Science.gov

Sample records for emotional disturbance diagnosis

  1. DIFFERENCES IN THE COGNITIVE FUNCTIONING OF NORMAL, MENTALLY RETARDED, AND EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED SUBJECTS--IMPLICATIONS FOR SCHOOL RELEVANT DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SAFFORD, PHILIP L.

    DUNN'S PHYSICAL ANALOG THEORY OF COGNITIVE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION WAS EXTENDED TO THE ANALYSIS OF CONCEPTUAL FUNCTIONING ASSOCIATED WITH EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE AND MENTAL RETARDATION IN CHILDREN. THE THEORY, WHICH DESCRIBES THE INTERNAL REPRESENTATION OF INFORMATION IN THE FORM OF A COGNITIVE MATRIX OF ASSOCIATED DIMENSIONAL CONCEPTS, HAS BEEN…

  2. State Definitions of Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wery, Jessica J.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines definitions state education agencies use to describe the federal education disability called "emotional disturbance." State definitions were collected so that various aspects of them could be analyzed and compared with results of similar studies completed in the 1970s and 1980s. Among results are that state definitions have…

  3. A MAGNA CARTA FOR THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SIMCHES, RAPHAEL F.

    IN AN ADDRESS, THE AUTHOR ANTICIPATED BARRIERS AND PROBLEMS WHICH MIGHT ARISE WHEN JULY 1, 1966, LEGISLATION BECAME EFFECTIVE, REQUIRING SCHOOL DISTRICTS TO PROVIDE APPROPRIATE EDUCATION FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN. ASPECTS INCLUDED ARE PROBLEMS OF DEFINITION AND DIAGNOSIS, COMMUNITY RESPONSIBILITIES IN PROVIDING COOPERATIVE MEDICAL AND…

  4. Evaluating the Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Nancy; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the Massachusetts Adolescent Level of Functioning Scale designed for measuring the behavior of emotionally disturbed adolescents. Uses of the scale include specifying a standard intervention for any given problem indicator and measuring the outcome. The scale has broad applications for determining cost-effectiveness of programs and for…

  5. Group Counseling With Emotionally Disturbed School Children in Taiwan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiu, Peter

    The application of group counseling to emotionally disturbed school children in Chinese culture was examined. Two junior high schools located in Tao-Yuan Province were randomly selected with two eighth-grade classes randomly selected from each school. Ten emotionally disturbed students were chosen from each class and randomly assigned to two…

  6. Emotional Disturbance. Can Emotionally Disturbed Students Be Integrated? An In-Depth Review of the Pertinent Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hosiak, Patricia Page

    Intended for educators, researchers, and students, the document provides a survey of current reading on the education of emotionally disturbed (ED) children. The etiology of emotional disturbance is discussed, and an historical review of the role of education in the treatment of ED children is presented. Present psychoanalytic, learning, and…

  7. Sex education for emotionally disturbed adolescents.

    PubMed

    Schoenholtz, S W; Horowitz, H A; Shtarkshall, R

    1989-02-01

    Under investigation were effects of a course in sex education on a population of emotionally disturbed adolescents who were enrolled as day patients in a school program that is part of the Adolescent Treatment Program of the Institute of Pennsylvania Hospital. Subjects included 7 females, and 8 males, aged 15-18, with severe socio-emotional and educational problems. Pre-and posttesting were used to measure changes. Measures included a short form questionnaire assessing sexual knowledge and attitudes, the Draw-a-Person test, and behavioral observations by teachers, faculty, and Adolescent Treatment Program staff. The results of the study indicated that patients responded age appropriately and gained knowledge and an increased openness about sexuality issues. On the knowledge section of the questionnaire areas addressed in class, such as contraception, were the areas that students showed improvement in student response. The attitudes section revealed an increase in uncertainty about their own values, or conversely, an increase in establishing their values more firmly. In the Draw-a-Person test there was a greater degree of openness and less defensiveness in the posttest drawings. Most postcourse drawings also included more sexual signs and showed nudity. Behavioral changes were noted in the student's increased class contributions and participation, as well as in a more frequent focus of issues relating to sexuality and maturation. In addition, there was no regression or dysfunction as a result of the materials presented, and therapeutic and educational processes were not disrupted by the patient's involvement in the course. It was concluded that a sex education course is clinically and educationally useful on many levels within a therapeutic setting. PMID:12342338

  8. Visceral larva migrans and eosinophilia in an emotionally disturbed child.

    PubMed

    Marcus, L C; Stambler, M

    1979-03-01

    Visceral larva migrans, Entamoeba coli, evidence of latent toxoplasmosis and a history of plumbism were found in an emotionally disturbed, retarded child. Patients with pica should be screened for parasitism and other diseases transmitted orally. PMID:422524

  9. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  10. Characteristics of the Population of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students with Emotional Disturbance in Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, C. L.; Jones, T. W.

    2005-01-01

    The study summarizes a database for the years 1994-1999 on deaf and hard of hearing students in Illinois with a diagnosis of emotional disturbance (N = 115). Data are reported on the group's demographic, domestic, etiologic, communication-related, and intervention-related characteristics. These dually diagnosed students differed from Illinois's…

  11. Emotion Recognition in Disturbed and Normal Children: A Research Note.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Elaine

    1981-01-01

    The identification of facial expressions of emotion was studied in normal and psychiatrically disturbed children. Schizophrenic children were significantly less accurate than other children in emotion identification. Anxious-depressed children made more errors than unsocialized-aggressive and normal children. Normal and unsocialized-aggressive…

  12. Child abuse and aggression among seriously emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Ford, Julian D; Fraleigh, Lisa A; Connor, Daniel F

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical abuse histories were 50% more likely to be classified as reactively aggressive than boys with no physical abuse history. Proactive aggression was unrelated to physical or sexual abuse history. The association of physical abuse and reactive aggression warrants further scientific study and attention in clinical assessment and treatment with seriously emotionally disturbed children.

  13. An Empirical Typology of Children with Severe Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fields, Scott A.; Ogles, Benjamin M.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a study that used cluster analysis to identify groups/clusters of children (n=158) with severe emotional disturbances receiving services at a rural, mental health center in Southeastern Ohio. Extensive data were gathered at intake that included information regarding child and family characteristics and the…

  14. Using an Academic Peer Interaction Contingency with Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coon, Robert C.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    An academic peer interaction contingency was introduced into an ongoing token economy program in a class of five emotionally disturbed children with minimal interpersonal skills. Seven behavioral categories of academically relevant and irrelevant behaviors were recorded during multiple baseline, contingency, and follow-up observation periods.…

  15. Comprehensive Assessment of Emotional Disturbance: A Cross-Validation Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Emily S.; Doyon, Katie E.; Saldana, Enrique; Allen, Megan Redding

    2007-01-01

    Assessing a student for emotional disturbance is a serious and complex task given the stigma of the label and the ambiguities of the federal definition. One way that school psychologists can be more confident in their assessment results is to cross validate data from different sources using the RIOT approach (Review, Interview, Observe, Test).…

  16. Serious Emotional Disturbance in Children and Adolescents: Multisystemic Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Schoenwald, Sonja K.; Rowland, Melisa D.; Cunningham, Phillippe B.

    Originally developed to treat antisocial behavior, multisystemic therapy (MST) has emerged as a leading evidence-based treatment for serious emotional disturbance in children and adolescents. This manual presents the MST approach to working with this challenging population. Delineated are ways to develop and implement collaborative interventions…

  17. Predicting Positive Outcomes for Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nickerson, Amanda B.; Brosof, Amy M.; Shapiro, Valerie B.

    2004-01-01

    This longitudinal study assessed changes in skills for students with emotional disturbance (ED) over a one-year time period in a private special education school and examined variables that predicted positive outcomes for these students. At Time 1, teachers rated 84 students with ED using standardized behavior rating scales to assess problem…

  18. Legislative Ambiguity and the Accurate Identification of Seriously Emotionally Disturbed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrander, Rick; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Surveyed school psychologists (N=127) practicing under three types of state criteria used in identifying children as seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) to determine the legal accuracy of their identifications of 12 behavioral descriptions of specific disorders. Found considerable differences in the perceptions of school psychology personnel.…

  19. Fluent Persuasive Writing with Counterarguments for Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mastropieri, Margo A.; Scruggs, Thomas E.; Cerar, Nancy Irby; Allen-Bronaugh, Dannette; Thompson, Catherine; Guckert, Mary; Leins, Pat; Hauth, Clara; Cuenca-Sanchez, Yojanna

    2014-01-01

    Twelve seventh- and eighth-grade students with emotional disturbance participated in a multiple probe, multiple baseline design two-phase intervention study to improve persuasive writing skills. The first phase after baseline taught students to plan and write persuasive essays including counterarguments. In the second phase, students were taught…

  20. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  1. Emotional Disturbance. Fact Sheet = Problemas Emocionales. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet, written in both English and Spanish, provides a definition, information on incidence, typical characteristics, and educational implications of emotional disturbance. The definition is from the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) and incidence in 1999-2000 is reported as about 470,000 children and youth. Educational…

  2. Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: School Psychologists' Practices and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanchon, Timothy A.; Allen, Ryan A.

    2013-01-01

    From its inception as a disability category in the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, serving students under the special education category Emotional Disturbance (ED) has been a challenging task for school psychologists. In particular, the vague and ambiguous federal definition has created an environment in which inconsistent assessment…

  3. Therapeutic Interventions with Emotionally-Disturbed Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Carolyn; And Others

    This investigation consisted of two studies. In Experiment I, three methods of dealing with the identified emotionally disturbed child were compared, simultaneously testing the hypothesis that community personnel can be taught to work effectively with these children. Under the three treatments, the identified child was either: (1) removed from his…

  4. The Use of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test with Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Raymond S.

    1980-01-01

    The validity and reliability of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was estimated with emotionally disturbed adolescents. Results indicated that the power of the test to predict future achievement of emotionally disturbed adolescents is comparable to that expected for normals. (Author)

  5. Progress or Change: Issues in Educating the Emotionally Disturbed. Volume 2: Service Delivery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Norris G., Ed.; Noel, Margaret M., Ed.

    Seven papers address issues in service delivery of educational programs for emotionally disturbed students. M. Noel begins with "Public School Programs for the Emotionally Disturbed: An Overview," in which she reviews past and present approaches and models. In "Pathways to Success: Working with Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Students in a Public…

  6. Emotional disturbance in newly registered general practice patients.

    PubMed

    Corser, C M; Philip, A E

    1978-02-01

    The General Health Questionnaire has had some popularity as an index of minor psychiatric morbidity and was used in the present study to ascertain the emotional state of newcomers to a practice in a new town. High scorers on the GHQ had more episodes of illness, had more severe ratings of psychological problems, and were more likely to receive a formal psychiatric diagnosis than were low scorers. A second survey one year later confirmed the variability of response to the GHQ inherent in a 'present state' inventory. Doubts are expressed as to the psychiatric nature of the emotional upset measured by the GHQ.

  7. Perceptual-Motor and Scholastic Achievement Relationships in Emotionally Disturbed Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruber, Joseph J.; Noland, Melody

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of the data collected leads to the conclusion that in this group of emotionally disturbed elementary school children, fitness, coordination, and academic achievement items are unrelated. (MM)

  8. A Study of Child Variance, Volume 1: Conceptual Models; Conceptual Project in Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, William C.; Tracy, Michael L.

    Presented are 11 papers discussing the following six models of emotional disturbance in children: biophysical, behavioral, psychodynamic, sociological, and ecological, models, and counter theory. Emotional disturbance is defined as a distinctive human state having multiple manifestations and involving disability, deviance, and alienation. All the…

  9. The Efficacy of Human Figure Drawings as Measures of Emotional Disturbance among African-American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doby-Copeland, Cheryl

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the predictive validity of the Draw-A-Person: Screening Procedure for Emotional Disturbance (DAP: SPED) (Naglieri, McNeish & Bardos, 1991) relative to the Scale for Assessing Emotional Disturbance-Second Edition (SAED-2) (Epstein & Cullinan, 2010). The pool of participants consisted of matched samples (N = 27; 6-12 years…

  10. Behavioural and Emotional Disturbances in People with Prader-Willi Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhausen, H.-C.; Eiholzer, U.; Hauffa, B. P.; Malin, Z.

    2004-01-01

    The study of the behaviour profile in subjects with Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS). A total of fifty-eight 3- to 29-year-old subjects with PWS were studied using a standardized parent report of behavioural and emotional disturbances. There was an increase of behavioural and emotional disturbances for the adolescent and young adult age range, whereas…

  11. Differentiating Emotional Disturbance from Social Maladjustment: Assessing Psychopathy in Aggressive Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gacono, Carl B.; Hughes, Tammy L.

    2004-01-01

    The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1997) requires identification of emotional disturbance by special education criteria. It also requires that emotional disturbance be distinguished from social maladjustment. In some cases, a thorough evaluation of the child's character pathology can aid in this determination. While methods such as…

  12. Educating Emotionally Disturbed Children--Promising Practices. Journal within a Journal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michael, Robert, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Seven articles by educators with a variety of perspectives examine promising educational practices for use with children having emotional disturbances. Lee Bell offers strategies for using group activities in "All Together Now: Group Techniques for Teaching Students with Emotional Disturbances." Lyn Sarda and Rik Flynn discuss benefits and…

  13. Behavior and Achievement Relationships with Emotionally Disturbed Children: An Applied Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaughan, Edward; Axelrod, Saul

    1989-01-01

    Examined relationship between on-task behaviors and standardized achievement among emotionally disturbed or behavior disordered students. Forty emotionally disturbed or behavior disordered elementary school students participated in token economy for one academic year. Noted minimal pre-post achievement gains and high level of on-task behavior; no…

  14. Learned helplessness: effects of noncontingent reinforcement and response cost with emotionally disturbed children.

    PubMed

    Saylor, C F; Finch, A J; Cassel, S C; Saylor, C B; Penberthy, A R

    1984-07-01

    In order to investigate the effectiveness of noncontingent reinforcement and response cost in inducing learned helplessness and to determine whether depressed Ss respond differently than nondepressed Ss, 28 emotionally disturbed children (20 boys, 8 girls) were tested in a modified learned helplessness paradigm. Children's Depression Inventory score and diagnosis were each used to distinguish "depressed" and "nondepressed" children. Half of the depressed group and half of the nondepressed group received noncontingent response cost, the other half of the two groups received noncontingent positive reinforcement. Results indicated that both noncontingent response cost and noncontingent reinforcement led to reduced persistence time relative to persistence under conditions of contingent reinforcement. There was only one significant difference between depressed and nondepressed Ss (differential persistence time over trials) and there were no significant interactions. Results were discussed in terms of Seligman's formulation of learned helplessness and the extension of this model to a clinical child population.

  15. Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Disturbances: Pharmacological Therapy Based on Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong S.

    2016-01-01

    Post-stroke mood and emotional disturbances are frequent and diverse in their manifestations. Out of the many post-stroke disturbances, post-stroke depression, post-stroke anxiety, post-stroke emotional incontinence, post-stroke anger proneness, and post-stroke fatigue are frequent and important symptoms. These symptoms are distressing for both the patients and their caregivers, and negatively influence the patient’s quality of life. Unfortunately, these emotional disturbances are not apparent and are therefore often unnoticed by busy clinicians. Their phenomenology, predicting factors, and pathophysiology have been under-studied, and are under-recognized. In addition, well-designed clinical trials regarding these symptoms are rare. Fortunately, these mood and emotional disturbances may be treated or prevented by various methods, including pharmacological therapy. To administer the appropriate therapy, we have to understand the phenomenology and the similarities and differences in the pathophysiological mechanisms associated with these emotional symptoms. This narrative review will describe some of the most common or relevant post-stroke mood and emotional disturbances. The phenomenology, factors or predictors, and relevant lesion locations will be described, and pharmacological treatment of these emotional disturbances will be discussed based on presumable pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:27733031

  16. A Model for Teaching Rational Behavior Skills to Emotionally Disturbed Youth in a Public School Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia L.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a model used to teach rational behavior skills to 34 emotionally disturbed adolescents. Discusses teaching, training, and counseling strategies. The group demonstrated significant positive changes in learning and personality variables, but not behavior. (JAC)

  17. An Overview of a Secondary Level Program for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heule, Gordon R.; Zukowski, Patrick A.

    1978-01-01

    A secondary program for emotionally disturbed students in a Wisconsin school district is described in terms of assessment procedures, classroom management, classroom materials, mainstreaming, parental and community involvement, and its token reinforcement system. (CL)

  18. Emotions and coping of patients with head and neck cancers after diagnosis: A qualitative content analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, A; Juvva, S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Rationale: Patients suffering with head and neck cancers are observed to have a relatively high risk of developing emotional disturbances after diagnosis and treatment. These emotional concerns can be best understood and explored through the method of content analysis or qualitative data. Though a number of qualitative studies have been conducted in the last few years in the field of psychosocial oncology, none have looked at the emotions experienced and the coping by head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five new cases of postsurgery patients of head and neck cancers were qualitatively interviewed regarding the emotions experienced and coping strategies after diagnosis. Results: Qualitative content analysis of the in-depth interviews brought out that patients experienced varied emotions on realizing that they were suffering from cancer, the cause of which could be mainly attributed to three themes: 1) knowledge of their illness; 2) duration of untreated illness; and 3) object of blame. They coped with their emotions by either: 1) inculcating a positive attitude and faith in the doctor/treatment, 2) ventilating their emotions with family and friends, or 3) indulging in activities to divert attention. Conclusion: The results brought out a conceptual framework, which showed that an in-depth understanding of the emotions — Their root cause, coping strategies, and spiritual and cultural orientations of the cancer survivor — Is essential to develop any effective intervention program in India. PMID:27320951

  19. School-Based Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Richardson, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Children and adolescents with emotional disturbance (ED) exhibit chronic and diverse academic, emotional, behavioral, and/or medical difficulties that pose significant challenges for their education and treatment in schools. Historically, children with ED have received fragmented inadequate interventions and services that often yielded unfavorable…

  20. Constructing New Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori A.

    2010-01-01

    The problem area explored by this study is the identification of students with emotional and behavioral difficulties for special education supports and services under the criteria for emotional disturbance (ED). A review of the literature indicated that the problem of identifying students with ED was compounded by subjectivity and ambiguity…

  1. PROJECT RE-ED, A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Mental Health, Raleigh.

    THE PROJECT FOR THE REEDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN (PROJECT RE-ED), A DEMONSTRATION PROJECT (1961-1968) TO DEVELOP AND EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF RESIDENTIAL SCHOOLS (SUNDAY THROUGH FRIDAY) FOR DISTURBED CHILDREN, IS DESCRIBED. THE PROFESSIONAL TRAINING AT GEORGE PEABODY COLLEGE, TENNESSEE, AND USE OF CAREFULLY SELECTED…

  2. Facing Complaining Customer and Suppressed Emotion at Worksite Related to Sleep Disturbance in Korea

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of facing complaining customer and suppressed emotion at worksite on sleep disturbance among working population. We enrolled 13,066 paid workers (male = 6,839, female = 6,227, age < 65 years) in the 3rd Korean Working Condition Survey (2011). The odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for sleep disturbance occurrence were calculated using multiple logistic regression models. Among workers in working environments where they always engage complaining customers had a significantly higher risk for sleep disturbance than rarely group (The OR [95% CI]; 5.46 [3.43–8.68] in male, 5.59 [3.30–9.46] in female workers). The OR (95% CI) for sleep disturbance was 1.78 (1.16–2.73) and 1.63 (1.02–2.63), for the male and female groups always suppressing their emotions at the workplace compared with those rarely group. Compared to those who both rarely engaged complaining customers and rarely suppressed their emotions at work, the OR (CI) for sleep disturbance was 9.66 (4.34–20.80) and 10.17 (4.46–22.07), for men and women always exposed to both factors. Sleep disturbance was affected by interactions of both emotional demands (engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace). The level of emotional demand, including engaging complaining customers and suppressing emotions at the workplace is significantly associated with sleep disturbance among Korean working population. PMID:27709845

  3. Reducing Disruptive Behaviors in Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musser, Erinn H.; Bray, Melissa A.; Kehle, Thomas J.; Jenson, William R.

    2001-01-01

    A multicomponent intervention that included a precision request program, mystery motivators, token economy with response cost, and antecedent strategies was employed to reduce disruptive classroom behavior in 3 school-aged students with social and emotional disorders. The results suggested that the intervention was successful in reducing levels of…

  4. The Classroom Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Hearing Impaired Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goulder, T. Jordon; Trybus, Raymond J.

    The classroom behavior of 148 hearing impaired children (7-13 years old) was rated by their teachers on the School Behavior Check List. Behavioral descriptions were analyzed in terms of whether or not the student was reproted to have an emotional/behavioral problem or other educationally significant handicapping conditions, and the student's sex…

  5. THE MICHIGAN PROGRAM FOR THE EDUCATION OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    TO ASSIST SCHOOL SYSTEMS IN SETTING UP CLASSES FOR THE EMOTIONALLY HANDICAPPED, THE LEGAL BASIS FOR MICHIGAN STATE-APPROVED PROGRAMS IS IDENTIFIED, STATE RULES AND REGULATIONS ARE REVIEWED, AND RELATIONSHIPS TO OTHER SCHOOL AND COMMUNITY SERVICES ARE INDICATED. INCLUDED ARE PROGRAMS AND THEIR GOALS, AND ADMINISTRATIVE DEFINITIONS AND PROCEDURES.…

  6. Emotional Disturbance and Its Treatment in a Nutshell

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1971-01-01

    The author suggests that human beings could eliminate their usual feelings of disturbance and upsetness and retain their appropriate feelings of disappointment and annoyance if they stop demanding and awfulizing" reality and dictating that it be other than it indubitably is. (Author/CG)

  7. A Descriptive Case Study of Stigma: Constructing Labels of Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Laura O.

    2012-01-01

    Stigma is a social construct and a process of social rejection, devaluation and discrimination (Brown et al., 2010, p.351). The stigmatization of students who carry multiple labels does occur. When those labels are Culturally and Linguistically Diverse (CLD) and Emotional Disturbance (ED), the perceived process of stigmatization may be difficult…

  8. Implicit and Explicit Attitudes of Educators toward the Emotional Disturbance Label

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, James Patrick

    2009-01-01

    This study examined implicit and explicit attitudes of teachers toward the Emotional Disturbance (ED) label, the strength of association between implicit and explicit ratings, and the variance in attitudes between different types of teachers or among teachers in different settings. Ninety-eight teachers (52 regular education and 46 special…

  9. A Study on the Effectiveness of Life Space Crisis Intervention for Students Identified with Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Carol A.

    2003-01-01

    This research reports the effects of Life Space Crisis Intervention (LSCI) training with staff in a junior high school serving students with emotional disturbance. Results reveal that frequency of crises decreased significantly in the LSCI school while increasing significantly in the control school. All staff in the LSCI school reported that they…

  10. Teacher Perceptions and Behavioral Strategies for Students with Emotional Disturbance across Educational Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Chan; Weiss, Stacy L.; Cullinan, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined problem characteristics of students with emotional disturbance in 3 educational environments, the behavior management and intervention strategies their teachers used, and what relation exists between problem characteristics and intervention strategies. Teachers completed a behavior problems rating scale and they…

  11. The Relationship of the WISC to the Revised ITPA in Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, I. Louis; Cormack, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    This study assesses 78 emotionally disturbed children on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and the revised edition of the Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities (ITPA) to demonstrate the relationship between the two tests and determine which revised ITPA subtest scores best predict the children's WISC Full Scale, Verbal and…

  12. THE PILOT PROGRAM FOR THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED IN TEXAS. PROGRESS REPORT FOR 1965-1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LINKOUS, L.W.

    DURING THE 1965-66 SCHOOL YEAR, 20 CLASSES FOR THE EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED (IN PUBLIC SCHOOLS, MENTAL HEALTH CENTERS, AND HOSPITALS) ENROLLED 253 CHILDREN IN THIS PILOT PROGRAM. EVIDENCE OF NEUROLOGICAL DYSFUNCTION WAS FOUND IN 37 PERCENT OF THE STUDENTS. PSYCHIATRISTS CATEGORIZED THE STUDENTS AS HAVING TRANSIENT SITUATIONAL PERSONALITY DISORDERS…

  13. Children and Youth at Risk of Emotional Disturbance: Risk Factors and Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Human Services, St. Paul.

    Designed to assist Minnesota educators and mental health professionals in developing comprehensive mental health services for children, this report summarizes research findings and issues in the area of primary and secondary prevention of emotional disturbances in children. It begins by reviewing factors found to contribute to emotional…

  14. A Study of Child Variance, Volume 2: Interventions; Conceptual Project in Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, William C.; Tracy, Michael L.

    Presented in the second volume of a series emanating from a conceptual project on emotional disturbance are six papers on general aspects of interventions as well as biophysical, behavioral, psychodynamic, environmental, and counter theoretical interventions. In an "Overview of Interventions", W. Rhodes discusses a framework for viewing…

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Children's Psychosocial Rehabilitation for Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Nathaniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article introduces and evaluates children's psychosocial rehabilitation, a home- and community-based treatment for children with serious emotional disturbance. Method: In an open-trial design, the author used repeated-measures analysis of variance and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests to assess pre-post outcome ratings for 218…

  16. State-Level Variability of Educational Outcomes of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal, Victor

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the educational environment placement and educational outcomes of students identified as having an emotional disturbance (ED). The sample was drawn from special education enrollment data for students aged 6-21 years in the 50 states and Washington, DC in 2010. Additional economic and demographic state-level variables were…

  17. Oral Reading Fluency Development for Children with Emotional Disturbance or Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov

    2014-01-01

    This study used a large statewide database to examine the oral reading fluency development of second- and third-grade students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities and their general education peers. Oral reading fluency measures were administered to 185,367 students without disabilities (general education), 2,146 students identified…

  18. Effects of an Equine Assisted Activities Program on Youth with Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Tira

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a 10-week Equine Assisted Activities (EAA) program on special education students (aged 9 to 15) identified as Emotionally Disturbed (ED) who were enrolled in an alternative school. A control group of special education students receiving treatment-as-usual was included. The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children,…

  19. Profiles of Residential and Day Treatment Programs for Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaacs, Mareasa R.; Goldman, Sybil K.

    This monograph presents descriptions of 11 residential and day treatment programs serving seriously emotionally disturbed youth. Each program's description includes information about the program's origins, type of children served, guiding philosophy and treatment approach, services offered, work with families, linkages with other child-serving…

  20. Teaching Emotionally Disturbed Children to Discriminate Reality from Fantasy on Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprafkin, Joyce; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Twenty-one emotionally disturbed elementary grade children completed a television viewing skills curriculum. Results of the intervention found that the subjects made significantly more accurate reality-fantasy discriminations concerning television program content than a control group; however, the curriculum was not effective in increasing…

  1. Examining Gender and the Academic Achievement of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Elisabeth Hess; Yen, Cherng-Jyh

    2010-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbance (ED) have significant academic deficits (Trout, Nordness, Pierce, & Epstein, 2003; Lane, 2004). Even after identification and school intervention, students with ED continue to demonstrate limited academic achievement and high rates of drop out and school failure, with 80-90% scoring below grade level on tests of…

  2. Menu Strategy for Improving School Behavior of Severely Emotionally Disturbed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, Judith C.

    This practicum report describes a 12-week project to decrease truancy and improve motivation and academic performance of three students (ages 12 to 18) hospitalized with severe emotional disturbances. A visible and powerful reward system using a menu strategy was developed and implemented in which students participated daily in establishing goals…

  3. Characteristics of Severely Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents with Extreme Scores on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagborg, Winston J.

    This study examined self-reported depression among severely emotionally disturbed adolescents at a private school serving publicly funded adolescents enrolled in a therapeutically supportive, non-residential educational program. From a sample of 45 students, using the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS), 15 students were selected for a…

  4. Storying Moral Dimensions of Disordering: Teacher Inquiry into the Social Construction of Severe Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Terry Jo

    Stories can have powerful effects on others. An autobiographical account of a behavior specialist's supposed descent into a severe emotional disturbance (SED) is presented here. Written as a narrative, the story opens with a description of what it is like to think differently from everyone else. It is conjectured that either the years spent by the…

  5. Perceptions of General and Special Educators and Paraprofessionals on Educational Setting for Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahlgren, Katherine Leigh

    2010-01-01

    Educational placement decisions for students with emotional disturbance (ED) are to be made in settings which least restrict their interactions with typically developing peers, per the Individuals with Disabilities Improvement Act of 2004 (20 U.S.C. 1400 (c)(5)(D)(F)). High levels of restrictive settings compared to students with other disability…

  6. Vocational and Career-Oriented Secondary School Programs for the Emotionally Disturbed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levinson, Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a model of vocational and career-oriented secondary school programs for the emotionally disturbed population. The model borrows principles and practices from various theoretical approaches, including the trait-factor, psychodynamic, behavioral, and developmental approaches. The methods and materials recommended are believed to be…

  7. Interagency Consultation in Rural Vermont: A Model for Serving Students with Serious Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welkowitz, Julie; Broer, Steve; Laframboise, Sandy; Prue, Jennifer; Carruth, Frank; Provost, Susan; Fox, Wayne

    This paper describes the Community Collaboration Project, a program in one rural Vermont community (Addison County) to maximize resources serving children with serious emotional disturbances. The project uses an interagency collaboration "wraparound" model which emphasizes consultation instead of direct services. The project utilizes an…

  8. Effects of Quick Writing Instruction for High School Students with Emotional Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Linda H.; Kubina, Richard M., Jr.; Hoover, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    High school students with emotional disturbances (ED) often struggle with classroom writing tasks. In this study, the effectiveness of Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) instruction for 10 min timed persuasive quick writes with three high school students with ED was investigated. Results indicated improvement in the areas of quality,…

  9. Characteristics of Bullies and Victims among Students with Emotional Disturbance Attending Approved Private Special Education Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carran, Deborah T.; Kellner, Millicent H.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to describe rates and types of bullying and victimization among 407 students with emotional disturbance (ED) in grades 6 through 10 attending private approved special education schools in New Jersey. These students anonymously completed the Olweus Bullying Questionnaire. Results indicated that compared with a general…

  10. Psychopharmacological Intervention. I: Teacher Perceptions of Psychotropic Medication for Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Nirbhay N.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    The study examined perceptions, knowledge, and opinions regarding medication of 146 teachers of students with serious emotional disturbances. Among findings were that global impressions were most often used to evaluate drug effects and that hyperactivity and delusions/hallucinations were most likely to lead to medication. (DB)

  11. Regular Classroom Teachers' Attitudes toward Mainstreaming the Emotionally Disturbed: Can They Be Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beare, Paul L.

    This study reviews the effects of training and service in a student advocacy program for Emotionally Disturbed (ED) children on attitudes of 16 secondary teachers toward ED children in the regular class. The intervention program involved 6 days of inservice training on working with ED students, delivered concurrent with the teachers' serving in an…

  12. School Context and the Problem Behavior and Social Skills of Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Andrew L.; Siperstein, Gary N.; Forness, Steven R.; Brigham, Frederick J.

    2010-01-01

    Variability in the social and behavioral characteristics of students with emotional disturbance (ED) in the public schools may impact special education effectiveness; yet very little evidence exists on how such variability may express itself from school to school. One place to begin such investigation involves school context as expressed by income…

  13. Zero Margin for Error: Effective Strategies for Teaching Music to Students with Emotional Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Bryan S., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Although music teachers are likely to encounter students with emotional disturbances in the classroom, many educators are overwhelmed by the challenges presented by the needs of these students. Limited preservice training and a lack of professional development addressing the disability further compound the issue. Available resources often address…

  14. Directive Management Procedures, Staffing Patterns in Education for Emotionally Disturbed Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeYoung, Michael

    A systematic procedure is outlined which gives guidance to therapists and teachers in managing seriously emotionally disturbed (SED) students (9 to 18 years old) who reside at a licensed children's institution or are attending a centralized public school facility for SED students. Among findings from a review of the literature was that intensive…

  15. Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina 2 Years Postdisaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the prevalence of serious emotional disturbance (SED) among children and adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina along with the associations of SED with hurricane-related stressors, sociodemographics, and family factors 18 to 27 months after the hurricane. Method: A probability sample of prehurricane residents of areas…

  16. Trends in Serious Emotional Disturbance among Youths Exposed to Hurricane Katrina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Osofsky, Joy D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine patterns and predictors of trends in "DSM-IV" serious emotional disturbance (SED) among youths exposed to Hurricane Katrina. Method: A probability sample of adult pre-hurricane residents of the areas affected by Katrina completed baseline and follow-up telephone surveys 18 to 27 months post-hurricane and 12 to 18 months…

  17. Accessing Services for Youth with Emotional Disturbances in and after High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Mary M.; Wei, Xin; Thornton, S. Patrick; Valdes, Kathryn

    2016-01-01

    This study uses data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 to examine the rates at which youth with emotional disturbances received services during and up to 8 years after high school. Parents' efforts to obtain services, information sources accessed, problems encountered, and the perceived sufficiency of services to meet youths' needs…

  18. DAY-CARE REHABILITATION CENTER FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED ADOLESCENTS. FINAL REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CRAWFORD, HUGH A.; VAN DUYNE, WILLIAM V.

    IN THIS FIVE YEAR DEMONSTRATION PROJECT, EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED ADULTS AND ADOLESCENTS RECEIVED TREATMENT AT A DAY CARE REHABILITATION CENTER SPONSORED BY THE RHODE ISLAND DIVISION OF VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION (DVR) LOCATED IN A PRIVATE PSYCHIATRIC HOSPITAL (BUTLER HOSPITAL). THE MAJOR TREATMENT GOALS WERE PRESERVATION AND RESTORATION OF…

  19. The Classroom: Insights into Educational Evaluation in School Programs for Emotionally Disturbed Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Helen, Ed.

    Presented are conference proceedings on evaluation of educational programs for emotionally disturbed children. Raphael F. Simches highlights past and future educational trends in programs for handicapped children. Fritz Redl stresses various motivations that may cause violent behavior. A systematic approach to classroom analysis via taxonomy of…

  20. Test Reviews: Euler, B. L. (2007). "Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree". Lutz, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansy, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The Emotional Disturbance Decision Tree (EDDT) is a teacher-completed norm-referenced rating scale published by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., in Lutz, Florida. The 156-item EDDT was developed for use as part of a broader assessment process to screen and assist in the identification of 5- to 18-year-old children for the special…

  1. Neuropsychological Performance of Emotionally Disturbed Students on the LNNB and LNNB-C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Charles W.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological performance of 65 emotionally disturbed students on Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Form I (LNNB) and Luria-Nebraska Neuropsychological Battery: Children's Revision (LNNB-C). Results indicated that approximately 42 percent of younger group (99-154 months) and 38 percent of older group (156-226 months)…

  2. Efficacy of Some Behavior Management Strategies for Students with Serious Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDowell, Alison; Askvig, Brent A.

    This paper reviews the literature on several popular behavior change strategies that have been implemented in classrooms or other educational settings with students with severe emotional disturbances. Each strategy is first described and then data on its effectiveness are reviewed. The strategies reviewed are: (1) timeout; (2) self-evaluation; (3)…

  3. The CO-CEP Initiative: The Cooperative Career Employment Program for Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peach, Walter; And Others

    The document is based on a panel presentation describing the development, implementation, and evaluation of a Fairfax County (Virginia) program, the Cooperative Career Employment Program (CO-CEP) for Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents. The program is provided to students in a self-contained high school setting and involves the…

  4. The Individualized Needs for Service Assessment (INSA) for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosser, Rene C.; Flisher, Alan J.

    This paper reports on efforts underway in New York State to develop the Individualized Needs for Services Assessment (INSA). The INSA is a set of standardized procedures and data definitions to guide assessment of service needs for children with serious emotional disturbances (SED). The INSA procedure for children with SED is designed to be…

  5. Intervention Strategies and Procedures for Helping Parents of Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children in Home Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Carl R.

    Described is the parent training component of the Severe Personal Adjustment Program for severely emotionally disturbed school-aged children. Among program objectives listed are the following: pinpoint and define behavior (operationally), evaluate situations and environments in which the behavior occurs, specify contingencies presently operating,…

  6. Effects of the Psychoactive Drug: Methylphenidate (Ritalin) on Classroom Disorders: Hyperactivity, Emotional Disturbance and Learning Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirst, Irene

    Reviewed were several research studies using varying dosages of methylphenidate (Ritalin) in contrast with thioridazine and amphetamine under various behavioral conditions and situations with hyperactive, emotionally disturbed, and learning disabled children. Results from the studies with hyperactive children indicated that drug treatment was…

  7. Advanced Respite Care for Emotionally Disturbed. Teacher Edition. Respite Care Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This unit is designed to help teachers/trainers provide training for respite care providers who may be working with emotionally disturbed persons. The format of the guide includes basic components that form a unit of instruction: objective sheet, instructor's guide, instructor's supplements, information sheet, student supplements, activity sheets,…

  8. Maltreatment, Conscience Functioning and Dopamine Beta Hydroxylase in Emotionally Disturbed Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galvin, Matthew R.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Nineteen hospitalized, emotionally disturbed boys screened for maltreatment either before or after age 3 were compared with a normal control group for enzyme activity and conscience functions in moral valuation. Subjects who experienced early maltreatment had more developmental delays and more interferences with conscience functions than other…

  9. Emotional Disturbance and Substance Abuse/Addiction Special Education Programming for the Dually-Diagnosed Adolescent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdaniak, Roman C.

    Dually diagnosed adolescents suffering from both severe emotional disturbance and substance abuse/addiction constitute a special population which poses a challenge to health professionals in special education as well as clinical settings. The prevalence of substance use, abuse, and addiction has been shown to be significantly above the national…

  10. Elementary students in classes for the emotionally disturbed: characteristics and classroom behavior.

    PubMed

    Jennings, K D; Mendelsohn, S R; May, K; Brown, G M

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented on 147 elementary students enrolled in special-education classes for the emotionally disturbed/behaviorally disordered, housed in self-contained classrooms within the regular public schools of a large urban district. Demographic, psychiatric, academic, and observational characteristics were assessed. From these data, inferences are made about the needs of children enrolled in these classes. PMID:3344802

  11. Clinical and Non-Clinical Characteristics Associated with Medication Use among Children with Serious Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Walrath, Christine M.

    2008-01-01

    Our study explores the clinical and non-clinical characteristics associated with medication use among children with serious emotional disturbance who are referred into community-based family-driven system of care settings. Using data collected as part of the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program…

  12. Behaviour Management Strategies for Emotionally Disturbed Young Children in an Integrated Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkin, Jean

    1988-01-01

    Outlined are behavior management strategies for emotionally disturbed students who are partially mainstreamed. Appropriate behavior outside the classroom earns the child stamps. Inappropriate behavior inside the classroom results in warnings, penalty points, and time-out. On-task behavior is also rewarded with stamps, which may be accumulated for…

  13. Emotionally disturbed children's reactions to violent media segments.

    PubMed

    Grimes, T; Vernberg, E; Cathers, T

    1997-01-01

    This study examined the reaction of children with a diagnosed disruptive behavior disorder (DBD) to violent movie scenes. Children without one of these disorders were tested as well. DBD children ranged in age from 8 to 12 years and were outpatients at The University of Kansas Medical Center's Department of Child Psychiatry. These children were diagnosed by a child psychiatrist as meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th edition) (American Psychiatric Association 1994) (DSM-IV) diagnostic criteria for having at least one of three emotional disorders: attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), and conduct disorder (CD). Results showed that the disordered children differed from the nondisordered children on several dimensions. This suggests that DBD children process the anti-social messages in violent movies differently from children without a psychiatric disorder. An unabated diet of antisocial media could have harmful effects on children with a psychiatric illness.

  14. [The prevalence of cognitive and emotional disturbances in epilepsy and its consequences for therapy].

