Empiric formulae combustor flow losses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gu, Mingqi
1991-07-01
Approaches to calculation of the flow losses in components of the combustor, such as diffuser, swirler, and flame tube and the flow losses in combustor under combustion conditions are investigated. The empiric formulas are derived from tests. They feature simplicity and sufficient accuracy and are applicable to design and redesign of combustor. The tests were conducted on the models of four types of diffusers, ten kinds of swirlers, seven types of flame tubes, and seven simulators of inlet flowfield distortion. In comparison with the existing methods, the presented method considerably improves the calculation of the flow losses in the diffuser. For the swirler, the correlation between flow resistance and the discharge coefficient and the formula for heating losses are determined.
An Empirical Formula From Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Johnson, Steven D.
1996-01-01
Presents a detailed procedure for finding an empirical formula from ion exchange chromatography and colorimetry. Introduces students to more varied techniques including volumetric manipulation, titration, ion-exchange, preparation of a calibration curve, and the use of colorimetry. (JRH)
Nuclear binding energy using semi empirical mass formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ankita, Suthar, B.
2016-05-01
In the present communication, semi empirical mass formula using the liquid drop model has been presented. Nuclear binding energies are calculated using semi empirical mass formula with various constants given by different researchers. We also compare these calculated values with experimental data and comparative study for finding suitable constants is added using the error plot. The study is extended to find the more suitable constant to reduce the error.
Empirical formula for mass excess of heavy and superheavy nuclei
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Manjunatha, H. C.; Chandrika, B. M.; Seenappa, L.
2016-08-01
A new empirical formula is proposed for mass excess of heavy and superheavy nuclei in the region Z = 96-129. The parameters of the formula are obtained by making a polynomial fit to the available theoretical and experimental data. The calculated mass excess values are compared with the experimental values and other results of the earlier proposed models such as finite range droplet model (FRDM) and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (HFB) method. Standard deviation of calculated mass excess values for each atomic number is tabulated. The good agreement of present formula with the experiment and other models suggests that the present formula could be used to evaluate the mass excess values of heavy and superheavy nuclei in the region 96 ≤Z ≥129. This formula is a model-independent formula and is first of its kind that produces a mass excess values with the only simple inputs of only Z and A.
Using Paperclips to Explain Empirical Formulas to Students
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nassiff, Peter; Czerwinski, Wendy A.
2014-01-01
Early in their chemistry education, students learn to do empirical formula calculations by rote without an understanding of the historical context behind them or the reason why their calculations work. In these activities, students use paperclip "atoms", construct a series of simple compounds representing real molecules, and discover,…
Students' Understanding of Chemical Formulae: A review of empirical research
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha
2014-01-01
The fluent use of the chemical language is a major tool for successfully passing chemistry courses at school or university as well as for working as a chemist, since chemical formulae are both a descriptive and a heuristic tool. However, numerous studies have revealed remarkable difficulties of students with chemical formulae both at school and at university. Although analysed for decades, current studies and practical experiences indicate that the misinterpretation of symbolic representations by students is still an ongoing problem. This review intends not only to summarize but also to categorize students' problems and difficulties when dealing with chemical formulae as reported in empirical studies. For this purpose, two categories of descriptive character were deduced from the empirical data: the type of chemical formulae and the operational activities that were required in the tasks of the studies. All in all, 38 articles were analysed on the basis of these categories. Students' problems and difficulties are then reflected based on three main problem areas: language-based problems, problems due to conceptual understanding, and problems due to inadequate selection and interpretation of formulae. These three areas call for a broader perspective in the interpretation of students' problems and thus lead to a discussion of implications for further research and changes in teaching practice.
Empirical mass formula with proton-neutron interaction
Tachibana, T.; Uno, M.; Yamada, S.; Yamada, M.
1987-12-10
An atomic mass formula consisting of a gross part, and averge even-odd part and an empirical shell part is studied. The gross part is, apart from a small atomic term, taken to be the sum of nucleon rest masses. Coulomb energies and a polynomial in A/sup 1/3/ and chemically bondN-Zchemically bond/A. The shell part includes, in addition to proton and neutron support of nuclear magicities and the cooperative deformation effect. After the first construction of such a formula, refinements have been made in two respects. One is a separate treatment of Z = N odd-odd nuclei suggested by a quartet model, and the other is an improvement of the proton neutron interaction term. By these refinements the root-mean-square deviation of calculated masses from the 1986 Audi-Wapstra masses has been reduced from 538 keV to 460 keV.
Empirical mass formula with proton-neutron interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tachibana, Takahiro; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, So; Yamada, Masami
1987-12-01
An atomic mass formula consisting of a gross part, and averge even-odd part and an empirical shell part is studied. The gross part is, apart from a small atomic term, taken to be the sum of nucleon rest masses. Coulomb energies and a polynomial in A1/3 and ‖N-Z‖/A. The shell part includes, in addition to proton and neutron support of nuclear magicities and the cooperative deformation effect. After the first construction of such a formula, refinements have been made in two respects. One is a separate treatment of Z=N odd-odd nuclei suggested by a quartet model, and the other is an improvement of the proton neutron interaction term. By these refinements the root-mean-square deviation of calculated masses from the 1986 Audi-Wapstra masses has been reduced from 538 keV to 460 keV.
An Empirical Formula from Ion Exchange Chromatography and Colorimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Johnson, Steven D.
1996-12-01
Experimental determination of the empirical formula for sodium salicylate, Nax(C7H5O3)y, using colorimetry and cation exchange. A Beer's Law plot is prepared for salicylate using 0.0050 M salicylic acid solution. Colorimetric analysis is performed on the salicylate ion in the form of an aqueous ferric complex, which is intensely violet-red, using a simple, inexpensive colorimeter constructed from readily available electronic parts and PVC pipe. Determination of sodium content is conducted using cation exchange, using simple re-usable exchange columns, followed by titration with OH-. The procedure is involved, yet has been conducted by high school chemistry students as a lab final.
Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: Z = - 1 to 92
DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.
2014-11-25
Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determinedmore » using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.« less
An empirical formula based on Monte Carlo simulation for diffuse reflectance from turbid media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gnanatheepam, Einstein; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu
2016-03-01
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy has been widely used in diagnostic oncology and characterization of laser irradiated tissue. However, still accurate and simple analytical equation does not exist for estimation of diffuse reflectance from turbid media. In this work, a diffuse reflectance lookup table for a range of tissue optical properties was generated using Monte Carlo simulation. Based on the generated Monte Carlo lookup table, an empirical formula for diffuse reflectance was developed using surface fitting method. The variance between the Monte Carlo lookup table surface and the surface obtained from the proposed empirical formula is less than 1%. The proposed empirical formula may be used for modeling of diffuse reflectance from tissue.
Extension of Lin empirical formula for the prediction of rain attenuation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kanellopoulos, J. D.
1983-04-01
Lin's empirical expression for calculating rain attenuation is applicable to 5-min point rain rate distributions. A modification of this empirical formula is presented, for application to rain rate with arbitrary integration time. The applicability of this technique is tested against experimental data taken from several locations in the United States and western Europe.
An Empirical Formula for the Distribution Function of a Thin Exponential Disc
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss
2013-08-01
An empirical formula for a Shu distribution function that reproduces a thin disc with exponential surface density to good accuracy is presented. The formula has two free parameters that specify the functional form of the velocity dispersion. Conventionally, this requires the use of an iterative algorithm to produce the correct solution, which is computationally taxing for applications like Markov Chain Monte Carlo model fitting. The formula has been shown to work for flat, rising, and falling rotation curves. Application of this methodology to one of the Dehnen distribution functions is also shown. Finally, an extension of this formula to reproduce velocity dispersion profiles that are an exponential function of radius is also presented. Our empirical formula should greatly aid the efficient comparison of disc models with large stellar surveys or N-body simulations.
Empirical formula for rates of hot pixel defects based on pixel size, sensor area, and ISO
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, Glenn H.; Thomas, Rohit; Koren, Zahava; Koren, Israel
2013-02-01
Experimentally, image sensors measurements show a continuous development of in-field permanent hot pixel defects increasing in numbers over time. In our tests we accumulated data on defects in cameras ranging from large area (<300 sq mm) DSLR's, medium sized (~40 sq mm) point and shoot, and small (20 sq mm) cell phone cameras. The results show that the rate of defects depends on the technology (APS or CCD), and on design parameters like imager area, pixel size (from 1.5 to 7 um), and gain (from ISO100 to 1600). Comparing different sensor sizes with similar pixel sizes has shown that defect rates scale linearly with sensor area, suggesting the metric of defects/year/sq mm, which we call defect density. A search was made to model this defect density as a function of the two parameters pixel size and ISO. The best empirical fit was obtained by a power law curve. For CCD imagers, the defect densities are proportional to the pixel size to the power of -2.25 times the ISO to the power of 0.69. For APS (CMOS) sensors the power law had the defect densities proportional to the pixel size to the power of -3.07 times the ISO raised to the power of 0.5. Extending our empirical formula to include ISO allows us to predict the expected defect development rate for a wide set of sensor parameters.
The Empirical Formula of Silver Sulfide: An Experiment for Introductory Chemistry
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Trujillo, Carlos Alexander
2007-01-01
An experiment is described that allows students to experimentally determine an empirical formula for silver sulfide. At elevated temperatures, silver sulfide reacts in air to form silver, silver sulfate, and sulfur dioxide. At higher temperatures (960 [degree]C) silver sulfate decomposes to produce metallic silver. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)
Proton-nucleus total inelastic cross sections - An empirical formula for E greater than 10 MeV
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Letaw, J. R.; Silberberg, R.; Tsao, C. H.
1983-01-01
An empirical formula for the total inelastic cross section of protons on nuclei with charge greater than 1 is presented. The formula is valid with a varying degree of accuracy down to proton energies of 10 MeV. At high energies (equal to or greater than 2 GeV) the formula reproduces experimental data to within reported errors (about 2%).
SU-F-BRD-07: Empirical Derivation of Site-Specific Margin Formulas
Conroy, L; Smith, W; Quirk, S
2014-06-15
Purpose: To empirically derive margin formulas from existing clinical radiotherapy plans accounting for respiratory motion and setup uncertainties. Methods: We simulated realistic treatment scenarios, including respiratory motion and setup errors. Individual probability density functions (PDF) from respiratory data were used to simulate respiratory motion. Random (σ) and systematic (Σ) setup errors were modeled as Gaussian distributions. One-dimensional dose profiles were extracted from existing radiotherapy plans and convolved with respiratory PDFs and random error distributions to produce blurred dose profiles. Each blurred dose profile was then shifted 1000 times by randomly sampling the simulated systematic error distribution. Margins were determined from the distance between the simulated treatment and the original 95% isodose level. An equation was fit for each (σ, Σ) combination to derive margin formulas for 90% of the population receiving 95% dose. This methodology can be applied to different tumor sites. Here, dose profiles were extracted from partial breast 3DCRT plans in the anterior-posterior (AP) and superior-inferior (SI) directions. Respiratory motion data was from healthy volunteers, and a clinically relevant range of random and systematic setup errors (standard deviations 1 – 4 mm) was determined from the literature. Results: The PBI margin formulas in the AP and SI directions for 95% dose coverage for 90% of the population were very similar: M= 0.68σ + 1.54Σ and M= 0.72σ + 1.50Σ, respectively. Systematic setup errors had the largest influence on required margin size, whereas realistic respiratory amplitude had minimal impact. The derived formulas resulted in a smaller systematic component than commonly-used theoretical margin recipes. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a method to derive empirical margin formulas from existing patient radiotherapy plans, incorporating realistic respiratory motion and appropriate ranges of random and
Scaling theory of [Formula: see text] topological invariants.
Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P
2016-09-14
For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by [Formula: see text] topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined. PMID:27400801
Scaling theory of [Formula: see text] topological invariants.
Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Schnyder, Andreas P
2016-09-14
For inversion-symmetric topological insulators and superconductors characterized by [Formula: see text] topological invariants, two scaling schemes are proposed to judge topological phase transitions driven by an energy parameter. The scaling schemes renormalize either the phase gradient or the second derivative of the Pfaffian of the time-reversal operator, through which the renormalization group flow of the driving energy parameter can be obtained. The Pfaffian near the time-reversal invariant momentum is revealed to display a universal critical behavior for a great variety of models examined.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Raju, Nambury S.; Bilgic, Reyhan; Edwards, Jack E.; Fleer, Paul F.
1999-01-01
Performed an empirical Monte Carlo study using predictor and criterion data from 84,808 U.S. Air Force enlistees. Compared formula-based, traditional empirical, and equal-weights procedures. Discusses issues for basic research on validation and cross-validation. (SLD)
Empirical formula on (n,(3)He) reaction cross sections at 14.6MeV neutrons.
Yiğit, Mustafa
2015-11-01
The systematic behavior of the cross sections of (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions has been studied by various researches at neutron energy of 14.6MeV. A new empirical formula based on the Q-value dependence of the cross sections of the investigated reaction has been proposed. The cross sections obtained from the new formula are compared with the other proposed formulae results and the experimental data. It seems that the present formula based on the Q-value dependence provides the good description for cross sections of neutron-induced (n,(3)He) nuclear reactions at 14.6MeV.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tel, E.; Aydın, A.; Kaplan, A.; Şarer, B.
2008-09-01
In the hybrid reactor, tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. Working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study we have investigated asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 neutron incident energy. It has been discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained empirical and semi-empirical formulas by fitting two parameter for ( n, t) reactions were given. All calculated results have been compared with the experimental data and the other semi-empirical formulas.
Empirical formulas for direct double ionization by bare ions: $Z=-1$ to 92
DuBois, R. D.; Santos, A. C. F.; Manson, S. T.
2014-11-25
Experimental cross sections and cross-section ratios reported in the literature for direct double ionization of the outer shells of helium, neon, and argon atoms resulting from bare ions ranging from protons to uranium and for antiprotons are analyzed in terms of a first- and second-order interference model originally proposed by McGuire [J. H. McGuire, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1153 (1982)]. Empirical formulas for the various contributions to double ionization plus information about the phase difference between the first- and second-order mechanisms are extracted from the data. Projectile and target scalings are also extracted. Total cross sections and their ratios determined using these formulas and scalings are shown to be in very good agreement with experimental data for lower-Z projectiles and impact velocities larger than 1 a.u. For very-high-Z projectiles, the amount of double ionization is overestimated, probably due to saturation of probabilities that is not accounted for in scaling formulas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Peredo, Mauricio; Stern, David P.
1991-01-01
A detailed comparison of the near-earth neutral sheet position according to several approximations has been made. In particular, two empirical formulas for the neutral sheet location, recently derived from AMPTE/CCE data, have been compared with the corresponding positions derived from Tsyganenko's magnetic field models. Cylindrical coordinates referenced to the geodipole have been used, and the position of the neutral sheet has been identified by the reversal of the radial component of the magnetic field. The analysis reveals that, in the region X(GSM) = -9 to -5 earth radii, abs. value of Y(GSM) not greater than 5 earth radii, close agreement exists between the empirical formulas and the Tsyganenko models. Furthermore, the Tsyganenko models provide a representation for the neutral sheet position in the transition region between near-earth and distant tail models.
Students' Understanding of Chemical Formulae: A Review of Empirical Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taskin, Vahide; Bernholt, Sascha
2014-01-01
The fluent use of the chemical language is a major tool for successfully passing chemistry courses at school or university as well as for working as a chemist, since chemical formulae are both a descriptive and a heuristic tool. However, numerous studies have revealed remarkable difficulties of students with chemical formulae both at school and at…
Ding, George X; Krauss, Rob
2013-07-21
For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm(2) fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm(3) water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ding, George X.; Krauss, Rob
2013-07-01
For small photon fields, accurate values of a tissue-phantom ratio (TPR) are difficult to obtain either by direct measurement or by the conventional method of converting from measured percentage depth doses (%dd). This study aims to develop an empirical method to accurately obtain TPRs from %dd curves for small radiosurgery beams. The Monte Carlo simulation codes BEAMnrc/DOSXYZnrc were used to simulate the accelerator head and small, collimated fields including the circular cone accessory. The Monte Carlo directly calculated TPR values as a function of depth were compared with TPRs converted from %dd curves in a water phantom for field sizes ranging from 4 mm diameter to 10 × 10 cm2 fields. Direct measurements of TPRs were performed with the detector remaining fixed at a SAD of 100 cm and increasing the detector depth by adding water. The %dd curves were measured at 100 cm SSD in a 50 × 50 × 50 cm3 water tank. Using the Monte Carlo values, we developed an empirical formula to obtain TPRs from %dd and validated its accuracy. The conventional method of obtaining TPRs from %dd underestimate TPR by 3.4% and 0.6% at a depth 1.5 cm and overestimate TPR by 6.4% and 1.7% at a depth of 25 cm for 4 mm and 30 mm diameter circular fields, respectively. The empirical formula is derived from realistic Monte Carlo simulations using field sizes ranging from 4 to 30 mm and depth ranging from 1.5 to 25 cm. TPRs calculated using this function deviate from TPRs directly calculated from Monte Carlo by less than 0.5%. The accuracy of this empirical formula is validated against the directly measured TPRs in water. The developed empirical method has the potential to greatly simply the work in obtaining TPRs from measured %dd curves for small fields. By using this developed empirical formula the uncertainties between directly measured TPRs and converted TPRs from measured %dd curves are within 1%.
Empirical scaling laws for coronal heating
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Golub, L.
1983-01-01
The origins and uses of scaling laws in studies of stellar outer atmospheres are reviewed with particular emphasis on the properties of coronal loops. Some evidence is presented for a fundamental structuring of the solar corona and the thermodynamics of scaling laws are discussed. It is found that magnetic field-related scaling laws can be obtained by relating coronal pressure, temperature, and magnetic field strength. Available data validate this method. Some parameters of the theory, however, must be treated as adjustable, and it is considered necessary to examine data from other stars in order to determine the validity of the parameters. Using detailed observational data, the applicability of single loop models is examined.
Palanisami, Akilan; Khan, Shazia; Erdem, Sultan Sibel; Hasan, Tayyaba
2016-01-01
Fever is one of the most common symptoms of illness in infants and represents a clinical challenge due to the potential for serious bacterial infection. As delayed treatment for these infections has been correlated with increased morbidity and mortality, broad-spectrum [Formula: see text]-lactam antibiotics are often prescribed while waiting for microbiological lab results (1-3 days). However, the spread of antibiotic resistance via the [Formula: see text]-lactamase enzyme, which can destroy [Formula: see text]-lactam antibiotics, has confounded this paradigm; empiric antibiotic regimens are increasingly unable to cover all potential bacterial pathogens, leaving some infants effectively untreated until the pathogen is characterized. This can lead to lifelong sequela or death. Here, we introduce a fluorescent, microfluidic assay that can characterize [Formula: see text]-lactamase derived antibiotic susceptibility in 20 min with a sensitivity suitable for direct human specimens. The protocol is extensible, and the antibiotic spectrum investigated can be feasibly adapted for the pathogens of regional relevance. This new assay fills an important need by providing the clinician with hitherto unavailable point of care information for treatment guidance in an inexpensive and simple diagnostic format. PMID:27602307
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kitamura, N.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Hori, T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Lund, E. J.
2014-12-01
Recent satellite observations and simulations have clarified that plasma outflows play an important role in abrupt changes in the ion composition in the plasmasheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Statistical studies by Strangeway et al. [2005] and Brambles et al. [2011] indicated that fluxes of ion outflows are correlated well with soft electron precipitation (precipitating electron density and electron density in the loss cone), and DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes using the data obtained by the FAST satellite near the cusp region in the dayside during the 24-25 September 1998 geomagnetic storm. To evaluate the correlations for H+ and O+ ions separately, we performed statistical studies using the ion composition data in addition to the ion, electron, and field data obtained by the FAST satellite during January 1998 and January 1999. The longer dataset enables us to identify empirical formulas between outflowing O+ and H+ ion fluxes and precipitating electron densities, DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes in a wide solar zenith angle (SZA) range (45°-145°). These empirical formulas would be useful for global magnetospheric simulations as the boundary conditions. Under dark conditions, H+ ion fluxes increases with increasing precipitating electron density, but not as much as those do under sunlit conditions. The precipitating electron density that corresponds to the H+ ion flux of ~107 /cm2/s （mapped to 1000 km altitude） decreases with increasing SZA. This SZA dependence is less clear for O+ ions as compared with H+ ions. The empirical formulas between outflowing O+ and H+ ion fluxes and DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes are not so strongly affected by SZA. Under sunlit conditions, the flux O+ ions tends to be larger than that of H+ ions, while H+ ions tend to become dominant under dark conditions. Intense ion (especially O+ ion) outflow events (>108 /cm2/s mapped to 1000 km altitude) mostly occurred under sunlit conditions or near the terminator.
Empirical Scaling Laws of Rocket Exhaust Cratering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Donahue, Carly M.; Metzger, Philip T.; Immer, Christopher D.
2005-01-01
When launching or landing a space craft on the regolith of a terrestrial surface, special attention needs to be paid to the rocket exhaust cratering effects. If the effects are not controlled, the rocket cratering could damage the spacecraft or other surrounding hardware. The cratering effects of a rocket landing on a planet's surface are not understood well, especially for the lunar case with the plume expanding in vacuum. As a result, the blast effects cannot be estimated sufficiently using analytical theories. It is necessary to develop physics-based simulation tools in order to calculate mission-essential parameters. In this work we test out the scaling laws of the physics in regard to growth rate of the crater depth. This will provide the physical insight necessary to begin the physics-based modeling.
Formula-Based Public School Funding System in Victoria: An Empirical Analysis of Equity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bandaranayake, Bandara
2013-01-01
This article explores the formula-based school funding system in the state of Victoria, Australia, where state funds are directly allocated to schools based on a range of equity measures. The impact of Victoria' funding system for education in terms of alleviating inequality and disadvantage is contentious, to say the least. It is difficult…
Towards a capitation formula for competing health insurers. An empirical analysis.
van Vliet, R C; van de Ven, W P
1992-05-01
In many countries the concept of capitating health care insurers is receiving increasing attention. The main reason is, that capitation may induce health care insurers in a competitive environment to concentrate more on cost containment. However, if the adjusters on which capitation payments are based, are too global, there may be ample room for risk selection by the insurers whilst also an unfair distribution of funds over the insurers may result, thereby undermining the objectives of capitation. The prime motivation for the present study is, that the Dutch government, as part of proposals for a new, market oriented structure of health care system, is considering to capitate insurers on the basis of global parameters like age, gender and location. Our analysis based on panel data of some 35,000 individuals, shows that the proportion of variance in annual health care expenditures that can be predicted (R2) by such a global capitation formula, is only 0.024. This is less than 1/5 of our estimate of the theoretically maximum achievable R2 which amounts to 0.138, implying the existence of abundant selection opportunities, e.g. on the basis of past expenditures or other health indicators. Alternative capitation formulae incorporating prior-year's costs and reaching about 3/5 of the maximum obtainable R2, effectively remove the profitableness of selection on the basis of past expenditures. The findings suggest, however, that selection via (chronic) health status may still be profitable to some extent. Therefore, we also analyzed data from the Dutch Health Interview Survey (N approximately 20,000) which comprised better health indicators. It appeared that a capitation formula based on the global adjusters mentioned above as well as three health status indicators and several background characteristics, yields an R2 of about 0.114, which probably accounts for 3/4 of our estimate of the maximum obtainable R2. The main conclusion is, that in the short term information on
Qin, Lihuan; Wang, Yan; Wu, Yongfeng; Wang, Qian; Luo, Liangguo
2015-06-01
Agricultural nonpoint source pollution in China has been the major environmental problem, so environmental-friendly agricultural practices (EAPs) must be promoted to improve environmental quality. However, the most suitable practices for each agricultural region must first be identified. Thus, in the presented study a fuzzy-logic method and a revised empirical formula were used to assess nitrate leakage and N2O emissions, respectively, and to compare five EAPs in Xinxiang, a major grain-producing county in Henan Province, China. The required information was collected in face-to-face interviews with 10 extension service experts from the county, using a questionnaire to explore their opinions of the EAPs currently adopted by smallholder farmers, as well as the amounts, frequencies, varieties and proportions of nitrogen fertilizers applied annually. The results indicate that reduced tillage, soil testing and fertilizer recommendations would be the most appropriate practices to initially promote on a large scale in Xinxiang.
Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.
Babakus, E; Mangold, W G
1992-02-01
Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified.
Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.
Babakus, E; Mangold, W G
1992-01-01
Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708
Adapting the SERVQUAL scale to hospital services: an empirical investigation.
Babakus, E; Mangold, W G
1992-02-01
Defining and measuring the quality of service has been a major challenge for health care marketers. A comprehensive service quality measurement scale (SERVQUAL) is empirically evaluated for its potential usefulness in a hospital service environment. Active participation by hospital management helped to address practical and user-related aspects of the assessment. The completed expectations and perceptions scales met various criteria for reliability and validity. Suggestions are provided for the managerial use of the scale, and a number of future research issues are identified. PMID:1737708
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazzoleni, L. R.; Collett, J. L.
2009-12-01
Aqueous processing of organic matter by clouds and fogs may significantly alter aerosol-climate properties. Heterogeneous chemical reactions that serve to promote oxidation of apolar primary emission components may result in an increase of hydrophilic organic compounds, while reactions that serve to promote oligomerization and/or formation of larger components, such as HULIS, may result in a decrease. Since aerosol organic matter is very complex and its identity is not well understood, we chose to study the detailed molecular composition of atmospheric organic matter (AOM) of polluted fogs by ultra-high resolution FT-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). In all of our analyses, we found a high degree of complexity across the mass range of 100 to 400 u and in some of our analyses we observed our mass range to extend up to 1000 u. The detected negative organic ions were multifunctional compounds which include C, H, N, O, and S elements. We observed organic nitrogen (CHNO), organic sulfur (CHOS), and organic nitrooxy-sulfate compounds (CHNOS) as well as many masses with only CHO elemental composition. Analysis of the atomic valances by double bond equivalents (DBE) calculations suggests that these compound structures range from highly aliphatic to aromatic with DBE values of 1-11, suggesting a wide variety of precursor compounds with variable oxidation states. This resulted in a high degree of complexity in the low mass range which was greatly reduced by data filtering strategies that group assigned formulas into homologous series and oligomeric series with increasing chain lengths. The AOM oligomeric series with formula differences of C3H4O2 are very likely due to an aqueous esterification reaction, originally suggested by Altieri et al., 2008. We found over 400 oligomer series in our dataset, representing approximately 80% of the CHO and CHNO compounds combined. A very high number of homologous series of compounds and polyfunctional oligomers were
Are new data suggesting a revision of the current M w and M e scaling formulas?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bormann, Peter
2015-10-01
The paper looks first into the history of the derivation of the currently common formulas for calculating seismic moment magnitude M w and energy magnitude M e into the type of data and relationships available in these years and the parameter assumptions made. The general relationship between M w and M e is analysed and formulated in physical terms. The original M w- and M e-defining relationships are then confronted with equivalent relationships derived on the basis of rich modern magnitude data measured according to recently accepted International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) standards for (a) 20-s surface-wave data and (b) broadband body P wave data as well as M 0 and E S data based on digital broadband waveform inversion or integration. The agreement between old and new data and derived relationships is of different quality. The Richter log E S- M S relationship, which has been instrumental for deriving the current standard M w formula, could be very well reproduced with orthogonally regressed M S(20) and log E S data, provided that the latter were not corrected for source mechanism-dependent radiation. In contrast, the relationships between old and modern m B-log E S as well as m B- M S(20) data pairs deviate significantly from the respective Gutenberg and Richter relationships. Also the average E S/ M 0 ratio assumed by Kanamori when deriving his M w formula differs from those of respective recent data sets. But the various differences between old and new data and data relationships compensate each other partially when deriving related M w and M e formulas. Therefore, they do not justify the modification of the existing scaling formulas, also for very pragmatic reasons. On the other hand, most striking is the so far not yet considered and by far best correlation that exists between the IASPEI body-wave magnitude standard m B(BB) and seismic energy E S, both estimated via P wave broadband records. The scatter of the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tel, E.; Akca, S.; Kara, A.; Yiğit, M.; Aydın, A.
2013-10-01
Iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) are important fusion structural materials in reactor technology. The gas production in the metallic structure arising from many different types of nuclear reactions has been a significant damage mechanism in structural components of fusion reactors. The hydrogen and its isotopes at high temperatures leave out of the metallic lattice but the alpha (α) particles that remain in the lattice generate helium (He) gas bubbles. In other words, the α particles can cause serious changes in the physical and mechanical properties of the fusion structural materials. In this study, the excitation functions of 54,57Fe(p,α) and 58,60,61,64Ni(p,α) reactions have been investigated in the incident proton energy range of 10-40 MeV to estimate the radiation damage effects on fusion structural materials used in the construction of the first walls and core of the reactor. The calculations of (p,α) reaction cross sections on 54,57Fe and 58,60,61,64Ni have been made by using PCROSS code and CEM95 code. The full exciton and cascade exciton model (CEM95) for pre-equilibrium calculations and Weisskopf-Ewing model for equilibrium calculations are used. Besides, the semi-empirical cross section formula with new coefficient obtained by Tel et al. (Pramana J Phys 74:931-943, 2010) has been applied for (p,α) reactions at 17.9 MeV proton incident energy.
Empirical Solar Abundance Scaling Laws of Supernova {gamma} Process Isotopes
Hayakawa, Takehito; Iwamoto, Nobuyuki; Kajino, Toshitaka; Shizum, Toshiyuki; Umeda, Hideyuki; Nomoto, Ken'Ichi
2008-11-11
Analyzing the solar system abundances, we have found two empirical abundance scaling laws concerning the p- and s-nuclei with the same atomic number. They are evidence that the 27 p-nuclei are synthesized by the supernova {gamma}-process. The scalings lead to a novel concept of 'universality of {gamma}-process' that the s/p and p/p ratios of nuclei produced by individual {gamma}-processes are almost constant, respectively. We have calculated the ratios of materials produced by the {gamma}-process based on core-collapse supernova explosion models under various astrophysical conditions and found that the scalings hold for individual {gamma}-processes independent of the conditions assumed. The results further suggest an extended universality that the s/p ratios in the {gamma}-process layers are not only constant but also centered on a specific value of 3. With this specific value and the scaling of the s/p ratios, we estimate that the ratios of the s-process abundance contributions from the AGB stars to the massive stars are almost 6.7 for the s-nuclei of A>90 in the solar system.
Transport simulations of ITER with empirical heat diffusivity scaling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, G.
1998-02-01
Radiative mantle scenarios of the ignited ITER Engineering Design Activity (EDA) with argon and neon influxing are explored by computer experiments using special versions of the 1.5 dimensional (1.5-D) BALDUR predictive transport code. An empirical scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity, compatible with the ITERH92-P ELMy H mode scaling and validated against experiments, is applied. The prescribed flat density profiles, conductive heat loss across the separatrix of 200 MW and ratio τ*He/ τE,r of 10 are reached in the simulations. Self-sustained thermonuclear burn is achieved for at least 485 s. The helium ash concentrations of up to 9.5% are found to cause significant fuel dilution. Owing to the high electron density, only small argon and neon fractions of 0.07 and 0.27%, respectively, are needed. In the argon scenario, the required radiation corrected thermal energy confinement time τE,r is 4.8 s. The confinement time predicted by the local scaling law is 1.4 times longer and agrees with the global scaling prediction. With argon, the design parameters are reached by radiating 128 MW within the separatrix, thus reducing the energy flow to the divertor to 73 MW. In the neon case with its more peripheral radiation, the radiative loss within the separatrix has to be diminished. Owing to the flat profile of the fuel ion density, the neoclassical drift velocities of argon and neon are directed outwards in the whole plasma. In the argon scenario, the sensitivity of transport to the density profile shape is studied. It is found that τE,r remains almost unchanged, varying between 4.5 and 4.8 s, which is explained by an analytic expression for the thermal energy. Peaking of the electron and impurity densities does not alter the required argon concentration but causes a peaking of the radiation profiles and reduction in the temperatures. Sufficiently narrow fuel ion density profiles are shown to cause inward directed neoclassical drift velocities of argon in the
Scaling formulae for FEL operating in linear and non linear regime
Dattoli, G.; Mezi, L.; Segreto, A.
1995-12-31
Scaling relations for the FEL gain, including the e-beam quality effects, have been usefully exploited to design FEL devices. We propose further extension of the above formulae including high gain, inhomogeneous broadening and saturation effects. A crucial role to get these relations is the use of approximant methods generalizing the Pade procedure. We derive gain equations containing the corrections due to energy spread, emittances and field intensity. It is shown that these equations can be exploited to {open_quotes}simulate{close_quotes} the FEL evolution with an almost negligible computational effort. Comments on the role of the saturation intensity and its dependence on the e-beam quality, high gain corrections etc. are also presented.
Scaling up explanation generation: Large-scale knowledge bases and empirical studies
Lester, J.C.; Porter, B.W.
