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Sample records for employing msh2 protein

  1. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1998-11-17

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  2. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1998-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  3. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-01-07

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +} (RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  4. Human MSH2 protein

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  5. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    de la Chapelle, Albert; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.

    1997-01-01

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error.sup.+ (RER.sup.+) tumor cells.

  6. Diagnostic method employing MSH2 nucleic acids

    DOEpatents

    Chapelle, A. de la; Vogelstein, B.; Kinzler, K.W.

    1997-12-02

    The human MSH2 gene, responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer, was identified by virtue of its homology to the MutS class of genes, which are involved in DNA mismatch repair. The sequence of cDNA clones of the human gene are provided, and the sequence of the gene can be used to demonstrate the existence of germ line mutations in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) kindreds, as well as in replication error{sup +}(RER{sup +}) tumor cells. 19 figs.

  7. Proteasome inhibition rescues clinically significant unstable variants of the mismatch repair protein Msh2

    PubMed Central

    Arlow, Tim; Scott, Kristan; Wagenseller, Aubrey; Gammie, Alison

    2013-01-01

    MSH2 is required for DNA mismatch repair recognition in eukaryotes. Deleterious mutations in human MSH2 account for approximately half of the alleles associated with a common hereditary cancer syndrome. Previously, we characterized clinically identified MSH2 missense mutations, using yeast as a model system, and found that the most common cause of defective DNA mismatch repair was low levels of the variant Msh2 proteins. Here, we show that increased protein turnover is responsible for the reduced cellular levels. Increasing gene dosage of more than half of the missense alleles fully restored function. A titration experiment revealed that raising the expression level of one variant to less than wild-type levels restored mismatch repair, suggesting that overexpression is not always required to regain function. We found that the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome degradation pathway is the major mechanism for increased turnover of the Msh2 variants and identified the primary ubiquitin ligase as San1. Deletion of San1 restored protein levels for all but one variant, but did not elevate wild-type Msh2 levels. The unstable variants interacted with San1, whereas wild-type Msh2 did not. Additionally, san1Δ suppressed the mismatch repair defect of unstable variants. Of medical significance, the clinically approved drug Bortezomib partially restored protein levels and mismatch repair function for low-level variants and reversed the resistance to cisplatin, a common chemotherapeutic. Our results provide the foundation for an innovative therapeutic regime for certain mismatch-repair-defective cancers that are refractory to conventional chemotherapies. PMID:23248292

  8. Interdependence of DNA mismatch repair proteins MLH1 and MSH2 in apoptosis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Hassen, Samar; Ali, Akhtar A; Kilaparty, Surya P; Al-Anbaky, Qudes A; Majeed, Waqar; Boman, Bruce M; Fields, Jeremy Z; Ali, Nawab

    2016-01-01

    The mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system consists of a number of proteins that play important roles in repair of base pair mismatch mutations and in maintenance of genomic integrity. A defect in this system can cause genetic instability, which can lead to carcinogenesis. For instance, a germline mutation in one of the mismatch repair proteins, especially MLH1 or MSH2, is responsible for hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer. These MMR proteins also play an important role in the induction of apoptosis. Accordingly, altered expression of or a defect in MLH1 or MSH2 may confer resistance to anti-cancer drugs used in chemotherapy. We hypothesized that the ability of these two MMR proteins to regulate apoptosis are interdependent. Moreover, a defect in either one may confer resistance to chemotherapy by an inability to trigger apoptosis. To this end, we studied three cell lines-SW480, LoVo, and HTC116. These cell lines were selected based on their differential expression of MLH1 and MSH2 proteins. SW480 expresses both MLH1 and MSH2; LoVo expresses only MLH1 but not MSH2; HCT116 expresses only MSH2 but not MLH1 protein. MTT assays, a measure of cytotoxicity, showed that there were different cytotoxic effects of an anti-cancer drug, etoposide, on these cell lines, effects that were correlated with the MMR status of the cells. Cells that are deficient in MLH1 protein (HCT116 cells) were resistant to the drug. Cells that express both MLH1 and MSH2 proteins (SW480 cells) showed caspase-3 cleavage, an indicator of apoptosis. Cells that lack MLH1 (HCT116 cells) did not show any caspase-3 cleavage. Expression of full-length MLH1 protein was decreased in MMR proficient (SW480) cells during apoptosis; it remained unchanged in cells that lack MSH2 (LoVo cells). The expression of MSH2 protein remained unchanged during apoptosis both in MMR proficient (SW480) and deficient (HCT116) cells. Studies on translocation of MLH1 protein from nucleus to cytosolic fraction, an

  9. Correlation between cell cycle proteins and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis and lip cancer.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria Luiza Diniz de Sousa; de Oliveira, Denise Hélen Imaculada Pereira; Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Queiroz, Lélia Maria Guedes; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to evaluate and verify the relationship between the immunoexpression of hMSH2, p53 and p21 in actinic cheilitis (AC) and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cases. Forty AC and 40 SCC cases were submitted to immunoperoxidase method and quantitatively analyzed. Expression was compared by Mann-Whitney test, Student t test or one-way ANOVA. To correlate the variables, Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated. The expression of p53 and p21 showed no significant differences between histopathological grades of AC or lower lip SCC (p > 0.05). Immunoexpression of p53 was higher in SCC than in AC (p < 0.001), while p21 expression was more observed in AC when compared to SCC group (p = 0.006). The AC group revealed an inverse correlation between p53 and hMSH2 expression (r = -0.30, p = 0.006). Alterations in p53 and p21 expression suggest that these proteins are involved in lower lip carcinogenesis. Moreover, p53 and hMSH2 seem to be interrelated in early events of this process. PMID:26842232

  10. Low expression of MSH2 DNA repair protein is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Camila Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Marcos Vinícius Macedo; BARROS, Lucas Oliveira; BANDEIRA, Gabriela Alencar; SANTOS, Sérgio Henrique Sousa; BASILE, John R.; GUIMARÃES, André Luiz Sena; DE PAULA, Alfredo Maurício Batista

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to investigate the expression of the MSH2 DNA repair protein in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in order to analyze its association with clinicopathologic factors and overall survival of patients. Material and Methods Clinical data and primary lesions of HNSSC were collected from 55 patients who underwent surgical resection with postoperative radiotherapy in Montes Claros, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, between 2000 and 2008. Immunohistochemical reactions were performed to analyze MSH2 protein expression. Results Bivariate analysis showed no significant correlation or association between MSH2 expression and clinicopathologic parameters by Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Patients with locoregional metastatic disease (OR=4.949, p<0.001) and lower MSH2 immunohistochemical expressions (OR=2.943, p=0.032) presented poorer survival for HNSCC by Cox regression models. Conclusions Our data demonstrated that lower MSH2 expression might contribute to a higher clinic aggressiveness of HNSCC by promoting an unfavorable outcome. PMID:24212987

  11. Minor changes in expression of the mismatch repair protein MSH2 exert a major impact on glioblastoma response to temozolomide

    PubMed Central

    McFaline-Figueroa, José L.; Braun, Christian J.; Stanciu, Monica; Nagel, Zachary D.; Mazzucato, Patrizia; Sangaraju, Dewakar; Cerniauskas, Edvinas; Barford, Kelly; Vargas, Amanda; Chen, Yimin; Tretyakova, Natalia; Lees, Jacqueline A.; Hemann, Michael T.; White, Forest M.; Samson, Leona D.

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is often treated with the cytotoxic drug temozolomide (TMZ) but the disease inevitably recurs in a drug-resistant form after initial treatment. Here we report that in GBM cells even a modest decrease in the mismatch repair (MMR) components MSH2 and MSH6 have profound effects on TMZ sensitivity. RNAi-mediated attenuation of MSH2 and MSH6 showed that such modest decreases provided an unexpectedly strong mechanism of TMZ resistance. In a mouse xenograft model of human GBM, small changes in MSH2 were sufficient to suppress TMZ-induced tumor regression. Using the Cancer Genome Atlas to analyze mRNA expression patterns in tumors from TMZ-treated GBM patients, we found that MSH2 transcripts in primary GBM could predict patient responses to initial TMZ therapy. In recurrent disease, the absence of microsatellite instability (the standard marker for MMR deficiency) suggests a lack of involvement of MMR in the resistant phenotype of recurrent disease. However, more recent studies reveal that decreased MMR protein levels occur often in recurrent GBM. In accordance with our findings, these reported decreases may constitute a mechanism by which GBM evades TMZ sensitivity while maintaining microsatellite stability. Overall, our results highlight the powerful effects of MSH2 attenuation as a potent mediator of TMZ resistance, and argue that MMR activity offers a predictive marker for initial therapeutic response to TMZ treatment. PMID:26025730

  12. Link between immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins and clinical-epidemiological aspects of actinic cheilitis*

    PubMed Central

    Sarmento, Dmitry José de Santana; Godoy, Gustavo Pina; Miguel, Márcia Cristina da Costa; da Silveira, Éricka Janine Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Background The studies found in the literature associate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 proteins with histologic aspects, but do not correlate it with clinical and epidemiological data. Objective To evaluate the immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 in actinic cheilitis, correlating it with clinical characteristics. Methods We analyzed 40 cases. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses were performed. The following clinical variables were evaluated: gender, age range, ethnicity, clinical aspect and occupational sunlight exposure. Statistical evaluation included the Student t-test, while the significance level was set at 5%. Results Greater immunoexpression of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was observed in females, individuals aged over 40, and mixed-race/black patients. Furthermore, the immunoexpression of these proteins was greater in actinic cheilitis with a white-colored appearance and in patients without occupational sunlight exposure. No statistical differences were observed for the variables studied. Conclusion This study uncovered variations of hMLH1 and hMSH2 protein expression upon evaluation of clinical aspects in actinic cheilitis. PMID:27579741

  13. Mismatch repair proteins MSH2, MLH1, and EXO1 are important for class-switch recombination events occurring in B cells that lack nonhomologous end joining.

    PubMed

    Eccleston, Jennifer; Yan, Catherine; Yuan, Karen; Alt, Frederick W; Selsing, Erik

    2011-02-15

    In the absence of core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factors, Ab gene class-switch recombination (CSR) uses an alternative end-joining (A-EJ) pathway to recombine switch (S) region DNA breaks. Previous reports showing decreased S-junction microhomologies in MSH2-deficient mice and an exonuclease 1 (EXO1) role in yeast microhomology-mediated end joining suggest that mismatch repair (MMR) proteins might influence A-EJ-mediated CSR. We have directly investigated whether MMR proteins collectively or differentially influence the A-EJ mechanism of CSR by analyzing CSR in mice deficient in both XRCC4 and individual MMR proteins. We find CSR is reduced and that Igh locus chromosome breaks are reduced in the MMR/XRCC4 double-deficient B cells compared with B cells deficient in XRCC4 alone, suggesting MMR proteins function upstream of double-strand break formation to influence CSR efficiency in these cells. Our results show that MLH1, EXO1, and MSH2 are all important for efficient A-EJ-mediated CSR, and we propose that MMR proteins convert DNA nicks and point mutations into dsDNA breaks for both C-NHEJ and A-EJ pathways of CSR. We also find Mlh1-XRCC4(-) B cells have an increased frequency of direct S junctions, suggesting that MLH1 proteins may have additional functions that influence A-EJ-mediated CSR.

  14. NPM-ALK mediates phosphorylation of MSH2 at tyrosine 238, creating a functional deficiency in MSH2 and the loss of mismatch repair.

    PubMed

    Bone, K M; Wang, P; Wu, F; Wu, C; Li, L; Bacani, J T; Andrew, S E; Lai, R

    2015-05-15

    The vast majority of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK+ALCL) tumors express the characteristic oncogenic fusion protein NPM-ALK, which mediates tumorigenesis by exerting its constitutive tyrosine kinase activity on various substrates. We recently identified MSH2, a protein central to DNA mismatch repair (MMR), as a novel binding partner and phosphorylation substrate of NPM-ALK. Here, using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we report for the first time that MSH2 is phosphorylated by NPM-ALK at a specific residue, tyrosine 238. Using GP293 cells transfected with NPM-ALK, we confirmed that the MSH2(Y238F) mutant is not tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, transfection of MSH2(Y238F) into these cells substantially decreased the tyrosine phosphorylation of endogenous MSH2. Importantly, gene transfection of MSH2(Y238F) abrogated the binding of NPM-ALK with endogenous MSH2, re-established the dimerization of MSH2:MSH6 and restored the sensitivity to DNA mismatch-inducing drugs, indicative of MMR return. Parallel findings were observed in two ALK+ALCL cell lines, Karpas 299 and SUP-M2. In addition, we found that enforced expression of MSH2(Y238F) into ALK+ALCL cells alone was sufficient to induce spontaneous apoptosis. In conclusion, our findings have identified NPM-ALK-induced phosphorylation of MSH2 at Y238 as a crucial event in suppressing MMR. Our studies have provided novel insights into the mechanism by which oncogenic tyrosine kinases disrupt MMR.

  15. Characterization of Pathogenic Human MSH2 Missense Mutations Using Yeast as a Model System: A Laboratory Course in Molecular Biology

    PubMed Central

    Gammie, Alison E.; Erdeniz, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the project for an advanced undergraduate laboratory course in cell and molecular biology. One objective of the course is to teach students a variety of cellular and molecular techniques while conducting original research. A second objective is to provide instruction in science writing and data presentation by requiring comprehensive laboratory reports modeled on the primary literature. The project for the course focuses on a gene, MSH2, implicated in the most common form of inherited colorectal cancer. Msh2 is important for maintaining the fidelity of genetic material where it functions as an important component of the DNA mismatch repair machinery. The goal of the project has two parts. The first part is to create mapped missense mutation listed in the human databases in the cognate yeast MSH2 gene and to assay for defects in DNA mismatch repair. The second part of the course is directed towards understanding in what way are the variant proteins defective for mismatch repair. Protein levels are analyzed to determine if the missense alleles display decreased expression. Furthermore, the students establish whether the Msh2p variants are properly localized to the nucleus using indirect immunofluorescence and whether the altered proteins have lost their ability to interact with other subunits of the MMR complex by creating recombinant DNA molecules and employing the yeast 2-hybrid assay. PMID:22039344

  16. Ubiquitin-specific Peptidase 10 (USP10) Deubiquitinates and Stabilizes MutS Homolog 2 (MSH2) to Regulate Cellular Sensitivity to DNA Damage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mu; Hu, Chen; Tong, Dan; Xiang, Shengyan; Williams, Kendra; Bai, Wenlong; Li, Guo-Min; Bepler, Gerold; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2016-05-13

    MSH2 is a key DNA mismatch repair protein, which plays an important role in genomic stability. In addition to its DNA repair function, MSH2 serves as a sensor for DNA base analogs-provoked DNA replication errors and binds to various DNA damage-induced adducts to trigger cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Loss or depletion of MSH2 from cells renders resistance to certain DNA-damaging agents. Therefore, the level of MSH2 determines DNA damage response. Previous studies showed that the level of MSH2 protein is modulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, and histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) serves as an ubiquitin E3 ligase. However, the deubiquitinating enzymes, which regulate MSH2 remain unknown. Here we report that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 10 (USP10) interacts with and stabilizes MSH2. USP10 deubiquitinates MSH2 in vitro and in vivo Moreover, the protein level of MSH2 is positively correlated with the USP10 protein level in a panel of lung cancer cell lines. Knockdown of USP10 in lung cancer cells exhibits increased cell survival and decreased apoptosis upon the treatment of DNA-methylating agent N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and antimetabolite 6-thioguanine (6-TG). The above phenotypes can be rescued by ectopic expression of MSH2. In addition, knockdown of MSH2 decreases the cellular mismatch repair activity. Overall, our results suggest a novel USP10-MSH2 pathway regulating DNA damage response and DNA mismatch repair.

  17. Mlh1 Can Function in Antibody Class Switch Recombination Independently of Msh2

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Carol E.; Vardo, Joycelyn; Stavnezer, Janet

    2003-01-01

    Mismatch repair proteins participate in antibody class switch recombination, although their roles are unknown. Previous nucleotide sequence analyses of switch recombination junctions indicated that the roles of Msh2 and the MutL homologues, Mlh1 and Pms2, differ. We now asked if Msh2 and Mlh1 function in the same pathway during switch recombination. Splenic B cells from mice deficient in both these proteins were induced to undergo switching in culture. The frequency of switching is reduced, similarly to that of B cells singly deficient in Msh2 or Mlh1. However, the nucleotide sequences of the Sμ-Sγ3 junctions resemble junctions from Mlh1- but not from Msh2-deficient cells, suggesting Mlh1 functions either independently of or before Msh2. The substitution mutations within S regions that are known to accompany switch recombination are increased in Msh2- and Mlh1 single-deficient cells and further increased in the double-deficient cells, again suggesting these proteins function independently in class switch recombination. The finding that MMR functions to reduce mutations in switch regions is unexpected since MMR proteins have been shown to contribute to somatic hypermutation of antibody variable region genes. PMID:12743174

  18. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice

    PubMed Central

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J.; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L.; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S.; Evans, William E.

    2016-01-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency. PMID:27476972

  19. Msh2 deficiency leads to dysmyelination of the corpus callosum, impaired locomotion, and altered sensory function in mice.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Barthelemy; Devaraju, Prakash; Janke, Laura J; Fan, Yiping; Frase, Sharon; Eddins, Donnie; Peters, Jennifer L; Kim, Jieun; Pei, Deqing; Cheng, Cheng; Zakharenko, Stanislav S; Evans, William E

    2016-08-01

    A feature in patients with constitutional DNA-mismatch repair deficiency is agenesis of the corpus callosum, the cause of which has not been established. Here we report a previously unrecognized consequence of deficiency in MSH2, a protein known primarily for its function in correcting nucleotide mismatches or insertions and deletions in duplex DNA caused by errors in DNA replication or recombination. We documented that Msh2 deficiency causes dysmyelination of the axonal projections in the corpus callosum. Evoked action potentials in the myelinated corpus callosum projections of Msh2-null mice were smaller than wild-type mice, whereas unmyelinated axons showed no difference. Msh2-null mice were also impaired in locomotive activity and had an abnormal response to heat. These findings reveal a novel pathogenic consequence of MSH2 deficiency, providing a new mechanistic hint to previously recognized neurological disorders in patients with inherited DNA-mismatch repair deficiency.

  20. The role of AtMSH2 in homologous recombination in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Emmanuel, Eyal; Yehuda, Elizabeth; Melamed-Bessudo, Cathy; Avivi-Ragolsky, Naomi; Levy, Avraham A

    2006-01-01

    During homologous recombination (HR), a heteroduplex DNA is formed as a consequence of strand invasion. When the two homologous strands differ in sequence, a mismatch is generated. Earlier studies showed that mismatched heteroduplex often triggers abortion of recombination and that a pivotal component of this pathway is the mismatch repair Msh2 protein. In this study, we analysed the roles of AtMSH2 in suppression of recombination in Arabidopsis. We report that AtMSH2 has a broad range of anti-recombination effects: it suppresses recombination between divergent direct repeats in somatic cells or between homologues from different ecotypes during meiosis. This is the first example of a plant gene that affects HR as a function of sequence divergence and that has an anti-recombination meiotic effect. We discuss the implications of these results for plant improvement by gene transfer across species. PMID:16311517

  1. Fusion tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK Deregulates MSH2 and suppresses DNA mismatch repair function novel insights into a potent oncoprotein.

    PubMed

    Young, Leah C; Bone, Kathleen M; Wang, Peng; Wu, Fang; Adam, Benjamin A; Hegazy, Samar; Gelebart, Pascal; Holovati, Jelena; Li, Liang; Andrew, Susan E; Lai, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    The fusion tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK is central to the pathogenesis of ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALK(+)ALCL). We recently identified that MSH2, a key DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein integral to the suppression of tumorigenesis, is an NPM-ALK-interacting protein. In this study, we found in vitro evidence that enforced expression of NPM-ALK in HEK293 cells suppressed MMR function. Correlating with these findings, six of nine ALK(+)ALCL tumors displayed evidence of microsatellite instability, as opposed to none of the eight normal DNA control samples (P = 0.007, Student's t-test). Using co-immunoprecipitation, we found that increasing levels of NPM-ALK expression in HEK293 cells resulted in decreased levels of MSH6 bound to MSH2, whereas MSH2·NPM-ALK binding was increased. The NPM-ALK·MSH2 interaction was dependent on the activation/autophosphorylation of NPM-ALK, and the Y191 residue of NPM-ALK was a crucial site for this interaction and NPM-ALK-mediated MMR suppression. MSH2 was found to be tyrosine phosphorylated in the presence of NPM-ALK. Finally, NPM-ALK impeded the expected DNA damage-induced translocation of MSH2 out of the cytoplasm. To conclude, our data support a model in which the suppression of MMR by NPM-ALK is attributed to its ability to interfere with normal MSH2 biochemistry and function.

  2. A 10-Mb paracentric inversion of chromosome arm 2p inactivates MSH2 and is responsible for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer in a North-American kindred.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Anja; van der Klift, Heleen; Franken, Patrick; Wijnen, Juul; Breukel, Cor; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Smits, Ron; Kinarsky, Yulia; Barrows, Alicia; Franklin, Barbara; Lynch, Jane; Lynch, Henry; Fodde, Riccardo

    2002-09-01

    Genomic deletions of the MSH2 gene are a frequent cause of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), a common hereditary predisposition to the development of tumors in several organs including the gastrointestinal and urinary tracts and endometrium. The mutation spectrum at the MSH2 gene is extremely heterogeneous because it includes nonsense and missense point mutations, small insertions and deletions leading to frameshifts, and larger genomic deletions, the latter representing approximately 25% of the total mutation burden. Here, we report the identification and molecular characterization of the first paracentric inversion of the MSH2 locus known to cause HNPCC. Southern blot analysis and inverse PCR showed that the centromeric and telomeric breakpoints of the paracentric inversion map within intron 7 and to a contig 10 Mb 3' of MSH2, respectively. Pathogenicity of the paracentric inversion was demonstrated by conversion analysis. The patient's lymphocytes were employed to generate somatic cell hybrids to analyze the expression of the inverted MSH2 allele in an Msh2-deficient rodent cellular background. The inversion was shown to abolish MSH2 expression by both northern and western analysis. This study confirms that Southern blot analysis still represents a useful and informative tool to screen for and identify complex genomic rearrangements in HNPCC. Moreover, monoallelic expression analysis represents an attractive approach to demonstrate pathogenicity of unusual mutations in autosomal dominant hereditary conditions.

  3. Germline mutation analysis of MLH1 and MSH2 in Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Zahary, Mohd Nizam; Kaur, Gurjeet; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Singh, Harjinder; Naik, Venkatesh R; Ankathil, Ravindran

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the protein expression profile of mismatch repair (MMR) genes in suspected cases of Lynch syndrome and to characterize the associated germline mutations. METHODS: Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor samples was performed to determine the protein expression profile of MMR protein. Germline mutation screening was carried out on peripheral blood samples. The entire exon regions of MLH1 and MSH2 genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, screened by denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (dHPLC) and analyzed by DNA sequencing to characterize the germline mutations. RESULTS: Three out of 34 tissue samples (8.8%) and four out of 34 tissue samples (11.8%) showed loss of nuclear staining by immunohistochemistry, indicating the absence of MLH1 and MSH2 protein expression in carcinoma cells, respectively. dHPLC analysis followed by DNA sequencing showed these samples to have germline mutations of MSH2 gene. However, no deleterious mutations were identified in any of the 19 exons or coding regions of MLH1 gene, but we were able to identify MLH1 promoter polymorphism, -93G > A (rs1800734), in 21 out of 34 patients (61.8%). We identified one novel mutation, transversion mutation c.2005G > C, which resulted in a missense mutation (Gly669Arg), a transversion mutation in exon 1, c.142G > T, which resulted in a nonsense mutation (Glu48Stop) and splice-site mutation, c.2006-6T > C, which was adjacent to exon 13 of MSH2 gene. CONCLUSION: Germline mutations were identified in four Malaysian Lynch syndrome patients. Immunohistochemical analysis of tumor tissue proved to be a good pre-screening test before proceeding to germline mutation analysis of DNA MMR genes. PMID:22371642

  4. A truncated hMSH2 transcript occurs as a common variant in the population: implications for genetic diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Xia, L; Shen, W; Ritacca, F; Mitri, A; Madlensky, L; Berk, T; Cohen, Z; Gallinger, S; Bapat, B

    1996-05-15

    Germline mutations of the hMSH2 gene are responsible for many cases of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. While screening for hMSH2 gene mutations in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer kindreds, we observed that a previously reported germline mutation is in fact a common, alternatively spliced variant in the population. Using RT-PCR and the protein truncation test, the hMSH2 exon 13 deletion variant was found in more than 90% of individuals. The exon 13 deletion transcript was only present in lymphocyte RNA, no abnormalities were detected in genomic DNA flanking exon 13, and the deletion transcript is apparently not translated. These findings highlight further that caution should be exercised in providing genetic risk assessment on the basis of currently used germline mutation detection strategies. PMID:8625301

  5. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Ortiz, Jose Miguel; Ayala-Madrigal, María de la Luz; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Centeno-Flores, Manuel; Maciel-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Franco-Topete, Ramón Antonio; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Hotchkiss, Erin; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucia; Rhees, Jennifer; Boland, Clement Richard; Gutiérrez-Angulo, Melva

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS) is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC), and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del) and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs) in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel.