    PubMed

    Mojs, Ewa; Gajewska, Ewa; Głowacka, Maria Danuta; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2007-01-01

    In the course of epilepsy psychic disturbances appear. They concern cognitive as well as emotional dysfunctions. Cognitive and emotional dysfunctions are defined as poliaetiological - "organic" connected with brain pathology and "environmental". Cognitive dysfunctions concern global intelligence and chosen cognitive dysfunctions as well. There are about 30% people with cognitive dysfunctions connected to epilepsy. Primary and secondary emotional dysfunctions are distinguished in traditional approach. Primary emotional and cognitive dysfunctions might be caused by the same factor which cause epilepsy or develop due to the damage of the central nervous system in the course of epilepsy or are related to the pharmacological treatment. Secondary emotional deficits are connected with negative social actions and negative social attitudes toward ill persons with epilepsy. It concerns overprotective attitudes or social isolation. The prevalence of emotional disturbances is estimated at 5-50% in population of patients with epilepsy. The study shows the necessity of conducting psychotherapy and neuropsychological rehabilitation in the course of epilepsy as a part of schema of treatment. The aim of these activities is the improvement of the quality of life and the avoidance of progressive intellectual impairment as well. PMID:18595489

  15. The Association between Sleep Disturbances and Depression among Firefighters: Emotion Dysregulation as an Explanatory Factor

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Melanie A.; Stanley, Ian H.; Rogers, Megan L.; Tzoneva, Mirela; Bernert, Rebecca A.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To investigate emotion regulation difficulties in association with self-reported insomnia symptoms, nightmares, and depression symptoms in a sample of current and retired firefighters. Methods: A total of 880 current and retired United States firefighters completed a web-based survey of firefighter behavioral health. Self-report measures included the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Insomnia Severity Index, PTSD Checklist, and Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale. Results: A notable portion of participants reported clinically significant depression symptoms (39.6%) and insomnia symptoms (52.7%), as well as nightmare problems (19.2%), each of which demonstrated a strong association with emotion regulation difficulties (rs = 0.56–0.80). Bootstrapped mediation analyses revealed that the indirect effects of overall emotion regulation difficulties were significant both for the relationship between insomnia and depression (95% CI: 0.385–0.566) and nightmares and depression (95% CI: 1.445–2.365). Limited access to emotion regulation strategies emerged as the strongest, significant indirect effect for both relationships (insomnia 95% CI: 0.136–0.335; nightmares 95% CI: 0.887–1.931). Conclusions: Findings extend previous affective neuroscience research by providing evidence that insomnia and nightmares may influence depression symptoms specifically through the pathway of explicit emotion regulation difficulties. Sleep disturbances may impair the ability to access and leverage emotion regulation strategies effectively, thus conferring risk for negative affect and depression. Citation: Hom MA, Stanley IH, Rogers ML, Tzoneva M, Bernert RA, Joiner TE. The association between sleep disturbances and depression among firefighters: emotion dysregulation as an explanatory factor. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):235–245. PMID:26350604

  16. Oral Reading Fluency Development for Children with Emotional Disturbance or Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    This study used a large state-wide database to examine the oral reading fluency development of second and third grade students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities and their general education peers. Oral reading fluency measures were administered to 185,367 students without disabilities (general education), 2,146 students identified with an emotional disturbance, and 10,339 students with a learning disability. Student status and growth trends were examined in a piecewise model at each grade level for the full sample as well as for a subsample with reading difficulties. Data suggested students with disabilities performed significantly below students without disabilities in initial status and growth. Gender was also examined as a moderator of outcomes for each of the study groups.

  17. Using Experiential Learning Through Science Experiments to Increase the Motivation of Students Classified as Emotionally Disturbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crozier, Marisa

    When learning is an adventure rather than an exercise in memorization, students can enjoy the process and be motivated to participate in classroom activities (Clem, Mennicke, & Beasley, 2014). Students classified as emotionally disturbed are prone to disruptive behaviors and struggle learning in a traditional science classroom consisting of lecture and demonstrations. They cannot maintain the necessary level of attention nor have the strong reading, writing or memory skills needed to succeed. Therefore, this study examined whether the use of experiential learning would increase on-task behavior and improve the motivation of emotionally disturbed, middle school students in science. Students completed four hands-on experiments aligned with the science curriculum. The data collection methods implemented were an observation checklist with corresponding journal entries, a summative assessment in the form of lab sheets, and student interviews. Through triangulation and analysis, data revealed that the students had more on-task behaviors, were engaged in the lessons, and improved grades in science.

  18. Oral Reading Fluency Development for Children with Emotional Disturbance or Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Wanzek, Jeanne; Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Petscher, Yaacov

    2013-01-01

    This study used a large state-wide database to examine the oral reading fluency development of second and third grade students with emotional disturbance or learning disabilities and their general education peers. Oral reading fluency measures were administered to 185,367 students without disabilities (general education), 2,146 students identified with an emotional disturbance, and 10,339 students with a learning disability. Student status and growth trends were examined in a piecewise model at each grade level for the full sample as well as for a subsample with reading difficulties. Data suggested students with disabilities performed significantly below students without disabilities in initial status and growth. Gender was also examined as a moderator of outcomes for each of the study groups. PMID:24532848

  19. Emotional Disturbance

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe mental disorders that cause abnormal thinking and perceptions. Two of the main symptoms are delusions and ... someone is plotting against you. Hallucinations are false perceptions, such as hearing, seeing, or feeling something that ...

  20. Do Race of Student and Race of Teacher Influence Ratings of Emotional and Behavioral Problem Characteristics of Students with Emotional Disturbance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cullinan, Douglas; Kauffman, James M.

    2005-01-01

    African American students are disproportionately likely to be identified with the emotional disturbance (ED) education disability. To investigate how teachers' perceptions of students might vary by race, we analyzed Black and White teachers' ratings of 769 students with ED, subdivided by race and grade level, on six emotional and behavior problem…

  1. End of Project Report for the Achieving, Behaving, Caring Project: Preventing the Development of Serious Emotional Disturbance among Children and Youth with Emotional and Behavioral Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Amy K.

    This final report discusses the activities and outcomes of the Achieving, Behaving, Caring Project, a program designed to prevent the development of serious emotional disturbance among children and youth with emotional and behavioral problems. The project had three main elements: (1) social skills instruction from a social skills curriculum chosen…

  2. A Study of How Teachers of Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children Can Derive Benefit from a Psychoeducational Evaluation by a Psychologist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weepie, Agatha A.

    The study involving 130 teachers investigated the elements of psychoeducational evaluation seen by teachers as most helpful in working with emotionally disturbed children. Ss responded to questionnaires which delved into physical, psychological, social-emotional, moral-ethical, and mental development of the child. Results revealed that the…

  3. Words Have Power: (Re)-Defining Serious Emotional Disturbance for American Indian and Alaska Native Children and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Teisha M.; Novins, Douglas K.; Allen, James

    2004-01-01

    Circles of Care grantees were provided the opportunity to develop a locally relevant definition of serious emotional disturbance (SED) that would be used to define what type of emotional, behavioral, and mental disability would be required to receive services. After conducting detailed assessments of the definition in the guidance for applicants…

  4. Motor Proficiency and Emotional/Behavioural Disturbance in Autism and Asperger's Disorder: Another Piece of the Neurological Puzzle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papadopoulos, Nicole; McGinley, Jennifer; Tonge, Bruce; Bradshaw, John; Saunders, Kerryn; Murphy, Anna; Rinehart, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The relationship of motor proficiency with emotional/behavioural disturbance, autistic symptoms and communication disturbance was investigated in children diagnosed with autism and Asperger's disorder (AD). The Movement Assessment Battery for Children was used as a measure of motor impairment, and the Developmental Behavioural Checklist was used…

  5. Factors that influence emotional disturbance in adults living in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2012-04-01

    Living in poverty conditions implies exposure to severe circumstances of social disadvantage, associated with greater propensity to contract illnesses. A negative correlation has consistently been observed between health and poverty. The chronic exposure to stress affects people's well-being through the development of symptoms of anxiety and depression. The suffering of these symptoms for a long time period may be considered as part of a more general syndrome of emotional disturbance, in detriment to a person's mental health. The objective of this study is to identify psychological factors that influence emotional disturbance, measured as symptoms of anxiety and depression, in adults living in poverty conditions in Mexico's central region. A total of 913 adults, 65.2% female, were surveyed. The mean age of the participants was 43.71 (±12.58) years and the mean number of years of schooling was 4.04 (±3.36). Variables corresponding to personal characteristics were measured. The results indicate that the most important risk factor for depression is anxiety and vice versa. Additionally, gender, negative self-esteem, lack of adequate strategies for confronting and resolving difficulties, and lack of self-regulation predicted depression, whereas stress, lack of self-regulation, and coping style predicted anxiety. These variables were better predictors than optimism, locus of control, sense of humor or religiosity.

  6. Disturbing Information and Denial in the Classroom and Beyond: Climate Change, Emotions and Everyday Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norgaard, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global warming is the most significant environmental issue of our time, yet public response in Western nations has been meager. Why have so few taken any action? Most studies of public response to climate change have focused on information deficit approaches. Many in the general public and environmental community have presumed that the public's failure to engage is a function of lack of concern about climate change. Instead, using interviews and ethnographic research on how knowledge of climate change is experienced in everyday life I describe "the social organization of climate denial" and discuss how it impacts classroom learning and the broader social understanding of climate change. Disturbing emotions of guilt, helplessness and fear of the future arose when people were confronted with the idea of climate change. People then normalized these disturbing emotions by changing the subject of conversations, shifting their attention elsewhere, telling jokes, and drawing on stock social discourses that deflected responsibility to others. The difficulty people have in making sense of climate change is in direct relation to the social world around them. This research suggests that educational strategies in the classroom and for the general public that consider and target the social, cultural and political aspects of the meaning of climate change will be most effective (in addition to factors that affect individual cognition).

  7. INFANT EMOTIONAL WITHDRAWAL: A PRECURSOR OF AFFECTIVE AND COGNITIVE DISTURBANCE IN FETAL ALCOHOL SPECTRUM DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Molteno, Christopher D.; Jacobson, Joseph L.; Carter, R. Colin; Dodge, Neil C.; Jacobson, Sandra W.

    2013-01-01

    . These data link prenatal alcohol to a specific aspect of infant affective function not attributable to mother-infant interaction, infant temperament, or other socioemotional aspects of the infant’s environment and identify infant emotional withdrawal as an early indicator of affective disturbance, particularly in children later diagnosed with FAS and PFAS. PMID:24033350

  8. Persistent pain and neurosensory disturbance after dental implant surgery: pathophysiology, etiology, and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Al-Sabbagh, Mohanad; Okeson, Jeffrey P; Khalaf, Mohd W; Bhavsar, Ishita

    2015-01-01

    Many studies have documented the successful outcomes of dental implants, but have also reported the association of sensory disturbances with the surgical implant procedure. Postsurgical pain is a normal response to tissue injury, and usually resolves after the tissue heals. However, some patients who receive dental implants experience persistent pain even after normal healing. This article describes the basic anatomy and pathophysiology associated with nerve injury. The incidence and diagnosis of these problems, in addition to factors that result in the development of chronic persistent neuropathic pain and sensory disturbances associated with surgical implant placement, are discussed. PMID:25434562

  9. Residential Treatment and the Invention of the Emotionally Disturbed Child in Twentieth-Century America.

    PubMed

    Doroshow, Deborah Blythe

    2016-01-01

    In the 1930s, children who were violent, depressed, psychotic, or suicidal would likely have been labeled delinquent and sent to a custodial training school for punitive treatment. But starting in the 1940s, a new group of institutions embarked on a new experiment to salvage and treat severely deviant children. In the process, psychiatrists, psychologists, and social workers at these residential treatment centers (RTCs) made visible, and indeed invented, a new patient population. This article uses medical literature, popular media, and archival sources from several RTCs to argue that staff members created what they called the "emotionally disturbed" child. While historians have described the identification of the mildly "troublesome" child in child guidance clinics, I demonstrate how a much more severely ill child was identified and defined in the process of creating residential treatment and child mental health as a professional enterprise. PMID:27040027

  10. The defense of extreme emotional disturbance in New York County: pleas and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kirschner, Stuart M; Galperin, Gary J

    2002-01-01

    A number of studies have investigated the use of the insanity defense; however, there are few reports on the use of other types of psychiatric defenses. This study explored the use of the affirmative psychiatric defense of extreme emotional disturbance (EED) in New York County (one of the five counties which comprise New York City). The results of the study indicate that, as in the case of the insanity defense, EED is rarely proffered by criminal defendants (plea rate 0.84%). The defense only prevailed on one occasion at a jury trial. While the EED defense was successful 39% of the time that it was entered, this was usually only when the prosecutor accepted the argument that was offered by the defense.

  11. Chronic Light Exposure in the Middle of the Night Disturbs the Circadian System and Emotional Regulation.

    PubMed

    Ikeno, Tomoko; Yan, Lily

    2016-08-01

    In mammals, the circadian system is composed of a principal circadian oscillator located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) and a number of subordinate oscillators in extra-SCN brain regions and peripheral tissues/organs. However, how the time-keeping functions of this multiple oscillator circuit are affected by aberrant lighting environments remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of chronic light exposure in the middle of the night on the circadian system by comparing the mice housed in a 12:4:4:4-h L:DLD condition with the controls in 12:12-h L:D condition. Daily rhythms in locomotor activity were analyzed and the expression patterns of protein products of clock genes Period1 and Period2 (PER1 and PER2) were examined in the SCN and extra-SCN brain regions, including the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and basolateral amygdala (BLA). Following 2 weeks of housing in the L:DLD condition, animals showed disturbed daily rhythms in locomotor activity and lacked daily rhythms of PER1 and PER2 in the SCN. In the extra-SCN brain regions, the PER1 and PER2 rhythms were affected in a region-specific pattern, such that they were relatively undisturbed in the striatum and hippocampus, phase-shifted in the BLA, and abolished in the PVN. In addition, mice in the L:DLD condition showed increased anxiety-like behaviors and reduced brain-derived neurotropic factor messenger RNA expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and medial prefrontal cortex, which are brain regions that are involved in emotional regulation. These results indicate that nighttime light exposure leads to circadian disturbances not only by abolishing the circadian rhythms in the SCN but also by inducing misalignment among brain oscillators and negatively affects emotional processing. These observations serve to identify risks associated with decisions regarding lifestyle in our modern society. PMID:27075857

  12. The Caregiver Strain Questionnaire: Measuring the Impact on the Family of Living with a Child with Serious Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brannan, Ana Maria; Heflinger, Craig Anne; Bickman, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    A study of 984 families of children with emotional and behavioral disturbance used the Caregiver Strain Questionnaire to assess the effects of the shift of primary caregiving to the family due to deinstitutionalization. Results indicate the reliability and validity of the questionnaire, which also identified three related but unique dimensions of…

  13. Innovative Treatment for Children With Serious Emotional Disturbance: Preliminary Outcomes for a School-Based Intensive Mental Health Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernberg, Eric M.; Jacobs, Anne K.; Nyre, Joseph E.; Puddy, Richard W.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a school-based Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP) for 50 children (42 boys, 8 girls) with severe, early-onset, serious emotional disturbances (SED). Eighty-four percent of the children showed clinically significant improvement in overall functioning as…

  14. Effectiveness of Contracted Services in Individualizing and Tailoring Mentor Programming for Children with Severe Emotional Disturbance in a Public System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owley, Gordon T.; Sternweis, Joan

    This conference paper discusses the results of a study that investigated the effects of a mentor service on 30 children with severe emotional disturbances and considered to be at extreme risk for out-of-home placement. The mentors provided regular, consistent, face-to-face and telephone contact with each child for five hours per week. The mentors…

  15. Girls with Emotional Disturbance and a History of Arrest: Characteristics and School-Based Predictors of Arrest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Josephs, Nikki L.; Lunde, Kimberly

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that girls receiving special education services for Emotional Disturbance (ED) may have unique characteristics and needs. Similarly, juvenile justice research has identified unique characteristics of court-involved girls. This study examined characteristics of girls with ED and a history of arrest. Additionally, classroom-based…

  16. The Therapeutic Nursery School; A Contribution to the Study and Treatment of Emotional Disturbances in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furman, Robert A., Ed.; Katan, Anny, Ed.

    The educational program of the Hanna Perkins School for emotionally disturbed preschool children is described in terms of its physical plant, administrative policies concerning staff, selection of cases, and application procedures, and the general objectives and structure of the overall program. The treatment and techniques of interaction with…

  17. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  18. Developing a New System to Measure Outcomes in a Service Coordination Program for Youth with Severe Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shannon, Lisa M.; Walker, Robert; Blevins, Michele

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents information on re-developing an outcome evaluation for a state-funded program providing service coordination utilizing wraparound to youth with severe emotional disturbance (SED) and their families. Originally funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, the Kentucky IMPACT program has existed statewide since 1990. Changing…

  19. The Effect of Treatment Length on Academic Achievement, Classroom Behavior, and Self-Concept among Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleby, Melinda

    2012-01-01

    Archival data was obtained for 68 students enrolled in a non-public school, receiving special education services. Participants were classified as emotionally disturbed (ED) and had scores on file for three assessment tools utilized: Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (WJ III), Clinical Assessment of Behavior (CAB), and Piers-Harris…

  20. Effectiveness of School-Based Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children and Adolescents with Emotional Disturbance: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; Newman, Erik; De Thomas, Courtney Anne; Chun, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based prevention and intervention programs for children and adolescents at-risk for and with emotional disturbance. Published outcome studies (k = 29) from December, 1988, to March, 2006, including 1405 children and adolescents were reviewed. Each investigation was coded on several variables…

  1. Choice-Based Stimulus Preference Assessment for Children with or At-Risk for Emotional Disturbance in Educational Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Seth A.; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2014-01-01

    Students with or at-risk for emotional disturbance (ED) frequently receive interventions that include a direct manipulation of consequences. The ability of educators to identify reinforcing stimuli that may function as powerful consequences determines the success of reinforcement-based strategies. Choice-based stimulus preference assessments…

  2. Choice-Stimulus Preference Assessment for Students At-Risk for Emotional Disturbance in Educational Settings: An Improvement for Practice?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Seth Andrew

    2013-01-01

    The ability of educators to identify consequences that act as reinforcers may predict the success of behavior change strategies predicated on the use of reinforcement. Although well supported for children with severe disabilities research concerning the effectiveness of choice-stimulus assessment for children with emotional disturbance (ED)…

  3. School-Based Prevention and Intervention Programs for Children with Emotional Disturbance: A Review of Treatment Components and Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.; De Thomas, Courtney Anne; Newman, Erik; Chun, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    School practitioners and educators are frequently challenged by the diverse and pervasive academic, social, and behavioral needs of children at risk for and with emotional disturbance. The present article examines the outcome literature on school-based prevention and intervention programs by systematically reviewing the key treatment interventions…

  4. Modifying Inappropriate Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed Students Ages 6 to 10 by Using Self-Monitoring and Group Monitoring Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetson, Carol

    This practicum was designed to reduce the frequency of disruption occurring in a class of emotionally disturbed students, aged 6-10. Objectives were to have the students remain on task and attentive to teacher instruction during 80 percent of a morning classroom session and to reduce the need for crisis intervention outside the classroom. Three…

  5. An Examination of Factors that Affect Occupational Therapists' Self Efficacy Related to Working with Students Who Have Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Barbara Ellen

    2008-01-01

    This research examined factors that affect occupational therapists' self efficacy related to working with students who have emotional disturbance. Social cognition (Bandura, 1986, 1997a), of which self efficacy is an integral part, is the theoretical perspective for this study. The research used the Professional and Practice Profile to examine…

  6. Youth Categorized as Emotionally Disturbed, Statistical Almanac, Volume 3. The National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdes, Kathryn A.; And Others

    This volume of the National Longitudinal Transition Study of Special Education Students (NLTS) offers statistical data relating to 779 students (ages 13-21) with emotional disturbances. The study design involved a survey of parents/guardians, examination of school records, and a survey of school programs. The 43 tables describe: youths' individual…

  7. Application of Psychoanalytic, Cognitive, Psychosocial and Other Theories in the Developmentally Integrated Assessment and Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grass, Linda; Kreger, Robert

    The authors describe their efforts to produce a global assessment scale for young emotionally disturbed children derived from an integrated synthesis of developmenta theories. Charts outline developmental stages, zones, modes, and dominant traits or characteristics of five major theorists (S. Freud, E. Erikson, A. Maslow, J. Piaget, and F.…

  8. Do Adolescents with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances Attending Schools for Special Education Have Lower Expectations Regarding the Transition to Adulthood?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margraf, Hannah; Pinquart, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with emotional and behavioral disturbances (EBD) and those attending special schools tend to have poorer adult outcomes than adolescents without EBD and peers from regular schools. Using a four-group comparison (students with or without EBD from special schools and students with or without EBD from regular schools), the present study…

  9. The Effects of Baker-Miller Pink on Physiological and Cognitive Behavior of Emotionally Disturbed and Regular Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilliam, James E.

    1991-01-01

    Fourteen emotionally disturbed junior high students and 16 regular education students were exposed to 2 experimental conditions with white and Baker-Miller pink visual stimuli. Analysis revealed significant differences on systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not on pulse, grip strength, nor the Digit-Symbol test of the Wechsler Adult…

  10. Development of a Behavior Management Level System: A Comprehensive School-Wide Behavior Management Program for Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Mary E. Beuchert

    1987-01-01

    The article describes the Behavior Management Level System (BMLS), a model program for emotionally disturbed adolescents combining a token economy approach with a hierarchial system of levels which provides an objective standard for graduation from the system. Points are accumulated as immediate reinforcers and traded for tangible or social…

  11. Shifting from Categories to Services: Comprehensive School-Based Mental Health for Children with Emotional Disturbance and Social Maladjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heathfield, Lora Tuesday; Clark, Elaine

    2004-01-01

    To meet the present and future educational and mental health needs of our nation's youth, current models of mental health service delivery need to be reformed. Any more time spent arguing the differences between categories such as Emotional Disturbance (ED) and Social Maladjustment (SM) will only delay much needed services and deplete our already…

  12. Seeing Red, Feeling Blue: The Impact of State Political Leaning on State Identification Rates for Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Andrew; Siperstein, Gary

    2011-01-01

    Investigations of why students with emotional disturbance (ED) are underidentified in special education have often focused on economic factors and problems with the definition of ED. The present study focuses on variation in underidentification across states and its relationship to political ideology. State-level political, economic, and…

  13. Test Review: Epstein, M. H., & Cullinan, D. (2010). "Scales for Assessing Emotional Disturbance" (2nd Ed.). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamb, Gordon D.

    2011-01-01

    The author reviews "Scales for Assessing Emotional Disturbance-Second Edition" (SAED-2; Epstein & Cullinan, 2010), an assessment system primarily designed to assist in determining eligibility for special education services under the category of emotional disturbance (ED), as defined by the "Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act…

  14. Serious Emotion Disturbance among Youth Exposed to Hurricane Katrina Two Years Post-Disaster

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fairbank, John A.; Gruber, Michael J.; Jones, Russell T.; Lakoma, Matthew D.; Pfefferbaum, Betty; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To estimate the prevalence of serious emotional disturbance (SED) among children and adolescents exposed to Hurricane Katrina along with the associations of SED with hurricane-related stressors, socio-demographics, and family factors 18–27 months following the hurricane. Method A probability sample of pre-hurricane residents of areas affected by Hurricane Katrina was administered a telephone survey. Respondents provided information on up to two of their children (n=797) aged 4–17. The survey assessed hurricane-related stressors and lifetime history of psychopathology in respondents, screened for 12-month SED in respondents’ children using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), and determined whether children’s emotional and behavioral problems were attributable to Hurricane Katrina. Results The estimated prevalence of SED was 14.9%, and 9.3% of youth were estimated to have SED that is directly attributable to Hurricane Katrina. Stress exposure was associated strongly with SED, and 20.3% of youth with high stress exposure had hurricane-attributable SED. Death of a loved one had the strongest association with SED among pre-hurricane residents of New Orleans, whereas exposure to physical adversity had the strongest association in the remainder of the sample. Among children with stress exposure, parental psychopathology and poverty were associated with SED. Conclusions The prevalence of SED among youth exposed to Hurricane Katrina remains high 18–27 months after the storm, suggesting a substantial need for mental health treatment resources in the hurricane-affected areas. Youth who were exposed to hurricane-related stressors, have a family history of psychopathology, and have lower family incomes are at greatest risk for long-term psychiatric impairment. PMID:19797983

  15. Impulsivity in students with serious emotional disturbance: the interactive effects of reinforcer rate, delay, and quality.

    PubMed

    Neef, N A; Mace, F C; Shade, D

    1993-01-01

    We conducted two studies extending basic matching research on self-control and impulsivity to the investigation of choices of students diagnosed as seriously emotionally disturbed. In Study 1 we examined the interaction between unequal rates of reinforcement and equal versus unequal delays to reinforcer access on performance of concurrently available sets of math problems. The results of a reversal design showed that when delays to reinforcer access were the same for both response alternatives, the time allocated to each was approximately proportional to obtained reinforcement. When the delays to reinforcer access differed between the response alternatives, there was a bias toward the response alternative and schedule with the lower delays, suggesting impulsivity (i.e., immediate reinforcer access overrode the effects of rate of reinforcement). In Study 2 we examined the interactive effects of reinforcer rate, quality, and delay. Conditions involving delayed access to the high-quality reinforcers on the rich schedule (with immediate access to low-quality reinforcers earned on the lean schedule) were alternated with immediate access to low-quality reinforcers on the rich schedule (with delayed access to high-quality reinforcers on the lean schedule) using a reversal design. With 1 student, reinforcer quality overrode the effects of both reinforcer rate and delay to reinforcer access. The other student tended to respond exclusively to the alternative associated with immediate access to reinforcers. The studies demonstrate a methodology based on matching theory for determining influential dimensions of reinforcers governing individuals' choices.

  16. [Diagnosis and prognosis of cerebral ischemic disturbances course using a method of artificial neuronal networks].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, Iu S; Semin, G F

    2004-01-01

    Based on the data of examination of 224 patients with different stages of cerebral ischemic disturbances (CID) and 84 age-matched controls, an artificial neuronal network was constructed and tried in differential diagnosis of CID stages according to the data of transcranial ultrasonic dopplerography. Diagnostic efficacy of the network was 80% for sensitivity, 100% for specificity and 82.7% for reliability. A modeling of the influence of the main risk factors for cerebral ischemia and of the reserve state of cerebral hemodynamics for establishing the stage of CID was performed.

  17. A Descriptive Follow-Up Study of a Public School Program for the Emotionally Disturbed. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knotting, Charles; Brozovich, Richard

    Background and followup data were obtained for 183 subjects who had been enrolled in the School Adjustment Program (ASP), a public school program for emotionally disturbed children. Average age of the subjects at the time of followup was 16-7; mean age at entrance was 10-10; mean IQ, 96.9; average length of stay in the program, 16.7 academic…

  18. Understanding how police officers think about mental/emotional disturbance calls.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Swartz, James; Bohrman, Casey; Kriegel, Liat S; Draine, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Police officers frequently respond to calls involving persons with mental illnesses and in doing so, they are key gatekeepers of access to mental health treatment as well as entry into the criminal justice system. Programs such as Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) are being implemented across the United States and elsewhere to train officers to respond more effectively and facilitate access to mental health services when appropriate. These programs would benefit from a thorough understanding of these encounters from the perspective of police officers. We take as a premise that officers develop frames of reference or "schema" for understanding and responding to these encounters that are shaped by socialization, training, and their experience as police officers. In this study, we examine police officer schema of mental/emotional disturbance (M/EDP) calls. Qualitative interviews provided the foundation to develop the Needs on the Street Interview (NOSI) to tap officer schema of four types of M/EDP scenarios. The NOSI was administered to 147 officers in Chicago and Philadelphia. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted separately for each scenario to examine groups of officers with different schema as well as predictors of schema group. For three of the four scenarios, officers were classified into a two category or schema model, for the fourth (crime reported) a three category model was supported. Schema groups tended to be differentiated by ratings of level of resistance/threat and substance use. Contrary to our expectations, CIT and law enforcement experience did not predict officer schema group. While the CIT model emphasizes de-escalation skills to reduce resistance and the need for officers to use force, CIT and other training programs may want to consider increasing content related to factors such as co-occurring substance use and managing resistance. PMID:24656216

  19. Understanding how police officers think about mental/emotional disturbance calls.

    PubMed

    Watson, Amy C; Swartz, James; Bohrman, Casey; Kriegel, Liat S; Draine, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Police officers frequently respond to calls involving persons with mental illnesses and in doing so, they are key gatekeepers of access to mental health treatment as well as entry into the criminal justice system. Programs such as Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) are being implemented across the United States and elsewhere to train officers to respond more effectively and facilitate access to mental health services when appropriate. These programs would benefit from a thorough understanding of these encounters from the perspective of police officers. We take as a premise that officers develop frames of reference or "schema" for understanding and responding to these encounters that are shaped by socialization, training, and their experience as police officers. In this study, we examine police officer schema of mental/emotional disturbance (M/EDP) calls. Qualitative interviews provided the foundation to develop the Needs on the Street Interview (NOSI) to tap officer schema of four types of M/EDP scenarios. The NOSI was administered to 147 officers in Chicago and Philadelphia. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted separately for each scenario to examine groups of officers with different schema as well as predictors of schema group. For three of the four scenarios, officers were classified into a two category or schema model, for the fourth (crime reported) a three category model was supported. Schema groups tended to be differentiated by ratings of level of resistance/threat and substance use. Contrary to our expectations, CIT and law enforcement experience did not predict officer schema group. While the CIT model emphasizes de-escalation skills to reduce resistance and the need for officers to use force, CIT and other training programs may want to consider increasing content related to factors such as co-occurring substance use and managing resistance.

  20. Understanding how police officers think about mental/emotional disturbance calls

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Amy C; Swartz, James; Bohrman, Casey; Kriegel, Liat S.; Draine, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Police officers frequently respond to calls involving persons with mental illnesses and in doing so, they are key gatekeepers of access to mental health treatment as well as entry into the criminal justice system. Programs such as Crisis Intervention Teams (CIT) are being implemented across the United States and elsewhere to train officers to respond more effectively and facilitate access to mental health services when appropriate. These programs would benefit from a thorough understanding of these encounters from the perspective of police officers. We take as a premise that officers develop frames of reference or “schema” for understanding and responding to these encounters that are shaped by socialization, training, and their experience as police officers. In this study, we examine police officer schema of mental/emotional disturbance (M/EDP) calls. Qualitative interviews provided the foundation to develop the Needs on the Street Interview (NOSI) to tap officer schema of four types of M/EDP scenarios. The NOSI was administered to 147 officers in Chicago and Philadelphia. Latent Class Analysis (LCA) was conducted separately for each scenario to examine groups of officers with different schema as well as predictors of schema group. For three of the four scenarios, officers were classified into a two category or schema model, for the fourth (crime reported) a three category model was supported. Schema groups tended to be differentiated by ratings of level of resistance/threat and substance use. Contrary to our expectations, CIT and law enforcement experience did not predict officer schema group. While the CIT model emphasizes de-escalation skills to reduce resistance and the need for officers to use force, CIT and other training programs may want to consider increasing content related to factors such as co-occurring substance use and managing resistance. PMID:24656216

  1. The impact of emotional disturbances on the arrest trajectories of youth as they transition into young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Constantine, Robert J; Andel, Ross; Robst, John; Givens, Eugenia M

    2013-08-01

    This article identifies the arrest trajectories of youth from ages 12 through 24 years old and tests hypotheses derived from Moffitt's developmental taxonomic theory of crime concerning the impact of various emotional disturbances on the specific trajectories of the youth involved. The study uses exclusively administrative data sets and includes a gender and racially diverse sample of 10,360 youth (30.7% females) who were arrested at least once between ages 12 and 24 in the early 2000s. Latent class growth analysis was employed in order to identify distinct arrest trajectories of youth in the sample. Multinomial logistic regression was used to identify diagnostic and other characteristics associated with membership in the specific trajectories predicted by Moffitt's theory. Five trajectory classes were identified, 3 of which were consistent with taxonomic theory including high and classic adolescence limited trajectory classes and a "snared adolescence limited class" described more recently by Moffitt. The distribution of youth among the 5 classes was very different for those with and without emotional disturbances. Youth with emotional disturbances in their late adolescent years were more likely to fall into the high arrest trajectory class and much less likely to fall into the low arrest trajectory class. Compared to youth without an emotional disturbance, youth with psychotic disorders were more than twice as likely to fall into the high as into the low arrest trajectory class. Youth with disruptive behavior disorders were more than twice as likely to fall into the high and intermediate classes as into the low trajectory class. Anxiety and depressive disorders were not associated with significantly greater likelihood of falling into any one of the trajectory classes. Youth in the snared adolescence limited class were more likely than those in the classic adolescence limited class to be male, black versus white and in the foster care enrollment category lending

  2. Key processes, ingredients and components of successful systems collaboration: working with severely emotionally or behaviorally disturbed children and their families.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mo Yee; Teater, Barbra; Greene, Gilbert J; Solovey, Andrew D; Grove, David; Fraser, J Scott; Washburn, Phil; Hsu, Kai Shyang

    2012-09-01

    Systems collaboration has repeatedly been cited as a component of successful social service delivery. Through qualitative data, this study explored the process involved in inter-agency collaboration when providing Integrative Family and Systems Treatment (I-FAST) for families with severely emotionally or behaviorally disturbed children. Data were collected through a series of eight focus groups with 26 agency collaborators across 11 counties in Ohio. Data analysis revealed two emergent phenomena: the process of developing collaboration, consisting of making initial contact, a trial period and developing trust; and the key ingredients of collaboration, focusing on interpersonal and professional qualities. Implications of each theme are discussed.

  3. Experiential versus analytical emotion regulation and sleep: breaking the link between negative events and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Vandekerckhove, Marie; Kestemont, Jenny; Weiss, Rolf; Schotte, Chris; Exadaktylos, Vasilis; Haex, Bart; Verbraecken, Johan; Gross, James J

    2012-12-01

    Despite a long history of interest in emotion regulation as well as in the mechanisms that regulate sleep, the relationship between emotion regulation and sleep is not yet well understood. The present study investigated whether "an experiential approach"-defined by coping through affectively acknowledging, understanding, and expressing actual emotional experience and affective feeling about a situation-compared with a "cognitive analytical approach"-defined by the cognitive analysis of the causes, meanings and implications of the situation for the own self-would buffer the impact of an emotional failure experience on (1) emotional experience and (2) sleep structure assessed by EEG polysomnography. Twenty-eight healthy volunteers participated in this study. A direct comparison of the two emotion regulation strategies revealed that participants who were instructed to apply an experiential approach showed less fragmentation of sleep than participants who were instructed to apply an analytical approach. The use of an experiential approach resulted in a longer sleep time, higher sleep efficiency, fewer awakenings, less % time awake, and fewer minutes wake after sleep onset. Implications of the differential effects of these two forms of emotion regulation on sleep are discussed.

  4. The Effects of Video Self-Modeling on High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Szu-Yin; Baker, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Video self-modeling has been proven to be effective with other populations with challenging behaviors, but only a few studies of video self-modeling have been conducted with high school students with emotional and behavioral disorders. This study aimed to focus on analyzing the effects of video self-modeling on four high school students with…

  5. Career-Related Outcomes of a Model Transition Demonstration for Young Adults with Emotional Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagner, David; Cheney, Douglas; Malloy, Joanne

    1999-01-01

    Career and education specialists tailored a comprehensive support package consisting of personal futures planning, flexible educational programming, employment support, interagency collaboration, mentorship, social-skill building, and flexible funding to the needs of adolescents and young adults with chronic mental illness or emotional disturbance…

  6. Development of a Milieu Intervention Program for Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Terry

    Described is a milieu intervention scheme for treatment of disturbed deaf children (6-18 years old) in a residential school for the deaf. It is noted that the program sought to develop respect and awareness of the self and social group within the security of a specially adapted environment and to support reintegration into the social, academic,…

  7. Development of a Milieu Intervention Program for Treatment of Emotionally Disturbed Deaf Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelstein, Terry

    Described is a milieu intervention scheme for treatment of disturbed deaf children (6 to 18 years old) in a residential school for the deaf. It is noted that the program sought to develop respect and awareness of the self and social group within the security of a specifically adapted environment and to support reintegration into the social,…

  8. Mechanisms of disturbed emotion processing and social interaction in borderline personality disorder: state of knowledge and research agenda of the German Clinical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja; Ende, Gabriele; Flor, Herta; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Schneider, Miriam; Spanagel, Rainer; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a strong rise in empirical research in the mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder. Major findings comprise structural as well as functional alterations of brain regions involved in emotion processing, such as amygdala, insula, and prefrontal regions. In addition, more specific mechanisms of disturbed emotion regulation, e.g. related to pain and dissociation, have been identified. Most recently, social interaction problems and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, e.g. disturbed trust or hypersensitivity to social rejection, have become a major focus of BPD research. This article covers the current state of knowledge and related relevant research goals. The first part presents a review of the literature. The second part delineates important open questions to be addressed in future studies. The third part describes the research agenda for a large German center grant focusing on mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in BPD.

  9. [Asperger's disorder diagnosed in the man treated with chronic and resistant emotional and behavioral disturbances--the case report].

    PubMed

    Jabłoński, Marcin; Sacha, Paweł; Grymek, Andrzej; Ryczkowska, Gabriela

    2009-01-01

    Asperger's disorder is a nosologic phenomena, that is similar to autism, and falls under the category of pervasive developmental disorders. The unknown and probably multi-factor aetiology, wide clinical picture and not completely defined and clinically relevant diagnostic criteria are the topic of discussion between investigators and clinicians. In the article presented, a single case report of a 39-year old male patient, diagnosed and treated for years due to chronic and resistant emotional and behavioural disturbances, not clearly defined psychotic symptoms and dominating dysfunctions of social involvement, may be a voice in the debate about Asperger's disorder spectrum, comorbidity in Asperger's syndrome and serve to remind the clinicians, that pervasive developmental disorders could really be diagnosed in adults.

  10. Effectiveness of school-based prevention and intervention programs for children and adolescents with emotional disturbance: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Linda A; Newman, Erik; De Thomas, Courtney Anne; Chun, Victoria

    2009-04-01

    The present study evaluated the effectiveness of school-based prevention and intervention programs for children and adolescents at-risk for and with emotional disturbance. Published outcome studies (k=29) from December, 1988, to March, 2006, including 1405 children and adolescents were reviewed. Each investigation was coded on several variables describing the child, parent, and teacher samples, as well as reported outcome results. The overall mean weighted effect size was 1.00 at post-test and 1.35 at follow-up. Mean weighted ESs were 0.42 for between-subjects design studies, 0.87 for within-subjects design studies, and 1.87 for single-subject design studies. Prevention programs yielded a mean weighted ES of 0.54 and intervention programs produced a mean weighted ES of 1.35. Findings for specific outcome foci are presented and implications are discussed.

  11. The Association of Metacognitive Beliefs With Emotional Distress After Diagnosis of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Emotional distress after a diagnosis of cancer is normal and, for most people, will diminish over time. However, a significant minority of patients with cancer experience persistent or recurrent symptoms of emotional distress for which they need help. A model developed in mental health, the self-regulatory executive function model (S-REF), specifies that maladaptive metacognitive beliefs and processes, including persistent worry, are key to understanding why such emotional problems persist. This cross-sectional study explored, for the first, time whether metacognitive beliefs were associated with emotional distress in a cancer population, and whether this relationship was mediated by worry, as predicted by the S-REF model. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine participants within 3 months of diagnosis of, and before treatment for, primary breast or prostate cancer completed self-report questionnaires measuring anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, metacognitive beliefs, worry, and illness perceptions. Results: Regression analysis showed that metacognitive beliefs were associated with symptoms of anxiety, depression, and PTSD, and explained additional variance in these outcomes after controlling for age, gender, and illness perceptions. Structural equation modeling was consistent with cross-sectional hypotheses derived from the theory that metacognitive beliefs cause and maintain distress both directly and indirectly by driving worry. Conclusions: The findings provide promising first evidence that the S-REF model may be usefully applied in cancer. Further study is required to establish the predictive and clinical utility of these findings. PMID:25133826

  12. THE THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED AND MENTALLY SUBNORMAL CHILDREN. A KAUFMANN INTERNATIONAL DESIGN AWARD STUDY, 1964-66.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BAYES, KENNETH

    CURRENT RESEARCH AND THOUGHT ON THE EFFECTS OF ARCHITECTURAL FORM AND COLOR IN THE TREATMENT OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED AND RETARDED CHILDREN ARE SURVEYED IN THIS PUBLICATION. TO A LESSER EXTENT, IT COVERS THE RELATIONSHIP OF THERAPY TO BEHAVIOR, NORMAL CHILDREN TO HANDICAPPED CHILDREN, NORMAL ADULTS TO MENTAL PATIENTS, AND CHILDREN TO ADULTS.…

  13. An Investigation of the Characteristics of K-12 Students with Comorbid Emotional Disturbance and Significant Language Deficits Served in Public School Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, J. Ron; Benner, Gregory, J.; Rogers-Adkinson, Diana L.