1996-12-31
To explain complex phenomena, an explanation system must be able to select information from a formal representation of domain knowledge, organize the selected information into multisentential discourse plans, and realize the discourse plans in text. Although recent years have witnessed significant progress in the development of sophisticated computational mechanisms for explanation, empirical results have been limited. This paper reports on a seven year effort to empirically study explanation generation from semantically rich, large-scale knowledge bases. We first describe Knight, a robust explanation system that constructs multi-sentential and multi-paragraph explanations from the Biology Knowledge Base, a large-scale knowledge base in the domain of botanical anatomy, physiology, and development. We then introduce the Two Panel evaluation methodology and describe how Knight`s performance was assessed with this methodology in the most extensive empirical evaluation conducted on an explanation system. In this evaluation, Knight scored within {open_quotes}half a grade{close_quote} of domain experts, and its performance exceeded that of one of the domain experts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Lima, Isabel; Lovejoy, Shaun
2016-04-01
The characterization of precipitation scaling regimes represents a key contribution to the improved understanding of space-time precipitation variability, which is the focus here. We conduct space-time scaling analyses of spectra and Haar fluctuations in precipitation, using three global scale precipitation products (one instrument based, one reanalysis based, one satellite and gauge based), from monthly to centennial scales and planetary down to several hundred kilometers in spatial scale. Results show the presence - similarly to other atmospheric fields - of an intermediate "macroweather" regime between the familiar weather and climate regimes: we characterize systematically the macroweather precipitation temporal and spatial, and joint space-time statistics and variability, and the outer scale limit of temporal scaling. These regimes qualitatively and quantitatively alternate in the way fluctuations vary with scale. In the macroweather regime, the fluctuations diminish with time scale (this is important for seasonal, annual, and decadal forecasts) while anthropogenic effects increase with time scale. Our approach determines the time scale at which the anthropogenic signal can be detected above the natural variability noise: the critical scale is about 20 - 40 yrs (depending on the product, on the spatial scale). This explains for example why studies that use data covering only a few decades do not easily give evidence of anthropogenic changes in precipitation, as a consequence of warming: the period is too short. Overall, while showing that precipitation can be modeled with space-time scaling processes, our results clarify the different precipitation scaling regimes and further allow us to quantify the agreement (and lack of agreement) of the precipitation products as a function of space and time scales. Moreover, this work contributes to clarify a basic problem in hydro-climatology, which is to measure precipitation trends at decadal and longer scales and to
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Porfeli, Erik J.; Richard, George V.; Savickas, Mark L.
2010-01-01
An empirical measurement model for interest inventory construction uses internal criteria whereas an inductive measurement model uses external criteria. The empirical and inductive measurement models are compared and contrasted and then two models are assessed through tests of the effectiveness and economy of scales for the Medical Specialty…
Metabolic scaling in animals: methods, empirical results, and theoretical explanations.
White, Craig R; Kearney, Michael R
2014-01-01
Life on earth spans a size range of around 21 orders of magnitude across species and can span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude within species of animal. The effect of size on physiology is, therefore, enormous and is typically expressed by how physiological phenomena scale with mass(b). When b ≠ 1 a trait does not vary in direct proportion to mass and is said to scale allometrically. The study of allometric scaling goes back to at least the time of Galileo Galilei, and published scaling relationships are now available for hundreds of traits. Here, the methods of scaling analysis are reviewed, using examples for a range of traits with an emphasis on those related to metabolism in animals. Where necessary, new relationships have been generated from published data using modern phylogenetically informed techniques. During recent decades one of the most controversial scaling relationships has been that between metabolic rate and body mass and a number of explanations have been proposed for the scaling of this trait. Examples of these mechanistic explanations for metabolic scaling are reviewed, and suggestions made for comparing between them. Finally, the conceptual links between metabolic scaling and ecological patterns are examined, emphasizing the distinction between (1) the hypothesis that size- and temperature-dependent variation among species and individuals in metabolic rate influences ecological processes at levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere and (2) mechanistic explanations for metabolic rate that may explain the size- and temperature-dependence of this trait. PMID:24692144
Metabolic scaling in animals: methods, empirical results, and theoretical explanations.
White, Craig R; Kearney, Michael R
2014-01-01
Life on earth spans a size range of around 21 orders of magnitude across species and can span a range of more than 6 orders of magnitude within species of animal. The effect of size on physiology is, therefore, enormous and is typically expressed by how physiological phenomena scale with mass(b). When b ≠ 1 a trait does not vary in direct proportion to mass and is said to scale allometrically. The study of allometric scaling goes back to at least the time of Galileo Galilei, and published scaling relationships are now available for hundreds of traits. Here, the methods of scaling analysis are reviewed, using examples for a range of traits with an emphasis on those related to metabolism in animals. Where necessary, new relationships have been generated from published data using modern phylogenetically informed techniques. During recent decades one of the most controversial scaling relationships has been that between metabolic rate and body mass and a number of explanations have been proposed for the scaling of this trait. Examples of these mechanistic explanations for metabolic scaling are reviewed, and suggestions made for comparing between them. Finally, the conceptual links between metabolic scaling and ecological patterns are examined, emphasizing the distinction between (1) the hypothesis that size- and temperature-dependent variation among species and individuals in metabolic rate influences ecological processes at levels of organization from individuals to the biosphere and (2) mechanistic explanations for metabolic rate that may explain the size- and temperature-dependence of this trait.
Cooperstock, F.I.
1982-06-15
The analysis of the field equations and the conservation laws is extended into the skin boundary region which maintains the initially static configuration of the two fluid spheres. Although this leads to a correction of the gravitational-radiation energy-loss rate from a dependence of Eapprox...cap alpha../sup -4/rho/sub 0/ /sup -4/ to ..cap alpha../sup -6/rho/sub 0/ /sup -2/, the importance of the nonlinear structure-dependent terms remain and the essential conclusion, that the quadrupole formula does not apply to this problem, is unaltered. The hydrodynamic, stress-breaking, and free-fall time scales are considered. It is shown that insofar as the quadrupole-formula comparison for free-fall is concerned, only the contribution from bulk motion of the fluid spheres need be considered since tidal quadrupole deformation contributes negligibly to the quadrupole formula. With reference to our problem, it is shown that a recent derivation of the quadrupole formula for free-fall is incorrect and it is suggested that certain other derivations may be applicable only to the radiation damping of a single body.
Silvestre-Alcantara, Whasington; Bhuiyan, Lutful Bari; Henderson, Douglas
2010-05-13
The electrochemical double layer is an important practical and theoretical problem. Generally speaking, experiment gives valuable information about quantities, such as potential differences, that involve integrals of density and charge profiles but does not provide direct information about the profiles themselves. Computer simulations have given numerical information about these profiles. However, explicit expressions are useful in understanding these data. For some years an exact expression has been known for the contact value of total density profile of the ions in the double layer but, until recently, an expression for the contact value of the more important charge profile has been lacking. A few years ago, a semi-empirical local result for the charge profile, valid at low electrode charge, was proposed and, very recently, extended to higher electrode charge. This expression contains a parameter; the effect of variations in this parameter is explored in this paper and the result is compared with a large set of simulation data for the contact values of various profiles that we have accumulated in the past few years. The agreement of the semi-empirical expression with our simulation results is excellent. The best values for this parameter are fairly close to the value suggested by theory.
Silvestre-Alcantara, Whasington; Henderson, Douglas
2010-01-01
The electrochemical double layer is an important practical and theoretical problem. Generally speaking, experiment gives valuable information about quantities, such as potential differences, that involve integrals of density and charge profiles but does not provide direct information about the profiles themselves. Computer simulations have given numerical information about these profiles. However, explicit expressions are useful in understanding these data. For some years an exact expression has been known for the contact value of total density profile of the ions in the double layer but, until recently, an expression for the contact value of the more important charge profile has been lacking. A few years ago, a semi-empirical local result for the charge profile, valid at low electrode charge, was proposed and, very recently, extended to higher electrode charge. This expression contains a parameter; the effect of variations in this parameter is explored in this paper and the result is compared with a large set of simulation data for the contact values of various profiles that we have accumulated in the past few years. The agreement of the semi-empirical expression with our simulation results is excellent. The best values for this parameter are fairly close to the value suggested by theory. PMID:20543999
An Empirical Comparison of Factor, Image, Component, and Scale Scores.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fava, Joseph L.; Velicer, Wayne F.
1992-01-01
Principal component, image component, three types of factor score estimates, and one scale score method were compared over different levels of variables, saturations, sample sizes, variable to component ratios, and pattern rotations. There were virtually no overall differences among methods, with the average correlation between matched scores…
The Empirical Development of the Normative Message Processing Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aune, R. Kelly; Reynolds, Rodney A.
1994-01-01
Reports on five studies on the development, conceptual validation, and behavioral validation of the Normative Message Processing Scale (NMPS). Compares the conceptual and predictive validity of the NMPS to related trait information-processing instruments. Argues for the need to develop an instrument that distinguishes between the tendency to…
Empirical analysis of scaling and fractal characteristics of outpatients
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Li-Jiang; Liu, Zi-Xian; Guo, Jin-Li
2014-01-01
The paper uses power-law frequency distribution, power spectrum analysis, detrended fluctuation analysis, and surrogate data testing to evaluate outpatient registration data of two hospitals in China and to investigate the human dynamics of systems that use the “first come, first served” protocols. The research results reveal that outpatient behavior follow scaling laws. The results also suggest that the time series of inter-arrival time exhibit 1/f noise and have positive long-range correlation. Our research may contribute to operational optimization and resource allocation in hospital based on FCFS admission protocols.
Scaling Behavior in Economics: I. Empirical Results for Company Growth
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunes Amaral, Luís A.; Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Havlin, Shlomo; Leschhorn, Heiko; Maass, Philipp; Salinger, Michael A.; Stanley, H. Eugene; Stanley, Michael H. R.
1997-04-01
We address the question of the growth of firm size. To this end, we analyze the Compustat data base comprising all publicly-traded United States manufacturing firms within the years 1974-1993. We find that the distribution of firm sizes remains stable for the 20 years we study, i.e., the mean value and standard deviation remain approximately constant. We study the distribution of sizes of the “new” companies in each year and find it to be well approximated by a log-normal. We find (i) the distribution of the logarithm of the growth rates, for a fixed growth period of one year, and for companies with approximately the same size S, display an exponential form, and (ii) the fluctuations in the growth rates measured by the width of this distribution σ_1 scale as a power with S, σ_1sim S^{-β}. We find that the exponent β takes the same value, within the error bars, for several measures of the size of a company. In particular, we obtain: β = 0.20± 0.03 for sales, β = 0.18± 0.03 for number of employees, β = 0.18± 0.03 for assets, β = 0.18± 0.03 for cost of goods sold, and β = 0.20± 0.03 for property, plant, and equipment.
Empirical study on structural properties in temporal networks under different time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Duanbing
2015-12-01
Many network analyzing methods are usually based on static networks. However, temporal networks should be considered so as to investigate real complex systems deeply since some dynamics on these systems cannot be described by static networks accurately. In this paper, four structural properties in temporal networks are empirically studied, including degree, clustering coefficient, adjacent correlation, and connected component. Three real temporal networks with different time scales are analyzed in this paper, including short message, telephone, and router networks. Moreover, structural properties of these temporal networks are compared with that of corresponding static aggregation networks in the whole time window. Some essential differences of structural properties between temporal and static networks are achieved through empirical analysis. Finally, the effect of structural properties on spreading dynamics under different time scales is investigated. Some interesting results such as turning point of structure evolving time scale corresponding to certain spreading dynamics time scale from the point of view of infected scale are achieved.
Is there empirical evidence for decreasing returns to scale in a health capital model?
Galama, Titus J.; Hullegie, Patrick; Meijer, Erik; Outcault, Sarah
2012-01-01
We estimate a health investment equation, derived from a health capital model that is an extension of the well-known Grossman model. Of particular interest is whether the health production function has constant returns to scale, as in the standard Grossman model, or decreasing returns to scale, as in the Ehrlich-Chuma model and extensions thereof. The model with decreasing returns to scale has a number of theoretically and empirically desirable characteristics that the constant returns model does not have. Although our empirical equation does not point-identify the decreasing returns to scale curvature parameter, it does allow us to test for constant versus decreasing returns to scale. The results are suggestive of decreasing returns and in line with prior estimates from the literature. But when we attempt to control for the endogeneity of health by using instrumental variables, the results become inconclusive. This brings into question the robustness of prior estimates in this literature. PMID:22628203
Nieto, Jake A.; Yamin, Michael A.; Goldberg, Itzhak D.
2016-01-01
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is associated with progressive enlargement of the kidneys fuelled by the formation and expansion of fluid-filled cysts. The disease is congenital and children that do not succumb to it during the neonatal period will, by age 10 years, more often than not, require nephrectomy+renal replacement therapy for management of both pain and renal insufficiency. Since increasing cystic index (CI; percent of kidney occupied by cysts) drives both renal expansion and organ dysfunction, management of these patients, including decisions such as elective nephrectomy and prioritization on the transplant waitlist, could clearly benefit from serial determination of CI. So also, clinical trials in ARPKD evaluating the efficacy of novel drug candidates could benefit from serial determination of CI. Although ultrasound is currently the imaging modality of choice for diagnosis of ARPKD, its utilization for assessing disease progression is highly limited. Magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography, although more reliable for determination of CI, are expensive, time-consuming and somewhat impractical in the pediatric population. Using a well-established mammalian model of ARPKD, we undertook a big data-like analysis of minimally- or non-invasive blood and urine biomarkers of renal injury/dysfunction to derive a family of equations for estimating CI. We then applied a signal averaging protocol to distill these equations to a single empirical formula for calculation of CI. Such a formula will eventually find use in identifying and monitoring patients at high risk for progressing to end-stage renal disease and aid in the conduct of clinical trials. PMID:27695033
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tel, E.; Durgu, C.; Aydın, A.; Bölükdemir, M. H.; Kaplan, A.; Okuducu, Ş.
2009-12-01
In the next century the world will face the need for new energy sources. Nuclear fusion can be one of the most attractive sources of energy from the viewpoint of safety and minimal environmental impact. Fusion will not produce CO2 or SO2 and thus will not contribute to global warming or acid rain. Achieving acceptable performance for a fusion power system in the areas of economics, safety and environmental acceptability, is critically dependent on performance of the blanket and diverter systems which are the primary heat recovery, plasma purification, and tritium breeding systems. Tritium self-sufficiency must be maintained for a commercial power plant. The hybrid reactor is a combination of the fusion and fission processes. For self-sustaining (D-T) fusion driver tritium breeding ratio should be greater than 1.05. So working out the systematics of ( n, t) reaction cross-sections are of great importance for the definition of the excitation function character for the given reaction taking place on various nuclei at energies up to 20 MeV. In this study, we have calculated non-elastic cross-sections by using optical model for ( n, t) reactions at 14-15 MeV energy. We have investigated the excitation function character and reaction Q-values depending on the asymmetry term effect for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have obtained new coefficients for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections. We have suggested semi-empirical formulas including optical model nonelastic effects by fitting two parameters for the ( n, t) reaction cross-sections at 14-15 MeV. We have discussed the odd-even effect and the pairing effect considering binding energy systematic of the nuclear shell model for the new experimental data and new cross-sections formulas ( n, t) reactions developed by Tel et al. We have determined a different parameter groups by the classification of nuclei into even-even, even-odd and odd-even for ( n, t) reactions cross-sections. The obtained cross-section formulas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Garavan, Thomas N.; Carbery, Ronan; O'Malley, Grace; O'Donnell, David
2010-01-01
Much remains unknown in the increasingly important field of e-learning in organizations. Drawing on a large-scale survey of employees (N = 557) who had opportunities to participate in voluntary e-learning activities, the factors influencing participation in e-learning are explored in this empirical paper. It is hypothesized that key variables…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stewart, Jeffrey; Batty, Aaron Olaf; Bovee, Nicholas
2012-01-01
Second language vocabulary acquisition has been modeled both as multidimensional in nature and as a continuum wherein the learner's knowledge of a word develops along a cline from recognition through production. In order to empirically examine and compare these models, the authors assess the degree to which the Vocabulary Knowledge Scale (VKS;…
... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...
The scale-dependent market trend: Empirical evidences using the lagged DFA method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Daye; Kou, Zhun; Sun, Qiankun
2015-09-01
In this paper we make an empirical research and test the efficiency of 44 important market indexes in multiple scales. A modified method based on the lagged detrended fluctuation analysis is utilized to maximize the information of long-term correlations from the non-zero lags and keep the margin of errors small when measuring the local Hurst exponent. Our empirical result illustrates that a common pattern can be found in the majority of the measured market indexes which tend to be persistent (with the local Hurst exponent > 0.5) in the small time scale, whereas it displays significant anti-persistent characteristics in large time scales. Moreover, not only the stock markets but also the foreign exchange markets share this pattern. Considering that the exchange markets are only weakly synchronized with the economic cycles, it can be concluded that the economic cycles can cause anti-persistence in the large time scale but there are also other factors at work. The empirical result supports the view that financial markets are multi-fractal and it indicates that deviations from efficiency and the type of model to describe the trend of market price are dependent on the forecasting horizon.
Fremont, F.; Hajaji, A.; Chesnel, J.-Y.
2006-11-15
Collisions between electrons and various molecular targets (H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, C{sub 3}H{sub 4}, N{sub 2}) at projectile energies above the K-shell ionization threshold of the molecule have been investigated experimentally. From electron emission spectra, relative total ionization cross section {sigma}{sub t} and K-shell ionization cross section {sigma}{sub K} are determined. The ratio {sigma}{sub K}/{sigma}{sub t} is then deduced for each target as a function of the projectile energy and compared with those evaluated in the case of atomic targets. Strong differences between atomic and molecular targets are observed in the slope of the ratio at the highest projectile energies. These differences are explained using the well-known Kim-Rudd formula developed for atomic targets. In the projectile energy range we explored, we develop a simple empirical scaling law for the ratio {sigma}{sub K}/{sigma}{sub t} as a function of the projectile energy.
Theoretical and empirical scale dependency of Z-R relationships: Evidence, impacts, and correction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verrier, Sébastien; Barthès, Laurent; Mallet, Cécile
2013-07-01
Estimation of rainfall intensities from radar measurements relies to a large extent on power-laws relationships between rain rates R and radar reflectivities Z, i.e., Z = a*R^b. These relationships are generally applied unawarely of the scale, which is questionable since the nonlinearity of these relations could lead to undesirable discrepancies when combined with scale aggregation. Since the parameters (a,b) are expectedly related with drop size distribution (DSD) properties, they are often derived at disdrometer scale, not at radar scale, which could lead to errors at the latter. We propose to investigate the statistical behavior of Z-R relationships across scales both on theoretical and empirical sides. Theoretically, it is shown that claimed multifractal properties of rainfall processes could constrain the parameters (a,b) such that the exponent b would be scale independent but the prefactor a would be growing as a (slow) power law of time or space scale. In the empirical part (which may be read independently of theoretical considerations), high-resolution disdrometer (Dual-Beam Spectropluviometer) data of rain rates and reflectivity factors are considered at various integration times comprised in the range 15 s - 64 min. A variety of regression techniques is applied on Z-R scatterplots at all these time scales, establishing empirical evidence of a behavior coherent with theoretical considerations: a grows as a 0.1 power law of scale while b decreases more slightly. The properties of a are suggested to be closely linked to inhomogeneities in the DSDs since extensions of Z-R relationships involving (here, strongly nonconstant) normalization parameters of the DSDs seem to be more robust across scales. The scale dependence of simple Z = a*R^b relationships is advocated to be a possible source of overestimation of rainfall intensities or accumulations. Several ways for correcting such scaling biases (which can reach >15-20% in terms of relative error) are suggested
Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua
2016-01-01
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as "the world's first killer" of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a "CVDs pathway" consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334
Liu, Jianling; Mu, Jiexin; Zheng, Chunli; Chen, Xuetong; Guo, Zihu; Huang, Chao; Fu, Yingxue; Tian, Guihua; Shang, Hongcai; Wang, Yonghua
2016-01-01
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) have been regarding as “the world’s first killer” of human beings in recent years owing to the striking morbidity and mortality, the involved molecular mechanisms are extremely complex and remain unclear. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) adheres to the aim of combating complex diseases from an integrative and holistic point of view, which has shown effectiveness in CVDs therapy. However, system-level understanding of such a mechanism of multi-scale treatment strategy for CVDs is still difficult. Here, we developed a system pharmacology approach with the purpose of revealing the underlying molecular mechanisms exemplified by a famous compound saffron formula (CSF) in treating CVDs. First, by systems ADME analysis combined with drug targeting process, 103 potential active components and their corresponding 219 direct targets were retrieved and some key interactions were further experimentally validated. Based on this, the network relationships among active components, targets and diseases were further built to uncover the pharmacological actions of the drug. Finally, a “CVDs pathway” consisted of several regulatory modules was incorporated to dissect the therapeutic effects of CSF in different pathological features-relevant biological processes. All this demonstrates CSF has multi-scale curative activity in regulating CVD-related biological processes, which provides a new potential way for modern medicine in the treatment of complex diseases. PMID:26813334
Multi-Scale Pixel-Based Image Fusion Using Multivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition
Rehman, Naveed ur; Ehsan, Shoaib; Abdullah, Syed Muhammad Umer; Akhtar, Muhammad Jehanzaib; Mandic, Danilo P.; McDonald-Maier, Klaus D.
2015-01-01
A novel scheme to perform the fusion of multiple images using the multivariate empirical mode decomposition (MEMD) algorithm is proposed. Standard multi-scale fusion techniques make a priori assumptions regarding input data, whereas standard univariate empirical mode decomposition (EMD)-based fusion techniques suffer from inherent mode mixing and mode misalignment issues, characterized respectively by either a single intrinsic mode function (IMF) containing multiple scales or the same indexed IMFs corresponding to multiple input images carrying different frequency information. We show that MEMD overcomes these problems by being fully data adaptive and by aligning common frequency scales from multiple channels, thus enabling their comparison at a pixel level and subsequent fusion at multiple data scales. We then demonstrate the potential of the proposed scheme on a large dataset of real-world multi-exposure and multi-focus images and compare the results against those obtained from standard fusion algorithms, including the principal component analysis (PCA), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and non-subsampled contourlet transform (NCT). A variety of image fusion quality measures are employed for the objective evaluation of the proposed method. We also report the results of a hypothesis testing approach on our large image dataset to identify statistically-significant performance differences. PMID:26007714
Recombination accelerates adaptation on a large-scale empirical fitness landscape in HIV-1.
Moradigaravand, Danesh; Kouyos, Roger; Hinkley, Trevor; Haddad, Mojgan; Petropoulos, Christos J; Engelstädter, Jan; Bonhoeffer, Sebastian
2014-06-01
Recombination has the potential to facilitate adaptation. In spite of the substantial body of theory on the impact of recombination on the evolutionary dynamics of adapting populations, empirical evidence to test these theories is still scarce. We examined the effect of recombination on adaptation on a large-scale empirical fitness landscape in HIV-1 based on in vitro fitness measurements. Our results indicate that recombination substantially increases the rate of adaptation under a wide range of parameter values for population size, mutation rate and recombination rate. The accelerating effect of recombination is stronger for intermediate mutation rates but increases in a monotonic way with the recombination rates and population sizes that we examined. We also found that both fitness effects of individual mutations and epistatic fitness interactions cause recombination to accelerate adaptation. The estimated epistasis in the adapting populations is significantly negative. Our results highlight the importance of recombination in the evolution of HIV-I.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lagubeau, Guillaume; Cobelli, Pablo; Bobinski, Tomasz; Maurel, Agnes; Pagneux, Vincent; Petitjeans, Philippe
2015-11-01
Fringe projection profilometry is an instrument of choice for the instantaneous measurement of the full height map of a free-surface. It is useful to capture interfacial phenomena such as droplet impact and propagation of water waves. We present the Empirical Mode Decomposition Profilometry (EMDP) for the analysis of fringe projection profilometry images. It is based on an iterative filter, using empirical mode decomposition, that is free of spatial filtering and adapted for surfaces characterized by a broadband spectrum of deformation. Examples of such surfaces can be found in nonlinear wave interaction regimes such as wave turbulence in gravity-capillary water waves. We show both numerically and experimentally that using EMDP improves strongly the profilometry small scale capabilities compared to traditionally used Fourier Transform Profilometry. Moreover, the height reconstruction distortion is much lower: the reconstructed height field is now both spectrally and statistically accurate.
Intrinsic multi-scale analysis: a multi-variate empirical mode decomposition framework
Looney, David; Hemakom, Apit; Mandic, Danilo P.
2015-01-01
A novel multi-scale approach for quantifying both inter- and intra-component dependence of a complex system is introduced. This is achieved using empirical mode decomposition (EMD), which, unlike conventional scale-estimation methods, obtains a set of scales reflecting the underlying oscillations at the intrinsic scale level. This enables the data-driven operation of several standard data-association measures (intrinsic correlation, intrinsic sample entropy (SE), intrinsic phase synchrony) and, at the same time, preserves the physical meaning of the analysis. The utility of multi-variate extensions of EMD is highlighted, both in terms of robust scale alignment between system components, a pre-requisite for inter-component measures, and in the estimation of feature relevance. We also illuminate that the properties of EMD scales can be used to decouple amplitude and phase information, a necessary step in order to accurately quantify signal dynamics through correlation and SE analysis which are otherwise not possible. Finally, the proposed multi-scale framework is applied to detect directionality, and higher order features such as coupling and regularity, in both synthetic and biological systems. PMID:25568621
Multi-scale comparison of source parameter estimation using empirical Green's function approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, X.; Cheng, Y.
2015-12-01
Analysis of earthquake source parameters requires correction of path effect, site response, and instrument responses. Empirical Green's function (EGF) method is one of the most effective methods in removing path effects and station responses by taking the spectral ratio between a larger and smaller event. Traditional EGF method requires identifying suitable event pairs, and analyze each event individually. This allows high quality estimations for strictly selected events, however, the quantity of resolvable source parameters is limited, which challenges the interpretation of spatial-temporal coherency. On the other hand, methods that exploit the redundancy of event-station pairs are proposed, which utilize the stacking technique to obtain systematic source parameter estimations for a large quantity of events at the same time. This allows us to examine large quantity of events systematically, facilitating analysis of spatial-temporal patterns, and scaling relationship. However, it is unclear how much resolution is scarified during this process. In addition to the empirical Green's function calculation, choice of model parameters and fitting methods also lead to biases. Here, using two regional focused arrays, the OBS array in the Mendocino region, and the borehole array in the Salton Sea geothermal field, I compare the results from the large scale stacking analysis, small-scale cluster analysis, and single event-pair analysis with different fitting methods to systematically compare the results within completely different tectonic environment, in order to quantify the consistency and inconsistency in source parameter estimations, and the associated problems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piersanti, Mirko; Materassi, Massimo; Spogli, Luca; Cicone, Antonio; Alberti, Tommaso
2016-04-01
Highly irregular fluctuations of the power of trans-ionospheric GNSS signals, namely radio power scintillation, are, at least to a large extent, the effect of ionospheric plasma turbulence, a by-product of the non-linear and non-stationary evolution of the plasma fields defining the Earth's upper atmosphere. One could expect the ionospheric turbulence characteristics of inter-scale coupling, local randomness and high time variability to be inherited by the scintillation on radio signals crossing the medium. On this basis, the remote sensing of local features of the turbulent plasma could be expected as feasible by studying radio scintillation. The dependence of the statistical properties of the medium fluctuations on the space- and time-scale is the distinctive character of intermittent turbulent media. In this paper, a multi-scale statistical analysis of some samples of GPS radio scintillation is presented: the idea is that assessing how the statistics of signal fluctuations vary with time scale under different Helio-Geophysical conditions will be of help in understanding the corresponding multi-scale statistics of the turbulent medium causing that scintillation. In particular, two techniques are tested as multi-scale decomposition schemes of the signals: the discrete wavelet analysis and the Empirical Mode Decomposition. The discussion of the results of the one analysis versus the other will be presented, trying to highlight benefits and limits of each scheme, also under suitably different helio-geophysical conditions.
LETTER: Empirical scaling law for the effective heat diffusivity in ELMy H mode plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Becker, G.
1996-04-01
Predictive code simulations of high density scenarios of ITER and other reactor-grade devices require an experimentally validated scaling relation for the one-fluid effective heat diffusivity chi in the ELMy H mode regime. A comprehensive empirical chi scaling compatible with the ITERH92-P ELMy H mode scaling of the thermal energy confinement time is presented. It follows from a power law ansatz for chi and integration of the single-fluid energy equation and recovers all the exponents of the global confinement law. The numerical factor of the global scaling is used to calibrate the heat diffusivity. The dependences of chi on the temperature and temperature gradient, connected with the power degradation of confinement, are inferred from profile information of a high density H mode discharge. The scaling law obtained is successfully tested against JET, ASDEX and ASDEX Upgrade H mode discharges covering a wide parameter range. It is found to predict the strong rise of the experimental chi profiles with increasing effective radius
An empirical scaling law for improved confinement in reversed-field pinch plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yagi, Y.; Koguchi, H.; Hirano, Y.; Sakakita, H.; Frassinetti, L.
2005-02-01
A database of the confinement properties of the toroidal pinch experiment (TPE) series reversed-field pinch (RFP) devices was established, and an empirical scaling law for the energy confinement time, τE, was deduced for a consistently selected set of the database (Yagi Y. et al 2003 Nucl. Fusion 43 1787). The scaling for τE [TPE-scaling; \\smash{\\tau _E \\sim a^{1.7} I_p^{0.8} (I_p/N)^{0.3} \\Theta ^{3}} ], in particular, is a power law similar to that predicted on the basis of the tearing modes, as a function of the plasma minor radius (a), plasma current (Ip), and Ip/N, where N is the column density. On the other hand, the TPE-scaling has a strong dependence on the pinch parameter, Θ, namely τE ~ Θ3. Recently, we have investigated the database of the improved confinement in the pulsed poloidal current drive (PPCD). We show that the TPE-scaling agrees well with the improved τE in the PPCD database, because of its strong Θ dependence. Namely, Θ3 is a factor of merit for RFP plasmas. We discuss why this agreement is obtained in spite of the general difference between the underlying transport mechanisms of the standard and PPCD discharges. We also show that this improvement, represented by Θ3, is related to the increase in magnetic shear with Θ.
An empirical model relating U.S. monthly hail occurrence to large-scale meteorological environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allen, John T.; Tippett, Michael K.; Sobel, Adam H.
2015-03-01
An empirical model relating monthly hail occurrence to the large-scale environment has been developed and tested for the United States (U.S.). Monthly hail occurrence for each 1°×1° grid box is defined as the number of hail events that occur there during a month; a hail event consists of a 3 h period with at least one report of hail larger than 1 in. The model is derived using climatological annual cycle data only. Environmental variables are taken from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR; 1979-2012). The model includes four environmental variables convective precipitation, convective available potential energy, storm relative helicity, and mean surface to 90 hPa specific humidity. The model differs in its choice of variables and their relative weighting from existing severe weather indices. The model realistically matches the annual cycle of hail occurrence both regionally and for the contiguous U.S. (CONUS). The modeled spatial distribution is also consistent with the observed hail climatology. However, the westward shift of maximum hail frequency during the summer months is delayed in the model relative to observations, and the model has a lower frequency of hail just east of the Rocky Mountains compared to observations. Year-to-year variability provides an independent test of the model. On monthly and annual time scales, the model reproduces observed hail frequencies. Overall model trends are small compared to observed changes, suggesting that further analysis is necessary to differentiate between physical and nonphysical trends. The empirical hail model provides a new tool for exploration of connections between large-scale climate and severe weather.
Empirical validation of the InVEST water yield ecosystem service model at a national scale.