  6. Novel Mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 Genes in Mexican Patients with Lynch Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Ortiz, Jose Miguel; Ayala-Madrigal, María de la Luz; Corona-Rivera, Jorge Román; Maciel-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Franco-Topete, Ramón Antonio; Armendáriz-Borunda, Juan; Pérez-Carbonell, Lucia; Rhees, Jennifer; Gutiérrez-Angulo, Melva

    2016-01-01

    Background. Lynch Syndrome (LS) is characterized by germline mutations in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2. This syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern and is characterized by early onset colorectal cancer (CRC) and extracolonic tumors. The aim of this study was to identify mutations in MMR genes in three Mexican patients with LS. Methods. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed as a prescreening method to identify absent protein expression. PCR, Denaturing High Performance Liquid Chromatography (dHPLC), and Sanger sequencing complemented the analysis. Results. Two samples showed the absence of nuclear staining for MLH1 and one sample showed loss of nuclear staining for MSH2. The mutations found in MLH1 gene were c.2103+1G>C in intron 18 and compound heterozygous mutants c.1852_1854delAAG (p.K618del) and c.1852_1853delinsGC (p.K618A) in exon 16. In the MSH2 gene, we identified mutation c.638dupT (p.L213fs) in exon 3. Conclusions. This is the first report of mutations in MMR genes in Mexican patients with LS and these appear to be novel. PMID:27247567

  7. Family history characteristics, tumor microsatellite instability and germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations in hereditary colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bapat, B V; Madlensky, L; Temple, L K; Hiruki, T; Redston, M; Baron, D L; Xia, L; Marcus, V A; Soravia, C; Mitri, A; Shen, W; Gryfe, R; Berk, T; Chodirker, B N; Cohen, Z; Gallinger, S

    1999-02-01

    Recent characterization of the molecular genetic basis of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer provides an important opportunity for identification of individuals and their families with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Cancer family history criteria that accurately define hereditary colorectal cancer are necessary for cost-effective testing for germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. The present report describes the results of analysis of 33 colorectal cancer cases/families that satisfy our modified family history criteria (Mount Sinai criteria) for colorectal cancer. Fourteen of these families met the more stringent Amsterdam criteria. Germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations were identified by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the protein truncation test, and confirmed by sequencing. Microsatellite instability analysis was performed on available tumors from affected patients. MSH2 or MLH1 mutations were detected in 8 of 14 Amsterdam criteria families and in 5 of the remaining 19 cases/families that only satisfied the Mount Sinai criteria. Three of the latter families had features of the Muir-Torre syndrome. A high level of microsatellite instability (MSI-H) was detected in almost all (16/18) colorectal cancers from individuals with MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, and infrequently (1/21) in colorectal cancer specimens from cases without detectable mutations. Families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations tended to have individuals affected at younger ages and with multiple tumors. The Amsterdam criteria are useful, but not sufficient, for detecting hereditary colorectal cancer families with germline MSH2 and MLH1 mutations, since a proportion of cases and families with mutations in mismatch repair genes will be missed. Further development of cancer family history criteria are needed, using unbiased prospectively collected cases, to define more accurately those who will benefit from MSH2 and MLH1 mutation analysis. PMID:10190329

  8. Mismatch recognition-coupled stabilization of Msh2-Msh6 in an ATP-bound state at the initiation of DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Antony, Edwin; Hingorani, Manju M

    2003-07-01

    Mismatch repair proteins correct errors in DNA via an ATP-driven process. In eukaryotes, the Msh2-Msh6 complex recognizes base pair mismatches and small insertion/deletions in DNA and initiates repair. Both Msh2 and Msh6 proteins contain Walker ATP-binding motifs that are necessary for repair activity. To understand how these proteins couple ATP binding and hydrolysis to DNA binding/mismatch recognition, the ATPase activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Msh2-Msh6 was examined under pre-steady-state conditions. Acid-quench experiments revealed that in the absence of DNA, Msh2-Msh6 hydrolyzes ATP rapidly (burst rate = 3 s(-1) at 20 degrees C) and then undergoes a slow step in the pathway that limits catalytic turnover (k(cat) = 0.1 s(-1)). ATP is hydrolyzed similarly in the presence of fully matched duplex DNA; however, in the presence of a G:T mismatch or +T insertion-containing DNA, ATP hydrolysis is severely suppressed (rate = 0.1 s(-1)). Pulse-chase experiments revealed that Msh2-Msh6 binds ATP rapidly in the absence or in the presence of DNA (rate = 0.1 microM(-1) s(-1)), indicating that for the Msh2-Msh6.mismatched DNA complex, a step after ATP binding but before or at ATP hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step in the pathway. Thus, mismatch recognition is coupled to a dramatic increase in the residence time of ATP on Msh2-Msh6. This mismatch-induced, stable ATP-bound state of Msh2-Msh6 likely signals downstream events in the repair pathway. PMID:12820877

  9. Rev1 is essential in generating G to C transversions downstream of the Ung2 pathway but not the Msh2+Ung2 hybrid pathway.

    PubMed

    Krijger, Peter Hugo Lodewijk; Tsaalbi-Shtylik, Anastasia; Wit, Niek; van den Berk, Paul Cornelius Maria; de Wind, Niels; Jacobs, Heinz

    2013-10-01

    Somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) of immunoglobulin (Ig) genes are initiated by the enzymatic deamination of cytosine (C) to uracil (U). Uracil-DNA-glycosylase (Ung2) converts uracils into apyrimidinic (AP) sites, which is essential for the generation of transversions (TVs) at G/C basepairs during SHM and for efficient DNA break formation during CSR. Besides Ung2, the mismatch repair protein Msh2 and the translesion synthesis (TLS) DNA polymerase (Pol) Rev1 are implicated in SHM and CSR. To further unravel the role of Rev1, we studied WT, Rev1-deficient, Msh2-deficient, and Rev1, Msh2 double-deficient B cells. Loss of Rev1 only slightly reduced CSR. During SHM G/C to C/G TVs are generated in both Ung2- and Ung+Msh2-dependent fashions. We found that Rev1 is essential for the Msh2-independent generation of these TVs downstream of Ung2-induced AP sites. In the Ung+Msh2 hybrid pathway, Rev1 is not essential and can be substituted by an alternative TLS Pol, especially when Rev1 is lacking. PMID:23857323

  10. Trypanosoma cruzi MSH2: Functional analyses on different parasite strains provide evidences for a role on the oxidative stress response☆

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Priscila C.; Silva, Viviane G.; Furtado, Carolina; Machado-Silva, Alice; DaRocha, Wanderson D.; Peloso, Eduardo F.; Gadelha, Fernanda R.; Medeiros, Marisa H.G.; Lana, Gustavo de Carvalho; Chen, Ying; Barnes, Rebecca L.; Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; McCulloch, Richard; Machado, Carlos Renato; Teixeira, Santuza M.R.

    2011-01-01

    Components of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway are major players in processes known to generate genetic diversity, such as mutagenesis and DNA recombination. Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease has a highly heterogeneous population, composed of a pool of strains with distinct characteristics. Studies with a number of molecular markers identified up to six groups in the T. cruzi population, which showed distinct levels of genetic variability. To investigate the molecular basis for such differences, we analyzed the T. cruzi MSH2 gene, which encodes a key component of MMR, and showed the existence of distinct isoforms of this protein. Here we compared cell survival rates after exposure to genotoxic agents and levels of oxidative stress-induced DNA in different parasite strains. Analyses of msh2 mutants in both T. cruzi and T. brucei were also used to investigate the role of Tcmsh2 in the response to various DNA damaging agents. The results suggest that the distinct MSH2 isoforms have differences in their activity. More importantly, they also indicate that, in addition to its role in MMR, TcMSH2 acts in the parasite response to oxidative stress through a novel mitochondrial function that may be conserved in T. brucei. PMID:21073906

  11. Characterization of Insertion Mutations in the Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Msh1 and Msh2 Genes: Evidence for Separate Mitochondrial and Nuclear Functions

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, RAG.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    The MSH1 and MSH2 genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are predicted to encode proteins that are homologous to the Escherichia coli MutS and Streptococcus pneumoniae HexA proteins and their homologs. Disruption of the MSH1 gene caused a petite phenotype which was established rapidly. A functional MSH1 gene present on a single-copy centromere plasmid was incapable of rescuing the established msh1 petite phenotype. Analysis of msh1 strains demonstrated that mutagenesis and large-scale rearrangement of mitochondrial DNA had occurred. 4',6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining of msh1 yeast revealed an aberrant distribution of mtDNA. Haploid msh2 mutants displayed an increase of 85-fold in the rate of spontaneous mutation to canavanine resistance. Sporulation of homozygous msh2/msh2 diploids gave rise to a high level of lethality which was compounded during increased vegetative growth prior to sporulation. msh2 mutations also affected gene conversion of two HIS4 alleles. The his4x mutation, lying near the 5' end of the gene, was converted with equal frequency in both wild-type and msh2 strains. However, many of the events in the msh2 background were post-meiotic segregation (PMS) events (46.4%) while none (<0.25%) of the aberrant segregations in wild type were PMS events. The his4b allele, lying 1.6 kb downstream of his4x, was converted at a 10-fold higher frequency in the msh2 background than in the corresponding wild-type strain. Like the his4x allele, his4b showed a high level of PMS (30%) in the msh2 background compared to the corresponding wild-type strain where no (<0.26%) PMS events were observed. These results indicate that MSH1 plays a role in repair or stability of mtDNA and MSH2 plays a role in repair of 4-bp insertion/deletion mispairs in the nucleus. PMID:1334021

  12. Msh2 deficiency leads to chromosomal abnormalities, centrosome amplification, and telomere capping defect

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong; Liu, Yie

    2006-01-01

    Msh2 is a key mammalian DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene and mutations or deficiencies in mammalian Msh2 gene result in microsatellite instability (MSI+) and the development of cancer. Here, we report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) deficient in the murine MMR gene Msh2 (Msh2-/-) showed a significant increase in chromosome aneuploidy, centrosome amplification, and defective mitotic spindle organization and unequal chromosome segregation. Although Msh2-/- mouse tissues or primary MEFs had no apparent change in telomerase activity, telomere length, or recombination at telomeres, Msh2-/- MEFs showed an increase in chromosome end-to-end fusions or chromosome ends without detectable telomeric DNA. These data suggest that MSH2 helps to maintain genomic stability through the regulation of the centrosome and normal telomere capping in vivo and that defects in MMR can contribute to oncogenesis through multiple pathways.

  13. Expression of MLH1 and MSH2 in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis.

    PubMed

    Ehsani, Laleh; Osunkoya, Adeboye O

    2014-09-01

    In this study, we investigated microsatellite instability in urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis by lack of immunohistochemical staining for MLH1 and MSH2. The study included 44 cases of urothelial carcinoma of the renal pelvis obtained from radical nephroureterectomy specimens at our institution. We evaluated the loss of nuclear immunohistochemical staining of MLH1 and MSH2. Eight of 44 (18 %) patients had negative MLH1 expression and 25/44 (57 %) patients had negative MSH2 expression. Six of 8 (75 %) patients with negative MLH1 expression were male and 2/8 (25 %) patients were female. Nineteen of 25 (75 %) patients with negative MSH2 expression were male, and 6/25 (24 %) patients were female. Seven of 8 (88 %) cases with negative MLH1 expression were high-grade urothelial carcinoma, and 21/25 (84 %) cases with negative MSH2 expression were high-grade urothelial carcinoma. Twenty-one of 44 (48 %) cases had an inverted growth pattern, of which 3/21 (14 %) cases had negative MLH1 expression and 14/21 (67 %) cases had negative MSH2 expression. Our study showed that microsatellite instability based on negative expression of MLH1 and MSH2 was more common in male patients with high-grade urothelial carcinoma. There is a strong correlation between inverted growth pattern and negative MSH2 expression. Microsatellite instability testing should be performed in patients with upper urinary tract carcinoma and may have prognostic value. PMID:24874052

  14. Thyroid cancer in a patient with a germline MSH2 mutation. Case report and review of the Lynch syndrome expanding tumour spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Stulp, Rein P; Herkert, Johanna C; Karrenbeld, Arend; Mol, Bart; Vos, Yvonne J; Sijmons, Rolf H

    2008-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (HNPCC) is a dominantly inherited disorder characterized by germline defects in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes and the development of a variety of cancers, predominantly colorectal and endometrial. We present a 44-year-old woman who was shown to carry the truncating MSH2 gene mutation that had previously been identified in her family. Recently, she had been diagnosed with an undifferentiated carcinoma of the thyroid and an adenoma of her coecum. Although the thyroid carcinoma was not MSI-high (1 out of 5 microsatellites instable), it did show complete loss of immunohistochemical expression for the MSH2 protein, suggesting that this tumour was not coincidental. Although the risks for some tumour types, including breast cancer, soft tissue sarcoma and prostate cancer, are not significantly increased in Lynch syndrome, MMR deficiency in the presence of a corresponding germline defect has been demonstrated in incidental cases of a growing range of tumour types, which is reviewed in this paper. Interestingly, the MSH2-associated tumour spectrum appears to be wider than that of MLH1 and generally the risk for most extra-colonic cancers appears to be higher for MSH2 than for MLH1 mutation carriers. Together with a previously reported case, our findings show that anaplastic thyroid carcinoma can develop in the setting of Lynch syndrome. Uncommon Lynch syndrome-associated tumour types might be useful in the genetic analysis of a Lynch syndrome suspected family if samples from typical Lynch syndrome tumours are unavailable. PMID:19706203

  15. Four novel MSH2 / MLH1 gene mutations in portuguese HNPCC families.

    PubMed

    Isidro, G; Veiga, I; Matos, P; Almeida, S; Bizarro, S; Marshall, B; Baptista, M; Leite, J; Regateiro, F; Soares, J; Castedo, S; Boavida, M G

    2000-01-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is considered to be determined by germline mutations in the mismatch repair (MMR) genes, especially MSH2 and MLH1. While screening for mutations in these two genes in HNPCC portuguese families, 3 previously unreported MSH2 and 1 MLH1 mutations have been identified in families meeting strict Amsterdam criteria. Hum Mutat 15:116, 2000. PMID:10612836

  16. Familial T‐cell non‐Hodgkin lymphoma caused by biallelic MSH2 mutations

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Richard H; Homfray, Tessa; Huxter, Nicola L; Mitton, Sally G; Nash, Ruth; Potter, Mike N; Lancaster, Donna; Rahman, Nazneen

    2007-01-01

    Familial non‐Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is rare and in most cases, no underlying cause is identifiable. We report homozygous truncating mutations in the mismatch repair gene MSH2 (226C→T; Q76X) in three siblings who each developed T‐cell NHL in early childhood. All three children had hyperpigmented and hypopigmented skin lesions. Constitutional biallelic MSH2 mutations have previously been reported in five individuals, all of whom developed malignancy in childhood. Familial lymphoma has not been reported in this context or in association with biallelic mutations in the other mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH6 or PMS2. In addition, hypopigmented skin lesions have not previously been reported in biallelic MSH2 carriers. Our findings therefore expand the spectrum of phenotypes associated with biallelic MSH2 mutations and identify a new cause of familial lymphoma. Moreover, the diagnosis has important management implications as it allows the avoidance of chemotherapeutic agents likely to be ineffective and mutagenic in the proband, and the provision of cascade genetic testing and tumour screening for relatives. PMID:17601929

  17. Crosstalk between MSH2-MSH3 and polβ promotes trinucleotide repeat expansion during base excision repair.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yanhao; Budworth, Helen; Beaver, Jill M; Chan, Nelson L S; Zhang, Zunzhen; McMurray, Cynthia T; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Studies in knockout mice provide evidence that MSH2-MSH3 and the BER machinery promote trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion, yet how these two different repair pathways cause the mutation is unknown. Here we report the first molecular crosstalk mechanism, in which MSH2-MSH3 is used as a component of the BER machinery to cause expansion. On its own, pol β fails to copy TNRs during DNA synthesis, and bypasses them on the template strand to cause deletion. Remarkably, MSH2-MSH3 not only stimulates pol β to copy through the repeats but also enhances formation of the flap precursor for expansion. Our results provide direct evidence that MMR and BER, operating together, form a novel hybrid pathway that changes the outcome of TNR instability from deletion to expansion during the removal of oxidized bases. We propose that cells implement crosstalk strategies and share machinery when a canonical pathway is ineffective in removing a difficult lesion. PMID:27546332

  18. Structural, molecular and cellular functions of MSH2 and MSH6 during DNA mismatch repair, damage signaling and other noncanonical activities

    PubMed Central

    Edelbrock, Michael A.; Kaliyaperumal, Saravanan; Williams, Kandace J.

    2013-01-01

    The field of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) has rapidly expanded after the discovery of the MutHLS repair system in bacteria. By the mid 1990s yeast and human homologues to bacterial MutL and MutS had been identified and their contribution to hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC; Lynch Syndrome) was under intense investigation. The human MutS homologue 6 protein (hMSH6), was first reported in 1995 as a G:T binding partner (GTBP) of hMSH2, forming the hMutSα mismatch-binding complex. Signal transduction from each DNA-bound hMutSα complex is accomplished by the hMutLα heterodimer (hMLH1 and hPMS2). Molecular mechanisms and cellular regulation of individual MMR proteins are now areas of intensive research. This review will focus on molecular mechanisms associated with mismatch binding, as well as emerging evidence that MutSα and in particular, MSH6, is a key protein in MMR-dependent DNA damage response and communication with other DNA repair pathways within the cell. MSH6 is unstable in the absence of MSH2, however it is the DNA lesion-binding partner of this heterodimer. MSH6, but not MSH2, has a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif that recognizes and binds several different DNA structural distortions, initiating different cellular responses. hMSH6 also contains the nuclear localization sequences required to shuttle hMutSα into the nucleus. For example, upon binding to O6meG:T, MSH6 triggers a DNA damage response that involves altered phosphorylation within the N-terminal disordered domain of this unique protein. While many investigations have focused on MMR as a post-replication DNA repair mechanism, MMR proteins are expressed and active in all phases of the cell cycle. There is much more to be discovered about regulatory cellular roles that require the presence of MutSα and, in particular, MSH6. PMID:23391514

  19. Genotype and phenotype of a new 2-bp deletion of hMSH2 at codon 233.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Beyser, K; Arps, H; Bolander, S; Becker, H; Rüschhoff, J

    2001-08-01

    Germline mutations within mismatch repair genes, such as hMSH2, hMLH1, and hMSH6, have been shown to be the hallmark of the hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) syndrome. The spectrum of tumors associated with mismatch repair gene defects and the possible relationship between genotype and phenotype are still unclear. Therefore, the spectrum of tumors and the possible genotype-phenotype relationship are still under discussion. Here, we report on a family with a new germline mutation in the hMSH2 gene with a 2-bp deletion at codons 232 and 233 leading to a frame shift and a stop at codon 254. Accordingly, immunohistochemistry revealed loss of hMSH2 expression in colorectal carcinomas of three affected family members. In this one family, there was a high penetrance. Interestingly, mutational screening of the family revealed a high penetrance of the mutation affecting four of five tested people at risk, with a high mortality rate and a trend toward lower age of onset in subsequent generations. Finally, a metachronous breast cancer in one patient turned out to be a tumor unrelated to microsatellite instability phenocopy, i.e., a sporadic tumor unrelated to HNPCC that expressed the hMSH2 gene and did not show any microsatellite instability.

  20. Regulation of plant MSH2 and MSH6 genes in the UV-B-induced DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Lario, Luciana D; Ramirez-Parra, Elena; Gutierrez, Crisanto; Casati, Paula; Spampinato, Claudia P

    2011-05-01

    Deleterious effects of UV-B radiation on DNA include the formation of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and pyrimidine (6-4) pyrimidone photoproducts (6-4PPs). These lesions must be repaired to maintain the integrity of DNA and provide genetic stability. Of the several repair systems involved in the recognition and removal of UV-B-induced lesions in DNA, the focus in the present study was on the mismatch repair system (MMR). The contribution of MutSα (MSH2-MSH6) to UV-induced DNA lesion repair and cell cycle regulation was investigated. MSH2 and MSH6 genes in Arabidopsis and maize are up-regulated by UV-B, indicating that MMR may have a role in UV-B-induced DNA damage responses. Analysis of promoter sequences identified MSH6 as a target of the E2F transcription factors. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, MSH6 was experimentally validated as an E2F target gene, suggesting an interaction between MMR genes and the cell cycle control. Mutations in MSH2 or MSH6 caused an increased accumulation of CPDs relative to wild-type plants. In addition, msh2 mutant plants showed a different expression pattern of cell cycle marker genes after the UV-B treatment when compared with wild-type plants. Taken together, these data provide evidence that plant MutSα is involved in a UV-B-induced DNA damage response pathway.

  1. Distinct Phenotypes Caused by Mutation of MSH2 in Trypanosome Insect and Mammalian Life Cycle Forms Are Associated with Parasite Adaptation to Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Bolderson, Jason; Campos, Priscila C.; Miranda, Julia B.; Alves, Ceres L.; Machado, Carlos R.; McCulloch, Richard; Teixeira, Santuza M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Background DNA repair mechanisms are crucial for maintenance of the genome in all organisms, including parasites where successful infection is dependent both on genomic stability and sequence variation. MSH2 is an early acting, central component of the Mismatch Repair (MMR) pathway, which is responsible for the recognition and correction of base mismatches that occur during DNA replication and recombination. In addition, recent evidence suggests that MSH2 might also play an important, but poorly understood, role in responding to oxidative damage in both African and American trypanosomes. Methodology/Principal Findings To investigate the involvement of MMR in the oxidative stress response, null mutants of MSH2 were generated in Trypanosoma brucei procyclic forms and in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms. Unexpectedly, the MSH2 null mutants showed increased resistance to H2O2 exposure when compared with wild type cells, a phenotype distinct from the previously observed increased sensitivity of T. brucei bloodstream forms MSH2 mutants. Complementation studies indicated that the increased oxidative resistance of procyclic T. brucei was due to adaptation to MSH2 loss. In both parasites, loss of MSH2 was shown to result in increased tolerance to alkylation by MNNG and increased accumulation of 8-oxo-guanine in the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, indicating impaired MMR. In T. cruzi, loss of MSH2 also increases the parasite capacity to survive within host macrophages. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these results indicate MSH2 displays conserved, dual roles in MMR and in the response to oxidative stress. Loss of the latter function results in life cycle dependent differences in phenotypic outcomes in T. brucei MSH2 mutants, most likely because of the greater burden of oxidative stress in the insect stage of the parasite. PMID:26083967

  2. The DNA-mismatch repair enzyme hMSH2 modulates UV-B-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Markus; Scherer, Stefan J; Edelmann, Wilfried; Böhm, Markus; Meineke, Viktor; Löbrich, Markus; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Reichrath, Jörg

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms by which the post-replicative DNA mismatch repair (MMR) enzyme MSH2 is involved in the complex response mechanisms to UV damage are yet to be clarified. Here, we show increased levels of MSH2 mRNA in malignant melanoma, metastases of melanoma, and melanoma cell (MeWo) lines as compared with melanocytic nevi or primary cultured benign melanocytes. UV-B treatment modulated MSH2 expression and silencing of MSH2 gene expression using small interfering RNA technology regulated UV-B-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human MeWo. We show that MSH2-deficient non-malignant mouse fibroblasts (MEF-/-) are partially resistant against UV-B-induced apoptosis and show reduced S-Phase accumulation. In addition, we show that an Msh2 point mutation (MEFGA) that affects MMR does not affect UV-B-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, we demonstrate that MSH2 modulates in human melanocytes both UV-B-induced cell cycle regulation and apoptosis, most likely via independent, uncoupled mechanisms.

  3. Crosstalk between MSH2–MSH3 and polβ promotes trinucleotide repeat expansion during base excision repair

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Yanhao; Budworth, Helen; Beaver, Jill M.; Chan, Nelson L. S.; Zhang, Zunzhen; McMurray, Cynthia T.; Liu, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Studies in knockout mice provide evidence that MSH2–MSH3 and the BER machinery promote trinucleotide repeat (TNR) expansion, yet how these two different repair pathways cause the mutation is unknown. Here we report the first molecular crosstalk mechanism, in which MSH2–MSH3 is used as a component of the BER machinery to cause expansion. On its own, pol β fails to copy TNRs during DNA synthesis, and bypasses them on the template strand to cause deletion. Remarkably, MSH2–MSH3 not only stimulates pol β to copy through the repeats but also enhances formation of the flap precursor for expansion. Our results provide direct evidence that MMR and BER, operating together, form a novel hybrid pathway that changes the outcome of TNR instability from deletion to expansion during the removal of oxidized bases. We propose that cells implement crosstalk strategies and share machinery when a canonical pathway is ineffective in removing a difficult lesion. PMID:27546332

  4. Pattern of hMLH1, hMSH2 and hMSH6 expression and clinical characteristics in a sample of Malaysian colorectal carcinoma cases.

    PubMed

    Khoo, J J; Gunn, A; Peh, S C

    2013-06-01

    Malignant transformation from normal colonic mucosa to carcinomas may be accelerated by genetic loss or inactivation of genes of the DNA mismatch repair system. The aim of the study was to determine the local incidence and pattern of immunohistochemical expression of mismatch repair proteins namely: hMLH1, hMSH2 and hMSH6 in a series of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs) and correlate this to their clinical and pathological features. Forty-three out of 298 cases of CRCs (14.4%) showed abnormal staining pattern for mismatch repair proteins with a majority (65.1%) showing single hMLH1 loss. Tumours with mismatch repair defect (MMR-d) were frequently found at the right side of colon (p<0.001), poorly differentiated carcinomas (p<0.001), produced more mucin (p=0.007), exophytic growth (p=0.007) and were bigger (p=0.002) than tumours with no mismatch repair defect. Immunohistochemical stains for mismatch repair proteins could be done in local laboratories on these selected cases before referring for the expensive molecular test.