    2003-01-01

    A plethora of research has indicated that emotional disturbance (ED) and language deficits frequently co-occur. Scant research, however, has examined the characteristics of public school students with comorbid ED and language deficits. Furthermore, researchers have not studied children with IQ and language skill discrepancies. The overall purpose…

  14. Meeting Their Needs: Provision of Services to the Severely Emotionally Disturbed and Autistic. Conference Proceedings (Memphis, Tennessee, April 27-28, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Memphis State Univ., TN. Coll. of Education.

    The document contains the proceedings of a 1983 Tennessee conference on "Provision of Services to the Severely and Emotionally Disturbed and Austistic." Areas covered were identified as priority needs by Tennessee educators and emphasize the practical rather than the theoretical aspects of providing services. After the text of the keynote speech,…

  15. Lessons Learned from the Intensive Mental Health Program: A School-Based, Community Oriented Program for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Michael C.; Vernberg, Eric M.; Biggs, Bridget K.; Randall, Camille J.; Jacobs, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The Intensive Mental Health Program meets the needs for services in school systems for children with serious emotional disturbances and for training graduate students in clinical applications with a difficult-to-serve population. We address the range of challenges and rewards experienced in the development of the comprehensive intervention…

  16. Factors Mediating the Relationship between Social Skills and Academic Grades in a Sample of Students Diagnosed with Learning Disabilities or Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Glanville, Jennifer L.

    2010-01-01

    Research has found students with high incidence disabilities to be at risk for academic difficulties and school dropout. Using data from the NLTS-2 database, relationships between social skills and grades were examined for students who were diagnosed with learning disabilities or emotional disturbance. Results revealed significant direct and…

  17. Prosocial Skills Training for Children with Emotional Disturbances (ED) and Behavioral Disorders (BD): The Journey of 1,000 Miles Begins with the First Few Steps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muscott, Howard S., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    This special theme issue of the journal "Perceptions" is devoted to the topic of prosocial skills training for emotionally disturbed and behavior disordered children and adolescents. Following an introductory editorial by Howard Muscott, Richard Neel discusses factors that impede the development and inclusion of comprehensive social skills…

  18. Outcomes for Youth with Severe Emotional Disturbance: A Repeated Measures Longitudinal Study of a Wraparound Approach of Service Delivery in Systems of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Kirstin

    2012-01-01

    Background: Systems of care is a family centered, strengths-based service delivery model for treating youth experiencing a serious emotional disturbance. Wraparound is the most common method of service delivery adopted by states and communities as a way to adhere to systems of care philosophy. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate…

  19. The Development and Implementation of a Public School Prevocational Training Program for Trainable Retarded and Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children. Progress Report. Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lou, Ed.; And Others

    Reported are instructional programs generated in the first year (1970-71) of a Madison, Wisconsin public school project to develop a prevocational training program for trainable retarded and severely emotionally disturbed students. Programs are based on a behavioristic task analysis teaching model and are designed to teach functional vocational,…

  20. School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: Can It Help Address the Problem of Disproportionate Minority Representation in the Emotional Disturbance Disability Category?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jodi Abraham

    2012-01-01

    This research project investigated the possibility of School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) as a way to address racial/ethnic disproportionality in the Emotional Disturbance (ED) category. The sample consisted of 114 elementary schools from a suburban school district in the Mid-Atlantic region. There were 57 SWPBS schools and 57 non-SWPBS…

  1. The Integration of Speech Therapy Techniques with Those of Movement, Music, and Sensory Integrative Therapies in Order to Provide Communication Systems for Severely Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeShay, Debra N.

    Project LINK at the Developmental Center for Autistic Children in Philadelphia provides therapy to emotionally disturbed children and training and consultation for teachers and mental health professionals. Each child is evaluated by treatment team members through repeated observations and informal assessments. The primary goal of treatment is the…

  2. A Case Study of the Identity Development of an Adolescent Male with Emotional Disturbance and 48, XYYY Karyotype in an Institutional Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, John L.

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to utilize a phenomenological case study design to investigate the individual and social identity development of an adolescent male who had been placed in a high-security group home setting. The participant had been identified with emotional disturbance (ED), and 48, XYYY karyotype. The participant described his social…

  3. Self-Monitoring of Attention versus Self-Monitoring of Performance: Examining the Differential Effects among Students with Emotional Disturbance Engaged in Independent Math Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rafferty, Lisa A.; Raimondi, Sharon L.

    2009-01-01

    Although students with emotional disturbance are commonly known for their social behavior deficits, they often have academic deficits as well. Unfortunately, most of the intervention research and many of the practices used with this population focus upon their social behavior deficits and fail to recognize the need to improve their academic…

  4. A Census of Children's Residential Institutions in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, 1966: Volume 4 - Institutions for Emotionally Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pappenfort, Donnell M., Comp.; Kilpatrick, Dee Morgan, Comp.

    The tables of statistics on residential institutions for emotionally disturbed children which constitute the volume are based on data assembled through the National Survey of Residential Child Care Facilities, covering all institutions in the United States, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands known to have been operating in September 1965. Tabular…

  5. Preparing Personnel To Work with Children with Serious Emotional Disturbance and Autism, 9/01/99-12/31/02. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCuller, Glen

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of a 3-year federally supported personnel preparation program at Stephen F. Austin University (Texas) to train graduate-level personnel to serve children and youth with serious emotional disturbance and autism (SED/A). The program was designed to recruit, train, and seek employment in…

  6. Punishment and Aversive Stimulation in Special Education: Legal, Theoretical and Practical Issues in Their Use with Emotionally Disturbed Children and Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.; Lakin, K. Charlie, Ed.

    Seven papers from a 1978 conference focus on the use of punishment in special education programs for emotionally disturbed students. In "The Legal Status of the Use of Corporal Punishment and Other Aversive Procedures in Schools," F. Wood and K. Lakin review laws, regulations, and court decisions that bear on the legality of the use of corporal…

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF BEHAVIOR DIMENSIONS FOR EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN--A STUDY OF RELEVANT INDICATORS FOR CLASSROOM TECHNIQUES, THERAPIES METHODS, AND PROGNOSIS. INTERIM REPORT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CROMWELL, RUE L.

    FOUR INSTRUMENTS WERE DEVELOPED AND STANDARDIZED TO MEASURE EARLY EXPERIENCE, CURRENT BEHAVIOR, TREATMENT APPROACHES, AND PROGNOSIS OF EMOTIONALLY DISTURBED CHILDREN--THE RATING/RANKING SCALE OF CHILD BEHAVIOR (R/R SCALE), THE PARENT PRACTICES INVENTORY (PPI), THE SCALE ON PROCEDURES IN DEALING WITH CHILDREN (PDC), AND THE CHILD HISTORY CODE…

  8. Toward the Development and Implementation of an Empirically Based Public School Program for Trainable Mentally Retarded and Severely Emotionally Disturbed Students. Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Lou, Ed.; Sontag, Ed, Ed.

    Collected are 31 articles on public school educational activities for the trainable mentally handicapped or the severely emotionally disturbed student in the areas of academic skills, home living skills, and prevocational training. Most of the papers are said to have been written by classroom teachers. Three articles present an overview which…

  9. Midwest School District Transition Academy: A Qualitative, Process Evaluation of a Program for Students with Autism Spectrum Disorders or Emotional Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the implementation of a special education program designed to support students with autism and social/emotional disturbances in a large, suburban school district. The study examined how services are delivered to students, staffing/personnel aspects, and budgetary considerations relative to programming.…

  10. Proceedings of the Conference on Ecological and Cultural Factors Related to Emotional Disturbances in Puerto Rican Children and Youth, Barranquitas, Puerto Rico, December 8-10, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Roberto E., Ed.

    The Conference on Ecological and Cultural Factors Related to Emotional Disturbance in Puerto Rican Children and Youth was the primary attempt to bring together a group of behavioral scientists, medical doctors, and educators, so that the scientific findings of the former--behavioral and medical scientists--may be used by the latter--educators--in…

  11. The Impact of Intensive Positive Behavioral Supports on the Behavioral Functioning of Students with Emotional Disturbance: How Much Does Fidelity Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benner, Gregory J.; Beaudoin, Kathleen M.; Chen, Pei-Yu; Davis, Carol; Ralston, Nicole C.

    2010-01-01

    The two purposes of the pre-post naturalistic research design were to: 1) Investigate the impact of positive behavioral interventions and supports (PBIS) on the behavioral functioning of students with emotional disturbance (ED) (N = 37) served in self-contained settings; and 2) examine the extent to which teacher fidelity of PBIS implementation…

  12. Cognitive–Behavioral Therapy for Physical and Emotional Disturbances in Adolescents with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Szigethy, Eva M.; Noll, Robert B.; Dahl, Ronald E.; lobst, Emily; Arslanian, Silva A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of an enhanced cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT), Primary and Secondary Control Enhancement Training (PASCET-PI-2), for physical (obesity) and emotional (depression) disturbances in adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Method In an open trial, 12 adolescents with PCOS, obesity, and depression underwent eight weekly sessions and three family-based sessions of CBT enhanced by lifestyle goals (nutrition and exercise), physical illness narrative (meaning of having PCOS), and family psychoeducation (family functioning). Results Weight showed a significant decrease across the eight sessions from an average of 104 kg (SD = 26) to an average of 93 kg (SD = 18), t(11) = 6.6, p <.05. Depressive symptoms on the Children's Depression Inventory significantly decreased from a mean of 17 (SD = 3) to a mean of 9.6 (SD = 2), t(11) = 16.8, p <.01. Conclusion A manual-based CBT approach to treat depression in adolescents with PCOS and obesity appears to be promising. PMID:18556675

  13. Co-Occurrence of Parental Substance Abuse and Child Serious Emotional Disturbance: Understanding Multiple Pathways to Improve Child and Family Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs.

  14. Co-Occurrence of Parental Substance Abuse and Child Serious Emotional Disturbance: Understanding Multiple Pathways to Improve Child and Family Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Becci, A Akin; Brook, Jody; Lloyd, Margaret H

    2015-01-01

    This study is a mixed-methods examination of the prevalence and impact of parental substance abuse among families involved in foster care who have a child with a serious emotional disturbance. Data utilized for this study were both administrative and assessment data collected by case managers and parents as part of a federally funded demonstration project in a Midwestern state. At baseline, parent self-report and case manager ratings of family functioning found that parents affected by substance abuse fared worse in domains related to socioeconomics, parental trauma, parental mental health, and social supports when compared to families without parental substance abuse. Case managers and independent raters scored parents affected by substance abuse higher on effective parenting than parents not affected by substance abuse. While all children in the sample have a serious emotional disturbance, parents and case managers rated children's functioning higher among children whose families were characterized by parental substance abuse. These results suggest that, among families who have children with a serious emotional disturbance and are in foster care, those with and without substance abuse may represent two distinct service groups, each with a unique set of needs and contextual factors. For families with parental substance abuse, findings suggest that an appropriate child welfare response should attend to both children's and parent's behavioral health needs and include strategies that are well matched to the families' socioeconomic and social support needs. PMID:26827477

  15. Vaclav Vojta's neurokinesiological concept for the diagnosis and therapy of children with disturbances of motor development.

    PubMed

    Sadowska, L

    2001-01-01

    The concept known as neurokinesiological diagnostics and therapy was developed in the 1950s by Vaclav Vojta for children with disturbances of motor development originating in the central nervous system. This concept was founded on earlier observations small children. The study of motor behavior enabled Vojta to make a through evaluation and comparison of motor functioning in CP patients and in healthy newborns and infants, which led him to the discovery of the similarity between motor patterns and primitive reflexes in children with immature brains and in those with brain damage.

  16. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere.

  17. Breast cancer diagnosis: biographical disruption, emotional experiences and strategic management in Thai women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liamputtong, Pranee; Suwankhong, Dusanee

    2015-09-01

    In this article we draw on Bury's theory of biographical disruption to discuss the meanings of, and emotional experiences related to, being diagnosed with breast cancer among southern Thai women. Qualitative methods, including in-depth interviewing and drawing methods, were used to collect data from 20 women with breast cancer. The women perceived breast cancer to be a rhok raai; an evil or dread disease. They believed that breast cancer would lead to death. The disruption in their biography occurred when they detected abnormalities indicating breast cancer. The women's narratives revealed their chaotic lives upon this diagnosis and the news precipitated in them shock, fear, anxiety and loss of hope. Although they experienced chaos and disruption, the women cultivated strategies that helped them cope with their experiences by accepting their fate and adhering to Buddhist beliefs and practices. Through their narratives of biographical disruption, the women in our study offer healthcare providers knowledge that could lead to an appreciation of their needs and concerns. This knowledge is crucial for health professionals who wish to provide emotional support to women who have been diagnosed with breast cancer in Thailand and elsewhere. PMID:25922881

  18. Perspectives for a New Decade: Education's Responsibility for Seriously Disturbed and Behaviorally Disordered Children and Youth: Selected Papers Based on Presentations from the CEC/CCBD National Topical Conference on the Seriously Emotionally Disturbed (Minneapolis, Minnesota, August 13-15, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frank H., Ed.

    Fourteen papers from a 1980 institute on the educational needs of seriously emotionally disturbed children focus on issues regarding eligibility, services, and programing. The following titles are represented: "Preschool Children with Severe Emotional or Behavioral Disorders: Program Directions and Unmet Needs"; "Adolescents with Severe Behavioral…

  19. Quantitative genetic research on sleep: a review of normal sleep, sleep disturbances and associated emotional, behavioural, and health-related difficulties.

    PubMed

    Barclay, Nicola L; Gregory, Alice M

    2013-02-01

    Over the past 50 years, well over 100 twin studies have focussed on understanding factors contributing to variability in normal sleep-wake characteristics and sleep disturbances. Whilst we have gained a great deal from these studies, there is still much to be learnt. Twin studies can be used in multiple ways to answer questions beyond simply estimating heritability. This paper provides a comprehensive review of some of the most important findings from twin studies relating to sleep to date, with a focus on studies investigating genetic and environmental influences contributing to i) objective and subjective measures of normal sleep characteristics (e.g., sleep stage organisation, sleep quality); as well as sleep disturbances and disorders such as dyssomnias (e.g., insomnia, narcolepsy) and parasomnias (e.g., sleepwalking, bruxism); ii) the persistence of sleep problems from childhood to adulthood, and the possibility that the aetiological influences on sleep change with age; iii) the associations between sleep disturbances, emotional, behavioural and health-related problems; and iv) processes of gene-environment correlation and interaction. We highlight avenues for further research, emphasising the need to further consider the aetiology of longitudinal associations between sleep disturbances and psychopathology; the genetic and environmental overlap between sleep and numerous phenotypes; and processes of gene-environment interplay and epigenetics. PMID:22560641

  20. Emotionally induced hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Altman, Rachel S; Schwartz, Robert A

    2002-05-01

    Hyperhidrosis, a disorder that usually begins in childhood or adolescence, is defined as sweating in excess of what is required for normal thermoregulation. This condition may adversely affect one's quality of life by causing emotional disturbance and social embarrassment. Three forms of hyperhidrosis exist: emotionally induced, localized, and generalized. Hyperhidrosis may be either idiopathic or secondary to other diseases, metabolic disorders, febrile illnesses, or drugs. Diagnosis usually is made based on the patient's history and visible signs of excessive sweating. Various effective treatment options are available. PMID:12041810

  1. Is the desire for amputation related to disturbed emotion processing? A multiple case study analysis in BIID.

    PubMed

    Bottini, Gabriella; Brugger, Peter; Sedda, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Body integrity identity disorder (BIID) is characterized by the overwhelming desire to amputate one or more healthy limbs or to be paraplegic. Recently, a neurological explanation of this condition has been proposed, in part on the basis of findings that the insular cortex might present structural anomalies in these individuals. While these studies focused on body representation, much less is known about emotional processing. Importantly, emotional impairments have been found in psychiatric disorders, and a psychiatric etiology is still a valid alternative to purely neurological accounts of BIID. In this study, we explored, by means of a computerized experiment, facial emotion recognition and emotional responses to disgusting images in seven individuals with BIID, taking into account their clinical features and investigating in detail disgust processing, strongly linked to insular functioning. We demonstrate that BIID is not characterized by a general emotional impairment; rather, there is a selectively reduced disgust response to violations of the body envelope. Taken together, our results support the need to explore this condition under an interdisciplinary perspective, taking into account also emotional connotations and the social modulation of body representation.

  2. The Effects of Therapeutic Morning Meetings as a Socio-Emotional, Behavioral, and Academic Intervention on Middle School Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfitzer, Bryan A.

    2010-01-01

    Middle school students identified with emotional and behavioral disorders exhibit problem behaviors and often lack the social and academic skills necessary to be successful students. Moreover, these students display low academic motivation, earn failing grades, and have high rates of suspension due to unsafe and inappropriate behaviors. Using a…

  3. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  4. The Intensive Mental Health Program: Development and Structure of the Model of Intervention for Children with Serious Emotional Disturbances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernberg, Eric M.; Roberts, Michael C.; Nyre, Joseph E.

    2008-01-01

    In order to meet the challenging needs and behaviors of children with Serious Emotional Disorders (SED), a school and community based Intensive Mental Health Program (IMHP) was developed and evaluated. We describe the conceptual framework, treatment principles, and model for service delivery for psychological and educational interventions under…

  5. The International Research Training Group on "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" as an Example of German-American Cooperation in Doctoral Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Frank; Gur, Ruben C.

    2008-01-01

    The International Research Training Group "Brain-Behavior Relationship of Normal and Disturbed Emotions in Schizophrenia and Autism" (IRTG 1328), funded by the German Research Council (DFG), is a German-American cooperation. Its major aims are interdisciplinary and international scientific cooperation and the support of young scientists with…

  6. Agenda nacional para lograr mejores resultados para los ninos y jovenes con desordenes emocionales serios (National Agenda for Achieving Better Results for Children and Youth with Serious Emotional Disturbance).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesapeake Inst., Washington, DC.

    This report documents the problem of educating students with serious emotional disturbance, reviews the legislative and administrative background, and identifies seven strategic targets in a national agenda for these children. Data for these students on academic outcomes, graduation rates, school placement, school absenteeism, dropout rates,…

  7. [Motivation and emotional disorders. A cognitive science approach. I: Principles, classification and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, R; Leuzinger-Bohleber, M

    1989-01-01

    There are no generally accepted classification schemes for motivational and emotional disorders. One of the reasons is the difficulty in isolating motivational and emotional disorders from complex behaviors. Therefore, terms which characterize certain behaviors globally, such as clinical syndromes, are preferred in the clinical literature. Another, related reason is that within clinical psychology and the psychology of emotions are treated as two entirely separate fields with hardly any mutual influence. A third reason lies in the diversities of theories and schools of thought where the psychology of emotions as well as clinical psychology are concerned, thus, schemes, based on a general framework which is grounded in research in "Cognitiver Science" and general psychology, were developed which enable the comprehensive classification of motivational and emotional disorders, irrespective of individual therapeutic schools of thought or emotion-theoretic orientations. From the classification schemes, diagnostic criteria can be derived. This is the topic of Part I. In Part II it is demonstrated how these schemas can be applied to the comparison of different therapeutic schools with respect to theories of motivational and emotional disorders. Moreover, it is shown, how these ideas can be used to derive strategies for therapeutic interventions.

  8. Comorbid Diagnosis and Concomitant Medical Treatment for Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Kristina M.; Bowman, Krista A.; Ley, Katie; Frankenberger, William

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to determine the types of psychiatric disorders and the corresponding medications prescribed to children enrolled in elementary Emotional Behavioral Disability (EBD) programs. The project employed a questionnaire that was distributed to elementary level teachers (EBD) to: (a) determine the proportion of …

  9. Morphing technique reveals intact perception of object motion and disturbed perception of emotional expressions by low-functioning adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Han, Bora; Tijus, Charles; Le Barillier, Florence; Nadel, Jacqueline

    2015-12-01

    A morphing procedure has been designed to compare directly the perception of emotional expressions and of moving objects. Morphing tasks were presented to 12 low-functioning teenagers with Autism Spectrum Disorder (LF ASD) compared to 12 developmental age-matched typical children and a group presenting ceiling performance. In a first study, when presented with morphed stimuli of objects and emotional faces, LF ASD showed an intact perception of object change of state together with an impaired perception of emotional facial change of state. In a second study, an eye-tracker recorded visual exploration of morphed emotional stimuli displayed by a human face and a robotic set-up. Facing the morphed robotic stimuli, LF ASD displayed equal duration of fixations toward emotional regions and toward mechanical sources of motion, while the typical groups tracked the emotional regions only. Altogether the findings of the two studies suggest that individuals with ASD process motion rather than emotional signals when facing facial expressions.

  10. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients’ emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12–25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists’ communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists’ communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists’ communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients. PMID:27125477

  11. Tailoring the delivery of cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult patients displaying strong emotions: An observational study of two cases.

    PubMed

    Korsvold, Live; Lie, Hanne Cathrine; Mellblom, Anneli Viktoria; Ruud, Ellen; Loge, Jon Håvard; Finset, Arnstein

    2016-01-01

    Delivering the bad news of a cancer diagnosis to adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients who display strong emotions is particularly challenging not the least because AYAs are at a vulnerable developmental stage. Due to the lack of research on how to personalize the delivery of bad news to AYA patients' emotions we report a case study of the communicative behavior of oncologists in two such consultations to describe the complexity of the phenomena at study. We audio-recorded and transcribed consultations where oncologists delivered cancer diagnoses to nine AYAs aged 12-25 years. Two of these patients displayed particularly strong emotional behavior (anger, fear, and sadness) and were chosen as cases. An interpretative analysis in three steps was applied to investigate the oncologists' communicative behavior when delivering bad news. The focus was on how the oncologists responded to the strong but different emotional behaviors of the AYAs. We also related the oncologists' communicative behavior to elements from a widely used protocol for delivering bad news. We found that the oncologists applied five communication strategies: elicit patient perspective, provide information, respond to patient's expression of emotion (acknowledging and containing emotions), encourage commitment to treatment, and provide hope. The findings illustrate how oncologists' communicative behavior may be tailored to individual expressions of emotions in AYA cancer patients.

  12. Sleep Disturbances in Neurodevelopmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Shelton, Althea; Malow, Beth A

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are extremely prevalent in children with neurodevelopmental disorders compared to typically developing children. The diagnostic criteria for many neurodevelopmental disorders include sleep disturbances. Sleep disturbance in this population is often multifactorial and caused by the interplay of genetic, neurobiological and environmental overlap. These disturbances often present either as insomnia or hypersomnia. Different sleep disorders present with these complaints and based on the clinical history and findings from diagnostic tests, an appropriate diagnosis can be made. This review aims to provide an overview of causes, diagnosis, and treatment of sleep disturbances in neurodevelopmental disorders that present primarily with symptoms of hypersomnia and/or insomnia. PMID:26719309

  13. A RESEARCH DEMONSTRATION TO ASSESS THE EFFECTIVENESS OF A SPECIAL LIVING UNIT WITHIN A UNIVERSITY DORMITORY SETTING FOR THE REHABILITATION OF STUDENTS DISABLED BY EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SINNETT, E. ROBERT

    USE OF A RESIDENCE HALL AS A THERAPEUTIC MILIEU FOR DISTURBED COLLEGE STUDENTS IS DESCRIBED IN THIS REPORT OF A RESEARCH AND DEMONSTRATION STUDY. THE EXPERIMENTAL GROUP CONSISTED OF TEN DISTURBED STUDENTS, AND A CONTROL GROUP WAS COMPOSED OF 10 VOLUNTEER STUDENTS. ALL STUDENTS PARTICIPATED IN THE REGULAR RESIDENCE HALL PROGRAMS (ORGANIZATIONAL…

  14. Disturbance in the neural circuitry underlying positive emotional processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jatzko, Alexander; Schmitt, Andrea; Demirakca, Traute; Weimer, Erik; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the circuitry underlying movie-induced positive emotional processing in subjects with chronic PTSD. Ten male subjects with chronic PTSD and ten matched controls were studied. In an fMRI-paradigm a sequence of a wellknown Walt Disney cartoon with positive emotional valence was shown. PTSD subjects showed an increased activation in the right posterior temporal, precentral and superior frontal cortex. Controls recruited more emotion-related regions bilateral in the temporal pole and areas of the left fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus. This pilot study is the first to reveal alterations in the processing of positive emotions in PTSD possibly reflecting a neuronal correlate of the symptom of emotional numbness in PTSD.

  15. Disturbance in the neural circuitry underlying positive emotional processing in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Jatzko, Alexander; Schmitt, Andrea; Demirakca, Traute; Weimer, Erik; Braus, Dieter F

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the circuitry underlying movie-induced positive emotional processing in subjects with chronic PTSD. Ten male subjects with chronic PTSD and ten matched controls were studied. In an fMRI-paradigm a sequence of a wellknown Walt Disney cartoon with positive emotional valence was shown. PTSD subjects showed an increased activation in the right posterior temporal, precentral and superior frontal cortex. Controls recruited more emotion-related regions bilateral in the temporal pole and areas of the left fusiform and parahippocampal gyrus. This pilot study is the first to reveal alterations in the processing of positive emotions in PTSD possibly reflecting a neuronal correlate of the symptom of emotional numbness in PTSD. PMID:16143899

  16. Improving Adolescent Outcomes: A Study to Determine the Characteristics of Students with Serious Emotional Disturbance and Pathways to a Collaborative Response to Their Needs by Child Serving Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Alexandria W.

    2012-01-01

    Poor educational outcomes, related to social and emotional responses, have the potential to negatively impact the trajectories of a significant number of children across the United States (Caspi, Bem, & Elder, 1989; McLeod & Kaiser, 2004). This mixed-methods transformative study frames a grounded theory approach to reveal characteristics…

  17. Alternate Explanations for Learning Disabled, Emotionally Disturbed, and Educable Mentally Retarded Students' Reading Achievement. Research Report No. 10. Instructional Alternatives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    The study investigated alternative explanations for differences in reading achievement between pairs of handicapped students exhibiting comparable amounts of academic engaged time. Forty-six students in grades 2-4 from urban and suburban districts participated; 16 were classified as learning disabled (LD), 14 as emotionally/behaviorally disturbed…

  18. Alternate Explanations for Learning Disabled, Emotionally Disturbed, and Educable Mentally Retarded Students' Math Achievement. Research Report No. 11. Instructional Alternatives Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ysseldyke, James E.; And Others

    The study investigated alternative explanations for differences in mathematics achievement between pairs of handicapped students exhibiting comparable amounts of academic engaged time. Forty-two students in grades 2-4 from urban and suburban districts participated; 14 students were classified as learning disabled, 14 as emotionally or behaviorally…

  19. Changes in Mothers' Experiences of Receiving an Autism Diagnosis: A Contextualized Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornstein, Shana

    2011-01-01

    Autism has a unique history. The definition has broadened and changed over time, from an emotional disturbance with psychogenic origins to a neurodevelopmental disability with suspected environmental and genetic origins. Diagnosis occurs later than children born with obvious disabilities such as cerebral palsy or Down syndrome, but earlier than…

  20. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    PubMed Central

    Doruk, Deniz; Simis, Marcel; Imamura, Marta; Brunoni, André R.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Anghinah, Renato; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion) was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG); and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with (1) frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, (2) central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and (3) lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased ICF in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation. PMID:27625600

  1. Neurophysiologic Correlates of Post-stroke Mood and Emotional Control

    PubMed Central

    Doruk, Deniz; Simis, Marcel; Imamura, Marta; Brunoni, André R.; Morales-Quezada, Leon; Anghinah, Renato; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Emotional disturbance is a common complication of stroke significantly affecting functional recovery and quality of life. Identifying relevant neurophysiologic markers associated with post-stroke emotional disturbance may lead to a better understanding of this disabling condition, guiding the diagnosis, development of new interventions and the assessments of treatment response. Methods: Thirty-five subjects with chronic stroke were enrolled in this study. The emotion sub-domain of Stroke Impact Scale (SIS-Emotion) was used to assess post-stroke mood and emotional control. The relation between SIS-Emotion and neurophysiologic measures was assessed by using covariance mapping and univariate linear regression. Multivariate analyses were conducted to identify and adjust for potential confounders. Neurophysiologic measures included power asymmetry and coherence assessed by electroencephalography (EEG); and motor threshold, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) measured by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Results: Lower scores on SIS-Emotion was associated with (1) frontal EEG power asymmetry in alpha and beta bands, (2) central EEG power asymmetry in alpha and theta bands, and (3) lower inter-hemispheric coherence over frontal and central areas in alpha band. SIS-Emotion also correlated with higher ICF and MT in the unlesioned hemisphere as measured by TMS. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study using EEG and TMS to index neurophysiologic changes associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control. Our results suggest that inter-hemispheric imbalance measured by EEG power and coherence, as well as an increased ICF in the unlesioned hemisphere measured by TMS might be relevant markers associated with post-stroke mood and emotional control which can guide future studies investigating new diagnostic and treatment modalities in stroke rehabilitation.

  2. A combined α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist and monoamine reuptake inhibitor, NS9775, represents a novel profile with potential benefits in emotional and cognitive disturbances.

    PubMed

    Andreasen, Jesper T; Redrobe, John P; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Christensen, Jeppe K; Olsen, Gunnar M; Peters, Dan

    2013-10-01

    As affective and cognitive disturbances frequently co-occur in psychiatric disorders, research into opportunities to simultaneously target both entities is warranted. These disorders are typically treated with monoamine reuptake inhibitors (MRIs), whereas ongoing research suggests that symptoms also improve by nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) activation. Preclinical studies have corroborated this and also demonstrated a synergistic antidepressant-like action when nAChR agonists and MRIs are combined. Here, we present the in vitro and in vivo profile of NS9775, a combined full α7 nAChR agonist and triple MRI. NS9775 potently inhibited [(3)H]α-bungarotoxin binding in vitro (Ki: 1.8 nM), and ex vivo (ED₅₀: 3.6 mg/kg), showing negligible activity at α4β2-(Ki: 1720 nM) or α1-containing nAChRs (Ki: 12,200 nM). In α7-expressing oocytes, NS9775 displayed an EC₅₀ value of 280 nM, with a maximal response of 77% relative to a saturating acetylcholine concentration. Furthermore, NS9775 inhibited cortical [(3)H]5-HT, [(3)H]NA and [(3)H]DA uptake equipotently (14-43 nM), and inhibited striatal [(3)H]WIN35,428 binding (ED₅₀: 9.1 mg/kg). Behaviourally in mice, NS9775 (0.3-3.0 mg/kg) reversed scopolamine-induced deficits in a modified Y-maze and MK-801-induced learning deficits in 5-trial inhibitory avoidance. Swim distance in the forced swim test was increased by 30 mg/kg NS9775, and 10 and 30 mg/kg NS9775 reduced digging behaviour in the marble burying paradigm and increased the number of punished crossings in the four plate test. This pro-cognitive, antidepressant-like and anxiolytic-like effect of NS9775 suggests that combining α7 nAChR agonism and triple monoamine reuptake inhibition could be a step in the evolution of pharmacological treatments of affective and/or cognitive disturbances.

  3. Children and Youth in Behavioural and Emotional Difficulties, Skyrocketing Diagnosis and Inclusion/Exclusion Processes in School Tendencies in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langager, Søren

    2014-01-01

    In parallel with a national school policy on an inclusive school with a marked reduction in the number of pupils who, due to their disruptive behaviour, are referred to educational provisions outside of the ordinary school environment, a sharp rise has been seen in the number of children and teenagers who are given a clinical diagnosis, first and…

  4. Emotional Disturbance and Chronic Low Back Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCreary, Charles P.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Patients high in alientation and distrust may be poor compliers. Because only the somatic concern dimension predicted outcome, a single scale that measures this characteristic may be sufficient for effective identification of the potential good v poor responders to conservative treatment of low back pain. (Author)

  5. Job Placement of the Emotionally Disturbed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blum, Lawrence P., Comp.; Kujoth, Richard K., Comp.

    This collection of 43 professional papers includes discussions by experts in the fields of psychiatry, clinical psychology, counseling psychology, vocational rehabilitation counseling, employment counseling, sociology and social work. Major topic sections are: (1) The Concept of Cure Versus the Reality of Improvement, (2) Personal Problems of the…

  6. Association between Genetic Variation in the Oxytocin Receptor Gene and Emotional Withdrawal, but not between Oxytocin Pathway Genes and Diagnosis in Psychotic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Haram, Marit; Tesli, Martin; Bettella, Francesco; Djurovic, Srdjan; Andreassen, Ole Andreas; Melle, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Social dysfunction is common in patients with psychotic disorders. Oxytocin is a neuropeptide with a central role in social behavior. This study aims to explore the relationship between oxytocin pathway genes and symptoms related to social dysfunction in patients with psychotic disorders. We performed association analyses between four oxytocin pathway genes (OXT, OXTR, AVP, and CD38) and four areas of social behavior-related psychopathology as measured by Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. For this purpose, we used both a polygenic risk score (PGRS) and single OXTR candidate single nucleotide polymorphism previously reported in the literature (rs53576, rs237902, and rs2254298). A total of 734 subjects with DSM-IV psychotic spectrum disorders and 420 healthy controls were included. Oxytocin pathway PGRSs were calculated based on the independent Psychiatric Genomics Consortium study sample. There was a significant association between symptom of Emotional Withdrawal and the previously reported OXTR risk allele A in rs53576. No significant associations between oxytocin pathway gene variants and a diagnosis of psychotic disorder were found. Our findings indicate that while oxytocin pathway genes do not appear to contribute to the susceptibility to psychotic disorders, variations in the OXTR gene might play a role in the development of impaired social behavior. PMID:25667571

  7. [On the mechanisms and diagnosis of conduction disturbances due to demyelination with special reference to multifocal demyelinating neuropathy (Lewis-Sumner)].

    PubMed

    Kaji, R; Kimura, J

    1991-12-01

    Multifocal demyelinating neuropathy with persistent conduction block can mimic motor neuron disease, but is potentially reversible. Its diagnosis rests upon electrophysiological demonstration of focal conduction block at multiple sites. Conduction block is the most important mechanism causing clinical symptoms in peripheral nerve demyelination. On the other hand, conduction slowing is not always associated with clinical symptoms. In 2 out of 9 patients with multifocal demyelinating motor neuropathy, MRI showed focal swelling of the nerve at the site of conduction block. Both of them had elevated titers of anti-GM1 antibodies. In one, we biopsied a portion of the medial pectoral nerve, which was adjacent to the focal swelling, at surgical exploration. Pathological findings included very thin myelin associated with large diameter fibers and small onion bulb formation, suggesting that remyelinative process is abortive in this disease leading to persistent conduction block. Anti-GM1 antibodies bound to the denuded axoplasmic membrane may interfere with the process by masking the cell surface markers. The reason why the sensory fibers are spared is unclear, but it may be possible that GM1 in sensory axons have less affinity to the antibody than that in motor fibers. PMID:1817801

  8. Rational-Emotive Assessment of School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on assessment of emotions and irrational beliefs in Rational-Emotive Therapy with school-aged children. Argues that, for children to understand and agree to process of disputing irrational beliefs, practitioner first assesses individual child's emotional vocabulary, his/her understanding of relationship between disturbed emotion and…

  9. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain. PMID:27208716

  10. Assessing and Managing Sleep Disturbance in Patients with Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Cheatle, Martin D; Foster, Simmie; Pinkett, Aaron; Lesneski, Matthew; Qu, David; Dhingra, Lara

    2016-06-01

    Chronic pain is associated with symptoms that may impair a patient's quality of life, including emotional distress, fatigue, and sleep disturbance. There is a high prevalence of concomitant pain and sleep disturbance. Studies support the hypothesis that sleep and pain have a bidirectional and reciprocal relationship. Clinicians who manage patients with chronic pain often focus on interventions that relieve pain, and assessing and treating sleep disturbance are secondary or not addressed. This article reviews the literature on pain and co-occurring sleep disturbance, describes the assessment of sleep disturbance, and outlines nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment strategies to improve sleep in patients with chronic pain.

  11. The Effects of Disturbed Adolescents on Their Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    The author first reviews emotional hazards and conflicts of teachers of the emotionally disturbed, then describes, with frequent anecdotes, nine examples of the "interpersonal underworld of special education" such as helplessness rage, anger at teammates, and implementation despair. Suggests recognizing feelings to disengage from unproductive…

  12. Emotion recognition, emotional awareness and cognitive bias in individuals with bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Legenbauer, Tanja; Vocks, Silja; Rüddel, Heinz

    2008-06-01

    Difficulties recognizing emotion have been reported for eating disordered individuals in relation to perception of emotions in others and emotional self-awareness. It remains unclear whether this is a perceptual or cognitive-affective problem. Clarification is sought and the question of a cognitive bias is addressed when interpreting facially expressed emotions. Twenty participants with bulimia nervosa (BN) and 20 normal controls (NC) were assessed for ability to recognize emotional and neutral expressions. Emotional self-awareness was also assessed. Significant differences were found for emotional self-awareness. For emotional faces, only a poorer recognition of the emotion, surprise, for BN was found. Problems with emotional self-awareness suggest a cognitive-affective disturbance in emotion recognition. Implications for therapy are discussed.

  13. [Climacteric disturbances. 2. Therapy of climacteric disturbances].

    PubMed

    Döring, G K

    1976-07-01

    After defining the terms climacterium and menopause the causes of climacteric disturbances are explained. During the premenopausal stage disturbances of the cycle are prevailing, caused by an insufficiency of the corpus luteum. Of climacteric disturbances should be spoken only after menopause. They are divided into: vegetative disturbances, troubles of metabolism, cardiovascular dysregulation, psychic deviations, sexual troubles and changes of the skin. The therapy of disturbances during the premenopausal stage mainly consists of the substitution of progesterone or in a cycle-like estrogen-progesterone-therapy. In the premenopausal stage estrogens are the therapy of choice. Among orally efficient estrogens the conjugated estrogen and the estradiol-valerianat are preferred. Side-effects and contraindications are discussed in detail. Among gynecologists there exists no disagreement about the necessity of therapy of serious climacteric disturbances, the opinions about prophylactic estrogen-therapy in women differ. PMID:184019

  14. Evolution, Emotions, and Emotional Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesse, Randolph M.; Ellsworth, Phoebe C.

    2009-01-01

    Emotions research is now routinely grounded in evolution, but explicit evolutionary analyses of emotions remain rare. This article considers the implications of natural selection for several classic questions about emotions and emotional disorders. Emotions are special modes of operation shaped by natural selection. They adjust multiple response…

  15. Addressing neuropsychiatric disturbances during rehabilitation after traumatic brain injury: current and future methods

    PubMed Central

    Arciniegas, David B.

    2011-01-01

    Cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and sensorimotor disturbances are the principal clinical manifestations of traumatic brain injury (TBI) throughout the early postinjury period. These post-traumatic neuropsychiatric disturbances present substantial challenges to patients, their families, and clinicians providing their rehabilitative care, the optimal approaches to which remain incompletely developed. In this article, a neuropsychiairically informed, neurobiologically anchored approach to understanding and meeting challenges is described. The foundation for thai approach is laid, with a review of clinical case definitions of TBI and clarification of their intended referents. The differential diagnosis of event-related neuropsychiatric disturbances is considered next, after which the clinical and neurobiological heterogeneity within the diagnostic category of TBI are discussed. The clinical manifestations of biomechanical force-induced brain dysfunction are described as a state of post-traumatic encephalopathy (PTE) comprising several phenomenologically distinct stages, PTE is then used as a framework for understanding and clinically evaluating the neuropsychiatric sequelae of TBI encountered commonly during the early post-injury rehabilitation period, and for considering the types and timings of neurorehabilitative interventions. Finally, directions for future research that may address productively the challenges to TBI rehabilitation presented by neuropsychiatric disturbances are considered. PMID:22034400

  16. Developing Art Experiences for the Emotionally Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. for Handicapped Children.