Redhead, J W; Stratford, C; Sharps, K; Jones, L; Ziv, G; Clarke, D; Oliver, T H; Bullock, J M
2016-11-01
A variety of tools have emerged with the goal of mapping the current delivery of ecosystem services and quantifying the impact of environmental changes. An important and often overlooked question is how accurate the outputs of these models are in relation to empirical observations. In this paper we validate a hydrological ecosystem service model (InVEST Water Yield Model) using widely available data. We modelled annual water yield in 22 UK catchments with widely varying land cover, population and geology, and compared model outputs with gauged river flow data from the UK National River Flow Archive. Values for input parameters were selected from existing literature to reflect conditions in the UK and were subjected to sensitivity analyses. We also compared model performance between precipitation and potential evapotranspiration data sourced from global- and UK-scale datasets. We then tested the transferability of the results within the UK by additional validation in a further 20 catchments. Whilst the model performed only moderately with global-scale data (linear regression of modelled total water yield against empirical data; slope=0.763, intercept=54.45, R(2)=0.963) with wide variation in performance between catchments, the model performed much better when using UK-scale input data, with closer fit to the observed data (slope=1.07, intercept=3.07, R(2)=0.990). With UK data the majority of catchments showed <10% difference between measured and modelled water yield but there was a minor but consistent overestimate per hectare (86m(3)/ha/year). Additional validation on a further 20 UK catchments was similarly robust, indicating that these results are transferable within the UK. These results suggest that relatively simple models can give accurate measures of ecosystem services. However, the choice of input data is critical and there is a need for further validation in other parts of the world. PMID:27395076
Li, Yang; Shi, Xinyuan; Wu, Zhisheng; Guo, Mingye; Xu, Bing; Pan, Xiaoning; Ma, Qun; Qiao, Yanjiang
2015-01-01
Background: Extraction process of dried flowers of formula particles should be investigated from lab investigation to pilot-scale because of good water absorbing capacity and obscure active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) dissolution. Objective: Reliable analysis of on-line near-infrared (NIR) technique and novel application in fascinating modern, traditional Chinese medicine production (formula particles) was proved. Materials and Methods: The extraction process of Sophora japonica L. (formula particles) was used as an example, the rutin was regarded as API. On-line NIR technology was used to monitor the variation of rutin in the extraction process. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method to determine the content of rutin during the extraction process. The sample set was selected by Kennard-Stone (KS) algorithm. Different pretreatment methods were compared. The synergy interval partial least square (SiPLS) algorithm was applied. Chemometrics indicators and multivariate detection limits method were mutually used to assess the model. Results: According to both errors α (0.05) and β (0.05), rutin content could be detected by on-line NIR, which was more than 0.181 mg/mL. Conclusions: This work demonstrated the feasibility of NIR for on-line determination of rutin in the pilot-scale extraction process of S. japonica. L. It provided technical support for the NIR application in the extraction process of formula particles. PMID:25709204
Wang, W. X.; Hahm, T. S.; Ethier, S.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.; Lee, W. W.; Diamond, P. H.
2011-03-20
Toroidal plasma flow driven by turbulent torque associated with nonlinear residual stress generation is shown to recover the observed key features of intrinsic rotation in experiments. Specifically, the turbulence-driven intrinsic rotation scales close to linearly with plasma gradients and the inverse of the plasma current, qualitatively reproducing empirical scalings obtained from a large experimental data base. The effect of magnetic shear on the symmetry breaking in the parallel wavenumber spectrum is identified. The origin of the current scaling is found to be the enhanced kll symmetry breaking induced by increased radial variation of the safety factor as the current decreases. The physics origin for the linear dependence of intrinsic rotation on the pressure gradient comes from the fact that both turbulence intensity and the zonal flow shear, which are two key ingredients for driving the residual stress, are increased with the strength of the turbulence drives, which are R/LTe and R/Lne for the collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM). Highlighted results also include robust radial pinches in toroidal flow, heat and particle transport driven by CTEM turbulence, which emerge "in phase", and are shown to play important roles in determining plasma profiles. Also discussed are experimental tests proposed to validate findings from these gyrokinetic simulations.
Empirical evidence for multi-scaled controls on wildfire size distributions in California
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Povak, N.; Hessburg, P. F., Sr.; Salter, R. B.
2014-12-01
Ecological theory asserts that regional wildfire size distributions are examples of self-organized critical (SOC) systems. Controls on SOC event-size distributions by virtue are purely endogenous to the system and include the (1) frequency and pattern of ignitions, (2) distribution and size of prior fires, and (3) lagged successional patterns after fires. However, recent work has shown that the largest wildfires often result from extreme climatic events, and that patterns of vegetation and topography may help constrain local fire spread, calling into question the SOC model's simplicity. Using an atlas of >12,000 California wildfires (1950-2012) and maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), we fit four different power-law models and broken-stick regressions to fire-size distributions across 16 Bailey's ecoregions. Comparisons among empirical fire size distributions across ecoregions indicated that most ecoregion's fire-size distributions were significantly different, suggesting that broad-scale top-down controls differed among ecoregions. One-parameter power-law models consistently fit a middle range of fire sizes (~100 to 10000 ha) across most ecoregions, but did not fit to larger and smaller fire sizes. We fit the same four power-law models to patch size distributions of aspect, slope, and curvature topographies and found that the power-law models fit to a similar middle range of topography patch sizes. These results suggested that empirical evidence may exist for topographic controls on fire sizes. To test this, we used neutral landscape modeling techniques to determine if observed fire edges corresponded with aspect breaks more often than expected by random. We found significant differences between the empirical and neutral models for some ecoregions, particularly within the middle range of fire sizes. Our results, combined with other recent work, suggest that controls on ecoregional fire size distributions are multi-scaled and likely are not purely SOC. California
O'Connor, Nina R
2009-04-01
Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Jingtian
As transistors, the most basic component of central processing units (CPU) in all electronic products, are scaling down to the nanometer scale, quantum mechanical effects must be studied to investigate their performance. A formalism to treat quantum electronic transport at the nanometer scale based on empirical pseudopotentials is presented in this dissertation. We develop the transport equations and show the expressions to calculate the device characteristics, such as device current and charge density. We apply this formalism to study ballistic transport in a gate-all-around (GAA) silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (FET) with a body-size of 0.39 nm, a gate length of 6.52 nm, and an effective oxide thickness of 0.43 nm. Simulation results show that this device exhibits a subthreshold slope (SS) of ˜66 mV/decade and a drain-induced barrier-lowering of ~2.5 mV/V. This formalism is also applied to assess the ballistic performance of FETs with armchair-edge graphene nanoribbon (aGNRs) and silicon nanowire (SiNWs) channels and with gate lengths ranging from 5 nm to 15 nm. The device characteristics of the transistors with a 5 nm gate length are compared. Source-to-drain tunneling effects are investigated for SiNWFETs and GNRFETs by comparing the I-V characteristics of each respective transistor with different channel lengths. While a uniform dielectric constant is assumed in solving Poisson equation for the devices simulated above, the knowledge of the atomistic (i.e., local) dielectric permittivity that considers the atomistic electron distribution and quantum-confinement effect is necessary to treat the electrostatic properties accurately. The local permittivity can also provide information about the dielectric property at the interfaces. We use the random-phase approximation, first-order perturbation theory, and empirical pseudopotentials to calculate the static polarizability, susceptibility, and dielectric response function in graphene and GNRs. While the
Empirical behavior of a world stock index from intra-day to monthly time scales
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Breymann, W.; Lüthi, D. R.; Platen, E.
2009-10-01
Most of the papers that study the distributional and fractal properties of financial instruments focus on stock prices or foreign exchange rates. This typically leads to mixed results concerning the distributions of log-returns and some multi-fractal properties of exchange rates, stock prices, and regional indices. This paper uses a well diversified world stock index as the central object of analysis. Such index approximates the growth optimal portfolio, which is demonstrated under the benchmark approach, it is the ideal reference unit for studying basic securities. When denominating this world index in units of a given currency, one measures the movements of the currency against the entire market. This provides a least disturbed observation of the currency dynamics. In this manner, one can expect to disentangle, e.g., the superposition of the two currencies involved in an exchange rate. This benchmark approach to the empirical analysis of financial data allows us to establish remarkable stylized facts. Most important is the observation that the repeatedly documented multi-fractal appearance of financial time series is very weak and much less pronounced than the deviation of the mono-scaling properties from Brownian-motion type scaling. The generalized Hurst exponent H(2) assumes typical values between 0.55 and 0.6. Accordingly, autocorrelations of log-returns decay according to a power law, and the quadratic variation vanishes when going to vanishing observation time step size. Furthermore, one can identify the Student t distribution as the log-return distribution of a well-diversified world stock index for long time horizons when a long enough data series is used for estimation. The study of dependence properties, finally, reveals that jumps at daily horizon originate primarily in the stock market while at 5min horizon they originate in the foreign exchange market. The principal message of the empirical analysis is that there is evidence that a diffusion model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, Katharine K.; Kerns, Karol; Bone, Randall
2001-01-01
The measurement of operational acceptability is important for the development, implementation, and evolution of air traffic management decision support tools. The Controller Acceptance Rating Scale was developed at NASA Ames Research Center for the development and evaluation of the Passive Final Approach Spacing Tool. CARS was modeled after a well-known pilot evaluation rating instrument, the Cooper-Harper Scale, and has since been used in the evaluation of the User Request Evaluation Tool, developed by MITRE's Center for Advanced Aviation System Development. In this paper, we provide a discussion of the development of CARS and an analysis of the empirical data collected with CARS to examine construct validity. Results of intraclass correlations indicated statistically significant reliability for the CARS. From the subjective workload data that were collected in conjunction with the CARS, it appears that the expected set of workload attributes was correlated with the CARS. As expected, the analysis also showed that CARS was a sensitive indicator of the impact of decision support tools on controller operations. Suggestions for future CARS development and its improvement are also provided.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.
2003-12-01
The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.
2014-11-01
In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ≥10 and proton number Z ≥6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guesmia, A.; Ammi, H.; Mammeri, S.; Dib, A.; Pineda-Vargas, C. A.; Msimanga, M.; Hedibel, M.
2014-03-01
We have determined continuous stopping power of heavy ions in thin Formvar foil for 28Si, 27Al and 24Mg ions over an energy range of (0.1-0.5) MeV/nucleon. Heavy Ions Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (HI-ERDA) technique coupled with time of flight (ToF) spectrometer has been used to measure energy loss of charged particles in this thin absorber. Lindhard, Scharff and Schiott (LSS) theory compared with the corresponding determined stopping values in Formvar, shows significantly large deviations. However, a novel semi empirical expression has been proposed here and tested for better stopping power calculations at low velocity in the ion energy domain of LSS theory for 28Si, 27Al and 24Mg ions crossing thin Formvar foil. The results were compared to the obtained experimental stopping power data, predictions of LSS theory and also to those generated by SRIM-2010 computer code. The obtained results exhibit good agreement with experimental data.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin
1997-01-01
Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)
Validation of Empirically Derived Rating Scales for a Story Retelling Speaking Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hirai, Akiyo; Koizumi, Rie
2013-01-01
In recognition of the rating scale as a crucial tool of performance assessment, this study aims to establish a rating scale suitable for a Story Retelling Speaking Test (SRST), which is a semidirect test of speaking ability in English as a foreign language for classroom use. To identify an appropriate scale, three rating scales, all of which have…
Kadono, Keitaro; Akabane, Takafumi; Tabata, Kenji; Gato, Katsuhiko; Terashita, Shigeyuki; Teramura, Toshio
2010-07-01
This study aimed to establish a practical and convenient method of predicting intestinal availability (F(g)) in humans for highly permeable compounds at the drug discovery stage, with a focus on CYP3A4-mediated metabolism. We constructed a "simplified F(g) model," described using only metabolic parameters, assuming that passive diffusion is dominant when permeability is high and that the effect of transporters in epithelial cells is negligible. Five substrates for CYP3A4 (alprazolam, amlodipine, clonazepam, midazolam, and nifedipine) and four for both CYP3A4 and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (nicardipine, quinidine, tacrolimus, and verapamil) were used as model compounds. Observed fraction of drug absorbed (F(a)F(g)) values for these compounds were calculated from in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters, whereas in vitro intestinal intrinsic clearance (CL(int,intestine)) was determined using human intestinal microsomes. The CL(int,intestine) for the model compounds corrected with that of midazolam was defined as CL(m,index) and incorporated into a simplified F(g) model with empirical scaling factor. Regardless of whether the compound was a P-gp substrate, the F(a)F(g) could be reasonably fitted by the simplified F(g) model, and the value of the empirical scaling factor was well estimated. These results suggest that the effects of P-gp on F(a) and F(g) are substantially minor, at least in the case of highly permeable compounds. Furthermore, liver intrinsic clearance (CL(int,liver)) can be used as a surrogate index of intestinal metabolism based on the relationship between CL(int,liver) and CL(m,index). F(g) can be easily predicted using a simplified F(g) model with the empirical scaling factor, enabling more confident selection of drug candidates with desirable PK profiles in humans. PMID:20354105
Empirical models of the eddy heat flux and vertical shear on short time scales
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ghan, S. J.
1984-01-01
An intimate relation exists between the vertical shear and the horizontal eddy heat flux within the atmosphere. In the present investigation empirical means are employed to provide clues concerning the relationship between the shear and eddy heat flux. In particular, linear regression models are applied to individual and joint time series of the shear and eddy heat flux. These discrete models are used as a basis to infer continuous models. A description is provided of the observed relationship between the flux and the shear, taking into account means, standard deviations, and lag correction functions.
A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cramer, Eugene H.
1978-01-01
Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moses, Tim
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study was to consider the relationships of prediction, measurement, and scaling invariance when these invariances were simultaneously evaluated in psychometric test data. An approach was developed to evaluate prediction, measurement, and scaling invariance based on linear and nonlinear prediction, measurement, and scaling…
Empirical Properties of a Scale to Assess Writing Self-Efficacy in School Contexts
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Pajares, Frank
2007-01-01
The psychometric properties of a scale assessing the writing self-efficacy of 1,258 students from Grades 4 to 11 were analyzed with exploratory factor analysis. Two factors emerged, 1 designating basic grammar skills and 1 designating more advanced composition skills. The Writing Self-Efficacy Scale (F. Pajares & G. Valiante, 1999) functioned…
An Empirical Relation between the Large-scale Magnetic Field and the Dynamical Mass in Galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tabatabaei, F. S.; Martinsson, T. P. K.; Knapen, J. H.; Beckman, J. E.; Koribalski, B.; Elmegreen, B. G.
2016-02-01
The origin and evolution of cosmic magnetic fields as well as the influence of the magnetic fields on the evolution of galaxies are unknown. Though not without challenges, the dynamo theory can explain the large-scale coherent magnetic fields that govern galaxies, but observational evidence for the theory is so far very scarce. Putting together the available data of non-interacting, non-cluster galaxies with known large-scale magnetic fields, we find a tight correlation between the integrated polarized flux density, SPI, and the rotation speed, vrot, of galaxies. This leads to an almost linear correlation between the large-scale magnetic field \\bar{B} and vrot, assuming that the number of cosmic-ray electrons is proportional to the star formation rate, and a super-linear correlation assuming equipartition between magnetic fields and cosmic rays. This correlation cannot be attributed to an active linear α-Ω dynamo, as no correlation holds with global shear or angular speed. It indicates instead a coupling between the large-scale magnetic field and the dynamical mass of the galaxies, \\bar{B}˜ \\{M}{{dyn}}0.25-0.4. Hence, faster rotating and/or more massive galaxies have stronger large-scale magnetic fields. The observed \\bar{B}-{v}{{rot}} correlation shows that the anisotropic turbulent magnetic field dominates \\bar{B} in fast rotating galaxies as the turbulent magnetic field, coupled with gas, is enhanced and ordered due to the strong gas compression and/or local shear in these systems. This study supports a stationary condition for the large-scale magnetic field as long as the dynamical mass of galaxies is constant.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nunnallee, Edmund Pierce, Jr.
1980-03-01
This dissertation consists of an investigation into the empirical scaling of a digital echo integrator for assessment of a population of juvenile sockeye salmon in Cultus Lake, British Columbia, Canada. The scaling technique was developed over the last ten years for use with totally uncalibrated but stabilized data collection and analysis equipment, and has been applied to populations of fish over a wide geographical range. This is the first investigation into the sources of bias and the accuracy of the technique, however, and constitutes a verification of the method. The initial section of the investigation describes hydroacoustic data analysis methods for estimation of effective sampling volume which is necessary for estimation of fish density. The second section consists of a computer simulation of effective sample volume estimation by this empirical method and is used to investigate the degree of bias introduced by electronic and physical parameters such as boat speed -fish depth interaction effects, electronic thresholding and saturation, transducer beam angle, fish depth stratification by size and spread of the target strength distribution of the fish. Comparisons of simulation predictions of sample volume estimation bias to actual survey results are given at the end of this section. A verification of the scaling method is then presented by comparison of a hydroacoustically derived estimation of the Cultus Lake smolt population to an independent and concurrent estimate made by counting the migrant fish as they passed through a weir in the outlet stream of the lake. Finally, the effect on conduct and accuracy of hydroacoustic assessment of juvenile sockeye salmon due to several behavioral traits are discussed. These traits include movements of presmolt fish in a lake just prior to their outmigration, daily vertical migrations and the emergence and dispersal of sockeye fry in Cultus Lake. In addition, a comparison of the summer depth preferences of the fish
An Academic Formulas List: New Methods in Phraseology Research
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Simpson-Vlach, Rita; Ellis, Nick C.
2010-01-01
This research creates an empirically derived, pedagogically useful list of formulaic sequences for academic speech and writing, comparable with the Academic Word List (Coxhead 2000), called the Academic Formulas List (AFL). The AFL includes formulaic sequences identified as (i) frequent recurrent patterns in corpora of written and spoken language,…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdul-Aziz, Omar I.; Ishtiaq, Khandker S.
2014-04-01
A scaling-based, data-driven empirical model was developed for robust predictions of the diurnal cycle of stream dissolved oxygen (DO) by utilizing a single reference observation as the scaling parameter. The scaling concept was investigated by predicting hourly DO time-series of May to August from different streams representing four distinct US EPA Level III Ecoregions of Minnesota. Absence of any clear temporal trends or site-specific groupings of model parameters suggested a useful generalization and robustness of the scaled, dimensionless DO model over time and space. DO predicted using seasonal (May-August) averages of site-specific parameters simulated the observed diurnal DO cycles with high accuracy (root-mean-square error based coefficient of variation, CV(RMSE) = 0.07-0.11), superior linear correspondence (correlation coefficient, r = 0.87-0.96), and acceptable efficiency (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency, NSE = 0.58-0.74); the high accuracy predictions of hourly DO for different days with a single set of dimensionless parameters for the entire season underscore the temporal robustness of the scaled DO model. Nearly equivalent predictions were obtained using monthly averages of parameters, reaffirming the temporal robustness of the dimensionless model. Impressive predictions using parameters of independent sites, as well as a set of spatially averaged (i.e., quasi-regional) seasonal parameters, demonstrated spatiotemporally robust model performance. Model robustness was further demonstrated by deriving and quantifying analytical, dynamic sensitivity and uncertainty measures. The research is an example of useful scaling applications in ecohydrological engineering. The relatively robust, empirical DO model can be applied for simulating continuous (e.g., hourly) DO time-series from a single observation (or a set of limited observations) at different stream sites of comparable watershed sizes. The method can also be used to fill-in missing data in observed sub
Enhancing Learning in Introductory Computer Science Courses through SCALE: An Empirical Study
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Verginis, I.; Gogoulou, A.; Gouli, E.; Boubouka, M.; Grigoriadou, M.
2011-01-01
The work presented in this paper aims to support and promote the learning process in introductory computer science courses through the Web-based, adaptive, activity-oriented learning environment known as Supporting Collaboration and Adaptation in a Learning Environment (SCALE). The environment engages students actively in the learning process and…
An Empirical Test of Anchoring the NEP Scale in Environmental Ethics
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noblet, Caroline L.; Anderson, Mark; Teisl, Mario F.
2013-01-01
Some argue that the new ecological paradigm (NEP) scale is incomplete and does not adequately reflect contemporary debates in environmental ethics. We focus on one specific shortcoming of the NEP, its lack of an item to reflect an ecocentric viewpoint. To test this concern, we administered the NEP to three different audiences and included one…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wood, Alex M.; Linley, P. Alex; Maltby, John; Baliousis, Michael; Joseph, Stephen
2008-01-01
This article describes the development of a measure of dispositional authenticity and tests whether authenticity is related to well-being, as predicted by several counseling psychology perspectives. Scales were designed to measure a tripartite conception of authenticity, comprising self-alienation, authentic living, and accepting external…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Ingram, Paul B.; Kelso, Kristy M.; McCord, David M.
2011-01-01
The recent release of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) has received much attention from the clinical psychology community. Particular concerns have focused on Restructured Clinical Scale 3 (RC3; Cynicism). This article briefly reviews the major criticisms and responses regarding the restructuring of…
Work Adjustment Theory: An Empirical Test Using a Fuzzy Rating Scale.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hesketh, Beryl; And Others
1992-01-01
A fuzzy graphic rating scale elicited work preferences and job perceptions of 166 (of 170) Australian bank employees. Correspondence between preferences and perceptions correlated significantly with job satisfaction. Satisfaction and performance related to tenure intentions; this relation was higher for poorer performers. (SK)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Orfanou, Konstantina; Tselios, Nikolaos; Katsanos, Christos
2015-01-01
Perceived usability affects greatly student's learning effectiveness and overall learning experience, and thus is an important requirement of educational software. The System Usability Scale (SUS) is a well-researched and widely used questionnaire for perceived usability evaluation. However, surprisingly few studies have used SUS to evaluate the…
Bolinger, Mark; Seel, Joachim
2015-09-01
Other than the nine Solar Energy Generation Systems (“SEGS”) parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or “utility-scale” solar projects – defined here to include any groundmounted photovoltaic (“PV”), concentrating photovoltaic (“CPV”), or concentrating solar thermal power (“CSP”) project larger than 5 MW_{AC} – existed in the United States prior to 2007. By 2012 – just five years later – utility-scale had become the largest sector of the overall PV market in the United States, a distinction that was repeated in both 2013 and 2014 and that is expected to continue for at least the next few years. Over this same short period, CSP also experienced a bit of a renaissance in the United States, with a number of large new parabolic trough and power tower systems – some including thermal storage – achieving commercial operation. With this critical mass of new utility-scale projects now online and in some cases having operated for a number of years (generating not only electricity, but also empirical data that can be mined), the rapidly growing utility-scale sector is ripe for analysis. This report, the third edition in an ongoing annual series, meets this need through in-depth, annually updated, data-driven analysis of not just installed project costs or prices – i.e., the traditional realm of solar economics analyses – but also operating costs, capacity factors, and power purchase agreement (“PPA”) prices from a large sample of utility-scale solar projects in the United States. Given its current dominance in the market, utility-scale PV also dominates much of this report, though data from CPV and CSP projects are presented where appropriate.
Green, P; Maheshwari, A; Rao, V
1969-04-01
This paper is concerned with: a ) the invariance of nonmetric multi- dimensional scaling soludions over changes in stimulus domain; and b) pro- cedures for assisting the researcher in interpreting the axes of multidimen- sional scaling configurations. The stimuli consisted of the names of 17 popular brands of automobiles. Similarities and preference judgments were obtained from 37 subjects, divided into two groups of approximately equal size. Each group received 11 of the 17 stimuli. A core set of 6 stimuli was common over both groups. Each group also rated the 11 car models on 20 semantic differential scales. Results of the study suggested that the interpoint distances of bhe core set of 5 stimuli remained stable over subject groups and differences in stimulus set composition. Semantic differential ratings were used to find directions in the configurational space (obtained from overall similarity judg- ments) whose projections were maximally correlated with the outside (property) vectors. Stimulus configurations developed from the semantic differential space were highly congruent with those found by the analysis of direct similarity judgments. However, attempts to develop stimulus configurations by the "unfolding" of preference data alone did not lead to configurations which closely matched those found by the analysis of direct similarities data.
LETTER: Empirical scaling of sawtooth period for onset of neoclassical tearing modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chapman, I. T.; Buttery, R. J.; Coda, S.; Gerhardt, S.; Graves, J. P.; Howell, D. F.; Isayama, A.; La Haye, R. J.; Liu, Y.; Maget, P.; Maraschek, M.; Sabbagh, S.; Sauter, O.; ASDEX Upgrade, the; DIII-D; HL-2A; JT-60U; MAST; NSTX; TCV; Tore Supra Teams; Contributors, JET-EFDA
2010-10-01
Experimental observations from a range of tokamaks show that neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) are triggered at lower plasma pressure when the sawtooth period is longer. A multi-machine database from nine tokamaks has been established in order to extrapolate the acceptable sawtooth period to avoid triggering NTMs in ITER. It is found that the governing physics is best compared between machines by normalizing the sawtooth period to the resistive diffusion time and using the normalized beta as a measure of performance and global stability. A multi-parameter power scaling is determined from regression analysis of the complete dataset and compared favourably with experimental data from a number of machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naveed, M.; Moldrup, P.; Schaap, M.; Tuller, M.; Kulkarni, R.; Vögel, H.-J.; Wollesen de Jonge, L.
2015-11-01
Predictions of macropore flow is important for maintaining both soil and water quality as it governs key related soil processes e.g. soil erosion and subsurface transport of pollutants. However, macropore flow currently cannot be reliably predicted at the field scale because of inherently large spatial variability. The aim of this study was to perform field scale characterization of macropore flow and investigate the predictive performance of (1) current empirical models for both water and air flow, and (2) X-ray CT derived macropore network characteristics. For this purpose, 65 cylindrical soil columns (6 cm diameter and 3.5 cm height) were extracted from the topsoil (5 to 8.5 cm depth) in a 15 m × 15 m grid from an agricultural loamy field located in Silstrup, Denmark. All soil columns were scanned with an industrial CT scanner (129 μm resolution) and later used for measurements of saturated water permeability, air permeability and gas diffusivity at -30 and -100 cm matric potentials. Distribution maps for both water and air permeabilities and gas diffusivity reflected no spatial correlation irrespective of the soil texture and organic matter maps. Empirical predictive models for both water and air permeabilities showed poor performance as they were not able to realistically capture macropore flow because of poor correlations with soil texture and bulk density. The tested empirical model predicted well gas diffusivity at -100 cm matric potential, but relatively failed at -30 cm matric potential particularly for samples with biopore flow. Image segmentation output of the four employed methods was nearly the same, and matched well with measured air-filled porosity at -30 cm matric potential. Many of the CT derived macropore network characteristics were strongly interrelated. Most of the macropore network characteristics were also strongly correlated with saturated water permeability, air permeability, and gas diffusivity. The correlations between macropore
The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation
Rosen, L.D.; Whaling, K.; Carrier, L.M.; Cheever, N.A.; Rokkum, J.
2015-01-01
Current approaches to measuring people’s everyday usage of technology-based media and other computer-related activities have proved to be problematic as they use varied outcome measures, fail to measure behavior in a broad range of technology-related domains and do not take into account recently developed types of technology including smartphones. In the present study, a wide variety of items, covering a range of up-to-date technology and media usage behaviors. Sixty-six items concerning technology and media usage, along with 18 additional items assessing attitudes toward technology, were administered to two independent samples of individuals, comprising 942 participants. Factor analyses were used to create 11 usage subscales representing smartphone usage, general social media usage, Internet searching, e-mailing, media sharing, text messaging, video gaming, online friendships, Facebook friendships, phone calling, and watching television in addition to four attitude-based subscales: positive attitudes, negative attitudes, technological anxiety/dependence, and attitudes toward task-switching. All subscales showed strong reliabilities and relationships between the subscales and pre-existing measures of daily media usage and Internet addiction were as predicted. Given the reliability and validity results, the new Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale was suggested as a method of measuring media and technology involvement across a variety of types of research studies either as a single 60-item scale or any subset of the 15 subscales. PMID:25722534
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nicholas, Kimberly
2014-05-01
Climate affects the geographic range, yield, price, and biochemical composition of winegrapes. At the regional scale, historical climate and yield data were successfully used to develop simple models of crop yields using two or three monthly climate parameters for twelve major California crops, including winegrapes. These crop models were used to project the impact of future climate change on crop yields, showing that greater warming would increasingly push highly suitable areas for viticulture outside of their current range. Correlating temperature with price for Pinot noir throughout its growing range in California demonstrated higher prices for grapes grown in cooler climates, whereas prices dropped off rapidly above a ripening temperature threshold, indicating the vulnerability of grape price to climate change. At the vineyard scale, a three-year field study of eleven Pinot noir vineyards in California's North Coast showed that warm temperatures early in the growing season were correlated with increased phenolic compounds (anthocyanins and tannins), which likely benefits wine quality, but warmer periods later in the ripening process appeared to offset these effects. At the microclimate scale, high light intensities were measured on Pinot noir fruit in vertically shoot positioned vineyards, indicating a potential for changing canopy management to provide more optimal ripening conditions. Vineyards are highly managed, and there are many opportunities for viticulturists to shape the micro- and meso-climate that vines experience, thereby influencing the biophysical drivers of terroir through their site selection and vineyard planting and farming choices. An analysis of the precision agriculture and management strategies used by winegrowers in California and Australia showed that growers tend to rely more on short-term farming actions for adapting to environmental stresses; these may have considerable potential to enhance adaptive capacity, and are easier to
Empirical assessment of debris flow risk on a regional scale in Yunnan province, southwestern China.
Liu, Xilin; Yue, Zhong Qi; Tham, Lesliw George; Lee, Chack Fan
2002-08-01
Adopting the definition suggested by the United Nations, a risk model for regional debris flow assessment is presented. Risk is defined as the product of hazard and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for evaluation. A Multiple-Factor Composite Assessment Model is developed for quantifying regional debris flow hazard by taking into account eight variables that contribute to debris flow magnitude and its frequency of occurrence. Vulnerability is a measure of the potential total losses. On a regional scale, it can be measured by the fixed asset, gross domestic product, land resources, population density, as well as the age, education, and wealth of the inhabitants. A nonlinear power-function assessment model that accounts for these indexes is developed. As a case study, the model is applied to compute the hazard, vulnerability and risk for each prefecture of the Yunnan province in southwestern China. PMID:12105765
Attitude Toward Ambiguity: Empirically Robust Factors in Self-Report Personality Scales.
Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua
2016-06-01
Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components.
Attitude Toward Ambiguity: Empirically Robust Factors in Self-Report Personality Scales.
Lauriola, Marco; Foschi, Renato; Mosca, Oriana; Weller, Joshua
2016-06-01
Two studies were conducted to examine the factor structure of attitude toward ambiguity, a broad personality construct that refers to personal reactions to perceived ambiguous stimuli in a variety of context and situations. Using samples from two countries, Study 1 mapped the hierarchical structure of 133 items from seven tolerance-intolerance of ambiguity scales (N = 360, Italy; N = 306, United States). Three major factors-Discomfort with Ambiguity, Moral Absolutism/Splitting, and Need for Complexity and Novelty-were recovered in each country with high replicability coefficients across samples. In Study 2 (N = 405, Italian community sample; N =366, English native speakers sample), we carried out a confirmatory analysis on selected factor markers. A bifactor model had an acceptable fit for each sample and reached the construct-level invariance for general and group factors. Convergent validity with related traits was assessed in both studies. We conclude that attitude toward ambiguity can be best represented a multidimensional construct involving affective (Discomfort with Ambiguity), cognitive (Moral Absolutism/Splitting), and epistemic (Need for Complexity and Novelty) components. PMID:25818603
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Amoroso, Richard L.; Vigier, Jean-Pierre
2013-09-01
In this work we extend Vigier's recent theory of `tight bound state' (TBS) physics and propose empirical protocols to test not only for their putative existence, but also that their existence if demonstrated provides the 1st empirical evidence of string theory because it occurs in the context of large-scale extra dimensionality (LSXD) cast in a unique M-Theoretic vacuum corresponding to the new Holographic Anthropic Multiverse (HAM) cosmological paradigm. Physicists generally consider spacetime as a stochastic foam containing a zero-point field (ZPF) from which virtual particles restricted by the quantum uncertainty principle (to the Planck time) wink in and out of existence. According to the extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal stochastic interpretation of quantum theory spacetime and the matter embedded within it is created annihilated and recreated as a virtual locus of reality with a continuous quantum evolution (de Broglie matter waves) governed by a pilot wave - a `super quantum potential' extended in HAM cosmology to be synonymous with the a `force of coherence' inherent in the Unified Field, UF. We consider this backcloth to be a covariant polarized vacuum of the (generally ignored by contemporary physicists) Dirac type. We discuss open questions of the physics of point particles (fermionic nilpotent singularities). We propose a new set of experiments to test for TBS in a Dirac covariant polarized vacuum LSXD hyperspace suggestive of a recently tested special case of the Lorentz Transformation put forth by Kowalski and Vigier. These protocols reach far beyond the recent battery of atomic spectral violations of QED performed through NIST.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scafetta, Nicola
2012-05-01
We compare the performance of a recently proposed empirical climate model based on astronomical harmonics against all CMIP3 available general circulation climate models (GCM) used by the IPCC (2007) to interpret the 20th century global surface temperature. The proposed astronomical empirical climate model assumes that the climate is resonating with, or synchronized to a set of natural harmonics that, in previous works (Scafetta, 2010b, 2011b), have been associated to the solar system planetary motion, which is mostly determined by Jupiter and Saturn. We show that the GCMs fail to reproduce the major decadal and multidecadal oscillations found in the global surface temperature record from 1850 to 2011. On the contrary, the proposed harmonic model (which herein uses cycles with 9.1, 10-10.5, 20-21, 60-62 year periods) is found to well reconstruct the observed climate oscillations from 1850 to 2011, and it is shown to be able to forecast the climate oscillations from 1950 to 2011 using the data covering the period 1850-1950, and vice versa. The 9.1-year cycle is shown to be likely related to a decadal Soli/Lunar tidal oscillation, while the 10-10.5, 20-21 and 60-62 year cycles are synchronous to solar and heliospheric planetary oscillations. We show that the IPCC GCM's claim that all warming observed from 1970 to 2000 has been anthropogenically induced is erroneous because of the GCM failure in reconstructing the quasi 20-year and 60-year climatic cycles. Finally, we show how the presence of these large natural cycles can be used to correct the IPCC projected anthropogenic warming trend for the 21st century. By combining this corrected trend with the natural cycles, we show that the temperature may not significantly increase during the next 30 years mostly because of the negative phase of the 60-year cycle. If multisecular natural cycles (which according to some authors have significantly contributed to the observed 1700-2010 warming and may contribute to an
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine
2009-01-01
This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…
Readability Formulas as Applied to College Economics Textbooks.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McConnell, Campbell R.