  5. Relationship between MLH-1, MSH-2, PMS-2,MSH-6 expression and clinicopathological features in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Karahan, Birgül; Argon, Asuman; Yıldırım, Mehmet; Vardar, Enver

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancers are the third most common in both sexes and they are the second most common cause of cancer-related death. 12-15% of colorectal cancers develop through microsatellite instability (the hereditary mutation in at least one of DNA mismatch repair genes) pathway and they are 2-5% hereditary. In this study, we investigated the correlation between the clinicopathological features themselves and also the correlation between them and the immunohistochemical MLH-1, MSH-2, PMS-2, MSH-6 expressions in a total of 186 resection materials with colorectal adenocarcinoma between 2008 and 2012. All the cases were retrospectively evaluated in terms of age, sex, localization, size, accompanying polyp, multiple tumor, arising from polyp, differentiation, mucinous differentiation, pathological tumor stage, lymphovascular and perineural invasion, lymphocyte amount in the tumor microenvironment, surgical border and lymph node metastasis. We prepared multiple tissue blocks which had 4-millimeter tumor. Immunohistochemically, MLH-1, MSH-2, PMS-2, MSH-6 primary antibodies were studied. Statistically, “Kruskal-Wallis” ve “Pearson’s chi-squared” tests were used. We found a positive correlation between loss of MLH-1 and PMS-2 expressions and the right-colon location, poor and mucinous differentiation and dense lymphocytic infiltration. In addition, loss of MSH-2 and MSH-6 expressions was correlated with the right-colon location, poor and mucinous differentiation. We found a meaningful relationship between immunohistochemical markers and clinicopathological features usually observed in tumors with microsatellite instability. This finding may arouse suspicion for MSI. However, the findings in our study must be supported with studies conducted in large series including molecular methods. PMID:26097592

  6. The Effect of Msh2 Knockdown on Toxicity Induced by tert-Butyl-hydroperoxide, Potassium Bromate, and Hydrogen Peroxide in Base Excision Repair Proficient and Deficient Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cooley, N.; Elder, R. H.; Povey, A. C.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and base excision repair (BER) systems are important determinants of cellular toxicity following exposure to agents that cause oxidative DNA damage. To examine the interactions between these different repair systems, we examined whether toxicity, induced by t-BOOH and KBrO3, differs in BER proficient (Mpg+/+, Nth1+/+) and deficient (Mpg−/−, Nth1−/−) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following Msh2 knockdown of between 79 and 88% using an shRNA expression vector. Msh2 knockdown in Nth1+/+ cells had no effect on t-BOOH and KBrO3 induced toxicity as assessed by an MTT assay; knockdown in Nth1−/− cells resulted in increased resistance to t-BOOH and KBrO3, a result consistent with Nth1 removing oxidised pyrimidines. Msh2 knockdown in Mpg+/+ cells had no effect on t-BOOH toxicity but increased resistance to KBrO3; in Mpg−/− cells, Msh2 knockdown increased cellular sensitivity to KBrO3 but increased resistance to t-BOOH, suggesting a role for Mpg in removing DNA damage induced by these agents. MSH2 dependent and independent pathways then determine cellular toxicity induced by oxidising agents. A complex interaction between MMR and BER repair systems, that is, exposure dependent, also exists to determine cellular toxicity. PMID:23984319

  7. Novel germline mutation (300-305delAGTTGA) in the human MSH2 gene in hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC).

    PubMed

    Glasl, S; Papatheodorou, L; Baretton, G; Jung, C; Gross, M

    2000-07-01

    Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a common hereditary syndrome characterized by the high incidence and early onset of colorectal cancer. The majority of the HNPCC families carry germline mutations in either the MSH2 or the MLH1 mismatch repair gene. A 46 year-old female patient whose family history fulfilled the Amsterdam criteria for HNPCC was diagnosed with undifferentiated adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. Recognizing the Lynch 2 syndrome (the existance of multiple HNPCC related cancers in a pedigree), we used polymerase chain reaction followed by direct sequencing to screen the coding regions of both the MSH2 and the MLH1 genes for germline mutations in DNA from the patient. We detected a novel germline mutation (300-305delAGTTGA) in exon 2 of human MSH2. We noted microsatellite instability in four microsatellite loci. Immunohistochemistry showed a lack of expression of the MSH2 gene product in the tumor, suggesting that the mutation is a disease-causing mutation.

  8. MSH2 c.1452–1455delAATG Is a Founder Mutation and an Important Cause of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer in the Southern Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Tsun Leung; Wai Chan, Yee; Ho, Judy W. C.; Chan, Celine; Chan, Annie S. Y.; Chan, Emily; Lam, Polly W. Y.; Wah Tse, Chun; Cheong Lee, Kam; Wai Lau, Chi; Gwi, Elaine; Yi Leung, Suet; Yuen, Siu Tsan

    2004-01-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) accounts for ∼2% of all colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and is the most common hereditary CRC syndrome. We have previously reported a high incidence of microsatellite instability (MSI) and germline mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations in young Hong Kong Chinese with CRC. Ongoing studies at the Hereditary Gastrointestinal Cancer Registry in Hong Kong have revealed a unique germline MSH2 c.1452–1455delAATG mutation that has not been reported in other ethnic groups. Detailed analysis showed that this specific MSH2 mutation constituted 21% of all germline MMR gene mutations and 36% of all MSH2 germline mutations identified. We designed a specific PCR-based diagnostic test on paraffin-embedded tissues and identified this germline mutation in 2 (1.5%) of 138 consecutive patients with early-onset CRC (<46 years of age at diagnosis). Haplotype analysis was performed using 11 microsatellite markers located between D2S391 and D2S123. All 10 families had the same disease haplotype, suggesting a founder effect. These 10 families all originated from the Chinese province of Guangdong, which historically included Hong Kong. It is the most populous of the Chinese provinces, with a population of >93 million. Further analysis suggested that this founder mutation may date back to between 22 and 103 generations ago. The identification of this MSH2 founder mutation has important implications for the design of mutation-detection strategies for the southern Chinese population. Since there were major emigrations from Hong Kong and Guangdong province during the 19th and 20th centuries, this finding is also significant for Chinese communities worldwide. PMID:15042510

  9. Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 and hMSH2: a practical test for DNA mismatch repair-deficient tumors.

    PubMed

    Marcus, V A; Madlensky, L; Gryfe, R; Kim, H; So, K; Millar, A; Temple, L K; Hsieh, E; Hiruki, T; Narod, S; Bapat, B V; Gallinger, S; Redston, M

    1999-10-01

    Inactivation of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) mismatch repair genes, most commonly human mutL homologue 1 (hMLH1) or human mutS homologue 2 (hMSH2), is a recently described alternate pathway in cancer development and progression. The resulting genetic instability is characterized by widespread somatic mutations in tumor DNA, and is termed high-frequency microsatellite instability (MSI-H). Although described in a variety of tumors, mismatch repair deficiency has been studied predominantly in colorectal carcinoma. Most MSI-H colorectal carcinomas are sporadic, but some occur in patients with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC), and are associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes. Until now, the identification of MSI-H cancers has required molecular testing. To evaluate the role of immunohistochemistry as a new screening tool for mismatch repair-deficient neoplasms, the authors studied the expression of hMLH1 and hMSH2, using commercially available monoclonal antibodies, in 72 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors that had been tested previously for microsatellite instability. They compared immunohistochemical patterns of 38 MSI-H neoplasms, including 16 cases from HNPCC patients with known germline mutations in hMLH1 or hMSH2, with 34 neoplasms that did not show microsatellite instability. Thirty-seven of 38 MSI-H neoplasms were predicted to have a mismatch repair gene defect, as demonstrated by the absence of hMLH1 and/or hMSH2 expression. This included correspondence with all 16 cases with germline mutations. All 34 microsatellite-stable cancers had intact staining with both antibodies. These findings clearly demonstrate that immunohistochemistry can discriminate accurately between MSI-H and microsatellite-stable tumors, providing a practical new technique with important clinical and research applications. PMID:10524526

  10. Germline MLH1 and MSH2 mutational spectrum including frequent large genomic aberrations in Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer families: Implications for genetic testing

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Janos; Kovacs, Marietta E; Olah, Edith

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence of germline MLH1 and MSH2 gene mutations and evaluate the clinical characteristics of Hungarian hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families. METHODS: Thirty-six kindreds were tested for mutations using conformation sensitive gel electrophoreses, direct sequencing and also screening for genomic rearrangements applying multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). RESULTS: Eighteen germline mutations (50%) were identified, 9 in MLH1 and 9 in MSH2. Sixteen of these sequence alterations were considered pathogenic, the remaining two were non-conservative missense alterations occurring at highly conserved functional motifs. The majority of the definite pathogenic mutations (81%, 13/16) were found in families fulfilling the stringent Amsterdam I/II criteria, including three rearrangements revealed by MLPA (two in MSH2 and one in MLH1). However, in three out of sixteen HNPCC-suspected families (19%), a disease-causing alteration could be revealed. Furthermore, nine mutations described here are novel, and none of the sequence changes were found in more than one family. CONCLUSION: Our study describes for the first time the prevalence and spectrum of germline mismatch repair gene mutations in Hungarian HNPCC and suspected-HNPCC families. The results presented here suggest that clinical selection criteria should be relaxed and detection of genomic rearrangements should be included in genetic screening in this population. PMID:17569143

  11. Gly322Asp and Asn127Ser single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of hMSH2 mismatch repair gene and the risk of triple-negative breast cancer in Polish women.

    PubMed

    Smolarz, Beata; Makowska, Marianna; Samulak, Dariusz; Michalska, Magdalena M; Romanowicz, Hanna

    2015-03-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterised by worse clinical outcome and poor prognosis. The alterations in the oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) have been associated with breast cancer development. It is knowledge that the most common mechanism inducing MSI in many cancer is genomic rearrangements found in the hMSH2 (human MutS homolog 2) gene. In this report we genotyped two polymorphisms of hMSH2 DNA repair gene in 70 TNBC patients and 70 age-matched cancer-free women using RFLP-PCR. The following polymorphisms were studied: an A/G transition at 127 positions producing an Asn/Ser substitution at codon 127 (the Asn127Ser polymorphism, rs17217772) and a G/A transition at 1032 position resulting in a Gly/Asp change at codon 322 (the Gly322Asp polymorphism, rs4987188). We found an association between the hMSH2 Asp/Asp and Gly/Asp genotypes and TNBC occurence. Variant Asp allele of hMSH2 decreased cancer risk [odds ratio (OR) 0.11; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.05-0.21]. The risk of TNBC in the carriers of the Gly322Gly-Asn127Ser combined genotype was increased (OR 3.71; 95 % CI 1.36-10.10). However the risk of TNBC was not alter by polymorphism Asn127Ser of the hMSH2 gene. The Gly322Asp polymorphism of the hMSH2 gene may be linked with TNBC occurrence in Polish women.

  12. Mismatch repair hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 and hPMS2 mRNA expression profiles in precancerous and cancerous urothelium.

    PubMed

    Vageli, Dimitra P; Giannopoulos, Stavros; Doukas, Sotirios G; Kalaitzis, Christos; Giannakopoulos, Stilianos; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Koukoulis, George K; Touloupidis, Stavros

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 and hPMS2 reflect dysfunction of the DNA repair system that may allow the malignant transformation of tissue cells. The aim of the present study was to address the mRNA expression profiles of the mismatch DNA repair system in cancerous and precancerous urothelium. This is the first study to quantify MMR mRNA expression by applying quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and translate the results to mRNA phenotypic profiles (r, reduced; R, regular or elevated) in bladder tumors [24 urothelial cell carcinomas (UCCs) and 1 papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)] paired with their adjacent normal tissues (ANTs). Genetic instability analysis was applied at polymorphic sites distal or close to the hMSH2 and hMLH1 locus. Presenting our data, reduced hMSH2, hMSH6 and hPMS2 mRNA expression profiles were observed in cancerous and precancerous urothelia. Significantly, the ANTs of UCCs revealed the highest percentages of reduced hMSH2 (r(2)), hMSH6 (r(6)) and hPMS2 (p(2)) mRNA phenotypes relative to their tumors (P<0.03). In particular, combined r(2)r(6) (P<0.02) presented a greater difference between ANTs of low-grade UCCs vs. their tumors compared with ANTs of high-grade UCCs (P= 0.000). Reduced hMLH1 (r(1)) phenotype was not expressed in precancerous or cancerous urothelia. The hMSH6 mRNA was the most changed in UCCs (47.8%), while hMSH2, hMLH1 and hPMS2 showed overexpression (47.8, 35 and 30%, respectively) that was associated with gender and histological tumor grading or staging. Genetic instability was rare in polymorphic regions distal to hMLH1. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized hMSH2 and hMSH6 mRNA combined phenotype (r(2)r(6)) correlated with a precancerous urothelium and show that hMLH1 is transcriptionally activated in precancerous or cancerous urothelium. In the present study, it is demonstrated that reduction of hMSH6 mRNA is a frequent event in bladder

  13. Employability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock. Home Economics Curriculum Center.

    This workbook contains seven units designed to help secondary-level vocational education students develop the employability skills necessary to find, keep, and advance in a job. Addressed in the individual units of the workbook are the following topics: assessing individual values, abilities, and interests; finding a job; developing basic…

  14. Mismatch repair hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 and hPMS2 mRNA expression profiles in precancerous and cancerous urothelium

    PubMed Central

    VAGELI, DIMITRA P.; GIANNOPOULOS, STAVROS; DOUKAS, SOTIRIOS G.; KALAITZIS, CHRISTOS; GIANNAKOPOULOS, STILIANOS; GIATROMANOLAKI, ALEXANDRA; KOUKOULIS, GEORGE K.; TOULOUPIDIS, STAVROS

    2013-01-01

    Changes in the expression of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 and hPMS2 reflect dysfunction of the DNA repair system that may allow the malignant transformation of tissue cells. The aim of the present study was to address the mRNA expression profiles of the mismatch DNA repair system in cancerous and precancerous urothelium. This is the first study to quantify MMR mRNA expression by applying quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and translate the results to mRNA phenotypic profiles (r, reduced; R, regular or elevated) in bladder tumors [24 urothelial cell carcinomas (UCCs) and 1 papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP)] paired with their adjacent normal tissues (ANTs). Genetic instability analysis was applied at polymorphic sites distal or close to the hMSH2 and hMLH1 locus. Presenting our data, reduced hMSH2, hMSH6 and hPMS2 mRNA expression profiles were observed in cancerous and precancerous urothelia. Significantly, the ANTs of UCCs revealed the highest percentages of reduced hMSH2 (r2), hMSH6 (r6) and hPMS2 (p2) mRNA phenotypes relative to their tumors (P<0.03). In particular, combined r2r6 (P<0.02) presented a greater difference between ANTs of low-grade UCCs vs. their tumors compared with ANTs of high-grade UCCs (P= 0.000). Reduced hMLH1 (r1) phenotype was not expressed in precancerous or cancerous urothelia. The hMSH6 mRNA was the most changed in UCCs (47.8%), while hMSH2, hMLH1 and hPMS2 showed overexpression (47.8, 35 and 30%, respectively) that was associated with gender and histological tumor grading or staging. Genetic instability was rare in polymorphic regions distal to hMLH1. Our data reveal a previously unrecognized hMSH2 and hMSH6 mRNA combined phenotype (r2r6) correlated with a precancerous urothelium and show that hMLH1 is transcriptionally activated in precancerous or cancerous urothelium. In the present study, it is demonstrated that reduction of hMSH6 mRNA is a frequent event in bladder tumorigenesis and

  15. Complex relationship between mismatch repair proteins and MBD4 during immunoglobulin class switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Grigera, Fernando; Bellacosa, Alfonso; Kenter, Amy L

    2013-01-01

    Mismatch repair (MMR) safeguards against genomic instability and is required for efficient Ig class switch recombination (CSR). Methyl CpG binding domain protein 4 (MBD4) binds to MutL homologue 1 (MLH1) and controls the post-transcriptional level of several MMR proteins, including MutS homologue 2 (MSH2). We show that in WT B cells activated for CSR, MBD4 is induced and interacts with MMR proteins, thereby implying a role for MBD4 in CSR. However, CSR is in the normal range in Mbd4 deficient mice deleted for exons 2-5 despite concomitant reduction of MSH2. We show by comparison in Msh2(+/-) B cells that a two-fold reduction of MSH2 and MBD4 proteins is correlated with impaired CSR. It is therefore surprising that CSR occurs at normal frequencies in the Mbd4 deficient B cells where MSH2 is reduced. We find that a variant Mbd4 transcript spanning exons 1,6-8 is expressed in Mbd4 deficient B cells. This transcript can be ectopically expressed and produces a truncated MBD4 peptide. Thus, the 3' end of the Mbd4 locus is not silent in Mbd4 deficient B cells and may contribute to CSR. Our findings highlight a complex relationship between MBD4 and MMR proteins in B cells and a potential reconsideration of their role in CSR.

  16. Effects of temozolomide (TMZ) on the expression and interaction of heat shock proteins (HSPs) and DNA repair proteins in human malignant glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Castro, Gisela Natalia; Cayado-Gutiérrez, Niubys; Zoppino, Felipe Carlos Martín; Fanelli, Mariel Andrea; Cuello-Carrión, Fernando Darío; Sottile, Mayra; Nadin, Silvina Beatriz; Ciocca, Daniel Ramón

    2015-03-01

    We previously reported the association of HSPA1A and HSPB1 with high-grade astrocytomas, suggesting that these proteins might be involved in disease outcome and response to treatment. With the aim to better understand the resistance/susceptibility processes associated to temozolomide (TMZ) treatment, the current study was performed in three human malignant glioma cell lines by focusing on several levels: (a) apoptotic index and senescence, (b) DNA damage, and (c) interaction of HSPB1 with players of the DNA damage response. Three human glioma cell lines, Gli36, U87, and DBTRG, were treated with TMZ evaluating cell viability and survival, apoptosis, senescence, and comets (comet assay). The expression of HSPA (HSPA1A and HSPA8), HSPB1, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), MLH1, and MSH2 was determined by immunocytochemistry, immunofluorescence, and Western blot. Immunoprecipitation was used to analyze protein interaction. The cell lines exhibited differences in viability, apoptosis, and senescence after TMZ administration. We then focused on Gli36 cells (relatively unstudied) which showed very low recovery capacity following TMZ treatment, and this was related to high DNA damage levels; however, the cells maintained their viability. In these cells, MGMT, MSH2, HSPA, and HSPB1 levels increased significantly after TMZ administration. In addition, MSH2 and HSPB1 proteins appeared co-localized by confocal microscopy. This co-localization increased after TMZ treatment, and in immunoprecipitation analysis, MSH2 and HSPB1 appeared interacting. In contrast, HSPB1 did not interact with MGMT. We show in glioma cells the biological effects of TMZ and how this drug affects the expression levels of heat shock proteins (HSPs), MGMT, MSH2, and MLH1. In Gli36 cells, the results suggest that interactions between HSPB1 and MSH2, including co-nuclear localization, may be important in determining cell sensitivity to TMZ. PMID:25155585

  17. Nuclear localization and hepatic zonation of rat "spot 14" protein: immunohistochemical investigation employing anti-fusion protein antibodies.

    PubMed

    Kinlaw, W B; Tron, P; Friedmann, A S

    1992-12-01

    S14 protein and mRNA levels are rapidly regulated by hormones and diet. We have purified a 45-Kd fusion protein from lysates of transformed E. coli that includes the entire S14 polypeptide. Affinity-purified rabbit anti-fusion protein antibodies were used in immunohistochemistry to determine the distribution of S14 protein across the hepatic lobule, and to reassess its intracellular location. In hyperthyroid liver, S14 protein clustered near the central venous zone, and was not detectable in the periportal area of the acinus. The signal in perivenous hepatocytes was primarily nuclear in location, in stark contrast to previous subcellular fractionation studies. Visualization of identical hepatic distribution and subcellular localization employing anti-synthetic peptide antiserum provided evidence for the specificity of the immunostaining, as did attenuation of the signal by preincubation of the antibody with its antigen. No staining was observed in sections of heart or hypothyroid liver, as expected from the low levels of S14 protein in those tissues. The data indicate that induction of S14 protein expression by T3 occurs through enhanced expression by perivenous hepatocytes, rather than by recruitment of cells in more peripheral zones of the lobule. Nuclear localization of the S14 protein by immunohistochemistry suggests that it is lost from nuclei during standard fractionation procedures, and prompts consideration of a role for S14 in regulation of nuclear structure and/or function.

  18. Association Between Genetic Polymorphisms in the XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD, GSTM1, GSTT1, MSH2, MLH1, MSH3, and MGMT Genes and Radiosensitivity in Breast Cancer Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Mangoni, Monica; Bisanzi, Simonetta; Carozzi, Francesca; Sani, Cristina; Biti, Giampaolo; Livi, Lorenzo; Barletta, Emanuela; Costantini, Adele Seniori; Gorini, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    Purpose: Clinical radiosensitivity varies considerably among patients, and radiation-induced side effects developing in normal tissue can be therapy limiting. Some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been shown to correlate with hypersensitivity to radiotherapy. We conducted a prospective study of 87 female patients with breast cancer who received radiotherapy after breast surgery. We evaluated the association between acute skin reaction following radiotherapy and 11 genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes: XRCC1 (Arg399Gln and Arg194Trp), XRCC3 (Thr241Met), XPD (Asp312Asn and Lys751Gln), MSH2 (gIVS12-6T>C), MLH1 (Ile219Val), MSH3 (Ala1045Thr), MGMT (Leu84Phe), and in damage-detoxification GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes (allele deletion). Methods and Materials: Individual genetic polymorphisms were determined by polymerase chain reaction and single nucleotide primer extension for single nucleotide polymorphisms or by a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay for deletion polymorphisms. The development of severe acute skin reaction (moist desquamation or interruption of radiotherapy due to toxicity) associated with genetic polymorphisms was modeled using Cox proportional hazards, accounting for cumulative biologically effective radiation dose. Results: Radiosensitivity developed in eight patients and was increased in carriers of variants XRCC3-241Met allele (hazard ratio [HR] unquantifiably high), MSH2 gIVS12-6nt-C allele (HR = 53.36; 95% confidence intervals [95% CI], 3.56-798.98), and MSH3-1045Ala allele (HR unquantifiably high). Carriers of XRCC1-Arg194Trp variant allele in combination with XRCC1-Arg399Gln wild-type allele had a significant risk of radiosensitivity (HR = 38.26; 95% CI, 1.19-1232.52). Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first report to find an association between MSH2 and MSH3 genetic variants and the development of radiosensitivity in breast cancer patients. Our findings suggest the hypothesis that mismatch repair mechanisms may be

  19. Mechanical spectroscopy of retina explants at the protein level employing nanostructured scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Mayazur Rahman, S; Reichenbach, Andreas; Zink, Mareike; Mayr, Stefan G

    2016-04-14

    Development of neuronal tissue, such as folding of the brain, and formation of the fovea centralis in the human retina are intimately connected with the mechanical properties of the underlying cells and the extracellular matrix. In particular for neuronal tissue as complex as the vertebrate retina, mechanical properties are still a matter of debate due to their relation to numerous diseases as well as surgery, where the tension of the retina can result in tissue detachment during cutting. However, measuring the elasticity of adult retina wholemounts is difficult and until now only the mechanical properties at the surface have been characterized with micrometer resolution. Many processes, however, such as pathological changes prone to cause tissue rupture and detachment, respectively, are reflected in variations of retina elasticity at smaller length scales at the protein level. In the present work we demonstrate that freely oscillating cantilevers composed of nanostructured TiO2 scaffolds can be employed to study the frequency-dependent mechanical response of adult mammalian retina explants at the nanoscale. Constituting highly versatile scaffolds with strong tissue attachment for long-term organotypic culture atop, these scaffolds perform damped vibrations as fingerprints of the mechanical tissue properties that are derived using finite element calculations. Since the tissue adheres to the nanostructures via constitutive proteins on the photoreceptor side of the retina, the latter are stretched and compressed during vibration of the underlying scaffold. Probing mechanical response of individual proteins within the tissue, the proposed mechanical spectroscopy approach opens the way for studying tissue mechanics, diseases and the effect of drugs at the protein level. PMID:26947970

  20. Germline ablation of SMUG1 DNA glycosylase causes loss of 5-hydroxymethyluracil- and UNG-backup uracil-excision activities and increases cancer predisposition of Ung-/-Msh2-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Kemmerich, Kristin; Dingler, Felix A; Rada, Cristina; Neuberger, Michael S

    2012-07-01

    Deamination of cytosine (C), 5-methylcytosine (mC) and 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (hmC) occurs spontaneously in mammalian DNA with several hundred deaminations occurring in each cell every day. The resulting potentially mutagenic mispairs of uracil (U), thymine (T) or 5-hydroxymethyluracil (hmU) with guanine (G) are substrates for repair by various DNA glycosylases. Here, we show that targeted inactivation of the mouse Smug1 DNA glycosylase gene is sufficient to ablate nearly all hmU-DNA excision activity as judged by assay of tissue extracts from knockout mice as well as by the resistance of their embryo fibroblasts to 5-hydroxymethyldeoxyuridine toxicity. Inactivation of Smug1 when combined with inactivation of the Ung uracil-DNA glycosylase gene leads to a loss of nearly all detectable uracil excision activity. Thus, SMUG1 is the dominant glycosylase responsible for hmU-excision in mice as well as the major UNG-backup for U-excision. Both Smug1-knockout and Smug1/Ung-double knockout mice breed normally and remain apparently healthy beyond 1 year of age. However, combined deficiency in SMUG1 and UNG exacerbates the cancer predisposition of Msh2(-/-) mice suggesting that when both base excision and mismatch repair pathways are defective, the mutagenic effects of spontaneous cytosine deamination are sufficient to increase cancer incidence but do not preclude mouse development.

  1. Overexpression of MutSα Complex Proteins Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Vivian Petersen; Webber, Liana Preto; Salvadori, Gabriela; Meurer, Luise; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Castilho, Rogério Moraes; Squarize, Cristiane Helena; Vargas, Pablo Agustin; Martins, Manoela Domingues

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system is responsible for the detection and correction of errors created during DNA replication, thereby avoiding the incorporation of mutations in dividing cells. The prognostic value of alterations in MMR system has not previously been analyzed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The study comprised 115 cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1996 and 2010. The specimens collected were constructed into tissue microarray blocks. Immunohistochemical staining for MutSα complex proteins hMSH2 and hMSH6 was performed. The slides were subsequently scanned into high-resolution images, and nuclear staining of hMSH2 and hMSH6 was analyzed using the Nuclear V9 algorithm. Univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models were performed to evaluate the prognostic value of hMSH2 and hMSH6 in OSCC. All cases in the present cohort were positive for hMSH2 and hMSH6 and a direct correlation was found between the expression of the proteins (P < 0.05). The mean number of positive cells for hMSH2 and hMSH6 was 64.44 ± 15.21 and 31.46 ± 22.38, respectively. These values were used as cutoff points to determine high protein expression. Cases with high expression of both proteins simultaneously were classified as having high MutSα complex expression. In the multivariable analysis, high expression of the MutSα complex was an independent prognostic factor for poor overall survival (hazard ratio: 2.75, P = 0.02). This study provides a first insight of the prognostic value of alterations in MMR system in OSCC. We found that MutSα complex may constitute a molecular marker for the poor prognosis of OSCC. PMID:27258499

  2. Employing directed evolution for the functional analysis of multi-specific proteins.

    PubMed

    Levin, Maxim; Amar, Dotan; Aharoni, Amir

    2013-06-15

    Multi-specific proteins located at the heart of complex protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks play essential roles in the survival and fitness of the cell. In addition, multi-specific or promiscuous enzymes exhibit activity toward a wide range of substrates so as to increase cell evolvability and robustness. However, despite their high importance, investigating the in vivo function of these proteins is difficult, due to their complex nature. Typically, deletion of these proteins leads to the abolishment of large PPI networks, highlighting the difficulty in examining the contributions of specific interactions/activities to complex biological processes and cell phenotypes. Protein engineering approaches, including directed evolution and computational protein design, allow for the generation of multi-specific proteins in which certain activities remain intact while others are abolished. The generation and examination of these mutants both in vitro and in vivo can provide high-resolution analysis of biological processes and cell phenotypes and provide new insight into the evolution and molecular function of this important protein family.