    Presented are the proceedings of a special study institute for educators on the development of art experiences with emotionally disturbed children. The planning committee, institute faculty, program agenda, and participants are listed. Puppet presentations by emotionally disturbed children are reported to have opened the institute. Institute…

  17. The Construction of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Raya A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a critique of the educational model of emotional and behavioural difficulties in British education. In the wake of strong criticisms of the so-called medical model of maladjustment (pre-1980s), educational policies have defined the "disturbing" pupil as having emotional and behavioural difficulties, and have more recently…

  18. Sleep and the processing of emotions.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Gilson, Médhi; Peigneux, Philippe

    2014-05-01

    How emotions interact with cognitive processes has been a topic of growing interest in the last decades, as well as studies investigating the role of sleep in cognition. We review here evidence showing that sleep and emotions entertain privileged relationships. The literature indicates that exposure to stressful and emotional experiences can induce changes in the post-exposure sleep architecture, whereas emotional disturbances are likely to develop following sleep alterations. In addition, post-training sleep appears particularly beneficial for the consolidation of intrinsically emotional memories, suggesting that emotions modulate the off-line brain activity patterns subtending memory consolidation processes. Conversely, sleep contributes unbinding core memories from their affective blanket and removing the latter, eventually participating to habituation processes and reducing aversive reactions to stressful stimuli. Taken together, these data suggest that sleep plays an important role in the regulation and processing of emotions, which highlight its crucial influence on human's abilities to manage and respond to emotional information.

  19. [What is an emotion? An introduction to the study of emotions].

    PubMed

    Derouesné, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Human emotions are hypothetic constructs based on psychological and physiological data. According to the psychoevolutionnist theories, all emotions derive from a set of discrete basic emotions, common to human and animals, genetically determined. Basic emotions are thus considered as physiological processes based on specific neuronal circuits. On the contrary, for appraisal and social theories, emotions are psychological processes resulting from the cognitive appraisal of the stimulus-event for the well-being and objectives of the subject, and are of social origin. They develop during life, especially in childhood, from interactions between the individual and his environement. According to the appraisal or constructivist theories, no sharp distinction is to be made between emotions and other manifestations of the affective life. Emotions require the global functioning of the brain, even if more specialized regions are involved. They play a fundamental role in the development of the child's psychological and social life. They mediate the subject's response to the stimulus-event, allowing more appropriate reactions than fixed instinctive ones. Nevertheless, the adaptative function of every emotion or their every component can be questioned. Emotional disturbances are major consequences of psychiatric or neurological disorders. The link between the results of neuropsychological studies of emotions based on the recognition of emotional facal expression according to the basic emotion theory, and the emotional disturbances experienced in daily life is highly questionable on account of the high complexity of human affective life.

  20. Alleviating Communication Apprehension through Rational Emotive Therapy: A Comparative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Arden K.; Dodd, Carley H.

    Albert Ellis's Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which assumes that a person can change an emotional disturbance by discovering and disputing the irrational ideas giving rise to that emotion, has been used effectively in treating public speaking anxiety. To compare RET with other treatments for communication apprehension, 52 high communication…

  1. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma manifesting as hearing disturbance.

    PubMed

    Amano, Toshiyuki; Tokunaga, So; Shono, Tadahisa; Mizoguchi, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Yoshida, Fumiaki; Sasaki, Tomio

    2009-09-01

    A 49-year-old man presented with a rare case of cerebellar hemangioblastoma manifesting as only hearing disturbance. He had suffered from hearing difficulty in the right ear for a few months. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a cystic mass lesion with an internal fluid level and surrounding flow voids in the right cerebellopontine (CP) angle. Cerebral angiography disclosed a vascular-rich tumor fed by both the superior cerebellar and anterior inferior cerebellar arteries. En bloc resection of the tumor was planned under a preoperative diagnosis of cerebellar hemangioblastoma. The tumor protruded into the CP cistern and compressed cranial nerve VIII. The feeding arteries were meticulously coagulated and the tumor was successfully removed. The histological diagnosis was hemangioblastoma. After the operation, the patient's hearing acuity improved dramatically. Cerebellar hemangioblastoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of CP angle tumors associated with hearing disturbance.

  2. Emotion Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neiberg, Daniel; Elenius, Kjell; Burger, Susanne

    Studies of expressive speech have shown that discrete emotions such as anger, fear, joy, and sadness can be accurately communicated, also cross-culturally, and that each emotion is associated with reasonably specific acoustic characteristics [8]. However, most previous research has been conducted on acted emotions. These certainly have something in common with naturally occurring emotions but may also be more intense and prototypical than authentic, everyday expressions [6, 13]. Authentic emotions are, on the other hand, often a combination of different affective states and occur rather infrequently in everyday life.

  3. The Application of Rational-Emotive Theory and Therapy to School-Aged Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Bernard, Michael E.

    1990-01-01

    Explains rational-emotive theory and therapy and its applications to school psychology, highlighting distinction between disturbed and nondisturbed emotions and distinction between irrational and rational beliefs. Presents history of rational-emotive therapy and its application to emotional problems of children. Reviews research in…

  4. Sleep disturbance in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth; Mowat, David; Wilson, Meredith; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated sleep disturbance in people with MWS. In a series of unstructured interviews focused on development and behaviors in MWS, family members frequently reported sleep disturbance, particularly early-morning waking and frequent night waking. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was therefore administered to a sample of 35 individuals with MWS, along with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) to measure behavioral and emotional disturbance. A high level of sleep disturbance was found in the MWS sample, with 53% scoring in the borderline range and 44% in the clinical disorder range for at least one subscale of the SDSC. Scores were highest for the Sleep-wake transition disorders subscale, with 91% of participants reaching at least the borderline disorder range. A significant positive association was found between total scores on the SDSC and the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. These results suggest that sleep disorders should be screened for in people with MWS, and where appropriate, referrals to sleep specialists made for management of sleep problems. PMID:26686679

  5. Sleep disturbance in Mowat-Wilson syndrome.

    PubMed

    Evans, Elizabeth; Mowat, David; Wilson, Meredith; Einfeld, Stewart

    2016-03-01

    Mowat-Wilson syndrome (MWS) is a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome caused by a heterozygous mutation or deletion of the ZEB2 gene. It is characterized by a distinctive facial appearance in association with intellectual disability (ID) and variable other features including agenesis of the corpus callosum, seizures, congenital heart defects, microcephaly, short stature, hypotonia, and Hirschsprung disease. The current study investigated sleep disturbance in people with MWS. In a series of unstructured interviews focused on development and behaviors in MWS, family members frequently reported sleep disturbance, particularly early-morning waking and frequent night waking. The Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) was therefore administered to a sample of 35 individuals with MWS, along with the Developmental Behaviour Checklist (DBC) to measure behavioral and emotional disturbance. A high level of sleep disturbance was found in the MWS sample, with 53% scoring in the borderline range and 44% in the clinical disorder range for at least one subscale of the SDSC. Scores were highest for the Sleep-wake transition disorders subscale, with 91% of participants reaching at least the borderline disorder range. A significant positive association was found between total scores on the SDSC and the DBC Total Behaviour Problem Score. These results suggest that sleep disorders should be screened for in people with MWS, and where appropriate, referrals to sleep specialists made for management of sleep problems.

  6. Sleep and emotions: a focus on insomnia.

    PubMed

    Baglioni, Chiara; Spiegelhalder, Kai; Lombardo, Caterina; Riemann, Dieter

    2010-08-01

    Insomnia disorder is defined as difficulties in initiating/maintaining sleep and/or non-restorative sleep accompanied by decreased daytime functioning, persisting for at least four weeks. For many patients suffering from depression and anxiety, insomnia is a pervasive problem. Many of the aetiological theories of insomnia postulate that heightened emotional reactivity contributes to the maintenance of symptoms. This review focuses on the role of emotional reactivity in insomnia, and how the relationship between insomnia and depression and anxiety may be mediated by emotional reactivity. Furthermore, studies investigating the valence of emotions in insomnia are reviewed. Overall, there is empirical evidence that dysfunctional emotional reactivity might mediate the interaction between cognitive and autonomic hyperarousal, thus contributing to the maintenance of insomnia. Moreover, dysfunctions in sleep-wake regulating neural circuitries seem to be able to reinforce emotional disturbances. It seems plausible that dysfunctional emotional reactivity modulates the relationship between insomnia and depression and anxiety. Considering the interaction between sleep and emotional valence, poor sleep quality seems to correlate with high negative and low positive emotions, both in clinical and subclinical samples. Good sleep seems to be associated with high positive emotions, but not necessarily with low negative emotions. This review underlines the need for future research on emotions in insomnia. PMID:20137989

  7. Sleep Disturbances in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kamath, Jayesh; Virdi, Sundeep; Winokur, Andrew

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia and play a critical role in the morbidity and mortality associated with the illness. Subjective and objective assessments of sleep in patients with schizophrenia have identified certain consistent findings. Findings related to the sleep structure abnormalities have shown correlations with important clinical aspects of the illness. Disruption of specific neurotransmitter systems and dysregulation of clock genes may play a role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia-related sleep disturbances. Antipsychotic medications play an important role in the treatment of sleep disturbances in these patients and have an impact on their sleep structure.

  8. Disturbance and change in biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Dornelas, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Understanding how disturbance affects biodiversity is important for both fundamental and applied reasons. Here, I investigate how disturbances with different ecological effects change biodiversity metrics. I define three main types of disturbance effects: D disturbance (shifts in mortality rate), B disturbance (shifts in reproductive rates) and K disturbance (shifts in carrying capacity). Numerous composite disturbances can be defined including any combination of these three types of ecological effects. The consequences of D, B and K disturbances, as well as of composite DBK disturbances are examined by comparing metrics before and after a disturbance, in disturbed and undisturbed communities. I use simulations of neutral communities and examine species richness, total abundance and species abundance distributions. The patterns of change in biodiversity metrics are consistent among different types of disturbance. K disturbance has the most severe effects, followed by D disturbance, and B disturbance has nearly negligible effects. Consequences of composite DBK disturbances are more complex than any of the three types of disturbance, with unimodal relationships along a disturbance gradient arising when D, B and K are negatively correlated. Importantly, regardless of disturbance type, community isolation enhances the negative consequences and hinders the positive effects of disturbances. PMID:20980319

  9. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  10. Stonewalling Emotion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is an exploration of emotion by a therapist. It focuses on how emotion is managed in the stories of growing up and living with atypical sex anatomies--how (much) is emotion (not) discussed, and what are the effects of forestalling emotive dialogue. Emotion care in the narratives is often sidelined in favor of medical doings. Rather than creating a haven to keep normative pressures at bay, so as to enable the affected parents, adolecents and adults to process their situations, some of the storytellers reveal how medicine has concentrated its efforts on the erasure and silencing of their bodily differences. The most frequently mentioned emotion management strategy is 'stonewalling', as some of the affected children and adults were silently left to take in what was reflected in the eyes of the large number of people inspecting their naked bodies. Emotional suffering continued for many years for some individuals. An apology might ease suffering but is rarely bestowed. Learning to become more comfortable with emotion may open up more possibilities for helpful conversations between care users and providers and within families. Feelings of joy became more available to the storytellers who as adults learned to embrace their differences and connected with like-minded people.

  11. Stonewalling Emotion.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lih-Mei

    2015-01-01

    This commentary is an exploration of emotion by a therapist. It focuses on how emotion is managed in the stories of growing up and living with atypical sex anatomies--how (much) is emotion (not) discussed, and what are the effects of forestalling emotive dialogue. Emotion care in the narratives is often sidelined in favor of medical doings. Rather than creating a haven to keep normative pressures at bay, so as to enable the affected parents, adolecents and adults to process their situations, some of the storytellers reveal how medicine has concentrated its efforts on the erasure and silencing of their bodily differences. The most frequently mentioned emotion management strategy is 'stonewalling', as some of the affected children and adults were silently left to take in what was reflected in the eyes of the large number of people inspecting their naked bodies. Emotional suffering continued for many years for some individuals. An apology might ease suffering but is rarely bestowed. Learning to become more comfortable with emotion may open up more possibilities for helpful conversations between care users and providers and within families. Feelings of joy became more available to the storytellers who as adults learned to embrace their differences and connected with like-minded people. PMID:26300147

  12. Metabolic disturbances connecting obesity and depression

    PubMed Central

    Hryhorczuk, Cecile; Sharma, Sandeep; Fulton, Stephanie E.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity markedly increases the odds of developing depression. Depressed mood not only impairs motivation, quality of life and overall functioning but also increases the risks of obesity complications. Abdominal obesity is a better predictor of depression and anxiety risk than overall adipose mass. A growing amount of research suggests that metabolic abnormalities stemming from central obesity that lead to metabolic disease may also be responsible for the increased incidence of depression in obesity. As reviewed here, a higher mass of dysfunctional adipose tissue is associated with several metabolic disturbances that are either directly or indirectly implicated in the control of emotions and mood. To better comprehend the development of depression in obesity, this review pulls together select findings addressing the link between adiposity, diet and negative emotional states and discusses the evidence that alterations in glucocorticoids, adipose-derived hormones, insulin and inflammatory signaling that are characteristic of central obesity may be involved. PMID:24109426

  13. Interventions for Sleep Disturbance in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Allison G.; Kaplan, Kate A.; Soehner, Adriane

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Bipolar disorder is a severe and chronic disorder, ranked in the top 10 leading causes of disability worldwide. Sleep disturbances are strongly coupled with inter-episode dysfunction and symptom worsening in bipolar disorder. Experimental studies suggest that sleep deprivation can trigger manic relapse. There is evidence that sleep deprivation can have an adverse impact on emotion regulation the following day. The clinical management of the sleep disturbances experienced by bipolar patients, including insomnia, hypersomnia delayed sleep phase and irregular sleep-wake schedule, may include medication approaches, psychological interventions, light therapies and sleep deprivation. Psychological interventions, as described here, are advantageous in that they are low in side effects, may be preferred by patients, are durable and have no abuse potential. PMID:25750600

  14. 1992 system disturbances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    When a utility experiences an electric system emergency that requires reporting to the DOE, the utility sends a copy of the report to its Regional Council, which then sends a copy to NERC. Canadian utilities often voluntarily file emergency reports to DOE and NERC as well. NERC's annual review of system disturbances begins in November when the Disturbance Analysis Working Group meets to discuss each disturbance reported to NERC so far that year. The Group then contacts the Regional Council or utility(ies) involved and requests a detailed report of each incident. The Group then summarizes the report for this Review and analyzes it using the NERC Operating Guides and Planning Policies and Guides as the analysis categories. The Commentary section includes the conclusions and recommendations that were formulated from the analyses in this report plus the general experiences of the Working Group through the years. In 1992, utilities reported 22 incidents of system disturbances, load reductions, or unusual occurrences. This is eight fewer than reported in 1991. These incidents are listed chronologically and categorized as: fourteen system interruptions that resulted in loss of customer service, eight unusual occurrences that did not cause a service interruption. No public appeals to reduce demand or voltage reductions occurred in 1992. This document contains reports of 11 incidents plus a summary of the damage from Hurricane Andrew. Each utility or Region approved its analysis in this report. Included is a table of Disturbances by Analysis Category that offers a quick review of the categories applicable to each incident.

  15. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  16. Acute Symptomatic Seizures Caused by Electrolyte Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2016-01-01

    In this narrative review we focus on acute symptomatic seizures occurring in subjects with electrolyte disturbances. Quite surprisingly, despite its clinical relevance, this issue has received very little attention in the scientific literature. Electrolyte abnormalities are commonly encountered in clinical daily practice, and their diagnosis relies on routine laboratory findings. Acute and severe electrolyte imbalances can manifest with seizures, which may be the sole presenting symptom. Seizures are more frequently observed in patients with sodium disorders (especially hyponatremia), hypocalcemia, and hypomagnesemia. They do not entail a diagnosis of epilepsy, but are classified as acute symptomatic seizures. EEG has little specificity in differentiating between various electrolyte disturbances. The prominent EEG feature is slowing of the normal background activity, although other EEG findings, including various epileptiform abnormalities may occur. An accurate and prompt diagnosis should be established for a successful management of seizures, as rapid identification and correction of the underlying electrolyte disturbance (rather than an antiepileptic treatment) are of crucial importance in the control of seizures and prevention of permanent brain damage. PMID:26754778

  17. Attitudes toward emotions.

    PubMed

    Harmon-Jones, Eddie; Harmon-Jones, Cindy; Amodio, David M; Gable, Philip A

    2011-12-01

    The present work outlines a theory of attitudes toward emotions, provides a measure of attitudes toward emotions, and then tests several predictions concerning relationships between attitudes toward specific emotions and emotional situation selection, emotional traits, emotional reactivity, and emotion regulation. The present conceptualization of individual differences in attitudes toward emotions focuses on specific emotions and presents data indicating that 5 emotions (anger, sadness, joy, fear, and disgust) load on 5 separate attitude factors (Study 1). Attitudes toward emotions predicted emotional situation selection (Study 2). Moreover, attitudes toward approach emotions (e.g., anger, joy) correlated directly with the associated trait emotions, whereas attitudes toward withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust) correlated inversely with associated trait emotions (Study 3). Similar results occurred when attitudes toward emotions were used to predict state emotional reactivity (Study 4). Finally, attitudes toward emotions predicted specific forms of emotion regulation (Study 5).

  18. A Curriculum Guide for Industrial Arts Activities for Children with Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael J.; And Others

    The course guide contained in this document was developed to provide industrial arts instructors with some understanding of emotional disturbances and remedial objectives which can be stressed with mainstreamed emotionally disturbed children through industrial arts activities. Major discussion centers on (1) laws, legislation, and regulations…

  19. Reason and emotion in psychotherapy: Albert Ellis.

    PubMed

    Dryden, W; Bond, F W

    1994-07-01

    To summarise then, in 1962 RET displayed important features still current. These include the interrelatedness of cognitive, emotive and behavioural processes, the important role that cognition plays in psychological problems, its humanistic view of the self, and the futility and dangers of self-rating. The emphasis on perpetuation rather than acquisition processes of emotional disturbance holds good now as it did then, and the core view of therapeutic change is essentially the same now as it was in 1962, despite further, more recent elaborations. Significant change has occurred in RET since 1962 that updates several of Ellis' original ideas. These include the distinction between interpretations (or inferences) and evaluations, the primary of musts in accounting for psychological disturbance, the clear distinction between healthy and unhealthy negative emotions and the greater role according to force and energy in the change process. In addition, a greater emphasis is placed on biological aspects of emotional disturbance now than 30 years ago. Finally, a greater range of cognitive, imaginal, emotive and behavioural methods are found in current RET literature than in Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, where Ellis restricts himself to illustrating a few cognitive and behavioural techniques. RET, then, has grown and developed over the past 30 years. In large part, this reflects the theory's flexibility and the competent people who have worked to make RET one of the most viable and widely used cognitive-behaviour therapies.

  20. Emotional collectives: How groups shape emotions and emotions shape groups.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Gerben A; Fischer, Agneta H

    2016-01-01

    Group settings are epicentres of emotional activity. Yet, the role of emotions in groups is poorly understood. How do group-level phenomena shape group members' emotional experience and expression? How are emotional expressions recognised, interpreted and shared in group settings? And how do such expressions influence the emotions, cognitions and behaviours of fellow group members and outside observers? To answer these and other questions, we draw on relevant theoretical perspectives (e.g., intergroup emotions theory, social appraisal theory and emotions as social information theory) and recent empirical findings regarding the role of emotions in groups. We organise our review according to two overarching themes: how groups shape emotions and how emotions shape groups. We show how novel empirical approaches break important new ground in uncovering the role of emotions in groups. Research on emotional collectives is thriving and constitutes a key to understanding the social nature of emotions.

  1. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Breast Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Conley, Claire C.; Bishop, Brenden T.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional distress in cancer patients is an important outcome; however, emotional experience does not begin and end with emotion generation. Attempts to regulate emotions may lessen their potentially negative effects on physical and psychological well-being. Researchers have called for the study of emotion regulation (ER) in health psychology and psycho-oncology. Thus, this review has three aims. First, we discuss current understandings of emotion and ER across the cancer trajectory, including the principles of ER and methods for its assessment. Second, we present a model for examining the mediating effects of ER on psychosocial outcomes. Third, we “round out” the discussion with an example: new data on the role of ER in recurrent breast cancer. Taken together, these aims illustrate the impact of affective regulatory processes on cancer patients’ long-term outcomes. As survival rates increase, long-term follow-up studies are needed to characterize the dynamic, reciprocal effects of emotion and ER for cancer survivors. Further research on ER may help women with breast cancer better manage the challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27517969

  2. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Breast Cancer Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Conley, Claire C; Bishop, Brenden T; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-08-10

    Emotional distress in cancer patients is an important outcome; however, emotional experience does not begin and end with emotion generation. Attempts to regulate emotions may lessen their potentially negative effects on physical and psychological well-being. Researchers have called for the study of emotion regulation (ER) in health psychology and psycho-oncology. Thus, this review has three aims. First, we discuss current understandings of emotion and ER across the cancer trajectory, including the principles of ER and methods for its assessment. Second, we present a model for examining the mediating effects of ER on psychosocial outcomes. Third, we "round out" the discussion with an example: new data on the role of ER in recurrent breast cancer. Taken together, these aims illustrate the impact of affective regulatory processes on cancer patients' long-term outcomes. As survival rates increase, long-term follow-up studies are needed to characterize the dynamic, reciprocal effects of emotion and ER for cancer survivors. Further research on ER may help women with breast cancer better manage the challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment.

  3. Emotions and Emotion Regulation in Breast Cancer Survivorship.

    PubMed

    Conley, Claire C; Bishop, Brenden T; Andersen, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Emotional distress in cancer patients is an important outcome; however, emotional experience does not begin and end with emotion generation. Attempts to regulate emotions may lessen their potentially negative effects on physical and psychological well-being. Researchers have called for the study of emotion regulation (ER) in health psychology and psycho-oncology. Thus, this review has three aims. First, we discuss current understandings of emotion and ER across the cancer trajectory, including the principles of ER and methods for its assessment. Second, we present a model for examining the mediating effects of ER on psychosocial outcomes. Third, we "round out" the discussion with an example: new data on the role of ER in recurrent breast cancer. Taken together, these aims illustrate the impact of affective regulatory processes on cancer patients' long-term outcomes. As survival rates increase, long-term follow-up studies are needed to characterize the dynamic, reciprocal effects of emotion and ER for cancer survivors. Further research on ER may help women with breast cancer better manage the challenges associated with diagnosis and treatment. PMID:27517969

  4. Increased attempts to suppress negative and positive emotions in Borderline Personality Disorder.

    PubMed

    Beblo, Thomas; Fernando, Silvia; Kamper, Pia; Griepenstroh, Julia; Aschenbrenner, Steffen; Pastuszak, Anna; Schlosser, Nicole; Driessen, Martin

    2013-12-15

    Patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) show evidence of disturbed emotion regulation. In particular, patients may try to suppress their emotions with possibly negative effects on mental health. We investigated the suppression of both negative and positive emotions in BPD patients and healthy participants. Thirty BPD patients and 30 matched healthy controls were assessed for emotion suppression using the Emotion Acceptance Questionnaire (EAQ). In addition, we administered additional questionnaires to validate emotion suppression findings. BPD patients reported increased attempts to suppress both negative and positive emotions. These findings indicate that BPD patients are not simply acting out negative emotions. Therapeutic approaches that focus on emotion acceptance of emotions are supported by our study data. Apart from negative emotions, treatment programs should consider positive emotions as well.

  5. [The emotional memory in the elderly and depression].

    PubMed

    Savaskan, E

    2010-12-15

    The recognition of emotional stimuli such as facial expressions is an important component of emotion processing contributing to interactional behavior. Healthy individuals recognize positive emotional stimuli better than negative stimuli. The ability to recognize both facial identity and emotional expression decline with advanced age but the positive bias remain stable. In depressive patients, on the other hand, there is a negative bias favoring negative emotional stimuli which leads to dysfunctional behavior and social isolation. Early diagnostic and treatment of depression can help to overcome the devastating consequences of cognitive disturbances of the disease. PMID:21157724

  6. Preparation of Teachers of Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders. Retrospective Series on Critical Issues in Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Lyndal M., Ed.; Gable, Robert A., Ed.; Rutherford, Robert B., Jr., Ed.

    The third in a series, this collection of previously published monographs examines the challenges of preparing teachers to work with students who have emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). Monographs include: (1) "Issues in Training Teachers for the Seriously Emotionally Disturbed" (Frank H. Wood), which discusses preparing regular and special…

  7. Waveguide disturbance detection method

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Nihei, Kurt T.; Myer, Larry R.

    2000-01-01

    A method for detection of a disturbance in a waveguide comprising transmitting a wavefield having symmetric and antisymmetric components from a horizontally and/or vertically polarized source and/or pressure source disposed symmetrically with respect to the longitudinal central axis of the waveguide at one end of the waveguide, recording the horizontal and/or vertical component or a pressure of the wavefield with a vertical array of receivers disposed at the opposite end of the waveguide, separating the wavenumber transform of the wavefield into the symmetric and antisymmetric components, integrating the symmetric and antisymmetric components over a broad frequency range, and comparing the magnitude of the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components to an expected magnitude for the symmetric components and the antisymmetric components for a waveguide of uniform thickness and properties thereby determining whether or not a disturbance is present inside the waveguide.

  8. 300 Area Disturbance Report

    SciTech Connect

    LL Hale; MK Wright; NA Cadoret

    1999-01-07

    The objective of this study was to define areas of previous disturbance in the 300 Area of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site to eliminate these areas from the cultural resource review process, reduce cultural resource monitoring costs, and allow cultural resource specialists to focus on areas where subsurface disturbance is minimal or nonexistent. Research into available sources suggests that impacts from excavations have been significant wherever the following construction activities have occurred: building basements and pits, waste ponds, burial grounds, trenches, installation of subsurface pipelines, power poles, water hydrants, and well construction. Beyond the areas just mentioned, substrates in the' 300 Area consist of a complex, multidimen- sional mosaic composed of undisturbed stratigraphy, backfill, and disturbed sediments; Four Geographic Information System (GIS) maps were created to display known areas of disturbance in the 300 Area. These maps contain information gleaned from a variety of sources, but the primary sources include the Hanford GIS database system, engineer drawings, and historic maps. In addition to these maps, several assumptions can be made about areas of disturbance in the 300 Area as a result of this study: o o Buried pipelines are not always located where they are mapped. As a result, cultural resource monitors or specialists should not depend on maps depicting subsurface pipelines for accurate locations of previous disturbance. Temporary roads built in the early 1940s were placed on layers of sand and gravel 8 to 12 in. thick. Given this information, it is likely that substrates beneath these early roads are only minimally disturbed. Building foundations ranged from concrete slabs no more than 6 to 8 in. thick to deeply excavated pits and basements. Buildings constructed with slab foundations are more numerous than may be expected, and minimally disturbed substrates may be expected in these locations. Historic black

  9. Atmospheric Disturbance Environment Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tank, William G.

    1994-01-01

    Traditionally, the application of atmospheric disturbance data to airplane design problems has been the domain of the structures engineer. The primary concern in this case is the design of structural components sufficient to handle transient loads induced by the most severe atmospheric "gusts" that might be encountered. The concern has resulted in a considerable body of high altitude gust acceleration data obtained with VGH recorders (airplane velocity, V, vertical acceleration, G, altitude, H) on high-flying airplanes like the U-2 (Ehernberger and Love, 1975). However, the propulsion system designer is less concerned with the accelerations of the airplane than he is with the airflow entering the system's inlet. When the airplane encounters atmospheric turbulence it responds with transient fluctuations in pitch, yaw, and roll angles. These transients, together with fluctuations in the free-stream temperature and pressure will disrupt the total pressure, temperature, Mach number and angularity of the inlet flow. For the mixed compression inlet, the result is a disturbed throat Mach number and/or shock position, and in extreme cases an inlet unstart can occur (cf. Section 2.1). Interest in the effects of inlet unstart on the vehicle dynamics of large, supersonic airplanes is not new. Results published by NASA in 1962 of wind tunnel studies of the problem were used in support of the United States Supersonic Transport program (SST) (White, at aI, 1963). Such studies continued into the late 1970's. However, in spite of such interest, there never was developed an atmospheric disturbance database for inlet unstart analysis to compare with that available for the structures load analysis. Missing were data for the free-stream temperature and pressure disturbances that also contribute to the unStart problem.

  10. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli.

  11. Facial, vocal and musical emotion recognition is altered in paranoid schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Weisgerber, Anne; Vermeulen, Nicolas; Peretz, Isabelle; Samson, Séverine; Philippot, Pierre; Maurage, Pierre; De Graeuwe D'Aoust, Catherine; De Jaegere, Aline; Delatte, Benoît; Gillain, Benoît; De Longueville, Xavier; Constant, Eric

    2015-09-30

    Disturbed processing of emotional faces and voices is typically observed in schizophrenia. This deficit leads to impaired social cognition and interactions. In this study, we investigated whether impaired processing of emotions also affects musical stimuli, which are widely present in daily life and known for their emotional impact. Thirty schizophrenic patients and 30 matched healthy controls evaluated the emotional content of musical, vocal and facial stimuli. Schizophrenic patients are less accurate than healthy controls in recognizing emotion in music, voices and faces. Our results confirm impaired recognition of emotion in voice and face stimuli in schizophrenic patients and extend this observation to the recognition of emotion in musical stimuli. PMID:26210647

  12. [Neuroendocrine disturbances in obesity].

    PubMed

    Isidro, M L; Alvarez, P; Martínez, T; Cordido, F

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is associated with different disturbances in endocrine function. Both spontaneous growth hormone (GH) secretion and its response to several stimuli have shown to be reduced in obese patients. The GH responses to GH-releasing hormone and other challenges by pyridostigmine suggest that the reduction in GH secretion is related to an increased somatostatinergic tone. Other experiments point to a down-regulation of somatostatin receptors in the somatotroph cell. Ghrelin administration is followed by a massive GH release, but the possibility that ghrelin or GHRH deficiency are the cause of GH deficiency in obesity is unlikely. The increase in free fatty acids in obesity might be related to GH reduction, since acipimox administration is able to reverse GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated with hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men have low testosterone and gonadotrophin concentrations, specially in cases of morbid obesity. An increase in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and some resistance to dexamethasone suppression have been described in abdominal obesity. This effect may be due to neuroendocrine alterations related to a genetic origin. Adrenal hyperfunction may favour cardiovascular and metabolic complications. There are no disturbances in thyroid function. Sometimes a reduction in prolactin response to several stimuli has been reported. This effect may be due to hyperinsulinaemia or to disturbances in the dopaminergic tone.

  13. English Language Learners and Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers-Adkinson, Diana L.; Ochoa, Theresa A.; Weiss, Stacy L.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter provides the reader with a framework for understanding the needs of students that have concurrent needs as English Language Learners and Emotionally Behavioral Disturbed. Issues related to effective assessment practices, service delivery, and appropriate intervention are discussed. (Contains 1 table.) [For complete volume, see…

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Parkinson’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Menza, Matthew; Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Marin, Humberto; Bienfait, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are very common in patients with PD and are associated with a variety of negative outcomes. The evaluation of sleep disturbances in these patients is complex, as sleep may be affected by a host of primary sleep disorders, other primary medical or psychiatric conditions, reactions to medications, aging or the neuropathophysiology of PD itself. In this article we review the evaluation of the common disturbances of sleep seen in PD. This includes the primary sleep disorders, the interaction of depression and insomnia, the impact that medications for PD have on sleep, as well as the role of factors such as nocturia, pain, dystonia, akinesia, difficulty turning in bed and vivid dreaming. The treatment of sleep disturbances in PD is largely unstudied but recommendations based on clinical experience in PD and research studies in other geriatric populations can be made. Important principles include, diagnosis, treating the specific sleep disorder or co-occurring disorder, and control of the motor aspects of PD. PMID:20187236

  15. Vehicle Disturbance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Brian

    2001-07-01

    The Vehicle Disturbance Test {VDT} is used to characterize uncompensated environmental disturbances acting upon the HST during normal operation. The VDT is a passive test {not a forced-response test} used to obtain signatures for both externally induced {e.g. SA-3} and internally induced {e.g. NCC and ACS mechanisms} disturbances for comparison with past VDT results. The disturbances observed will be used as the nominal on-orbit disturbances in pointing control simulations until the next VDT is run. The test occurs after release, and most of the VDT can be run during the BEA period. The -V1 sunpoint portion of the VDT occurs after the BEA period is complete. The VDT shall consist of five separate tests that need not occur consecutively. The overall duration of the VDT tests is at least 17 orbits of spacecraft time including {1} at least 1 full orbit at +V3 sunpoint prior to NCS CPL turn-on while performing ACS mechanism motions simulating routine flight operations, {2} at least 5 full orbits at +V3 sunpoint prior to NCS CPL turn-on, {3} at least 1 full orbit at +V3 sunpoint during NCC startup, {4} at least 5 full orbits at +V3 sunpoint while NCC is operating at steady-state, and {5} at least 5 full orbits at -V1 sunpoint with the NCC operating at steady-state. Each test is initiated via SMS execution of stored program macros in the HST flight computer to switch the attitude control law gains to low-bandwidth maneuver gains, command the gyros into low mode, terminate Velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing, and modify flight computer diagnostic mnemonics to display the roll component of DVTHEP. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test via SMS execution of stored program macros. The stored program command macros are developed specifically for the VDT by the Flight Software and Pointing Control System groups.

  16. Body build and behavior in emotionally disturbed Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, P F; Walker, R N

    1976-08-01

    Some physique-behavior relations were determined in 75 boys and 51 girls, aged 6 to 14, in a residential treatment center in Holland. Each child's behavior was rated by four group workers on a checklist yielding eight summary scores. Physique was judged from nude photographs for manifest endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. While a number of moderate-sized relations appeared in zero-order and multiple correlations, canonical analysis showed two significant, independent sets of relations between physique and behavior in the boys, one in the girls. Among the boys, one set related mesomorphy and energy level, the other related primarily ectomorphy with unsocialness, excitability, and cooperativeness. Among the girls, these same behaviors were compressed in a single set, primarily relating energy level but also unsocialness, excitability, and cooperativeness positively with mesomorphy and negatively with endomorphy and ectomorphy. Compared with findings on the same instrument in a sample of normal American preschoolers, many individual associations were similar, despite differences in culture and language, age, intelligence, social status, adjustment, and residential setting of the S's. PMID:976749

  17. A Community Based Rehabilitation Program for Emotionally Disturbed Clients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Steven P.

    This paper describes a community-based treatment model for people who are psychiatrically disabled and living outside an institutional setting. The background of the Community Rehabilitation Approach (CRA) is described including Training in Community Living (TCL) which involves: (1) assertively bringing treatment to the client directly in the…

  18. Reaching Emotionally Disturbed Children: 'Judo' Principles in Remedial Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandel, Harvey P.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    The importance of the interpersonal meanings of adolescent symptomatology, especially as they relate to issues of control in therapy, is explored across a wide variety of treatment approaches; and three cases of children (14- or 16-years-old in a remedial education program are discussed. (Author/SB)

  19. Dance/Movement Therapy with Emotionally Disturbed Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Veronica

    This outline profiles two programs that use dance/movement therapy to help students with low self-esteem, poor body image, poor self-control, lack of trust in others, difficulty identifying and expressing feelings, and poor interpersonal relating skills. Students referred for dance/movement therapy services are assessed for appropriateness, and…

  20. Body build and behavior in emotionally disturbed Dutch children.

    PubMed

    Verdonck, P F; Walker, R N

    1976-08-01

    Some physique-behavior relations were determined in 75 boys and 51 girls, aged 6 to 14, in a residential treatment center in Holland. Each child's behavior was rated by four group workers on a checklist yielding eight summary scores. Physique was judged from nude photographs for manifest endomorphy, mesomorphy, and ectomorphy. While a number of moderate-sized relations appeared in zero-order and multiple correlations, canonical analysis showed two significant, independent sets of relations between physique and behavior in the boys, one in the girls. Among the boys, one set related mesomorphy and energy level, the other related primarily ectomorphy with unsocialness, excitability, and cooperativeness. Among the girls, these same behaviors were compressed in a single set, primarily relating energy level but also unsocialness, excitability, and cooperativeness positively with mesomorphy and negatively with endomorphy and ectomorphy. Compared with findings on the same instrument in a sample of normal American preschoolers, many individual associations were similar, despite differences in culture and language, age, intelligence, social status, adjustment, and residential setting of the S's.

  1. Measuring Relationships of Teachers and Students with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zurheide, Jaime Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The "Student-Teacher Relationship Scale" ("STRS"), a teacher-reported measure of the quality of the relationship between teachers and their students, has been used in numerous studies of students with and without disabilities from preschool to early adolescence. However, evidence for the reliability, validity, and scale…

  2. The Development of the Student Stressors and Emotional Disturbance Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Peter; Flynn, Deborah M.

    2016-01-01

    It is well established in the literature that the years spent in university or college are deemed to be one of the most stressful periods of life (Hales, 2009). As a result, researchers are striving to create inventories to measure stress, isolate the determinants of stress and the psychological and health outcomes. The purpose of the present…

  3. Cartoon Hypnotherapy: An Innovative Treatment Approach for Childhood Emotional Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, Richard J.; Mills, Joyce C.

    Cartoon research includes the areas of experimental designs carried out in school classroom environments to determine the effects of cartoon viewing on children's behavior and the medical utilization of cartoons as part of an overall treatment program. This study differs from previous research by accepting the reality of cartoon viewing and…

  4. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the

  5. Disturbing Behavior Checklists" Technical Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob

    2012-01-01

    Ecological theorists have suggested that "disturbance" may result from an interaction between a child's behavior and reactions to that behavior within ecosystems such as schools. In this context, behavior is viewed as "disturbing" rather than "disturbed" and equal emphasis is given to the child and to individuals with whom the child interacts when…

  6. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  7. Vehicle Disturbance Test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, Brian

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of the VDT is to measure and characterize uncompensated environmental disturbances acting upon the HST during normal operation. The VDT is a passive test {not a forced-response test} used to obtain signatures for both externally induced {e.g. SCM, SA-3, SSM thermal gradients} and internally induced {e.g. HGA, RWA, COS and WFC3 mechanisms} disturbances affecting HST LOS pointing. The disturbances observed will be used as the nominal on-orbit disturbances in pointing control simulations until the next VDT is run.The test occurs after release, and most of the VDT can be run during the BEA period. The ?V1 sunpoint portion of the VDT usually occurs after the BEA period is complete. The VDT shall consist of two separate tests that need not occur consecutively. The overall duration of the VDT is at least 13 orbits of spacecraft time including {1} at least 8 orbits at +V3 sunpoint after achieving thermal equilibrium {at least 36-hours at +V3 sunpoint} and three out of 8-orbits have RWA Friction Compensation turned Off, and {2} at least 5 orbits at ?V1 sunpoint {all or part of this segment have RWA Friction Compensation turned Off}. At the beginning of each test, the attitude control law gains are switched to maneuver gains, and the gyros are commanded to low mode. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test.Each test is initiated via SMS execution of stored program macros in the HST flight computer to switch the attitude control law gains to low-bandwidth maneuver gains, command the gyros into low mode, terminate Velocity aberration and parallax {VAP} processing, and manage the status of on-board RWA Friction Compensation. The nominal attitude control law configuration will be restored at the end of each test via SMS execution of stored program macros. The stored program command macros are developed specifically for the VDT by the Flight Software and Pointing Control System groups.

  8. [Uterovaginal agenesis and polycystic ovary syndrome: psychological disturbance in adolescence].

