aspects. Conclusions Despite pharmaceutical policy's long entwinement with issues of sex and gender, and the emergence of international guidelines for the inclusion of SGBA in health research, the community of pharmaceutical policy researchers has not internalized, or "mainstreamed," the practice. Increased application of SGBA is, in most cases, not only appropriate for the topics under

  10. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  11. Reading Emotions from Body Movement: A Generalized Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Østefjells, Tiril; Nymo, Katharina; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2015-01-01

    Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84) compared to healthy control participants (n = 84), aiming to answer three questions: (1) whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; (2) whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and (3) whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101). Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral) were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex.

  12. Reading Emotions from Body Movement: A Generalized Impairment in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Vaskinn, Anja; Sundet, Kjetil; Østefjells, Tiril; Nymo, Katharina; Melle, Ingrid; Ueland, Torill

    2015-01-01

    Body language reading is a social cognitive process with importance for successful maneuvering of social situations. In this study, we investigated body language reading as assessed with human point-light displays in participants with a diagnosis of schizophrenia (n = 84) compared to healthy control participants (n = 84), aiming to answer three questions: (1) whether persons with a diagnosis of schizophrenia have poorer body language reading abilities than healthy persons; (2) whether some emotions are easier to read from body language than others, and if this is the same for individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals, and (3) whether there are sex differences in body language reading in participants with schizophrenia and healthy participants. A fourth research aim concerned associations of body language reading with symptoms and functioning in participants with schizophrenia. Scores on the body language reading measure was first standardized using a separate sample of healthy control participants (n = 101). Further results showed that persons with schizophrenia had impaired body language reading ability compared to healthy persons. A significant effect of emotion indicated that some emotions (happiness, neutral) were easier to recognize and this was so for both individuals with schizophrenia and healthy individuals. There were no sex differences for either diagnostic group. Body language reading ability was not associated with symptoms or functioning. In conclusion; schizophrenia was characterized by a global impairment in body language reading that was present for all emotions and across sex. PMID:26834672

  13. Emotional intimacy power predicts different sexual experiences for men and women.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Gaynor L; Barber, Bonnie L; Dziurawiec, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Those who are more emotionally invested in relationships have less power than their partners. Furthermore, less powerful individuals may attempt to equalize power imbalances by offering rewards to their partner and using sex and condom use as exchange resources. Australian young adults reported their condom use and pressured sex experiences in both romantic (n = 708) and casual (n = 118) relationships. Results showed that greater power (lower relative emotional investment) predicted more condom use among those wanting to use condoms. In casual relationships, an interaction with gender showed that women in particular used condoms more when they had more power. Power also interacted with gender for pressured sex and, unexpectedly, men who had more power experienced more pressured sex. The possibility that condom use and pressured sex have different meanings for men and women is explored.

  14. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    PubMed

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress. PMID:26235473

  15. Empathy costs: Negative emotional bias in high empathisers.

    PubMed

    Chikovani, George; Babuadze, Lasha; Iashvili, Nino; Gvalia, Tamar; Surguladze, Simon

    2015-09-30

    Excessive empathy has been associated with compassion fatigue in health professionals and caregivers. We investigated an effect of empathy on emotion processing in 137 healthy individuals of both sexes. We tested a hypothesis that high empathy may underlie increased sensitivity to negative emotion recognition which may interact with gender. Facial emotion stimuli comprised happy, angry, fearful, and sad faces presented at different intensities (mild and prototypical) and different durations (500ms and 2000ms). The parameters of emotion processing were represented by discrimination accuracy, response bias and reaction time. We found that higher empathy was associated with better recognition of all emotions. We also demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with response bias towards sad and fearful faces. The reaction time analysis revealed that higher empathy in females was associated with faster (compared with males) recognition of mildly sad faces of brief duration. We conclude that although empathic abilities were providing for advantages in recognition of all facial emotional expressions, the bias towards emotional negativity may potentially carry a risk for empathic distress.

  16. Serenity in political uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

    2015-01-01

    College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence. PMID:25658930

  17. Serenity in political uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Doumit, Rita; Afifi, Rema A; Devon, Holli A

    2015-01-01

    College students are often faced with academic and personal stressors that threaten their well-being. Added to that may be political and environmental stressors such as acts of violence on the streets, interruptions in schooling, car bombings, targeted religious intimidations, financial hardship, and uncertainty of obtaining a job after graduation. Research on how college students adapt to the latter stressors is limited. The aims of this study were (1) to investigate the associations between stress, uncertainty, resilience, social support, withdrawal coping, and well-being for Lebanese youth during their first year of college and (2) to determine whether these variables predicted well-being. A sample of 293 first-year students enrolled in a private university in Lebanon completed a self-reported questionnaire in the classroom setting. The mean age of sample participants was 18.1 years, with nearly an equal percentage of males and females (53.2% vs 46.8%), who lived with their family (92.5%), and whose family reported high income levels (68.4%). Multiple regression analyses revealed that best determinants of well-being are resilience, uncertainty, social support, and gender that accounted for 54.1% of the variance. Despite living in an environment of frequent violence and political uncertainty, Lebanese youth in this study have a strong sense of well-being and are able to go on with their lives. This research adds to our understanding on how adolescents can adapt to stressors of frequent violence and political uncertainty. Further research is recommended to understand the mechanisms through which young people cope with political uncertainty and violence.

  18. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their

  19. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect. PMID:26786070

  20. Brazilian women in politics.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1987-01-01

    Women are gradually gaining influence in Brazilian politics, especially since recent advances in the women's movement, but they still play a limited role. There have been journals devoted to feminism and some notable feminists since 1850. In 1932 suffragettes in Brazil gained women the right to vote. Women's associations burgeoned in the 1940s and 1950s, culminating in a peak in number of women in national elected positions in 1965. A repressive military regime reversed the process, which resumed in 1975. 1975 was also significant for the Brazilian women's movement because of the U.N. Women's Year. Several large, influential feminist political action groups were formed, typically by upper class women with leftist views, although some church and union groups from lower classes also appeared. In 1979-1981, the coherence of these groups fell into schism and fragmentation, because of disagreements over the feminist political doctrines and roles, views on legality of abortion, and special interest groups such as lesbians. Another bitter dispute is opposition by leftist women to BEMFAM, the Brazilian Society of Family Welfare, which provides family planning for the poor: leftists oppose BEMFAM because it is supported by funds from "imperialist" countries such as the U.S. There are several types of feminists groups: those that emphasize health, sexuality and violence; those composed of lesbians; those originating from lower classes and unions; publicly instituted organizations. Brazilian law forbids discrimination against women holding public office, but in reality very few women actually do hold office, except for mayors of small towns and a few administrators of the Education and Social Security ministries. Political office in Brazil is gained by clientism, and since women rarely hold powerful positions in business, they are outsiders of the system. Brazilian women have achieved much, considering the low female literacy rate and traditional power system, but their