1982-01-01
Determines from empirical information on the application of four readability formulas to a group of widely used college economics textbooks that there is no consistency in the absolute reading levels or the rank orderings of these books. (AEA)
[The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].
Loldrup, Hans-Otto
2011-01-01
During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Atewologun, Ayomide
A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miller, Roy G
1927-01-01
The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.
... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bogdany, Melvin
This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…
Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi
2014-01-01
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi
2014-01-01
The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Fonte, Richard
Formula funding in Illinois reflects decisions on value choices which can be grouped in the categories of enrollment linkage, mission and diversity recognition, equity and fair share, and quality and program improvement. The enrollment linkage of the Illinois formula ties credit hour grants and categorical programs directly to full-time equivalent…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Avdeyeva, Tatyana V.; Tellegen, Auke; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.
2012-01-01
In the present study, the authors explored the meaning of low scores on the MMPI-2/MMPI-2-RF Restructured Clinical (RC) scales. Using responses of a sample of university students (N = 811), the authors examined whether low (T less than 39), within-normal-limits (T = 39-64), and high (T greater than 65) score levels on the RC scales are…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hooker, John; Denker, Katherine
2014-01-01
Higher education has placed an increasingly greater value on assessment. The Learning Loss Scale may be an appropriate tool to assess learning across disciplines. In this paper, we review the culture of assessment, conceptualizations of cognitive learning, the Learning Loss Scale, and a theoretical explanation, and then we test this measure to…
Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding
... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...
Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rygiel, Mary Ann
1982-01-01
Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derot, Jonathan; Schmitt, François Guillaume; Gentilhomme, Valérie; Morin, Pascal
2016-05-01
High-frequency temperature fluctuations recorded in the English Channel are compared using two long-term autonomous underwater monitoring stations at less than 20-min time resolution. Measurements were taken from 2005 to 2011 from two systems 460 km apart in the western and eastern parts of the English Channel. Spectral analysis reveals similar statistical behaviors, with approximate 5/3 spectra and several forcing frequencies in relation to tidal and daily cycles. A co-spectra study reveals a transition scale of 11 days. The influence of this scale is also visible though Time-Dependent Intrinsic Correlation analysis (TDIC)-a recently introduced cross-correlation analysis based on Empirical mode decomposition. This helps to spatialize high-frequency temporal records at a fixed location.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Witharana, Chandi; Civco, Daniel L.
2014-01-01
Multiresolution segmentation (MRS) has proven to be one of the most successful image segmentation algorithms in the geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) framework. This algorithm is relatively complex and user-dependent; scale, shape, and compactness are the main parameters available to users for controlling the algorithm. Plurality of segmentation results is common because each parameter may take a range of values within its parameter space or different combinations of values among parameters. Finding optimal parameter values through a trial-and-error process is commonly practiced at the expense of time and labor, thus, several alternative supervised and unsupervised methods for supervised automatic parameter setting have been proposed and tested. In the case of supervised empirical assessments, discrepancy measures are employed for computing measures of dissimilarity between a reference polygon and an image object candidate. Evidently the reliability of the optimal-parameter prediction heavily relies on the sensitivity of the segmentation quality metric. The idea behind pursuing optimal parameter setting is that, for instance, a given scale setting provides image object candidates different from the other scale setting; thus, by design the supervised quality metric should capture this difference. In this exploratory study, we selected the Euclidean distance 2 (ED2) metric, a recently proposed supervised metric, whose main design goal is to optimize the geometrical discrepancy (potential segmentation error (PSE)) and arithmetic discrepancy between image objects and reference polygons (number-of segmentation ratio (NSR)) in two dimensional Euclidean space, as a candidate to investigate the validity and efficacy of empirical discrepancy measures for finding the optimal scale parameter setting of the MRS algorithm. We chose test image scenes from four different space-borne sensors with varying spatial resolutions and scene contents and systematically
Bolinger, Mark; Weaver, Samantha
2014-09-17
Other than the SEGS I-IX parabolic trough projects built in the 1980s, virtually no large-scale or "utility-scale" solar projects-defined here to include any ground-mounted photovoltaic ("PV"), concentrating photovoltaic ("CPV"), or concentrating solar power ("CSP" or solar thermal) project larger than 5 MW_{AC}-existed in the United States prior to 2007.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.
2005-01-01
The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…
A Large-Scale Empirical Evaluation of Cross-Validation and External Test Set Validation in (Q)SAR.
Gütlein, Martin; Helma, Christoph; Karwath, Andreas; Kramer, Stefan
2013-06-01
(Q)SAR model validation is essential to ensure the quality of inferred models and to indicate future model predictivity on unseen compounds. Proper validation is also one of the requirements of regulatory authorities in order to accept the (Q)SAR model, and to approve its use in real world scenarios as alternative testing method. However, at the same time, the question of how to validate a (Q)SAR model, in particular whether to employ variants of cross-validation or external test set validation, is still under discussion. In this paper, we empirically compare a k-fold cross-validation with external test set validation. To this end we introduce a workflow allowing to realistically simulate the common problem setting of building predictive models for relatively small datasets. The workflow allows to apply the built and validated models on large amounts of unseen data, and to compare the performance of the different validation approaches. The experimental results indicate that cross-validation produces higher performant (Q)SAR models than external test set validation, reduces the variance of the results, while at the same time underestimates the performance on unseen compounds. The experimental results reported in this paper suggest that, contrary to current conception in the community, cross-validation may play a significant role in evaluating the predictivity of (Q)SAR models.
Hansson, H; Lagerkvist, C J
2016-01-01
In this study, we sought to identify empirically the types of use and non-use values that motivate dairy farmers in their work relating to animal welfare of dairy cows. We also sought to identify how they prioritize between these use and non-use values. Use values are derived from productivity considerations; non-use values are derived from the wellbeing of the animals, independent of the present or future use the farmer may make of the animal. In particular, we examined the empirical content and structure of the economic value dairy farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows. Based on a best-worst scaling approach and data from 123 Swedish dairy farmers, we suggest that the economic value those farmers associate with animal welfare of dairy cows covers aspects of both use and non-use type, with non-use values appearing more important. Using principal component factor analysis, we were able to check unidimensionality of the economic value construct. These findings are useful for understanding why dairy farmers may be interested in considering dairy cow welfare. Such understanding is essential for improving agricultural policy and advice aimed at encouraging dairy farmers to improve animal welfare; communicating to consumers the values under which dairy products are produced; and providing a basis for more realistic assumptions when developing economic models about dairy farmers' behavior.
Thannhauser, Theodore W.; Shen, Miaoqing; Sherwood, Robert; Howe, Kevin; Fish, Tara; Yang, Yong; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Sheng
2013-01-01
Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of plant proteins that impacts a large number of important biological processes. Nevertheless, the impacts of differential site occupancy and the nature of specific glycoforms are obscure. Historically, characterization of glycoproteins has been difficult due to the distinct physicochemical properties of the peptidyl and glycan moieties, the variable and dynamic nature of the glycosylation process, their heterogeneous nature, and the low relative abundance of each glycoform. In this study, we explore a new pipeline developed for large-scale empirical identification of N-linked glycoproteins of tomato fruit as part of our ongoing efforts to characterize the tomato secretome. The workflow presented involves a combination of lectin affinity, tryptic digestion, ion-pairing HILIC and precursor ion-driven data dependent MS/MS analysis with a script to facilitate the identification and characterization of occupied N-linked glycosylation sites. A total of 212 glycoproteins were identified in this study, in which 26 glycopeptides from 24 glycoproteins were successfully characterized in just one HILIC fraction. Further precursor ion discovery (PID)-based MS/MS and deglycosylation followed by high accuracy and resolution MS analysis were used to confirm the glycosylation sites and determine site occupancy rates. The workflow reported is robust and capable of producing large amounts of empirical data involving N-linked glycosylation sites and their associated glycoforms. PMID:23580464
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raymond, C. L.; McKenzie, D.
2009-12-01
Disturbances affect biomass accumulation and net primary productivity (NPP) across large landscapes by altering the age-class distribution of the landscape. For fire disturbances specifically, a theoretical age-class distribution can be analytically derived from the mean fire return interval using a negative exponential model. However, to determine the consequences of these ecosystem-specific fire return intervals for biomass accumulation and NPP, it is necessary to quantify age-based carbon dynamics at a similar scale. We used chronosequences of Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) data to fit empirical models of live biomass carbon accumulation and NPP as a function of stand age. Models were fit at both coarse (ecosections) and fine (potential vegetation types) scales for the forested region of Washington, USA. At the ecosection scale, the Western Cascades and the Coastal ecosection had the highest levels of live biomass C (26.8 and 22.0 kg C/m2 respectively). The fitted maximum live biomass C was lower in the Eastern Cascades (12.2 kg C/m2) and lowest in the Okanogan Highlands (7.56 kg C/m2). However, the order of the ecosections differed for the rate at which these maximums were reached. The Coast and Okanogan Highlands reached maximum live biomass more rapidly than the Eastern and Western Cascades. For the fitted NPP models, maximum NPP was highest in the Coastal ecosection (0.699 kg C/m^2/yr), lowest in the Eastern Cascades (0.196 kg C/m^2/yr) and Okanogan Highlands (0.195 kg C/m^2/yr), and intermediate in the Western Cascades (0.397 kg C/m^2/yr). Surprisingly, all ecosections reached maximum NPP at a similar stand age (approximately 80 years). We then developed similar models at the scale of potential vegetation types within ecosections. These age-based patterns of carbon dynamics, in combination with landscape age-class distributions, provide an empirical approach for estimating the impact of wildfire on biomass accumulation and NPP at the ecosystem scale
Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria
2016-01-01
Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane’, an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane’ have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane’ undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources.
Fernández-Llamazares, Álvaro; Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Guèze, Maximilien; Cabeza, Mar; Pyhälä, Aili; Reyes-García, Victoria
2016-01-01
Research on natural resource management suggests that local perceptions form the basis upon which many small-scale societies monitor availability and change in the stock of common-pool natural resources. In contrast, this literature debates whether local perceptions can be effective in guiding the sustainable management of natural resources. With empirical evidence on this matter still highly limited, this work explores the role of local perceptions as drivers of harvesting and management behavior in a small-scale society in Bolivian Amazonia. We conducted structured interviews to capture local perceptions of availability and change in the stock of thatch palm (Geonoma deversa) amongst the Tsimane’, an indigenous society of foragers-horticulturalists (n = 296 adults in 13 villages). We analyzed whether perceptions of availability match estimates of abundance obtained from ecological data and whether differences in perception help to explain harvesting behavior and local management of thatch palm. Perceptions of availability of G. deversa are highly contingent upon the social, economic and cultural conditions within which the Tsimane’ have experienced changes in the availability of the resource, thus giving a better reflection of the historical, rather than of the ecological, dimensions of the changes undergone. While local perceptions might fall short in precision when scrutinized from an ecological standpoint, their importance in informing sustainable management should not be underestimated. Our findings show that most of the harvesting and management actions that the Tsimane’ undertake are, at least partially, shaped by their local perceptions. This paper contributes to the broader literature on natural resource management by providing empirical evidence of the critical role of local perceptions in promoting collective responses for the sustainable management of natural resources. PMID:27660639
Alasaad, S; Soglia, D; Sarasa, M; Soriguer, R C; Pérez, J M; Granados, J E; Rasero, R; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L
2008-12-01
The objective of the present study was to examine the extent of genetic diversity among Sarcoptes scabiei individuals belonging to different skin subunits of the body from individual mangy hosts. Ten microsatellite primers were applied on 44 individual S. scabiei mites from three mangy Iberian ibexes from Sierra Nevada Mountain in Spain. Dendrograms of the mites from the individual Iberian ibexes, showing the proportion of shared alleles between pairs of individual mites representing three skin subpopulations (head, back, and abdomen subunits), allowed the clustering of some mite samples up to their skin subunits. This genetic diversity of S. scabiei at skin-scale did not have the same pattern in all considered hosts: for the first Iberian ibex (Cp1), only mites from the head subunit were grouped together; in the second individual (Cp2), the clustering was detected only for mites from the abdomen subunit; and for the third one (Cp3), only mites from the back subunit were clustered together. Our results suggest that the local colonization dynamics of S. scabiei would have influenced the nonrandom distribution of this ectoparasite, after a single infestation. Another presumable explanation to this skin-scale genetic structure could be the repeated infestations. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of genetic structuring among S. scabiei at individual host skin-scale. Further studies are warranted to highlight determining factors of such trend, but the pattern underlined in the present study should be taken into account in diagnosis and monitoring protocols for studying the population genetic structure and life cycle of this neglected but important ectoparasite. PMID:18758821
Alasaad, S; Soglia, D; Sarasa, M; Soriguer, R C; Pérez, J M; Granados, J E; Rasero, R; Zhu, X Q; Rossi, L
2008-12-01
The objective of the present study was to examine the extent of genetic diversity among Sarcoptes scabiei individuals belonging to different skin subunits of the body from individual mangy hosts. Ten microsatellite primers were applied on 44 individual S. scabiei mites from three mangy Iberian ibexes from Sierra Nevada Mountain in Spain. Dendrograms of the mites from the individual Iberian ibexes, showing the proportion of shared alleles between pairs of individual mites representing three skin subpopulations (head, back, and abdomen subunits), allowed the clustering of some mite samples up to their skin subunits. This genetic diversity of S. scabiei at skin-scale did not have the same pattern in all considered hosts: for the first Iberian ibex (Cp1), only mites from the head subunit were grouped together; in the second individual (Cp2), the clustering was detected only for mites from the abdomen subunit; and for the third one (Cp3), only mites from the back subunit were clustered together. Our results suggest that the local colonization dynamics of S. scabiei would have influenced the nonrandom distribution of this ectoparasite, after a single infestation. Another presumable explanation to this skin-scale genetic structure could be the repeated infestations. To our knowledge, this is the first documentation of genetic structuring among S. scabiei at individual host skin-scale. Further studies are warranted to highlight determining factors of such trend, but the pattern underlined in the present study should be taken into account in diagnosis and monitoring protocols for studying the population genetic structure and life cycle of this neglected but important ectoparasite.
The Formula Essay Reconsidered
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Haluska, Jan
2012-01-01
Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…
The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
March, Robert H.
1993-01-01
Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)
Research Timeline: Formulaic language
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wray, Alison
2013-01-01
Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rendón de la Torre, Stephanie; Kalda, Jaan; Kitt, Robert; Engelbrecht, Jüri
2016-09-01
This paper presents the first topological analysis of the economic structure of an entire country based on payments data obtained from Swedbank. This data set is exclusive in its kind because around 80% of Estonia's bank transactions are done through Swedbank, hence, the economic structure of the country can be reconstructed. Scale-free networks are commonly observed in a wide array of different contexts such as nature and society. In this paper, the nodes are comprised by customers of the bank (legal entities) and the links are established by payments between these nodes. We study the scaling-free and structural properties of this network. We also describe its topology, components and behaviors. We show that this network shares typical structural characteristics known in other complex networks: degree distributions follow a power law, low clustering coefficient and low average shortest path length. We identify the key nodes of the network and perform simulations of resiliency against random and targeted attacks of the nodes with two different approaches. With this, we find that by identifying and studying the links between the nodes is possible to perform vulnerability analysis of the Estonian economy with respect to economic shocks.
Small-Scale Drop-Size Variability: Empirical Models for Drop-Size-Dependent Clustering in Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Marshak, Alexander; Knyazikhin, Yuri; Larsen, Michael L.; Wiscombe, Warren J.
2005-01-01
By analyzing aircraft measurements of individual drop sizes in clouds, it has been shown in a companion paper that the probability of finding a drop of radius r at a linear scale l decreases as l(sup D(r)), where 0 less than or equals D(r) less than or equals 1. This paper shows striking examples of the spatial distribution of large cloud drops using models that simulate the observed power laws. In contrast to currently used models that assume homogeneity and a Poisson distribution of cloud drops, these models illustrate strong drop clustering, especially with larger drops. The degree of clustering is determined by the observed exponents D(r). The strong clustering of large drops arises naturally from the observed power-law statistics. This clustering has vital consequences for rain physics, including how fast rain can form. For radiative transfer theory, clustering of large drops enhances their impact on the cloud optical path. The clustering phenomenon also helps explain why remotely sensed cloud drop size is generally larger than that measured in situ.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glaister, P.
1999-01-01
In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. In a recent article, some of these cases are discussed in detail. However, a single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Turu, Michi
2003-07-01
May we say?, the distribution of all particle masses are "Random" or "Chaos" or "Fractal" or "Bushing" as a whole. We can say perfectly, it is "Bushing". It's looks like a relationship among the masses of galaxy, sun, earth, moon, lunar orbiter. And also like the structure of contents(section, paragraph, item) in books. Generally, mass structures have the power of it's interaction constants. I state a fundamental formulae about particle masses in this purview.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
2005-01-01
First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -ɛ -Δɛ) R1( -ψ -Δψ) R1(ϕ) R1(γ). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are γR = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ϕR = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ψR = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ɛR = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are γR - γI = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ϕR - ϕI = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ψR - ψI = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ɛR - ɛI = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF.
Empirical assessment of a prismatic daylight-redirecting window film in a full-scale office testbed
Thanachareonkit, Anothai; Lee, Eleanor S.; McNeil, Andrew
2013-08-31
Daylight redirecting systems with vertical windows have the potential to offset lighting energy use in deep perimeter zones. Microstructured prismatic window films can be manufactured using low-cost, roll-to-roll fabrication methods and adhered to the inside surface of existing windows as a retrofit measure or installed as a replacement insulating glass unit in the clerestory portion of the window wall. A clear film patterned with linear, 50-250 micrometer high, four-sided asymmetrical prisms was fabricated and installed in the south-facing, clerestory low-e, clear glazed windows of a full-scale testbed facility. Views through the film were distorted. The film was evaluated in a sunny climate over a two-year period to gauge daylighting and visual comfort performance. The daylighting aperture was small (window-towall ratio of 0.18) and the lower windows were blocked off to isolate the evaluation to the window film. Workplane illuminance measurements were made in the 4.6 m (15 ft) deep room furnished as a private office. Analysis of discomfort glare was conducted using high dynamic range imaging coupled with the evalglare software tool, which computes the daylight glare probability and other metrics used to evaluate visual discomfort. The window film was found to result in perceptible levels of discomfort glare on clear sunny days from the most conservative view point in the rear of the room looking toward the window. Daylight illuminance levels at the rear of the room were significantly increased above the reference window condition, which was defined as the same glazed clerestory window but with an interior Venetian blind (slat angle set to the cut-off angle), for the equinox to winter solstice period on clear sunny days. For partly cloudy and overcast sky conditions, daylight levels were improved slightly. To reduce glare, the daylighting film was coupled with a diffusing film in an insulating glazing unit. The diffusing film retained the directionality of the
Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack
1979-01-01
Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)
2014-01-01
Background Despite the evidence showing the promise of HIV treatment as prevention (TasP) in reducing HIV incidence, a variety of ethical questions surrounding the implementation and “scaling up” of TasP have been articulated by a variety of stakeholders including scientists, community activists and government officials. Given the high profile and potential promise of TasP in combatting the global HIV epidemic, an explicit and transparent research priority-setting process is critical to inform ongoing ethical discussions pertaining to TasP. Methods We drew on the Arksey and O’Malley framework for conducting scoping review studies as well as systematic approaches to identifying empirical and theoretical gaps within ethical discussions pertaining to population-level intervention implementation and scale up. We searched the health science database PubMed to identify relevant peer-reviewed articles on ethical and implementation issues pertaining to TasP. We included English language articles that were published after 2009 (i.e., after the emergence of causal evidence within this field) by using search terms related to TasP. Given the tendency for much of the criticism and support of TasP to occur outside the peer-reviewed literature, we also included grey literature in order to provide a more exhaustive representation of how the ethical discussions pertaining to TasP have and are currently taking place. To identify the grey literature, we systematically searched a set of search engines, databases, and related webpages for keywords pertaining to TasP. Results Three dominant themes emerged in our analysis with respect to the ethical questions pertaining to TasP implementation and scale-up: (a) balancing individual- and population-level interests; (b) power relations within clinical practice and competing resource demands within health care systems; (c) effectiveness considerations and socio-structural contexts of HIV treatment experiences within broader
Some special features of Wigner’s mass formula for nuclei
Nurmukhamedov, A. M.
2014-12-15
Experimental data on anomalous values of the empirical function b(A) in Wigner’s mass formula are presented, the application of Student’s t criterion in experimentally proving the restoration of Wigner’s SU(4) symmetry in nuclei is validated, and a physical interpretation of the basic parameter of the empirical function a(A) in Wigner’s mass formula is given.
The Elusive Universal Post-Mortem Interval Formula
Vass, Arpad Alexander
2011-01-01
The following manuscript details our initial attempt at developing universal post-mortem interval formulas describing human decomposition. These formulas are empirically derived from data collected over the last 20 years from the University of Tennessee's Anthropology Research Facility, in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. Two formulas were developed (surface decomposition and burial decomposition) based on temperature, moisture, and the partial pressure of oxygen, as being three of the four primary drivers for human decomposition. It is hoped that worldwide application of these formulas to environments and situations not readily studied in Tennessee will result in interdisciplinary cooperation between scientists and law enforcement personnel that will allow for future refinements of these models leading to increased accuracy.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mayr, Toni; Ulich, Michaela
2009-01-01
Compared with the traditional focus on developmental problems, research on positive development is relatively new. Empirical research in children's well-being has been scarce. The aim of this study was to develop a theoretically and empirically based instrument for practitioners to observe and assess preschool children's well-being in early…
Lyapunov-type inequality for a higher order dynamic equation on time scales.
Sun, Taixiang; Xi, Hongjian
2016-01-01
The purpose of this work is to establish a Lyapunov-type inequality for the following dynamic equation [Formula: see text]on some time scale T under the anti-periodic boundary conditions [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], p is the quotient of two odd positive integers and [Formula: see text] with [Formula: see text]. PMID:27652044
Aluminum concentrations in infant formulae.
Simmer, K; Fudge, A; Teubner, J; James, S L
1990-02-01
The aluminum concentrations in breast milk and in 25 commercially available infant formulae were measured. The mean concentration in breast milk was 49 micrograms/L while concentrations in most of the humanized formulae were less than 500 micrograms/L. Higher concentrations were found in Nan, Prem Enfamil and the three soya formulae. We suggest that all formulae have the potential to be contaminated with aluminium, and to varying degrees in different batches. Until it is known whether aluminium toxicity occurs in normal infants fed these formulae, it seems reasonable to expect manufacturers to routinely measure aluminium and keep aluminium contamination to a minimum. This may be especially important for formula fed to infants with compromised gastrointestinal and renal systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Usowicz, Jerzy, B.; Marczewski, Wojciech; Usowicz, Boguslaw; Lipiec, Jerzy; Lukowski, Mateusz I.
2010-05-01
This paper presents the results of the time series analysis of the soil moisture observed at two test sites Podlasie, Polesie, in the Cal/Val AO 3275 campaigns in Poland, during the interval 2006-2009. The test sites have been selected on a basis of their contrasted hydrological conditions. The region Podlasie (Trzebieszow) is essentially drier than the wetland region Polesie (Urszulin). It is worthwhile to note that the soil moisture variations can be represented as a non-stationary random process, and therefore appropriate analysis methods are required. The so-called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method has been chosen, since it is one of the best methods for the analysis of non-stationary and nonlinear time series. To confirm the results obtained by the EMD we have also used the wavelet methods. Firstly, we have used EMD (analyze step) to decompose the original time series into the so-called Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) and then by grouping and addition similar IMFs (synthesize step) to obtain a few signal components with corresponding temporal scales. Such an adaptive procedure enables to decompose the original time series into diurnal, seasonal and trend components. Revealing of all temporal scales which operates in the original time series is our main objective and this approach may prove to be useful in other studies. Secondly, we have analyzed the soil moisture time series from both sites using the cross-wavelet and wavelet coherency. These methods allow us to study the degree of spatial coherence, which may vary in various intervals of time. We hope the obtained results provide some hints and guidelines for the validation of ESA SMOS data. References: B. Usowicz, J.B. Usowicz, Spatial and temporal variation of selected physical and chemical properties of soil, Institute of Agrophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Lublin 2004, ISBN 83-87385-96-4 Rao, A.R., Hsu, E.-C., Hilbert-Huang Transform Analysis of Hydrological and Environmental Time Series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howard, J. E.
2014-12-01
This study focusses on improving methods of accounting for atmospheric effects on infrasound amplitudes observed on arrays at regional distances in the southwestern United States. Recordings at ranges of 150 to nearly 300 km from a repeating ground truth source of small HE explosions are used. The explosions range in actual weight from approximately 2000-4000 lbs. and are detonated year-round which provides signals for a wide range of atmospheric conditions. Three methods of correcting the observed amplitudes for atmospheric effects are investigated with the data set. The first corrects amplitudes for upper stratospheric wind as developed by Mutschlecner and Whitaker (1999) and uses the average wind speed between 45-55 km altitudes in the direction of propagation to derive an empirical correction formula. This approach was developed using large chemical and nuclear explosions and is tested with the smaller explosions for which shorter wavelengths cause the energy to be scattered by the smaller scale structure of the atmosphere. The second approach isa semi-empirical method using ray tracing to determine wind speed at ray turning heights where the wind estimates replace the wind values in the existing formula. Finally, parabolic equation (PE) modeling is used to predict the amplitudes at the arrays at 1 Hz. The PE amplitudes are compared to the observed amplitudes with a narrow band filter centered at 1 Hz. An analysis is performed of the conditions under which the empirical and semi-empirical methods fail and full wave methods must be used.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizoguchi, Takuya; Biyajima, Minoru
2010-12-01
Using the negative binomial distribution (NBD) and the generalized Glauber-Lachs (GGL) formula, we analyze the data on charged multiplicity distributions with pseudo-rapidity cutoffs η c at 0.9, 2.36, and 7 TeV by ALICE Collaboration and at 0.2, 0.54, and 0.9 TeV by UA5 Collaboration. We confirm that the KNO scaling holds among the multiplicity distributions with η c =0.5 at sqrt{s} = 0.2-2.36 TeV and estimate the energy dependence of a parameter 1/ k in NBD and parameters 1/ k and γ (the ratio of the average value of the coherent hadrons to that of the chaotic hadrons) in the GGL formula. Using empirical formulas for the parameters 1/ k and γ in the GGL formula, we predict the multiplicity distributions with η c =0.5 at 7 and 14 TeV. Data on the second order Bose-Einstein correlations (BEC) at 0.9 TeV by ALICE Collaboration and 0.9 and 2.36 TeV by CMS Collaboration are also analyzed based on the GGL formula. Prediction for the third order BEC at 0.9 and 2.36 TeV are presented. Moreover, the information entropy is discussed.
Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, K. M.; Yu, Z.
2009-10-01
This paper provides empirical formulas for rapidly calculating the resonant frequencies of an orthotropic, rectangular plate with its edges constrained by elastic supports. In particular, the classical boundary condition with guided supports at its edges is considered. Other boundary conditions, such as the guided-free edges, guided-clamped edges and guided-free support edges have also been included in the present study. Simple and closed form empirical formulas have been derived to allow straightforward computations of the modal resonant frequencies. The empirical formulas are based on the analytical results obtained from the Rayleigh-Ritz method. However, the coefficient is determined empirically from the results obtained by other more accurate computational scheme, e.g. finite element method. The method is further generalized to predict the resonant frequencies for general boundary conditions of a square, orthotropic plate.
A Salary Formula for Principals
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gilbert, Michael B.
1975-01-01
When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)
Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Oliver, Bernard M.
1993-01-01
Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)
Formulas for Image Factor Scores
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hakstian, A. Ralph
1973-01-01
Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Evans, Peter O.
1983-01-01
Presents the formula for writing poetry as containing three elements: the content of the poet's mind; the poetic medium--language; and the creative spark that fuses experience and language, or content and medium, into poetry. (MM)
Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding
... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...
Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.
Georgeot, B; Giraud, O
2008-04-01
We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.
A formula for charmonium suppression
Pena, C. Blaschke, D.
2012-07-15
In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex cc-barpotential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain scheme the formula can be applied to describe J/{psi} suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mahitivanichcha, Kanya; Parrish, Thomas
2005-01-01
This article explores possible fiscal incentives associated with various state formulas for allocating special education funds and the degree to which such incentives affect special education. First we review empirical and contextual evidence in the literature that addresses the relationship between funding formulas and special education…
An improved bootstrap current formula for edge pedestal plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hager, Robert; Chang, C.-S.
2014-10-01
An improved version of a bootstrap current formula based on the results of the neoclassical guiding-center particle-in-cell code XGC0 is presented. The original formula improved the accuracy of the predicted bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the ion orbit width can be comparable to the pressure gradient scale length, the passing particle region is narrow, and the ions experience orbit loss. We improved two aspects of this formula. We corrected the asymptotic behavior of the bootstrap current coefficients at higher collisionality from what was inherited from the Sauter formula. We also improved the jumpy aspect-ratio dependence of the transition between an enhanced (NSTX) and reduced (DIII-D) bootstrap current regime found by Koh et al. In addition, we elucidate the physical origins of the improvement and of the difference from a local analysis that includes the importance of finite ion orbit excursion effects on the electron current in the edge pedestal.
Zgarbová, Marie; Otyepka, Michal; Sponer, Jirí; Hobza, Pavel; Jurecka, Petr
2010-09-21
The intermolecular interaction energy components for several molecular complexes were calculated using force fields available in the AMBER suite of programs and compared with Density Functional Theory-Symmetry Adapted Perturbation Theory (DFT-SAPT) values. The extent to which such comparison is meaningful is discussed. The comparability is shown to depend strongly on the intermolecular distance, which means that comparisons made at one distance only are of limited value. At large distances the coulombic and van der Waals 1/r(6) empirical terms correspond fairly well with the DFT-SAPT electrostatics and dispersion terms, respectively. At the onset of electronic overlap the empirical values deviate from the reference values considerably. However, the errors in the force fields tend to cancel out in a systematic manner at equilibrium distances. Thus, the overall performance of the force fields displays errors an order of magnitude smaller than those of the individual interaction energy components. The repulsive 1/r(12) component of the van der Waals expression seems to be responsible for a significant part of the deviation of the force field results from the reference values. We suggest that further improvement of the force fields for intermolecular interactions would require replacement of the nonphysical 1/r(12) term by an exponential function. Dispersion anisotropy and its effects are discussed. Our analysis is intended to show that although comparing the empirical and non-empirical interaction energy components is in general problematic, it might bring insights useful for the construction of new force fields. Our results are relevant to often performed force-field-based interaction energy decompositions.
27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and 17.182, manufacturers shall file quantitative formulas for all preparations for which they intend...
Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McClintock, David L.
Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…
24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...
Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Olson, Arthur V.
Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schaffhauser, Dian
2009-01-01
The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…
Moebius inversion formula and inverting lattice sums
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Millane, Rick P.
2000-11-01
The Mobius inversion formula is an interesting theorem from number theory that has application to a number inverse problems, particularly lattice problems. Specific inverse problems, however, often require related Mobius inversion formulae that can be derived from the fundamental formula. Derivation of such formulae is not easy for the non- specialist, however. Examples of the kinds of inversion formulae that can be derived and their application to inverse lattice problems are described.
Modular forms and a generalized Cardy formula in higher dimensions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shaghoulian, Edgar
2016-06-01
We derive a formula which applies to conformal field theories on a spatial torus and gives the asymptotic density of states solely in terms of the vacuum energy on a parallel plate geometry. The formula follows immediately from global scale and Lorentz invariance, but to our knowledge has not previously been made explicit. It can also be understood from the fact that log Z on T2×Rd -1 transforms as the absolute value of a nonholomorphic modular form of weight d -1 , which we show. The results are extended to theories which violate Lorentz invariance and hyperscaling but maintain a scaling symmetry. The formula is checked for the cases of a free scalar, free Maxwell gauge field, and free N =4 super Yang-Mills. The case of a Maxwell gauge field gives Casimir's original calculation of the electromagnetic force between parallel plates in terms of the entropy of a photon gas.