    PubMed

    Laggari, V; Christogiorgos, S; Deligeoroglou, E; Tsiantis, J; Creatsas, G

    2012-01-01

    , age was negative correlated with attention problems and PCOS patients >18 reported significantly more somatic complaints compared with age-mate MRKHS patients and controls. PCO syndrome's clinical manifestations, including menstrual disorders, hirsuitism, acne, alopecia, obesity and infertility, may cause significant emotional distress. Nevertheless, they appear in great variety and our sample is characterized by mild features of hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea. This may explain findings of milder psychological disturbance associated with PCOS in this sample in comparison to other studies. As far as MRKHS is concerned, diagnosis and loss of reproductive ability, especially in late adolescence, obstruct emotional stability, physical maturity and sexual identity development ending that are expected in this period of life. Undoubtedly, the management of MRKHS in adolescence constitutes a complex multidisciplinary issue and psychological support of patients is needed in order to prevent possible psychological consequences and to achieve a normal transition to adulthood. Among the limitations of this study is the small sample size, which limits the generalisability of the reported results, especially in "Youth Self Report" and in "Symptom Checklist-90-R" questionnaires, where the sample was divided according to the age. Nevertheless, the very low incidence of MRKHS (1/5000) emphasize the value of the present results, which support the need for further investigation. PMID:23073543

  9. The Functional Anatomy of Psychomotor Disturbances in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Liberg, Benny; Rahm, Christoffer

    2015-01-01

    Psychomotor disturbances (PMD) are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provides rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement. PMID:25806006

  10. Music and emotions: from enchantment to entrainment.

    PubMed

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Trost, Wiebke

    2015-03-01

    Producing and perceiving music engage a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional processes. Emotions are a central feature of the enjoyment of music, with a large variety of affective states consistently reported by people while listening to music. However, besides joy or sadness, music often elicits feelings of wonder, nostalgia, or tenderness, which do not correspond to emotion categories typically studied in neuroscience and whose neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we review the similarities and differences in the neural substrates underlying these "complex" music-evoked emotions relative to other more "basic" emotional experiences. We suggest that these emotions emerge through a combination of activation in emotional and motivational brain systems (e.g., including reward pathways) that confer its valence to music, with activation in several other areas outside emotional systems, including motor, attention, or memory-related regions. We then discuss the neural substrates underlying the entrainment of cognitive and motor processes by music and their relation to affective experience. These effects have important implications for the potential therapeutic use of music in neurological or psychiatric diseases, particularly those associated with motor, attention, or affective disturbances. PMID:25773637

  11. Music and emotions: from enchantment to entrainment.

    PubMed

    Vuilleumier, Patrik; Trost, Wiebke

    2015-03-01

    Producing and perceiving music engage a wide range of sensorimotor, cognitive, and emotional processes. Emotions are a central feature of the enjoyment of music, with a large variety of affective states consistently reported by people while listening to music. However, besides joy or sadness, music often elicits feelings of wonder, nostalgia, or tenderness, which do not correspond to emotion categories typically studied in neuroscience and whose neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we review the similarities and differences in the neural substrates underlying these "complex" music-evoked emotions relative to other more "basic" emotional experiences. We suggest that these emotions emerge through a combination of activation in emotional and motivational brain systems (e.g., including reward pathways) that confer its valence to music, with activation in several other areas outside emotional systems, including motor, attention, or memory-related regions. We then discuss the neural substrates underlying the entrainment of cognitive and motor processes by music and their relation to affective experience. These effects have important implications for the potential therapeutic use of music in neurological or psychiatric diseases, particularly those associated with motor, attention, or affective disturbances.

  12. Emotions in Everyday Life

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People’s everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people’s emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory. PMID:26698124

  13. Emotions in Everyday Life.

    PubMed

    Trampe, Debra; Quoidbach, Jordi; Taquet, Maxime

    2015-01-01

    Despite decades of research establishing the causes and consequences of emotions in the laboratory, we know surprisingly little about emotions in everyday life. We developed a smartphone application that monitored real-time emotions of an exceptionally large (N = 11,000+) and heterogeneous participants sample. People's everyday life seems profoundly emotional: participants experienced at least one emotion 90% of the time. The most frequent emotion was joy, followed by love and anxiety. People experienced positive emotions 2.5 times more often than negative emotions, but also experienced positive and negative emotions simultaneously relatively frequently. We also characterized the interconnections between people's emotions using network analysis. This novel approach to emotion research suggests that specific emotions can fall into the following categories 1) connector emotions (e.g., joy), which stimulate same valence emotions while inhibiting opposite valence emotions, 2) provincial emotions (e.g., gratitude), which stimulate same valence emotions only, or 3) distal emotions (e.g., embarrassment), which have little interaction with other emotions and are typically experienced in isolation. Providing both basic foundations and novel tools to the study of emotions in everyday life, these findings demonstrate that emotions are ubiquitous to life and can exist together and distinctly, which has important implications for both emotional interventions and theory.

  14. Sleep Disturbances in Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Rumble, Meredith E; White, Kaitlin Hanley; Benca, Ruth M

    2015-12-01

    The article provides an overview of common and differentiating self-reported and objective sleep disturbances seen in mood-disordered populations. The importance of considering sleep disturbances in the context of mood disorders is emphasized, because a large body of evidence supports the notion that sleep disturbances are a risk factor for onset, exacerbation, and relapse of mood disorders. In addition, potential mechanisms for sleep disturbance in depression, other primary sleep disorders that often occur with mood disorders, effects of antidepressant and mood-stabilizing drugs on sleep, and the adjunctive effect of treating sleep in patients with mood disorders are discussed.

  15. Parental Socialization of Emotion

    PubMed Central

    Cumberland, Amanda; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2006-01-01

    Recently, there has been a resurgence of research on emotion, including the socialization of emotion. In this article, a heuristic model of factors contributing to the socialization of emotion is presented. Then literature relevant to the socialization of children’s emotion and emotion-related behavior by parents is reviewed, including (a) parental reactions to children’s emotions, (b) socializers’ discussion of emotion, and (c) socializers’ expression of emotion. The relevant literature is not conclusive and most of the research is correlational. However, the existing body of data provides initial support for the view that parental socialization practices have effects on children’s emotional and social competence and that the socialization process is bidirectional. In particular, parental negative emotionality and negative reactions to children’s expression of emotion are associated with children’s negative emotionality and low social competence. In addition, possible moderators of effects such as level of emotional arousal are discussed. PMID:16865170

  16. Diagnosis of metabolic bone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Grech, P.; Martin, T.J.; Barrington, N.A.; Ell, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a reference on the radiologic evaluation, features, and differential diagnosis of metabolic diseases involving the whole skeleton, calcium deficiencies resulting from pharmacologic agents, and bone changes related to endocrine disturbances. It also stresses how radiology, nuclear medicine, and biochemistry - either alone or in concert - contribute to clinical diagnosis. It covers renal bone disease, Paget's disease, hyperphosphatasia, extraskeletal mineralization, metabolic bone disorders related to malnutrition, tumors, plus radionuclide studies including materials and methods.

  17. The High-Risk (Disturbed and Disturbing) College Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, Kathy R.; Dunkle, John H.; Douce, Louise

    2009-01-01

    The disturbed and disturbing college student causes the most vexing concerns for student affairs administrators. The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model offers a useful and easily understood framework for dealing with the various challenges of this high-risk student population. This chapter focuses on changes that have…

  18. Emotional context, maternal behavior and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Roque, Lisa; Veríssimo, Manuela

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the importance of emotion-eliciting context (positive and negative) and mother's behaviors (constrained and involved) on toddlers' emotion regulation behavioral strategies, emotional expressiveness and intensity, during three episodes eliciting fear, frustration/anger and positive affect. Fifty-five children between 18 and 26 months of age and their mothers participated in the study. Toddlers' regulatory strategies varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited behavioral strategies more frequently during positive affect and frustration/anger episodes and less frequently during fear episodes) and maternal involvement. Toddlers' expression of emotion varied as function of emotion-eliciting context (children exhibited more emotional expressions, both negative and positive during fear and frustration/anger episodes compared to positive affect episodes). Toddlers' expression of emotion was not strongly related to maternal involvement, however, the intensity of emotional expression was related to the interaction of context and maternal involvement.

  19. Emotional Reactivity and Regulation in Anxious and Nonanxious Youth: A Cell-Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Patricia Z.; Forbes, Erika E.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Ryan, Neal D.; Siegle, Greg J.; Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Silk, Jennifer S.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Reviews have highlighted anxious youths' affective disturbances, specifically, elevated negative emotions and reliance on ineffective emotion regulation strategies. However, no study has examined anxious youth's emotional reactivity and regulation in real-world contexts. Methods: This study utilized an ecological momentary assessment…

  20. Ionospheric disturbance dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, M.; Richmond, A.D.

    1980-04-01

    A numerical simulation study of the thermospheric winds produced by auroral heating during magnetic storms, and of their global dynamo effects, establishes the main features of the ionospheric disturbanc dynamo. Driven by auroral heating, a Hadley cell is created with equatorward winds blowing above about 120 km at mid-latitudes. The transport of angular momentum by these winds produces a subrotation of the midlatitude thermosphere, or westward motion with respect to the earth. The westward winds in turn drive equatorward Pedersen currents which accumulate charge toward the equator, resulting in the generation of a poleward electric field, a westward E x B drift, and an eastward current. When realistic local time conductivity variations are simulated, the eastward mid-latitude current is found to close partly via lower latitudes, resulting in an 'anti-Sq' type of current vortex. Both electric field and current at low latitudes thus vary in opposition to their normal quiet-day behavior. This total pattern of distrubance winds, electric fields, and currents is superimposed upon the background quiet-day pattern. When the neutral winds are artificially confined on the nightside, the basic pattern of predominantly westward E x B plasma drifts still prevails on the nightside but no longer extends into the dayside. Considerable observational evidence exists, suggesting that the ionospheric disturbance dynamo has an appreciable influence on storm-time ionospheric electric fields at middle and low latitudes.

  1. Acute emotional stress and cardiac arrhythmias.

    PubMed

    Ziegelstein, Roy C

    2007-07-18

    Episodes of acute emotional stress can have significant adverse effects on the heart. Acute emotional stress can produce left ventricular contractile dysfunction, myocardial ischemia, or disturbances of cardiac rhythm. Although these abnormalities are often only transient, their consequences can be gravely damaging and sometimes fatal. Despite the many descriptions of catastrophic cardiovascular events in the setting of acute emotional stress, the anatomical substrate and physiological pathways by which emotional stress triggers cardiovascular events are only now being characterized, aided by the advent of functional neuroimaging. Recent evidence indicates that asymmetric brain activity is particularly important in making the heart more susceptible to ventricular arrhythmias. Lateralization of cerebral activity during emotional stress may stimulate the heart asymmetrically and produce areas of inhomogeneous repolarization that create electrical instability and facilitate the development of cardiac arrhythmias. Patients with ischemic heart disease who survive an episode of sudden cardiac death in the setting of acute emotional stress should receive a beta-blocker. Nonpharmacological approaches to manage emotional stress in patients with and without coronary artery disease, including social support, relaxation therapy, yoga, meditation, controlled slow breathing, and biofeedback, are also appropriate to consider and merit additional investigation in randomized trials.

  2. Subclassification of School Phobic Disturbances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Leslie; And Others

    The confusion surrounding all aspects of school refusal may rest partly on the misguided assumption that the disturbance represents a single syndrome. Five consistently emerging variables which may help distinguish among school phobic types were abstracted from the literature: extensiveness of disturbance, mode of onset, age, fear source, and…

  3. Teacher Diagnosis of Educational Difficulties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Robert M., Ed.

    Seven contributors treat teacher diagnosis of educational difficulties. Robert Smith and John Neisworth review the fundamentals of informal educational assessment; Neisworth describes the educational irrelevance of intelligence; and Smith discusses perceptual motor skills. Also included are James Lister on personal-social-emotional skills, G.…

  4. Western Disturbances: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimri, A. P.; Niyogi, D.; Barros, A. P.; Ridley, J.; Mohanty, U. C.; Yasunari, T.; Sikka, D. R.

    2015-06-01

    Cyclonic storms associated with the midlatitude Subtropical Westerly Jet (SWJ), referred to as Western Disturbances (WDs), play a critical role in the meteorology of the Indian subcontinent. WDs embedded in the southward propagating SWJ produce extreme precipitation over northern India and are further enhanced over the Himalayas due to orographic land-atmosphere interactions. During December, January, and February, WD snowfall is the dominant precipitation input to establish and sustain regional snowpack, replenishing regional water resources. Spring melt is the major source of runoff to northern Indian rivers and can be linked to important hydrologic processes from aquifer recharge to flashfloods. Understanding the dynamical structure, evolution-decay, and interaction of WDs with the Himalayas is therefore necessary to improve knowledge which has wide ranging socioeconomic implications beyond short-term disaster response including cold season agricultural activities, management of water resources, and development of vulnerability-adaptive measures. In addition, WD wintertime precipitation provides critical mass input to existing glaciers and modulates the albedo characteristics of the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau, affecting large-scale circulation and the onset of the succeeding Indian Summer Monsoon. Assessing the impacts of climate variability and change on the Indian subcontinent requires fundamental understanding of the dynamics of WDs. In particular, projected changes in the structure of the SWJ will influence evolution-decay processes of the WDs and impact Himalayan regional water availability. This review synthesizes past research on WDs with a perspective to provide a comprehensive assessment of the state of knowledge to assist both researchers and policymakers, and context for future research.

  5. Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Don L

    2009-12-01

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic functional illness that presents with widespread musculoskeletal pain as well as a constellation of symptoms including fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleep difficulties, stiffness, anxiety, and depressed mood. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia, similar to other functional disorders, requires that organic diseases are not causing the symptoms. Systemic and rheumatic diseases can be ruled out by a patient history, physical examination, and laboratory investigations. Because there are no specific laboratory tests for fibromyalgia, the 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria have been used in clinical settings; however, they are not ideal for individual patient diagnosis. Clinicians should be aware of limitations inherent in using tender points in the diagnosis of fibromyalgia. The multiple symptoms of fibromyalgia often overlap with those of related disorders and may further complicate the diagnosis. One of the most challenging diagnostic dilemmas that clinicians face is distinguishing fibromyalgia from other central pain disorders (e.g., irritable bowel syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, migraine). Screening questions based on published criteria can be used as a first approach in diagnosing functional illnesses. Numerous studies report a higher prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients with fibromyalgia. Therefore, a careful history and evaluation should be taken for the presence of primary mood disturbances. To date, there is no "gold standard" for diagnosing fibromyalgia. Until a better clinical case definition of fibromyalgia exists, all diagnostic criteria should be interpreted with caution, considered rudimentary, and subject to modification.

  6. Are sleep disturbances preclinical markers of Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Altair B; Kohlmeier, Kristi A; Barreto, George E

    2015-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurobehavioral disorder characterized by motor symptoms and signs, and non-motor abnormalities such as olfactory dysfunction, pain, sleep disorders and cognitive impairment. Amongst these alterations, sleep disturbances play an important role in the pathology, but presence of disturbed sleep is not currently considered in diagnosis. However, sleeping problems may precede by many years the classic motor abnormalities of PD and should be clinically evaluated as a potential marker before disease onset. The first disturbance reported with this potential was the disorder REM sleep behaviour and currently several other disturbances have gained importance as potential markers, such as excessive daytime sleepiness, restless legs syndrome and new evidence also points to changes in circadian rhythms. Here we present a brief review of the major evidence indicating that sleep disturbances precede the motor symptoms in PD and neurodegeneration occurs in regions that could underlie these phenomena in order to provide support for the conclusion that disturbances of sleep should be considered as valuable preclinical markers for PD.

  7. [Sleep disturbance in Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Nomura, Takashi; Inoue, Yuichi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Many patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) complain about sleep disturbances. These symptoms originate from motor symptoms, nocturnal problems, psychiatric symptoms, and other sleep disorders including Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD), Restless legs syndrome (RLS), and Sleep apnea syndrome (SAS). Especially, RBD is paid attention to prodromal symptoms of PD. Also, one third of patients with PD have RBD symptoms. Moreover, RBD is one of aggravating factors of motor symptoms, autonomic dysfunctions, and dementia. Now, the evidence based medicine for sleep disturbances is lack in patients with PD. We need to evaluate various causes of sleep disturbances in detail and deal with individuals.

  8. The correlation between impaired attention and emotional reactivity in depressed adolescent patients.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Yuval; Aviram, Shai; Faibel, Nurit; Govezensky, Jose; Braw, Yoram; Rabany, Liron; Walter, Garry

    2013-01-01

    A group of 20 drug-naïve depressed adolescents and 20 matched controls underwent cognitive evaluations and assessment of emotional reactivity. Emotional reactivity correlated only with attention and only in depressed patients. The cognitive-emotional construct may enhance the understanding of adolescent depression and aid diagnosis. PMID:24026716

  9. Relationship of Exposure to Clinically Irrelevant Emotion Cues and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Laura B.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Research has highlighted the role of emotion regulation as a common factor underlying emotional disorders. The current study examined the relationship of emotion regulation skills to obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms. Seven participants with a principal diagnosis of OCD in a multiple-baseline across subjects design were taught the skill…

  10. [Ultrasound diagnosis in patients with renal colic].

    PubMed

    Belyĭ, L E

    2009-01-01

    The paper is devoted to ultrasonography of the upper urinary tract with reference to ultrasound semiotics of its acute obstruction, detection of hydronephrotic transformation of the kidneys, and methods for optimization of ultrasound diagnosis of urodynamics. Merits and demerits of ultrasound technique for the diagnosis of renal colic are discussed. Major difficulties encountered in dopplerographic diagnosis of disturbed urine passage and renal hemodynamics are described.

  11. Disrupted neural processing of emotional faces in psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Pujol, Jesus; Batalla, Iolanda; Harrison, Ben J.; Bosque, Javier; Ibern-Regàs, Immaculada; Hernández-Ribas, Rosa; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Deus, Joan; López-Solà, Marina; Pifarré, Josep; Menchón, José M.; Cardoner, Narcís

    2014-01-01

    Psychopaths show a reduced ability to recognize emotion facial expressions, which may disturb the interpersonal relationship development and successful social adaptation. Behavioral hypotheses point toward an association between emotion recognition deficits in psychopathy and amygdala dysfunction. Our prediction was that amygdala dysfunction would combine deficient activation with disturbances in functional connectivity with cortical regions of the face-processing network. Twenty-two psychopaths and 22 control subjects were assessed and functional magnetic resonance maps were generated to identify both brain activation and task-induced functional connectivity using psychophysiological interaction analysis during an emotional face-matching task. Results showed significant amygdala activation in control subjects only, but differences between study groups did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, psychopaths showed significantly increased activation in visual and prefrontal areas, with this latest activation being associated with psychopaths’ affective–interpersonal disturbances. Psychophysiological interaction analyses revealed a reciprocal reduction in functional connectivity between the left amygdala and visual and prefrontal cortices. Our results suggest that emotional stimulation may evoke a relevant cortical response in psychopaths, but a disruption in the processing of emotional faces exists involving the reciprocal functional interaction between the amygdala and neocortex, consistent with the notion of a failure to integrate emotion into cognition in psychopathic individuals. PMID:23386739

  12. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-01-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of…

  13. Emotional state and efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ovchinnikova, O. V.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was made of the effect of emotional states-negative and positive- on work performance. Data cover intensity of emotional arousal, personality characteristics of person involved, typological features of person's nervous system, emotional stability of person, and past experience of person. Particular attention was given to emotional stress effects on efficiency, given modern working conditions.

  14. How Emotions Affect Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sylwester, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Studies show our emotional system is a complex, widely distributed, and error-prone system that defines our basic personality early in life and is quite resistant to change. This article describes our emotional system's major parts (the peptides that carry emotional information and the body and brain structures that activate and regulate emotions)…

  15. Bodily maps of emotions

    PubMed Central

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K.

    2014-01-01

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions. PMID:24379370

  16. Bodily maps of emotions.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Glerean, Enrico; Hari, Riitta; Hietanen, Jari K

    2014-01-14

    Emotions are often felt in the body, and somatosensory feedback has been proposed to trigger conscious emotional experiences. Here we reveal maps of bodily sensations associated with different emotions using a unique topographical self-report method. In five experiments, participants (n = 701) were shown two silhouettes of bodies alongside emotional words, stories, movies, or facial expressions. They were asked to color the bodily regions whose activity they felt increasing or decreasing while viewing each stimulus. Different emotions were consistently associated with statistically separable bodily sensation maps across experiments. These maps were concordant across West European and East Asian samples. Statistical classifiers distinguished emotion-specific activation maps accurately, confirming independence of topographies across emotions. We propose that emotions are represented in the somatosensory system as culturally universal categorical somatotopic maps. Perception of these emotion-triggered bodily changes may play a key role in generating consciously felt emotions.

  17. Disturbances of bone growth and development

    SciTech Connect

    Ledesma-Medina, J.; Newman, B.; Oh, K.S.

    1988-03-01

    ''What is growth anyway. Can one talk about positive growth in childhood, neutral growth in maturity, and negative growth in old age. Our goal is to help promote normal positive growth in infants and children. To achieve this, we must be cognizant of the morphologic changes of both normal and abnormal bone formation as they are reflected in the radiographic image of the skeleton. The knowledge of the various causes and the pathophysiologic mechanisms of the disturbances of bone growth and development allows us to recognize the early radiographic manifestations. Endocrine and metabolic disorders affect the whole skeleton, but the early changes are best seen in the distal ends of the femurs, where growth rate is most rapid. In skeletal infections and in some vascular injuries two-or three-phase bone scintigraphy supercedes radiography early in the course of the disease. MRI has proved to be very helpful in the early detection of avascular bone necrosis, osteomyelitis, and tumor. Some benign bone tumors and many bone dysplasias have distinct and diagnostic radiographic findings that may preclude further studies. In constitutional diseases of bone, including chromosomal aberrations, skeletal surveys of the patient and all family members together with biochemical and cytogenetic studies are essential for both diagnosis and genetic counseling. Our role is to perform the least invasive and most informative diagnostic imaging modalities that corroborate the biochemical and histologic findings to establish the definitive diagnosis. Unrecognized, misdiagnosed, or improperly treated disturbance of bone growth can result in permanent deformity usually associated with disability. 116 references.

  18. Correlates and Risk Markers for Sleep Disturbance in Participants of the Autism Treatment Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollway, Jill A.; Aman, Michael G.; Butter, Eric

    2013-01-01

    We explored possible cognitive, behavioral, emotional, and physiological risk markers for sleep disturbance in children with autism spectrum disorders. Data from 1,583 children in the Autism Treatment Network were analyzed. Approximately 45 potential predictors were analyzed using hierarchical regression modeling. As medication could confound…

  19. Disturbance and diversity at two spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Limberger, Romana; Wickham, Stephen A

    2012-03-01

    The spatial scale of disturbance is a factor potentially influencing the relationship between disturbance and diversity. There has been discussion on whether disturbances that affect local communities and create a mosaic of patches in different successional stages have the same effect on diversity as regional disturbances that affect the whole landscape. In a microcosm experiment with metacommunities of aquatic protists, we compared the effect of local and regional disturbances on the disturbance-diversity relationship. Local disturbances destroyed entire local communities of the metacommunity and required reimmigration from neighboring communities, while regional disturbances affected the whole metacommunity but left part of each local community intact. Both disturbance types led to a negative relationship between disturbance intensity and Shannon diversity. With strong local disturbance, this decrease in diversity was due to species loss, while strong regional disturbance had no effect on species richness but reduced the evenness of the community. Growth rate appeared to be the most important trait for survival after strong local disturbance and dominance after strong regional disturbance. The pattern of the disturbance-diversity relationship was similar for both local and regional diversity. Although local disturbances at least temporally increased beta diversity by creating a mosaic of differently disturbed patches, this high dissimilarity did not result in regional diversity being increased relative to local diversity. The disturbance-diversity relationship was negative for both scales of diversity. The flat competitive hierarchy and absence of a trade-off between competition and colonization ability are a likely explanation for this pattern.

  20. Conservatism and the Underidentification of Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Andrew L.; Kauffman, James M.; Plageman, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Underidentification of students with emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD; emotional disturbance or ED in federal language) is a critical issue, perhaps explainable in part by causal attributions of problem behavior associated with conservatism. Conservatism in 58 counties in the state of California was measured by finding the percentage of…

  1. The Humanism of Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy and Other Cognitive Behavior Therapies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1996-01-01

    Describes aspects of rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT). REBT shows how people can both create and uncreate many of their emotional disturbances. It is a theory of personality which avoids devotion to any kind of magic and supernaturalism and emphasizes unconditional self-acceptance, antiabsolutism, uncertainty, and human fallibility. (RJM)

  2. Response to Intervention and Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: Best Practices in Assessment for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.

    2007-01-01

    Students with emotional and behavioral difficulties are often unserved or underserved by schools and by mental health systems. One reason for the under identification of these students is the current and past definitions of emotional disturbance (ED) specified in federal special education legislation (IDEA and IDEIA). These definitions are vague,…

  3. Writing Performance of Students with Emotional and/or Behavioral Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gage, Nicholas A.; Wilson, Joshua; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.

    2014-01-01

    Students with emotional and/or behavioral disabilities (E/BD), including students with emotional disturbance and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, receiving special education services perform significantly worse on academic performance measures than same age peers. Researchers have focused on reading and math performance while less is…

  4. Taking Charge: A Handbook for Parents Whose Children Have Emotional Disorders. 3rd Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelker, Katharin A.

    This handbook was written to share the feelings, experiences, and knowledge of parents of children with emotional disorders. The first chapter, "Feelings Come First," considers recognition of unusual behavior patterns underlying emotional disturbances and the difficulty of determining their causes, their impact on the family, and coping…

  5. Preparing Teachers for Students with Emotional or Behavioral Disabilities in Professional Development Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belknap, Nancy; Mosca, Frank J.

    This paper describes George Washington University's Teacher Preparation Programs for Children with Emotional Disturbance, which uses a Professional Development School (PDS) model to deepen understanding about the specific needs of students with emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD) and prepare outstanding classroom teachers. Goals are to improve…

  6. Perspectives of Pre-Service Teachers on Students with Emotional Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beam, Andrea P.; Yocum, Russell G.; Pinkie, Elyse C.

    2016-01-01

    Perceptions of working with students of emotional disabilities or who are considered Emotionally/Behaviorally Disturbed (E/BD) is varied across the spectrum. However, one constant that does hold true is that all pre-service teachers have some hesitation in working with such students, especially if they lack any previous exposure to students with…

  7. [Protein metabolism in the cerebral hemispheres during the emotional-algesic stress].

    PubMed

    Yakushev, V S; Davydov, V V; Bushueva, V V; Skurygin, V P; Krisanova, N V

    1985-01-01

    Emotional-algesic stress causes essential changes in the protein metabolism of cerebral hemispheres. These changes may be of great importance for the functioning of the brain and cause the disturbances of the higher nervous activity when the organism is influenced by the emotional stress factors. PMID:4039861

  8. Diurnal Emotional States Impact the Sleep Course

    PubMed Central

    Delannoy, Julien; Mandai, Osamu; Honoré, Jacques; Kobayashi, Toshinori; Sequeira, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background Diurnal emotional experiences seem to affect several characteristics of sleep architecture. However, this influence remains unclear, especially for positive emotions. In addition, electrodermal activity (EDA), a sympathetic robust indicator of emotional arousal, differs depending on the sleep stage. The present research has a double aim: to identify the specific effects of pre-sleep emotional states on the architecture of the subsequent sleep period; to relate such states to the sympathetic activation during the same sleep period. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers (20.1 ± 1.0 yo.) participated in the experiment and each one slept 9 nights at the laboratory, divided into 3 sessions, one per week. Each session was organized over three nights. A reference night, allowing baseline pre-sleep and sleep recordings, preceded an experimental night before which participants watched a negative, neutral, or positive movie. The third and last night was devoted to analyzing the potential recovery or persistence of emotional effects induced before the experimental night. Standard polysomnography and EDA were recorded during all the nights. Results Firstly, we found that experimental pre-sleep emotional induction increased the Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep rate following both negative and positive movies. While this increase was spread over the whole night for positive induction, it was limited to the second half of the sleep period for negative induction. Secondly, the valence of the pre-sleep movie also impacted the sympathetic activation during Non-REM stage 3 sleep, which increased after negative induction and decreased after positive induction. Conclusion Pre-sleep controlled emotional states impacted the subsequent REM sleep rate and modulated the sympathetic activity during the sleep period. The outcomes of this study offer interesting perspectives related to the effect of diurnal emotional influences on sleep regulation and open new avenues for potential

  9. Emotional and personality changes following brain tumour resection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Drummond, Katharine J; Andrewes, David G

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26). Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Subjective Emotional Change Questionnaire. Observers who knew the patients well also completed the Iowa Rating Scale of Personality Change. Compared to controls, patients with tumours reported significantly more changes to their subjective experience of emotions following neurosurgery, particularly anger, disgust and sadness. For the observer-ratings, tumour patients were described as having significant changes in the personality disturbances of irritability, impulsivity, moodiness, inflexibility, and being easily overwhelmed. Anxiety and depression were not significantly different between groups. Neurosurgical resection of a brain tumour is a major life event that changes patients' subjective experiences of different emotions, and leads to observer-rated changes in personality. In this study, these changes were not accompanied by increases in anxiety or depression. We conclude with a discussion of biological and psychosocial mechanisms that can impact emotional functioning and personality in patients with brain tumours. PMID:26898575

  10. Emotional and personality changes following brain tumour resection.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Lisanne M; Drummond, Katharine J; Andrewes, David G

    2016-07-01

    Psychological distress has a high prevalence in brain tumour patients, and understanding the emotional and personality changes that may follow neurosurgery is important for clinical management of these patients. We aimed to characterise these emotional and personality changes using subjective, observer-rated and clinical measures. We examined subjective changes in emotional experience and observer-rated changes to personality disturbances following neurosurgery for brain tumours (n=44), compared to a control group that had undergone spinal surgery (n=26). Participants completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a Subjective Emotional Change Questionnaire. Observers who knew the patients well also completed the Iowa Rating Scale of Personality Change. Compared to controls, patients with tumours reported significantly more changes to their subjective experience of emotions following neurosurgery, particularly anger, disgust and sadness. For the observer-ratings, tumour patients were described as having significant changes in the personality disturbances of irritability, impulsivity, moodiness, inflexibility, and being easily overwhelmed. Anxiety and depression were not significantly different between groups. Neurosurgical resection of a brain tumour is a major life event that changes patients' subjective experiences of different emotions, and leads to observer-rated changes in personality. In this study, these changes were not accompanied by increases in anxiety or depression. We conclude with a discussion of biological and psychosocial mechanisms that can impact emotional functioning and personality in patients with brain tumours.

  11. The Role of Negative Affectivity and Negative Reactivity to Emotions in Predicting Outcomes in the Unified Protocol for the Transdiagnostic Treatment of Emotional Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Sauer-Zavala, Shannon; Boswell, James F.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Bentley, Kate H.; Ametaj, Amantia; Barlow, David H.

    2012-01-01

    The present study aimed to understand the contributions of both the trait tendency to experience negative emotions and how one relates to such experience in predicting symptom change during participation in the Unified Protocol (UP), a transdiagnostic treatment for emotional disorders. Data were derived from a randomized controlled trial comparing the UP to a wait-list control / delayed-treatment condition. First, effect sizes of pre- to post-treatment change for frequency of negative emotions and several variables measuring reactivity to emotional experience (emotional awareness and acceptance, fear of emotions, and anxiety sensitivity) were examined. Second, the relative contributions of change in negative emotions and emotional reactivity in predicting symptom (clinician-rated anxiety, depression, and severity of principal diagnosis) reductions were investigated. Results suggested that decreases in the frequency of negative emotions and reactivity to emotions following participation in the UP were both large in magnitude. Further, two emotional reactivity variables (fear of emotions and anxiety sensitivity) remained significantly related to symptom outcomes when controlling for negative emotions, and accounted for significant incremental variance in their prediction. These findings lend support to the notion that psychological health depends less on the frequency of negative emotions and more on how one relates to these emotions when they occur. PMID:22738907

  12. Practical emotional neural networks.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Ehsan; Akbarzadeh-T, M-R

    2014-11-01

    In this paper, we propose a limbic-based artificial emotional neural network (LiAENN) for a pattern recognition problem. LiAENN is a novel computational neural model of the emotional brain that models emotional situations such as anxiety and confidence in the learning process, the short paths, the forgetting processes, and inhibitory mechanisms of the emotional brain. In the model, the learning weights are adjusted by the proposed anxious confident decayed brain emotional learning rules (ACDBEL). In engineering applications, LiAENN is utilized in facial detection, and emotion recognition. According to the comparative results on ORL and Yale datasets, LiAENN shows a higher accuracy than other applied emotional networks such as brain emotional learning (BEL) and emotional back propagation (EmBP) based networks.

  13. Static posed and evoked facial expressions of emotions in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Kohler, Christian G.; Martin, Elizabeth A.; Stolar, Neal; Barrett, Fred S.; Verma, Ragini; Brensinger, Colleen; Bilker, Warren; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Impaired facial expressions of emotions have been described as characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia. Differences regarding individual facial muscle changes associated with specific emotions in posed and evoked expressions remain unclear. This study examined static facial expressions of emotions for evidence of flattened and inappropriate affect in persons with stable schizophrenia. Methods 12 persons with stable schizophrenia and matched healthy controls underwent a standardized procedure for posed and evoked facial expressions of five universal emotions, including happy, sad, anger, fear, and disgust expressions, at three intensity levels. Subjects completed self-ratings of their emotion experience. Certified raters coded images of facial expressions for presence of action units (AUs) according to the Facial Action Coding System. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine differences in the presence of AUs and emotion experience ratings by diagnosis, condition and intensity of expression. Results Patient and control groups experienced similar intensities of emotions, however, the difference between posed and evoked emotions was less pronounced in patients. Differences in expression of frequent and infrequent AUs support clinical observations of flattened and inappropriate affect in schizophrenia. Specific differences involve the Duchenne smile for happy expressions and decreased furrowed brows in all negative emotion expressions in schizophrenia. Conclusion While patterns of facial expressions were similar between groups, general and emotion specific differences support the concept of impaired facial expressions in schizophrenia. Expression of emotions in schizophrenia could not be explained by impaired experience. Future directions may include automated measurement, remediation of expressions and early detection of schizophrenia. PMID:18789845

  14. Emotion Regulation Strategies Can Predict Task-Switching Abilities in Euthymic Bipolar Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gul, Amara; Khan, Kamran

    2014-01-01

    This study examined task-switching abilities and emotion regulation strategies in euthymic bipolar patients (EBP). Forty EBP and 40 healthy individuals performed face categorization tasks where they switched between emotion and non-emotion (i.e., gender) features among faces and completed emotion regulation questionnaire (Gross and John, 2003). Subject groups showed substantial differences in task-switching abilities and emotion regulation strategies: (1) there was a dissociation between emotion and gender classification in EBP. The switch cost was larger [i.e., higher reaction times (RTs) on switch as compared to no-switch trials] for gender categorization as compared to the emotion categorization task. In contrast, such asymmetries were absent among healthy participants. The differential pattern of task switching reflected functional disturbances in frontotemporal neural system and an attentional bias to emotion features of the faces in EBP. This suggests that when a euthymic bipolar patient is preoccupied with emotion recognition, an instruction to perform gender categorization results in greater cost on RTs. (2) In contrast to healthy individuals, EBP reported more frequent use of emotion suppression and lesser use of cognitive reappraisal as emotion regulation strategy. (3) Emotion regulation was found to be a significant predictor of task-switching abilities. It is argued that task switching deficits rely on maladaptive emotion regulation strategies in EBP specifically when tasks of emotional significance are involved. PMID:25386129

  15. Emotional clarity as a function of neuroticism and major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Renee J; Kuppens, Peter; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H

    2015-10-01

    Investigators have begun to document links between emotional clarity and forms of negative emotionality, including neuroticism and major depressive disorder (MDD). Researchers to date have relied almost exclusively on global self-reports of emotional clarity; moreover, no studies have examined emotional clarity as a function of valence, although this may prove to be crucial in understanding the relation of emotional clarity to maladjustment. In 2 studies, we used experience-sampling methodology and multilevel modeling to examine the associations between emotional clarity and 2 constructs that have been linked theoretically with emotional clarity: neuroticism and depression. In Study 1 we assessed 95 college students who completed a self-report measure of neuroticism. In Study 2 we examined 53 adults diagnosed with MDD and 53 healthy adults. Reaction times to negative and positive emotion ratings during the experience-sampling protocols were used as an indirect measure of emotional clarity. Neuroticism was related to lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. Similarly, compared with the healthy controls, individuals with MDD had lower clarity of negative, but not of positive, emotion. It is important to note, findings from both studies held after controlling for baseline RTs and current levels of negative and positive emotion. These findings highlight the importance of assessing valence when examining emotional clarity and increase our understanding of the nature of the emotional disturbances that characterize neuroticism and MDD.

  16. Managing Sleep Disturbances in Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xun

    2016-01-01

    Sleep disturbances, particularly daytime sleepiness and insomnia, are common problems reported by patients suffering from liver cirrhosis. Poor sleep negatively impacts patients' quality of life and cognitive functions and increases mortality. Although sleep disturbances can be an early sign of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), many patients without HE still complain of poor quality sleep. The pathophysiology of these disturbances is not fully understood but is believed to be linked to impaired hepatic melatonin metabolism. This paper provides an overview for the clinician of common comorbidities contributing to poor sleep in patients with liver disease, mainly restless leg syndrome and obstructive sleep apnea. It discusses nondrug and pharmacologic treatment options in these patients, such as the use of light therapy and histamine (H1) blockers. PMID:27242950

  17. Emotion and decision making.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Jennifer S; Li, Ye; Valdesolo, Piercarlo; Kassam, Karim S

    2015-01-01

    A revolution in the science of emotion has emerged in recent decades, with the potential to create a paradigm shift in decision theories. The research reveals that emotions constitute potent, pervasive, predictable, sometimes harmful and sometimes beneficial drivers of decision making. Across different domains, important regularities appear in the mechanisms through which emotions influence judgments and choices. We organize and analyze what has been learned from the past 35 years of work on emotion and decision making. In so doing, we propose the emotion-imbued choice model, which accounts for inputs from traditional rational choice theory and from newer emotion research, synthesizing scientific models.

  18. Teaching Disturbed and Disturbing Students: An Integrative Approach. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zionts, Paul

    This book examines intervention with children having emotional or behavioral disorders (EBD), through the use of many case studies, activities, and examples. The text is organized in a developmental manner, with behavioral interventions recommended for lower grades and cognitive-behavioral approaches recommended for older students. The first unit…

  19. Assessment of Severe Emotional Impairment: Practices and Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarizio, Harvey F.; Higgins, Marilyn M.

    1989-01-01

    Findings from 83 school psychologists revealed that a typical battery for assessing severely emotionally disturbed students consisted on Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Wide-Range Achievement Test, Bender-Gestalt, an incomplete sentence test, a behavior-rating scale, classroom observation, and informal interviews. Psychologists…

  20. PASS Model Processes of Children with Emotional Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Christine E.; Nagle, Richard J.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    The cognitive styles of 40 children (ages 8-17) with serious emotional disturbance (SED) were investigated via their performance on Planning-Attention-Simultaneous-Successive (PASS) model tasks as represented by the Das-Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (CAS). In the study, the children with SED and 40 typical children were administered the 14…

  1. Group Development for Students with Emotional/Behavioral Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Sylvia; Guetzloe, Eleanor

    1996-01-01

    This article addresses effective techniques for teaching students with emotional disturbances and/or behavior disorders in group settings. Three stages of group development are described with specific teaching strategies for each stage identified and related to Maslow's hierarchy of needs, including needs for safety and trust, belonging and…

  2. "No Longer Gage": Frontal Lobe Dysfunction and Emotional Changes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuss, Donald T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Reviews changes in emotional response and personality occurring after damage to frontal systems, proposes operational definitions, and analyzes reports according to these definitions. Summarizes neurological causes of frontal lobe damage and associations of frontal dysfunction with psychiatric disturbances. Proposes that primary change after…

  3. TEACHING CREATIVE WRITING TO EMOTIONALLY-HANDICAPPED ADOLESCENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MUSSEN, LENORE

    AN EFFECTIVE AND PLEASANT THERAPEUTIC EFFECT CAN BE PRODUCED BY ENCOURAGING EMOTIONALLY-DISTURBED ADOLESCENTS TO LOOK AT, WORK WITH, AND WRITE UNRESTRICTEDLY ABOUT NATURAL BEAUTY. THEIR OCCASIONAL UNRESPONSIVENESS IS CHANGED TO WILLINGNESS AND THEIR CREATIVE EFFORTS ARE RE-DIRECTED FROM EXPRESSIONS OF FEAR AND DESPAIR AS THEY OBSERVE COLORFUL…

  4. Understanding the Emotional Development of Twice Exceptional Rural Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benge, Beverly; Montgomery, Diane

    Twice exceptional students are those who have emotional disturbances or behavioral disorders (E/BD) and who also display characteristics of high intellectual ability. Case studies were developed over a 3-year period on three male junior high school students who fit this definition. Data were interpreted using Kazimierz Dabrowski's Theory of…

  5. Academic Choice for Included Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skerbetz, Mandi Davis; Kostewicz, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Students with emotional disturbances present with behavioral and academic deficits that often limit their participation in general education settings. As an antecedent intervention, academic choice provides multiple choices surrounding academic work promoting academic and behavioral gains. The authors examined the effects of assignment choice with…

  6. Positive Behavior Supports and Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheney, Douglas; Jewell, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    The 1990 reauthorization of PL 94-142, the Individuals with Disabilities Act (IDEA), emphasized the need for applied research in schools to prevent the development of emotional disturbance. Prevention research then led to mandates in IDEA 1997 that schools must develop positive behavior interventions and supports (PBIS) for children and youth…

  7. The Disturbing Student and the Judicial Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragle, John D.; Paine, Gage E.