  3. Monte Carlo Modeling of Spectral Diffusion Employing Multiwell Protein Energy Landscapes: Application to Pigment-Protein Complexes Involved in Photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Najafi, Mehdi; Zazubovich, Valter

    2015-06-25

    We are reporting development and initial applications of the light-induced and thermally induced spectral diffusion modeling software, covering nonphotochemical spectral hole burning (NPHB), hole recovery, and single-molecule spectroscopy and involving random generation of the multiwell protein energy landscapes. The model includes tunneling and activated barrier-hopping in both ground and excited states of a protein-chromophore system. Evolution of such a system is predicted by solving the system of rate equations. Using the barrier parameters from the range typical for the energy landscapes of the pigment-protein complexes involved in photosynthesis, we (a) show that realistic cooling of the sample must result in proteins quite far from thermodynamic equilibrium, (b) demonstrate hole evolution in the cases of burning, fixed-temperature recovery and thermocycling that mostly agrees with the experiment and modeling based on the NPHB master equation, and (c) explore the effects of different protein energy landscapes on the antihole shape. Introducing the multiwell energy landscapes and starting the hole burning experiments in realistic nonequilibrium conditions are not sufficient to explain all experimental observations even qualitatively. Therefore, for instance, one is required to invoke the modified NPHB mechanism where a complex interplay of several small conformational changes is poising the energy landscape of the pigment-protein system for downhill tunneling.

  4. Direct detection of x-rays for protein crystallography employing a thick, large area CCD

    DOEpatents

    Atac, Muzaffer; McKay, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus and method for directly determining the crystalline structure of a protein crystal. The crystal is irradiated by a finely collimated x-ray beam. The interaction of the x-ray beam with the crystal produces scattered x-rays. These scattered x-rays are detected by means of a large area, thick CCD which is capable of measuring a significant number of scattered x-rays which impact its surface. The CCD is capable of detecting the position of impact of the scattered x-ray on the surface of the CCD and the quantity of scattered x-rays which impact the same cell or pixel. This data is then processed in real-time and the processed data is outputted to produce a image of the structure of the crystal. If this crystal is a protein the molecular structure of the protein can be determined from the data received.

  5. Recent advances in Employing Molecular Modelling to Determine the Specificity of Glycan-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Oliver C.; Woods, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Impressive improvements in docking performance can be achieved by applying energy bonuses to poses in which glycan hydroxyl groups occupy positions otherwise preferred by bound waters. In addition, inclusion of glycosidic conformational energies allows unlikely glycan conformations to be appropriately penalized. A method for predicting the binding specificity of glycan-binding proteins has been developed, which is based on grafting glycan branches onto a minimal binding determinant in the binding site. Grafting can be used either to screen virtual libraries of glycans, such as the known glycome, or to identify docked poses of minimal binding determinants that are consistent with specificity data. The reviewed advances allow accurate modelling of carbohydrate-protein 3D co-complexes, but challenges remain in ranking the affinity of congeners. PMID:25108191

  6. Mild and cost-effective green fluorescent protein purification employing small synthetic ligands.

    PubMed

    Pina, Ana Sofia; Dias, Ana Margarida G C; Ustok, Fatma Isik; El Khoury, Graziella; Fernandes, Cláudia S M; Branco, Ricardo J F; Lowe, Christopher R; Roque, A Cecília A

    2015-10-30

    The green fluorescent protein (GFP) is a useful indicator in a broad range of applications including cell biology, gene expression and biosensing. However, its full potential is hampered by the lack of a selective, mild and low-cost purification scheme. In order to address this demand, a novel adsorbent was developed as a generic platform for the purification of GFP or GFP fusion proteins, giving GFP a dual function as reporter and purification tag. After screening a solid-phase combinatorial library of small synthetic ligands based on the Ugi-reaction, the lead ligand (A4C7) selectively recovered GFP with 94% yield and 94% purity under mild conditions and directly from Escherichia coli extracts. Adsorbents containing the ligand A4C7 maintained the selectivity to recover other proteins fused to GFP. The performance of A4C7 adsorbents was compared with two commercially available methods (immunoprecipitation and hydrophobic interaction chromatography), confirming the new adsorbent as a low-cost viable alternative for GFP purification.

  7. gDNA-Prot: Predict DNA-binding proteins by employing support vector machine and a novel numerical characterization of protein sequence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Wuyunqiqige; Zheng, Wei; Liu, Shuyi; Zhao, Chunguang

    2016-10-01

    DNA-binding proteins are the functional proteins in cells, which play an important role in various essential biological activities. An effective and fast computational method gDNA-Prot is proposed to predict DNA-binding proteins in this paper, which is a DNA-binding predictor that combines the support vector machine classifier and a novel kind of feature called graphical representation. The DNA-binding protein sequence information was described with the 20 probabilities of amino acids and the 23 new numerical graphical representation features of a protein sequence, based on 23 physicochemical properties of 20 amino acids. The Principal Components Analysis (PCA) was employed as feature selection method for removing the irrelevant features and reducing redundant features. The Sigmod function and Min-max normalization methods for PCA were applied to accelerate the training speed and obtain higher accuracy. Experiments demonstrated that the Principal Components Analysis with Sigmod function generated the best performance. The gDNA-Prot method was also compared with the DNAbinder, iDNA-Prot and DNA-Prot. The results suggested that gDNA-Prot outperformed the DNAbinder and iDNA-Prot. Although the DNA-Prot outperformed gDNA-Prot, gDNA-Prot was faster and convenient to predict the DNA-binding proteins. Additionally, the proposed gNDA-Prot method is available at http://sourceforge.net/projects/gdnaprot.

  8. Early detection of infected ureteral obstruction after SWL employing C-reactive protein.

    PubMed

    Wolff, J M; Boeckmann, W; Mattelaer, P; Krämer, U; Jakse, G

    1996-12-01

    Infection of the obstructed upper urinary tract is a severe complication of stone disease. Early detection and therapy is crucial to prevent septicemia. The authors investigated prospectively whether C-reactive protein (CRP) might act as a marker for the early detection of infected upper urinary tract obstruction. The serum concentration of CRP was compared with the classic markers of inflammation--white blood cell (WBC) count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and temperature--in the follow-up of 85 patients undergoing 173 extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) treatments. Post-SWL, 69% of the patients showed dilation of the upper tract on ultrasonography and 16.5% became symptomatic and required intervention. In this group, the mean CRP value was increased 18-fold, whereas the WBC count, ESR, and temperature were not markedly raised. In contrast, patients with no need for additional treatment showed no more than a 2-fold increase in CRP. C-Reactive protein seems to be a useful indicator for the early detection of infected upper urinary tract obstruction.

  9. Nuclear localization of human DNA mismatch repair protein exonuclease 1 (hEXO1)

    PubMed Central

    Knudsen, Nina Østergaard; Nielsen, Finn Cilius; Vinther, Lena; Bertelsen, Ronni; Holten-Andersen, Steen; Liberti, Sascha Emilie; Hofstra, Robert; Kooi, Krista; Rasmussen, Lene Juel

    2007-01-01

    Human exonuclease 1 (hEXO1) is implicated in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) and mutations in hEXO1 may be associated with hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Since the subcellular localization of MMR proteins is essential for proper MMR function, we characterized possible nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in hEXO1. Using fluorescent fusion proteins, we show that the sequence 418KRPR421, which exhibit strong homology to other monopartite NLS sequences, is responsible for correct nuclear localization of hEXO1. This NLS sequence is located in a region that is also required for hEXO1 interaction with hMLH1 and we show that defective nuclear localization of hEXO1 mutant proteins could be rescued by hMLH1 or hMSH2. Both hEXO1 and hMLH1 form complexes with the nuclear import factors importin β/α1,3,7 whereas hMSH2 specifically recognizes importin β/α3. Taken together, we infer that hEXO1, hMLH1 and hMSH2 form complexes and are imported to the nucleus together, and that redundant NLS import signals in the proteins may safeguard nuclear import and thereby MMR activity. PMID:17426132

  10. Microcapsule production employing chickpea or lentil protein isolates and maltodextrin: physicochemical properties and oxidative protection of encapsulated flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Karaca, Asli Can; Nickerson, Michael; Low, Nicholas H

    2013-08-15

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated, employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin, followed by freeze-drying. Effects of oil concentration (5.3-21.0%), protein source (CPI vs. LPI) and maltodextrin type (DE 9 and 18) and concentration (25.0-40.7%), on both the physicochemical characteristics and microstructure of the microcapsules, were investigated. It was found that an increase in emulsion oil concentration resulted in a concomitant increase in oil droplet diameter and microcapsule surface oil content, and a decrease in oil encapsulation efficiency. Optimum flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiency (∼83.5%), minimum surface oil content (∼2.8%) and acceptable mean droplet diameter (3.0 μm) were afforded with 35.5% maltodextrin-DE 9 and 10.5% oil. Microcapsules, formed by employing these experimental conditions, showed a protective effect against oxidation versus free oil over a storage period of 25 d at room temperature.

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection and expression of DNA mismatch repair proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mirzaee, Vahid; Molaei, Mahsa; Shalmani, Hamid Mohaghegh; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine the expression of DNA (MMR) proteins, including hMLH1 and hMSH2, in gastric epithelial cells in the patients with or without Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-infected gastritis. METHODS: Fifty H pylori-positive patients and 50 H pylori-negative patients were enrolled in the study. During endoscopy of patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia, two antral and two corpus biopsies were taken for histological examination (Giemsa stain) and for immunohistochemical staining of hMLH1 and hMSH2. RESULTS: The percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMLH1 staining was 84.14 ± 7.32% in H pylori-negative patients, while it was 73.34 ± 10.10% in H pylori-positive patients (P < 0.0001). No significant difference was seen between the two groups regarding the percentage of epithelial cell nuclei that demonstrated positivity for hMSH2 staining (81.16 ± 8.32% in H pylori-negative versus 78.24 ± 8.71% in H pylori-positive patients; P = 0.09). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that H pylori might promote development of gastric carcinoma at least in part through its ability to affect the DNA MMR system. PMID:19034977

  12. Receptor-Drug Interaction: Europium Employment for Studying the Biochemical Pathway of G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Antonio, Colabufo Nicola; Grazia, Perrone Maria; Marialessandra, Contino; Francesco, Berardi; Roberto, Perrone

    2007-01-01

    In medicinal chemistry field, the biochemical pathways, involved in 7-transmembrane domains G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activation, are commonly studied to establish the activity of ligands towards GPCRs. The most studied steps are the measurement of activated GTP-α subunit and stimulated intracellular cAMP. At the present, many researchers defined agonist or antagonist activity of potential GPCRs drugs employing [35S]GTPγS or [3H]cAMP as probes. Recently, the corresponding lanthanide labels Eu-GTP and Eu-cAMP as alternative to radiochemicals have been developed because they are highly sensitive, easy to automate, easily synthesized, they display a much longer shelf-life and they can be used in multilabel experiments. In the present review, the receptor-drug interaction by europium employment for studying the biochemical pathway of GPCR activation has been focused. Moreover, comparative studies between lanthanide label probes and the corresponding radiolabeled compounds have been carried out. PMID:18350113

  13. Solid phase extraction of proteins from buffer solutions employing capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers as the stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Burdette, Carolyn Q; Marcus, R Kenneth

    2013-02-21

    Polypropylene (PP) capillary-channeled polymer (C-CP) fibers are applied for solid phase extraction (SPE) of proteins from aqueous buffer solutions using a micropipette tip-based format. A process was developed in which centrifugation is used as the moving force for solution passage in the loading/washing steps instead of the previously employed manual aspiration. The complete procedure requires ~15 minutes, with the number of samples run in parallel limited only by the capacity of the centrifuge. The method performance was evaluated based on adsorption and elution characteristics of several proteins (cytochrome c, lysozyme, myoglobin, and glucose oxidase) from 150 mM phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solutions. Protein concentration ranges of ~2 to 100 μg mL(-1) were employed and the recovery characteristics determined through UV-Vis absorbance spectrophotometry for protein quantification. The protein loading capacities across the range of proteins was ~1.5 μg for the 5 mg fiber tips. Average recoveries from PBS were determined for each protein sample; cytochrome c ~86%, lysozyme ~80%, myoglobin ~86%, and glucose oxidase ~89%. Recoveries from more complex matrices, synthetic urine and synthetic saliva, were determined to be ~90%. A 10× dilution study for a fixed 1 μg protein application yielded 94 ± 3.2% recoveries. The C-CP tips provided significantly higher recoveries for myoglobin in a 150 mM PBS matrix in comparison to a commercially available protein SPE product, with the added advantages of low cost, rapid processing, and reusability.

  14. Identification of early salt stress responsive proteins in seedling roots of upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) employing iTRAQ-based proteomic technique

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wu; Zhao, Fu'an; Fang, Weiping; Xie, Deyi; Hou, Jianan; Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Yuanming; Tang, Zhongjie; Nie, Lihong; Lv, Shuping

    2015-01-01

    Soil salinity is a major abiotic stress that limits plant growth and agricultural productivity. Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is highly tolerant to salinity; however, large-scale proteomic data of cotton in response to salt stress are still scant. Here, an isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic technique was employed to identify the early differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) from salt-treated cotton roots. One hundred and twenty-eight DEPs were identified, 76 of which displayed increased abundance and 52 decreased under salt stress conditions. The majority of the proteins have functions related to carbohydrate and energy metabolism, transcription, protein metabolism, cell wall and cytoskeleton metabolism, membrane and transport, signal transduction, in addition to stress and defense. It is worth emphasizing that some novel salt-responsive proteins were identified, which are involved in cell cytoskeleton metabolism (actin-related protein2, ARP2, and fasciclin-like arabinogalactan proteins, FLAs), membrane transport (tonoplast intrinsic proteins, TIPs, and plasma membrane intrinsic proteins, PIPs), signal transduction (leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase encoding genes, LRR-RLKs) and stress responses (thaumatin-like protein, TLP, universal stress protein, USP, dirigent-like protein, DIR, desiccation-related protein PCC13-62). High positive correlation between the abundance of some altered proteins (superoxide dismutase, SOD, peroxidase, POD, glutathione S-transferase, GST, monodehydroascorbate reductase, MDAR, and malate dehydrogenase, MDH) and their enzyme activity was evaluated. The results demonstrate that the iTRAQ-based proteomic technique is reliable for identifying and quantifying a large number of cotton root proteins. qRT-PCR was used to study the gene expression levels of the five above-mentioned proteins; four patterns are consistent with those of induced protein. These results showed that the proteome

  15. Employment of colorimetric enzyme assay for monitoring expression and solubility of GST fusion proteins targeted to inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Mačinković, Igor S; Abughren, Mohamed; Mrkic, Ivan; Grozdanović, Milica M; Prodanović, Radivoje; Gavrović-Jankulović, Marija

    2013-12-01

    High levels of recombinant protein expression can lead to the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. These complex aggregates are commonly solubilized in strong denaturants, such as 6-8M urea, although, if possible, solubilization under milder conditions could facilitate subsequent refolding and purification of bioactive proteins. Commercially available GST-tag assays are designed for quantitative measurement of GST activity under native conditions. GST fusion proteins accumulated in inclusion bodies are considered to be undetectable by such assays. In this work, solubilization of recombinantly produced proteins was performed in 4M urea. The activity of rGST was assayed in 2M urea and it was shown that rGST preserves 85% of its activity under such denaturing conditions. A colorimetric GST activity assay with 1-chloro-2, 4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) was examined for use in rapid detection of expression targeted to inclusion bodies and for the identification of inclusion body proteins which can be solubilized in low concentrations of chaotropic agents. Applicability of the assay was evaluated by tracking protein expression of two GST-fused allergens of biopharmaceutical value in E. coli, GST-Der p 2 and GST-Mus a 5, both targeted to inclusion bodies.

  16. Simultaneous photometric determination of albumin and total protein in animal blood plasma employing a multicommutated flow system to carried out on line dilution and reagents solutions handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luca, Gilmara C.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2004-02-01

    An automatic flow procedure for the simultaneous determination of albumin and total protein in blood plasma samples is proposed. The flow network comprised a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement the multicommutation. The flow set up was controlled by means of a computer equipped with an electronic interface card which running a software wrote in QUICKBASIC 4.5 performed on line programmed dilution to allow the determination of both albumin and total protein in blood plasma. The photometric methods based on Bromocresol Green and Biuret reagents were selected for determination of albumin and total protein, respectively. Two LEDs based photometers coupled together the flow cells were employed as detector. After the adjustment of the operational parameters the proposed system presented the following features: an analytical throughput of 45 sample processing per hour for two analytes; relative standard deviations of 1.5 and 0.8% ( n=10) for a typical sample presenting 34 g l -1 albumin and 90 g l -1 total protein, respectively; linear responses ranging from 0 to 15 g l -1 albumin ( r=0.998) and total protein ( r=0.999); sample and reagents consumption, 140 μl serum solution, 0.015 mg VBC and 0.432 mg CuSO 4 per determination, respectively. Applying the paired t-test between results obtained using the proposed system and reference methods no significant difference at 95 and 90% confidence level for albumin and total protein, respectively, were observed.

  17. Simultaneous photometric determination of albumin and total protein in animal blood plasma employing a multicommutated flow system to carried out on line dilution and reagents solutions handling.

    PubMed

    Luca, Gilmara C; Reis, Boaventura F

    2004-02-01

    An automatic flow procedure for the simultaneous determination of albumin and total protein in blood plasma samples is proposed. The flow network comprised a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement the multicommutation. The flow set up was controlled by means of a computer equipped with an electronic interface card which running a software wrote in QUICKBASIC 4.5 performed on line programmed dilution to allow the determination of both albumin and total protein in blood plasma. The photometric methods based on Bromocresol Green and Biuret reagents were selected for determination of albumin and total protein, respectively. Two LEDs based photometers coupled together the flow cells were employed as detector. After the adjustment of the operational parameters the proposed system presented the following features: an analytical throughput of 45 sample processing per hour for two analytes; relative standard deviations of 1.5 and 0.8% (n=10) for a typical sample presenting 34 g l(-1) albumin and 90 g l(-1) total protein, respectively; linear responses ranging from 0 to 15 g l(-1) albumin (r=0.998) and total protein (r=0.999); sample and reagents consumption, 140 microl serum solution, 0.015 mg VBC and 0.432 mg CuSO4 per determination, respectively. Applying the paired t-test between results obtained using the proposed system and reference methods no significant difference at 95 and 90% confidence level for albumin and total protein, respectively, were observed.

  18. Heat shock protein 70 kDa chaperone/DnaJ cochaperone complex employs an unusual dynamic interface.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Atta; Bhattacharya, Akash; McDonald, Ramsay A; Cordes, Melissa; Ellington, Benjamin; Bertelsen, Eric B; Zuiderweg, Erik R P

    2011-11-22

    The heat shock protein 70 kDa (Hsp70)/DnaJ/nucleotide exchange factor system assists in intracellular protein (re)folding. Using solution NMR, we obtained a three-dimensional structure for a 75-kDa Hsp70-DnaJ complex in the ADP state, loaded with substrate peptide. We establish that the J domain (residues 1-70) binds with its positively charged helix II to a negatively charged loop in the Hsp70 nucleotide-binding domain. The complex shows an unusual "tethered" binding mode which is stoichiometric and saturable, but which has a dynamic interface. The complex represents part of a triple complex of Hsp70 and DnaJ both bound to substrate protein. Mutagenesis data indicate that the interface is also of relevance for the interaction of Hsp70 and DnaJ in the ATP state. The solution complex is completely different from a crystal structure of a disulfide-linked complex of homologous proteins [Jiang, et al. (2007) Mol Cell 28:422-433].

  19. Role of endometrial cancer abnormal MMR protein in screening Lynch-syndrome families

    PubMed Central

    Long, Qiongxian; Peng, Yong; Tang, Zhirong; Wu, Cailiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify patients with endometrial cancer with potential Lynch-related DNA mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression defects and to explore the role of these defects in screening for LS. Methods: Endometrial cancers from 173 patients recruited to the Nanchong Central Hospital were tested for MMR (MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6) protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC). Results: In the 173 tumor tissue samples, the expression loss rates of MSH6, MSH2, PMS2 and MLH1 protein were 16.18% (28/173), 12.14% (21/173), 7.51% (13/173) and 5.78% (10/173), respectively. The total loss rate of MMR protein was 29.89% (27/87). There were 19 patients with a family history of cancer, of which 18 patients demonstrated loss of expression of MMR protein. In the 22 abnormal MMR patients without family history, five families were found to have Lynch-associated cancer (colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, ovarian cancer, stomach cancer) after follow-up for two years. Conclusion: MMR proteins play an important role in the progress of endometrial cancer. The routine testing of MMR proteins in endometrial cancer can contribute to the screening of LS families, especially small families. PMID:25400828

  20. The maize tapetum employs diverse mechanisms to synthesize and store proteins and flavonoids and transfer them to the pollen surface.

    PubMed

    Li, Yubing; Suen, Der Fen; Huang, Chien-Yu; Kung, Shung-Yee; Huang, Anthony H C

    2012-04-01

    In anthers, the tapetum synthesizes and stores proteins and flavonoids, which will be transferred to the surface of adjacent microspores. The mechanism of synthesis, storage, and transfer of these pollen-coat materials in maize (Zea mays) differs completely from that reported in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which stores major pollen-coat materials in tapetosomes and elaioplasts. On maize pollen, three proteins, glucanase, xylanase, and a novel protease, Zea mays pollen coat protease (ZmPCP), are predominant. During anther development, glucanase and xylanase transcripts appeared at a mid developmental stage, whereas protease transcript emerged at a late developmental stage. Protease and xylanase transcripts were present only in the anther tapetum of the plant, whereas glucanase transcript was distributed ubiquitously. ZmPCP belongs to the cysteine protease family but has no closely related paralogs. Its nascent polypeptide has a putative amino-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting peptide and a propeptide. All three proteins were synthesized in the tapetum and were present on mature pollen after tapetum death. Electron microscopy of tapetum cells of mid to late developmental stages revealed small vacuoles distributed throughout the cytoplasm and numerous secretory vesicles concentrated near the locular side. Immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation localized glucanase in ER-derived vesicles in the cytoplasm and the wall facing the locule, xylanase in the cytosol, protease in vacuoles, and flavonoids in subdomains of ER rather than in vacuoles. The nonoverlapping subcellular locations of the three proteins and flavonoids indicate distinct modes of their storage in tapetum cells and transfer to the pollen surface, which in turn reflect their respective functions in tapetum cells or the pollen surface. PMID:22291199

  1. Employment of a porous gold actuator in ISFET-based coulometric sensor-actuator systems with application to protein characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jiang

    1993-01-01

    Technological and theoretical aspects of the development and application of ISFET based coulometric sensor-actuator systems are described. An application of such a system to the characterization of proteins is suggested. Diffusion and migration processes at the coulometric sensor-actuator systems with a planar actuator in the application of acid base titration were studied. To minimize the delay time and to limit the diffusion of the species, a porous noble metal actuator is proposed, instead of a planar one, closely covering the gate of the ISFET. The adaptation of the conventional ISFET technology, by which a flat ISFET is proposed and fabricated, is described. An analytical model to describe the developed ISFET based coulometric sensor-actuator systems with gate-covering porous actuator is proposed. A way to operate the developed coulometric sensor-actuator system for a dynamical measurement of the buffer capacity of an analyte is introduced. The buffer capacity as a distinct parameter to characterize proteins was measured. The preliminary results obtained from the measurement of lysozyme and ribonuclease showed different buffer capacities at different pH values. More studies are necessary to further investigate the applicability of this method to characterize proteins.

  2. Targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring on quantitative changes in proteins that regulate volatile biosynthesis of strawberry fruit at different ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Forney, Charles F; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-08-01

    A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM, SRM) technique was conducted on strawberry fruit at different development stages. We investigated 22 proteins and isoforms from 32 peptides with 111 peptide transitions, which may be involved in the volatile aroma biosynthesis pathway. The normalized protein abundance was significantly changed in coincidence with increased volatile production and advanced fruit maturities. Among them, alcohol acyltransferase (AAT), quinone oxidoreductase (QR), malonyl Co-A decarboxylase, (MLYCD), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), acetyl Co-A carboxylase (ACCase), and acyl Co-A synthetase (ACAs) were increased significantly. Several alcohol dehydrogenases (ADHs), and 3-oxoacyl-ACP synthase were significantly decreased. Furthermore, the expression of seven genes related to strawberry volatile production was also investigated using real-time qPCR. Among the tested genes, QR, AAT, ACCase, OMT, PDC and ADH showed increased up-regulation during fruit ripening, while 3-isopropylmalate dehydrogenase (IMD) decreased. Strong correlation between quantitative proteomic data and gene expression suggested that AAT, QR, ACCase, and PDC played critical roles in volatile biosynthesis of strawberry during fruit ripening. Poor correlation between protein abundance and gene expression of ADH was found.