Testing Linear Temporal Logic Formulae on Finite Execution Traces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Havelund, Klaus; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We present an algorithm for efficiently testing Linear Temporal Logic (LTL) formulae on finite execution traces. The standard models of LTL are infinite traces, reflecting the behavior of reactive and concurrent systems which conceptually may be continuously alive. In most past applications of LTL. theorem provers and model checkers have been used to formally prove that down-scaled models satisfy such LTL specifications. Our goal is instead to use LTL for up-scaled testing of real software applications. Such tests correspond to analyzing the conformance of finite traces against LTL formulae. We first describe what it means for a finite trace to satisfy an LTL property. We then suggest an optimized algorithm based on transforming LTL formulae. The work is done using the Maude rewriting system. which turns out to provide a perfect notation and an efficient rewriting engine for performing these experiments.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Loewenthal, S. H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.
1973-01-01
An empirical elastohydrodynamic film thickness formula for heavily loaded contacts based upon X-ray film thickness measurements made with a synthetic paraffinic oil is presented. The deduced relation was found to adequately reflect the high load dependence exhibited by the measured minimum film thickness data at high Hertizian contact stresses, that is, above 1.04 x 10 to the ninth N/sq m (150,000 psi). Comparisons were made with the numerical results from a theoretical isothermal film thickness formula. The effects of changes in contact geometry, material, and lubricant properties on the form of the empirical model are also discussed.
Formula for the rms blur circle radius of Wolter telescope based on aberration theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shealy, David L.; Saha, Timo T.
1990-01-01
A formula for the rms blur circle for Wolter telescopes has been derived using the transverse ray aberration expressions of Saha (1985), Saha (1984), and Saha (1986). The resulting formula for the rms blur circle radius over an image plane and a formula for the surface of best focus based on third-, fifth-, and seventh-order aberration theory predict results in good agreement with exact ray tracing. It has also been shown that one of the two terms in the empirical formula of VanSpeybroeck and Chase (1972), for the rms blur circle radius of a Wolter I telescope can be justified by the aberration theory results. Numerical results are given comparing the rms blur radius and the surface of best focus vs the half-field angle computed by skew ray tracing and from analytical formulas for grazing incidence Wolter I-II telescopes and a normal incidence Cassegrain telescope.
Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron
2015-01-01
As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…
Murray Gibson
2007-04-27
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
Murray Gibson
2016-07-12
Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain â a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).
Advancing empirical resilience research.
Kalisch, Raffael; Müller, Marianne B; Tüscher, Oliver
2015-01-01
We are delighted by the broad, intense, and fruitful discussion in reaction to our target article. A major point we take from the many comments is a prevailing feeling in the research community that we need significantly and urgently to advance resilience research, both by sharpening concepts and theories and by conducting empirical studies at a much larger scale and with a much more extended and sophisticated methodological arsenal than is the case currently. This advancement can be achieved only in a concerted international collaborative effort. In our response, we try to argue that an explicitly atheoretical, purely observational definition of resilience and a transdiagnostic, quantitative study framework can provide a suitable basis for empirically testing different competing resilience theories (sects. R1, R2, R6, R7). We are confident that it should be possible to unite resilience researchers from different schools, including from sociology and social psychology, behind such a pragmatic and theoretically neutral research strategy. In sections R3 to R5, we further specify and explain the positive appraisal style theory of resilience (PASTOR). We defend PASTOR as a comparatively parsimonious and translational theory that makes sufficiently concrete predictions to be evaluated empirically. PMID:26815844
Dasgupta-Schubert, N.; Reyes, M. A.; Tamez, V. A.
2009-04-20
Alpha decay is one of the two main decay modes of the heaviest nuclei, (SHE), and constitutes one of the dominant decay modes of highly neutron deficient medium mass nuclei ('exotics'). Thus identifying and characterizing the alpha decay chains form a crucial part of the identification of SHE. We report the extension of the previously developed method for the detailed and systematic investigation of the reliability of the three main extant analytical formulae of alpha decay half-lives: the generalized liquid drop model based formula of Royer et al. (FR), the Sobiczewski modified semi-empirical Viola-Seaborg formula (VSS) and the recent phenomenological formula of Sobiczewski and Parkhomenko (SP)
Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brannen, Carl
2006-05-01
We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = μ1(1 + √2(δ1+ 2nπ/3)) where δ1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and μ1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = μ0(1 + √2(δ1+ π/12 + 2nπ/3)) where 3;μ0= 3^12 ;μ1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.
Trace formula for broken symmetry
Creagh, S.C.
1996-05-01
We derive a trace formula for systems that exhibit an approximate continuous symmetry. It interpolates between the sum over continuous families of periodic orbits that holds in the case of exact continuous symmetry, and the discrete sum over isolated orbits that holds when the symmetry is completely broken. It is based on a simple perturbation expansion of the classical dynamics, centered around the case of exact symmetry, and gives an approximation to the usual Gutzwiller formula when the perturbation is large. We illustrate the computation with some 2-dimensional examples: the deformation of the circular billiard into an ellipse, and anisotropic and anharmonic perturbations of a harmonic oscillator. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.
Blackhole formula and example relativity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shin, Philip
Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.
Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?
Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan
2016-01-01
Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594
Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?
Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan
2016-01-01
Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence.
Formulaic Sequences and Perceived Oral Proficiency: Putting a Lexical Approach to the Test
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Boers, Frank; Eyckmans, June; Kappel, Jenny; Stengers, Helene; Demecheleer, Murielle
2006-01-01
This study reports a small-scale experiment that was set up to estimate the extent to which (i) the use of formulaic sequences (standardized phrases such as collocations and idiomatic expressions) can help learners come across as proficient L2 speakers and (ii) an instructional method that emphasizes "noticing" of L2 formulaic sequences can help…
Composition formulas of binary eutectics
Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.
2015-01-01
The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618
New Determination of Precession Formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Toshio
First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -ɛ -Δɛ) R1( -ψ -Δψ) R1(ϕ) R1(γ). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are γR = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ϕR = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ψR = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ɛR = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are γR - γI = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ϕR - ϕI = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ψR - ψI = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ɛR - ɛI = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bentley, L. P.; Shenkin, A.; Enquist, B.; Malhi, Y.
2014-12-01
Plant scaling models use measurements of architecture (i.e., length, width, and order of branch or xylem segments) to ultimately predict whole-plant metabolism via mass and water-use allometries. The application of plant scaling models is broad, and holds potential to simplify forest modelling efforts. However little is known regarding the influence of the environment (e.g., temperature, light, etc) on variation in branching architecture traits and how this variation affects scaling. Furthermore, scaling model assumptions of a self-similar and symmetric branching network have not been extensively tested, especially in tropical forests. As such, it is still unclear to what extent tree communities can be approximated by simple geometrical models, and where important functional divergences from theory exist. Here we analyse novel tree architecture data from diverse species along a 4000m elevational gradient spanning the Andes to the Amazon in Peru. Specifically, we calculate and compare inter- and intra-specific scaling exponents related to branch segment length and width within a hierarchical Bayesian framework. Preliminary results indicate that branching architecture significantly varies among and within species especially with respect to light environments. As such, we explore the role of light in driving tree geometry by also analysing differences in light environment and crown shape. Then, we attempt to link branch architecture and crown shape. Using 6 branch-level and whole-tree traits (path length fraction, crown depth, crown width, crown volume, crown depth/width and crown width/depth) we are able to cluster 68 species of trees into 6 unique groups related to architecture and explain ~60% variability in these data. In the future, it will be important to relate these architectural groups to variation in leaf-level traits and physiology. Lastly, we discuss the implications of using these results to understand tropical forest responses to environmental change.
How to Save Money on Infant Formula
... samples. Consider generic or store-brand formulas. By law, they must meet the same nutritional and quality standards as brand-name formulas. Avoid using disposable bottles. You will have to use a different liner with each ...
Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto
2010-01-01
The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.
Binet's formula for generalized tribonacci numbers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cereceda, José Luis
2015-11-01
In this note, we derive Binet's formula for the general term ? of the generalized tribonacci sequence. This formula gives ? explicitly as a function of the index n, the roots of the associated characteristic equation, and the initial terms ?, ?, and ?. By way of illustration, we obtain Binet's formula for the Cordonnier, Perrin, and Van der Laan numbers. In addition, we establish a double identity that can be regarded as a parent of Binet's formula for generalized tribonacci numbers.
27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by...
7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 26.31 Section 26... States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise.... The formula shall be as follows: (1) Multiply the total excise taxes collected on rum brought into...
27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.211 Formula required. The proprietor who desires to produce wine other than standard wine shall first obtain approval of the formula...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas. 19.452 Section 19.452 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section 20... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article made with specially denatured spirits shall be made in accordance...
The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.
2008-01-01
This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…
Guidelines for the Empirical Classification of Organizations
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKelvey, Bill
1975-01-01
After a brief review of organization classification, multivariate approaches toward the empirical identification of such classifications are discussed. Ten guidelines for conducting future multivariate classificatory studies are presented, supported by a critique of two published large-scale empirical studies. (Author)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hale, Barbara N.
2005-05-01
It is pointed out that the temperature fitting function of Wölk and Strey [J. Phys. Chem. 105, 11683 (2001)], recently shown to convert the Becker-Döring [Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 24, 719 (1935)] nucleation rate into an expression in agreement with much of the experimental water nucleation rate data, also converts the Becker-Döring rate into a form nearly equivalent with the scaled nucleation rate model, Jscaled=Jocexp[-16πΩ3(Tc/T-1)3/3(lnS)2]. In the latter expression Joc is the inverse thermal wavelength cubed/sec, evaluated at Tc.
[Use of cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as a chicken complement in an infant formula].
Modernell, Marisa Guerra; Granito, Marisela; Paolini, Mariangel; Olaizola, Cristina
2008-09-01
Legumes represent an important protein source worldwide. In Venezuela, they are generally prepared at home and are consumed by adults, as soup or stew, while children eat them in very small quantities. In order to include legumes in the children's diet, the following work was done using cowpea (Vigna sinensis) as an complement of chicken in the preparation of a nutritionally balanced formula, adapted to the requirements of children. Several formulas were developed and three of them were selected based on their acceptability. In the first formula, the protein source was only of chicken. In the second formula, the chicken was partially substituted by cowpea, and in the third formula, the protein source was only made of cowpea. Other formula ingredients included rice, pumpkin (Curcubita maxima), carrot and some seasonings. Proximal analysis, protein quality (as protein efficiency ratio and protein digestibility) and sensory evaluation (7-point hedonic scale) were performed on the formulas. The proximal composition was similar in the three formulas: protein (3.5%), fat (1.3%) and carbohydrates (19.7%), with a good distribution of the energy contribution (98.9 kcal/100 g or 413.8 kJ/100 g). The protein quality and protein digestibility were higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability with the mothers was higher for the chicken-cowpea formula than for the cowpea one. The acceptability of the chicken-cowpea formula with children was 77% (7-point hedonic facial scale) and 92% (measuring consumption). Due to the high acceptability and good protein quality, the chicken-cowpea formula could be included in the lunch meal of the children in daycare homes.
Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.
1996-01-01
One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).
Fluid mechanical scaling of impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miranda, Colin S.; Dowling, David R.
2015-11-01
A single scaling law is proposed for the diameter of simple low- and high-speed impact craters in unconsolidated granular materials where spall is not apparent. The scaling law is based on the assumption that gravity- and shock-wave effects set crater size, and is formulated in terms of a dimensionless crater diameter, and an empirical combination of Froude and Mach numbers. The scaling law involves the kinetic energy and speed of the impactor, the acceleration of gravity, and the density and speed of sound in the target material. The size of the impactor enters the formulation but divides out of the final empirical result. The scaling law achieves a 98% correlation with available measurements from drop tests, ballistic tests, missile impacts, and centrifugally-enhanced gravity impacts for a variety of target materials (sand, alluvium, granulated sugar, and expanded perlite). The available measurements cover more than 10 orders of magnitude in impact energy. For subsonic and supersonic impacts, the crater diameter is found to scale with the 1/4- and 1/6-power, respectively, of the impactor kinetic energy with the exponent crossover occurring near a Mach number of unity. The final empirical formula provides insight into how impact energy partitioning depends on Mach number.
An Empirical Expression to Predict the Resonant Frequencies of Archimedean Spirals
Hooker, Jerris W.; Ramaswamy, Vijaykumar; Arora, Rajendra K.; Edison, Arthur S.; Withers, Richard S.; Nast, Robert E.; Brey, William W.
2015-01-01
This work presents an empirical formula to accurately determine the frequencies of the fundamental and higher order resonances of an Archimedean spiral in a uniform dielectric medium in the absence of a ground plane. The formula is based on method-of-moments simulations which have been experimentally validated. This empirical formula is widely applicable to a broad range of spirals from thin-ring to disk-shaped (ratio of inner to outer radii 0 to 1), with 10 or more turns. PMID:26556910
Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon
2009-01-01
Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120 PMID:19545360
Preclinical assessment of infant formula.
Lönnerdal, Bo
2012-01-01
Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.
Cosmological parallax-distance formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singal, Ashok K.
2015-09-01
The standard cosmological parallax-distance formula, as found in the literature, including text-books and reference books on cosmology, requires a correction. This correction stems from the fact that in the standard text-book derivation it has been ignored that any chosen baseline in a gravitationally bound system does not partake in the cosmological expansion. Though the correction is available in the literature for some time, the text-books still continue to use the older, incorrect formula, and its full implications are not yet fully realized. Apart from providing an alternate correct, closed-form expression that is more suitable and convenient for computations for certain limiting cases of FRW () world models, we also demonstrate how one can compute parallax distance for the currently favored flat-space accelerating-universe (, ) cosmologies. Further, we show that the correction in parallax distance at large redshifts could amount to a factor of three or even more. Moreover, even in an infinite universe the parallax distance does not increase indefinitely with redshift and that even the farthest possible observable point may have a finite parallax angle, a factor that needs to be carefully taken into account when using distant objects as the background field against which the parallax of a foreground object is to be measured. Some other complications that could arise in parallax measurements of a distant source, like that due to the deflection of incoming light by the gravitation field of the Sun and other planetary bodies in the solar system, are pointed out.
[Hypoallergenic milks (HA formulas) in infant nutrition].
Zoppi, G
1993-01-01
According to the definition of the European Scientific Committee for Food, hypoallergenic or hypoantigenic formulas (HA-formulas) are those which contain hydrolysed protein derived both from casein or whey. Soy-based formulas are not comprised in this definition since it has been demonstrated from several years that soy-protein, in several circumstances, may be highly allergenic. Hypoallergenic formulas contain besides hydrolysed protein, carbohydrate and lipid in amount and proportion similar to those indicated by ESPGAN recommendations on adapted formulas. As far as it concerns composition in lipid, recently great attention has been given to optimal supply and ratio of omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. Hypoallergenic formulas are therefore suitable for balanced nutrition of suckling infants. Specific indications on prevention of atopic diseases are not treated.
New finite difference formulas for numerical differentiation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Ishtiaq Rasool; Ohba, Ryoji
2000-12-01
Conventional numerical differentiation formulas based on interpolating polynomials, operators and lozenge diagrams can be simplified to one of the finite difference approximations based on Taylor series, and closed-form expressions of these finite difference formulas have already been presented. In this paper, we present new finite difference formulas, which are more accurate than the available ones, especially for the oscillating functions having frequency components near the Nyquist frequency. Closed-form expressions of the new formulas are given for arbitrary order. A comparison of the previously available three types of approximations is given with the presented formulas. A computer program written in MATHEMATICA, based on new formulas is given in the appendix for numerical differentiation of a function at a specified mesh point.
Rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formulas.
Chen, C.-L.
1983-01-01
A new general rainfall intensity-duration-frequency formula is presented, utilizing a method similar to, but more accurate than one previously developed. The previously developed formula was based on the average depth-duration ratio of about 40% and the mean depth-frequency ratio of 1.48. It is shown that this formula is only a particular form of the writer's more general formulation. -from Author
Analysis of Bridging Formulae in Transitional Regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morsa, Luigi; Zuppardi, Gennaro; Schettino, Antonio; Votta, Raffaele
2011-05-01
The most suitable method to compute aerodynamic forces of a spacecraft, at first stage of a design, relies on bridging formulae. There are two kinds of bridging formulae: global and local. The global formulae rely on knowledge of spacecraft aerodynamic force coefficients in continuum and in free molecular flow. The local formulae calculate the skin friction and pressure coefficients on the body surface; the global aerodynamic coefficients are then computed by integration. The aim of this work is to analyze the widely accepted local formulae by Potter and by Kotov. To this purpose, a simple body, like a sphere, has been preliminary considered and the results have been compared with those from the DSMC code DS2V. This comparison led to the corrections of the computation of the skin friction and pressure coefficients. These corrections have been applied to the Potter formula. On the other hand the original Kotov formula showed good results for the pressure coefficient at high altitudes. Therefore a merge of the corrected Potter formula and of the Kotov formula has been made. This methodology, called "new" bridging formula, has been successfully applied to sphere. The "new" formula has been also applied to EXPERT and ORION capsules, but it has to be pointed out that, in this application at low altitudes, a failure of the panel method starts to appear. Both local and global coefficients have been compared with the results by the DS2/3V codes. Finally, for these capsules, the global formula by Wilmoth has been also used by tuning the adjustable parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lolli, B.; Gasperini, P.; Vannucci, G.
2014-11-01
We analysed the conversion problem between teleseismic magnitudes (Ms and mb) provided by the Seismological Bulletin of the International Seismological Centre and moment magnitudes (Mw) provided by online moment tensor (MT) catalogues using the chi-square general orthogonal regression method (CSQ) that, differently from the ordinary least-square regression method (OLS), accounts for the measurement errors of both the predictor and response variables. To account for the non-linearity of the relationships, we used two types of curvilinear models: (i) the exponential model (EXP), recently proposed by the authors of the Global Catalogue sponsored by the Global Earthquake Model (GEM) Foundation and (ii) a connected bilinear (CBL) model, similar to that proposed by Ekström & Dziewonski, where two different linear trends at low and high magnitudes are connected by an arc of circle that preserves the continuity of the function and of its first derivative at the connecting points. For Ms, we found that the regression curves computed for a global data set (GBL) are likely to be biased by the incompleteness of global MT catalogues for Mw <5.0-5.5. In fact, the GBL curves deviate significantly from a similar regression curve computed for a Euro-Mediterranean data set (MED) integrated with the data provided by two regional MT catalogues including many more events with Mw < 5.0-5.5. The GLB regression curves overestimate the Mw proxies computed from Ms up to 0.5 magnitude units. Hence for computing Mw proxies at the global scale of Ms ≤ 5.5, we suggest to adopt the coefficients obtained from the MED regression. The analysis of the frequency-magnitude relationship of the resulting Mw proxy catalogues confirms the validity of this choice as the behaviour of b-value as a function of cut-off magnitude of the GBL data set is much more stable using such approach. The incompleteness of Mw's provided from MT global catalogues also affects the mb GBL data set but in this case the
Proposed empirical gas geothermometer using multidimensional approach
Supranto; Sudjatmiko; Toha, Budianto; Wintolo, Djoko; Alhamid, Idrus
1996-01-24
Several formulas of surface gas geothermometer have been developed to utilize in geothermal exploration, i.e. by D'Amore and Panichi (1980) and by Darling and Talbot (1992). This paper presents an empirical gas geothermometer formula using multidimensional approach. The formula was derived from 37 selected chemical data of the 5 production wells from the Awibengkok Geothermal Volcanic Field in West Java. Seven components, i.e., gas volume percentage, CO_{2}, H_{2}S, CH_{4}, H_{2}, N_{2}, and NH_{3}, from these data are utilize to developed three model equations which represent relationship between temperature and gas compositions. These formulas are then tested by several fumarolic chemical data from Sibual-buali Area (North Sumatera) and from Ringgit Area (South Sumatera). Preliminary result indicated that gas volume percentage, H_{2}S and CO_{2} concentrations have a significant role in term of gas geothermometer. Further verification is currently in progress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massei, N.; Fournier, M.
2010-12-01
Daily Seine river flow from 1950 to 2008 was analyzed using Hilbert-Huang Tranform (HHT). For the last ten years, this method which combines the so-called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) multiresolution analysis and the Hilbert transform has proven its efficiency for the analysis of transient oscillatory signals, although the mathematical definition of the EMD is not totally established yet. HHT also provides an interesting alternative to other time-frequency or time-scale analysis of non-stationary signals, the most famous of which being wavelet-based approaches. In this application of HHT to the analysis of the hydrological variability of the Seine river, we seek to characterize the interannual patterns of daily flow, differenciate them from the short-term dynamics and eventually interpret them in the context of regional climate regime fluctuations. In this aim, HHT is also applied to the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) through the annual winter-months NAO index time series. For both hydrological and climatic signals, dominant variability scales are extracted and their temporal variations analyzed by determination of the intantaneous frequency of each component. When compared to previous ones obtained from continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on the same data, HHT results highlighted the same scales and somewhat the same internal components for each signal. However, HHT allowed the identification and extraction of much more similar features during the 1950-2008 period (e.g., around 7-yr, between NAO and Seine flow than what was obtained from CWT, which comes to say that variability scales in flow likely to originate from climatic regime fluctuations were much properly identified in river flow. In addition, a more accurate determination of singularities in the natural processes analyzed were authorized by HHT compared to CWT, in which case the time-frequency resolution partly depends on the basic properties of the filter (i.e., the reference wavelet chosen
Preclinical assessment of infant formula.
Lönnerdal, Bo
2012-01-01
Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Goedhart, Martin; van Duin, Yvonne
Structural formulas give professional chemists information about physical and chemical properties of corresponding compounds. In chemistry education at secondary schools, structural formulas are introduced in the context of chemical bonding. Structural formulas are not introduced as representations of the properties of chemical compounds. This…
Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.
Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek
2016-01-01
Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883
Review of "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009"
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Baker, Bruce
2009-01-01
The new "Weighted Student Formula Yearbook 2009" from the Reason Foundation provides a simple framework for touting the successes of states and urban school districts that grant greater fiscal autonomy to schools. The report defines the Weighted Student Formula (WSF) reform extremely broadly, presenting a variety of reforms under the WSF umbrella.…
Formulas in Physics Have a "Standard" Form
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Moelter, Matthew J.; Jackson, Martin
2012-01-01
We discuss the importance of the ordering of symbols in physics formulas and identify implicit conventions that govern the "standard" form for how formulas are written and interpreted. An important part of writing and reading this form is understanding distinctions among constants, parameters, and variables. We delineate these conventions and…
40 CFR 74.26 - Allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...) SULFUR DIOXIDE OPT-INS Allowance Calculations for Combustion Sources § 74.26 Allocation formula. (a) The Administrator will calculate the annual allowance allocation for a combustion source based on the data... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allocation formula. 74.26 Section...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension formula. (a) The amount of power to be extended to an existing customer shall be determined according...
15 CFR 923.110 - Allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allocation formula. 923.110 Section... MANAGEMENT COASTAL ZONE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REGULATIONS Allocation of Section 306 Program Administration Grants § 923.110 Allocation formula. (a) As required by subsection 306(a), the Secretary may make...
27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196 Section 24.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required....
27 CFR 24.196 - Formula required.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.196 Section 24.196 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Special Natural Wine § 24.196 Formula required....
Lewis Carroll's Formula for Calendar Calculating.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Spitz, Herman H.
1993-01-01
This paper presents Lewis Carroll's formula for mentally calculating the day of the week of a given date. The paper concludes that such formulas are too complex for individuals of low intelligence to learn by themselves, and thus "idiots savants" who perform such calendar calculations must be using other systems. (JDD)
Funding the Formula Adequately in Oklahoma
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hancock, Kenneth
2015-01-01
This report is a longevity, simulational study that looks at how the ratio of state support to local support effects the number of school districts that breaks the common school's funding formula which in turns effects the equity of distribution to the common schools. After nearly two decades of adequately supporting the funding formula, Oklahoma…
A Choice of a New Funding Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hancock, Kenneth
2008-01-01
This report examines the fiscal neutrality of three funding formulas that have been proposed to replace the current funding formula for Oklahoma's common schools in an attempt to have greater equity in the distribution of funds to the various districts. Using data from SY-03 to SY-07, calculations of state aid for the 540- districts and fiscal…
Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity
Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek
2016-01-01
Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m2 for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients’ mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883
Formula Funding in Higher Education: A Review.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noe, Roger C.
1986-01-01
Reviews formula funding in higher education literature, including purpose, historical perspectives, definition and development, characteristics, advantages and disadvantages, and future trends. In light of citizen demands, the formula approach seems the best method to ensure a satisfactory relationship between state government and state…
Alternative Derivations for the Poisson Integral Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chen, J. T.; Wu, C. S.
2006-01-01
Poisson integral formula is revisited. The kernel in the Poisson integral formula can be derived in a series form through the direct BEM free of the concept of image point by using the null-field integral equation in conjunction with the degenerate kernels. The degenerate kernels for the closed-form Green's function and the series form of Poisson…
Protean and Boundaryless Careers: An Empirical Exploration
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.; Frautschy DeMuth, Rachel L.
2006-01-01
While the constructs of protean and boundaryless careers have informed career theory for years, rigorous empirical examinations of these career models have lagged behind. This study seeks to redress this situation by constructing and developing four new scales to measure protean and boundaryless career attitudes. The scales related to protean…
The Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and superconductivity
Vargas-Paredes, Alfredo A.; Doria, Mauro M.; Neto, Jose Abdala Helayeel
2013-01-15
We derive the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula for the two-component order parameter superconductor, which provides a twofold view of the kinetic energy of the superconductor. For the one component order parameter superconductor we review the connection between the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula and the Ginzburg-Landau theory. For the two-component case we claim that this formula opens a venue to describe inhomogeneous superconducting states intertwined by spin correlations and charged dislocation. In this case the Lichnerowicz-Weitzenboeck formula displays local rotational and electromagnetic gauge symmetry (SU(2) Circled-Times U(1)) and relies on local commuting momentum and spin operators. The order parameter lives in a space with curvature and torsion described by Elie Cartan geometrical formalism. The Lichnerowickz-Weitzenboeck formula leads to first order differential equations that are a three-dimensional version of the Seiberg-Witten equations.
How psychophysical methods influence optimizations of color difference formulas.
Kirchner, Eric; Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Njo, Lan; van der Lans, Ivo; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael
2015-03-01
For developing color difference formulas, there are several choices to be made on the psychophysical method used for gathering visual (observer) data. We tested three different psychophysical methods: gray scales, constant stimuli, and two-alternative forced choice (2AFC). Our results show that when using gray scales or constant stimuli, assessments of color differences are biased toward lightness differences. This bias is particularly strong in LCD monitor experiments, and also present when using physical paint samples. No such bias is found when using 2AFC. In that case, however, observer responses are affected by other factors that are not accounted for by current color difference formulas. For accurate prediction of relative color differences, our results show, in agreement with other works, that modern color difference formulas do not perform well. We also investigated if the use of digital images as presented on LCD displays is a good alternative to using physical samples. Our results indicate that there are systematic differences between these two media. PMID:26366646
Effect of individual components of soy formula and cows milk formula on zinc bioavailability
Loennerdal, B.; Cederblad, A.; Davidsson, L.; Sandstroem, B.
1984-11-01
Zinc absorption from human milk, cows milk formulas, and soy formulas was studied in human adults by a radioisotope technique using /sup 65/Zn and whole body counting. Individual dietary components were investigated for effects on zinc absorption. Phytate was found to have a strong inhibitory effect on zinc absorption; addition of phytate to cows milk formula (yielding a phytate concentration similar to that of soy formula) resulted in a decrease in zinc absorption from 31 to 16% similar to the absorption for soy formula (14%). Carbohydrate source, calcium, and zinc levels of the diet did not affect zinc absorption significantly. Iron supplementation of cows milk formula decreased zinc absorption from 24 to 18% although this decrease was not found to be significant (p less than 0.1). Absorption of zinc from a whey-adjusted cows milk formula was higher (31%) than from a nonmodified cows milk formula (22%). Increasing the zinc supplementation level in cows milk formula but not in soy formula increased zinc absorption to approximate that from breast milk. It is suggested that reduction of phytate content of soy formula may be a more effective avenue of modification than increased level of zinc supplementation.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kromrey, Jeffrey D.; Hines, Constance V.
1996-01-01
The accuracy of three analytical formulas for shrinkage estimation and four empirical techniques were investigated in a Monte Carlo study of the coefficient of cross-validity in multiple regression. Substantial statistical bias was evident for all techniques except the formula of M. W. Brown (1975) and multicross-validation. (SLD)
The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Qian, Li
2015-01-01
Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…
27 CFR 17.137 - Formulas disapproved for drawback.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas disapproved for... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.137 Formulas disapproved for drawback. A formula may be disapproved for drawback either because it does not prescribe appropriate ingredients...
27 CFR 21.52 - Formula No. 27.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27. 21.52... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.52 Formula No. 27. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.45 - Formula No. 20.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.45... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.45 Formula No. 20. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.44 - Formula No. 19.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 19. 21.44... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.44 Formula No. 19. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 17.122 - Amended or revised formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... formulas. 17.122 Section 17.122 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.122 Amended or revised formulas. Except as provided in this section, amended or revised formulas are considered to be new formulas and shall be numbered...
27 CFR 21.24 - Formula No. 20.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 20. 21.24... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Completely Denatured Alcohol Formulas § 21.24 Formula No. 20. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of ethyl alcohol of not less than 195...
27 CFR 25.56 - Filing of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 25.56... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.56 Filing of formulas. (a) What are the general requirements for filing a formula? (1) You must file your formula in writing....
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 24.127 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 24... Establishment § 24.127 Adoption of formulas. The adoption of approved formulas by a successor proprietor will be... formulas for adoption by formula number, name of product, and date of approval. The application...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 17.133 - Food product formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Food product formulas. 17... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples Approval of Formulas § 17.133 Food product formulas. Formulas for nonbeverage food products on TTB Form 5154.1 may be approved if they are unfit for beverage purposes. Approval...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
27 CFR 21.61 - Formula No. 35.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 35. 21.61... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.61 Formula No. 35. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
Energetic efficiency of infant formulae: a review.
Fleddermann, Manja; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold
2014-01-01
Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency. An electronic literature search was conducted in February 2014. Intervention trials that investigated the effect of an infant formula with a modified macronutrient composition and reported the weight, length, and nutritional intake of apparently healthy, term, fully formula-fed infants with a normal weight were included. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The results showed no effect of the total content of energy, carbohydrate, protein, or fat on energetic efficiency. In contrast, small increasing effects of higher glycemic carbohydrates on energetic efficiency were identified. Improved fat absorption via the use of palmitic acid at the sn-2 ester position of triacylglycerol increased the energetic efficiency by 11%. The quality of formula protein, specifically an increased whey-to-casein ratio, an increased α-lactalbumin content, or a higher tryptophan content increased the energetic efficiency by about 13%. We conclude that fat absorption and protein quality have the potential to modulate energetic efficiency and may contribute to the observed differences in growth and metabolism between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.
WEN, HAO; WANG, XIAOHUA; SHAN, ZHAOWEI
2014-01-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of Qizhu formula, a Chinese medicinal empirical formula, in modulating the action of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis, in MGC-803 gastric cancer cells. Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were applied to detect the effect of varying concentrations of Qizhu formula in the modulation of the expression of survivin in MGC-803 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The western blot analysis results demonstrated that Qizhu formula exerted no significant effects on the protein expression of the β-actin housekeeping gene, whereas it exerted a significant inhibitory effect on the protein expression of the apoptosis-related survivin gene at concentrations of 250 μg/ml and, particularly, 500 μg/ml. RT-PCR was used to detect the effect of Qizhu formula on survivin mRNA in MGC-803 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells. The ratio of survivin/β-actin in the 0.1% dimethylsulfoxide and the 125, 250 and 500 μg/ml groups of Qizhu formula was 0.4543, 0.4025, 0.2415 and 0.2235, respectively. Therefore, Qizhu formula exerted a distinct inhibitory effect on the mRNA expression of survivin in MGC-803 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, Qizhu formula may modulate the apoptosis of MGC-803 human gastric adenocarcinoma cells, which is associated with the downregulation of survivin mRNA and protein expression. PMID:24772318
Partial transpose of random quantum states: Exact formulas and meanders
Fukuda, Motohisa; Sniady, Piotr
2013-04-15
We investigate the asymptotic behavior of the empirical eigenvalues distribution of the partial transpose of a random quantum state. The limiting distribution was previously investigated via Wishart random matrices indirectly (by approximating the matrix of trace 1 by the Wishart matrix of random trace) and shown to be the semicircular distribution or the free difference of two free Poisson distributions, depending on how dimensions of the concerned spaces grow. Our use of Wishart matrices gives exact combinatorial formulas for the moments of the partial transpose of the random state. We find three natural asymptotic regimes in terms of geodesics on the permutation groups. Two of them correspond to the above two cases; the third one turns out to be a new matrix model for the meander polynomials. Moreover, we prove the convergence to the semicircular distribution together with its extreme eigenvalues under weaker assumptions, and show large deviation bound for the latter.