    2009-01-01

    The Assessment-Intervention of Student Problems (AISP) model is a useful tool for preparing student affairs professionals to assess the problems of disturbed, disturbing, or disturbed/disturbing students and to make appropriate referrals. It is particularly useful because it emphasizes the necessity of developing an integrated system for this…

  8. Positive emotional engagement and autism risk.

    PubMed

    Lambert-Brown, Brittany L; McDonald, Nicole M; Mattson, Whitney I; Martin, Katherine B; Ibañez, Lisa V; Stone, Wendy L; Messinger, Daniel S

    2015-06-01

    Positive emotional engagement develops in the context of face-to-face interactions during the first 6 months of life. Deficits in emotional engagement are characteristic of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and may characterize the younger siblings of children with ASD (high-risk siblings). High-risk siblings are likely to exhibit a broad range of positive emotional engagement that may or may not be associated with ASD outcomes. We examined positive emotional engagement (i.e., smiling rate and contingent responsiveness to the partner's smile) during the infant-parent interaction episodes of the face-to-face/still face protocol at 6 months of age. The sample included 43 high-risk infant siblings, 11 of whom went on to an ASD diagnosis, and 25 low-risk siblings with no family history of ASD. Low-risk siblings and high-risk siblings without ASD showed the typical still-face effect (i.e., decreases in smiling rate after period of parental nonresponsiveness), but high-risk siblings with later ASD outcomes did not show this decrease. Although high-risk siblings without an ASD diagnosis were less likely to respond to their parents' smiles than were low-risk siblings, the children with eventual ASD did not differ from the other groups in contingent responsiveness. Findings suggest that subtle differences in positive emotional engagement are present in the early development of high-risk siblings but are not consistently associated with ASD outcomes. PMID:25938555

  9. Emotional and Social Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ... Epinephrine Emotional & Social Issues Find a Support Group Bullying Prevention Spread the Word True Stories Stay Informed ...

  10. Sleep Disturbances in Frontotemporal Dementia.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Stuart J; St Louis, Erik K; Boeve, Bradley F

    2016-09-01

    Sleep disorders appear to be frequent comorbidities in patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Insomnia and excessive daytime sleepiness commonly occur in patients with FTD and significantly contribute to caregiver burden and burnout. Sleep is severely fragmented in FTD patients, likely secondary to behavioral disturbances, other primary sleep disorders such as sleep disordered breathing and restless leg syndrome, and neurodegeneration of nuclei involved in sleep and wakefulness. Treatment of primary sleep disorders may improve excessive daytime sleepiness and sleep quality and may improve daytime cognitive functioning. Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder is rare in FTD and may be confused with excessive nocturnal activity due to disturbed circadian rhythm. The relationship between FTD, sleep quality, and sleep disorders requires further study to better understand the contribution of disturbed sleep to daytime neurocognitive functioning and quality of life in FTD. Further, future studies should focus on comparing sleep disturbances between different FTD syndromes, especially behavioral variant FTD and primary progressive aphasia. Comorbid sleep disorders should be promptly sought and treated in patients with FTD to improve patient and caregiver quality of life. PMID:27485946

  11. RESILIENCE OF ECOSYSTEMS TO DISTURBANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resilience, in an ecological context, is one of several terms that characterize the response of an ecosystem to disturbance. Other such terms include persistence, resistance and stability. Two definitions of resilience have become prominent in the literature, both of which derive...

  12. Emotion, Cognition, and Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dolan, R. J.

    2002-11-01

    Emotion is central to the quality and range of everyday human experience. The neurobiological substrates of human emotion are now attracting increasing interest within the neurosciences motivated, to a considerable extent, by advances in functional neuroimaging techniques. An emerging theme is the question of how emotion interacts with and influences other domains of cognition, in particular attention, memory, and reasoning. The psychological consequences and mechanisms underlying the emotional modulation of cognition provide the focus of this article.

  13. Priming Ability Emotional Intelligence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schutte, Nicola S.; Malouff, John M.

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined whether priming self-schemas relating to successful emotional competency results in better emotional intelligence performance. In the first study participants were randomly assigned to a successful emotional competency self-schema prime condition or a control condition and then completed an ability measure of emotional…

  14. Music, memory and emotion.

    PubMed

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-08-08

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory.

  15. Teaching Emotional Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bump, Jerome

    In teaching, instruction can focus on literary works as storehouses of emotion that can serve as models of how to communicate emotions to the self and others. To help students identify and articulate what they feel as they read Victorian novels, one instructor asked students to record their emotions in a journal divided with quotes on one side of…

  16. Managing Your Emotional Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... about what you might do next time. continue Emotions 101 The skills we use to manage our emotions and react well are part of a bigger ... about being able to notice and identify the emotions we feel at any given moment. It is ...

  17. Music, memory and emotion

    PubMed Central

    Jäncke, Lutz

    2008-01-01

    Because emotions enhance memory processes and music evokes strong emotions, music could be involved in forming memories, either about pieces of music or about episodes and information associated with particular music. A recent study in BMC Neuroscience has given new insights into the role of emotion in musical memory. PMID:18710596

  18. Retrieval of Emotional Memories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Tony W.

    2007-01-01

    Long-term memories are influenced by the emotion experienced during learning as well as by the emotion experienced during memory retrieval. The present article reviews the literature addressing the effects of emotion on retrieval, focusing on the cognitive and neurological mechanisms that have been revealed. The reviewed research suggests that the…

  19. Up with Emotional Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pool, Carolyn R.

    1997-01-01

    Daniel Goleman, author of the bestseller "Emotional Intelligence," spoke at the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development annual conference about children's declining emotional health indicators. He noted that emotional well-being predicts success in academic achievement, employment, marriage, and physical health; and that schools…

  20. Sleep Patterns, Sleep Disturbances, and Associated Factors Among Chinese Urban Kindergarten Children.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhijun; Wang, Guanghai; Geng, Li; Luo, Junna; Li, Ningxiu; Owens, Judith

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to characterize sleep patterns and disturbances among Chinese urban kindergarten children and examine potentially associated factors. Caregivers of 513 children (47.96% male) aged 3-6 years (mean age = 4.46, SD = 0.9) completed the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ) and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Almost 80% (78.8%) of the children scored above the original CSHQ cutoff point for global sleep disturbance. Regression analysis indicated that child's age, and the presence of emotional problems, hyperactivity and peer problems, cosleeping, and interparental inconsistency of attitudes toward child rearing accounted for significant variance in the CSHQ total score (R(2) = 22%). These findings indicate that there is an apparently high prevalence of sleep disturbances in Chinese urban kindergarten children; and sleep disturbances are associated with both child-related and parenting practice variables.

  1. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  2. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Samia, Diogo S. M.; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F.; Blumstein, Daniel T.

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds. PMID:26568451

  3. Increased tolerance to humans among disturbed wildlife.

    PubMed

    Samia, Diogo S M; Nakagawa, Shinichi; Nomura, Fausto; Rangel, Thiago F; Blumstein, Daniel T

    2015-01-01

    Human disturbance drives the decline of many species, both directly and indirectly. Nonetheless, some species do particularly well around humans. One mechanism that may explain coexistence is the degree to which a species tolerates human disturbance. Here we provide a comprehensive meta-analysis of birds, mammals and lizards to investigate species tolerance of human disturbance and explore the drivers of this tolerance in birds. We find that, overall, disturbed populations of the three major taxa are more tolerant of human disturbance than less disturbed populations. The best predictors of the direction and magnitude of bird tolerance of human disturbance are the type of disturbed area (urbanized birds are more tolerant than rural or suburban populations) and body mass (large birds are more tolerant than small birds). By identifying specific features associated with tolerance, these results guide evidence-based conservation strategies to predict and manage the impacts of increasing human disturbance on birds.

  4. The operator's emotional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zilberman, P. B.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt is made to provide a psychological interpretation of the concept of emotional stability in connection with other psychics qualities of an operator's personality. Emotional stability is understood as a person's capacity to control his emotional state for the purpose of maintaining the necessary level of work performance under extreme stress conditions. By modeling the operator's sensorimotor activity and by comparing the productivity indicators under ordinary conditions with those obtained during work involving an emotional load, the level of emotional stability can be determined.

  5. Sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor.

    PubMed

    Bernert, Rebecca A; Kim, Joanne S; Iwata, Naomi G; Perlis, Michael L

    2015-03-01

    Increasing research indicates that sleep disturbances may confer increased risk for suicidal behaviors, including suicidal ideation, suicide attempts, and death by suicide. Despite increased investigation, a number of methodological problems present important limitations to the validity and generalizability of findings in this area, which warrant additional focus. To evaluate and delineate sleep disturbances as an evidence-based suicide risk factor, a systematic review of the extant literature was conducted with methodological considerations as a central focus. The following methodologic criteria were required for inclusion: the report (1) evaluated an index of sleep disturbance; (2) examined an outcome measure for suicidal behavior; (3) adjusted for presence of a depression diagnosis or depression severity, as a covariate; and (4) represented an original investigation as opposed to a chart review. Reports meeting inclusion criteria were further classified and reviewed according to: study design and timeframe; sample type and size; sleep disturbance, suicide risk, and depression covariate assessment measure(s); and presence of positive versus negative findings. Based on keyword search, the following search engines were used: PubMed and PsycINFO. Search criteria generated N = 82 articles representing original investigations focused on sleep disturbances and suicide outcomes. Of these, N = 18 met inclusion criteria for review based on systematic analysis. Of the reports identified, N = 18 evaluated insomnia or poor sleep quality symptoms, whereas N = 8 assessed nightmares in association with suicide risk. Despite considerable differences in study designs, samples, and assessment techniques, the comparison of such reports indicates preliminary, converging evidence for sleep disturbances as an empirical risk factor for suicidal behaviors, while highlighting important, future directions for increased investigation. PMID:25698339

  6. Emotional suppression and well-being in immigrants and majority group members in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Stupar, Snežana; van de Vijver, Fons J R; Fontaine, Johnny R J

    2014-12-01

    We were interested in interethnic differences in emotional suppression. We propose a model in which suppression of specific emotional experiences (suppressive behaviours during interactions with others) mediates the relationship between emotional suppression tendency (intention to suppress emotions) and well-being, operationalised as mood disturbance, life dissatisfaction and depressive and physical symptoms. The sample consisted of 427 majority group members and 344 non-Western and 465 Western immigrants in the Netherlands. Non-Western immigrants scored higher on emotional suppression tendency and lower on well-being than the other groups. We did not find interethnic differences in suppression of specific emotional experiences. The full mediation model was supported in all groups. Interethnic differences in well-being could not be accounted for by differences in emotional suppression.

  7. The emotionally competent leader.

    PubMed

    Goleman, D

    1998-01-01

    Aristotle once challenged man "to be angry with the right person, to the right degree, at the right time, for the right purpose, and in the right way" (The Nicomachean Ethics). Daniel Goleman, Ph.D., a journalist for the New York Times, expands on this statement in his new book, "Emotional Intelligence." He defines emotional intelligence as the ability to rein in emotional impulses, to read another's innermost feelings and to handle relationships and conflict smoothly. This new model of intelligence puts emotions at the center of our aptitudes for living. Goleman asserts that these emotional aptitudes can preserve relationships, protect our health and improve our success at work. The following adaptation from "Emotional Intelligence" (Bantam Books, 1995) offers suggestions to managers and supervisors on how they can create a more cost-effective and healthier workplace for their employees by becoming more aware of their own emotional. intelligence.

  8. Darwin and emotion expression.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of inquiry. This article presents Darwin's three principles in this area and then discusses some of the research topics that developed out of his theoretical vision. In particular, the focus is on five issues--(a) the question of what emotion expressions express, (b) the notion of basic emotions, (c) the universality of emotion expressions, (d) the question of emotion prototypes, and (e) the issue of animal emotions--all of which trace their roots to Darwin's discussion of his first two principles.

  9. Circadian misalignment in mood disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lewy, Alfred J

    2009-12-01

    Recent refinements in methodology allow chronobiological researchers to answer the following questions: is there circadian misalignment in sleep and mood disturbances, and, if so, is it of the phase-advance or phase-delay type? Measurement of the dim light melatonin onset-to-midsleep interval, or phase-angle difference, in sleep and mood disorders should answer these questions. Although the phase-advance hypothesis of affective disorders was formulated three decades ago, recent studies suggest that many, if not all, mood disturbances have a circadian misalignment component of the phase-delay type, operationally defined as a delay in the dim light melatonin onset relative to the sleep/wake cycle. Phase-delayed disorders can be treated with bright light in the morning and/or low-dose melatonin in the afternoon/evening. Phase-advanced disorders can be treated with bright light in the evening and/or low-dose melatonin in the morning.

  10. Interplanetary Disturbances Affecting Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    The Sun somehow accelerates the solar wind, an incessant stream of plasma originating in coronal holes and some, as yet unidentified, regions. Occasionally, coronal, and possibly sub-photospheric structures, conspire to energize a spectacular eruption from the Sun which we call a coronal mass ejection (CME). These can leave the Sun at very high speeds and travel through the interplanetary medium, resulting in a large-scale disturbance of the ambient background plasma. These interplanetary CMEs (ICMEs) can drive shocks which in turn accelerate particles, but also have a distinct intrinsic magnetic structure which is capable of disturbing the Earth's magnetic field and causing significant geomagnetic effects. They also affect other planets, so they can and do contribute to space weather throughout the heliosphere. This paper presents a historical review of early space weather studies, a modern-day example, and discusses space weather throughout the heliosphere.

  11. Vision Disturbances in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Costello, Fiona

    2016-04-01

    Visual disturbances are frequently encountered in multiple sclerosis (MS), and include problems with how affected individuals see the world (afferent visual pathway symptoms) and how their eyes move together (efferent visual pathway disorders). Optic neuritis is the most common afferent visual pathway manifestation of MS, from which visual recovery is often incomplete. Visual field defects caused by lesions in the retrochiasmal or retrogeniculate regions of the afferent visual pathway also occur, albeit less frequently. Efferent visual pathway lesions causing ocular misalignment and nystagmus may lead to diplopia and oscillopsia, respectively. Vision loss has a major impact on perceptions regarding quality of life in MS. Therefore, it is important for clinicians to be able to identify and localize the underlying basis of visual disturbances to provide the best care possible for their patients. PMID:27116725

  12. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  13. Extended Active Disturbance Rejection Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  14. Extended active disturbance rejection controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang (Inventor); Tian, Gang (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Multiple designs, systems, methods and processes for controlling a system or plant using an extended active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) based controller are presented. The extended ADRC controller accepts sensor information from the plant. The sensor information is used in conjunction with an extended state observer in combination with a predictor that estimates and predicts the current state of the plant and a co-joined estimate of the system disturbances and system dynamics. The extended state observer estimates and predictions are used in conjunction with a control law that generates an input to the system based in part on the extended state observer estimates and predictions as well as a desired trajectory for the plant to follow.

  15. A Robot Emotion Generation Mechanism Based on PAD Emotion Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qingji, Gao; Kai, Wang; Haijuan, Liu

    A robot emotion generation mechanism is presented in this paper, in which emotion is described in PAD emotion space. In this mechanism, emotion is affected by the robot personality, the robot task and the emotion origin, so the robot emotion will change naturally when it senses the extern stimuli. We also experiment on Fuwa robot, and demonstrate that this mechanism can make the robot's emotion change be more easily accepted by people and is good for human-robot interaction.

  16. Dopamine modulation of emotional processing in cortical and subcortical neural circuits: evidence for a final common pathway in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Laviolette, Steven R

    2007-07-01

    The neural regulation of emotional perception, learning, and memory is essential for normal behavioral and cognitive functioning. Many of the symptoms displayed by individuals with schizophrenia may arise from fundamental disturbances in the ability to accurately process emotionally salient sensory information. The neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) and its ability to modulate neural regions involved in emotional learning, perception, and memory formation has received considerable research attention as a potential final common pathway to account for the aberrant emotional regulation and psychosis present in the schizophrenic syndrome. Evidence from both human neuroimaging studies and animal-based research using neurodevelopmental, behavioral, and electrophysiological techniques have implicated the mesocorticolimbic DA circuit as a crucial system for the encoding and expression of emotionally salient learning and memory formation. While many theories have examined the cortical-subcortical interactions between prefrontal cortical regions and subcortical DA substrates, many questions remain as to how DA may control emotional perception and learning and how disturbances linked to DA abnormalities may underlie the disturbed emotional processing in schizophrenia. Beyond the mesolimbic DA system, increasing evidence points to the amygdala-prefrontal cortical circuit as an important processor of emotionally salient information and how neurodevelopmental perturbances within this circuitry may lead to dysregulation of DAergic modulation of emotional processing and learning along this cortical-subcortical emotional processing circuit. PMID:17519393

  17. [Sleep disturbance caused by noise].

    PubMed

    Vallet, M

    1982-05-01

    This contribution is a state-of-the-art of recent knowledge regarding effects from environmental noise on sleep and proposes acoustic thresholds likely to help public authorities in setting up regulations. It recalls physiological sleep aspects and the cyclic organization of the various stages; then it examines noise effects, principally those arising from road traffic, planes and trains. Such effects are firstly considered as changes in sleep organization during night. It is noted that laboratory and home experiments lead to the same conclusions: duration of deep sleep is appreciably reduced for younger people, while the dream phase is disturbed for older people. These disturbances are associated with an average energetic level Leq. Then partial effects are investigated, either electro-encephalographic or cardiac; these effects are more especially associated with isolated acoustic phenomena and determined from the noise peak level. Other variables, e.g. back noise, phenomena number per period, interval between two noises, have an effect on probability of a local phenomenon which can be connected to a given peak level. The conclusion is that two acoustic values must be retained for considering sleep disturbances: the first one is the energetic level inside the room, with a comfort threshold of 35 dB(A) by night, and the second one is the lowest peak level which should not exceed 50 dB(A).

  18. Difficult prenatal diagnosis: fetal coarctation

    PubMed Central

    Buyens, A.; Gyselaers, W.; Coumans, A.; Al Nasiry, S.; Willekes, C.; Boshoff, D.; Frijns, J.-P.; Witters, I.

    2012-01-01

    The prenatal diagnosis of fetal coarctation is still challenging. It is mainly suspected by ventricular disproportion (smaller left ventricle than right ventricle). The sensitivity of ventricular discrepancy is however moderate for the diagnosis of coarctation and there is a high false positive rate. Prenatal diagnosis of coarctation is important because the delivery can be arranged in a centre with a pediatric cardiac intensive careand this reduces postnatal complications and longterm morbidity. For many years the prenatal diagnosis of coarctation has been investigated to improve specificity and sensitivity by several of measurements. This article reviews all relevant articles from 2000 until 2011 searching pubmed and the reference list of interesting articles. An overview of specific measurements and techniques that can improve the diagnosis of coarctation has been made, such as the isthmus diameter, ductal diameter, isthmus/ductal ratio, z-scores derived from measurements of the distal aortic isthmus and arterial duct, the presence of a shelf andisthmal flow disturbance. Also 3-dimensional (3D) and 4-dimensional (4D) imaging with or without STIC has been suggested to be used as newer techniques to improve diagnosis of coarctation in fetal life. Although more methods regarding prenatal diagnosis of coarctationare being investigated, the ultrasound specialist remains challenged to correctly diagnose this cardiac anomaly in prenatal life. PMID:24753914

  19. Using negative emotions to trace the experience of borderline personality pathology: Interconnected relationships revealed in an experience sampling study

    PubMed Central

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after three hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology. PMID:25710731

  20. Using Negative Emotions to Trace the Experience of Borderline Personality Pathology: Interconnected Relationships Revealed in an Experience Sampling Study.

    PubMed

    Law, Mary Kate; Fleeson, William; Arnold, Elizabeth Mayfield; Furr, R Michael

    2016-02-01

    While emotional difficulties are highly implicated in borderline personality disorder (BPD), the dynamic relationships between emotions and BPD symptoms that occur in everyday life are unknown. The current paper examined the function of negative emotions as they relate to BPD symptoms in real time. Experience sampling methodology with 281 participants measured negative emotions and borderline symptoms, expressed as a spectrum of experiences, five times daily for two weeks. Overall, having a BDP diagnosis was associated with experiencing more negative emotions. Multilevel modeling supported positive concurrent relationships between negative emotions and BPD symptoms. Lagged models showed that even after 3 hours negative emotions and several symptoms continued to influence each other. Therefore, results indicated that negative emotions and BPD symptoms are intricately related; some evidenced long-lasting relationships. This research supports emotion-symptom contingencies within BPD and provides insight regarding the reactivity and functionality of negative emotions in borderline pathology.

  1. Impairment of emotional facial expression and prosody discrimination due to ischemic cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Adamaszek, M; D'Agata, F; Kirkby, K C; Trenner, M U; Sehm, B; Steele, C J; Berneiser, J; Strecker, K

    2014-06-01

    A growing literature points to a specific role of the cerebellum in affect processing. However, understanding of affect processing disturbances following discrete cerebellar lesions is limited. We administered the Tübingen Affect Battery to assess recognition of emotional facial expression and emotional prosody in 15 patients with a cerebellar infarction and 10 age-matched controls. On emotional facial expression tasks, patients compared to controls showed impaired selection and matching of facial affect. On prosody tasks, patients showed marked impairments in naming affect and discriminating incongruencies. These deficits were more pronounced for negative affects. Our results confirm a significant role of the cerebellum in processing emotional recognition, a component of social cognition.

  2. [Terminology and manifestations of eruption disturbances].

    PubMed

    Janssen, K I; Raghoebar, G M; Visser, A; Vissink, A

    2014-04-01

    Eruption disturbances of teeth are not unusual; many variations are encountered and eruption disturbances can negatively influence the development of the tooth and jaw system. Causes of eruption disturbances can be categorized into general and local factors. The clinical spectrum of eruption disturbances involves syndromic and non-syndromic problems for both kinds of factors, varying from delayed eruption to primary failure of eruption. The following types of eruption disturbances should be distinguished: impaction, primary retention, secondary retention and primary failure of eruption. Early detection of eruption disturbances and timely and appropriate treatment of the various eruption disturbances play an important role in preventing the negative effects of eruption disturbances on the development of the dentition and the craniofacial skeleton.

  3. Emotion processing deficits in the different dimensions of psychometric schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Giakoumaki, Stella G

    2016-06-01

    Schizotypy refers to a personality structure indicating "proneness" to schizophrenia. Around 10% of the general population has increased schizotypal traits, they also share other core features with schizophrenia and are thus at heightened risk for developing schizophrenia and spectrum disorders. A key aspect in schizophrenia-spectrum pathology is the impairment observed in emotion-related processes. This review summarizes findings on impairments related to central aspects of emotional processes, such as emotional disposition, alexithymia, facial affect recognition and speech prosody, in high schizotypal individuals in the general population. Although the studies in the field are not numerous, the current findings indicate that all these aspects of emotional processing are deficient in psychometric schizotypy, in accordance to the schizophrenia-spectrum literature. A disturbed frontotemporal neural network seems to be the critical link between these impairments, schizotypy and schizophrenia. The limitations of the current studies and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:27119257

  4. Emotional intelligence: recognizing and regulating emotions.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Amy

    2005-04-01

    Occupational health nurses are in the unique position to influence health in the work force. To maximize this positive health influence, occupational health nurses should develop the skills of emotional intelligence. Emotional intelligence includes awareness of self and others and empathy. These behaviors are congruent with the mission of nursing because they improve health outcomes. Occupational health nurses who are emotionally intelligent have improved relationships with others, an important aspect of the nursing role. Emotional intelligence can be developed. The process begins with self-awareness, enhanced through self-care behaviors, such as exercise and journaling. Reading popular self-help literature also can improve self-awareness. After a nurse becomes self-aware, the next phase is to develop an awareness of others. This can be learned using the same type of techniques in the self-awareness stage. The final step is the development of empathy. This is the active step using the knowledge developed in the prior two stages. Through discipline and effort, an individual can learn to actively listen to others. This type of listening fosters empathy. By working in a positive, caring environment, personal growth in emotional intelligence can be enhanced (McMullen, 2003). Through the development of emotional intelligence, the nurse can improve personally and professionally, a win-win situation for all involved.

  5. The Screening Test for Emotional Problems--Teacher-Report Version (Step-T): Studies of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erford, Bradley T.; Butler, Caitlin; Peacock, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Screening Test for Emotional Problems-Teacher Version (STEP-T) was designed to identify students aged 7-17 years with wide-ranging emotional disturbances. Coefficients alpha and test-retest reliability were adequate for all subscales except Anxiety. The hypothesized five-factor model fit the data very well and external aspects of validity were…

  6. The Experience of High School Students with Emotional and Behavioral Impairments: A Critical Look Back upon Alternative Educational Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackermann, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Young people with emotional and behavioral impairments--known as emotionally disturbed (ED) in the United States public K-12 educational system--are generally not allowed a voice on their own behalf. Instead, they become "the focus of 'assessment,' 'management,' and 'intervention'" (White, 2000, p. 16). Because they are young, and because they…

  7. Longitudinal Course of Behavioural and Emotional Problems of Young Persons with Prader-Willi, Fragile X, Williams and Down Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einfeld, Stewart; Tonge, Bruce; Turner, Gillian; Parmenter, Trevor; Smith, Arabella

    1999-01-01

    A comparison of levels of emotional and behavioral disturbance in 599 children and adolescents with four genetically determined causes of intellectual disability and an epidemiologically derived control group found in a 4-year follow-up study that persons with Down syndrome had significantly less behavior disturbance than controls and those with…

  8. Autobiographical Memory Specificity and Emotional Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Williams, J. Mark G.; Barnhofer, Thorsten; Crane, Catherine; Hermans, Dirk; Raes, Filip; Watkins, Ed; Dalgleish, Tim

    2007-01-01

    The authors review research showing that when recalling autobiographical events, many emotionally disturbed patients summarize categories of events rather than retrieving a single episode. The mechanisms underlying such overgeneral memory are examined, with a focus on M. A. Conway and C. W. Pleydell-Pearce's (2000) hierarchical search model of personal event retrieval. An elaboration of this model is proposed to account for overgeneral memory, focusing on how memory search can be affected by (a) capture and rumination processes, when mnemonic information used in retrieval activates ruminative thinking; (b) functional avoidance, when episodic material threatens to cause affective disturbance; and (c) impairment in executive capacity and control that limits an individual's ability to remain focused on retrieval in the face of distraction. PMID:17201573

  9. The emotional journey of women experiencing a breast abnormality.

    PubMed

    Blow, Adrian J; Swiecicki, Paul; Haan, Pam; Osuch, Janet R; Symonds, Laura L; Smith, Stephanie S; Walsh, Kyle; Boivin, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    Using grounded theory, a multidisciplinary study team compared the narratives of 30 women who had recently experienced a breast cancer scare. Even though 10 women received a benign diagnosis, all women reported a difficult time prediagnosis, characterized by an array of emotions and contemplation of the meaning of life. Diagnosis separated the two groups with emotional relief dominant for the benign group and intensification of emotions for the cancer group. For those diagnosed with cancer, three factors contributed to arriving at a point of acceptance about the diagnosis and treatment: (a) sustained coping mechanisms; (b) a belief system that shifted the meaning of the cancer experience; and (c) the ability to manage non-cancer-related stressful events. Implications include the need for tailored biopsychosocial treatments that focus on reducing stress, enhancing support systems, reframing beliefs about the illness, and providing the opportunity for the women to talk about their experiences.

  10. What Develops in Emotional Development? Emotions, Personality, and Psychotherapy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascolo, Michael, F. Ed.; Griffin, Sharon, Ed.

    It is difficult to make progress in the study of emotions and emotional development if the meanings assigned to central constructs vary widely across investigators. This book clarifies and synthesizes the different ways in which emotion researchers approach fundamental questions about the nature of emotion and emotional development. Theorist and…

  11. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  12. Emotion, philosophical issues about.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Julien; Tappolet, Christine; Teroni, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    We start this overview by discussing the place of emotions within the broader affective domain-how different are emotions from moods, sensations, and affective dispositions? Next, we examine the way emotions relate to their objects, emphasizing in the process their intimate relations to values. We move from this inquiry into the nature of emotion to an inquiry into their epistemology. Do they provide reasons for evaluative judgments and, more generally, do they contribute to our knowledge of values? We then address the question of the social dimension of emotions, explaining how the traditional nature versus nurture contrast applies to them. We finish by exploring the relations between emotions, motivation and action, concluding this overview with a more specific focus on how these relations bear on some central ethical issues. PMID:26263224

  13. Emotion and autobiographical memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-03-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain.

  14. Emotion and Autobiographical Memory

    PubMed Central

    Holland, Alisha C.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2010-01-01

    Autobiographical memory encompasses our recollections of specific, personal events. In this article, we review the interactions between emotion and autobiographical memory, focusing on two broad ways in which these interactions occur. First, the emotional content of an experience can influence the way in which the event is remembered. Second, emotions and emotional goals experienced at the time of autobiographical retrieval can influence the information recalled. We discuss the behavioral manifestations of each of these types of interactions and describe the neural mechanisms that may support those interactions. We discuss how findings from the clinical literature (e.g., regarding depression) and the social psychology literature (e.g., on emotion regulation) might inform future investigations of the interplay between the emotions experienced at the time of retrieval and the memories recalled, and we present ideas for future research in this domain. PMID:20374933

  15. Emotion Dysregulation as a Maintenance Factor of Borderline Personality Disorder Features

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Morse, Jennifer Q.; Nolf, Kimberly A.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Pilkonis, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    We examined within-individual changes in emotion dysregulation over the course of one year as a maintenance factor of borderline personality disorder (BPD) features. We evaluated the extent to which (1) BPD symptom severity at baseline predicted within-individual changes in emotion dysregulation and (2) within-individual changes in emotion dysregulation predicted four BPD features at 12-month follow-up: affective instability, identity disturbances, negative relationships, and impulsivity. The specificity of emotion dysregulation as a maintaining mechanism of BPD features was examined by controlling for a competing intervening variable, interpersonal conflict. BPD symptoms at baseline predicted overall level and increasing emotion dysregulation. Additionally, increasing emotion dysregulation predicted all four BPD features at 12-month follow-up after controlling for BPD symptoms at baseline. Further, overall level of emotion dysregulation mediated the association between BPD symptom severity at baseline and both affective instability and identity disturbance at 12-month follow-up, consistent with the notion of emotion dysregulation as a maintenance factor. Future research on the malleability of emotion dysregulation in laboratory paradigms and its effects on short-term changes in BPD features is needed to inform interventions. PMID:24342056

  16. Natural Language Description of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazemzadeh, Abe

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation studies how people describe emotions with language and how computers can simulate this descriptive behavior. Although many non-human animals can express their current emotions as social signals, only humans can communicate about emotions symbolically. This symbolic communication of emotion allows us to talk about emotions that we…

  17. Sleep Disturbances in the Elderly.

    PubMed

    Zdanys, Kristina F; Steffens, David C

    2015-12-01

    Sleep disturbances are a common presenting symptom of older-age adults to their physicians. This article explores normal changes in sleep pattern with aging and primary sleep disorders in the elderly. Behavioral factors and primary psychiatric disorders affecting sleep in this population are reviewed. Further discussion examines sleep changes associated with 2 common forms of neurocognitive disorder: Alzheimer disease and Lewy Body Dementia. Common medical illnesses in the elderly are discussed in relation to sleep symptoms. Nonpharmacological and pharmacologic treatment strategies are summarized, with emphasis placed on risk of side effects in older adults. Future targets are considered.

  18. [Clinical diagnosis of dyslexia].

    PubMed

    Martínez Hermosillo, A; Balderas Gil, A

    1980-01-01

    In 5 years of experience at the Instituto Nacional de la Comunicacion Humana, 302 clinical histories showed the diagnosis of dyslexia. The following parameters were studied: age, sex, heredofamilial history, gestation, psychomotor development, clinical picture, examination of the language (type, reading, spontaneous writing, dictation, mathematic concepts), laterality, scholarship, scholar failures, psychological study. The following results were obtained: Dyslexia was more important or frequent between 5 to 8.9 years of age. Males predominated 3:1. The heredofamilial history was important. Dyslexia prevailed in products of the first gestations. A high disturbance was found in the psychomotor development of a large percent of dyslexic patients. Examination of language was also important. Dyslexia was more frequent in right-handed patients. Scholar failures in one or more instances were found. The psychological study must be done. If dyslexia is diagnosed on time, it may be prevented and all unwanted sequelae may be avoided.

  19. Emotionally Intense Science Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Donna; Ritchie, Stephen; Sandhu, Maryam; Henderson, Senka

    2015-08-01

    Science activities that evoke positive emotional responses make a difference to students' emotional experience of science. In this study, we explored 8th Grade students' discrete emotions expressed during science activities in a unit on Energy. Multiple data sources including classroom videos, interviews and emotion diaries completed at the end of each lesson were analysed to identify individual student's emotions. Results from two representative students are presented as case studies. Using a theoretical perspective drawn from theories of emotions founded in sociology, two assertions emerged. First, during the demonstration activity, students experienced the emotions of wonder and surprise; second, during a laboratory activity, students experienced the intense positive emotions of happiness/joy. Characteristics of these activities that contributed to students' positive experiences are highlighted. The study found that choosing activities that evoked strong positive emotional experiences, focused students' attention on the phenomenon they were learning, and the activities were recalled positively. Furthermore, such positive experiences may contribute to students' interest and engagement in science and longer term memorability. Finally, implications for science teachers and pre-service teacher education are suggested.

  20. Brain mechanisms of emotions.

    PubMed

    Simonov, P V

    1997-01-01

    At the 23rd International Congress of Physiology Sciences (Tokyo, 1965) the results of experiment led us to the conclusion that emotions were determined by the actual need and estimation of probability (possibility) of its satisfaction. Low probability of need satisfaction leads to negative emotions actively minimized by the subject. Increased probability of satisfaction, as compared to the earlier forecast, generates positive emotions which the subject tries to maximize, that is, to enhance, to prolong, to repeat. We named our concept the Need-Informational Theory of Emotions. According to this theory, motivation, emotion, and estimation of probability have different neuromorphological substrates. Activation through the hypothalamic motivatiogenic structures of the frontal parts of the neocortex orients the behavior to signals with a high probability of their reinforcement. At the same time the hippocampus is necessary for reactions to signals of low probability events, which are typical for the emotionally excited brain. By comparison of motivational excitation with available stimuli or their engrams, the amygdala selects a dominant motivation, destined to be satisfied in the first instance. In the cases of classical conditioning and escape reaction the reinforcement was related to involvement of the negative emotion's hypothalamic neurons, while in the course of avoidance reaction the positive emotion's neurons were involved. The role of the left and right frontal neocortex in the appearance or positive or negative emotions depends on these informational (cognitive) functions.

  1. When getting angry is smart: emotional preferences and emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett Q; Tamir, Maya

    2012-08-01

    People who prefer to feel useful emotions, even when they are unpleasant to experience, must understand emotions and seek to regulate them in strategic ways. Such people, therefore, may be more emotionally intelligent compared with people who prefer to feel emotions that may not be useful for the context at hand, even if those emotions are pleasant to experience. We tested this hypothesis by measuring emotional intelligence and preferences to feel pleasant and unpleasant emotions in contexts in which they are likely to be useful or not. We found significant positive associations between emotional intelligence and preferences for useful emotions, even when controlling for trait emotional experiences and cognitive intelligence. People who prefer to feel anger when confronting others tend to be higher in emotional intelligence, whereas people who prefer to feel happiness in such contexts tend to be lower in emotional intelligence. Such findings are consistent with the idea that wanting to feel bad may be good at times, and vice versa.

  2. Aortic dissection presenting as gait disturbance: a case report.

    PubMed

    Estreicher, Michael; Portale, Joseph; Lopez, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Emergency medicine dogma traditionally teaches that aortic dissection presents as tearing chest pain, radiating to the back. This case report describes a 55-year-old woman presenting with a left homonymous hemianopsia and resultant gait disturbance. Initial head computed tomography demonstrated a right parietal infarct, and chest radiograph demonstrated a markedly widened mediastinum. Acute Stanford type A aortic dissection was subsequently confirmed. This report provides further evidence for atypical, painless presentations of aortic dissection. Given recent literature on the increasing prevalence of painless dissection, the disease entity should be included in the differential diagnosis for stroke, and a simple portable chest x-ray should always be obtained before administering thrombolytics.

  3. Emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Rhudy, Jamie L; DelVentura, Jennifer L; Terry, Ellen L; Bartley, Emily J; Olech, Ewa; Palit, Shreela; Kerr, Kara L

    2013-07-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterized by widespread pain, as well as affective disturbance (eg, depression). Given that emotional processes are known to modulate pain, a disruption of emotion and emotional modulation of pain and nociception may contribute to FM. The present study used a well-validated affective picture-viewing paradigm to study emotional processing and emotional modulation of pain and spinal nociception. Participants were 18 individuals with FM, 18 individuals with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and 19 healthy pain-free controls (HC). Mutilation, neutral, and erotic pictures were presented in 4 blocks; 2 blocks assessed only physiological-emotional reactions (ie, pleasure/arousal ratings, corrugator electromyography, startle modulation, skin conductance) in the absence of pain, and 2 blocks assessed emotional reactivity and emotional modulation of pain and the nociceptive flexion reflex (NFR, a physiological measure of spinal nociception) evoked by suprathreshold electric stimulations over the sural nerve. In general, mutilation pictures elicited displeasure, corrugator activity, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation, whereas erotic pictures elicited pleasure, subjective arousal, and sympathetic activation. However, FM was associated with deficits in appetitive activation (eg, reduced pleasure/arousal to erotica). Moreover, emotional modulation of pain was observed in HC and RA, but not FM, even though all 3 groups evidenced modulation of NFR. Additionally, NFR thresholds were not lower in the FM group, indicating a lack of spinal sensitization. Together, these results suggest that FM is associated with a disruption of supraspinal processes associated with positive affect and emotional modulation of pain, but not brain-to-spinal cord circuitry that modulates spinal nociceptive processes. PMID:23622762

  4. The effects of sleep deprivation on emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Guadagni, Veronica; Burles, Ford; Ferrara, Michele; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that sleep loss has a detrimental effect on the ability of the individuals to process emotional information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this negative effect extends to the ability of experiencing emotions while observing other individuals, i.e. emotional empathy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed emotional empathy in 37 healthy volunteers who were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups: one group was tested before and after a night of total sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation group), a second group was tested before and after a usual night of sleep spent at home (sleep group) and the third group was tested twice during the same day (day group). Emotional empathy was assessed by using two parallel versions of a computerized test measuring direct (i.e. explicit evaluation of empathic concern) and indirect (i.e. the observer's reported physiological arousal) emotional empathy. The results revealed that the post measurements of both direct and indirect emotional empathy of participants in the sleep deprivation group were significantly lower than those of the sleep and day groups; post measurement scores of participants in the day and sleep groups did not differ significantly for either direct or indirect emotional empathy. These data are consistent with previous studies showing the negative effect of sleep deprivation on the processing of emotional information, and extend these effects to emotional empathy. The findings reported in our study are relevant to healthy individuals with poor sleep habits, as well as clinical populations suffering from sleep disturbances.

  5. Street lighting disturbs commuting bats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Emma Louise; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen

    2009-07-14

    Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats. PMID:19540116

  6. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1997-01-01

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two.