  3. Engaging Employers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillier, Yvonne

    2008-01-01

    A key factor in the successful development of workplace learning is employer engagement (Leitch, 2006; DfES, 2007). However, despite numerous approaches by government in the United Kingdom to bring together employers, providers and learners so that economic success is generated by a skilled and flexible workforce, there continue to be challenges…

  4. Maternal Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Sam

    1975-01-01

    The overwhelming evidence from years of research is that maternal employment, by itself, has little influence on the behaviors of children. More relevant issues are: mother's reasons for working, family's acceptance of mother's employment, quality of substitute child care, family's social and emotional health, and economic conditions. (Author/AJ)

  5. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change from an industry perspective over the 2008-2018 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment in which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  6. Industry Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This article illustrates projected employment change by industry and industry sector over 2010-20 decade. Workers are grouped into an industry according to the type of good produced or service provided by the establishment for which they work. Industry employment projections are shown in terms of numeric change (growth or decline in the total…

  7. Isolation and Characterization of Two Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Genes Encoding Homologs of the Bacterial Hexa and Muts Mismatch Repair Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Reenan, R. A.; Kolodner, R. D.

    1992-01-01

    Homologs of the Escherichia coli (mutL, S and uvrD) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (hexA, B) genes involved in mismatch repair are known in several distantly related organisms. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers based on conserved regions of E. coli MutS protein and its homologs from Salmonella typhimurium, S. pneumoniae and human were used in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to amplify and clone mutS/hexA homologs from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Two DNA sequences were amplified whose deduced amino acid sequences both shared a high degree of homology with MutS. These sequences were then used to clone the full-length genes from a yeast genomic library. Sequence analysis of the two MSH genes (MSH = mutS homolog), MSH1 and MSH2, revealed open reading frames of 2877 bp and 2898 bp. The deduced amino acid sequences predict polypeptides of 109.3 kD and 109.1 kD, respectively. The overall amino acid sequence identity with the E. coli MutS protein is 28.6% for MSH1 and 25.2% for MSH2. Features previously found to be shared by MutS homologs, such as the nucleotide binding site and the helix-turn-helix DNA binding motif as well as other highly conserved regions whose function remain unknown, were also found in the two yeast homologs. Evidence presented in this and a companion study suggest that MSH1 is involved in repair of mitochondrial DNA and that MSH2 is involved in nuclear DNA repair. PMID:1459447

  8. Characterization of drug-protein binding process by employing equilibrium sampling through hollow-fiber supported liquid membrane and Bjerrum and Scatchard plots.

    PubMed

    Barri, Thaer; Trtić-Petrović, Tatjana; Karlsson, Michael; Jönsson, Jan Ake

    2008-09-10

    The technique equilibrium sampling through membrane (ESTM) was extended to measuring the free drug concentration in solutions of drug and protein. Bjerrum and Scatchard plots were employed for characterizing individual drug binding to pure human blood proteins. Four drugs were investigated as a model system: fluvoxamine and ropivacaine which dominantly bind to alpha-acid glycoprotein (AGP), and R,S-ibuprofen and S-ketoprofen which highly bind to human serum albumin (HSA). The level of drug binding to AGP and HSA relied on drug and protein concentrations. Bjerrum and Scatchard plots revealed high affinity constants (Ka) at low protein concentration. Both Bjerrum and Scatchard plots of fluvoxamine and ropivacaine binding to AGP showed one specific binding site (n1=1) with ropivacaine Ka value close to 5 times higher than the Ka of fluvoxamine at 22.9 microM AGP concentration. Bjerrum plots of ketoprofen and ibuprofen gave total number of binding sites or bound molecules of 6-7, which did not depend on the drug or protein concentration. Scatchard plots of ketoprofen and ibuprofen exhibited two binding sites (n1 and n2) at 0.15 microM and 0.75 microM HSA concentrations. On one hand, at 0.15 microM HSA, ketoprofen and ibuprofen were bound to site I at n1=1.2 and n1=1.0, respectively. However, at 0.75 microM HSA, ketoprofen and ibuprofen were bound to site I at n1=1.2 and n1=1.9, respectively. On the other hand, site II, at 0.15 microM HSA, interacted with ketoprofen and ibuprofen at n2=5.6 and 6.7, respectively. However, at 0.75 microM HSA, site II interacted with ketoprofen at n2=7.4 and ibuprofen at n2=6.2. It would be concluded that, upon mixing ketoprofen and ibuprofen in a HSA solution, a ketoprofen-ibuprofen interaction would most likely occur at site II in HSA. PMID:18565712

  9. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010

    2010-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This article shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change over the 2008-2018 decade. The…

  10. Occupational Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012

    2012-01-01

    When choosing a career, jobseekers often want to know which occupations offer the best prospects. Generally, occupations that have rapid job growth, many new jobs, or many job openings--and good wages--promise better opportunities. This paper shows how employment in particular occupations is projected to change from 2010 to 2020. It presents…

  11. Immunohistochemical expression pattern of MMR protein can specifically identify patients with colorectal cancer microsatellite instability.

    PubMed

    Amira, Arfaoui Toumi; Mouna, Trabelsi; Ahlem, Blel; Raoudha, Aloui; Majid, Ben Hmida; Amel, Hamza; Rachida, Zermani; Nadia, Kourdaa

    2014-07-01

    The microsatellite instability (MSI) pathway is found in most cases of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) and in 12 % of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). It involves inactivation of deoxyribonucleic acid mismatch repair (MMR) genes MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, and MSH6. MMR germline mutation detections are an important supplement to HNPCC clinical diagnosis. It enables at-risk and mutation-positive relatives to be informed about their cancer risks and to benefit from intensive surveillance programs that have been proven to reduce the incidence of CRC. In this study, we analyzed for the first time in Tunisia the potential value of immunohistochemical assessment of MMR protein to identify microsatellite instability in CRC. We evaluate by immunohistochemistry MMR protein expression loss in tumoral tissue compared to positive expression in normal mucosa. Immunohistochemistry revealed loss of expression for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 in 15, 21, 13, and 15 % of cases, respectively. Here, we report a more elevated frequency of MSI compared to data of the literature. In fact, by immunohistochemistry, 70 % of cases were shown to be MSS phenotype, whereas 30 % of cases, in our set, were instable. Moreover, according to molecular investigation, 71 % of cases were instable (MSI-H) and remaining cases were stable (29 %). Thus, we found a perfect association between MMR immunohistochemical analyses and MSI molecular investigation. Immunohistochemical analysis of MMR gene product expression may allow one to specifically identify MSI phenotype of patients with colorectal carcinomas.

  12. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the human mismatch repair protein MutS[beta

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Quincy; Orans, Jillian; Hast, Michael A.; Iyer, Ravi R.; Changela, Anita; Modrich, Paul L.; Beese, Lorena S.

    2012-03-16

    MutS{beta} is a eukaryotic mismatch repair protein that preferentially targets extrahelical unpaired nucleotides and shares partial functional redundancy with MutS{alpha} (MSH2-MSH6). Although mismatch recognition by MutS{alpha} has been shown to involve a conserved Phe-X-Glu motif, little is known about the lesion-binding mechanism of MutS{beta}. Combined MSH3/MSH6 deficiency triggers a strong predisposition to cancer in mice and defects in msh2 and msh6 account for roughly half of hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer mutations. These three MutS homologs are also believed to play a role in trinucleotide repeat instability, which is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative disorders. The baculovirus overexpression and purification of recombinant human MutS{beta} and three truncation mutants are presented here. Binding assays with heteroduplex DNA were carried out for biochemical characterization. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the protein bound to a heteroduplex DNA substrate are also reported.

  13. Potential To Streamline Heterologous DNA Prime and NYVAC/Protein Boost HIV Vaccine Regimens in Rhesus Macaques by Employing Improved Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Asbach, Benedikt; Kliche, Alexander; Köstler, Josef; Perdiguero, Beatriz; Esteban, Mariano; Jacobs, Bertram L.; Montefiori, David C.; LaBranche, Celia C.; Yates, Nicole L.; Tomaras, Georgia D.; Ferrari, Guido; Foulds, Kathryn E.; Roederer, Mario; Landucci, Gary; Forthal, Donald N.; Seaman, Michael S.; Hawkins, Natalie; Self, Steven G.; Sato, Alicia; Gottardo, Raphael; Phogat, Sanjay; Tartaglia, James; Barnett, Susan W.; Burke, Brian; Cristillo, Anthony D.; Weiss, Deborah E.; Francis, Jesse; Galmin, Lindsey; Ding, Song; Heeney, Jonathan L.; Pantaleo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In a follow-up to the modest efficacy observed in the RV144 trial, researchers in the HIV vaccine field seek to substantiate and extend the results by evaluating other poxvirus vectors and combinations with DNA and protein vaccines. Earlier clinical trials (EuroVacc trials 01 to 03) evaluated the immunogenicity of HIV-1 clade C GagPolNef and gp120 antigens delivered via the poxviral vector NYVAC. These showed that a vaccination regimen including DNA-C priming prior to a NYVAC-C boost considerably enhanced vaccine-elicited immune responses compared to those with NYVAC-C alone. Moreover, responses were improved by using three as opposed to two DNA-C primes. In the present study, we assessed in nonhuman primates whether such vaccination regimens can be streamlined further by using fewer and accelerated immunizations and employing a novel generation of improved DNA-C and NYVAC-C vaccine candidates designed for higher expression levels and more balanced immune responses. Three different DNA-C prime/NYVAC-C+ protein boost vaccination regimens were tested in rhesus macaques. All regimens elicited vigorous and well-balanced CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses that were broad and polyfunctional. Very high IgG binding titers, substantial antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and modest antibody-dependent cell-mediated virus inhibition (ADCVI), but very low neutralization activity, were measured after the final immunizations. Overall, immune responses elicited in all three groups were very similar and of greater magnitude, breadth, and quality than those of earlier EuroVacc vaccines. In conclusion, these findings indicate that vaccination schemes can be simplified by using improved antigens and regimens. This may offer a more practical and affordable means to elicit potentially protective immune responses upon vaccination, especially in resource-constrained settings. IMPORTANCE Within the EuroVacc clinical trials, we previously assessed the immunogenicity of

  14. Alterations of DNA mismatch repair proteins and microsatellite instability levels in gastric cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yuan; Tao, Hong; Kim, Jae J; Burkhead, Benjamin; Carloni, Emilia; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Sepulveda, Antonia R

    2004-07-01

    Alterations in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins result in microsatellite instability (MSI), increased mutation accumulation at target genes and cancer development. About one-third of gastric cancers display high-level microsatellite instability (MSI-High) and low-level microsatellite instability (MSI-Low) is frequently detected. To determine whether variations in the levels of MMR proteins or mutations in the main DNA MMR genes are associated with MSI-Low and MSI-High in gastric cancer cell lines, the MSI status (MSI-High, MSI-Low or MS-Stable (MSS)) of 14 gastric cancer lines was determined using multiple clone analysis with a panel of five microsatellite markers. Protein levels of hMLH1, hMSH2, hMSH6, hPMS2 and hPMS1 were determined by Western blot. Sequence analysis of hMLH1 and hMSH2 was performed and the methylation status of the hMLH1 promoter was examined. The cell lines SNU1 and SNU638 showed MSI-High, decreased to essentially absent hMLH1 and hPMS2 and reduced hPMS1 and hMSH6 protein levels. The hMLH1 promoter region was hypermethylated in SNU638 cells. The MKN28, MKN87, KATOIII and SNU601 cell lines showed MSI-Low. The MMR protein levels of cells with MSI-Low status was similar to the levels detected in MSS cells. A marked decrease in the expression levels of MutL MMR proteins (hMLH1, hPMS2 and hPMS1) is associated with high levels of MSI mutations in gastric cancer cells. Gastric cancer cell lines with MSI-Low status do not show significant changes in the levels of the main DNA MMR proteins or mutations in the DNA mismatch repair genes hMSH2 and hMLH1. These well-characterized gastric cancer cell lines are a valuable resource to further our understanding of DNA MMR deficiency in cancer development, progression and prognosis. PMID:15133479

  15. Human Coronavirus HKU1 Spike Protein Uses O-Acetylated Sialic Acid as an Attachment Receptor Determinant and Employs Hemagglutinin-Esterase Protein as a Receptor-Destroying Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xingchuan; Dong, Wenjuan; Milewska, Aleksandra; Golda, Anna; Qi, Yonghe; Zhu, Quan K.; Marasco, Wayne A.; Baric, Ralph S.; Sims, Amy C.; Pyrc, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    group 2a CoVs, sialic acid moieties on glycoproteins are critical receptor determinants for the hCoV-HKU1 infection. Interestingly, the virus seems to employ a type of sialic acid different from those employed by other group 2a CoVs. In addition, we determined that the HKU1-HE protein is an O-acetylesterase and acts as a receptor-destroying enzyme (RDE) for hCoV-HKU1. This is the first study to demonstrate that hCoV-HKU1 uses certain types of O-acetylated sialic acid residues on glycoproteins to initiate the infection of host cells and that the HKU1-HE protein possesses sialate-O-acetylesterase RDE activity. PMID:25926653

  16. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods. PMID:26513483

  17. Food safety knowledge on the Bt mutant protein Cry8Ka5 employed in the development of coleopteran-resistant transgenic cotton plants.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi F; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Carvalho, Ana F U

    2015-01-01

    Insecticidal Cry proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have been exploited in the development of genetically modified (GM) crops for pest control. However, several pests are still difficult to control such as the coleopteran boll weevil Anthonomus grandis. By applying in vitro molecular evolution to the cry8Ka1 gene sequence, variants were generated with improved activity against A. grandis. Among them, Cry8Ka5 mutant protein showed coleoptericidal activity 3-fold higher (LC50 2.83 μg/mL) than that of the original protein (Cry8Ka1). Cry8Ka5 has been used in breeding programs in order to obtain coleopteran-resistant cotton plants. Nevertheless, there is some concern in relation to the food safety of transgenic crops, especially to the heterologously expressed proteins. In this context, our research group has performed risk assessment studies on Cry8Ka5, using the tests recommended by Codex as well as tests that we proposed as alternative and/or complementary approaches. Our results on the risk analysis of Cry8Ka5 taken together with those of other Cry proteins, point out that there is a high degree of certainty on their food safety. It is reasonable to emphasize that most safety studies on Cry proteins have essentially used the Codex approach. However, other methodologies would potentially provide additional information such as studies on the effects of Cry proteins and derived peptides on the indigenous gastrointestinal microbiota and on intestinal epithelial cells of humans. Additionally, emerging technologies such as toxicogenomics potentially will offer sensitive alternatives for some current approaches or methods.

  18. Evaluating Employability Skills: Employer and Student Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Venetia; Zuzel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Graduate employability is a key issue for Higher Education. In this two-part study student employability skills have been evaluated from the perspective of sandwich students and graduates in biomolecular science, and their employers. A strong correlation was found between employer and sandwich student/graduate perceptions of the relative…

  19. The Maize Tapetum Employs Diverse Mechanisms to Synthesize and Store Proteins and Flavonoids and Transfer Them to the Pollen Surface1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yubing; Suen, Der Fen; Huang, Chien-Yu; Kung, Shung-Yee; Huang, Anthony H.C.

    2012-01-01

    In anthers, the tapetum synthesizes and stores proteins and flavonoids, which will be transferred to the surface of adjacent microspores. The mechanism of synthesis, storage, and transfer of these pollen-coat materials in maize (Zea mays) differs completely from that reported in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), which stores major pollen-coat materials in tapetosomes and elaioplasts. On maize pollen, three proteins, glucanase, xylanase, and a novel protease, Zea mays pollen coat protease (ZmPCP), are predominant. During anther development, glucanase and xylanase transcripts appeared at a mid developmental stage, whereas protease transcript emerged at a late developmental stage. Protease and xylanase transcripts were present only in the anther tapetum of the plant, whereas glucanase transcript was distributed ubiquitously. ZmPCP belongs to the cysteine protease family but has no closely related paralogs. Its nascent polypeptide has a putative amino-terminal endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-targeting peptide and a propeptide. All three proteins were synthesized in the tapetum and were present on mature pollen after tapetum death. Electron microscopy of tapetum cells of mid to late developmental stages revealed small vacuoles distributed throughout the cytoplasm and numerous secretory vesicles concentrated near the locular side. Immunofluorescence microscopy and subcellular fractionation localized glucanase in ER-derived vesicles in the cytoplasm and the wall facing the locule, xylanase in the cytosol, protease in vacuoles, and flavonoids in subdomains of ER rather than in vacuoles. The nonoverlapping subcellular locations of the three proteins and flavonoids indicate distinct modes of their storage in tapetum cells and transfer to the pollen surface, which in turn reflect their respective functions in tapetum cells or the pollen surface. PMID:22291199

  20. Epilepsy and employment--employers' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Cooper, M

    1995-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the possible causes of employment difficulties amongst people with epilepsy by interviewing employers. It was hoped that the outcome of the study would complement the research already carried out in this field by concentrating on the attitudes and policies of employers. Due to the time limit it was decided that a small number (five) of local employers should be approached requesting an interview. The employers were randomly selected but were all large companies within varying industries. All employers approached agreed to participate in the study and interviews were arranged with welfare recruitment staff. The interviews were limited to 45 minutes and concentrated on three main issues for discussion: disclosure, unemployment and improved relationship between employers and people with epilepsy. The outcome of the interviews was that the employers appeared to be rather unaware of the employment problems faced by people with epilepsy. As epilepsy is generally not a registered disability employers are unable to monitor their company's recruitment and promotion methods. It seems that line managers are left to decide on the employment of people with epilepsy often without even general awareness training on equal opportunities. Consequently their need to meet targets and their personal attitude to epilepsy determine the employment chances for people with epilepsy. Only with legislations protecting the interests of people with epilepsy can the unemployment figures be brought in line with the general population.

  1. Formation of C-terminally truncated version of the Taz1 protein employs cleavage-box structure in mRNA

    SciTech Connect

    Gunisova, Stanislava; Bartosova, Zdenka; Kramara, Juraj; Nosek, Jozef; Tomaska, Lubomir

    2010-02-12

    When expressed in various hosts the taz1{sup +} gene encoding the fission yeast telomere-binding protein produces two forms of polypeptides: full-length (Taz1p) and truncated (Taz1p{Delta}C) version lacking almost entire Myb-domain. Whereas Taz1p binds telomeric DNA in vitro, Taz1p{Delta}C forms long filaments unable of DNA binding. The formation of Taz1p{Delta}C is a result of neither site-specific proteolysis, nor premature termination of transcription. In silico analysis of the taz1{sup +} RNA transcript revealed a stem-loop structure at the site of cleavage (cleavage box; CB). In order to explore whether it possesses inherent destabilizing effects, we cloned CB sequence into the open reading frame (ORF) of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and observed that when expressed in Escherichia coli the engineered gene produced two forms of the reporter protein. The formation of the truncated version of GST was abolished, when CB was replaced with recoded sequence containing synonymous codons thus indicating that the truncation is based on structural properties of taz1{sup +} mRNA.

  2. Mitotic crossovers between diverged sequences are regulated by mismatch repair proteins in Saccaromyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Datta, A; Adjiri, A; New, L; Crouse, G F; Jinks Robertson, S

    1996-01-01

    Mismatch repair systems correct replication- and recombination-associated mispaired bases and influence the stability of simple repeats. These systems thus serve multiple roles in maintaining genetic stability in eukaryotes, and human mismatch repair defects have been associated with hereditary predisposition to cancer. In prokaryotes, mismatch repair systems also have been shown to limit recombination between diverged (homologous) sequences. We have developed a unique intron-based assay system to examine the effects of yeast mismatch repair genes (PMS1, MSH2, and MSH3) on crossovers between homologous sequences. We find that the apparent antirecombination effects of mismatch repair proteins in mitosis are related to the degree of substrate divergence. Defects in mismatch repair can elevate homologous recombination between 91% homologous substrates as much as 100-fold while having only modest effects on recombination between 77% homologous substrates. These observations have implications for genome stability and general mechanisms of recombination in eukaryotes. PMID:8622653

  3. Preparing Youth for Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    A four-year study examined the nature and policy implications of school and employer practices to help youth prepare for employment. Data for the study were compiled from a telephone survey of 3,500 employers; a mail survey of 750 employers from across the country; 493 employers, 71 teachers, and 1,565 students from 5 major U.S. cities who…

  4. Changes in antibody avidity after virus infections: detection by an immunosorbent assay in which a mild protein-denaturing agent is employed.

    PubMed

    Inouye, S; Hasegawa, A; Matsuno, S; Katow, S

    1984-09-01

    In titrating serum immunoglobulin G antibody to viruses by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we used two rows of wells for serial twofold dilutions of the serum; in one row, a low concentration of a protein denaturant, 0.5 or 1.0 M guanidine hydrochloride, was added to the diluent so that the binding of low-avidity antibodies to viral antigens on the solid phase was inhibited. We then compared the antibody titration curves obtained in the two rows. We found that the addition of the reagent resulted in a parallel leftward shift of the curves and that the extent of the shift was greater in early than in late sera from all of the three infections studied (Japanese encephalitis virus, rotavirus, and rubella virus infections). This procedure may be useful for estimation of the avidity of antibody in serum and, with further evaluation, may prove to be applicable to single-serum diagnosis of virus infections.

  5. Effective epitope identification employing phylogenetic, mutational variability, sequence entropy, and correlated mutation analysis targeting NS5B protein of hepatitis C virus: from bioinformatics to therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Rohan J; Gacche, Rajesh N

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is considered as a foremost cause affecting numerous human liver-related disorders. An effective immuno-prophylactic measure (like stable vaccine) is still unavailable for HCV. We perform an in silico analysis of nonstructural protein 5B (NS5B) based CD4 and CD8 epitopes that might be implicated in improvement of treatment strategies for efficient vaccine development programs against HCV. Here, we report on effective utilization of knowledge obtained from multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis for investigation and evaluation of candidate epitopes that have enormous potential to be used in formulating proficient vaccine, embracing multiple strains prevalent among major geographical locations. Mutational variability data discussed herein focus on discriminating the region under active evolutionary pressure from those having lower mutational potential in existing experimentally verified epitopes, thus, providing a concrete framework for designing an effective peptide-based vaccine against HCV. Additionally, we measured entropy distribution in NS5B residues and pinpoint the positions in epitopes that are more susceptible to mutations and, thus, account for virus strategy to evade the host immune system. Findings from this study are expected to add more details on the sequence and structural aspects of NS5B protein, ultimately facilitating our understanding about the pathophysiology of HCV and assisting advance studies on the function of NS5B antigen on the epitope level. We also report on the mutational crosstalk between functionally important coevolving residues, using correlated mutation analysis, and identify networks of coupled mutations that represent pathways of allosteric communication inside and among NS5B thumb, finger, and palm domains. PMID:25727409

  6. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  7. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  8. Identification of a site in the phosphocarrier protein, HPr, which influences its interactions with sugar permeases of the bacterial phosphotransferase system: kinetic analyses employing site-specific mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Koch, S; Sutrina, S L; Wu, L F; Reizer, J; Schnetz, K; Rak, B; Saier, M H

    1996-01-01

    The permeases of the Escherichia coli phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS), the sugar-specific enzymes II, are energized by sequential phosphoryl transfer from phosphoenolpyruvate to (i) enzyme I, (ii) the phosphocarrier protein HPr, (iii) the enzyme IIA domains of the permeases, and (iv) the enzyme IIBC domains of the permeases which transport and phosphorylate their sugar substrates. A number of site-specific mutants of HPr were examined by using kinetic approaches. Most of the mutations exerted minimal effects on the kinetic parameters characterizing reactions involving phosphoryl transfer from phospho-HPr to various sugars. However, when the well-conserved aspartyl 69 residue in HPr was changed to a glutamyl residue, the affinities for phospho-HPr of the enzymes II specific for mannitol, N-acetylglucosamine, and beta-glucosides decreased markedly without changing the maximal reaction rates. The same mutation reduced the spontaneous rate of phosphohistidyl HPr hydrolysis but did not appear to alter the rate of phosphoryl transfer from phospho-enzyme I to HPr. When the adjacent glutamyl residue 70 in HPr was changed to a lysyl residue, the Vmax values of the reactions catalyzed by the enzymes II were reduced, but the Km values remained unaltered. Changing this residue to alanine exerted little effect. Site-specific alterations in the C terminus of the beta-glucoside enzyme II which reduced the maximal reaction rate of phosphoryl transfer about 20-fold did not alter the relative kinetic parameters because of the aforementioned mutations in HPr. Published three-dimensional structural analyses of HPr and the complex of HPr with the glucose-specific enzyme IIA (IIAGlc) (homologous to the beta-glucoside and N-acetylglucosamine enzyme IIA domains) have revealed that residues 69 and 70 in HPr are distant from the active phosphorylation site and the IIAGlc binding interface in HPr. The results reported therefore suggest that residues D-69 and E-70 in

  9. Borrelia recurrentis Employs a Novel Multifunctional Surface Protein with Anti-Complement, Anti-Opsonic and Invasive Potential to Escape Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Grosskinsky, Sonja; Schott, Melanie; Brenner, Christiane; Cutler, Sally J.; Kraiczy, Peter; Zipfel, Peter F.; Simon, Markus M.; Wallich, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    Borrelia recurrentis, the etiologic agent of louse-borne relapsing fever in humans, has evolved strategies, including antigenic variation, to evade immune defence, thereby causing severe diseases with high mortality rates. Here we identify for the first time a multifunctional surface lipoprotein of B. recurrentis, termed HcpA, and demonstrate that it binds human complement regulators, Factor H, CFHR-1, and simultaneously, the host protease plasminogen. Cell surface bound factor H was found to retain its activity and to confer resistance to complement attack. Moreover, ectopic expression of HcpA in a B. burgdorferi B313 strain, deficient in Factor H binding proteins, protected the transformed spirochetes from complement-mediated killing. Furthermore, HcpA-bound plasminogen/plasmin endows B. recurrentis with the potential to resist opsonization and to degrade extracellular matrix components. Together, the present study underscores the high virulence potential of B. recurrentis. The elucidation of the molecular basis underlying the versatile strategies of B. recurrentis to escape innate immunity and to persist in human tissues, including the brain, may help to understand the pathological processes underlying louse-borne relapsing fever. PMID:19308255

  10. Complete protection against P. berghei malaria upon heterologous prime/boost immunization against circumsporozoite protein employing Salmonella type III secretion system and Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid.