The Parisi Formula has a Unique Minimizer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Auffinger, Antonio; Chen, Wei-Kuo
2015-05-01
In 1979, Parisi (Phys Rev Lett 43:1754-1756, 1979) predicted a variational formula for the thermodynamic limit of the free energy in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and described the role played by its minimizer. This formula was verified in the seminal work of Talagrand (Ann Math 163(1):221-263, 2006) and later generalized to the mixed p-spin models by Panchenko (Ann Probab 42(3):946-958, 2014). In this paper, we prove that the minimizer in Parisi's formula is unique at any temperature and external field by establishing the strict convexity of the Parisi functional.
Approximate formulas for moderately small eikonal amplitudes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kisselev, A. V.
2016-08-01
We consider the eikonal approximation for moderately small scattering amplitudes. To find numerical estimates of these approximations, we derive formulas that contain no Bessel functions and consequently no rapidly oscillating integrands. To obtain these formulas, we study improper integrals of the first kind containing products of the Bessel functions J0(z). We generalize the expression with four functions J0(z) and also find expressions for the integrals with the product of five and six Bessel functions. We generalize a known formula for the improper integral with two functions Jυ (az) to the case with noninteger υ and complex a.
The Physical Meaning of the Titius-Bode Formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smirnov, V. A.
It is proposed an special hypothesis of the formation of symmetric objects in space with the help of the interference of standing waves which act in the process of evolution of the primordial gas-dust cloud including the formation of the Solar system, that may be revealed by 11-year cycle of Solar activity in particular. It is used the idea of J.Kepler of the construction of the Solar system, viewed as inscribed and circumscribed Platonic figures, a common measure of which, according to the author, is the length of the standing waves generated by the variable energy sources of the primary cloud. This explains the physical meaning of the Titius-Bode formula. In 1968 S.F.Dermott revealed the foundation of Titius-Bode empiric formula, basing on Theory of Resonance. But in addition to direct statement of existing resonance mechanism of formula T(n)=T(0)*Cn, n=1,2,3,4, physical sense does not come to light. I tried to explain the formation of symmetric figures and space constructions with evident experience of formation of Chladni E. figures, offering the calculation, confirmed by experience of appearance of new space bodies in the nodes of standing waves of primary gas-dust cloud. The interference of standings waves is surely promotes the formation of different figures - such as symmetric galaxies, hexagon vortex at Saturn, and others. Unlike Dermott's theory, our explanation of symmetric formation of planets is a common solution of task for multi bodies interaction, and proposes the version of solution in case with more than two bodies.
Shafiee Nahrkhalaji, Saeedeh; Lotfi, Ahmad Reza; Koosha, Mansour
2016-10-01
The present study aims to reveal some facts concerning first language ([Formula: see text] and second language ([Formula: see text] spoken-word processing in unbalanced proficient bilinguals using behavioral measures. The intention here is to examine the effects of auditory repetition word priming and semantic priming in first and second languages of these bilinguals. The other goal is to explore the effects of attention manipulation on implicit retrieval of perceptual and conceptual properties of spoken [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words. In so doing, the participants performed auditory word priming and semantic priming as memory tests in their [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. In a half of the trials of each experiment, they carried out the memory test while simultaneously performing a secondary task in visual modality. The results revealed that effects of auditory word priming and semantic priming were present when participants processed [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] words in full attention condition. Attention manipulation could reduce priming magnitude in both experiments in [Formula: see text]. Moreover, [Formula: see text] word retrieval increases the reaction times and reduces accuracy on the simultaneous secondary task to protect its own accuracy and speed.
Weighing Things Up: A Closer Look at "U.S. News & World Report"'s Ranking Formulas
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Clarke, Marguerite
2004-01-01
Since their first appearance in 1983, the "U.S. News & World Report" rankings of colleges and graduate schools have generated much debate. This article takes a closer look at the "U.S. News" ranking formulas and finds an empirical basis for critics' concerns. The article begins with an overview of the rankings, followed by a discussion of the…
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
27 CFR 25.57 - Formula information.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
..., or after fermentation). (3) For formulas that include the use of flavors and other nonbeverage... state the alcohol content of the fermented product after fermentation and the alcohol content of...
A New Euler's Formula for DNA Polyhedra
Hu, Guang; Qiu, Wen-Yuan; Ceulemans, Arnout
2011-01-01
DNA polyhedra are cage-like architectures based on interlocked and interlinked DNA strands. We propose a formula which unites the basic features of these entangled structures. It is based on the transformation of the DNA polyhedral links into Seifert surfaces, which removes all knots. The numbers of components , of crossings , and of Seifert circles are related by a simple and elegant formula: . This formula connects the topological aspects of the DNA cage to the Euler characteristic of the underlying polyhedron. It implies that Seifert circles can be used as effective topological indices to describe polyhedral links. Our study demonstrates that, the new Euler's formula provides a theoretical framework for the stereo-chemistry of DNA polyhedra, which can characterize enzymatic transformations of DNA and be used to characterize and design novel cages with higher genus. PMID:22022596
Prebiotic carbohydrates in human milk and formulas.
Boehm, Günther; Stahl, Bernd; Jelinek, Jürgen; Knol, Jan; Miniello, Vito; Moro, Guido E
2005-10-01
Human milk oligosaccharides play an important role, as prebiotic soluble fibres, in the postnatal development of the intestinal flora. Infant formulas are virtually free of prebiotic oligosaccharides. As a consequence, formula-fed infants develop an intestinal flora significantly different to the flora of breastfed infants. Due to the complexity of human milk oligosaccharides, it is necessary to use alternative sources of prebiotic ingredients as components of infant formulas. The present review summarizes the data of experimental research and clinical studies with a prebiotic mixture containing 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosacchrides are summarized. The data demonstrate that, with this prebiotic mixture, the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli can be stimulated, the faecal pH can be decreased, and the presence of pathogens can be reduced to levels similar to those of breastfed infants. Thus, prebiotic oligosaccharides such as the studied mixture provide beneficial effects for formula-fed infants.
Second-order corrected Hadamard formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Epele, L. N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Canal, C. A. García
1985-08-01
The second-order correction to the Hadamard formulas for the Green's function, harmonic measures, and period matrix of a two-dimensional domain is obtained in the context of the domain-variational theory.
Generalized Doppler Formula in a Nonstatic Universe
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gross, Peter G.
1977-01-01
Derives the general Doppler formula in a nonstatic universe using assumptions of special relativity, homogeneity and isotropy of the universe. Examples of applications to physical cosmology are given. (SL)
Some Simple Computational Formulas for Multiple Regression
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Aiken, Lewis R., Jr.
1974-01-01
Short-cut formulas are presented for direct computation of the beta weights, the standard errors of the beta weights, and the multiple correlation coefficient for multiple regression problems involving three independent variables and one dependent variable. (Author)
Parametric Improper Integrals, Wallis Formula and Catalan Numbers
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dana-Picard, Thierry; Zeitoun, David G.
2012-01-01
We present a sequence of improper integrals, for which a closed formula can be computed using Wallis formula and a non-straightforward recurrence formula. This yields a new integral presentation for Catalan numbers.
A Summation Formula for Macdonald Polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael
2016-03-01
We derive an explicit sum formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our expression contains multiple sums over the symmetric group and uses the action of Hecke generators on the ring of polynomials. In the special cases {t = 1} and {q = 0}, we recover known expressions for the monomial symmetric and Hall-Littlewood polynomials, respectively. Other specializations of our formula give new expressions for the Jack and q-Whittaker polynomials.
A Connection Formula for the q-Confluent Hypergeometric Function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morita, Takeshi
2013-07-01
We show a connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric functions {}_2ϕ_1(a,b;0;q,x). Combining our connection formula with Zhang's connection formula for {}_2ϕ_0(a,b;-;q,x), we obtain the connection formula for the q-confluent hypergeometric equation in the matrix form. Also we obtain the connection formula of Kummer's confluent hypergeometric functions by taking the limit qto 1^{-} of our connection formula.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, W. M.; Yuen, Ka-Veng
2015-01-01
Blast-induced ground vibration has received much engineering and public attention. The vibration is often represented by the peak particle velocity (PPV) and the empirical approach is employed to describe the relationship between the PPV and the scaled distance. Different statistical methods are often used to obtain the confidence level of the prediction. With a known scaled distance, the amount of explosives in a planned blast can then be determined by a blast engineer when the PPV limit and the confidence level of the vibration magnitude are specified. This paper shows that these current approaches do not incorporate the posterior uncertainty of the fitting coefficients. In order to resolve this problem, a Bayesian method is proposed to derive the site-specific fitting coefficients based on a small amount of data collected at an early stage of a blasting project. More importantly, uncertainty of both the fitting coefficients and the design formula can be quantified. Data collected from a site formation project in Hong Kong is used to illustrate the performance of the proposed method. It is shown that the proposed method resolves the underestimation problem in one of the conventional approaches. The proposed approach can be easily conducted using spreadsheet calculation without the need for any additional tools, so it will be particularly welcome by practicing engineers.
Soy- and rice-based formula and infant allergic to cow's milk.
Tzifi, Flora; Grammeniatis, Vasilis; Papadopoulos, Marios
2014-03-01
Soy milk formula has limited medical indications for infants feeding, although in several parts of the world it has been used as a source of nutrition in a large number of children. It used to be the main alternative feeding for infants allergic to cow's milk who did not breastfeed before the introduction of extensively hydrolyzed formulas. Although there is a debate, the fact that some children are allergic to soy or some children with cow's milk allergy can present with concomitant soy allergy, restricted the use of soy formulas for treatment of infants allergic to cow's milk. Other grain-based formulas like the rice-based ones are promising in infants with cow's milk allergy. Grain-based formulas could be an alternative and cheaper way of nutrition for infants allergic to cow's milk than extensively hydrolyzed formulas. Further large scale longitudinal clinical studies are required to clarify the safety of soy and other grain-based formulas for treatment of cow's milk allergy.
Convergence in [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous posets.
Ruan, Xiao-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Quan
2016-01-01
In this paper, we present one way to generalize [Formula: see text]-convergence and [Formula: see text]-convergence of nets for arbitrary posets by use of the cut operator instead of joins. Some convergence theoretical characterizations of [Formula: see text]-continuity and [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuity of posets are given. The main results are: (1) a poset P is [Formula: see text]-continuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological; (2) P is [Formula: see text]-quasicontinuous if and only if the [Formula: see text]-convergence in P is topological.
Breath hydrogen responses in infants using lactose-rice formula and regular lactose formula.
Wu, T C; Hwang, B; Lee, P S
2001-01-01
Starch thickened infant formulas have been shown to relieve regurgitation and increase caloric retention. We compared the completeness of digestion of the carbohydrates in lactose-rice formula (study formula) with routine infant formula in infants with GER. A prospective open study of 30 normal, well-nourished infants with simple regurgitation was conducted. The clinical history on regurgitation, stool pattern and baseline breath hydrogen (bH2) test were obtained at entry, with the infants still using their original routine infant formula, and after a wash out period of 7 days, during which they were fed only with study formula. Analysis of bH2 results showed lower levels of bH2 at 1, 2 and 3 hours with study formula compared with the original formula at the 2nd and 3rd hour (p<0.05). The effectiveness of the study formula in managing GER was demonstrated by the fact that 26 out of 30 had either "some improvement" or a "good response." Hardening of the stool pattern was reported in 13 of the 30 infants after 1 week of study formula. The mean of peak bH2 in study formula fed subjects with formed and firm/hard stool was significantly lower than in those with soft and pasty stool. In conclusion, this study has shown the effectiveness of rice thickened infant formulas in managing infants with GER. Rice-starch has an additional advantage of ease of digestion. The hardening of stool pattern was also frequently observed. PMID:11811219
Notes on an Internal Boundary-Layer Height Formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Savelyev, Sergiya.; Taylor, Petera.
The derivation of the Panofsky-Dutton internal boundary-layer(IBL) height formula has been revisited. We propose that the upwindroughness length (rather than downwind) should be used in theformula and that a turbulent vertical velocity (w) ratherthan the surface friction velocity (u*) should be considered asthe appropriate scaling for the rate of propagation ofdisturbances into the turbulent flow. A published set ofwind-tunnel and atmospheric data for neutral stratification hasbeen used to investigate the influence of the magnitude ofroughness change on the IBL height.
EMPIRE ULTIMATE EXPANSION: RESONANCES AND COVARIANCES.
HERMAN,M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; PIGNI, M.T.; KAWANO, T.; CAPOTE, R.; ZERKIN, V.; TRKOV, A.; SIN, M.; CARSON, B.V.; WIENKE, H. CHO, Y.-S.
2007-04-22
The EMPIRE code system is being extended to cover the resolved and unresolved resonance region employing proven methodology used for the production of new evaluations in the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances. Another directions of Empire expansion are uncertainties and correlations among them. These include covariances for cross sections as well as for model parameters. In this presentation we concentrate on the KALMAN method that has been applied in EMPIRE to the fast neutron range as well as to the resonance region. We also summarize role of the EMPIRE code in the ENDF/B-VII.0 development. Finally, large scale calculations and their impact on nuclear model parameters are discussed along with the exciting perspectives offered by the parallel supercomputing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dawid, Richard
2016-06-01
In fundamental physics today, some theories are taken to be probably viable despite a lack of strong (or any) empirical confirmation. This situation suggests, I argue, an extension of the concept of theory confirmation that allows for confirmation by observations that are not predicted by the theory in question. "Non-empirical confirmation", as I call the latter form of confirmation, plays a more conspicuous role today than in earlier periods of physics. It has always constituted a significant albeit implicit element of the assessment of physical theory, however, that has not been adequately accounted for in canonical reconstructions of the scientific method. The talk discusses the core argumentative structure of non-empirical confirmation, analyses the concept’s reliance on the empirical testability of the theories in question and addresses some worries that have been raised in its regard.
A New Sample Size Formula for Regression.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Brooks, Gordon P.; Barcikowski, Robert S.
The focus of this research was to determine the efficacy of a new method of selecting sample sizes for multiple linear regression. A Monte Carlo simulation was used to study both empirical predictive power rates and empirical statistical power rates of the new method and seven other methods: those of C. N. Park and A. L. Dudycha (1974); J. Cohen…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rose, Heather; Sonstelie, Jon; Weston, Margaret
2012-01-01
In his 2012-13 budget Governor Brown proposed a new system for allocating state revenue among California school districts. By all accounts the current system is complex and opaque. In contrast, the proposed system--a weighted pupil funding formula--is simple and transparent. Using the PPIC School Finance Model, we compare how this formula would…
Chiejina, Nneka Virginia
2015-01-01
Development of efficient substrate formulas to improve yield and shorten production time is one of the prerequisites for commercial cultivation of edible mushrooms. In this study, fifteen substrate formulas consisting of varying ratios of palm press fibre (PPF), mahogany sawdust (MS), Gmelina sawdust, wheat bran (WB), and fixed proportions of 1% calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and 1% sucrose were assessed for efficient Lentinus squarrosulus production. Proximate compositions of mushrooms produced on the different substrate formulas were also analysed and compared. Substrate formulations containing 85% PPF, 13% WB, 1% CaCO3, and 1% sucrose were found to produce the highest carpophore yield, biological efficiency and size (206.5 g/kg, 61.96%, and 7.26 g, respectively). Days to production (first harvest) tended to increase with an increase in the amount of WB in the substrate formulas, except for PPF based formulas. The addition of WB in amounts equivalent to 8~18% in substrate formulas containing 80~90% PPF resulted in a decrease in the time to first harvest by an average of 17.7 days compared to 80~90% MS with similar treatment. Nutritional content of mushrooms was affected by the different substrate formulas. Protein content was high for mushrooms produced on formulas containing PPF as the basal substrate. Thus, formulas comprising PPF, WB, CaCO3, and sucrose at 85% : 13% : 1% : 1%) respectively could be explored as starter basal ingredients for efficient large scale production of L. squarrosulus. PMID:26839507
Regionalization of the Turc-Mezentsev water balance formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lebecherel, Laure; Andréassian, Vazken
2013-04-01
The Turc-Mezentsev water balance formula (Turc, 1954; Mezentsev, 1955) is widely used because of its simplicity and its efficiency: Q/P=1-1/[1+(P/E0)**n]**(1/n) With: Q-streamflow, P-catchment precipitation and E0-reference evaporation, all in mm/yr. Several studies have used it recently as a tool to study the sensitivity of runoff to climate change (Dooge, 1992; Choudhury, 1999; Arora, 2002; Donohue et al., 2011). Other studies have focused on investigating the links between its parameter(s) and environmental properties (Oudin et al., 2008; Potter and Zhang, 2009; Roderick and Farquhar, 2011). There is however no consensus on where in the formula exogenous information (i.e. catchment properties beyond P and E0) should be introduced. Here, we use a large set of 609 French catchments and discuss four options of regionalization, based on either (i) the formula's relative error, (ii) the formula's absolute error, (iii) a correcting factor of the aridity index and (iv) the shape factor (parameter n) of the formula. Here, regionalization is understood in its geographical meaning, i.e. we wish to make use of the regional coherence of the formula's residuals or parameters to improve its predictive efficiency. These regional options are tested in an ungaged catchment context, i.e. regional values (of residuals or parameters) are computed from neighbor catchments. In this study, we compare the four alternatives in terms of efficiency and robustness, i.e. on how their performance degrades when the hydrometric network density is reduced. We show that although several mathematical solutions seem close, using a correcting factor of the aridity index has definite advantages. We also discuss perspectives beyond geographical regionalization, i.e. prospects for a physical regionalization. References Arora, V.K., 2002. The use of the aridity index to assess climate change effect on annual runoff. Journal of Hydrology, 265: 164-177. Choudhury, B.J., 1999. Evaluation of an empirical
Orotic acid content of infant formulas.
Durschlag, R P; Robinson, J L
1980-10-01
The orotic acid content of four commercially available infant formulas has been examined. Enfamil contains 118 microgram orotic acid per milliliter as fed, Similac 98, SMA 27, and Isomil less than 1 microgram/ml. As expressed relative to total solids, these formulas contain less than 0.1% orotic acid. Since consumption of 1% orotic acid does not lead to a fatty liver in any species examined other than the rat and 0.1% orotic acid fails to induce statistically significant hepatic changes in the rat, it is suggested that orotic acid at the level found in these formulas is not likely to pose a health hazard to the infants consuming them.
Orbifold genera, product formulas and power operations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ganter, Nora
2004-07-01
We generalize the definition of orbifold elliptic genus, and introduce orbifold genera of chromatic level h, using h-tuples rather than pairs of commuting elements. We show that our genera are in fact orbifold invariants, and we prove integrality results for them. If the genus arises from an H-infinity-map into the Morava-Lubin-Tate theory E_h, then we give a formula expressing the orbifold genus of the symmetric powers of a stably almost complex manifold M in terms of the genus of M itself. Our formula is the p-typical analogue of the Dijkgraaf-Moore-Verlinde-Verlinde formula for the orbifold elliptic genus. It depends only on h and not on the genus.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section 21.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4....
24 CFR 990.110 - Operating fund formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Operating fund formula. 990.110... DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING OPERATING FUND PROGRAM Purpose, Applicability, Formula, and Definitions § 990.110 Operating fund formula. (a) General formula. (1) The amount of annual contributions...
27 CFR 24.81 - Filing of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of formulas. 24.81... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 24.81 Filing of formulas. The proprietor shall on each formula filed designate all ingredients and, if required,...
27 CFR 17.126 - Formulas for intermediate products.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for intermediate... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.126 Formulas for intermediate products. (a) The manufacturer shall submit a formula on TTB Form 5154.1 for each self-manufactured ingredient made with...
27 CFR 21.48 - Formula No. 23-F.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 23-F. 21.48 Section 21.48 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.48 Formula No....
27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
27 CFR 20.115 - Ink general-use formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ink general-use formula... of Process General-Use Formulas § 20.115 Ink general-use formula. Ink general-use formula is any... sold or used as an ink....
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...
24 CFR 905.10 - Capital Fund formula (CFF).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capital Fund formula (CFF). 905.10... DEVELOPMENT THE PUBLIC HOUSING CAPITAL FUND PROGRAM § 905.10 Capital Fund formula (CFF). (a) General. This section describes the formula for allocation of capital funds to PHAs. The formula is referred to as...
27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 4. 21.38 Section 21.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.38 Formula No. 4....
27 CFR 21.69 - Formula No. 39.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 39. 21.69 Section 21.69 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.69 Formula No. 39....
27 CFR 21.53 - Formula No. 27-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 27-A. 21.53 Section 21.53 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits Formulas and Authorized Uses § 21.53 Formula No....
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO, CL... program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula allocation = (amount available...
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761... Farm Loan Programs Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula... funds for a loan program that the National Office allocates to a State Office. formula...
Lead content of milk and infant formula
Walker, B.
1980-03-01
Survey report:A survey to determine the lead content of early infant food sources was conducted in Washington, D.C. Samples were collected from various lots of national brands of infant formula and evaporated milk, cartons of nonfat dry milk, containers of homogenized cow's milk, and human milk. Mean concentrations of lead in infant formula, evaporated milk, nonfat dry milk, fresh cow's milk, and human milk were 0.135 g/ml, 0.03 g/ml, 0.01 g/ml, 0.53 g/ml, and 0.02 g/ml respectively. (2 references, 2 tables)
How allergenic are hypoallergenic infant formulae?
Rugo, E; Wahl, R; Wahn, U
1992-06-01
In a comparative study six different protein hydrolysates, marketed as 'hypoallergenic' infant formulae were investigated by skin prick tests, RAST, RAST inhibition and titrated provocation tests. When hydrolysates containing a high percentage of larger peptides were found to have the highest capacity to induce positive skin tests, provocation tests and to bind to human serum IgE antibodies of cow's milk allergic children. Casein hydrolysates appeared to have the least residual allergenic activity. We recommend that 'hypoallergenic' formulae should be tested in each case, before being prescribed to cow's milk sensitive children.
78 FR 6316 - Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire); Notice of Filing
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-01-30
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire); Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 29, 2012 Empire Pipeline Company (Empire) submitted a request for a waiver of the...
Integral formula for the effective diffusion coefficient in two-dimensional channels.
Kalinay, Pavol
2016-07-01
The effective one-dimensional description of diffusion in two-dimensional channels of varying cross section is revisited. The effective diffusion coefficient D(x), extending Fick-Jacobs equation, depending on the longitudinal coordinate x, is derived here without use of scaling of the transverse coordinates. The result of the presented method is an integral formula for D(x), calculating its value at x as an integral of contributions from the neighboring positions x^{'} depending on h(x^{'}), a function shaping the channel. Unlike the standard formulas based on the scaling, the new proposed formula also describes D(x) correctly near the cusps, or in wider channels. PMID:27575072
United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow.
Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin
2016-01-01
Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze's chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao's model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze. PMID:27136099
United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow
Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin
2016-01-01
Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze’s chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao’s model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze. PMID:27136099
United Formula for the Friction Factor in the Turbulent Region of Pipe Flow.
Li, Shuolin; Huai, Wenxin
2016-01-01
Friction factor is an important element in both flow simulations and river engineering. In hydraulics, studies on the friction factor in turbulent regions have been based on the concept of three flow regimes, namely, the fully smooth regime, the fully rough regime, and the transitional regime, since the establishment of the Nikuradze's chart. However, this study further demonstrates that combining the friction factor with Reynolds number yields a united formula that can scale the entire turbulent region. This formula is derived by investigating the correlation between friction in turbulent pipe flow and its influencing factors, i.e., Reynolds number and relative roughness. In the present study, the formulae of Blasius and Stricklerare modified to rearrange the implicit model of Tao. In addition, we derive a united explicit formula that can compute the friction factor in the entire turbulent regimes based on the asymptotic behavior of the improved Tao's model. Compared with the reported formulae of Nikuradze, the present formula exhibits higher computational accuracy for the original pipe experiment data of Nikuradze.
25 CFR 273.31 - Distribution formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distribution formula. 273.31 Section 273.31 Indians... ACT PROGRAM EDUCATION CONTRACTS UNDER JOHNSON-O'MALLEY ACT Funding Provisions § 273.31 Distribution... the purpose shall be allotted pro rata in accordance with the distribution method outlined in...
Quantification of prebiotics in commercial infant formulas.
Sabater, Carlos; Prodanov, Marin; Olano, Agustín; Corzo, Nieves; Montilla, Antonia
2016-03-01
Since breastfeeding is not always possible, infant formulas (IFs) are supplemented with prebiotic oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides (GOS) and/or fructooligosaccharides (FOS) to exert similar effects to those of the breast milk. Nowadays, a great number of infant formulas enriched with prebiotics are disposal in the market, however there are scarce data about their composition. In this study, the combined use of two chromatographic methods (GC-FID and HPLC-RID) for the quantification of carbohydrates present in commercial infant formulas have been used. According to the results obtained by GC-FID for products containing prebiotics, the content of FOS, GOS and GOS/FOS was in the ranges of 1.6-5.0, 1.7-3.2, and 0.08-0.25/2.3-3.8g/100g of product, respectively. HPLC-RID analysis allowed quantification of maltodextrins with degree of polymerization (DP) up to 19. The methodology proposed here may be used for routine quality control of infant formula and other food ingredients containing prebiotics.
27 CFR 5.26 - Formula requirements.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula requirements. 5.26 Section 5.26 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Supplemental or Form 5110.38 shall remain in effect until revoked, superseded, or voluntarily surrendered....
Nevada's College Funding Formula under Attack
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005
2005-01-01
Community College of Southern Nevada (CCSN) President Richard Carpenter has criticized the state's college funding formula, saying it penalizes southern Nevada students--particularly minorities. Carpenter said he hopes lawmakers will alter a complex equation that leads to a discrepancy in funding between CCSN and other institutions, including…
The Economic Vitality Formula of Success
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Konopnicki, Patrick M.
2012-01-01
An economic vitality formula of success can be accomplished by creating partnerships between local career and technical education (CTE), and workforce development and economic development entities. Student industry certifications; dynamic partnerships; programs and projects focused on science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM); and…
24 CFR 574.130 - Formula allocations.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
...-capita-incidence rate and the average rate for all metropolitan statistical areas with more than 500,000... URBAN DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES HOUSING OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERSONS WITH AIDS Formula Entitlements... immunodeficiency syndrome used for this purpose shall be the number reported as of March 31 of the fiscal...
Adolescent Formula Literature and Its Promiscuous Progeny.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stanek, Lou Willett
This paper discusses the history and effect of popular culture generally and of the adolescent formula novel specifically. Seven primary characteristics of art as popular culture are that the work is accessible, easy to understand, conventional in form, not shocking in content, expressive of common and appropriate values, relative to some element…
38 CFR 9.12 - Reinsurance formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... LIFE INSURANCE AND VETERANS' GROUP LIFE INSURANCE § 9.12 Reinsurance formula. The allocation of... life insurance in force under the policy in proportion to the company's total life insurance in force... section based upon the corresponding in force (excluding the Servicemembers' Group Life Insurance in...
ACS Develops Formula For Estimating Salaries
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Chemical and Engineering News, 1978
1978-01-01
A simple formula and accompanying set of factors has been developed to estimate the average salary of groups of chemists with common characteristics. Five major characteristics in determining salaries are presented: years of experience, highest degree, type of employer, work function, and sex. Tables and a sample problem are included. (MA)
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
10 CFR 905.33 - Extension formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-01-01
... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Extension formula. 905.33 Section 905.33 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT PROGRAM Power Marketing Initiative § 905.33 Extension... × project-specific percentage × marketable resource determined to be available at the time future...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
A series of laboratory experiments were conducted to assess the accuracy of permeation tube (PT) devices using a calibration gas generator system to measure permeation rate (PR) of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Calibration gas standards of benzene, toluene, and m-xylene (BTX) were produced from...
Verification of concentration time formulae accuracy in Southern Brazil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Freitas Ferreira, Pedro; Allasia, Daniel; Herbstrith Froemming, Gabriel; Ribeiro Fontoura, Jessica; Tassi, Rutineia
2016-04-01
The time of concentration (TC) of an urban catchment is a fundamental watershed parameter used to compute the peak discharge and/or in the hydrological simulation of sewer systems. In the lack of hydrological data for its estimative, several empirical formulae are used, however, almost none of them have been verified in Brazil leading to large uncertainties in the correct value. In this light, were tested several formulae such as the proposed by Kirpich (and a modifications of this equation proposed by the National Transport Bureau of Brazil (DNIT)), U.S. Corps. Of Engineers, Pasini, Dooge , Johnstone , Ventura and Ven T Chow as they are used in Brazil. The verification was accomplished against measured data in 5 sub-basins situated in the Dilúvio basin, a semi urbanized watershed that contains the most developed area of the city of Porto Alegre. All the rainfall stations were active in the period from late 1970's until early 1980's due to the existence of Projeto Dilúvio but today, however, only two of them are still in operation. Porto Alegre is the capital and largest city in the Brazilian southernmost state of Rio Grande do Sul with a population of approximately 1.6 million inhabitants, the tenth most populous city in the country and the centre of Brazil's fourth largest metropolitan area, with almost 4,5 million inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). The city is situated in a humid subtropical climate with high and regular precipitation throughout the year. Most summer rainfall occurs during thunderstorms and an occasional tropical storm, hurricane or cyclone. The results showed an error of around 70% for half of the formulas, with a tendency to underestimate TC values. Among the tested methods, Johnstone had the best overall result, with an average error of 25%, well far from the second, Dooge, with 43% of average error. The best results were obtained in only one basin, Dilúvio, the largest one, with an area of 25km², with an error of just 3% for Modified Kirpich, and
Learning German Formulaic Sequences: The Effect of Two Attention-Drawing Techniques
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Peters, Elke
2012-01-01
This article reports a small-scale study that investigated the effect of (1) an instructional method, viz. directing learners' attention to formulaic sequences (FS) in a text, and (2) typographic salience, i.e. bold typeface and underlined, on foreign-language (FL) learners' recall of FS and single words (SW). Twenty-eight FL learners read a…
Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language
Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.
2014-01-01
Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huertas, Rafael; Melgosa, Manuel; Oleari, Claudio
2006-09-01
An investigation of the color metrics and the complexity of the CIEDE2000 formula shows that CIELAB space is inadequate to represent small-medium color differences. The OSA-UCS (Uniform Color Space) Committee has shown that no space with uniform scale for large color differences exists. Therefore the practical way for color-difference specification is a color-difference formula in a nonuniform space. First, the BFD (Bradford University) ellipses are considered in the OSA-UCS space, and their very high regularity suggests a new and very simple color-difference formula at constant luminance. Then the COM (combined) data set used for the development of the CIEDE2000 formula is considered in the OSA-UCS space, and the color-difference formula is extended to sample pairs with a different luminance factor. The value of the performance factor PF/3 for the proposed OSA-UCS-based formula shows that the formula performs like the more complex CIEDE2000 formula for small-medium color differences.
Empirical Research without Certainty
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Floden, Robert E.
2009-01-01
In this essay, Robert Floden reviews three recent volumes in the Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research series that address the philosophical implications of three "isms"-- postpositivism, pragmatism, and poststructuralism--for empirical educational research. These volumes, written by D.C. Phillips, Gert J.J. Biesta, and Michael A. Peters,…
Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hubbard, Timothy L.
2010-01-01
The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…
Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee
2016-03-01
Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours. PMID:27244971
Message passing for quantified Boolean formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Pan; Ramezanpour, Abolfazl; Zdeborová, Lenka; Zecchina, Riccardo
2012-05-01
We introduce two types of message passing algorithms for quantified Boolean formulas (QBF). The first type is a message passing based heuristics that can prove unsatisfiability of the QBF by assigning the universal variables in such a way that the remaining formula is unsatisfiable. In the second type, we use message passing to guide branching heuristics of a Davis-Putnam-Logemann-Loveland (DPLL) complete solver. Numerical experiments show that on random QBFs our branching heuristics give robust exponential efficiency gain with respect to state-of-the-art solvers. We also manage to solve some previously unsolved benchmarks from the QBFLIB library. Apart from this, our study sheds light on using message passing in small systems and as subroutines in complete solvers.
Inclusion probability with dropout: an operational formula.
Milot, E; Courteau, J; Crispino, F; Mailly, F
2015-05-01
In forensic genetics, a mixture of two or more contributors to a DNA profile is often interpreted using the inclusion probabilities theory. In this paper, we present a general formula for estimating the probability of inclusion (PI, also known as the RMNE probability) from a subset of visible alleles when dropouts are possible. This one-locus formula can easily be extended to multiple loci using the cumulative probability of inclusion. We show that an exact formulation requires fixing the number of contributors, hence to slightly modify the classic interpretation of the PI. We discuss the implications of our results for the enduring debate over the use of PI vs likelihood ratio approaches within the context of low template amplifications.