  7. Pulse homodyne field disturbance sensor

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1997-10-28

    A field disturbance sensor operates with relatively low power, provides an adjustable operating range, is not hypersensitive at close range, allows co-location of multiple sensors, and is inexpensive to manufacture. The sensor includes a transmitter that transmits a sequence of transmitted bursts of electromagnetic energy. The transmitter frequency is modulated at an intermediate frequency. The sequence of bursts has a burst repetition rate, and each burst has a burst width and comprises a number of cycles at a transmitter frequency. The sensor includes a receiver which receives electromagnetic energy at the transmitter frequency, and includes a mixer which mixes a transmitted burst with reflections of the same transmitted burst to produce an intermediate frequency signal. Circuitry, responsive to the intermediate frequency signal indicates disturbances in the sensor field. Because the mixer mixes the transmitted burst with reflections of the transmitted burst, the burst width defines the sensor range. The burst repetition rate is randomly or pseudo-randomly modulated so that bursts in the sequence of bursts have a phase which varies. A second range-defining mode transmits two radio frequency bursts, where the time spacing between the bursts defines the maximum range divided by two. 12 figs.

  8. Introducing a disturbance ionosphere index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakowski, N.; Borries, C.; Wilken, V.

    2012-01-01

    Although ionospheric perturbations such as traveling ionospheric disturbances have a strong impact on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space-based radio systems, the description of individual perturbations is difficult. To overcome this problem, it is suggested to use a disturbance ionosphere index (DIX) that describes the perturbation degree of the ionosphere in a less specific form as a proxy. Although such an index does not describe the exact propagation conditions at the measurement site, the estimated index number indicates the probability of a potential impact on radio systems used in communication, navigation, and remote sensing. The definition of such a DIX must take into account the following major requirements: relevance to practical needs, objective measure of ionospheric conditions, easy and reproducible computation, and availability of a reliable database. Since the total electron content has been shown in many publications to act as an outstanding parameter for quantifying the range error and also the strength of ionospheric perturbations, we propose a DIX that is based on GNSS measurements. To illustrate the use of the index, recent storms monitored in 2011 and the Halloween storm are discussed. The proposed index is a robust and objective measure of the ionospheric state, applicable to radio systems which are impacted by a highly variable perturbed ionosphere.

  9. Positive Emotion, Negative Emotion, and Emotion Control in the Externalizing Problems of School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Geunyoung; Walden, Tedra; Harris, Vicki; Karrass, Jan; Catron, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the role of emotion and emotion control in children's externalizing problems. Third- to sixth-grade children were administered a self-report measure of positive emotion, negative emotion, and emotion control. Peer- and teacher-reported adjustment problems were assessed. Structural equations modeling revealed that…

  10. Immediacy Bias in Emotion Perception: Current Emotions Seem More Intense than Previous Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This "immediacy bias" in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional…

  11. Fault diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Kathy

    1990-01-01

    The objective of the research in this area of fault management is to develop and implement a decision aiding concept for diagnosing faults, especially faults which are difficult for pilots to identify, and to develop methods for presenting the diagnosis information to the flight crew in a timely and comprehensible manner. The requirements for the diagnosis concept were identified by interviewing pilots, analyzing actual incident and accident cases, and examining psychology literature on how humans perform diagnosis. The diagnosis decision aiding concept developed based on those requirements takes abnormal sensor readings as input, as identified by a fault monitor. Based on these abnormal sensor readings, the diagnosis concept identifies the cause or source of the fault and all components affected by the fault. This concept was implemented for diagnosis of aircraft propulsion and hydraulic subsystems in a computer program called Draphys (Diagnostic Reasoning About Physical Systems). Draphys is unique in two important ways. First, it uses models of both functional and physical relationships in the subsystems. Using both models enables the diagnostic reasoning to identify the fault propagation as the faulted system continues to operate, and to diagnose physical damage. Draphys also reasons about behavior of the faulted system over time, to eliminate possibilities as more information becomes available, and to update the system status as more components are affected by the fault. The crew interface research is examining display issues associated with presenting diagnosis information to the flight crew. One study examined issues for presenting system status information. One lesson learned from that study was that pilots found fault situations to be more complex if they involved multiple subsystems. Another was pilots could identify the faulted systems more quickly if the system status was presented in pictorial or text format. Another study is currently under way to

  12. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  13. Implicit loneliness, emotion regulation, and depressive symptoms in breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Brett; Czamanski-Cohen, Johanna; Weihs, Karen L; Stanton, Annette L

    2016-10-01

    Among individuals coping with cancer, emotional approach coping-expressing and processing emotions following negative events-has been identified as a potentially adaptive form of emotion regulation. However, its mental health benefits may depend on social-cognitive factors and on how it is implemented. This study examined loneliness as a determinant of emotion regulation associations with depressive symptoms in women with breast cancer. Loneliness was examined as an implicit social-cognitive phenomenon (i.e., automatic views of oneself as lonely), and emotional expression and processing were examined as both explicit and implicit processes. Approximately 11 months after diagnosis, 390 women completed explicit measures of coping through cancer-related emotional expression and processing; an implicit measure of expression and processing (an essay-writing task submitted to linguistic analysis); and an implicit association test measuring loneliness. Depressive symptoms were assessed 3 months later. Regardless of implicit loneliness, self-reported emotional expression (but not emotional processing) predicted fewer depressive symptoms, whereas implicit expression of negative emotion during essay-writing predicted more symptoms. Only among women high in implicit loneliness, less positive emotional expression and more causal processing during the writing task predicted more depressive symptoms. Results suggest that explicit and implicit breast cancer-related emotion regulation have distinct relations with depressive symptoms, and implicit loneliness moderates effects of implicit emotional approach. Findings support implicit processes as influential mechanisms of emotion regulation and suggest targets for intervention among breast cancer survivors. PMID:27287618

  14. Recognizing involuntary emotional expression disorder.

    PubMed

    Robinson-Smith, Gale; Grill, Joshua D

    2007-08-01

    Involuntary crying or laughing are symptoms of a condition known as involuntary emotional expression disorder (IEED). This disorder is common among patients with stroke and other neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury. Despite its prevalence, this condition is underrecognized and consequently undertreated in neurological settings. IEED can become disabling for patients who are not accurately diagnosed and treated. Differential diagnosis depends on recognition of the condition as an affective disorder and on its delineation from unipolar depression and other major psychiatric disorders. Clinical evaluation is essential for effective nursing care of this disorder. When the condition is found to be present, effective management must include education, pharmacological treatment, and teaching of self-care strategies. As patient advocates, neuroscience nurses are in a unique position to identify and assess such patients and to effectively guide patients and families in the management of this condition.

  15. Behavioral Diagnosis and Assessment in Teaching Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijou, Sidney W.; Grimm, Jeffrey A.

    Presented in the paper are procedures for diagnosing academic and social behaviors of retarded and emotionally disturbed children 5 to 8 years of age. Assessment before instruction is said to involve medical reports, interviews, psychometric tests, direct observation, and behavior inventories. Assessment during instruction is discussed in terms of…

  16. Sleep disturbances in voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barone, Daniel A; Krieger, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are a family of membrane proteins responsible for controlling cell membrane potential. The presence of antibodies (Ab) against neuronal VGKC complexes aids in the diagnosis of idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of VGKC Ab-associated encephalopathy (VCKC Ab syndrome) should be suspected in patients with subacute onset of disorientation, confusion, and memory loss in the presence of seizures or a movement disorder. VGKC Ab syndrome may present with sleep-related symptoms, and the purpose of this communication is to alert sleep and neurology clinicians of this still-under-recognized condition. In this case, we are presenting the VGKC Ab syndrome which improved after treatment with solumedrol. The prompt recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent the morbidity associated with cerebral atrophy and the mortality associated with intractable seizures and electrolyte disturbances.

  17. Darwin and Emotion Expression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Ursula; Thibault, Pascal

    2009-01-01

    In his book "The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals," Charles Darwin (1872/1965) defended the argument that emotion expressions are evolved and adaptive (at least at some point in the past) and serve an important communicative function. The ideas he developed in his book had an important impact on the field and spawned rich domains of…

  18. Rational Emotive Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, William

    1977-01-01

    Rational Emotive Education--an outgrowth of theories developed by Albert Ellis--is a teaching design of mental health concepts and problem-solving activities designed to help students to approach and cope with their problems through experiential learning, via a structured, thematic sequence of emotive education lessons. (MJB)

  19. Music, Emotions, and Truth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Packalen, Elina

    2008-01-01

    In this article Elina Packalen considers the notion of truth in connection with music. Her starting-point is the question of how music can be expressive of emotions; therefore she first summarizes some recent philosophical ideas of this issue. These ideas naturally raise the question of whether describing music in emotive terms has an epistemic…

  20. Emotions and Golf Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Alexander B.; Tenenbaum, Gershon; English, R. William

    2006-01-01

    A multiple case study investigation is reported in which emotions and performance were assessed within the probabilistic individual zone of optimal functioning (IZOF) model (Kamata, Tenenbaum, & Hanin, 2002) to develop idiosyncratic emotion-performance profiles. These profiles were incorporated into a psychological skills training (PST)…

  1. Genetics of emotion.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Laura; Goldman, David

    2011-09-01

    Emotion is critical to most aspects of human behavior, and individual differences in systems recruited to process emotional stimuli, expressed as variation in emotionality, are characteristic of several neuropsychiatric disorders. We examine the genetic origins of individual differences in emotion processing by focusing on functional variants at five genes: catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), serotonin transporter (SLC6A4), neuropeptide Y (NPY), a glucocorticoid receptor-regulating co-chaperone of stress proteins (FKBP5) and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide receptor (ADCYAP1R1). These represent a range of effects of genes on emotion as well as the variety of mechanisms and factors, such as stress, that modify these effects. The new genomic era of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and deep sequencing may yield a wealth of new loci modulating emotion. The effects of these genes can be validated by neuroimaging, neuroendocrine and other studies accessing intermediate phenotypes, deepening our understanding of mechanisms of emotion and variation in emotionality.

  2. Emotions "Unleashed" in Paint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skophammer, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Many painters use lines to express powerful emotions. Both Vincent van Gogh and Jean-Michel Basquiat had difficult lives filled with hardship, and died at a young age. They both used art to deal with their emotions. It seems like the stronger the feelings were in them, the faster the strokes were put down in their work. In this article,…

  3. Beware Emotional Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Margaret A.; Janson, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment is a less visible form of abuse that frequently occurs in schools, but is often ignored or dismissed as an acceptable form of discipline or sanctioned classroom-management practice. The impact of emotional maltreatment on children is significant and impacts personality development, relationships, and learning. Principals, as…

  4. Emotionally Harmful Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwaniec, Dorota; Larkin, Emma; McSherry, Dominic

    2007-01-01

    Emotional maltreatment tends to be overshadowed in research and in practice by other forms of maltreatment that present more obvious and explicit evidence and appear to require a more urgent response. This article aims to explore a growing body of research pointing to: (a) ways in which emotional maltreatment may adversely impact upon a child's…

  5. An Emotional Control Card for Inappropriate and Appropriate Emotions in Using Rational-Emotive Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Albert

    1986-01-01

    Examines the emotional control card techniques developed by Sklare, Taylor, and Hyland (1985) to help clients more effectively use the rational-emotive imagery technique of Ellis (1974). Suggests a revision of the emotional control card technique. (NB)

  6. Emotional complexity and the neural representation of emotion in motion.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Paula; Barnard, Philip J; Lawrence, Andrew D

    2011-01-01

    According to theories of emotional complexity, individuals low in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in visceral or action-oriented terms, whereas individuals high in emotional complexity encode and represent emotions in a differentiated way, using multiple emotion concepts. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, participants viewed valenced animated scenarios of simple ball-like figures attending either to social or spatial aspects of the interactions. Participant's emotional complexity was assessed using the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale. We found a distributed set of brain regions previously implicated in processing emotion from facial, vocal and bodily cues, in processing social intentions, and in emotional response, were sensitive to emotion conveyed by motion alone. Attention to social meaning amplified the influence of emotion in a subset of these regions. Critically, increased emotional complexity correlated with enhanced processing in a left temporal polar region implicated in detailed semantic knowledge; with a diminished effect of social attention; and with increased differentiation of brain activity between films of differing valence. Decreased emotional complexity was associated with increased activity in regions of pre-motor cortex. Thus, neural coding of emotion in semantic vs action systems varies as a function of emotional complexity, helping reconcile puzzling inconsistencies in neuropsychological investigations of emotion recognition.

  7. Disturbance maintains alternative biome states.

    PubMed

    Dantas, Vinícius de L; Hirota, Marina; Oliveira, Rafael S; Pausas, Juli G

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms controlling the distribution of biomes remains a challenge. Although tropical biome distribution has traditionally been explained by climate and soil, contrasting vegetation types often occur as mosaics with sharp boundaries under very similar environmental conditions. While evidence suggests that these biomes are alternative states, empirical broad-scale support to this hypothesis is still lacking. Using community-level field data and a novel resource-niche overlap approach, we show that, for a wide range of environmental conditions, fire feedbacks maintain savannas and forests as alternative biome states in both the Neotropics and the Afrotropics. In addition, wooded grasslands and savannas occurred as alternative grassy states in the Afrotropics, depending on the relative importance of fire and herbivory feedbacks. These results are consistent with landscape scale evidence and suggest that disturbance is a general factor driving and maintaining alternative biome states and vegetation mosaics in the tropics.

  8. The bidirectional relation between emotional reactivity and sleep: From disruption to recovery.

    PubMed

    Altena, Ellemarije; Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Geoffroy, Pierre-Alexis; Sanz-Arigita, Ernesto; Bioulac, Stephanie; Philip, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and greatly affect consecutive emotional reactivity, while sleep quality itself can be strongly affected by reactions to previous emotional events. In this review, we shed light on this bidirectional relation through examples of pathology: insomnia and bipolar disorder. We show that both experimental sleep deprivation and insomnia are related to increased emotional reactivity and increased amygdala activation upon emotional stimuli presentation, and that particularly Rapid Eye Movement (REM) sleep is important for emotional processing and reorganization of emotion-specific brain activity. Increased emotional reactivity affects REM sleep quality and sleep spindles, while REM sleep is particularly affected in insomnia, possibly related to condition-specific hyperarousal levels. Normal sleep onset deactivation of brain regions important for emotional processing (amygdala, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)) is further affected in insomnia. In bipolar disorder, sleep disturbances are common in both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic phases. Both amygdala and ACC volume and function are affected in bipolar disorder, with the ACC showing phase-dependent resting state activity differences. Deficient Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) GABA-ergic activity of this region might play a role in sleep disturbances and their influence on emotional reactivity, given the inhibitory role of GABA on brain activity during sleep and its deficiency in both bipolar disorder and insomnia. Promising findings of normalizing brain activity in both insomnia and bipolar disorder upon treatment may inspire a focus on treatment studies investigating the normalization of sleep, emotional reactivity, and their corresponding brain activity patterns. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26866361

  9. Using Assistive Technology to Teach Emotion Recognition to Students With Asperger Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacava, Paul G.; Golan, Ofer; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Myles, Brenda Smith

    2007-01-01

    Many individuals with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) have difficulty recognizing emotions in themselves and others. The present pilot study explored the use of assistive technology to teach emotion recognition (ER) to eight children with ASC. Participants were between the ages of 8 and 11 years and had a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome (AS). ER…

  10. Emotional Indicators on the Bender-Gestalt and the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory Mary K.

    1977-01-01

    A heterogeneous group of elementary school children referred for psycho-educational diagnosis were rated on the Devereux Child Behavior Rating Scale and the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test, scoring for Koppitz Emotional Indicators. Findings suggests that certain DCB factors may be more predictive of emotional problems than others in the scale.…

  11. Relationship between Negative Emotion and ADHD among College Males and Females

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearnes, Tori B.; Ruebel, Joseph B.

    2011-01-01

    This study extends a body of research indicating a relationship between negative emotion and Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Gender differences in the self-reporting of negative emotion among college students with ADHD were examined. Sixty-four college students (39 male, 25 female), with a diagnosis of ADHD, and 109 college…

  12. The Impact of Goal Disturbance after Cancer on Cortisol Levels over Time and the Moderating Role of COMT.

    PubMed

    Janse, Moniek; Faassen, Martijn van; Kema, Ido; Smink, Ans; Ranchor, Adelita V; Fleer, Joke; Sprangers, Mirjam A G

    2015-01-01

    Due to physical hindrance and time spent in hospital, a cancer diagnosis can lead to disturbance of personally important goals. Goal disturbance in cancer patients has been related to poorer psychological well-being. However, the relation with physiological measures is yet unknown. The purpose of the current study is to examine the impact of goal disturbance on cortisol as a measure of response to stress over time, and a possibly moderating role of a DNA genotype associated with HPA-axis functioning, Catechol-O-Methyl transferase (COMT). We examined the predictive value of goal disturbance on Cortisol Awakening Response (CAR) and Diurnal Cortisol Slope (DCS) over two periods: 1-7 and 7-18 months post-diagnosis, and the moderating role of COMT during these periods. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that goal disturbance 7 months post-diagnosis significantly predicted a steeper CAR a year later. During that period, the slow COMT variant moderated the relation, in that patients reporting high goal disturbance and had the Met/Met variant, had a more flattened CAR. No other significant effects were found. As steeper CARs have been related to adverse health outcomes, and COMT genotype may modify this risk, these results indicate that goal disturbance and genotype may be important factors to consider in maintaining better psychological and physical health in the already vulnerable population of cancer patients. PMID:26313260

  13. Weather and emotional state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  14. Gait disturbances in dystrophic hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Thomas G; Kale, Ajit; Amende, Ivo; Tang, Wenlong; McCue, Scott; Bhagavan, Hemmi N; VanDongen, Case G

    2011-01-01

    The delta-sarcoglycan-deficient hamster is an excellent model to study muscular dystrophy. Gait disturbances, important clinically, have not been described in this animal model. We applied ventral plane videography (DigiGait) to analyze gait in BIO TO-2 dystrophic and BIO F1B control hamsters walking on a transparent treadmill belt. Stride length was ∼13% shorter (P < .05) in TO-2 hamsters at 9 months of age compared to F1B hamsters. Hindlimb propulsion duration, an indicator of muscle strength, was shorter in 9-month-old TO-2 (247 ± 8 ms) compared to F1B hamsters (272 ± 11 ms; P < .05). Braking duration, reflecting generation of ground reaction forces, was delayed in 9-month-old TO-2 (147 ± 6 ms) compared to F1B hamsters (126 ± 8 ms; P < .05). Hindpaw eversion, evidence of muscle weakness, was greater in 9-month-old TO-2 than in F1B hamsters (17.7 ± 1.2° versus 8.7 ± 1.6°; P < .05). Incline and decline walking aggravated gait disturbances in TO-2 hamsters at 3 months of age. Several gait deficits were apparent in TO-2 hamsters at 1 month of age. Quantitative gait analysis demonstrates that dystrophic TO-2 hamsters recapitulate functional aspects of human muscular dystrophy. Early detection of gait abnormalities in a convenient animal model may accelerate the development of therapies for muscular dystrophy.

  15. The Integration of Emotions in Memories: Cognitive-Emotional Distinctiveness and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Boals, Adriel; Rubin, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined cognitive-emotional distinctiveness (CED), the extent to which emotions are linked with event information, in memories associated with PTSD. Participants either with PTSD (n=68) or without PTSD (n=40) completed a modified multidimensional scaling technique to measure CED for their most negative and most positive events. The results revealed that participants in the PTSD group evidenced significantly lower levels of CED. This group difference remained significant when we limited the analysis to traumatic events that led to a PTSD diagnosis (n=33) in comparison to control participants who nominated a traumatic event that did not result in PTSD (n=32). Replicating previous findings, CED levels were higher in memories of negative events, in comparison to positive events. These results provide empirical evidence that memories associated with PTSD do contain special organizational features with respect to the links between emotions and memory. Implications for understanding and treating PTSD are discussed. PMID:23436960

  16. Cognitive disturbance in hospitalized and institutionalized elders.

    PubMed

    Roberts, B L; Lincoln, R E

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between empirical findings and a theoretical model of cognitive disturbance among 94 hospitalized and 78 institutionalized elders. Path analysis was used to determine the magnitude of relationships between variables described in the model. Neural function was the only variable in both groups that was significantly associated with greater cognitive disturbance. In the hospitalized group, neural structural changes and physiologic alterations contributed indirectly to cognitive disturbance by their effects on neural function. Further, neural function indirectly affected cognitive disturbance through its effects on sensory deficits. In the institutionalized group, environmental deficits and neural functions were significantly related to greater cognitive disturbance. Except for the direct effects of neural function on activity limitations and physiologic alterations on mental health, all the relationships between the variables described by the model were significantly different between hospitalized and institutionalized elders. The results suggest that different interventions to reduce cognitive disturbances may be required for institutionalized and hospitalized elders.

  17. Emotional mimicry as social regulation.

    PubMed

    Hess, Ursula; Fischer, Agneta

    2013-05-01

    Emotional mimicry is the imitation of the emotional expressions of others. According to the classic view on emotional mimicry (the Matched Motor Hypothesis), people mimic the specific facial movements that comprise a discrete emotional expression. However, little evidence exists for the mimicry of discrete emotions; rather, the extant evidence supports only valence-based mimicry. We propose an alternative Emotion Mimicry in Context view according to which emotional mimicry is not based on mere perception but rather on the interpretation of signals as emotional intentions in a specific context. We present evidence for the idea that people mimic contextualized emotions rather than simply expressive muscle movements. Our model postulates that (implicit or explicit) contextual information is needed for emotional mimicry to take place. It takes into account the relationship between observer and expresser, and suggests that emotional mimicry depends on this relationship and functions as a social regulator.

  18. Human rights of psychiatrically disturbed persons in the tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Wilson, L G

    1998-12-01

    The management of acutely disturbed patients in smaller Pacific island communities presents many clinical challenges as well as ethical and human rights questions. The aggressive, excited, sexually inappropriate, and possibly violent disturbed person frequently will need physical restraint and possible seclusion in a secure environment. In practical terms, on many Pacific islands the only physically secure room is a jail cell. This environment will protect others and possibly protect the out-of-control person from themselves. After protection, the next requirements are adequate information about the person and clinically informed individuals who can make a diagnosis and commence treatment in the jail environment. Adequately trained people who can diagnose and suggest initial treatment are few and widely dispersed in Pacific island communities. Two representative case vignettes from the author's experience as a World Health Organization short-term consultant in Tonga and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana islands illustrate the tension between a disturbed person's right to adequate treatment and the right of a citizen/patient to be free of coercion.

  19. The effect of severe stress on early brain development, attachment, and emotions: a psychoanatomical formulation.

    PubMed

    Vela, Ricardo M

    2014-12-01

    Child abuse is the most extreme form of stress in childhood and adolescence, and has severe effects on the child's development. Limbic nuclei and circuitry development are especially vulnerable to child abuse and neglect during the first year of life. Development at the neuronal level can be severely disturbed by trauma during early infancy, resulting in maladaptive synaptic formation, impeding experience-expectant brain development. Development of basic emotions may favor the development of negative instead of positive emotions. The new concept of psychoanatomical formulation is introduced. A case vignette is presented and analyzed, based on the disturbed neuroanatomy underlying symptom expression. PMID:25455063

  20. Links among emotional awareness, somatic awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing.

    PubMed

    Kanbara, Kenji; Fukunaga, Mikihiko

    2016-01-01

    Emotional awareness and somatic interoceptive awareness are essential processes for human psychosomatic health. A typical trait of lacking emotional awareness related to psychosomatic symptoms is alexithymia. In contrast, alexisomia refers to the trait of lacking somatic awareness. Links between emotional and somatic awareness and homeostatic processing are also significant for the psychosomatic health. The purpose of the present paper is to review the links among emotional awareness, somatic interoceptive awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing. On the basis of the collected evidence, the following arguments were presented(1): (1) The main subcortical neural substrates for these processes are limbic-related systems, which are also responsible for autonomic functions for optimization of homeostatic efficiency. (2) Considerable studies have shown that autonomic activity and/or reactivity to stress correlate with both emotional and interoceptive awareness. A hypothesis was advocated about the links between the two types of awareness and autonomic function: Autonomic dysfunction, especially high sympathetic tone at baseline and/or attenuated reactivity or variability to stress, appears to be involved in disturbance of emotional and interoceptive awareness. (3) Several studies suggest that a link or a cooperative relationship exists between emotional and somatic awareness, and that somatic awareness is the more fundamental of the two types of awareness. Emotional awareness, somatic awareness and autonomic homeostatic processing generally occur in parallel or concurrently. However, some complex features of pathologies include coexistence of reduced interoceptive awareness and somatosensory amplification. The autonomic homeostatic process is fundamentally involved in emotional and somatic awareness. Investigation of these types of awareness with both neuroimaging evaluations and estimation of peripheral autonomic function are required as next steps for exploration

  1. [Dissociating between Enhancing and Impairing Effects of Emotion on Cognition].

    PubMed

    Dolcos, Florin; Denkova, Ekaterina

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Emerging evidence suggests that emotion can have both enhancing and impairing effects on various cognitive processes. These opposing effects can be identified at different levels, both within the same cognitive process and across different processes, as well as at more general levels, such as in the case of the response to stress. The aim of the present review is to discuss recent advances in the mechanisms underlying the enhancing and impairing effects of emotion on different aspects within the same process (e.g., episodic memory) and across specific cognitive processes (perception vs. episodic memory, working memory vs. episodic memory), as well as in the context of the response to stress.Emerging Evidence The available evidence points to a number of aspects that dissociate the opposing effects of emotion on cognition. (i) Opposing effects within episodic memory can be attributed to different accounts, involving dissociation at different levels: central vs. peripheral trade-off, high vs. low prioritization of information processing, and items encoding vs. the formation of complex associations. (ii) The opposing effects across cognitive processes, such as perception and episodic memory, can be linked to dissociation between immediate/impairing vs. long-term/enhancing effects, which are mediated by common and dissociable neural mechanisms, involving bottom-up and top-down processes. (iii) Finally, in the larger context of the response to stress, emotional stress can lead to opposing effects depending on the degree, context, and controllability of the stressors.Conclusions Overall, the present review highlights the need to consider the various factors that can influence enhancing or impairing effects of emotion on cognition, in studies investigating emotion-cognition interactions. These issues are important for understanding mechanisms of emotion-cognition interactions not only in healthy functioning but also in emotional disturbances, where these

  2. Emotional Intelligence and Social-Emotional Learning: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basu, Anamitra; Mermillod, Martial

    2011-01-01

    The term "EI (emotional intelligence)" was first used in 1990 by Salovey and Mayer. EI involves: (1) the ability to perceive accurately, appraise and express emotion; (2) the ability to access and/or generate feelings when they facilitate thought; (3) the ability to understand emotion and emotional knowledge; and (4) the ability to regulate…

  3. Disturbance to wintering western snowy plovers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2001-01-01

    In order to better understand the nature of disturbances to wintering snowy plovers, I observed snowy plovers and activities that might disturb them at a beach near Devereux Slough in Santa Barbara, California, USA. Disturbance (activity that caused plovers to move or fly) to wintering populations of threatened western snowy plovers was 16 times higher at a public beach than at protected beaches. Wintering plovers reacted to disturbance at half the distance (∼40 m) as has been reported for breeding snowy plovers (∼80 m). Humans, dogs, crows and other birds were the main sources of disturbance on the public beach, and each snowy plover was disturbed, on average, once every 27 weekend min and once every 43 weekday min. Dogs off leash were a disproportionate source of disturbance. Plovers were more likely to fly from dogs, horses and crows than from humans and other shorebirds. Plovers were less abundant near trail heads. Over short time scales, plovers did not acclimate to or successfully find refuge from disturbance. Feeding rates declined with increased human activity. I used data from these observations to parameterize a model that predicted rates of disturbance given various management actions. The model found that prohibiting dogs and a 30 m buffer zone surrounding a 400 m stretch of beach provided the most protection for plovers for the least amount of impact to beach recreation.

  4. Influence of disturbance on temperate forest productivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Emily B.; Wythers, Kirk R.; Bradford, John B.; Reich, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Climate, tree species traits, and soil fertility are key controls on forest productivity. However, in most forest ecosystems, natural and human disturbances, such as wind throw, fire, and harvest, can also exert important and lasting direct and indirect influence over productivity. We used an ecosystem model, PnET-CN, to examine how disturbance type, intensity, and frequency influence net primary production (NPP) across a range of forest types from Minnesota and Wisconsin, USA. We assessed the importance of past disturbances on NPP, net N mineralization, foliar N, and leaf area index at 107 forest stands of differing types (aspen, jack pine, northern hardwood, black spruce) and disturbance history (fire, harvest) by comparing model simulations with observations. The model reasonably predicted differences among forest types in productivity, foliar N, leaf area index, and net N mineralization. Model simulations that included past disturbances minimally improved predictions compared to simulations without disturbance, suggesting the legacy of past disturbances played a minor role in influencing current forest productivity rates. Modeled NPP was more sensitive to the intensity of soil removal during a disturbance than the fraction of stand mortality or wood removal. Increasing crown fire frequency resulted in lower NPP, particularly for conifer forest types with longer leaf life spans and longer recovery times. These findings suggest that, over long time periods, moderate frequency disturbances are a relatively less important control on productivity than climate, soil, and species traits.

  5. Laboratory diagnosis of thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Brancaleoni, V; Di Pierro, E; Motta, I; Cappellini, M D

    2016-05-01

    The thalassemias can be defined as α- or β-thalassemias depending on the defective globin chain and on the underlying molecular defects. The recognition of carriers is possible by hematological tests. Both α- and β-thalassemia carriers (heterozygotes) present with microcytic hypochromic parameters with or without mild anemia. Red cell indices and morphology followed by separation and measurement of Hb fractions are the basis for identification of carriers. In addition, iron status should be ascertained by ferritin or zinc protoporphyrin measurements and the iron/total iron-binding capacity/saturation index. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin are markedly reduced (mean corpuscular volume: 60-70 fl; MCH: 19-23 pg) in β-thalassemia carriers, whereas a slight to relevant reduction is usually observed in α-carriers. HbA2 determination is the most decisive test for β-carrier detection although it can be disturbed by the presence of δ-thalassemia defects. In α-thalassemia, HbA2 can be lower than normal and it assumes significant value when iron deficiency is excluded. Several algorithms have been introduced to discriminate from thalassemia carriers and subjects with iron-deficient anemia; because the only discriminating parameter is the red cell counts, these formulas must be used consciously. Molecular analysis is not required to confirm the diagnosis of β-carrier, but it is necessary to confirm the α-thalassemia carrier status. The molecular diagnosis is essential to predict severe transfusion-dependent and intermediate-to-mild non-transfusion-dependent cases. DNA analysis on chorionic villi is the approach for prenatal diagnosis and the methods are the same used for mutations detection, according to the laboratory facilities and expertise. PMID:27183541

  6. Emotions in Speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobin, Christina Ann

    This study was undertaken to examine the acoustical encoding of fear, anger, sadness and joy in voice. Twenty emotion-induction stories were read by 31 subjects who produced a total of 620 emotion-laden standard sentences. Subjects rated their emotions, and the acoustics of each sentence were analyzed. Twelve judges were employed to rate the emotion of each sentence, and their ratings were used to select "prototype" sentences for each emotion. The acoustical characteristics distinguishing each emotion were calculated. Rate, amount of time spent talking and pausing, and number of gaps, in addition to amplitude, frequency and their variances, uniquely distinguished among fear, anger, sadness and joy. Results of past studies were confirmed, and additional differentiation among the emotions was achieved. Judges' confusion matrices were analyzed in order to assess the relationship of detectability and discriminability to acoustic characteristics. It was found that the detectability and/or discriminability of fear, anger, sadness and joy, to varying degrees, paralleled the amount of acoustical overlap among them. A further test of the acoustic findings suggested that mean values of acoustic variables may accurately describe the acoustic cues to sadness and joy, but perhaps not to fear and anger. Thus, additional acoustic parameters, such as the temporal pattern of the acoustic measures, may inform raters. It is suggested that time-based profiles of amplitude and frequency may offer a plausible addition to future research endeavors.

  7. Sleep and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Exploring the Relationship Between Sleep Disturbances and Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kinnucan, Jami A.; Rubin, David T.

    2013-01-01

    Sleep disturbances are associated with a greater risk of serious adverse health events, economic consequences, and, most importantly, increased all-cause mortality. Several studies support the associations among sleep, immune function, and inflammation. The relationship between sleep disturbances and inflammatory conditions is complex and not completely understood. Sleep deprivation can lead to increased levels of inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-1β IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein, which can lead to further activation of the inflammatory cascade. The relevance of sleep in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, has recently received more attention. Several studies have shown that patients with both inactive and active IBD have self-reported sleep disturbances. Here, we present a concise review of sleep and its association with the immune system and the process of inflammation. We discuss the studies that have evaluated sleep in patients with IBD as well as possible treatment options for those patients with sleep disturbances. An algorithm for evaluating sleep disturbances in the IBD population is also proposed. Further research is still needed to better characterize sleep disturbances in the IBD population as well as to assess the effects of various therapeutic interventions to improve sleep quality. It is possible that the diagnosis and treatment of sleep disturbances in this population may provide an opportunity to alter disease outcomes. PMID:24764789

  8. Gender differences in contributions of emotion to psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Rogstad, Jill E; Rogers, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of psychopathy highlight the importance of affective features as they relate to social deviance; however, little empirical research has actually investigated specific roles of emotion and emotion processing with respect to antisocial conduct. Antisocial personality disorder (APD), prevalent in forensic populations, is commonly associated with psychopathy despite the notable omission of such core affective features in its diagnosis. In this paper, we review the empirical literature on the contribution of emotion to psychopathy and APD, highlighting in particular research on emotion processing and various facets of emotional expression, including empathy and alexithymia. Research findings are discussed on gender differences in emotional functioning and their likely effects on the assessment of psychopathy and APD. Given the known gender differences in the expressions of emotion, the article concludes with recommendations to bridge research for different offender groups, including psychopathy and APD.

  9. An English Word Database of EMOtional TErms (EMOTE).

    PubMed

    Grühn, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Research in the socio-emotional domain may require words for experimental settings rated on emotionally and socially relevant word characteristics (e.g., valence and desirability). In addition, cognitively relevant word characteristics (e.g., imagery) are important for research in the interface of emotion and cognition (e.g., emotional memory). To provide researchers with a corresponding word pool, the database of English EMOtional TErms (EMOTE) provides subjective ratings for 1287 nouns and 985 adjectives. Nouns and adjectives were rated on valence, arousal, emotionality, concreteness, imagery, familiarity, and clarity of meaning. In addition, adjectives were rated on control, desirability, and likeableness. EMOTE norms provide an easily accessible word pool for research in the socio-emotional domain. To illustrate the usefulness of this database, norms were linked to memorability scores from a word recognition task for EMOTE nouns. The database as well as future directions are discussed. PMID:27401069

  10. Disturbances of sodium in critically ill adult neurologic patients: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Tisdall, Martin; Crocker, Matthew; Watkiss, Jonathan; Smith, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Disorders of sodium and water balance are common in critically ill adult neurologic patients. Normal aspects of sodium and water regulation are reviewed. The etiology of possible causes of sodium disturbance is discussed in both the general inpatient and the neurologic populations. Areas of importance are highlighted with regard to the differential diagnosis of sodium disturbance in neurologic patients, and management strategies are discussed. Specific discussions of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of cerebral salt wasting syndrome, the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion, and central diabetes insipidus are presented, as well as the problems of overtreatment. The importance of diagnosis at an early stage of these diseases is stressed, with a recommendation for conservative management of milder cases.

  11. Body-conscious Shakespeare: sensory disturbances in troubled characters.

    PubMed

    Heaton, Kenneth W

    2011-12-01

    It is widely accepted that Shakespeare was unique in the range of his insights into the human mind, but the way his characters reveal their mental states through bodily sensations has not been systematically explored. The author has searched for these phenomena in the 42 major works of Shakespeare and in 46 genre-matched works by his contemporaries, and in this paper the author focuses on sensory changes other than those involving vision, taste, the heart and the alimentary tract (all considered in other papers). Vertigo is experienced by five distressed Shakespearean characters, all men, but not at all by the other writers' characters. Breathlessness, probably representing hyperventilation, occurs eleven times in Shakespeare's works but only twice in the other writers' works. Fatigue, expressing grief, is articulated by several Shakespearean characters including Hamlet. It features less often in the others' works. Deafness at a time of high emotion is mentioned by Shakespeare several times but usually by a character 'turning a deaf ear', consciously or unconsciously. To the other writers, ears show emotion only by burning or itching. Blunting of touch and pain and their opposites of hypersensitivity to touch and pain are all to be found in Shakespeare's works when a character is distressed or excited, but not so with his contemporaries' works. Faint feelings and cold feelings are also more common in the works of Shakespeare. Overall, therefore, Shakespeare was exceptional in his use of sensory disturbances to express emotional upset. This may be a conscious literary device or a sign of exceptional awareness of bodily sensations.

  12. Neural correlates of impaired emotional face recognition in cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Adamaszek, Michael; Kirkby, Kenneth C; D'Agata, Fedrico; Olbrich, Sebastian; Langner, Sönke; Steele, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Busse, Stefan; Kessler, Christof; Hamm, Alfons

    2015-07-10

    Clinical and neuroimaging data indicate a cerebellar contribution to emotional processing, which may account for affective-behavioral disturbances in patients with cerebellar lesions. We studied the neurophysiology of cerebellar involvement in recognition of emotional facial expression. Participants comprised eight patients with discrete ischemic cerebellar lesions and eight control patients without any cerebrovascular stroke. Event-related potentials (ERP) were used to measure responses to faces from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Database (KDEF), interspersed in a stream of images with salient contents. Images of faces augmented N170 in both groups, but increased late positive potential (LPP) only in control patients without brain lesions. Dipole analysis revealed altered activation patterns for negative emotions in patients with cerebellar lesions, including activation of the left inferior prefrontal area to images of faces showing fear, contralateral to controls. Correlation analysis indicated that lesions of cerebellar area Crus I contribute to ERP deviations. Overall, our results implicate the cerebellum in integrating emotional information at different higher order stages, suggesting distinct cerebellar contributions to the proposed large-scale cerebral network of emotional face recognition. PMID:25912431

  13. Neural correlates of impaired emotional face recognition in cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Adamaszek, Michael; Kirkby, Kenneth C; D'Agata, Fedrico; Olbrich, Sebastian; Langner, Sönke; Steele, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Busse, Stefan; Kessler, Christof; Hamm, Alfons

    2015-07-10

    Clinical and neuroimaging data indicate a cerebellar contribution to emotional processing, which may account for affective-behavioral disturbances in patients with cerebellar lesions. We studied the neurophysiology of cerebellar involvement in recognition of emotional facial expression. Participants comprised eight patients with discrete ischemic cerebellar lesions and eight control patients without any cerebrovascular stroke. Event-related potentials (ERP) were used to measure responses to faces from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Database (KDEF), interspersed in a stream of images with salient contents. Images of faces augmented N170 in both groups, but increased late positive potential (LPP) only in control patients without brain lesions. Dipole analysis revealed altered activation patterns for negative emotions in patients with cerebellar lesions, including activation of the left inferior prefrontal area to images of faces showing fear, contralateral to controls. Correlation analysis indicated that lesions of cerebellar area Crus I contribute to ERP deviations. Overall, our results implicate the cerebellum in integrating emotional information at different higher order stages, suggesting distinct cerebellar contributions to the proposed large-scale cerebral network of emotional face recognition.