    PubMed

    Tartz, Susanne; Rüssmann, Holger; Kamanova, Jana; Sebo, Peter; Sturm, Angelika; Heussler, Volker; Fleischer, Bernhard; Jacobs, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Sterile immunity against malaria can be achieved by the induction of IFNgamma-producing CD8(+) T cells that target infected hepatocytes presenting epitopes of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). In the present study we evaluate the protective efficacy of a heterologous prime/boost immunization protocol based on the delivery of the CD8(+) epitope of Plasmodium berghei CSP into the MHC class I presentation pathway, by either a type III secretion system of live recombinant Salmonella and/or by direct translocation of a recombinant Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxoid fusion (ACT-CSP) into the cytosol of professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs). A single intraperitoneal application of the recombinant ACT-CSP toxoid, as well as a single oral immunization with the Salmonella vaccine, induced a specific CD8(+) T cell response, which however conferred only a partial protection on mice against a subsequent sporozoite challenge. In contrast, a heterologous prime/boost vaccination with the live Salmonella followed by ACT-CSP led to a significant enhancement of the CSP-specific T cell response and induced complete protection in all vaccinated mice.

  11. High-throughput profiling of protein N-glycosylation by MALDI-TOF-MS employing linkage-specific sialic acid esterification.

    PubMed

    Reiding, Karli R; Blank, Dennis; Kuijper, Dennis M; Deelder, André M; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2014-06-17

    Protein glycosylation is an important post-translational modification associated, among others, with diseases and the efficacy of biopharmaceuticals. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-fight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) can be performed to study glycosylation in a high-throughput manner, but is hampered by the instability and ionization bias experienced by sialylated glycan species. Stabilization and neutralization of these sialic acids can be achieved by permethylation or by specific carboxyl group derivatization with the possibility of discrimination between α2,3- and α2,6-linked sialic acids. However, these methods typically require relatively pure glycan samples, show sensitivity to side reactions, and need harsh conditions or long reaction times. We established a rapid, robust and linkage-specific high-throughput method for sialic acid stabilization and MALDI-TOF-MS analysis, to allow direct modification of impure glycan-containing mixtures such as PNGase F-released human plasma N-glycome. Using a combination of carboxylic acid activators in ethanol achieved near-complete ethyl esterification of α2,6-linked sialic acids and lactonization of α2,3-linked variants, in short time using mild conditions. Glycans were recovered by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography solid phase extraction and analyzed by MALDI-TOF-MS in reflectron positive mode with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as the matrix substance. Analysis of the human plasma N-glycome allowed high-throughput detection and relative quantitation of more than 100 distinct N-glycan compositions with varying sialic acid linkages. PMID:24831253

  12. Development of a model for functional studies of ABCG2 (breast cancer resistance protein) efflux employing a standard BeWo clone (B24).

    PubMed

    Crowe, Andrew; Keelan, Jeffrey A

    2012-10-01

    Human choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells express high levels of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) with no functional P-glycoprotein (P-gp) (ABCB1) activity, making them a potential model to study bidirectional ABCG2-mediated drug transport. However, the original BeWo clone (B24) available to researchers does not form confluent monolayers with tight junctions required by the model. Our aim was to adapt culture conditions to attempt to generate confluent BeWo monolayers for drug transport studies using the standard B24 clone. BeWo cells (B24; American Type Culture collection [ATCC]) were cultured in six-well plates or polycarbonate millicell inserts in a number of media formulations, growth supplements, and basement membrane substitutes. Cells were examined for confluence by microscopy, and transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was measured daily; monolayer permeability was assessed when TEER had stabilized. Optimal growth rates were achieved in culture conditions consisting of Medium 199 (M199) supplemented with epidermal growth factor (EGF; 20 ng/mL), vitamin supplements, and 10% fetal calf serum (FCS) with collagen coating. A TEER of 170 Ω in 0.6 cm(2) inserts was achieved 2 weeks after seeding under optimal conditions. The cell-impermeable diffusion marker 5(6) carboxy-2,7dichlorodihydrofluorescein (C-DCDHF) had a permeability coefficient of 3.5×10(-6) cm/s, indicative of minimal paracellular permeability. ABCG2 expression, as determined by immunoblotting, remained unaffected by confluency. In conclusion, we describe culture conditions for the B24 BeWo clone that facilitate the formation of monolayers with tighter junctions and reduced paracellular transport compared to previously published models. These growth conditions provide a good model of ABCG2-mediated drug transport in a human placental cell line.

  13. Employing Discourse: Universities and Graduate "Employability"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Rebecca; Nedeva, Maria

    2010-01-01

    What constitutes graduate employability is discursively framed. In this paper we argue that whilst universities in the UK have long had an involvement in producing useful and productive citizens, the ongoing neoliberalisation of higher education has engendered a discursive shift in definitions of employability. Traditionally, universities regarded…

  14. Employers' Views on Youth Literacy and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macey, Emma

    2013-01-01

    This report looks at whether employers think schools are equipping young people with the literacy skills required for the workplace. It is primarily based on secondary literature sources and introductory conversations with a small sample of key employers and agencies. A complementary report presents evidence on young people's views on literacy and…

  15. Employer's Manual on Affirmative Action in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kentucky State Commission on Human Rights, Frankfort.

    The express purpose of this manual is for its use by business and industry in Kentucky as an aid to eliminate discrimination. Affirmative action is defined here as a comprehensive effort by an employer designed to: employ women and minority persons where they are under-utilized; include minority persons and women in all facets of the company's…

  16. Illegal Aliens: Their Employment and Employers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiswick, Barry R.

    A study examined various characteristics of the employment of illegal aliens, including wages, job training, job mobility, workplace conditions, and employer characteristics. The study was largely based on data transcribed from a sample of Immigration and Naturalization Service apprehension reports on illegal aliens in the Chicago (Illinois)…

  17. Learning, Labour and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Malcolm J.

    2009-01-01

    Public policy in the UK has adopted employability to define the relationship of globalisation, work and learning. This article claims that employability serves the interests of capital. It helps capital to exercise its domination/hegemony over labour and employs a redefined vision of learning as its principal vehicle. Employability is a term that…

  18. Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Fred E.; Gooding, Karen M.

    Because of the complexity of cellular material and body fluids, it is seldom possible to analyze a natural product directly. Qualitative and quantitative analyses must often be preceded by some purification step that separates the molecular species being examined from interfering materials. In the case of proteins, column liquid chromatography has been used extensively for these fractionations. With the advent of gel permeation, cation exchange, anion exchange, hydrophobic, and affinity chromatography, it became possible to resolve proteins through their fundamental properties of size, charge, hydrophobicity, and biological affinity. The chromatographic separations used in the early isolation and characterization of many proteins later became analytical tools in their routine analysis. Unfortunately, these inherently simple and versatile column chromatographic techniques introduced in the 50s and 60s have a severe limitation in routine analysis-separation time. It is common to encounter 1-24 h separation times with the classical gel-type supports.

  19. Graduate Identity and Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinchliffe, Geoffrey William; Jolly, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper develops the concept of graduate identity as a way of deepening the understanding of graduate employability. It does this through presenting research in which over 100 employers in East Anglia were asked to record their perceptions of graduates in respect of their employability. The findings suggest a composite and complex graduate…

  20. Recognition for Employed Inventors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Howard J.

    1980-01-01

    Presents arguments for monetary rewards and other forms of recognition by employers for inventions of employed inventors, particularly as the concept applies to stimulating innovativeness in America. Discusses the controversy of federally mandated compensation for employed inventors. The efforts of the American Chemical Society along these lines…

  1. The New Employment Contract?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, David I.

    2002-01-01

    In the classic employment contract, especially at large companies, wages were not strongly responsive to the labor market. Instead, individual companies had distinctive company wage levels and patterns. An exhaustive study of employers and employees in the United States and Japan examined whether the "old employment contract" has been replaced.…

  2. Employer-employee relations.

    PubMed

    Copeland, J D

    1993-09-01

    As an employer, a veterinarian must be vigilant to protect the rights of both job applicants and employees. Federal and state statutes guarantee that applicants and employees will not be subjected to discrimination in any aspect of employment, including recruitment, hiring, promotion, compensation, and termination of employment. An employer may not discriminate on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin, religion, age, or physical disability. In addition, common law tort actions give employees powerful causes of action be against those employers who injure employees. More than ever, employers must be diligent in obeying the law. Employers must also take measures to protect themselves from employee claims by instituting risk management plans and purchasing adequate insurance coverage.

  3. Mutagenic roles of DNA "repair" proteins in antibody diversity and disease-associated trinucleotide repeat instability.

    PubMed

    Slean, Meghan M; Panigrahi, Gagan B; Ranum, Laura P; Pearson, Christopher E

    2008-07-01

    While DNA repair proteins are generally thought to maintain the integrity of the whole genome by correctly repairing mutagenic DNA intermediates, there are cases where DNA "repair" proteins are involved in causing mutations instead. For instance, somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR) require the contribution of various DNA repair proteins, including UNG, MSH2 and MSH6 to mutate certain regions of immunoglobulin genes in order to generate antibodies of increased antigen affinity and altered effector functions. Another instance where "repair" proteins drive mutations is the instability of gene-specific trinucleotide repeats (TNR), the causative mutations of numerous diseases including Fragile X mental retardation syndrome (FRAXA), Huntington's disease (HD), myotonic dystrophy (DM1) and several spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) all of which arise via various modes of pathogenesis. These healthy and deleterious mutations that are induced by repair proteins are distinct from the genome-wide mutations that arise in the absence of repair proteins: they occur at specific loci, are sensitive to cis-elements (sequence context and/or epigenetic marks) and transcription, occur in specific tissues during distinct developmental windows, and are age-dependent. Here we review and compare the mutagenic role of DNA "repair" proteins in the processes of SHM, CSR and TNR instability.

  4. Reduction of DNA mismatch repair protein expression in airway epithelial cells of premenopausal women chronically exposed to biomass smoke.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Bidisha; Dutta, Anindita; Chowdhury, Saswati; Roychoudhury, Sanghita; Ray, Manas Ranjan

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of indoor air pollution in rural India. This study examined whether chronic inhalation of biomass smoke causes change in the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathway in the airway cells. For this, airway cells exfoliated in sputum were collected from 72 premenopausal nonsmoking rural women (median age 34 years) who cooked with biomass (wood, dung, crop residues) and 68 control women who cooked with cleaner fuel liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) for the past 5 years or more. The levels of particulate matters with diameters less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM10 and PM2.5) in indoor air were measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Benzene exposure was monitored by measuring trans,trans-muconic acid (t,t-MA) in urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and level of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in airway cells were measured by flow cytometry and spectrophotometry, respectively. Immunocytochemical assay revealed lower percentage of airway epithelial cells expressing MMR proteins mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) in biomass-using women compared to LPG-using controls. Women who cooked with biomass had 6.7 times higher level of urinary t,t-MA, twofold increase in ROS generation, and 31 % depletion of SOD. Indoor air of biomass-using households had three times more particulate matters than that of controls. ROS, urinary t,t-MA, and particulate pollution in biomass-using kitchen had negative correlation, while SOD showed positive correlation with MSH2 and MLH1 expression. It appears that chronic exposure to biomass smoke reduces MMR response in airway epithelial cells, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the process.

  5. Listening to Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machalski, Jan; Riley, Alison; Aubrey, Karl

    2009-01-01

    Various government initiatives have highlighted the importance of employer engagement in schools, further education and higher education. However, speaking as a team of lecturers in HE the authors have found that there is a tension between the perceptions of government and those of employers. Clearly, it would be a good thing if, particularly in…

  6. Discrimination in Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovarsky, Irving

    Intended as a guide on discrimination problems and issues for students and practitioners in the area of employment relations, this book interrelates historical, religious, economic, medical, and sociological factors surrounding racial, religious, national, sex, age, and physical and mental discrimination to explain discrimination in employment.…

  7. Employment of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowser, Robert A., Comp.

    This document presents Pennsylvania guidelines for interpreting child labor legislation. In Section I employment certification of minors under the child labor law, the school laws of Pennsylvania, and the federal law are discussed. In Section II the issuing officers responsible for issuing employment certificates are identified, procedures for…

  8. Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guichard, Gus; And Others

    The employment of community college instructors on a part-time basis provides the opportunity for students to study under outstanding instructors whose primary employment may be in industry or in other postsecondary institutions and permits colleges to respond better to community needs with the financial resources available to them. Along with…

  9. Does Supported Employment Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan McInnes, Melayne; Ozturk, Orgul Demet; McDermott, Suzanne; Mann, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    Providing employment-related services, including supported employment through job coaches, has been a priority in federal policy since the enactment of the Developmental Disabilities Assistance and Bill of Rights Act in 1984. We take advantage of a unique panel data set of all clients served by the South Carolina Department of Disabilities and…

  10. Employment Discrimination: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Gerald A.

    Chapter 4 in a book on school law provides a general overview of the various federal statutes directed toward discrimination in employment and considers some of the recent developments under these statutes. The first section is a survey of the employment discrimination laws and their interrelationships. The second section analyzes more closely…

  11. Employment Policy and Territories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthet, Thierry; Cuntigh, Philippe; Guitton, Christophe

    2002-01-01

    France's employment policy has historically been governed by a strategy of interventions aimed at specific categories of individuals, including victims of industrial restructuring, entry workers, the long-term unemployed, and the disabled. Since the 1980s, France has had the following main lines of employment policy: (1) assistance to victims of…

  12. Supported Employment in Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdugo, Miguel Angel; Borja, F.; de Urries, Jordan; Bellver, Fernando; Martinez, Salvador

    1998-01-01

    Supported employment is growing in Spain, assisted by models from other countries and national legislation. The Spanish Association of Supported Employment is providing a framework for program development. The field must deal with the lack of systematic evaluation and with funding problems. (SK)

  13. Numeracy and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Samantha; Bynner, John

    1997-01-01

    Employment experiences were compared for British adults with good/average literacy and numeracy skills and those with good/average literacy and very low numeracy. Even with good literacy skills, poor numeracy reduced employment and training opportunities and promotion prospects. (SK)

  14. Employment Tax Credit Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Jan

    Utilizing data collected through a national survey of employers, the impact of federal tax credit programs for employers of Work Incentive Program (WIN) participants and Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) recipients was assessed. Six major questions were addressed: (1) What differences there were in the use of the WIN and welfare tax…

  15. Addressing Employer Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1986

    1986-01-01

    This volume of an annual journal contains 21 articles focusing on the many services that state Employment Security (ES) agencies are providing to improve outreach to employers who pay for the programs through the dedicated revenues of the Federal Unemployment Tax Act and state benefit taxes and to improve their own staff ability to deliver…

  16. Uncertainty in the Utility of Immunohistochemistry in Mismatch Repair Protein Expression in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Copppola, Domenico; Nicosia, Santo V.; Doty, Andrea; Sellers, Thomas A; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Fulp, Jimmy; Thompson, Zachary; Galeb, Sanja; McLaughlin, John; Narod, Steven A; Schildkraut, Joellen; Pal, Tuya

    2014-01-01

    Background Utility of immunohistochemistry (IHC) for mismatch repair (MMR) protein expression has been demonstrated in colorectal cancer but remains incompletely defined in ovarian cancer. We evaluated MMR protein expression in three population-based samples of epithelial ovarian cancers. Methods IHC staining was performed on full section (FS) or tissue microarray (TMA) slides for MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 expression. Results Of 487 cases, 147 and 340 were performed through FS and TMA, respectively. Overall, Loss of Expression (LoE) of at least one MMR protein was observed in 12.7% based on an expression score of ≤3 (on a scale of 9). Notably, LoE was significantly higher in TMAs (17.9%) compared to FS cases (0.7%) (p <0.001). Conclusions A substantial proportion of epithelial ovarian cancers have a loss of MMR protein expression. Protein expression results vary significantly by the tissue sampling methodology utilized, raising concerns about the clinical utility of this test for ovarian tumors. PMID:23155266

  17. Placement: The Employer's View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teff, Donald R.

    1979-01-01

    A bank vice president reviews three barriers to the employment of handicapped persons: misunderstanding and lack of knowledge concerning the handicapped, the traditional lag between recognition of a problem and its solution, and apathy and disinterest. (CL)

  18. 29 CFR 1607.10 - Employment agencies and employment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment agencies and employment services. 1607.10... agencies and employment services. A. Where selection procedures are devised by agency. An employment agency... employment agency or service is requested to administer a selection procedure which has been...

  19. 29 CFR 1607.10 - Employment agencies and employment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment agencies and employment services. 1607.10... agencies and employment services. A. Where selection procedures are devised by agency. An employment agency... employment agency or service is requested to administer a selection procedure which has been...

  20. Integration without employment.

    PubMed

    Fink, John N; Libby, Darin E

    2012-08-01

    Three models for hospital-physician alignment may offer hospitals for which large-scale physician employment is not practical the best means to prepare for payment changes under accountable care: Comanagement arrangements Clinical joint ventures Professional services agreements with performance incentives. PMID:22931027

  1. Employer Engagement in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education as it supports the learning and progression of young people through activities including work experience, job shadowing, workplace visits, career talks, mock interviews, CV workshops, business mentoring, enterprise competitions and the provision of learning resources. Interest has grown…

  2. Engaging Employers in Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gary; DesRosier, Theron; Peterson, Nils; Chida, Meriem; Lagier, Randy

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a pilot project in which formative feedback from industry professionals creates a genuine learning experience for students. Industry is giving feedback to higher education that many graduates are not employable or that they need substantial postcollegiate on-the-job training. Higher education is struggling to…

  3. Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, Richard A.

    In 1990, Cuesta College (CC) conducted a needs assessment of local employers to determine the type of work done by their employees, number of employees, hiring plans, the current level of employee training, and training needs. The mailed survey had 266 usable responses for a 40.9% return rate. Study findings included the following: (1) 31% of the…

  4. Industrialisation, Exports and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabolo, Yves

    1980-01-01

    After reviewing trends in industrial production, exports, and employment in the Third World since 1960, the author discusses industrialization strategies based on the local processing of raw materials for export. Such processing has proved to be a major factor in job creation. (Author/SK)

  5. The Employment Mismatch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2013-01-01

    Employers value a four-year college degree, many of them more than ever. Yet half of those surveyed recently by "The Chronicle" and American Public Media's "Marketplace" said they had trouble finding recent graduates qualified to fill positions at their company or organization. Nearly a third gave colleges just fair to poor marks for producing…

  6. Equal Opportunity in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Paul

    This book focuses on discrimination in employment, defined as the denial of equal opportunity in the labor market to qualified persons on the basis of race, color, religion, national origin, age, sex, or any other factor not related to their individual qualifications for work. The average nonwhite college graduate can expect to earn less during…

  7. Disability Employment 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Business is about productivity and maintaining a competitive advantage. To do this, business needs qualified workers. Hiring people with disabilities adds value to a business and will attract new customers. Disability is not inability. Employers can make sound business decisions and gain a competitive advantage by using this guide to increase the…

  8. Gerontology Graduates' Employment Opportunities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rueb, Suzanne M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of the 66 (of 94) graduates of a Master of Education in Gerontology program, 74% were female and most were white; 63% considered their degree beneficial. Of the 83% employed, 48.5% thought their jobs were highly relevant to the aging field. (SK)

  9. Employer Recruitment & Orientation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobs for the Future, Boston, MA.

    Work-based learning is a competency-based experience that integrates classroom instruction with structured work site experiences. Its purpose is to allow students to gain occupational and employable skills while applying and advancing their academic abilities. This guide contains strategies and resources to help educators involve the business…

  10. Technology and employment

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, M.H.

    1983-07-22

    The influence of technology on today's high unemployment picture is discussed. Employment in the high-technology sector is seen by some to be a panacea for workers who have lost their jobs due to irreversible structural causes. Some federal, regional, state, and local efforts being made to ease structural adjustment are included. 28 references, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  11. Employment of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    High, Robert V.

    A survey was conducted to determine the effect on academic performance, if any, of employment on undergraduate college students. A questionnaire was sent to professors at 3 four-year colleges on Long Island (New York); various day classes were randomly selected. The final sample of n=257 represented approximately a 30 percent response. The…

  12. A Stochastic Employment Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Teng

    2013-01-01

    The Stochastic Employment Problem(SEP) is a variation of the Stochastic Assignment Problem which analyzes the scenario that one assigns balls into boxes. Balls arrive sequentially with each one having a binary vector X = (X[subscript 1], X[subscript 2],...,X[subscript n]) attached, with the interpretation being that if X[subscript i] = 1 the ball…

  13. Employment. Feature Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Teri, Ed.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This theme issue addresses current trends and new developments in ensuring that individuals with disabilities have meaningful employment opportunities, especially in the context of recent federal legislation. Stressed throughout is the importance of collaboration among professionals, individuals with disabilities, and family members in achieving…

  14. Vietnamese Students Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuan, Nguyen Minh

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to investigate if the International University (IU) students' core competencies can meet the requirements set by employers, what are the differences in core competencies in final year students (or undergraduates), and how they view themselves compared with ex-students after one or two years in working environment, how…

  15. Should Universities Promote Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCowan, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Employability is becoming increasingly central to the mission and functioning of universities, spurred on by national and supranational agencies, and the demands of marketisation. This article provides a response to the normative dimensions of the question, progressing through four stages: first, there is a brief consideration of the meaning and…

  16. Proteome-wide identification of novel binding partners to the oncogenic fusion gene protein, NPM-ALK, using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Wang, Peng; Young, Leah C; Lai, Raymond; Li, Liang

    2009-02-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), an oncogenic fusion gene protein that is characteristically found in a subset of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, promotes tumorigenesis through its functional and physical interactions with various biologically important proteins. The identification of these interacting proteins has proven to be useful to further our understanding of NPM-ALK-mediated tumorigenesis. For the first time, we performed a proteome-wide identification of NPM-ALK-binding proteins using tandem affinity purification and a highly sensitive mass spectrometric technique. Tandem affinity purification is a recently developed method that carries a lower background and higher sensitivity compared with the conventional immunoprecipitation-based protein purification protocols. The NPM-ALK gene was cloned into an HB-tagged vector and expressed in GP293 cells. Three independent experiments were performed and the reproducibility of the data was 68%. The vast majority of the previously reported NPM-ALK-binding proteins were detected. We also identified proteins that are involved in various cellular processes that were not previously described in association with NPM-ALK, such as MCM6 and MSH2 (DNA repair), Nup98 and importin 8 (subcellular protein transport), Stim1 (calcium signaling), 82Fip (RNA regulation), and BAG2 (proteosome degradation). We believe that these data highlight the functional diversity of NPM-ALK and provide new research directions for the study of the biology of this oncoprotein.

  17. Overseas Employment: How to Develop Your Own International Employment Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Frank

    1985-01-01

    Presents a procedure for developing an International Employment Service for students wanting overseas employment as well as foreign students wanting to work in the United States. Includes information on visas, employment opportunities, and job search methods. (JAC)

  18. Rebirth through supported employment.

    PubMed

    Strickler, David C

    2014-06-01

    In this column, the author describes how supported employment was a conduit for employment for him, and allowed for a remarkable journey of recovery, involving discovery and empowerment, incorporation, purpose, and belonging. After two decades of unemployment or underemployment, he began to see that work was possible through supported education at college, where he excelled. Federal and state grants paid for two thirds of his college education. He periodically met with a vocational rehabilitation counselor, who was very encouraging. He also had a case manager through a private psychiatric organization who provided support. The author concludes that the root of his problems was the lack of supports to help him become incorporated into society-a lack that ushered in a host of problems, probably similar to what others experience. When supports were given, many of those symptoms disappeared.

  19. SWI/SNF complex deficiency and mismatch repair protein expression in undifferentiated and dedifferentiated endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Colin J R; Crook, Maxine L

    2015-08-01

    Undifferentiated endometrial carcinoma (UEC) is a relatively uncommon but clinically aggressive uterine malignancy. In common with a subset of poorly differentiated carcinomas arising in other sites, UEC may exhibit rhabdoid morphology and be associated with a low-grade tumour component (dedifferentiated carcinoma). Recent studies have implicated inactivation of the SWI/SNF complex subunits in the aforementioned extrauterine tumours. Therefore we have examined INI1 (SMARCB1), BRG1 (SMARCA4), and BAF250a (ARID1A) immunostaining, and also expression of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins MLH1, PMS2, MSH2 and MSH6 in 22 UEC, seventeen of which were dedifferentiated. Abnormal SWI/SNF subunit expression was detected in four dedifferentiated carcinomas including three with loss of BRG1 staining limited to the undifferentiated tumour component and one case with loss of INI1 expression in both low- and high-grade elements; the latter case also showed BAF250a deficiency in the undifferentiated tumour cells. Abnormal MMR protein expression was identified in 13 tumours (59%) including nine with concurrent loss of MLH1 and PMS2. These findings suggest that SWI/SNF subunit alterations may play a role in the progression/ dedifferentiation of endometrial carcinoma, and that SWI/SNF and MMR protein deficiencies may act synergistically in deregulating DNA repair mechanisms in these tumours.

  20. Graduate Employability: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Employers' Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Yuzhuo

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a conceptual framework for understanding what employers think about the value of graduates with similar educational credentials in the workplace (their employability), using insights from the new institutionalism. In this framework, the development of employers' beliefs about graduates' employability is broken into a number of…

  1. Employment in the Public Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    This report synthesizes the findings from several areas of work undertaken to assess what impact public sector employment has had on both the level and structure of employment. It also examines the impact of the public sector as employer on the labor market from two viewpoints: the level and share of public sector employment and the structure of…

  2. Employability Skills Assessment Tool Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasul, Mohamad Sattar; Rauf, Rose Amnah Abd; Mansor, Azlin Norhaini; Puvanasvaran, A. P.