Some inversion formulas for the cone transform
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Terzioglu, Fatma
2015-11-01
Several novel imaging applications have lead recently to a variety of Radon type transforms, where integration is made over a family of conical surfaces. We call them cone transforms (in 2D they are also called V-line or broken ray transforms). Most prominently, they are present in the so called Compton camera imaging that arises in medical diagnostics, astronomy, and lately in homeland security applications. Several specific incarnations of the cone transform have been considered separately. In this paper, we address the most general (and overdetermined) cone transform, obtain integral relations between cone and Radon transforms in {{{R}}}n, and a variety of inversion formulas. In many applications (e.g., in homeland security), the signal to noise ratio is very low. So, if overdetermined data is collected (as in the case of Compton imaging), attempts to reduce the dimensionality might lead to essential elimination of the signal. Thus, our main concentration is on obtaining formulas involving overdetermined data.
Clause Elimination Procedures for CNF Formulas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heule, Marijn; Järvisalo, Matti; Biere, Armin
We develop and analyze clause elimination procedures, a specific family of simplification techniques for conjunctive normal form (CNF) formulas. Extending known procedures such as tautology, subsumption, and blocked clause elimination, we introduce novel elimination procedures based on hidden and asymmetric variants of these techniques. We analyze the resulting nine (including five new) clause elimination procedures from various perspectives: size reduction, BCP-preservance, confluence, and logical equivalence. For the variants not preserving logical equivalence, we show how to reconstruct solutions to original CNFs from satisfying assignments to simplified CNFs. We also identify a clause elimination procedure that does a transitive reduction of the binary implication graph underlying any CNF formula purely on the CNF level.
Pizzetti Formulae for Stiefel Manifolds and Applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Coulembier, Kevin; Kieburg, Mario
2015-10-01
Pizzetti's formula explicitly shows the equivalence of the rotation invariant integration over a sphere and the action of rotation invariant differential operators. We generalize this idea to the integrals over real, complex, and quaternion Stiefel manifolds in a unifying way. In particular, we propose a new way to calculate group integrals and try to uncover some algebraic structures which manifest themselves for some well-known cases like the Harish-Chandra integral. We apply a particular case of our formula to an Itzykson-Zuber integral for the coset . This integral naturally appears in the calculation of the two-point correlation function in the transition of the statistics of the Poisson ensemble and the Gaussian orthogonal ensemble in random matrix theory.
A flood-flow formula for Connecticut
Bigwood, B.L.; Thomas, M.P.
1955-01-01
A study of the frequency and magnitude of floods within the Connecticut area is contained in this report. Annual flood discharges for 44 stream-gaging stations whose records range in length from l0 to 40 years are presented and a regional flood-frequency relationship developed based upon the ratios of all floods to the mean annual flood at each of these locations. Definition of this curve for floods of larger recurrence intervals is based upon historical studies of extraordinary floods which have occurred within the area. For ungaged areas, the mean annual flood value may be determined by use of a flood-flow formula based upon the topographic characteristics of drainage area and basin slope. The development of this formula also is included.
Matrix product formula for Macdonald polynomials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cantini, Luigi; de Gier, Jan; Wheeler, Michael
2015-09-01
We derive a matrix product formula for symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our results are obtained by constructing polynomial solutions of deformed Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov equations, which arise by considering representations of the Zamolodchikov-Faddeev and Yang-Baxter algebras in terms of t-deformed bosonic operators. These solutions are generalized probabilities for particle configurations of the multi-species asymmetric exclusion process, and form a basis of the ring of polynomials in n variables whose elements are indexed by compositions. For weakly increasing compositions (anti-dominant weights), these basis elements coincide with non-symmetric Macdonald polynomials. Our formulas imply a natural combinatorial interpretation in terms of solvable lattice models. They also imply that normalizations of stationary states of multi-species exclusion processes are obtained as Macdonald polynomials at q = 1.
A Generalized Formula to Determine Pythagorean Triples
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mohapatra, Amar Kumar; Prakash, Nupur
2010-01-01
This note proposes a unique solutions to find out the value of x, y and z which satisfies the equation x[superscript 2] + y[superscript 2] = z[superscript 2]. The uniqueness of the proposed formulae is to find the total number of y's and z's at a given value of x. The value of y and z can be calculated by factoring x[superscript 2] or…
New analytic formula for edge bootstrap current
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, C. S.; Koh, S.; Menard, J.; Weitzner, H.; Choe, W.
2012-10-01
The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. A drift-kinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the low collisionality banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions (represented by O. Sauter, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1999) are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is a significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas. The deviation occurs in different ways between a conventional aspect ratio tokamak and a tight aspect ratio tokamak. A new analytic fitting formula, as a simple modification to the Sauter formula, is obtained to bring the analytic expression to a better agreement with the edge kinetic simulation results.
Algorithm 699 - A new representation of Patterson's quadrature formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krogh, Fred T.; Van Snyder, W.
1991-01-01
A method is presented to reduce the number of coefficients necessary to represent Patterson's quadrature formulae. It also reduces the amount of storage necessary for storing function values, and produces slightly smaller error in evaluating the formulae.
Plotting Formula for Pearson Type III Distribution Considering Historical Information.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Nguyen, Van Thanh-Van; In-na, Nophadol
1992-01-01
Proposes a plotting position formula for the Pearson type III distribution in the analysis of historical flood information. Presents results of a numerical example using actual flood data to confirm the appropriateness of the plotting formula. (24 references) (MDH)
Infant formula, past and future: opportunities for improvement.
Lo, C W; Kleinman, R E
1996-04-01
Infant formulas provide nutritional support to health infants that promotes growth and development equivalent to that in healthy infants fed human milk. Formula-fed infants are not as well protected against infections, and there remain infants whose health, growth, and development may not be supported optimally by either the formulas currently available or human milk. Some infants may be better supported by genetically engineered formulas that contain immunity-enhancing antibodies or antigens. Formulas that contain cytokines promoting epithelial cell growth and integrity may be protective against necrotizing enterocolitis. Formulas containing proteins with genetically excluded allergenic epitopes or formulas with tolerogenic peptides may be useful in treating allergic diseases of suppressing the development of autoimmune disorders later in life. Formulas with genetically engineered biologically active substances might increase the absorption of nutrients in infants with compromised absorption or digestion, enhance host immunity and mucosal integrity, and, potentially militate or protect against the risk of disease. PMID:8599333
27 CFR 25.58 - New and superseding formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Miscellaneous Provisions Formulas § 25.58 New and... special method of manufacture that requires the filing of a formula; or (6) Change the contribution...
The Euler-Maclaurin Formula and Extensions - An Elementary Approach
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gearhart, W. B.; Qian, Maijian
2005-01-01
This note offers a derivation of the Euler-Maclaurin formula that is simple and elementary. In addition, the paper shows that the derivation provides Euler-Maclaurin formulas for a variety of functionals other than the trapezoid rule.
Analytic formula for the clear-sky UV index.
Madronich, Sasha
2007-01-01
An approximate formula for the UV Index (UVI) under cloud-free, unpolluted, low surface albedo conditions is: UVI approximately 12.5mu(o)(2.42)(Omega/300)(-1.23) where mu(o) is the cosine of the solar zenith angle and Omega is the total vertical ozone column (in Dobson Units, DU). The dependence on mu(o) and Omega is based on a simple physical model of biologically weighted atmospheric transmission in the UV-B and UV-A spectral bands, with coefficients tuned to a detailed radiative transfer model, and is accurate to 10% or better over 0-60 degrees and 200-400 DU. Other factors (clouds, haze, ground, etc.) mostly conserve this dependence and scale simply.
Counterexamples on Jumarie's two basic fractional calculus formulae
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Cheng-shi
2015-05-01
Jumarie proposed a modified Riemann-Liouville derivative definition and gave two basic fractional calculus formulae (u (t) v (t)) (α) =u (α) (t) v (t) + u (t)v (α) (t) and (f (u (t))) (α) = fu‧ u (α) (t) . We give two counterexamples to show that Jumarie's two formulae are not true. Respectively, all results obtained in references by using Jumarie's these two formulae are incorrect. In the end, we give the corresponding formulae.
Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.
Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao
2014-06-01
Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study.
Novel medical bathing with traditional Chinese herb formula alleviates paraplegia spasticity.
Liu, Xin; Meng, Qingxi; Yu, Dapeng; Zhao, Xiwu; Zhao, Tingbao
2014-06-01
Paraplegia spasm is a kind of chronic disease which lacks effective treatment; the patients have to endure long-term pain, which is a tough problem for nursing practice. Lots of potential candidate medicines are under investigation, and a new Chinese herb formula is introduced in the current study. In the present study, we chose six different well-known Chinese herbs to form a formula, and boiled them into the water with an optimized ratio to make bath water; 80 paraplegic patients received this medicinal bath, and 80 patients received perfume water bath as placebo group. Compared with placebo control patients, the herb-treated patients have significant reduction in paraplegia spasm, visual analogue scale score, clinician global impression and sleep disorder. This novel six-combined formula traditional medicine could be beneficial for alleviating paraplegia spasm, but the underlying action mechanism deserves further study. PMID:24621269
de Regil, Luz María; de la Barca, Ana María Calderón
2004-03-01
Enzymatically modified soy proteins have the amino acid profile and functional properties required for dietary support. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and technological properties of an enzymatically modified soy protein ultrafiltered fraction with bound methionine (F(1-10)E) to be used as a protein ingredient for infant enteral formulas. F(1-10)E was chemically characterized and biologically evaluated. Thirty-six weaning Wistar rats were fed during 3 weeks with a 4% casein-containing diet. Rats were divided into three groups and recovered for 3 weeks with 18% protein-containing diets based on: (1) F(1-10)E, (2) casein or (3) soy isolate+methionine. Nutritional indicators were weight gain, protein efficiency ratio, plasma proteins, apparent digestibility and protein in the carcass. Additionally, F(1-10)E was added as a protein ingredient of an enteral formula, and its sensory and rheological properties were compared with a hydrolyzed-whey protein commercial formula. F(1-10)E contained 68% protein and 5% sulphur amino acids, with 60% of peptides 0.05) in weight gain (108 g and 118 g, respectively), protein efficiency ratio (2.7), apparent digestibility (93% and 95%), plasma proteins (5.7 mg/100 ml) and carcass protein (61%), and better than soy isolate-based+methionine diet (P<0.05). Viscosity of the commercial formula and our formula was similar during a 24-h period. Sensory acceptability was 8 for our formula and 3.5 for the commercial one, on a scale of 1-10 (P<0.05). Due to its nutritional, sensorial and rheological properties, F(1-10)E could be used as a protein source in infant enteral formulas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cavalier, Paul; Baghai-Wadji, Alireza; Poprawski, Yohann; Inggs, Michael
2016-11-01
Wavelet methods have been used in potential fields study to estimate source properties such as depth or structural index, through the analysis of Wavelet Transform Modulus Maxima Lines (WTMML) intersections and slopes at high scales. Little has been done on the study of maximum points of the wavelet diagram, that we call here Maximum Wavelet Coefficient Scales (MWCS). Previous works have shown interesting correlations between MWCS and source depths, depending on the wavelet used in regards to the source nature and the data derivative order. In this paper, we introduce an empirical law involving spectral parameters that have not been studied so far, which allows analytical calculation of the MWCS, knowing the source characteristics and using certain wavelets. In return, the study of MWCS allows recovering source characteristics from the use of a single wavelet, without prior knowledge on the source. We demonstrate through synthetic models that the new capability of predicting the source type and depth according to the wavelet coefficient behaviour allows new ways of potential fields' sources characterization and identification. We show an application of the formula on a real case example in the Uinta Mountains (Utah, USA).
20 CFR 225.3 - PIA computation formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false PIA computation formulas. 225.3 Section 225.3... INSURANCE AMOUNT DETERMINATIONS General § 225.3 PIA computation formulas. (a) General. PIA's are generally computed under one of two normal formulas determined by the employee's eligibility year. In addition,...
27 CFR 20.93 - Changes to formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes to formulas. 20.93... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.93 Changes to formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section,...
40 CFR 72.95 - Allowance deduction formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Allowance deduction formula. 72.95... (CONTINUED) PERMITS REGULATION Compliance Certification § 72.95 Allowance deduction formula. The following formula shall be used to determine the total number of allowances to be deducted for the calendar...
48 CFR 32.304-3 - Asset formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Asset formula. 32.304-3... REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Loan Guarantees for Defense Production 32.304-3 Asset formula. (a) Under..., by use of an asset formula, to an amount that does not exceed a specified percentage (90 percent...
27 CFR 26.197 - Furnishing formula to consignee.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Furnishing formula to... Custody to Internal Revenue Bond § 26.197 Furnishing formula to consignee. Prior to the first shipment... formula covering such spirits to the appropriate TTB officer, and to the proprietor of each...
27 CFR 26.53 - Changes of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes of formulas. 26.53... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From Puerto Rico § 26.53 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing a...
27 CFR 26.223 - Changes of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Changes of formulas. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.223 Changes of formulas. Any change in the ingredients composing...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
27 CFR 19.187 - Adoption of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas. 19... After Original Qualification § 19.187 Adoption of formulas. (a) Forms 5110.38. The adoption by a... the appropriate TTB officer. The application shall list the formulas for adoption by (1)...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
27 CFR 17.125 - Adoption of formulas and processes.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of formulas and... NONBEVERAGE PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.125 Adoption of formulas and processes. (a) Adoption of... of adoption with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be filed with the first claim...
Infant formula increases bone turnover favoring bone formation
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
In the first year of life, the major infant food choices have traditionally been breast milk (BM), cow's milk formula (MF), or soy formula (SF). Studies examining the effects of infant formula on early life skeletal development are extremely limited. We have enrolled 120 healthy 6-month-old infants ...
7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a...
7 CFR 246.16a - Infant formula cost containment.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... preceding 12-month period shall issue separate bid solicitations for milk-based and soy-based infant formula... participation data. (vi) Infant formula usage rates by type (e.g., milk-based or soy-based), form (e.g... that do not produce a soy-based infant formula to subcontract with another manufacturer to supply a...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
49 CFR 198.13 - Grant allocation formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Grant allocation formula. 198.13 Section 198.13... PIPELINE SAFETY PROGRAMS Grant Allocation § 198.13 Grant allocation formula. (a) Beginning in calendar year... state agency comments on any proposed changes to the allocation formula. (f) Grants are limited to...
27 CFR 21.62 - Formula No. 35-A.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 35-A. 21.62... and Authorized Uses § 21.62 Formula No. 35-A. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: 4.25 gallons of ethyl acetate having an ester content of 100 percent by weight or the equivalent thereof not...
24 CFR 990.200 - Determination of formula amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... part) and its formula income (as calculated under subpart D of this part). (b) Use of HUD databases to calculate formula amount. HUD shall utilize its databases to make the formula calculations. HUD's databases... units in HUD's databases. (c) PHA responsibility to submit timely data. PHAs shall submit data used...
7 CFR 761.205 - Computing the formula allocation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computing the formula allocation. 761.205 Section 761.205 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Funds to State Offices § 761.205 Computing the formula allocation. (a) The formula allocation for FO...
45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...
45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...
45 CFR 1321.37 - Intrastate funding formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Intrastate funding formula. 1321.37 Section 1321... funding formula. (a) The State agency, after consultation with all area agencies in the State, shall develop and use an intrastate funding formula for the allocation of funds to area agencies under this...
Certain summation and transformation formulas for generalized hypergeometric series
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Miller, Allen R.
2009-09-01
We derive summation formulas for generalized hypergeometric series of unit argument, one of which upon specialization reduces to Minton's summation theorem. As an application we deduce a reduction formula for a certain Kampé de Fériet function that in turn provides a Kummer-type transformation formula for the generalized hypergeometric function pFp(x).
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.36 - Formula No. 3-B.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... and Authorized Uses § 21.36 Formula No. 3-B. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add: One gallon of pine tar, U.S.P. (b) Authorized uses. (1) As a solvent: 111.Hair and scalp preparations. 141... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 3-B....
27 CFR 21.49 - Formula No. 23-H.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 23-H. 21.49 Section 21.49 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... and Authorized Uses § 21.49 Formula No. 23-H. (a) Formula. To every 100 gallons of alcohol add:...
2014-01-01
To describe flow or transport phenomena in porous media, relations between aquifer hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity can prove useful, avoiding the need to perform expensive and time consuming measurements. The practical applications generally require the determination of this parameter at field scale, while most of the empirical and semiempirical formulas, based on grain size analysis and allowing determination of the hydraulic conductivity from the porosity, are related to the laboratory scale and thus are not representative of the aquifer volumes to which one refers. Therefore, following the grain size distribution methodology, a new experimental relation between hydraulic conductivity and effective porosity, representative of aquifer volumes at field scale, is given for a confined aquifer. The experimental values used to determine this law were obtained for both parameters using only field measurements methods. The experimental results found, also if in the strict sense valid only for the investigated aquifer, can give useful suggestions for other alluvial aquifers with analogous characteristics of grain-size distribution. Limited to the investigated range, a useful comparison with the best known empirical formulas based on grain size analysis was carried out. The experimental data allowed also investigation of the existence of a scaling behaviour for both parameters considered. PMID:25180202
Design of TiO<formula>_{2}formula> nanotube based X-ray tube with single focusing electrode.
Alivov, Yahya; Feng, Jun; Molloi, Sabee
2013-01-01
We studied in details the effect of various X-ray tube parameters (cathode size, anode size, anode - lens distance, etc.) on TiO<formula>_{2}formula> nanotube field emission electron-beam focal spot size (FSS) and lens voltages for a single electrode lens system. The simulations were performed using commercially available SIMION 8.1 software. A wide range of parameters was simulated to determine conditions when FSS and lens focusing voltage had minimum values. In particular, the dependence of FSS and lens voltages on cathode size (<formula>d_{S}>) was studied for different size lens apertures (<formula>d_{L}>) and different anode voltages. The cathode size <formula>d_{S}> was varied in the range from 0.1 mm to <formula>d_{L}>; the <formula>d_{L}> was changed from 4 to 24 mm in 4 mm increments. The simulations were performed for two different <formula>V_{A}> values 60 kV and 120 kV. It was found that for 20 mm and 24 mm diameter lens apertures the maximum cathode size when the resulting FSS was not greater than 1600 μm (the focal spot size in clinical X-ray CT) were 17.5 mm and 16.2 mm, respectively. The lens voltages <formula>V_{f}> corresponding to 17.5 mm and 16.2 mm cathode size in 20 mm and 24 mm aperture diameter x-ray tubes are 1850 V and -1550 V, respectively.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kincaid, J. P.; And Others
Three readability formulas were recalculated to be more suitable for Navy use. The three formulas are the Automated Readability Index (ARI), Fog Count, and Flesch Reading Ease Formula. They were derived from test results of 531 Navy enlisted personnel enrolled in four technical training schools. Personnel were tested for their reading…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lenke, Joanne M.; And Others
To investigate the effect of violating the assumption of equal item difficulty on Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula 21 reliability coefficient, 670 eighth-and ninth- grade students were administered 26 short, homogeneous "tests" of mathematics concepts and skills. Both KR Formula 20 and KR Formula 21 were used to estimate reliability on each test. The…
A Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mass formula
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samyn, M.; Goriely, S.; Heenen, P.-H.; Pearson, J. M.; Tondeur, F.
2002-03-01
In order to have more reliable predictions of nuclear masses at the neutron drip line, we here go beyond the recent mass formula HFBCS-1 and present a new mass formula, HFB-1, based on the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov method. As with the HFBCS-1 mass formula, we use a 10-parameter Skyrme force along with a 4-parameter δ-function pairing force and a 2-parameter phenomenological Wigner term. However, with the original HFBCS-1 Skyrme force (MSk7), the rms error becomes unacceptably large and a new force fit is required. With the isoscalar and isovector effective masses constrained to be equal, the remaining 15 degrees of freedom are fitted to the masses of all the 1754 measured nuclei with A⩾16, | N- Z|>2 given in the 1995 Audi-Wapstra compilation. The rms error with respect to the masses of all the 1888 measured nuclei with Z, N⩾8 is 0.764 MeV. A complete mass table, HFB-1 (available on the Web), has been constructed, giving all nuclei lying between the two drip lines over the range Z, N⩾8 and Z⩽120. A comparison between HFB-1 and HFBCS-1 mass tables shows that the HFBCS model is a very good approximation of the HFB theory, in particular for masses, the extrapolated masses never differing by more than 2 MeV below Z⩽110. We also find that the behaviour of shell gaps far away from the region of beta stability does not depend on whether the HFBCS or HFB methods are used, in particular, no quenching of astrophysical interest arises from replacing the BCS method by the Bogoliubov method.
Infant formula companies battle for breast.
1996-01-01
The infant formula manufacturer Mead Johnson has filed a lawsuit in Ontario courts against its competitor Ross Abbott for false advertising of its new Similac brand of infant formula. Mead Johnson contends that the Ross Abbott advertisement of Similac as providing benefits similar to mother's milk is false and misleading. Breast feeding specialists agree with Mead Johnson's claim. Yet, one year earlier, Mead Johnson claimed that its infant formula is modeled after mother's milk. The Infant Feeding Action Coalition (INFACT) Canada had complained to the Competition Bureau that called for Mead Johnson to cease its claim. Court documents reveal that both companies disregard the World Health Organization (WHO) International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes. This code prohibits manufacturers from advertising directly to pregnant women and mothers. Two Ross Abbott spokespersons have different responses to their advertising practices: increasing emphasis on consumer promotion and support of the principle and objective of the WHO Code. Both companies have sought support of health professionals in Canada. In July 1996 Mead Johnson sent letters to about 7000 clinicians declaring "as someone who cares about infant health and nutrition as much as we do" and "...the most alarming concern is that, although there is no scientific basis for such claims, mothers believe them to be true." Ross Abbott responded to these letters by sending physicians letters declaring "Our business is built on trust, and we assure you that you may trust in Similac Advance and the benefits we have ascribed to it." The two companies will meet again in court on September 30, 1996. PMID:12320465
The chemical formula of a magnetotactic bacterium.
Naresh, Mohit; Das, Sayoni; Mishra, Prashant; Mittal, Aditya
2012-05-01
Elucidation of the chemical logic of life is one of the grand challenges in biology, and essential to the progress of the upcoming field of synthetic biology. Treatment of microbial cells explicitly as a "chemical" species in controlled reaction (growth) environments has allowed fascinating discoveries of elemental formulae of a few species that have guided the modern views on compositions of a living cell. Application of mass and energy balances on living cells has proved to be useful in modeling of bioengineering systems, particularly in deriving optimized media compositions for growing microorganisms to maximize yields of desired bio-derived products by regulating intra-cellular metabolic networks. In this work, application of elemental mass balance during growth of Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense in bioreactors has resulted in the discovery of the chemical formula of the magnetotactic bacterium. By developing a stoichiometric equation characterizing the formation of a magnetotactic bacterial cell, coupled with rigorous experimental measurements and robust calculations, we report the elemental formula of M. gryphiswaldense cell as CH(2.06)O(0.13)N(0.28)Fe(1.74×10(-3)). Remarkably, we find that iron metabolism during growth of this magnetotactic bacterium is much more correlated individually with carbon and nitrogen, compared to carbon and nitrogen with each other, indicating that iron serves more as a nutrient during bacterial growth rather than just a mineral. Magnetotactic bacteria have not only invoked some interest in the field of astrobiology for the last two decades, but are also prokaryotes having the unique ability of synthesizing membrane bound intracellular organelles. Our findings on these unique prokaryotes are a strong addition to the limited repertoire, of elemental compositions of living cells, aimed at exploring the chemical logic of life.
Breastfeeding versus infant formula: the Kenyan case.
Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C
1985-02-01
An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.
Synthesizing Dynamic Programming Algorithms from Linear Temporal Logic Formulae
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosu, Grigore; Havelund, Klaus
2001-01-01
The problem of testing a linear temporal logic (LTL) formula on a finite execution trace of events, generated by an executing program, occurs naturally in runtime analysis of software. We present an algorithm which takes an LTL formula and generates an efficient dynamic programming algorithm. The generated algorithm tests whether the LTL formula is satisfied by a finite trace of events given as input. The generated algorithm runs in linear time, its constant depending on the size of the LTL formula. The memory needed is constant, also depending on the size of the formula.
Some new addition formulae for Weierstrass elliptic functions
Eilbeck, J. Chris; England, Matthew; Ônishi, Yoshihiro
2014-01-01
We present new addition formulae for the Weierstrass functions associated with a general elliptic curve. We prove the structure of the formulae in n-variables and give the explicit addition formulae for the 2- and 3-variable cases. These new results were inspired by new addition formulae found in the case of an equianharmonic curve, which we can now observe as a specialization of the results here. The new formulae, and the techniques used to find them, also follow the recent work for the generalization of Weierstrass functions to curves of higher genus. PMID:25383018
Annealed Scaling for a Charged Polymer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Caravenna, F.; den Hollander, F.; Pétrélis, N.; Poisat, J.
2016-03-01
This paper studies an undirected polymer chain living on the one-dimensional integer lattice and carrying i.i.d. random charges. Each self-intersection of the polymer chain contributes to the interaction Hamiltonian an energy that is equal to the product of the charges of the two monomers that meet. The joint probability distribution for the polymer chain and the charges is given by the Gibbs distribution associated with the interaction Hamiltonian. The focus is on the annealed free energy per monomer in the limit as the length of the polymer chain tends to infinity. We derive a spectral representation for the free energy and use this to prove that there is a critical curve in the parameter plane of charge bias versus inverse temperature separating a ballistic phase from a subballistic phase. We show that the phase transition is first order. We prove large deviation principles for the laws of the empirical speed and the empirical charge, and derive a spectral representation for the associated rate functions. Interestingly, in both phases both rate functions exhibit flat pieces, which correspond to an inhomogeneous strategy for the polymer to realise a large deviation. The large deviation principles in turn lead to laws of large numbers and central limit theorems. We identify the scaling behaviour of the critical curve for small and for large charge bias. In addition, we identify the scaling behaviour of the free energy for small charge bias and small inverse temperature. Both are linked to an associated Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem. A key tool in our analysis is the Ray-Knight formula for the local times of the one-dimensional simple random walk. This formula is exploited to derive a closed form expression for the generating function of the annealed partition function, and for several related quantities. This expression in turn serves as the starting point for the derivation of the spectral representation for the free energy, and for the scaling theorems
Wald entropy formula and loop quantum gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bodendorfer, N.; Neiman, Y.
2014-10-01
We outline how the Wald entropy formula naturally arises in loop quantum gravity based on recently introduced dimension-independent connection variables. The key observation is that in a loop quantization of a generalized gravity theory, the analog of the area operator turns out to measure, morally speaking, the Wald entropy rather than the area. We discuss the explicit example of (higher-dimensional) Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and comment on recent work on finding the correct numerical prefactor of the entropy by comparing it to a semiclassical effective action.
Implementing successful strategic plans: a simple formula.
Blondeau, Whitney; Blondeau, Benoit
2015-01-01
Strategic planning is a process. One way to think of strategic planning is to envision its development and design as a framework that will help your hospital navigate through internal and external changing environments over time. Although the process of strategic planning can feel daunting, following a simple formula involving five steps using the mnemonic B.E.G.I.N. (Begin, Evaluate, Goals & Objectives, Integration, and Next steps) will help the planning process feel more manageable, and lead you to greater success. PMID:26058285
[Enteral nutrition: ways of access and formulas].
Sauret, C; Humanes, A; Trallero, R
1999-03-01
Enteral nutrition is a very adequate method to feed those patients who can not receive food by oral means, to be used only when their gastrointestinal functions are preserved and carry out a proper assimilation of nutrients. Starting from these facts, this article analyzes the various access ways which can be used in enteral nutrition, and the most commonly used enteral nutrition formulas, noting their possible classifications. The nutritional modules and the material necessary to employ this form of feeding, as well as the administrative guidelines, are also presented in this article.
Flow and Drag Formulas for Simple Quadrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zahm, A F
1927-01-01
This report gives the pressure distribution and resistance found by theory and experiment for simple quadrics fixed in an infinite uniform stream of practically incompressible fluid. The experimental values pertain to air and some liquids, especially water; the theoretical refer sometimes to perfect, again to viscid fluids. For the cases treated the concordance of theory and measurement is so close as to make a resume of results desirable. Incidentally formulas for the velocity at all points of the flow field are given, some being new forms for ready use derived in a previous paper. (author)
Formulas for premature infants: fate of the calcium and phosphorus.
Bhatia, J; Fomon, S J
1983-07-01
Formulas designed for feeding of premature infants contain minerals added by the manufacturer. Although it is known that these minerals may be poorly suspended in the formula, little is known about concentrations of minerals in formula delivered to the infant under conditions prevailing in premature infant nurseries. In partially empty bottles of Similac Special Care, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus of this residual formula were found to be substantially greater than concentrations in full bottles. Presumably, concentrations of calcium and phosphorus in formula delivered to the infants was relatively low. Enfamil Premature and SMA Preemie infant formulas contain lesser quantities of added calcium and demonstrated less tendency to sedimentation. Substantial decrease in concentration of calcium was observed with all three formulas during continuous infusion, but the decrease was greatest with Similac Special Care. Little or no change in concentrations of calcium and phosphorus were observed with simulated bolus feeding by gavage.
Fact versus formula in the power spectra of complex systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Watkins, Nick
2016-04-01
More than 100 years ago, Thomson and Tait's classic "Treatise on Natural Philosophy" cautioned its readers against "considering the formula and not the fact as physical reality". Deciding what the facts actually _were, however, was left as an exercise for the reader ... Complex systems offer many examples [1] of the ambiguity Thomson and Tait were trying to point out. This presentation will be about a formula-the "1/f" spectral shape seen in many areas of physics including climate science; and an empirical fact-the growth of rescaled range originally seen in river time series and now known as the Hurst effect. It is well known that Mandelbrot kicked off the study of long range dependence (LRD) in the mid 1960s [2] with a stationary model for 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. This fractional Gaussian model is now so well known that it is often seen as synonymous with both 1/f noise and the Hurst effect. However Mandelbrot himself was aware that there were other models that produced 1/f noise, including a family [3-6] which he called "conditionally stationary", with power law distributions of times between switching of states. Late in his life he re-emphasised the clear contrasts between their behaviour and that of fGn. I will explain why these other models are also physically interesting, and will show why real systems including climate examples may potentially map more closely to one or the other, or may in fact combine both aspects. I will also discuss his proposals for distinguishing between the models and how they may be implemented. [1] Watkins, Bunched Black Swans, Geophys Res. Lett, 2013 [2] Graves et al, A Brief History of Long Memory, arXiv:1406.6018 [stat.OT] [3] Berger and Mandelbrot, "A New Model for Error Clustering in Telephone Circuits", IBM Technical Journal, July 1963. [4] Mandelbrot, "Self-similar error clusters in communications systems, and the concept of conditional stationarity", IEEE Trans. on Communications Technology, COM-13, 71-90, 1965. [5
What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?
Hurst, Samia
2010-10-01
Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.
Mathematical formula recognition using graph grammar
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavirotte, Stephane; Pottier, Loic
1998-04-01
This paper describes current results of Ofr, a system for extracting and understanding mathematical expressions in documents. Such a tool could be really useful to be able to re-use knowledge in scientific books which are not available in electronic form. We currently also study use of this system for direct input of formulas with a graphical tablet for computer algebra system softwares. Existing solutions for mathematical recognition have problems to analyze 2D expressions like vectors and matrices. This is because they often try to use extended classical grammar to analyze formulas, relatively to baseline. But a lot of mathematical notations do not respect rules for such a parsing and that is the reason why they fail to extend text parsing technic. We investigate graph grammar and graph rewriting as a solution to recognize 2D mathematical notations. Graph grammar provide a powerful formalism to describe structural manipulations of multi-dimensional data. The main two problems to solve are ambiguities between rules of grammar and construction of graph.
Proximate and elemental analysis of infant formula.
Tanner, J T
1982-11-01
The Nutrient Surveillance Branch has been conducting a survey of infant formula products for Fiscal Year 1981. Each product has been carefully analyzed and the results compared to the label declaration and the minimum-maximum limits specified by the American Academy of Pediatrics' Committee on Nutrition (CON/AAP). Proximate and elemental analyses were made. Protein, fat, ash, and total solids (moisture) were determined by AOAC methods. Osmolality, density, and fatty acids (linoleic) were also determined. Carbohydrates were calculated by difference and caloric content was calculated by using the general Atwater factors. Elemental analysis for Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Na, and K were performed by induction coupled plasma absorption spectroscopy. Chloride was assayed by potentiometric titration with AgNO3. A summary of the findings from the infant formula survey have been compared with CON/AAP recommendations. In general, there were only a few exceptions where the label claims and the CON/AAP requirements were not met. However, in none of these cases was the difference considered to be of public health significance.