  14. Rethinking Emotions and Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zorn, Diane; Boler, Megan

    2007-01-01

    The literature on emotions and educational leadership is in need of a viable conception of "emotions". Recent studies of emotions and educational leadership have unwittingly inherited serious problems from current research on educational leadership and consequently misunderstand the political force of emotions. In this article we argue that a…

  15. Emotional Design in Multimedia Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Um, Eunjoon; Plass, Jan L.; Hayward, Elizabeth O.; Homer, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    Can multimedia learning environments be designed to foster positive emotions that will improve learning and related affective outcomes? College students (N = 118) were randomly assigned to 4 conditions created by 2 factors related to learners' emotion: "external mood induction" (positive vs. neutral emotions) and "emotional design induction"…

  16. Melanoma Diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  17. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia. PMID:25288043

  18. Subjective experience of emotions and emotional empathy in paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Anja; Bahçesular, Katja; Brockmann, Eva-Maria; Biederbick, Sarah-Elisabeth; Dziobek, Isabel; Gallinat, Jürgen; Montag, Christiane

    2014-12-30

    Unlike the cognitive dimensions, alterations of the affective components of empathy in schizophrenia are less well understood. This study explored cognitive and affective dimensions of empathy in the context of the subjective experience of aspects of emotion processing, including emotion regulation, emotional contagion, and interpersonal distress, in individuals with schizophrenia and healthy controls. In addition, the predictive value of these parameters on psychosocial function was investigated. Fifty-five patients with paranoid schizophrenia and 55 healthy controls were investigated using the Multifaceted Empathy Test and Interpersonal Reactivity Index, as well as the Subjective Experience of Emotions and Emotional Contagion Scales. Individuals with schizophrenia showed impairments of cognitive empathy, but maintained emotional empathy. They reported significantly more negative emotional contagion, overwhelming emotions, lack of emotions, and symbolization of emotions by imagination, but less self-control of emotional expression than healthy persons. Besides cognitive empathy, the experience of a higher extent of overwhelming emotions and of less interpersonal distress predicted psychosocial function in patients. People with schizophrenia and healthy controls showed diverging patterns of how cognitive and emotional empathy related to the subjective aspects of emotion processing. It can be assumed that variables of emotion processing are important moderators of empathic abilities in schizophrenia.

  19. [Sleep disturbance in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Mori, A

    1990-01-01

    Sleep structure is qualitatively and quantitatively changed by aging. The elderly usually go to bed in early evening and wake up in early morning, and they also take several naps in the day time. The polyphasic sleep is one of the typical sleep patterns found in the elderly. Comparing the sleep of the elderly with that of young adults by the method of polysomnography, the characteristics of the sleep of the elderly are in the prolongation of sleep latency, shortening of total sleep time, increase of Stage W and Stage 1, decrease of Stage 3 and 4, and also decrease of Stage REM and the advance of REM phase. Insomnia is a frequently observed symptom in the elderly. The so-called psychophysiological insomnia due to transient psychological or situational stress is common in the elderly. However, insomnia following the mental disturbance (depression), chronic use of drug or alcohol, dementia (vascular or Alzheimer type) are also important in the elderly. Sleep apnea syndrome is recently found as an important cause of insomnia. Concerning the treatment and prevention of insomnia, it is necessary to exclude the causes of insomnia, to improve the environmental conditions and to keep the regular rhythm of sleep-wake cycle. It is also important to carefully select and use the adequate hypnotics considering the pharmacokinetics and adverse effects of the drugs in the elderly. PMID:2191161

  20. Visual phenomena, disturbances, and hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, D T

    1996-01-01

    The visual system and its processing of sensory information can be affected in a variety of ways that may be either normal or associated with numerous disorders and diseases. Visual images produced by the intrinsic components of the eyes are often normal and are known as entoptic phenomena. In contrast, the visual system may be disrupted by various disorders and pathologic processes, which can result in metamorphopsia, transient loss of vision, and positive scotomas. Such disruptions can be secondary to retinal and optic nerve disease, migraines associated with visual auras, and cerebrovascular and neurologic diseases; they can also be side effects of certain drugs. In addition, the visual system may process incoming sensory information in such a way that what is seen is perceived incorrectly, i.e. illusion; or the visual system may produce images of things not really there, i.e. hallucination. Various types of visual phenomena, disturbances, and hallucinations are discussed. The numerous visual presentations need to be differentiated so that appropriate treatment, management, and patient education can be rendered.

  1. Changing time and emotions

    PubMed Central

    Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework. PMID:20026465

  2. Basic Emotions: A Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mason, William A.; Capitanio, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Emotionality is a basic feature of behavior. The argument over whether the expression of emotions is based primarily on culture (constructivism, nurture) or biology (natural forms, nature) will never be resolved because both alternatives are untenable. The evidence is overwhelming that at all ages and all levels of organization, the development of emotionality is epigenetic: The organism is an active participant in its own development. To ascribe these effects to “experience” was the best that could be done for many years. With the rapid acceleration of information on how changes in organization are actually brought about, it is a good time to review, update, and revitalize our views of experience in relation to the concept of basic emotion. PMID:27110280

  3. Changing time and emotions.

    PubMed

    Geoffard, Pierre-Yves; Luchini, Stéphane

    2010-01-27

    In this paper, we consider that our experience of time (to come) depends on the emotions we feel when we imagine future pleasant or unpleasant events. A positive emotion such as relief or joy associated with a pleasant event that will happen in the future induces impatience. Impatience, in our context, implies that the experience of time up to the forthcoming event expands. A negative emotion such as grief or frustration associated with an unpleasant event that will happen in the future triggers anxiety. This will give the experience of time contraction. Time, therefore, is not exogeneously given to the individual and emotions, which link together events or situations, are a constitutive ingredient of the experience of time. Our theory can explain experimental evidence that people tend to prefer to perform painful actions earlier than pleasurable ones, contrary to the predictions yielded by the standard exponential discounting framework.

  4. Emotional factors in forgetting.

    PubMed

    Bradley, B P; Baddeley, A D

    1990-05-01

    Levinger & Clarke (1961) found that subjects tended to forget more word associations to emotional rather than neutral words. Kline (1981) regarded this study as providing 'irrefutable evidence for the Freudian concept of repression'. On the other hand, results from Kleinsmith & Kaplan (1964) suggested that this effect may reverse after a delay. The present study attempted to replicate Levinger & Clark's result using stimulus words balanced for concreteness and frequency. In addition, recall was tested immediately and after a delay. Associations to emotional material were more poorly recalled immediately than associations to material which was low in emotional valence, but tended to be better recalled a month later. There were no differences in recall of pleasant versus unpleasant material. Results do not support the repression hypothesis, in that emotional material becomes more memorable over time. Moreover, repression should differentially apply to unpleasant rather than pleasant material but no such differences were found.

  5. Human abilities: emotional intelligence.

    PubMed

    Mayer, John D; Roberts, Richard D; Barsade, Sigal G

    2008-01-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) involves the ability to carry out accurate reasoning about emotions and the ability to use emotions and emotional knowledge to enhance thought. We discuss the origins of the EI concept, define EI, and describe the scope of the field today. We review three approaches taken to date from both a theoretical and methodological perspective. We find that Specific-Ability and Integrative-Model approaches adequately conceptualize and measure EI. Pivotal in this review are those studies that address the relation between EI measures and meaningful criteria including social outcomes, performance, and psychological and physical well-being. The Discussion section is followed by a list of summary points and recommended issues for future research. PMID:17937602

  6. Beyond Reason: Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suárez Araujo, Carmen Paz; Barahona da Fonseca, Isabel; Barahona da Fonseca, José; Simões da Fonseca, J.

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical approach that aims to the identification of information processing that may be responsible for emotional dimensions of subjective experience is studied as an initial step in the construction of a neural net model of affective dimensions of psychological experiences. In this paper it is suggested that a way of orientated recombination of attributes can be present not only in the perceptive processing but also in cognitive ones. We will present an analysis of the most important emotion theories, we show their neural organization and we propose the neural computation approach as an appropriate framework for generating knowledge about the neural base of emotional experience. Finally, in this study we present a scheme corresponding to framework to design a computational neural multi-system for Emotion (CONEMSE).

  7. Remote sensing analysis of forest disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  8. Remote Sensing Analysis of Forest Disturbances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asner, Gregory P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention provides systems and methods to automatically analyze Landsat satellite data of forests. The present invention can easily be used to monitor any type of forest disturbance such as from selective logging, agriculture, cattle ranching, natural hazards (fire, wind events, storms), etc. The present invention provides a large-scale, high-resolution, automated remote sensing analysis of such disturbances.

  9. Monitoring response to disturbance in dynamic rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Arid and semi-arid rangelands worldwide provide important ecosystem services and see a diversity of land uses. To maintain the health of these lands, it is necessary to monitor rangeland conditions in response to management and disturbance. Spatial patterns from disturbance are superimposed on patte...

  10. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  11. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  12. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  13. 36 CFR 2.12 - Audio disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Audio disturbances. 2.12 Section 2.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RESOURCE PROTECTION, PUBLIC USE AND RECREATION § 2.12 Audio disturbances. (a) The following are...

  14. The Dimensionality of Body Image Disturbance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galgan, Richard J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined personality variables in 75 male and 75 female college students. Found two dimensions underlying body image disturbance variables, one loading on body image dissatisfaction and one loading on body image disturbance. Low negative correlation between two factors suggests that distortion and dissatisfaction are fairly distinct and that body…

  15. Disturbance, the uncertainty principle and quantum optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martens, Hans; Demuynck, Willem M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how a disturbance-type uncertainty principle can be derived from an uncertainty principle for joint measurements. To achieve this, we first clarify the meaning of 'inaccuracy' and 'disturbance' in quantum mechanical measurements. The case of photon number and phase is treated as an example, and it is applied to a quantum non-demolition measurement using the optical Kerr effect.

  16. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Circulatory...

  17. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Circulatory...

  18. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Circulatory...

  19. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Circulatory...

  20. 38 CFR 4.62 - Circulatory disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Musculoskeletal System § 4.62 Circulatory disturbances. The circulatory disturbances, especially of the lower extremity following injury in the popliteal... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Circulatory...

  1. Emotional processing affects movement speed.

    PubMed

    Hälbig, Thomas D; Borod, Joan C; Frisina, Pasquale G; Tse, Winona; Voustianiouk, Andrei; Olanow, C Warren; Gracies, Jean-Michel

    2011-09-01

    Emotions can affect various aspects of human behavior. The impact of emotions on behavior is traditionally thought to occur at central, cognitive and motor preparation stages. Using EMG to measure the effects of emotion on movement, we found that emotional stimuli differing in valence and arousal elicited highly specific effects on peripheral movement time. This result has conceptual implications for the emotion-motion link and potentially practical implications for neurorehabilitation and professional environments where fast motor reactions are critical.

  2. Understanding emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Rees, C A

    2010-01-01

    Emotional abuse lacks the public and political profile of physical and sexual abuse, despite being at their core and frequently their most damaging dimension. Difficulties in recognition, definition and legal proof put children at risk of remaining in damaging circumstances. Assessment of the emotional environment is necessary when interpreting possible physical or sexual abuse and balancing the risks and benefits of intervention. This article considers factors contributing to professional difficulty. It is suggested that understanding emotional abuse from the first principles of the causes and implications of the dysfunctional parent-child relationships it represents can help prevention, recognition and timely intervention. It may facilitate the professional communication needed to build up a picture of emotional abuse and of the emotional context of physical and sexual abuse. Doing so may contribute to the safety of child protection practice. The long-term cost of emotional abuse for individuals and society should be a powerful incentive for ensuring that development of services and clinical research are priorities, and that the false economy of short-term saving is avoided.

  3. Emotion and Implicit Timing

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of emotion on implicit timing. In the implicit timing task used, the participants did not receive any temporal instructions. Instead they were simply asked and trained to press a key as quickly as possible after a stimulus (response stimulus) that was separated from a preceding stimulus by a given temporal interval (reference interval duration). However, in the testing phase, the interval duration was the reference interval duration or a shorter or longer interval duration. In addition, the participants attended two sessions: a first baseline session in which no stimulus was presented during the inter-stimulus intervals, and a second emotional session in which emotional facial expressions (angry, neutral and sad facial expressions) were presented during these intervals. Results showed faster RTs for interval durations close to the reference duration in both the baseline and the emotional conditions and yielded a U-shaped curve. This suggests that implicit processing of time persists in emotional contexts. In addition, the RT was faster for the facial expressions of anger than for those of neutrality and sadness. However, the U-shaped RT curve did not peak clearly at a shorter interval duration for the angry than for the other facial expressions. This lack of time distortion in an implicit timing task in response to arousing emotional stimuli questions the idea of an automatic speeding-up of the interval clock system involved in the representation of time. PMID:27380409

  4. Recovery of lotic macroinvertebrate communities from disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, J. Bruce

    1990-09-01

    Ecosystem disturbances produce changes in macrobenthic community structure (abundances, biomass, and production) that persist for a few weeks to many decades. Examples of disturbances with extremely long-term effects on benthic communities include contamination by persistent toxic agents, physical changes in habitats, and altered energy inputs. Stream size, retention, and local geomorphology may ameliorate the influence of disturbances on invertebrates. Disturbances can alter food webs and may select for favorable genotypes (e.g., insecticidal resistance). Introductions of pesticides into lotic ecosystems, which do not result in major physical changes within habitats, illustrate several factors that influence invertebrate recovery time from disturbance. These include: (1) magnitude of original contamination, toxicity, and extent of continued use; (2) spatial scale of the disturbance; (3) persistence of the pesticide; (4) timing of the contamination in relation to the life history stages of the organisms; (5) vagility of populations influenced by pesticides; and (6) position within the drainage network. The ability of macroinvertebrates to recolonize denuded stream habitats may vary greatly depending on regional life histories, dispersal abilities, and position within the stream network (e.g., headwaters vs larger rivers). Although downstream drift is the most frequently cited mechanism of invertebrate recolonization following disturbance in middle- and larger-order streams, evidence is presented that shows aerial recolonization to be potentially important in headwater streams. There is an apparent stochastic element operating for aerial recolonization, depending on the timing of disturbance and flight periods of various taxa. Available evidence indicates that recolonization of invertebrate taxa without an aerial adult stage requires longer periods of time than for those that possess winged, terrestrial adult stages (i.e., most insects). Innovative, manipulative

  5. Prevention and Reduction of Emotional Disorder in Pupils; A Theory and Its Immediate Application to Practices in the Columbus, Ohio Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mussman, M.C.

    Intended to provide administrators with information valuable in planning school involvement with the emotionally disturbed the text presents suggestions to a variety of questions on this subject. Questions on the nature and importance of the problem focus on emotional disorder, its relationship to behavior and achievement, and incidence, while…

  6. Emoting infertility online: A qualitative analysis of men's forum posts.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Esmée; Gough, Brendan

    2016-07-01

    Relatively little research on infertility focuses exclusively or significantly on men's experiences, particularly in relation to emotional aspects. Evidence that does exist around male infertility suggests that it is a distressing experience for men, due to stigma, threats to masculinity and the perceived need to suppress emotions, and that men and women experience infertility differently. Using thematic analysis, this article examines the online emoting of men in relation to infertility via forum posts from a men-only infertility discussion board. It was noted that men 'talked' to each other about the emotional burdens of infertility, personal coping strategies and relationships with others. Three major themes were identified following in-depth analysis: 'the emotional rollercoaster', 'the tyranny of infertility' and 'infertility paranoia'. This article then offers insights into how men experience infertility emotionally, negotiate the emotional challenges involved (especially pertaining to diagnosis, treatment outcomes and their intimate relationships) and how they share (and find value in doing so) with other men the lived experience of infertility. PMID:27246813

  7. Diagnosis and treatment planning.

    PubMed

    Fagan, D A

    1986-09-01

    It must be emphasized that any examination of a supposedly healthy patient must be thorough and careful, for the early detection of disease demands that minute and inconspicuous deviations from the normal be evaluated carefully. The detection of disease occurs during the examination procedure, and from a practical point of view, it appears that clinicians employ at least the following three types of examination, depending upon circumstances: the comprehensive examination; the screening examination; and the emergency or limited examination. Although the latter two types represent a justifiable compromise with respect to the comprehensive examination in light of limitations of time or resources, the general inaccessibility of the patient in veterinary practice suggests that one should make the most of the opportunity for examination when it presents itself. A complete, thorough examination is not, by definition, a time-consuming and expensive procedure, particularly if there is no disease present. Exam-related expense is more a function of a differential diagnostic effort once clinical abnormality is detected, and then it is certainly justified. The term "diagnosis" originates from a Greek word meaning to distinguish or to discern. For the clinician, it refers to the process of identification of a disease by investigating, in all their manifestations, the signs and symptoms presented by the patient. The word diagnosis describes not just a "disease identified," but the process by which the identification is made. The procedure for making a diagnosis includes the following four primary steps: Collection of the facts. Analysis of the data for relative importance. Correlation between synthesized data and descriptive features of suspected diseases. Selection of the disease that best explains the collected facts and apparent disturbed physiologic processes of the patient. The process of diagnosis usually results in the naming of a disease. It is well to remember that a

  8. Neural Circuitry of Impaired Emotion Regulation in Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Claire E.; Pommy, Jessica M.; Adinoff, Bryon

    2016-01-01

    Impaired emotion regulation contributes to the development and severity of substance use disorders (substance disorders). This review summarizes the literature on alterations in emotion regulation neural circuitry in substance disorders, particularly in relation to disorders of negative affect (without substance disorder), and it presents promising areas of future research. Emotion regulation paradigms during functional magnetic resonance imaging are conceptualized into four dimensions: affect intensity and reactivity, affective modulation, cognitive modulation, and behavioral control. The neural circuitry associated with impaired emotion regulation is compared in individuals with and without substance disorders, with a focus on amygdala, insula, and prefrontal cortex activation and their functional and structural connectivity. Hypoactivation of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (rACC/vmPFC) is the most consistent finding across studies, dimensions, and clinical populations (individuals with and without substance disorders). The same pattern is evident for regions in the cognitive control network (anterior cingulate and dorsal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices) during cognitive modulation and behavioral control. These congruent findings are possibly related to attenuated functional and/or structural connectivity between the amygdala and insula and between the rACC/vmPFC and cognitive control network. Although increased amygdala and insula activation is associated with impaired emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders, it is not consistently observed in substance disorders. Emotion regulation disturbances in substance disorders may therefore stem from impairments in prefrontal functioning, rather than excessive reactivity to emotional stimuli. Treatments for emotion regulation in individuals without substance disorders that normalize prefrontal functioning may offer greater efficacy for substance disorders

  9. Emotions and voluntary action: what link in children with autism?

    PubMed

    Vernazza-Martin, S; Longuet, S; Chamot, J M; Orève, M J

    2013-08-15

    This research focuses on the impact of emotions--defined as "motivational states"--on the organization of goal directed locomotion in children with autism. Walking toward a goal involves both cognitive processes responsible for movement planning and automatic processes linked to movement programming. To these processes, motivation leading to achieving the goal is added. For some authors, a deficit of planning and/or programming processes is highlighted in autism. Others stand for some impairment of the emotional system. The aim of this research is to link these two viewpoints and to determine if, in children with autism, the organization of locomotion is affected by a positive/aversive emotion conferred to an object to fetch. Twenty-nine children participated in the study (11 children with autism--mean age 122 months; 9 mental age-matched controls--mean age 36 months; and 9 chronological age-matched controls--mean age 122 months). They were instructed to go and get a positive or aversive emotional valence object located straight ahead, at 30° to the right or straight ahead then moved at mid-distance to the right. Gait analysis was performed using the Vicon system. The main results suggest that a positive emotional context promotes the cognitive processes involved in movement planning while an aversive emotional context blocks it or disturbs it in children with autism. No emotions effect is observed on movement programming. It is suggested that emotions triggered off and modulated movement planning and that the deficit observed was related to a developmental impairment rather than to a developmental delay.

  10. Emotional labour: how midwives manage emotion at work.

    PubMed

    Rayment, Juliet

    2015-03-01

    Midwifery is inherently emotional work. Midwives care for women at one of the most emotionally intense periods of their lives: they work during moments of birth and death, of joy, sadness and both physical and emotional pain. Yet the emotional experiences of midwives at work are often not spoken about. Midwives often tend to 'get on with the job', but the process of dealing with others' emotions, managing their own and displaying different kinds of emotion can be a challenging part of midwives' work and one for which they're not always adequately supported. PMID:26349324

  11. Emotion-on-a-chip (EOC): evolution of biochip technology to measure human emotion using body fluids.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Hwang, Yoosun; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Jung, Hyo-Il

    2012-12-01

    Recent developments in nano/micro technology have made it possible to construct small-scale sensing chips for the analysis of biological markers such as nucleic acids, proteins, small molecules, and cells. Although biochip technology for the diagnosis of severe physiological diseases (e.g., cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) has been extensively studied, biochips for the monitoring of human emotions such as stress, fear, depression, and sorrow have not yet been introduced, and the development of such a biochip is in its infancy. Emotion science (or affective engineering) is a rapidly expanding engineering/scientific discipline that has a major impact on human society. The growing interest in the integration of emotion science and engineering is a result of the recent trend of merging various academic fields. In this paper we discuss the potential importance of biochip technology in which human emotion can be precisely measured in real time using body fluids such as blood, saliva, urine, or sweat. We call these biochips emotion-on-a-chip (EOC). The EOC system consists of four parts: (1) collection of body fluids, (2) separation of emotional markers, (3) detection of optical or electrical signals, and (4) display of results. These techniques provide new opportunities to precisely investigate human emotion. Future developments in EOC techniques will combine social and natural sciences to expand their scope of study.

  12. Immediacy bias in emotion perception: current emotions seem more intense than previous emotions.

    PubMed

    Van Boven, Leaf; White, Katherine; Huber, Michaela

    2009-08-01

    People tend to perceive immediate emotions as more intense than previous emotions. This immediacy bias in emotion perception occurred for exposure to emotional but not neutral stimuli (Study 1), when emotional stimuli were separated by both shorter (2 s; Studies 1 and 2) and longer (20 min; Studies 3, 4, and 5) delays, and for emotional reactions to pictures (Studies 1 and 2), films (Studies 3 and 4), and descriptions of terrorist threats (Study 5). The immediacy bias may be partly caused by immediate emotion's salience, and by the greater availability of information about immediate compared with previous emotion. Consistent with emotional salience, when people experienced new emotions, they perceived previous emotions as less intense than they did initially (Studies 3 and 5)-a change in perception that did not occur when people did not experience a new immediate emotion (Study 2). Consistent with emotional availability, reminding people that information about emotions naturally decays from memory reduced the immediacy bias by making previous emotions seem more intense (Study 4). Discussed are implications for psychological theory and other judgments and behaviors.

  13. Measuring facial expression of emotion.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-12-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress.

  14. Measuring facial expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This review addresses three approaches to measuring facial expression of emotion and describes their specific contributions to understanding emotion in the healthy population and in persons with mental illness. Despite recent progress, studies on human emotions have been hindered by the lack of consensus on an emotion theory suited to examining the dynamic aspects of emotion and its expression. Studying expression of emotion in patients with mental health conditions for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes will profit from theoretical and methodological progress. PMID:26869846

  15. Emotion Regulation and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cisler, Josh M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research suggests that the construct of emotion regulation is important for understanding the onset, maintenance, and treatment of anxiety disorders. In this review, we provide a selective overview of this emerging field and highlight the major sources of evidence. First, evidence suggests that the construct of emotion regulation can be differentiated from the construct of emotion. Second, there is a large and consistent body of research demonstrating that emotion regulation strategies can modulate emotional responding, and this finding is observed in both behavioral and neuroimaging studies. Third, measures of emotion regulation explain incremental variance in measures of anxiety disorder symptoms not accounted for by measures of negative affect. Although the research implicating emotion regulation in the anxiety disorders is promising, future research will be necessary to further clarify causal mechanisms explaining how emotion regulation confers vulnerability for anxiety disorders and to improve the clarity and consistency of definitions of emotion regulation. PMID:22392595

  16. Perception of basic emotions from speech prosody in adolescents with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, Jenna; Jansson-Verkasalo, Eira; Toivanen, Juhani; Suominen, Kalervo; Väyrynen, Eero; Moilanen, Irma; Seppänen, Tapio

    2010-10-01

    Asperger's syndrome (AS) belongs to the group of autism spectrum disorders and is characterized by deficits in social interaction, as manifested e.g. by the lack of social or emotional reciprocity. The disturbance causes clinically significant impairment in social interaction. Abnormal prosody has been frequently identified as a core feature of AS. There are virtually no studies on recognition of basic emotions from speech. This study focuses on how adolescents with AS (n=12) and their typically developed controls (n=15) recognize the basic emotions happy, sad, angry, and 'neutral' from speech prosody. Adolescents with AS recognized basic emotions from speech prosody as well as their typically developed controls did. Possibly the recognition of basic emotions develops during the childhood.

  17. [Adaptive and Maladaptive Strategies of Emotion Regulation in Adolescents with ADHD].

    PubMed

    Lange, Sarah; Tröster, Heinrich

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated differences between adolescents with ADHD and control subjects in their adaptive und maladaptive regulation of negative emotions. We assessed emotion regulation strategies using the German self-report questionnaire FEEL-KJ in a sample of adolescents (between 11 and 18 years) with ADHD (disturbance of activity, impulsivity and attention: n = 32, hyperkinetic conduct disorder: n = 26) and controls (n = 58). We found that adolescents with ADHD reported using less adaptive strategies for dealing with negative emotions than control subjects. No effects were found for maladaptive emotion regulation strategies for anger, fear and sadness. Our findings indicate that adolescents with ADHD should be encouraged in the development of adaptive emotion regulation. PMID:27184787

  18. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers. PMID:25087317

  19. Why autobiographical memories for traumatic and emotional events might differ: theoretical arguments and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Sotgiu, Igor; Rusconi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    The authors review five arguments supporting the hypothesis that memories for traumatic and nontraumatic emotional events should be considered as qualitatively different recollections. The first argument considers the objective features of traumatic and emotional events and their possible influence on the formation of memories for these events. The second argument assumes that traumatic memories distinguish from emotional ones as trauma exposure is often associated with the development of psychological disorders involving memory disturbances. The third argument is that traumatic experiences are more likely than emotional experiences to be forgotten and recovered. The fourth argument concerns the possibility that emotional memories are socially shared more frequently than traumatic memories. A fifth argument suggests that trauma exposure may impair selected brain systems implicated in memory functions. Theoretical and empirical evidence supporting these claims is reviewed. In the conclusions, the authors illustrate future research directions and discuss some conceptual issues related to the definitions of traumatic event currently employed by memory researchers.

  20. Emotion recognition from facial expressions in a temporal lobe epileptic patient with ictal fear.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Makiko; Murai, Toshiya; Sato, Wataru; Namiki, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Toru; Ohigashi, Yoshitaka

    2005-01-01

    Ictal fear (IF) is an affective aura observed in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. It has been suggested that the amygdala, a region implicated in emotion processing, is involved in generating IF. Several studies have reported that the patients with IF have disturbances in emotional experience, but there has been no testing of the emotional recognition in those patients. In this report, emotion recognition from facial expressions was investigated in a patient with IF. The patient suffered from IF due to temporal lobe epilepsy, and underwent hippocampectomy surgery which completely suppressed IF. We examined the patient before and after surgery. Before surgery, the patient tended to attach enhanced fear, sadness, and anger to various facial expressions. After surgery, such biases disappeared. As an underlying mechanism of the pre-surgical skewed perception of emotional stimuli, the abnormal epileptogenic circuits involving a hypersensitive amygdala possibly due to the kindling mechanism were suggested.

  1. Emotional Regulation and Executive Function Deficits in Unmedicated Chinese Children with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wenqing; Li, Yan; Fan, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aims to explore the feature of emotional regulation and executive functions in oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) children. Methods The emotional regulation and executive functions of adolescents with ODD, as well as the relationship between the two factors were analyzed using tools including Adolescent Daily Emotional Regulation Questionnaire (ADERQ), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) and Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB), in comparison with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children without behavioral problem and healthy children; the ADERQ assessed emotional regulation ability and others were used to assess executive function. Results Compared to normal children, the ODD group displayed significant differences in the scores of cognitive reappraisal, rumination, expressive suppression, and revealing of negative emotions, as well as in the score of cognitive reappraisal of positive emotions. WCST perseverative errors were well correlated with rumination of negative emotions (r=0.47). Logistic regression revealed that the minimum number of moves in the Stocking of Cambridge (SOC) test (one test in CANTAB) and negative emotion revealing, were strongly associated with ODD diagnosis. Conclusion Children with ODD showed emotion dysregulation, with negative emotion dysregulation as the main feature. Emotion dysregulation and the lack of ability to plan lead to executive function deficits. The executive function deficits may guide us to understand the deep mechanism under ODD. PMID:27247593

  2. The effect of background music and song texts on the emotional understanding of children with autism.

    PubMed

    Katagiri, June

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of background music and song texts to teach emotional understanding to children with autism. Participants were 12 students (mean age 11.5 years) with a primary diagnosis of autism who were attending schools in Japan. Each participant was taught four emotions to decode and encode: happiness, sadness, anger, and fear by the counterbalanced treatment-order. The treatment consisted of the four conditions: (a) no contact control (NCC)--no purposeful teaching of the selected emotion, (b) contact control (CC)--teaching the selected emotion using verbal instructions alone, (c) background music (BM)--teaching the selected emotion by verbal instructions with background music representing the emotion, and singing songs (SS)--teaching the selected emotion by singing specially composed songs about the emotion. Participants were given a pretest and a posttest and received 8 individual sessions between these tests. The results indicated that all participants improved significantly in their understanding of the four selected emotions. Background music was significantly more effective than the other three conditions in improving participants' emotional understanding. The findings suggest that background music can be an effective tool to increase emotional understanding in children with autism, which is crucial to their social interactions.

  3. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades.

  4. Disturbance Dynamics in Transitional and Turbulent Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grosch, Chester E.

    1999-01-01

    In order to expand the predictive capability of single-point turbulence closure models to account for the early-stage transition regime, a methodology for the formulation and calibration of model equations for the ensemble-averaged disturbance kinetic energy and energy dissipation rate is presented. First the decay of laminar disturbances and turbulence in mean shear-free flows is studied. In laminar flows, such disturbances are linear superpositions of modes governed by the Orr-Sommerfeld equation. In turbulent flows, disturbances are described through transport equations for representative mean quantities. The link between a description based on a deterministic evolution equation and a probability based mean transport equation is established. Because an uncertainty in initial conditions exists in the laminar as well as the turbulent regime, a probability distribution must be defined even in the laminar case. Using this probability distribution, it is shown that the exponential decay of the linear modes in the laminar regime can be related to a power law decay of both the (ensemble) mean disturbance kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. The evolution of these mean disturbance quantities is then described by transport equations similar to those for the corresponding turbulent decaying flow. Second, homogeneous shear flow, where disturbances can be described by rapid distortion theory (RDT), is studied. The relationship between RDT and linear stability theory is exploited in order to obtain a closed set of modeled equations. The linear disturbance equations are solved directly so that the numerical simulation yields a database from which the closure coefficients in the ensemble-averaged disturbance equations can be determined.

  5. Hydrological disturbance diminishes predator control in wetlands.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Nathan J; Cook, Mark I

    2015-11-01

    Effects of predators on prey populations can be especially strong in aquatic ecosystems, but disturbances may mediate the strength of predator limitation and even allow outbreaks of some prey populations. In a two-year study we investigated the numerical responses of crayfish (Procambarus fallax) and small fishes (Poeciliidae and Fundulidae) to a brief hydrological disturbance in replicated freshwater wetlands with an experimental drying and large predatory fish reduction. The experiment and an in situ predation assay tested the component of the consumer stress model positing that disturbances release prey from predator limitation. In the disturbed wetlands, abundances of large predatory fish were seasonally reduced, similar to dynamics in the Everglades (southern Florida). Densities of small fish were unaffected by the disturbance, but crayfish densities, which were similar across all wetlands before drying, increased almost threefold in the year after the disturbance. Upon re-flooding, juvenile crayfish survival was inversely related to the abundance of large fish across wetlands, but we found no evidence for enhanced algal food quality. At a larger landscape scale (500 km2 of the Everglades), crayfish densities over eight years were positively correlated with the severity of local dry disturbances (up to 99 days dry) during the preceding dry season. In contrast, densities of small-bodied fishes in the same wetlands were seasonally depressed by dry disturbances. The results from our experimental wetland drought and the observations of crayfish densities in the Everglades represent a large-scale example of prey population release following a hydrological disturbance in a freshwater ecosystem. The conditions producing crayfish pulses in the Everglades appear consistent with the mechanics of the consumer stress model, and we suggest crayfish pulses may influence the number of nesting wading birds in the Everglades. PMID:27070017

  6. Mixed Emotions and Coping: The Benefits of Secondary Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience. PMID:25084461

  7. Mixed emotions and coping: the benefits of secondary emotions.

    PubMed

    Braniecka, Anna; Trzebińska, Ewa; Dowgiert, Aneta; Wytykowska, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The existing empirical literature suggests that during difficult situations, the concurrent experience of positive and negative affects may be ideal for ensuring successful adaptation and well-being. However, different patterns of mixed emotions may have different adaptive consequences. The present research tested the proposition that experiencing a pattern of secondary mixed emotion (i.e., secondary emotion that embrace both positive and negative affects) more greatly promotes adaptive coping than experiencing two other patterns of mixed emotional experiences: simultaneous (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects taking place at the same time) and sequential (i.e., two emotions of opposing affects switching back and forth). Support for this hypothesis was obtained from two experiments (Studies 1 and 2) and a longitudinal survey (Study 3). The results revealed that secondary mixed emotions predominate over sequential and simultaneous mixed emotional experiences in promoting adaptive coping through fostering the motivational and informative functions of emotions; this is done by providing solution-oriented actions rather than avoidance, faster decisions regarding coping strategies (Study 1), easier access to self-knowledge, and better narrative organization (Study 2). Furthermore, individuals characterized as being prone to feeling secondary mixed emotions were more resilient to stress caused by transitions than those who were characterized as being prone to feeling opposing emotions separately (Study 3). Taken together, the preliminary results indicate that the pattern of secondary mixed emotion provides individuals with a higher capacity to handle adversity than the other two patterns of mixed emotional experience.

  8. Body Image Disturbance in Acromegaly Patients Compared to Nonfunctioning Pituitary Adenoma Patients and Controls

    PubMed Central

    Conaglen, Helen M.; de Jong, Dennis; Crawford, Veronica; Elston, Marianne S.; Conaglen, John V.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. Excess growth hormone secretion in adults results in acromegaly, a condition in which multiple physical changes occur including bony and soft tissue overgrowth. Over time these changes can markedly alter a person's appearance. The aim of this study was to compare body image disturbance in patients with acromegaly to those with nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) and controls and assess the impact of obesity in these groups. Methods. A cross-sectional survey including quality of life, body image disturbance, anxiety and depression measures, growth hormone, and BMI measurement was carried out. Results. The groups did not differ with respect to body image disturbance. However separate analysis of obese participants demonstrated relationships between mood scales, body image disturbance, and pain issues, particularly for acromegaly patients. Conclusions. While the primary hypothesis that acromegaly might be associated with body image disturbance was not borne out, we have shown that obesity together with acromegaly and NFA can be associated with body image issues, suggesting that BMI rather than primary diagnosis might better indicate whether patients might experience body image disturbance problems. PMID:26078758

  9. Cognition, emotion, and attention.

    PubMed

    Müller-Oehring, Eva M; Schulte, Tilman

    2014-01-01

    Deficits of attention, emotion, and cognition occur in individuals with alcohol abuse and addiction. This review elucidates the concepts of attention, emotion, and cognition and references research on the underlying neural networks and their compromise in alcohol use disorder. Neuroimaging research on adolescents with family history of alcoholism contributes to the understanding of pre-existing brain structural conditions and characterization of cognition and attention processes in high-risk individuals. Attention and cognition interact with other brain functions, including perceptual selection, salience, emotion, reward, and memory, through interconnected neural networks. Recent research reports compromised microstructural and functional network connectivity in alcoholism, which can have an effect on the dynamic tuning between brain systems, e.g., the frontally based executive control system, the limbic emotion system, and the midbrain-striatal reward system, thereby impeding cognitive flexibility and behavioral adaptation to changing environments. Finally, we introduce concepts of functional compensation, the capacity to generate attentional resources for performance enhancement, and brain structure recovery with abstinence. An understanding of the neural mechanisms of attention, emotion, and cognition will likely provide the basis for better treatment strategies for developing skills that enhance alcoholism therapy adherence and quality of life, and reduce the propensity for relapse. PMID:25307584

  10. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  11. Negative emotions and coronary heart disease: causally related or merely coexistent? A review.

    PubMed

    Smith, D F

    2001-02-01

    Negative emotions have been claimed to be a cause of coronary heart disease (CHD) as well as a consequence of cardiovascular disorders. Early case studies of cardiac disorders of soldiers in battle drew attention to the possibility that strong negative emotional states could cause CHD. Subsequent reports of reactions to natural disasters supported the notion that intense negative emotions could precipitate somatic disorders such as CHD. Since then, numerous studies have investigated relations between negative emotions and CHD. Over the years, retrospective studies have found, for example, that negative emotions are often present before the occurrence of CHD. Cross-sectional studies have indicated that symptoms of depression and anxiety are often present in CHD patients. Prospective studies have shown that the likelihood of CHD tends to be higher for people with negative emotions than for those without them. The main symptoms of negative emotional states that seem to be most closely associated with CHD are nervousness, getting easily upset, feeling fatigue, being indecisive, having sleep disturbances, being usually worried about something, and feeling that others would be better off if oneself were dead. Although the findings appear to support the notion of causal connections between negative emotions and CHD, they fail to provide conclusive proof of such relations. An alternative explanation that could also account for the findings is simply that negative emotions and CHD often coexist.

  12. The Yellowstone Plan: Individualized Education Program for Emotionally Handicapped Boys and Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryngelson, Jim

    This paper presents an educational program for seriously emotionally disturbed students at the Yellowstone Ranch, a residential treatment facility and school focusing on the enhancement of each student's self esteem. Located in Montana, which in 1965 created a special school district to serve the needs of special needs children, the school has as…

  13. The Disproportionate Representation of African Americans in Programs for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenna, John

    2013-01-01

    African American students are disproportionally represented in educational programs for students meeting eligibility criteria for emotional disturbance. Although special education services are designed to improve student outcomes, the provision of services may result in social stigma, removal from the general education setting, and inadequate…

  14. Effects of the Subliminal Stimulation of Symbiotic Fantasies on the Academic Performance of Emotionally Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant-Tuckett, Rose; Silverman, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Compared emotionally disturbed adolescents (N=64) who were divided into experimental and control groups and exposed to a subliminal stimulus. Experimental subjects exposed to the phrase "Mommy and I are one" showed greater academic achievement and adaptive functioning at the end of the six-week treatment. (JAC)

  15. Rational Behavior Skills: A Teaching Sequence for Students with Emotional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patton, Patricia Lucey

    1995-01-01

    Rational behavior training is a proactive teaching model concerned with helping students with behavior disorders or serious emotional disturbances develop rational thinking and appropriate social skills. Describes a seven-session sequence for teaching rational behavior skills in a middle school setting. Pre- and posttest data revealed significant…

  16. Is There a Link between Classmates with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders and Other Students' Absences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottfried, Michael; Egalite, Anna; Kirksey, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    As special education inclusion policies become more widespread, classroom compositions are changing in ways that affect all students. The present study fills a critical gap in the literature by documenting the extent to which having a classmate with an emotional disturbance (ED) is linked to kindergarteners' absences. Because having a classmate…

  17. Understanding and Teaching Students with Emotional-Behavioral Disorders: A Conversation with Frank H. Wood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabel, Robert; Kaff, Marilyn; Teagarden, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Frank H. Wood is both a pioneer and a first-generation leader, and his contributions continue to influence the field today. Dr. Wood participated in several "firsts." In the 1950s, he taught the first public school class in Minnesota for emotionally disturbed students, and he later served as the first coordinator of programs for students with…

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Maintaining Students with Emotional Disorders in the Public School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Bob; Grimes, Michael; Filler, Bill; Norton, Christie; Cooper, Nancy; Gibson, Teresa

    This report examines the cost effectiveness of the Marchus School's 599/1261 Project, one of two programs funded by the State of California, that established an inclusive education program for 17 students with serious emotional disturbances at risk for nonpublic school placements. The project teaches academic, social, and conflict resolution…

  19. The Psychology of Containment: (Mis) Representing Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties in Australian Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Penny; Graham, Linda J.; Sweller, Naomi; Dodd, Helen F.

    2015-01-01

    The number of students in special schools has increased at a rapid rate in some Australian states, due in part to increased enrolment under the categories of emotional disturbance (ED) and behaviour disorder (BD). Nonetheless, diagnostic distinctions between ED and BD are unclear. Moreover, despite international findings that students with…

  20. The Dismissal of Students with Serious Emotional Problems: An Administrative Decision Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, Donald D.

    1983-01-01

    Presents guidelines for dealing with emotionally disturbed students on campus, illustrated by appropriate legal cases. Administrators and counselors must decide if the student poses a threat and may have the responsibility to warn a forseeable victim. Admissions and readmissions policies are also discussed in light of legal requirements. (JAC)