    2012-01-01

    Research nationally and internationally found that technical graduates are lacking in employability skills. As employability skills are crucial in outcome-based education, the main goal of this research is to develop an Employability Skill Assessment Tool to help students and lecturers produce competent graduates in employability skills needed by…

  3. Employability. NIACE Briefing Sheet 88

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institute of Adult Continuing Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Employability skills are central to gaining and keeping employment (e.g. whether paid or unpaid, as an employee or self employed) as well as career progression. The lack of such skills is regularly referred to as one reason for the United Kingdom's often cited long tail of underachievement. Employability skills are at the forefront of government…

  4. Mismatch repair protein expression and colorectal cancer in Hispanics from Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    De Jesus-Monge, Wilfredo E; Gonzalez-Keelan, Carmen; Zhao, Ronghua; Hamilton, Stanley R; Rodriguez-Bigas, Miguel; Cruz-Correa, Marcia

    2010-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality and alterations in mismatch repair (MMR) genes, leading to absent protein (negative) expression, are responsible for approximately 20% of CRC cases. Immunohistochemistry is a tool for prescreening of MMR protein expression in CRC but the literature on its use on Hispanics is scarce. However, Hispanics represent the second leading ethnicity in the United States (US) and CRC is a public health burden in this group. Our objectives were to determine the frequency of MMR protein-negative CRC and to evaluate its association with clinical and pathological characteristics among Hispanics from Puerto Rico, for the first time to our knowledge. A retrospective observational study of unselected CRC patients from the Puerto Rico Medical Center from 2001 to 2005 was done. MLH1 and MSH2, the most commonly altered MMR genes, protein expression was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, with microsatellite instability (MSI) and BRAF gene analyses in the absence of MLH1 protein expression. One-hundred sixty-four CRC patients were evaluated: the overall MMR protein-negative frequency was 4.3%, with 0.6% frequency of co-occurrence of MLH1-protein negative expression, MSI-high, and normal BRAF gene. MMR protein-negative expression was associated with proximal colon location (P = 0.02) and poor histological tumor differentiation (P = 0.001), but not with other characteristics. The frequency of MMR protein-negative CRC in Hispanics from Puerto Rico was lower than reported in other populations. This finding may explain the lower CRC incidence rate among US Hispanics as compared to US non-Hispanic whites and blacks.

  5. Growth hormone induces expression of c-jun and jun B oncogenes and employs a protein kinase C signal transduction pathway for the induction of c-fos oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, M C; de Groot, R P; Herrmann-Erlee, M P; Koornneef, I; Kruijer, W; Kramer, Y M

    1991-04-01

    Although the structure of several members of the GH receptor family has been defined, signal transduction following GH binding to its receptor has not been elucidated. Mouse osteoblasts were used to study the effect of GH on immediate early gene expression and, subsequently, the cellular signal(s) mediating this expression were analysed. GH rapidly and transiently induced the expression of c-jun and jun B in concert with the already reported expression of c-fos. The GH-induced expression of c-fos was completely blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and H7, indicating that the action of GH is mediated by one or several protein kinases. We next analysed the identity of the putative protein kinases in more detail by using a more specific protein kinase inhibitor, namely the ether-lipid 1-O-alkyl-2-O-methylglycerol, understood to be an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Data obtained from these studies revealed that GH-induced expression of c-fos is mediated by PKC. In addition, we observed a profound increase in formation of the PKC activator diacyglycerol upon addition of GH, a natural activator of PKC. In conclusion, upon binding of GH to mouse osteoblasts, the receptor-mediated cellular signal involves diacyglycerol formation and activation of PKC, leading to the induction of oncogene expression. Finally, the expression of c-fos, c-jun and jun B results in an increased binding of protein complexes to AP-1 binding sites.

  6. Employment outcomes in Massachusetts Clubhouses.

    PubMed

    McKay, Colleen; Johnsen, Mathew; Stein, Reva

    2005-01-01

    Employment outcomes of individuals participating in 17 Massachusetts Clubhouses certified by the International Center for Clubhouse Development were examined through an annual survey. Major components of employment programs in contemporary clubhouses are identified and individual employment outcomes are described. Within contemporary practice in ICCD clubhouses in this sample, clubhouses provided a three-pronged approach to employment. Between 1998-2001, 1702 individuals worked in 2714 separate job placements, employed in Transitional (TE), Supported (SE), and Independent Employment (IE). Forty percent of members with more than one job (N = 385) participated in at least one TE. Individuals with longer memberships tended to work longer and had higher job earnings.

  7. Barriers to Employment: Personality and Cognitive Predictors of Employment Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McTurk, Carolyn; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Barriers to employment are linked to individual factors such as thinking styles and personality traits. Personality and cognitive differences between employed (n = 55) and unemployed (n = 57) cohorts were analysed to quantify the association between these variables and employment status. Using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) and the…

  8. Consumer and Employer Strategies for Overcoming Employment Barriers. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crudden, Adele; Williams, Wendy; McBroom, Lynn W.; Moore, J. Elton

    This report on strategies for overcoming employment barriers for persons with visual impairments summarizes comments and suggestions of 7 focus groups comprised of either consumers (n=49) or employers (n=19). The report first reviews the literature concerning employment barriers and how consumers in previous studies suggested these barriers be…

  9. A Conceptual Understanding of Employability: The Employers' View in Rwanda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamwesiga, Penelope Mbabazi

    2013-01-01

    Many governments believe that investing in human capital should increase citizens' employability, which is why it is often presented as a solution to the problems of knowledge-based economies and societies, rising unemployment rates and economic competiveness. The aim of this study is to understand employers' views regarding the employability of…

  10. Disability and Supported Employment: Impact on Employment, Income, and Allowances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germundsson, Per; Gustafsson, Johanna; Lind, Martin; Danermark, Berth

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we examine supported employment and its impact on the level of employment, disposable income, and sum of allowances, targeting a group of individuals with disabilities. We have particularly focused on individuals with psychiatric disabilities. Supported employment is a vocational rehabilitation service with an empowerment approach…

  11. Temporary Employment and Perceived Employability: Mediation by Impression Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Cuyper, Nele; De Witte, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Perceived employability (PE) has been advanced as the upcoming resource for career development, particularly for temporary workers. The question is how temporary workers become employable. Our hypothesis is that temporary workers more than permanent workers use impression management to become employable, both on the internal and the external labor…

  12. Employment Impact of Electronic Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hecker, Daniel E.

    2001-01-01

    Electronic business is stimulating employment in some sectors across industries, such as computer-related and customer service occupations, and diminishing employment in others, such as administrative support and marketing/sales. Similarly, employment impacts will vary by industry. (Contains 56 notes and references.) (SK)

  13. Employment Initiatives. Second Year Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Human Resources, Baltimore.

    During its second year, Maryland's Employment Initiatives (EI) program continued to help Aid for Dependent Children applicants and recipients obtain unsubsidized employment. It provided employment and training opportunities to Work Incentive Demonstration Program participants at two sites: Baltimore City (OPTIONS) and Wicomico County (Basic…

  14. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Barbara A.

    1999-01-01

    Reviewed academic employment discrimination cases decided in 1998. Concludes that such cases added little to civil rights jurisprudence, but demonstrated the frustration felt by many over the fact that federal employment discrimination statures were not designed with universities in mind. The complexity of academic employment decisions ensures…

  15. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of “employer,” “employee”, and... relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State (except with respect to employees of a State or a political subdivision thereof, employed (a) in...

  16. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of “employer,” “employee”, and... relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State (except with respect to employees of a State or a political subdivision thereof, employed (a) in...

  17. 29 CFR 779.19 - Employer, employee, and employ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of oppressive child labor. The Act provides its own definitions of “employer,” “employee”, and... relation to an employee but shall not include the United States or any State or political subdivision of a State (except with respect to employees of a State or a political subdivision thereof, employed (a) in...

  18. Graduates', University Lecturers' and Employers' Perceptions towards Employability Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wickramasinghe, Vathsala; Perera, Lasantha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to explore employability skills that employers, university lecturers and graduates value to bring to the workplace, when graduates are applying for entry-level graduate jobs in the field of computer science in Sri Lanka. Design/methodology/approach: A total of three samples were selected for this exploratory…

  19. Conceptualizing Learning and Employability "Learning and Employability Framework"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumanasiri, Erabaddage Gishan Tharanga; Yajid, Mohd Shukri Ab; Khatibi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Extensive studies have been done on employability and the factors that lead to employability. Previous studies have focused on career development programs, internships, work experience programs, soft-skill development programs, and even university admission criteria which can be considered external factors to university student learning…

  20. Graduates' Employment and the Discourse of Employability: A Critical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreau, Marie-Pierre; Leathwood, Carole

    2006-01-01

    In a context of considerable changes in the labour market and higher education sector in the UK, a discourse of employability has become increasingly dominant. Universities are urged to ensure that they produce "employable" graduates, and graduates themselves are exhorted to continually develop their personal skills, qualities and experiences in…

  1. 20 CFR 404.1003 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 404.1003 Section 404.1003...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1003 Employment. Employment....1010. Section 404.1004 states the general rule on the kinds of work covered as employment....

  2. Breastfeeding and employment: an assessment of employer attitudes.

    PubMed

    Libbus, M Kay; Bullock, Linda F C

    2002-08-01

    Both research and anecdotal reports suggest that maternal employment is associated with failure to initiate breastfeeding and early breastfeeding attrition. The objective of this study was to describe the experience with and attitudes toward breastfeeding of a sample of employers in a small Midwestern city in the United States. Based on an analysis of 85 mail-out questionnaires, we found that less than half of the employers had personal experience with breastfeeding. A large percentage of the sample, however, indicated that they would be willing to facilitate women who wished to breastfeed or express milk in the workplace. However, these employers also stated that they saw little value to their business of supporting breastfeeding in the work environment. Thus, enhancement of breastfeeding opportunity in the work environment may come as a result of public and employer education but, more likely, will require some type of directive from official sources.

  3. Employer Evaluation of Occupational Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willett, Lynn H.; Piland, William E.

    In an effort to meet the need for a more comprehensive program evaluation, staff at Moraine Valley Community College developed a questionnaire and interview schedule to obtain feedback from employers concerning career programs. Questionnaires were sent to all employers who hired graduates of occupational programs between 1969-71; over 80% returned…

  4. Employment Obtaining and Business Starting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lan, Jian

    2009-01-01

    The implementation of business starting education in higher vocational colleges is of important and realistic meanings for cultivating advanced technology application-type talents and for releasing the employment obtaining pressure of higher vocational students. Based on the analysis on the employment situation of higher vocational graduates, this…

  5. Employability Skills. At a Glance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wibrow, Bridget

    2011-01-01

    In a competitive workforce it is not just having the right qualification or technical skills that will land an individual a job; it could very well be their interpersonal skills. How someone communicates is often the first impression an employer has of a possible worker. Yet, it is precisely communication skills that employers feel applicants are…

  6. Employment and People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter issue offers six articles on employment of people with disabilities. "Employment and People with Disabilities: Challenges for the Nineties" (Frank Bowe) discusses the Americans with Disabilities Act, issues in unemployment and under-education, earnings, and implications for the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative…

  7. Employment Discrimination in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustoles, Thomas P.; Griffin, Oren R.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews court decisions related to employment discrimination in higher education. The most significant development was a series of cases affirming that Eleventh Amendment immunity from private money damage claims brought pursuant to various federal employment discrimination statutes applied to state colleges and universities. (SLD)

  8. Special Issue on Casual Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Bulletin of Labour, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Includes "Editor's Introduction" (Cully); "A New Estimate of Casual Employment?" (Campbell, Burgess); "A New Estimate of Casual Employment?: Reply" (Murtough, Waite); "The 'Long-term or Permanent Casual'--An Oxymoron or 'A Well Enough Understood Australianism' in the Law?" (Owens); and "The ACTU's [Australian Council of Trade Unions] Response to…

  9. Tracking Success in Youth Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rieder, Corinne H.

    1979-01-01

    Youthwork, Incorporated, was created by the Youth Employment and Demonstration Projects Act of 1977 (YEDPA) to keep track of youth employment and training programs. Privately-owned Youthwork administers federal demonstration grants across the country to help provide job guidance, work experience credit, private sector involvement, and…

  10. MEETING TODAY'S CHALLENGE FOR EMPLOYMENT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HELER, EDWARD; MCNULTY, EMMETT T.

    POVERTY IS LINKED TO THE OPPORTUNITY FOR AND THE AVAILABILITY OF EMPLOYMENT. THE IMPOVERISHED LACK THE SKILLS, EDUCATION, FLEXIBILITY, AND MOBILITY REQUIRED FOR EMPLOYMENT. THIS IS ESPECIALLY TRUE OF ARIZONA'S MINORITY GROUPS--INDIANS, NEGROES, AND MEXICAN-AMERICANS. COMPETITION FOR JOBS NOT REQUIRING EXTENSIVE EDUCATION, AND THE FLOOD OF THE…

  11. Employment Outlook, Life Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The nature of the work performed by biologists and biochemists is described in general terms, and for the subcategories such as agronomists, pharmacologists and entomologists. The types of employment opportunities, the necessary training the employment outlook and typical salaries and working conditions are described. Addresses for requesting…

  12. Employer Demands from Business Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurray, Stephen; Dutton, Matthew; McQuaid, Ronald; Richard, Alec

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to report on research carried out with employers to determine demand for business and management skills in the Scottish workforce. Design/methodology/approach: The research used a questionnaire in which employers were interviewed (either telephone or face to face), completed themselves and returned by e-mail,…

  13. Employability: Review and Research Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilbert, Laure; Bernaud, Jean-Luc; Gouvernet, Brice; Rossier, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Professional transition, employment, and reemployment are major concerns for nations facing adverse economic situations. The employability construct represents a scientific challenge in order to better understand the relationship between the job seekers' issues and the expectations of the world of work. This paper presents a review of the concept…

  14. Primer of Equal Employment Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Howard J.

    This booklet presents laws and court cases concerning discrimination in hiring. It begins with a presentation of the laws and orders regulating equal employment opportunity and the remedies available. It lists those employees and employers to whom the laws apply and exemptions. Sections deal with discrimination on the basis of race, sex, sexual…

  15. Supported Employment. Missouri LINC Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Coll. of Education.

    This module provides information on supported employment as outlined in the Rehabilitation Act Amendments of 1986, P.L. 99-506. It discusses models of supported employment; the roles of vocational rehabilitation counselors, school district personnel, and job coaches; and what school district personnel can do to prepare students for supported…

  16. Employment Survey 1982. AIP Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Susanne D.

    The employment status of 1981-1982 degree recipients in physics and astronomy was surveyed. Information is presented on changes in occupational status of physics and astronomy degree recipients which occurred between the summer of 1982 and the following winter. The characteristics of graduates of both fields who were employed full-time or…

  17. Consumer Leadership in Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inge, Katherine J., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This newsletter issue provides rehabilitation professionals with various information pieces concerning consumer leadership in supported employment of people with disabilities. First, a chart lists five questions concerning self advocacy and supported employment, and provides consumer responses to the questions. A second item describes…

  18. Preferential Remedies for Employment Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Harry T.; Zaretsky, Barry L.

    1975-01-01

    An overview of the problem of preferential remedies to achieve equal employment opportunities for women and minority groups. Contends that "color blindness" will not end discrimination but that some form of "color conscious" affirmative action program must be employed. Temporary preferential treatment is justified, according to the author, by the…

  19. Partial characterization of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases in guinea-pig lung employing the synthetic heptapeptide substrate, kemptide. In vitro sensitivity of the soluble enzyme to isoprenaline, forskolin, methacholine and leukotriene D4.

    PubMed

    Giembycz, M A; Diamond, J

    1990-04-15

    This paper describes the partial characterization of soluble cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) in guinea-pig lung using Kemptide, a synthetic serine-containing heptapeptide, and examines the sensitivity of this enzyme to drugs which are reported to increase and to decrease the intracellular concentration of cyclic AMP. Differential centrifugation of lung homogenates revealed that 78% of A-kinase was present in the 31,000 gmax x 15 min supernatant fraction. Both basal and cyclic AMP-stimulated phosphotransferase activity of this 'soluble' enzyme were abolished by the heat-stable inhibitor of A-kinase. Soluble A-kinase was Mg2(+)-dependent (apparent Km and and Kact 8.6 and 2.6 mM, respectively) and was stimulated nine-fold by saturating concentrations of both cyclic AMP (Kact: 131 nM) and cyclic GMP (Kact: 28.7 microM) at a protein (enzyme) concentration of 1.3 micrograms. Kinetic analysis of the effect of Kemptide and ATP revealed linear, Hanes plots with Michealis constants of ca. 12 and 13 microM, respectively. Chromatography of the soluble enzyme over DEAE-cellulose resolved three peaks of catalytic activity when fractions were assayed in the presence of cyclic AMP (10 microM): (i) free catalytic subunits (5%), (ii) Type I isoenzyme (5%) and (iii) Type II isoenzyme (90%). The A-kinase activity ratio was markedly increased in lung pre-treated with the smooth muscle relaxants isoprenaline and forskolin. This biochemical effect was both time- and concentration-dependent and was temporally associated with the ability of these drugs to reduce lung parenchymal tone. In contrast, the contractile agonists, methacholine (Mch) and leukotriene (LT) D4 exerted opposite effects on A-kinase activity. Thus, Mch significantly reduced cyclic AMP levels and lowered basal A-kinase activity whilst the converse was true for LTD4. For both drugs this biochemical effect accompanied contraction of the lung. Pre-treatment of lung tissue with flurbiprofen, an irreversible

  20. Equal Employment Law and the Employer--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Will

    1979-01-01

    Sets forth in simple terms some of the requirements of the Equal Employment Opportunities Act of 1972. Available from the New York State Bar Association, One Elk Street, Albany, N.Y. 12207; sc $2.00. (Author/IRT)

  1. Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witter, William D.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Beginning with a conceptual introduction which covers the topics of work in the United States, why people work, the labor force, labor markets, unemployment, and work and the young, this document goes on to offer four instructional units for preschool through sixth grade students. The preschool and kindergarten unit called "Earning More than…

  2. Veterans' Employment and Training Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Twitter Instagram RSS Email Share Veterans' Employment and Training Service (VETS) Menu About VETS Who We Are & ... of the U.S. Armed Forces. About USERRA Online Training USERRA 101 USERRA 102 USERRA Advisor Veterans' Preference ...

  3. Genetic Screening for Employment Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olian, Judy D.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses genetic screening in the employment context, which involves identification of individuals hypersusceptible to toxins in the work environment. Examines the status of genetic screening devices against standard testing and legal criteria. (LLL)

  4. Youth employment and substance use.

    PubMed

    Kaestner, Robert; Sasso, Anthony Lo; Callison, Kevin; Yarnoff, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    A significant portion of teens work while in school and the consequences of that work are of potential concern to society. While there is widespread support for combining work and school, and some evidence that employment has positive effects on youth development, previous research has revealed some potentially harmful consequences of employment among teens. In this paper, we investigate the relationship between teen employment and substance use. We extended this literature by studying two different cohorts of youth, and by exploiting arguably exogenous variation in youth employment and earnings caused by changes in minimum wages and the business cycle (unemployment). Estimates suggest that hours of work are positively associated with alcohol and cigarette use. However, if selection on unobserved variables were equal to selection on observed variables, these associations would be close to zero. With respect to the association between earnings and substance use, the evidence is less clear.

  5. Racial Differences in Youth Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardecki, Rosella M.

    2001-01-01

    Work experience at an early age has a positive impact on labor force attachment of different racial groups. However, racial gaps in employment that are present in the early teen years seem to continue into adulthood. (Author/SK)

  6. Employment discrimination and wrongful discharge.

    PubMed

    Yates, D F

    1993-01-01

    The law and concepts applicable to the employment relationships between and within medical group practices have been evolving over a period of time in response to a number of factors. According to author David Yates, Esq., this evolution has been impacted by a revolution in the law applicable to employment relationships in general. His article is intended to help the administrator steer through this revolution.

  7. Characterization of Pathogenic Human MSH2 Missense Mutations Using Yeast as a Model System: A Laboratory Course in Molecular Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gammie, Alison E.; Erdeniz, Naz

    2004-01-01

    This work describes the project for an advanced undergraduate laboratory course in cell and molecular biology. One objective of the course is to teach students a variety of cellular and molecular techniques while conducting original research. A second objective is to provide instruction in science writing and data presentation by requiring…

  8. Loss of employment and mortality.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, J. K.; Cook, D. G.; Shaper, A. G.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess effect of unemployment and early retirement on mortality in a group of middle aged British men. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study (British Regional Heart Study). Five years after initial screening, information on employment experience was obtained with a postal questionnaire. SETTING--One general practice in each of 24 towns in Britain. SUBJECTS--6191 men aged 40-59 who had been continuously employed for at least five years before initial screening in 1978-80: 1779 experienced some unemployment or retired during the five years after screening, and 4412 remained continuously employed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE--Mortality during 5.5 years after postal questionnaire. RESULTS--Men who experienced unemployment in the five years after initial screening were twice as likely to die during the following 5.5 years as men who remained continuously employed (relative risk 2.13 (95% confidence interval 1.71 to 2.65). After adjustment for socioeconomic variables (town and social class), health related behaviour (smoking, alcohol consumption, and body weight), and health indicators (recall of doctor diagnoses) that had been assessed at initial screening the relative risk was slightly reduced, to 1.95 (1.57 to 2.43). Even men who retired early for reasons other than illness and who appeared to be relatively advantaged and healthy had a significantly increased risk of mortality compared with men who remained continuously employed (relative risk 1.87 (1.35 to 2.60)). The increased risk of mortality from cancer was similar to that of mortality from cardiovascular disease (adjusted relative risk 2.07 and 2.13 respectively). CONCLUSIONS--In this group of stably employed middle aged men loss of employment was associated with an increased risk of mortality even after adjustment for background variables, suggesting a causal effect. The effect was non-specific, however, with the increased mortality involving both cancer and cardiovascular disease. PMID:8173455

  9. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland.

    PubMed

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins - MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 - using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. CONCLUSIONS In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  10. Expression of Mismatch Repair Proteins in Early and Advanced Gastric Cancer in Poland

    PubMed Central

    Karpińska-Kaczmarczyk, Katarzyna; Lewandowska, Magdalena; Ławniczak, Małgorzata; Białek, Andrzej; Urasińska, Elżbieta

    2016-01-01

    Background Mutations in DNA of mismatch repair (MMR) genes result in failure to repair errors that occur during DNA replication in microsatellites, resulting in accumulation of frameshift mutations in these genes and leading to DNA mismatch replication errors and microsatellite instability. Gastric cancers (GCs) with high MSI (MSI-H) are a well-defined subset of carcinomas showing distinctive clinicopathological features. In this study we investigated the rate of MSI and the correlation between MSI status and clinicopathological features of GC. Material/Methods The study included 107 patients with GCs: 61 with advanced gastric cancers (AGC) and 46 with early gastric cancer (EGC). MSI deficiency in GCs was assessed by the immunohistochemical analysis of expression of MMR proteins – MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 – using formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissue. Results A total of 6 (5.6%) MSI-H were observed. The loss of MMR proteins expression was associated with the intestinal type of GC in Lauren classification, and tubular and papillary architecture in WHO classification. There was no statistically significant association between negative MMR expression and other selected clinical parameters: age, sex, tumor location, depth of invasion (EGC and AGC), lymph nodes status, presence of the ulceration, and lymphocytic infiltrate. Conclusions In the present era of personalized medicine, the histological type of GC and MMR proteins status in cancer cells are very important for the proper surveillance of patients with familial GC and sporadic GCs, as well as for selecting the proper follow-up and treatment. Larger collaborative studies are needed to verify the features of MSI-H GCs in Poland. PMID:27527654

  11. Employment in Borderline Personality Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies in the literature have explored employment outcomes in patients with borderline personality disorder. However, after imposing our exclusion criteria, we located only 11 viable studies, published between the years 1983 and 2010. Individual studies examined employment outcomes in 8 to 249 individuals, but eight studies consisted of 33 participants or less. At baseline, participants were recruited from various locales, including hospital settings (7 studies), outpatient settings (2 studies), day treatment (1 study), and a college campus (1 study). The follow-up periods in these studies ranged from 1 to 27 years. Three studies compared participants with borderline personality disorder to a cohort of individuals with other types of psychopathology whereas only two studies used a normative comparison group. Given a host of potential limitations, findings cautiously suggest that nearly half of individuals with borderline personality disorder remain unemployed at follow-up, and of these, only a portion are self-supporting; 20 to 45 percent subsist on disability. However, several studies found modest employment gains among some individuals with borderline personality disorder, and one study developed a work/school acclimatization program, which meaningfully improved employment outcomes. This general area warrants further research to clarify the explicit employment outcomes of patients with borderline personality disorder. PMID:23074700

  12. Employability and Employment Outcomes of No-Fee Preservice Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jin, Yule; Li, Ling; Ding, Shujing; Li, Zhichao

    2013-01-01

    This study used interviews and questionnaires to survey 770 no-fee preservice students. Its findings were as follows: (1) Their employability encompasses five dimensions: teaching skills, ability to learn specialized knowledge, ability to grasp elementary and secondary teaching materials and methods, communication skills, and ability to apply for…

  13. Employer's Pocket Guide on Youth Employment. Youth Rules!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Labor, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Through the YouthRules! initiative, the U.S. Department of Labor and its strategic partners seek to promote positive and safe work experiences for young workers. YouthRules! strives to educate teens, parents, educators, employers and the public on Federal and State rules regarding young workers. Components of the initiative include a website…

  14. Teenage Employment and Career Readiness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kaylin M.; Staff, Jeremy

    2012-01-01

    Most American youth hold a job at some point during adolescence, but should they work? This article presents a broad overview of teenage employment in the United States. It begins by describing which teenagers work and for how long and then focuses attention on the consequences (both good and bad) of paid work in adolescence. It then presents…

  15. The Husband is the Employer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmed, Wajihuddin

    1975-01-01

    Peasant women are chained to their homes as child bearers and unpaid laborers working for their husbands. Employing women in rural industry would increase female status and decrease male dominance in the family. Also family size would shrink as women spend less time at home. (MR)

  16. Employment Support as Knowledge Creation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, John; Callahan, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Traditional practice in employment of persons with disabilities has been to assess the skills and interests of the job seeker in relation to normative standards or to others. That comparative approach often results in job seekers with significant developmental disabilities being viewed as having few skills and lacking requisite work readiness,…

  17. Employment Expansion and Metropolitan Trade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Richard Victor

    Through empirical investigations of the 1940-50 and 1950-60 decades, the author has developed a framework for analyzing metropolitan trade and determining the employment-related consequences of changes in trade activity. One major trend of this period, especially the second decade, has been the increasing self-sufficiency of all metropolitan…

  18. Employing Civilians for Police Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Alfred I.; And Others

    The study describes the experiences of 13 police departments where civilians were used in jobs normally performed by police officers. The findings are based on interviews with 158 people including police managers, officers in charge of civilian employees, and the civilians themselves. Two types of activities were surveyed: (1) the employment of…

  19. Employment Effects of Trade Expansion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lydall, H. F.

    1975-01-01

    The study to estimate the employment effects of an increase of manufactured and semi-manufactured products exported from developing to developed countries concluded that the lower the degree of development, the greater the number of jobs generated. Available from: ILO Publications, International Labour Office, CH-1211, Geneva 22, Switzerland.…

  20. A Perspective on Student Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barton, Paul E.

    The time has come to start to improve students' job experiences and to improve the relationship between the work and school experiences. In rural and agricultural economies, student work was so important to the family that the school year was fashioned to accommodate it. As the nation became more urban, student employment for pay and student…

  1. Transnational Education and Employability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellors-Bourne, Robin; Jones, Elspeth; Woodfield, Steve

    2015-01-01

    Internationalisation and employability development are important themes for UK higher education (HE) and the Higher Education Academy (HEA). One aspect of many UK HE institutions' internationalisation strategies has been to increase the number and range of UK programmes delivered "offshore" as transnational education (TNE)--through…

  2. Employment Trends in Energy Extraction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Richard

    1981-01-01

    Between 1973 and 1980, employment in the basic energy extraction industries--coal, oil, and natural gas--has risen by more than 91 percent. The Arab oil embargo and subsequent emphasis on development of domestic energy sources are responsible for this trend. (Author/SK)

  3. Employer Child Care Consultant Directory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1998

    1998-01-01

    Lists 16 firms that offer child care consulting services to employers and communities. Each entry includes a brief description of the firm and its services, contact person, address, and phone and fax numbers. Some include e-mail and Web site addresses. (TJQ)

  4. Endpoint: Changing Patterns in Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, W. R. H.

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes statistical results obtained from a survey of employment of chemists from 1968 to 1972. Indicates that a combined or interdisciplinary scientific program is preferred to a single subject course to provide graduates with opportunities to turn to miscellaneous appointments. (CC)

  5. Employers' Perspectives of Online Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linardopoulos, Nikolaos

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of seven representative studies pertaining to the employers' perceptions of online education. Design/methodology/approach: The paper retrieved and analysed representative studies on the subject from two scholarly databases and Google. Findings: The results indicate that…

  6. Youth Employment and Job Creation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors, Tad

    A policy that addresses youth unemployment with monetary expansion for similar fiscal policies is criticized as compounding the problem, and alternative solutions are offered. Accordingly, a brief look at youth labor market characteristics, pertinent labor market theory, and the present industrial distribution of employed youth is offered. A…

  7. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  8. Trends in Technology and Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrath, Nancy L.