Empirical microeconomics action functionals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson
2015-06-01
A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).
Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.
Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A
2016-03-01
We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849
[Preliminary study on pharmacodynamic evaluation method of Houpo formula particles].
Ma, Lu; Shao, Li-Jie; Tang, Fang
2014-04-01
To discuss the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula particles, with traditional decoction for reference and the intervention of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC). First of all, the similarity of traditional Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex decoction and formula particles of different manufacturers was defined by using the IR fingerprint. The UC rat model was established and given Houpo formula particles of different doses and manufacturers, with the decoction for reference, in order to observe disease activity index (DAI), colon mucosa damage index (CMDI), pathologic changes, nitric oxide (NO), endothdin (ET), substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Their intervention effects on UC rats were compared to study the difference between Sanjiu and Tianjiang Houpo formula particles, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for Houpo formula particles. According to the results, Houpo formula particles showed similar pharmacodynamic actions with the traditional decoction. The pharmacodynamic comparison of Houpo formula particles of different manufacturers showed no statistical significance. The experiment showed that on the basis of the TCM compounds, a prescription dismantlement study was conducted to define target points of various drugs. The traditional decoction was selected for reference in the comparison of corresponding formula particles for their pharmacodynamic equivalence. This method could avoid controversies about single or combined boiling of formula particles, and give objective comments on the pharmacodynamic effect of the formula particles. The method is proved to be feasible. PMID:25039188
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schwab, Susanne
2015-01-01
The first aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of a short version of the Illinois Loneliness and Social Satisfaction Scale with children with special educational needs. The second aim was to explore loneliness in relation to self-perceived social integration, school well-being and the social self-concept of students from primary…
Accurate formula for dissipative interaction in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Kei; Labuda, Aleksander; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi
2014-12-01
Much interest has recently focused on the viscosity of nano-confined liquids. Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a powerful technique that can detect variations in the conservative and dissipative forces between a nanometer-scale tip and a sample surface. We now present an accurate formula to convert the dissipation power of the cantilever measured during the experiment to damping of the tip-sample system. We demonstrated the conversion of the dissipation power versus tip-sample separation curve measured using a colloidal probe cantilever on a mica surface in water to the damping curve, which showed a good agreement with the theoretical curve. Moreover, we obtained the damping curve from the dissipation power curve measured on the hydration layers on the mica surface using a nanometer-scale tip, demonstrating that the formula allows us to quantitatively measure the viscosity of a nano-confined liquid using FM-AFM.
Accurate formula for dissipative interaction in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy
Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Matsushige, Kazumi; Yamada, Hirofumi; Kobayashi, Kei; Labuda, Aleksander
2014-12-08
Much interest has recently focused on the viscosity of nano-confined liquids. Frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) is a powerful technique that can detect variations in the conservative and dissipative forces between a nanometer-scale tip and a sample surface. We now present an accurate formula to convert the dissipation power of the cantilever measured during the experiment to damping of the tip-sample system. We demonstrated the conversion of the dissipation power versus tip-sample separation curve measured using a colloidal probe cantilever on a mica surface in water to the damping curve, which showed a good agreement with the theoretical curve. Moreover, we obtained the damping curve from the dissipation power curve measured on the hydration layers on the mica surface using a nanometer-scale tip, demonstrating that the formula allows us to quantitatively measure the viscosity of a nano-confined liquid using FM-AFM.
Baaquie, Belal E; Liang, Cui
2007-01-01
The quantum finance pricing formulas for coupon bond options and swaptions derived by Baaquie [Phys. Rev. E 75, 016703 (2006)] are reviewed. We empirically study the swaption market and propose an efficient computational procedure for analyzing the data. Empirical results of the swaption price, volatility, and swaption correlation are compared with the predictions of quantum finance. The quantum finance model generates the market swaption price to over 90% accuracy.
New entropy formula with fluctuating reservoir
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biró, T. S.; Barnaföldi, G. G.; Ván, P.
2015-01-01
Finite heat reservoir capacity, C, and temperature fluctuation, ΔT / T, lead to modifications of the well known canonical exponential weight factor. Requiring that the corrections least depend on the one-particle energy, ω, we derive a deformed entropy, K(S) . The resultingformula contains the Boltzmann-Gibbs, Rényi, and Tsallis formulas as particular cases. For extreme large fluctuations, in the limit CΔT2 /T2 → ∞, a new parameter-free entropy-probability relation is gained. The corresponding canonical energy distribution is nearly Boltzmannian for high probability, but for low probability approaches the cumulative Gompertz distribution. The latter is met in several phenomena, like earthquakes, demography, tumor growth models, extreme value probability, etc.
Psychoanalysis and empirical research.
Giannoni, Massimo
2003-11-01
At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the idea of reason began to lose its universal and absolute value, undermining the view of science as a form of objective knowledge that reveals a fundamental reality. These changes have also had an impact on psychoanalysis, leading to a proliferation of theories and the end of a positivistic approach, epitomized by a 'neutral' analyst who knows the contents of the patient's mind. Hermeneutic philosophy provides a tool with which to explore both theoretical multiplicity and the contribution of the analyst's subjectivity to the analytic process. Furthermore, a hermeneutic approach does not have to be hostile to empirical science, but can be integrated with it in a 'scientific-hermeneutic model' in which historical and biological principles are given equal value.
Lipids in human milk and infant formulas.
Jensen, R G; Ferris, A M; Lammi-Keefe, C J
1992-01-01
About 50 metabolically important fatty acids can be identified in human milk. The extent of absorption of milk fatty acids varies considerably from infant to infant, particularly in pre-term infants, and requires more study. Human milk provides sufficient vitamins A and E for the term infant, but supplementation with vitamins D and K may be necessary. More research is needed on the amounts of the fat-soluble vitamins in human milk, the efficiency of transfer from mother to infant, the reasons for variation in different women, and the consequences to breast-fed infants of inadequate intake of vitamins D and K. Breast milk contains the PUFA needed by term infants who are able to synthesize the long-chain PUFA soon after birth. Pre-term infants fed formulae need supplementation with n3 and n6 long-chain PUFA, since formulas currently do not contain these acids. More work is needed to determine the requirements for n3 and n6 fatty acids, expressed as weights per kilogram. A larger data base using improved analytical procedures to study the nature and content of lipids in human milk is needed. The impact of maternal genetics and diet on fatty acids in milk should be studied, as well as the effect of maternal diet on eicosanoids secreted by the mammary gland. Information on the structure and function of the milk fat globule and its membrane is needed. Little is known about the effect of milk banking on milk lipids. The reader of this review will no doubt find other gaps in our knowledge of the lipid composition and nutritional value of milk that require additional investigation.
Infant Formulas for Food Allergy Treatment and Prevention.
Parekh, Hetu; Bahna, Sami L
2016-04-01
The number of infant formulas intended for food allergy treatment or prevention has been increasing. Some products fulfill the criteria for hypoallergenicity, such as extensively hydrolyzed protein (casein or whey) and synthesized amino acid formulas (elemental diet). Numerous partially hydrolyzed formulas have been derived from bovine milk, soybean, and rice. They are not hypoallergenic and are not recommended for children allergic to the parent protein, yet certain preparations have shown efficacy for allergy prevention. Soybean-derived preparations, although not hypoallergenic, have been tolerated by a majority of children allergic to bovine milk. Studies on the addition of probiotics or prebiotics to infant formulas have shown inconsistent findings. Numerous hypoallergenic formulas or milk substitutes are available for pediatricians to choose for children with food allergy. Caution is needed in prescribing formulas that are erroneously marketed as hypoallergenic.
[An encyclopedia for the empire].
Stöltzner, Michael
2008-03-01
In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition.
NTP-CERHR expert panel report on the developmental toxicity of soy infant formula.
McCarver, Gail; Bhatia, Jatinder; Chambers, Christina; Clarke, Robert; Etzel, Ruth; Foster, Warren; Hoyer, Patricia; Leeder, J Steven; Peters, Jeffrey M; Rissman, Emilie; Rybak, Michael; Sherman, Claire; Toppari, Jorma; Turner, Katie
2011-10-01
discussions that occurred at a public meeting of the expert panel held December 16 to 18, 2009 (74 FR 53509). The finalized report presents conclusions on (1) the strength of scientific evidence that soy infant formula or its isoflavone constituents are developmental toxicants based on data from in vitro, animal, or human studies; (2) the extent of exposures in infants fed soy infant formula; (3) the assessment of the scientific evidence that adverse developmental health effects may be associated with such exposures; and (4) knowledge gaps that will help establish research and testing priorities to reduce uncertainties and increase confidence in future evaluations. The Expert Panel expressed minimal concern for adverse developmental effects in infants fed soy infant formula. This level of concern represents a "2" on the five-level scale of concern used by the NTP that ranges from negligible concern ("1") to serious concern ("5"). The Expert Panel Report on Soy Infant Formula was considered extensively by NTP staff in preparing the 2010 NTP Brief on Soy Infant Formula, which represents the NTP's opinion on the potential for exposure to soy infant formula to cause adverse developmental effects in humans. The NTP concurred with the expert panel that there is minimal concern for adverse effects on development in infants who consume soy infant formula. This conclusion was based on information about soy infant formula provided in the expert panel report, public comments received during the course of the expert panel evaluation, additional scientific information made available since the expert panel meeting, and peer reviewer critiques of the draft NTP Brief by the NTP Board of Scientific Counselors (BSC) on May 10, 2010 (Meeting materials are available at http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/go/9741.). The BSC voted in favor of the minimal concern conclusion with 7 yes votes, 3 no votes, and 0 abstentions. One member thought that the conclusion should be negligible concern and two members
An approximate formula for recalescence in binary eutectic alloys
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ohsaka, K.; Trinh, E. H.
1993-01-01
In alloys, solidification takes place along various paths which may be ascertained via phase diagrams; while there would be no single formula applicable to all alloys, an approximate formula for a specific solidification path would be useful in estimating the fraction of the solid formed during recalescence. A formulation is here presented of recalescence in binary eutectic alloys. This formula is applied to Ag-Cu alloys which are of interest in containerless solidification, due to their formation of supersaturated solutions.
A simple formula for the energies of doubly excited states
Lin, C.D.; Watanabe, S.
1986-11-01
A simple formula for the energy levels of doubly excited states of atoms and multiply charged ions is derived and expressed in terms of a set of new correlation quantum numbers. The accuracy of the formula is checked by comparing with the results from other elaborate calculations. Modification of the formula for doubly excited states of multielectron atoms are also presented. 12 refs., 2 tabs.
Improvement in a phenomenological formula for ground state binding energies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gangopadhyay, G.
2016-07-01
The phenomenological formula for ground state binding energy derived earlier [G. Gangopadhyay, Int. J. Mod. Phys. E 20 (2011) 179] has been modified. The parameters have been obtained by fitting the latest available tabulation of experimental values. The major modifications include a new term for pairing and introduction of a new neutron magic number at N = 160. The new formula reduced the root mean square deviation to 363keV, a substantial improvement over the previous version of the formula.
A review of disease-specific formulas.
Zaloga, G; Ackerman, M H
1994-11-01
Critical illness frequently leads to organ dysfunction. Nutritional support of individual organ function is an evolving area of nutritional support. Within the past several years, there was an increase in the number of nutritional products reported to improve organ function. In this article, the authors review disease/organ-specific nutritional support, including the theory behind therapy and the empiric data supporting or refuting these theories. It is hoped that this article will aid practitioners in their nutritional management of patients with organ dysfunction. PMID:7742133
Infant formulas with increased concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin.
Lien, Eric L
2003-06-01
Human and bovine milk differ substantially in the ratio of whey to casein protein (approximately 60:40 in human milk and approximately 20:80 in bovine milk) and in the proportions of specific proteins. Although current infant formulas closely mimic the ratio of total whey to casein inhuman milk, the concentration of a-lactalbumin (the dominant protein in human milk) is relatively low in formula, whereas beta-lactoglobulin, a protein not found in human milk, is the most dominant whey protein in formula. Because of the differences in the protein profiles of human milk and infant formula, amino acid profiles also differ. To meet all essential amino acid requirements of infants, formula concentrations of protein must be higher than those in human milk. Recently, whey sources with elevated concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin have become available, which permitted the development of formulas with increased concentrations of this protein and decreased concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin. alpha-Lactalbumin is rich in tryptophan, which is typically the limiting amino acid in formula, and as a result, formulas have been developed with lower protein but higher tryptophan concentrations. This type of formula may offer a number of advantages to the neonate, which include producing plasma tryptophan concentrations equal to those found in breastfed infants and obviating the need for the body to dispose of excess nitrogen loads.
Holomorphicity and the Walczak formula on Sasakian manifolds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brînzănescu, Vasile; Slobodeanu, Radu
2006-12-01
The Walczak formula is a very nice tool for understanding the geometry of a Riemannian manifold equipped with two orthogonal complementary distributions. M. Svensson [Holomorphic foliations, harmonic morphisms and the Walczak formula, J. London Math. Soc. (2) 68 (3) (2003) 781-794] has shown that this formula simplifies to a Bochner-type formula when we are dealing with Kähler manifolds and holomorphic (integrable) distributions. We show in this paper that such results have a counterpart in Sasakian geometry. To this end, we build on a theory of (contact) holomorphicity on almost contact metric manifolds. Some other applications for (pseudo-)harmonic morphisms on Sasaki manifolds are outlined.
Physicians, formula companies, and advertising. A historical perspective.
Greer, F R; Apple, R D
1991-03-01
The recent advent of new advertising campaigns for infant formulas aimed at the general public via television commercials, newspapers, free formula coupons, and lay periodicals has disrupted a comfortable symbiotic relationship between infant food manufacturers and the medical profession that has endured for more than 50 years. In the late 19th century, physicians were concerned about the advertising claims of these products and generally felt that indications and directions for their use should be the province of the physician. Between 1929 and 1932, the American Medical Association, through its Committee on Foods and "Seal of Acceptance," essentially required the entire formula industry to advertise only to the medical profession. Since 1932, the US formula industry has developed into a $1.6 billion market. In 1988, Nestlé (absent from the US infant formula industry since the 1940s) acquired the Carnation Company and launched an advertising campaign to the general public for its formula products. Bristol Myers/Mead Johnson, in cooperation with Gerber Products Company, quickly followed suit. These actions threaten to once again remove the realm of infant feeding from the exclusive supervision of the medical profession. The new multimedia public advertising campaigns may increase the cost of infant formula to the general public and have a negative impact on the incidence of breast-feeding. In addition, formula advertising campaigns will likely increase the danger of advertising hyperbole and affect the level of financial support by formula companies for scientific meetings, medical research, education, and social events at medical meetings.
Power formula for open-channel flow resistance
Chen, Cheng-lung
1988-01-01
This paper evaluates various power formulas for flow resistance in open channels. Unlike the logarithmic resistance equation that can be theoretically derived either from Prandtl's mixing-length hypothesis or von Karman's similarity hypothesis, the power formula has long had an appearance of empiricism. Nevertheless, the simplicity in the form of the power formula has made it popular among the many possible forms of flow resistance formulas. This paper reexamines the concept and rationale of the power formulation, thereby addressing some critical issues in the modeling of flow resistance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dmitrenko, Artur V.
2016-07-01
The stochastic equations of continuum are used for determining the hydraulic drag coefficients. As a result, the formulas for the hydraulic drag coefficients dependent on the turbulence intensity and scale instead of only on the Reynolds number are proposed for the classic flows of an incompressible fluid along a smooth flat plate and a round smooth tube. It is shown that the new expressions for the classical drag coefficients, which depend only on the Reynolds number, should be obtained from these new general formulas if to use the well-known experimental data for the initial turbulence. It is found that the limitations of classical empirical and semiempirical formulas for the hydraulic drag coefficients and their deviation from the experimental data depend on different parameters of initial fluctuations in the flow for different experiments in a wide range of Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these new dependencies, it is possible to explain that the differences between the experimental results for the fixed Reynolds number are caused by the difference in the values of flow fluctuations for each experiment instead of only due to the systematic error in the processing of experiments. Accordingly, the obtained general dependencies for the smooth flat plate and the smooth round tube can serve as the basis for clarifying the results of experiments and the experimental formulas, which used for continuum flows in different devices.
Assis, Thiago A de; Dall'Agnol, Fernando F
2016-11-01
This work presents an accurate numerical study of the electrostatics of a system formed by individual nanostructures mounted on support substrate tips, which provides a theoretical prototype for applications in field electron emission or for the construction of tips in probe microscopy that requires high resolution. The aim is to describe the conditions to produce structures mechanically robust with desirable field enhancement factor (FEF). We modeled a substrate tip with a height h 1, radius r 1 and characteristic FEF [Formula: see text], and a top nanostructure with a height h 2, radius [Formula: see text] and FEF [Formula: see text], for both hemispheres on post-like structures. The nanostructure mounted on the support substrate tip then has a characteristic FEF, [Formula: see text]. Defining the relative difference [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] corresponds to the reference FEF for a hemisphere of the post structure with a radius [Formula: see text] and height [Formula: see text], our results show, from a numerical solution of Laplace's equation using a finite element scheme, a scaling [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Given a characteristic variable u c, for [Formula: see text], we found a power law [Formula: see text], with [Formula: see text]. For [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], which led to conditions where [Formula: see text]. As a consequence of scale invariance, it is possible to derive a simple expression for [Formula: see text] and to predict the conditions needed to produce related systems with a desirable FEF that are robust owing to the presence of the substrate tip. Finally, we discuss the validity of Schottky's conjecture (SC) for these systems, showing that, while to obey SC is indicative of scale invariance, the opposite is not necessarily true. This result suggests that a careful analysis must be performed before attributing SC as an origin of giant FEF in experiments. PMID
Assis, Thiago A de; Dall'Agnol, Fernando F
2016-11-01
This work presents an accurate numerical study of the electrostatics of a system formed by individual nanostructures mounted on support substrate tips, which provides a theoretical prototype for applications in field electron emission or for the construction of tips in probe microscopy that requires high resolution. The aim is to describe the conditions to produce structures mechanically robust with desirable field enhancement factor (FEF). We modeled a substrate tip with a height h 1, radius r 1 and characteristic FEF [Formula: see text], and a top nanostructure with a height h 2, radius [Formula: see text] and FEF [Formula: see text], for both hemispheres on post-like structures. The nanostructure mounted on the support substrate tip then has a characteristic FEF, [Formula: see text]. Defining the relative difference [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] corresponds to the reference FEF for a hemisphere of the post structure with a radius [Formula: see text] and height [Formula: see text], our results show, from a numerical solution of Laplace's equation using a finite element scheme, a scaling [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Given a characteristic variable u c, for [Formula: see text], we found a power law [Formula: see text], with [Formula: see text]. For [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], which led to conditions where [Formula: see text]. As a consequence of scale invariance, it is possible to derive a simple expression for [Formula: see text] and to predict the conditions needed to produce related systems with a desirable FEF that are robust owing to the presence of the substrate tip. Finally, we discuss the validity of Schottky's conjecture (SC) for these systems, showing that, while to obey SC is indicative of scale invariance, the opposite is not necessarily true. This result suggests that a careful analysis must be performed before attributing SC as an origin of giant FEF in experiments.
The content of elements in infant formulas and drinks against mineral requirements of children.
Molska, A; Gutowska, I; Baranowska-Bosiacka, I; Noceń, I; Chlubek, D
2014-06-01
The present study aimed at analysing the content of fluorine (F), calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) in the drinks for children and infant formulas, a popular supplement or substitute for breast milk produced from cow milk on an industrial scale. Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe concentrations were determined using atomic absorption spectrophotometer, while F levels using a potentiometric method. F levels in the examined formula samples increased with the intended age range, until the intended age of 1 year, and then decreased. A lower content of Ca, Mg and Zn was observed in formulas intended for children <1 year of age and higher for older children. Fe content increased with the age range. A statistically significant higher content of Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe in samples intended for children with phenylketonuria in comparison to those intended for healthy children or children with food allergies was noted. The content of the analysed elements in juices and nectars showed the highest contents in products intended for infants (under 6 months of age). The lowest levels of elements tested were found in drinks for children over 6 months of age. In conclusion, the concentrations of the examined elements in infant formulas and juices for children were decidedly greater than the standards for the individual age groups. Although the absorption of these elements from artificial products is far lower than from breast milk, there is still the fear of consequences of excessive concentrations of these minerals.
Intervening on risk factors for coronary heart disease: an application of the parametric g-formula.
Taubman, Sarah L; Robins, James M; Mittleman, Murray A; Hernán, Miguel A
2009-12-01
Estimating the population risk of disease under hypothetical interventions--such as the population risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) were everyone to quit smoking and start exercising or to start exercising if diagnosed with diabetes--may not be possible using standard analytic techniques. The parametric g-formula, which appropriately adjusts for time-varying confounders affected by prior exposures, is especially well suited to estimating effects when the intervention involves multiple factors (joint interventions) or when the intervention involves decisions that depend on the value of evolving time-dependent factors (dynamic interventions). We describe the parametric g-formula, and use it to estimate the effect of various hypothetical lifestyle interventions on the risk of CHD using data from the Nurses' Health Study. Over the period 1982-2002, the 20-year risk of CHD in this cohort was 3.50%. Under a joint intervention of no smoking, increased exercise, improved diet, moderate alcohol consumption and reduced body mass index, the estimated risk was 1.89% (95% confidence interval: 1.46-2.41). We discuss whether the assumptions required for the validity of the parametric g-formula hold in the Nurses' Health Study data. This work represents the first large-scale application of the parametric g-formula in an epidemiologic cohort study.
Auditory imagery: empirical findings.
Hubbard, Timothy L
2010-03-01
The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565
Auditory imagery: empirical findings.
Hubbard, Timothy L
2010-03-01
The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear).
Carlsson, Tomas; Carlsson, Magnus; Hammarström, Daniel; Rønnestad, Bent R; Malm, Christer B; Tonkonogi, Michail
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their [Formula: see text]. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that [Formula: see text] divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min(-1) · kg(-0.5)) should be used when elite male skiers' performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wilson, Pamela W.; And Others
The purpose of this study was to present an empirical correction of the KR21 (Kuder Richardson test reliability) formula that not only yields a closer approximation to the numerical value of the KR20 without overestimation, but also simplifies computation. This correction was accomplished by introducing several correction factors to the numerator…
Development of formula varsity race car chassis
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abdullah, M. A.; Mansur, M. R.; Tamaldin, N.; Thanaraj, K.
2013-12-01
Three chassis designs have been developed using commercial computer aided design (CAD) software. The design is based on the specifications of UTeM Formula VarsityTM 2012 (FV2012). The selection of the design is derived from weighted matrix which consists of reliability, cost, time consumption and weight. The score of the matrix is formulated based on relative weighted factor among the selections. All three designs are then fabricated using selected materials available. The actual cost, time consumption and weight of the chassis's are compared with the theoretical weighted scores. Standard processes of cuttings, fittings and welding are performed in chassis mock up and fabrication. The chassis is later assembled together with suspension systems, steering linkages, brake systems, engine system, and drive shaft systems. Once the chassis is assembled, the studies of driver's ergonomic and part accessibility are performed. The completion in final fittings and assembly of the race car and its reliability demonstrate an outstanding design for manufacturing (DFM) practices of the chassis.
Wilson, K M; Huff, J L
2001-05-01
The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others.
Wilson, K M; Huff, J L
2001-05-01
The influence on social behavior of beliefs in Satan and the nature of evil has received little empirical study. Elaine Pagels (1995) in her book, The Origin of Satan, argued that Christians' intolerance toward others is due to their belief in an active Satan. In this study, more than 200 college undergraduates completed the Manitoba Prejudice Scale and the Attitudes Toward Homosexuals Scale (B. Altemeyer, 1988), as well as the Belief in an Active Satan Scale, developed by the authors. The Belief in an Active Satan Scale demonstrated good internal consistency and temporal stability. Correlational analyses revealed that for the female participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men and intolerance toward ethnic minorities. For the male participants, belief in an active Satan was directly related to intolerance toward lesbians and gay men but was not significantly related to intolerance toward ethnic minorities. Results of this research showed that it is possible to meaningfully measure belief in an active Satan and that such beliefs may encourage intolerance toward others. PMID:11577971
Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.
Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components.
Dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter.
Deng, Xiaocheng; Meng, Fanning; Lin, Jianming; Yuan, Wenjun
2016-01-01
In this paper, the dynamics of the functions [Formula: see text] with the real parameter is studied. We say that a real parameter [Formula: see text] belongs to the set [Formula: see text] for a positive integer n if [Formula: see text] has an attracting cycle of n-order. We prove that the Fatou set [Formula: see text] is a completely invariant attracting basin for every parameter [Formula: see text]. Further, regarding the set [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text], we prove the following results: (1) There exists [Formula: see text] such that [Formula: see text]. (2) For every positive integer [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] is non-empty. (3) For every prime number [Formula: see text], the set [Formula: see text] has at least two components. PMID:27386299
Gastric motility in premature infants fed two different formulas.
Hancock, P J; Bancalari, E
1984-11-01
The effect of two different formulas on gastric contractions was investigated in 10 preterm infants, of mean birth weight 1,149 g and mean gestational age 30.5 weeks, who were being advanced from a 20 calorie per ounce formula (Enfamil) to a 24 calorie per ounce formula (Similac Special Care 24). The neonates were fed by gravity with a feeding tube on a 2-h schedule. The orogastric tube was connected between feedings to a pressure transducer and recorder system upon which pressure waves reflecting gastric contractions were recorded. In the 1st h after feeding there were significantly fewer gastric contractions with 24 calorie than 20 calorie formula. The mean intensity of the gastric contractions per minute of contraction time was significantly less in the 1st h after feeding with the 24 calorie compared with the 20 calorie formula. In the 2nd h after feeding these values were similar. Gastric contractions are decreased with 24 calorie formula compared with 20 calorie formula during the 1st h after feeding. This difference in contractions may influence tolerance to different formulas.
A Simple Approach to the Landau-Zener Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vutha, Amar C.
2010-01-01
The Landau-Zener formula provides the probability of non-adiabatic transitions occurring when two energy levels are swept through an avoided crossing. The formula is derived here in a simple calculation that emphasizes the physics responsible for non-adiabatic population transfer. (Contains 2 figures.)
A Preliminary Analysis of California's New Local Control Funding Formula
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wolf, Rebecca; Sands, Janelle
2016-01-01
California recently overhauled its K-12 public education finance system. Enacted in 2013, the Local Control Funding Formula (LCFF) replaced California's 40-year-old funding formula. The LCFF increases district officials' fiscal flexibility; provides more resources to districts serving larger proportions of low-income, English learner (EL), and…
14 CFR 271.7 - Subsidy payout formula.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Subsidy payout formula. 271.7 Section 271.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC... payout formula. (a) Subsidy will be paid by the Department to the air carrier monthly, based on...
9 CFR 381.134 - Requirement of formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement of formulas. 381.134 Section 381.134 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Requirement of formulas. Copies of each label submitted for approval, shall when the Administrator requires...
45 CFR 1385.8 - Formula for determining allotments.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Formula for determining allotments. 1385.8 Section 1385.8 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT... Formula for determining allotments. The Commissioner will allocate funds appropriated under the Act...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225....202 Formula, production, and distribution records. Records shall be maintained identifying the... Management and Budget under control number 0910-0152)...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225....202 Formula, production, and distribution records. Records shall be maintained identifying the... Management and Budget under control number 0910-0152)...
21 CFR 225.202 - Formula, production, and distribution records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Formula, production, and distribution records. 225.202 Section 225.202 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS: GENERAL CURRENT GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE FOR MEDICATED FEEDS Records § 225.202 Formula, production, and...
Simple analytic formula for the strength of spin depolarizing resonance
Lee, S.Y.
1985-01-01
A simple analytic formula is derived to explain the periodicity of spin depolarizing resonance. The spin depolarizing resonance strengths of CPS and SPS at CERN and the lattices of meson factory at TRIUMF are used to compare with the analytic formula.
27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
....C. 5232, the formula shall include a statement to that effect. If any product contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such liquor shall be stated on the formula. These.... If any wine contains liquors made outside of Puerto Rico, the country of origin for each such...
78 FR 23818 - Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-04-22
... 11, 2000, at 65 FR 19477-8 or http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: For... Federal Transit Administration Urbanized Area Formula Program: Proposed Circular AGENCY: Federal Transit... Urbanized Area Formula Program. The purpose of this proposed circular is to provide recipients of...
27 CFR 21.78 - Formula No. 42.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 42. 21.78 Section 21.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section 21.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section 21.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.46 - Formula No. 22.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 22. 21.46 Section 21.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.59 - Formula No. 32.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 32. 21.59 Section 21.59 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.64 - Formula No. 37.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 37. 21.64 Section 21.64 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
27 CFR 21.78 - Formula No. 42.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Formula No. 42. 21.78 Section 21.78 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specially Denatured Spirits...
20 CFR 225.3 - PIA computation formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
.... The Average Monthly Earnings PIA formula is used to compute a PIA for one of two reasons: either the... the Social Security Act as in effect on December 31, 1974, and are always computed using the Average Monthly Earnings PIA formula. (i) Combined Earnings Dual Benefit PIA described in § 225.12. (ii)...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
27 CFR 5.28 - Adoption of predecessor's formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption of predecessor's..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Formulas § 5.28 Adoption of predecessor's formulas. The adoption by a successor of approved Forms 5110.38 (27-B Supplemental) shall be...
24 CFR 990.195 - Calculation of formula income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... communications with the respective PHAs. (e) Inapplicability of 24 CFR 85.25. Formula income is not subject to the provisions regarding program income in 24 CFR 85.25. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calculation of formula income....
State Funding Formulas for Public Four-Year Institutions.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
McKeown, Mary P.
This article reviews the development of state funding formulas or guidelines for public higher education. Originally viewed as a means to distribute public funds in a rational and equitable manner, they now are complicated methodologies. Funding formulas are all-inclusive or itemized; most states use the itemized approach. There are three…
A precompiler for the formula manipulation system TRIGMAN.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jefferys, W. H.
1972-01-01
Discussion of a translator designed to simplify the programming of problems involving the TRIGMAN formula manipulation system. The translator allows for the introduction of a new data type, SERIES, into a FORTRAN program and translates a user's program into legal FORTRAN. The translator is adaptable to other formula manipulation systems presently used in celestial mechanics.
27 CFR 26.225 - Previously approved formulas.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Previously approved formulas. 26.225 Section 26.225 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... approved formula on Form 27-B Supplemental indicates that carbon dioxide will be added to, or retained...
"Your Eye Is Sparkling": Formulaic Expressions and Routines in Turkish.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Dogancay, Seran
There are certain pre-coded (formulaic) utterances conventionally triggered by certain communication situations, and their use is expected and deemed appropriate because they are seen as part of everyday politeness formulas. Lack of an English equivalent indicates cultural differences governing their use. Some routines are taught explicitly and…
12 CFR 324.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA....144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for a securitization exposure, an FDIC-supervised institution...
12 CFR 3.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... CAPITAL ADEQUACY STANDARDS Risk-Weighted Assets-Market Risk § 3.211 Simplified supervisory formula... (with unpaid principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the...
12 CFR 3.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 3.143... Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.143 Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a) Eligibility... than L + T, the national bank or Federal savings association must apply a 1,250 percent risk weight...
12 CFR 324.143 - Supervisory formula approach (SFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervisory formula approach (SFA). 324.143... Supervisory formula approach (SFA). (a) Eligibility requirements. An FDIC-supervised institution must use the... than L +T, the FDIC-supervised institution must apply a 1,250 percent risk weight to an amount equal...
12 CFR 3.144 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Risk-Weighted Assets for Securitization Exposures § 3.144 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements for the SSFA. To use the SSFA to determine the risk weight for...
12 CFR 324.211 - Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA).
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-01-01
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA... Risk § 324.211 Simplified supervisory formula approach (SSFA). (a) General requirements. To use the... principal used as the weight for each exposure) total capital requirement of the underlying...
A Formula for Writing Environmental Scans for Community Colleges.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lee, Marcia M.
This paper proposes a five-part formula for conducting an environmental scan for community colleges and writing up the results. To fulfill its mission effectively, administrators should be informed about various aspects of the community they serve. The formula is designed to make the project as easy as possible, focused, and usable the next time…
The Infant Formula Controversy: Is the Boycott Justified?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Murphy, Elaine M.; Cancellier, Patricia H.
1982-01-01
Discusses problems involved with the use of infant formulas in developing countries and then examines the other side of the story, the legitimate need for infant formula. The International Code for the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes is also presented and discussed. (RM)
Evaporation from flowing channels ( mass-transfer formulas).
Fulford, J.M.; Sturm, T.W.
1984-01-01
Stability-dependent and Dalton-type mass transfer formulas are determined from experimental evaporation data in ambient and heated channels and are shown to have similar performance in prediction of evaporation. The formulas developed are compared with those proposed by other investigators for lakes and flowing channels. -from ASCE Publications Information