    Drawing from literature on technological advances, economic trends, and employment and labor market projections, this paper provides an overview of trends and their implications for California. After briefly analyzing the characteristics and effects of the information age, the paper examines the growth and development of high technology…

  9. Training Partnerships. Linking Employers & Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; And Others

    This document summarizes research on partnerships in training. Part I describes forming linkages between employers and providers as a common business transaction and identifies services available from providers, locating a provider, criteria for selecting a provider, and how to evaluate linkage relationships. Part II describes the providers of…

  10. Somerset County Employer Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rephann, Terance J.

    Allegany Community College in Cumberland, Maryland, conducted an employer assessment survey of Somerset County businesses during the winter of 1995 in order to provide evaluation data for planning and curriculum development for the secondary and postsecondary educational institutions. The survey was mailed to 760 establishments, with a 29 percent…

  11. Supported Employment Staff Training Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inge, Katherine; And Others

    This training manual provides practical guidelines for staff development in supported employment programs for individuals with severe disabilities. It provides information on designing and developing training programs using adult learning principles, for program managers or trainers responsible for implementing inservice training and technical…

  12. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft…

  13. Employment Services Needs of Veterans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perspective: Essays and Reviews of Issues in Employment Security and Employment and Training Programs, 1989

    1989-01-01

    This issue of an annual journal contains 20 papers reflecting on the efforts of U.S. employment security and training programs to meet the needs of veterans. Part I, "National Perspective," contains five essays: "Policy Issues for Veteran Job Training Programs" (Martin F. Smith); "Cognizant Ramblings: Superfluous Lags the Veteran on the Stage…

  14. Employer Resource Manual. Project Path.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, Karen R.; Del George, Eve

    Project Path at Illinois' College of DuPage was established to provide pre-employment training and career counseling for disabled students. To encourage the integration of qualified individuals with disabilities into the workplace, the project compiled this resource manual for area businesses, providing tips for interacting with disabled people…

  15. Admission Conditions and Graduates' Employability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexandre, Fernando; Portela, Miguel; Sa, Carla

    2009-01-01

    In a context of increasing competition for students, admission conditions have been used as an instrument in a strategy of differentiation. Such a strategy is guided by short-run concerns, that is, the immediate need to attract more students. This article takes a longer term view, by examining graduates' employability. The authors find that…

  16. Youth Employability Training: Two Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Travor; Hillier, Tara-Lynn; Warren, Amy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to assess the effectiveness of verbal self-guidance (VSG) and self-management on youth employability. It seeks to access the joint effectiveness of these interventions, grounded in social cognitive and goal setting theories, for youth job seekers. Design/methodology/approach: The studies used experimental designs involving…

  17. Employment, Social Networks and Undocumented Migrants: The Employer Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bloch, Alice; McKay, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on data from qualitative interviews with ethnic enclave and ethnic economy business entrepreneurs from Chinese, Bangladeshi and Turkish-speaking communities in London. Routes into business and worker recruitment practices are explored, demonstrating the centrality of social capital in the form of family and other social networks within these processes. The article investigates what employers consider the desirable characteristics of workers: trust, kinship, gender, social networks, language compatibility and the needs of the business intersect with racialised notions of workers’ strengths and characteristics. Finally, we consider changing practices in relation to the employment of undocumented migrants, in the context of an increasingly punitive legislative regime. The complex and variable impact of policy alongside the ways in which other obligations and positions outweigh the fear and risks of sanctions associated with non-compliance is revealed. PMID:25866421

  18. 20 CFR 655.510 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... particular port to be performed by alien crewmembers. For each port, a prevailing practice can exist for any... EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using Alien Crewmembers for... attestations? An employer (or the employer's designated U.S. agent or representative) seeking to employ...

  19. 20 CFR 655.940 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer attestations. 655.940 Section 655.940 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Attestations by Employers Using F-1 Students in Off-Campus Work § 655.940 Employer attestations. (a)...

  20. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Maxwell W; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M; Huck, John D; Surtees, Jennifer A; Finkelstein, Ilya J

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2-Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2-Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2-Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2-Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2-Msh3 and Msh2-Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2-Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  1. Dynamic DNA binding licenses a repair factor to bypass roadblocks in search of DNA lesions

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Maxwell W.; Kim, Yoori; Williams, Gregory M.; Huck, John D.; Surtees, Jennifer A.; Finkelstein, Ilya J.

    2016-01-01

    DNA-binding proteins search for specific targets via facilitated diffusion along a crowded genome. However, little is known about how crowded DNA modulates facilitated diffusion and target recognition. Here we use DNA curtains and single-molecule fluorescence imaging to investigate how Msh2–Msh3, a eukaryotic mismatch repair complex, navigates on crowded DNA. Msh2–Msh3 hops over nucleosomes and other protein roadblocks, but maintains sufficient contact with DNA to recognize a single lesion. In contrast, Msh2–Msh6 slides without hopping and is largely blocked by protein roadblocks. Remarkably, the Msh3-specific mispair-binding domain (MBD) licences a chimeric Msh2–Msh6(3MBD) to bypass nucleosomes. Our studies contrast how Msh2–Msh3 and Msh2–Msh6 navigate on a crowded genome and suggest how Msh2–Msh3 locates DNA lesions outside of replication-coupled repair. These results also provide insights into how DNA repair factors search for DNA lesions in the context of chromatin. PMID:26837705

  2. Mismatch repair mRNA and protein expression in intestinal adenocarcinoma in sika deer (Cervus nippon) resembling heritable non-polyposis colorectal cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Jahns, H; Browne, J A

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal adenocarcinomas seen in an inbred herd of farmed sika deer (Cervus nippon) morphologically resembled human hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC). Features common to both included multiple de novo sites of tumourigenesis in the proximal colon, sessile and non-polyposis mucosal changes, the frequent finding of mucinous type adenocarcinoma, lymphocyte infiltration into the neoplastic tubules and Crohn's-like lymphoid follicles at the deep margin of the tumour. HNPCC is defined by a germline mutation of mismatch repair (MMR) genes resulting in their inactivation and loss of expression. To test the hypothesis that similar MMR gene inactivation occurs in the deer tumours, the expression of the four most important MMR genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6 and PMS2, was examined at the mRNA level by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (n = 12) and at the protein level by immunohistochemistry (n = 40) in tumour and control tissues. All four genes were expressed equally in normal and neoplastic tissues, so MMR gene inactivation could not be implicated in the carcinogenesis of this tumour in sika deer. PMID:25678423

  3. Diamond Synthesis Employing Nanoparticle Seeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uppireddi, Kishore (Inventor); Morell, Gerardo (Inventor); Weiner, Brad R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    Iron nanoparticles were employed to induce the synthesis of diamond on molybdenum, silicon, and quartz substrates. Diamond films were grown using conventional conditions for diamond synthesis by hot filament chemical vapor deposition, except that dispersed iron oxide nanoparticles replaced the seeding. This approach to diamond induction can be combined with dip pen nanolithography for the selective deposition of diamond and diamond patterning while avoiding surface damage associated to diamond-seeding methods.

  4. Achieving and sustaining full employment.

    PubMed

    Rosen, S M

    1995-01-01

    Human rights and public health considerations provide strong support for policies that maximize employment. Ample historical and conceptual evidence supports the feasibility of full employment policies. New factors affecting the labor force, the rate of technological change, and the globalization of economic activity require appropriate policies--international as well as national--but do not invalidate the ability of modern states to apply the measures needed. Among these the most important include: (I) systematic reduction in working time with no loss of income, (2) active labor market policies, (3) use of fiscal and monetary measures to sustain the needed level of aggregate demand, (4) restoration of equal bargaining power between labor and capital, (5) social investment in neglected and outmoded infrastructure, (6) accountability of corporations for decisions to shift or reduce capital investment, (7) major reductions in military spending, to be replaced by socially needed and economically productive expenditures, (8) direct public sector job creation, (9) reform of monetary policy to restore emphasis on minimizing unemployment and promoting full employment. None are without precedent in modern economies. The obstacles are ideological and political. To overcome them will require intellectual clarity and effective advocacy. PMID:7499512

  5. 78 FR 32470 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-30

    ... Employment and Training Administration Investigations Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker Adjustment..., the Director of the Office of Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, has... Trade Adjustment Assistance, Employment and Training Administration, U.S. Department of Labor, Room...

  6. 76 FR 5212 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Information Collection for Internal Fraud and...: Employment and Training Administration (ETA), Department of Labor. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of.... Currently, the Employment and Training Administration is soliciting comments concerning the Office...

  7. 76 FR 45621 - Employment and Training Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ... Employment and Training Administration Comment Request for Extension of Information Collection (Without... Temporary Employment Certification AGENCY: Employment and Training Administration. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY... Training Administration (ETA) is soliciting comments concerning the extension of the approval for...

  8. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective.... (c) Selective Service shall negotiate employment agreements with prospective employers with...

  9. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective.... (c) Selective Service shall negotiate employment agreements with prospective employers with...

  10. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective.... (c) Selective Service shall negotiate employment agreements with prospective employers with...

  11. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective.... (c) Selective Service shall negotiate employment agreements with prospective employers with...

  12. 32 CFR 1656.5 - Eligible employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.5 Eligible employment. (a) The Director will determine in accordance with the Selective.... (c) Selective Service shall negotiate employment agreements with prospective employers with...

  13. 75 FR 55392 - Employment Network Report Card

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION Employment Network Report Card AGENCY: Social Security Administration (SSA). ACTION: Notice of... public comments on Employment Network quality assurance, including a ticket consumer Employment...

  14. Employer`s contributions to the training of professional statisticians

    SciTech Connect

    Rustagi, J.S.; Wright, T. |

    1995-07-01

    Statistical science provides important techniques for decision making in a large variety of fields of human endeavor mainly through statistical practice. According to Deming (1965), ``Statistical practice is mostly a collaborative venture between (professional) statisticians and experts in subject-matter (area).`` The professional statistician must be properly trained in areas of statistical science most suited to the discipline in which the applications are made. Due to a large variety of applications. The education of a professional statistician by universities can only be very general. Higher education provides the theoretical basis of statistical science whereas the specific expertise needed by the professional statistician is given by the application areas. In this paper, the authors review the approach of academic programs which are geared towards applications and discuss some of the innovative strategies for preparing statisticians as consultants in industry and business. A survey (census) of statisticians at the national laboratories of the US Department of Energy was made to assess their training by universities and to get a broad view of additional training which has brought them to their present professional status. A particular interest is the extent to which employers have contributed to the training of statisticians. A few recommendations are made which may serve to improve the future training of statisticians for applied collaborative work by universities and employers.

  15. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community... quality, child care, health care, education, crime prevention and control, prisoner...

  16. Employability Skills, Personal Qualities, and Early Employment Problems of Entry-Level Auditors: Perspectives from Employers, Lecturers, Auditors, and Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Yet-Mee; Lee, Teck Heang; Yap, Ching Seng; Ling, Chui Ching

    2016-01-01

    The authors examine the issue of employability of university accounting students from the perspectives of accounting firm employers, junior auditors, accounting lecturers, and accounting students. Areas of investigation include perceived importance of employability skills and desirable personal qualities; and early employment problems encountered…

  17. Contrasting views on STEM employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Matthew; Huber, Michael

    2015-07-01

    In reply to “Unemployed and STEM” (Careers, May pp46-47), in which Penny Jackson described how her efforts to find a job in science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM) met with little success at first, even though she has a BSc in physics and a Master's in accelerator science. And in reply to “STEM paradox revisited” (Editorial, June p15), on why employers are expressing concerns about STEM shortages at a time when many recent STEM graduates are struggling to find jobs.

  18. 29 CFR 1625.5 - Employment applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the following effect: The Age Discrimination in Employment Act of 1967 prohibits discrimination on the... “employment applications,” refers to all written inquiries about employment or applications for employment or... relates not only to written preemployment inquiries, but to inquiries by employees concerning...

  19. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of taxes. Federal employment taxes are imposed by Subtitle C of the...

  20. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of taxes. Federal employment taxes are imposed by Subtitle C of the...

  1. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of taxes. Federal employment taxes are imposed by Subtitle C of the...

  2. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of taxes. Federal employment taxes are imposed by Subtitle C of the...

  3. 18 CFR 1313.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 1313.140... § 1313.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  4. 17 CFR 200.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 200.640 Section... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and Exchange Commission § 200.640 Employment....

  5. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment....

  6. 45 CFR 2104.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2104.140 Section 2104.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  7. 17 CFR 200.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 200.640 Section... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Securities and Exchange Commission § 200.640 Employment....

  8. 45 CFR 1181.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1181.140 Section 1181.140 Public... Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected to...

  9. 45 CFR 1214.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1214.140 Section 1214.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  10. 36 CFR 812.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 812.140 Section... PRESERVATION § 812.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  11. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  12. 36 CFR 812.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 812.140 Section... PRESERVATION § 812.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  13. 45 CFR 2104.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2104.140 Section 2104.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  14. 20 CFR 365.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 365.140 Section 365.140 Employees... § 365.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  15. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  16. 6 CFR 15.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 15.40 Section 15.40 Domestic... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of that disability, be subjected...

  17. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No...

  18. 3 CFR 102.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 3 The President 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 102.140 Section 102.140 Presidential... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT § 102.140 Employment....

  19. 17 CFR 149.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 149.140 Section... COMMISSION § 149.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  20. 16 CFR 6.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 6.140 Section 6.140 Commercial....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  1. 17 CFR 149.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 149.140 Section... COMMISSION § 149.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  2. 20 CFR 365.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 365.140 Section 365.140 Employees... § 365.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  3. 45 CFR 2301.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2301.140 Section 2301.140 Public... COMMISSION § 2301.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  4. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment....

  5. 45 CFR 2301.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2301.140 Section 2301.140 Public... COMMISSION § 2301.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  6. 5 CFR 2416.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 2416.140 Section 2416.140....140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  7. 22 CFR 711.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 711.140 Section 711.140 Foreign... CORPORATION § 711.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  8. 19 CFR 201.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 201.140 Section 201.140 Customs Duties... Commission § 201.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  9. 49 CFR 28.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 28.140 Section 28.140 Transportation... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION § 28.140 Employment. (a) No...

  10. 5 CFR 1636.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1636.140 Section 1636.140... § 1636.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  11. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 219.140 Section 219.140 Foreign... DEVELOPMENT § 219.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  12. 31 CFR 17.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 17.140 Section 17.140... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  13. 5 CFR 1636.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1636.140 Section 1636.140... § 1636.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  14. 38 CFR 15.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 15.140... § 15.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  15. 22 CFR 1701.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1701.140 Section 1701.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES INSTITUTE OF PEACE § 1701.140 Employment....

  16. 29 CFR 100.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 100.540 Section 100.540 Labor Regulations... § 100.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  17. 6 CFR 15.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment of... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 15.40 Section 15.40 Domestic... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of that disability, be subjected...

  18. 1 CFR 500.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 500.140 Section 500.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL COMMISSION FOR EMPLOYMENT POLICY § 500.140 Employment. No...

  19. 31 CFR 17.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment of... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 17.140 Section 17.140... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  20. 18 CFR 1313.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 1313.140... § 1313.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  1. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 12.140 Section 12.140... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY § 12.140 Employment....

  2. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 85.31 Section 85.31 Public Welfare....31 Employment. No qualified individuals with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  3. 5 CFR 2416.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 2416.140 Section 2416.140....140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, on the basis of disability,...

  4. 12 CFR 606.640 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in the agency. ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 606.640 Section 606.640 Banks and... Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  5. 38 CFR 15.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 15.140... § 15.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  6. 45 CFR 1214.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1214.140 Section 1214.140 Public....140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap, be...

  7. Legal Consequences of Employer Discharge Procedures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    The employment contract is sometimes misunderstood by both employees and employers. Drafters of employee manuals, policies, and procedures should be aware that the nature of the at-will employment relationship can be transformed into a binding employment contract by the words and phrases chosen. In this article, the author uses the case of Eric,…

  8. 20 CFR 702.111 - Employer's records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employer's records. 702.111 Section 702.111 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR... § 702.111 Employer's records. Every employer shall maintain adequate records of injury sustained...

  9. 45 CFR 1151.33 - Employment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... skills, aptitude, or other factors relevant to adequate performance of the job in question. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment criteria. 1151.33 Section 1151.33... Prohibited Employment § 1151.33 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use of any employment...

  10. 26 CFR 601.401 - Employment taxes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 20 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment taxes. 601.401 Section 601.401... STATEMENT OF PROCEDURAL RULES Provisions Special to Certain Employment Taxes § 601.401 Employment taxes. (a) General—(1) Description of taxes. Federal employment taxes are imposed by Subtitle C of the...

  11. Employability Skills Valued by Employers as Important for Entry-Level Employees with and without Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ju, Song; Zhang, Dalun; Pacha, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with disabilities face persistent challenges in gaining meaningful employment. One of the barriers to successful employment is a lack of employability skills. The purpose of this study was to identify employability skills that employers value as being important and to examine whether employers have different expectations for…

  12. Maternal Employment and Adolescent Development

    PubMed Central

    Ruhm, Christopher J.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates how maternal employment is related to the cognitive development and body weight of 10 and 11 year olds, controlling for a wide variety of child, mother and family characteristics. The results suggest that limited market work benefits youths who are relatively “disadvantaged” and even long hours, which occur infrequently, are unlikely to leave them much worse off. By contrast, maternal labor supply is estimated to have more uniformly harmful consequences for “advantaged” adolescents. The negative cognitive effects for these youths probably partly occur because maternal labor supply reduces the time spent in enriching home environments. Some of the growth in obesity may be related to determinants of excess weight common to the child and mother. PMID:19830269

  13. Immunohistochemistry staining for mismatch repair proteins: the endoscopic biopsy material provides useful and coherent results.

    PubMed

    Vilkin, Alex; Leibovici-Weissman, Ya'ara; Halpern, Marisa; Morgenstern, Sara; Brazovski, Eli; Gingold-Belfer, Rachel; Wasserberg, Nir; Brenner, Baruch; Niv, Yaron; Sneh-Arbib, Orly; Levi, Zohar

    2015-11-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) testing for mismatch repair proteins (MMRP) in patients with colorectal cancer can be performed on endoscopic biopsy material or the surgical resection material. Data are continuing to accumulate regarding the deleterious effect of neoadjuvant chemoradiation on MMRP expression. However, despite continuing rise in the use of endoscopic biopsies for IHC, most pathology departments still use mainly the surgical materials for IHC testing. In this study we compared the quality of stains among 96 colon cancer subjects with paired endoscopic and surgical material available for MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 stains (96 × 4, yielding 384 paired stains). Each slide received both a quantitative score (immunoreactivity [0-3] × percent positivity [0-4]) and a qualitative score (absent; weak and focal; strong). The quantitative scores of all MMRP were significantly higher among the endoscopic material (P<.001 for all). In 358 pairs (93.2%), both the endoscopic and operative material stained either strong (322, 83.9%) or absent (36, 9.4%). In 26 pairs (6.8%), the endoscopic material stained strong, whereas the operative material stained focal and weak. No endoscopic biopsy materials stained focal and weak. Our findings indicate that the biopsy material may provide more coherent results. Although these results may indicate that biopsy material provides coherent and useful results, it is yet to be determined if the demonstrated differences pose a real clinical problem in interpreting final results of IHC staining of such kind. Hence, we suggest that when available, the endoscopic material rather than the operative one should serve as the primary substrate for IHC staining.

  14. Employing helicity amplitudes for resummation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moult, Ian; Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.

    2016-05-01

    Many state-of-the-art QCD calculations for multileg processes use helicity amplitudes as their fundamental ingredients. We construct a simple and easy-to-use helicity operator basis in soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), for which the hard Wilson coefficients from matching QCD onto SCET are directly given in terms of color-ordered helicity amplitudes. Using this basis allows one to seamlessly combine fixed-order helicity amplitudes at any order they are known with a resummation of higher-order logarithmic corrections. In particular, the virtual loop amplitudes can be employed in factorization theorems to make predictions for exclusive jet cross sections without the use of numerical subtraction schemes to handle real-virtual infrared cancellations. We also discuss matching onto SCET in renormalization schemes with helicities in 4- and d -dimensions. To demonstrate that our helicity operator basis is easy to use, we provide an explicit construction of the operator basis, as well as results for the hard matching coefficients, for p p →H +0 , 1, 2 jets, p p →W /Z /γ +0 , 1, 2 jets, and p p →2 , 3 jets. These operator bases are completely crossing symmetric, so the results can easily be applied to processes with e+e- and e-p collisions.

  15. Biorheological methods employing the Weissenberg rheogoniometer.

    PubMed

    King, R G; Chien, S; Usami, S; Copley, A L

    1984-01-01

    The theories and spatial concepts of Karl Weissenberg have been applied to the science of biorheology by employing the Weissenberg Rheogoniometer. Two main types of experimental methods have been used for the characterization of the bulk shear properties of biorheological fluids: (A) In continuous laminar shearing motion, the tangential and normal components of stress are measured at a series of rates of shear. From these parameters, the apparent viscosity, an elastic modulus and a recoverable strain, are calculated as functions of the rate of shear. In this continuous shear experiment, the physical structure present in the material at any given rate of shear may be quite different from the material in its rest state or at other rates of shear. (B) In harmonic oscillatory motion, the material is subjected to a harmonic laminar shear about its rest state at a number of frequencies and small strain amplitudes. From these experiments the dynamic moduli of viscosity and elasticity are calculated. Preparations of biological materials, such as whole blood and systems of blood components, both in health and disease states, have been investigated using methods A and B, together with studies of surface layers of plasma proteins at interfaces.

  16. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  17. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  18. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  19. Employability and Employers: The Missing Piece of the Jigsaw. IES Report 361.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamkin, P.; Hillage, J.

    The approaches to employability being taken by United Kingdom employers were examined in a study that included three components: a literature review to develop a definition of employability and isolate its key elements; case studies of six organizations to identify employers' approaches to employability; and examination of related literature on…

  20. Rural and Urban Employment Patterns: Self-Employment As a Metaphor for Rural Vocational Rehabilitation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seekins, Tom

    This report examines the use of self-employment as a vocational rehabilitation option in rural areas. Self-employment is one of the fastest growing employment opportunities, as evidenced by the approximately 15.6 million people who reported being self-employed in 1990. Data from the 1980s comparing employment patterns in rural and urban areas…

  1. 75 FR 72841 - The Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer Outreach (ACVETEO); Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ...' Employment and Training Service The Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and Employer... November 2010. John M. McWilliam, Deputy Assistant Secretary, Veterans' Employment and Training Service.... SUMMARY: The business meeting of the Advisory Committee on Veterans' Employment, Training and...

  2. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  3. 5 CFR 315.704 - Conversion to career employment from indefinite or temporary employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conversion to career employment from... MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS CAREER AND CAREER-CONDITIONAL EMPLOYMENT Conversion to Career or Career-Conditional Employment From Other Types of Employment § 315.704 Conversion to career employment...

  4. The Future of Employment and Unemployment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Patricia; Burke, Ronald J.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the impact of microprocessor technology on employment. Examines the changing nature of work and questions whether full employment is natural or necessary. Outlines physical, psychological, social, and material aspects of work. Notes implications for teachers, counselors, and students. (RC)

  5. SEEMP: A Networked Marketplace for Employment Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celino, Irene; Cerizza, Dario; Cesarini, Mirko; Valle, Emanuele Della; de Paoli, Flavio; Estublier, Jacky; Fugini, Mariagrazia; Pérez, Asuncion Gómez; Kerrigan, Mick; Guarrera, Pascal; Mezzanzanica, Mario; Ramìrez, Jaime; Villazon, Boris; Zhao, Gang

    Human capital is more and more the key factor of economic growth and competitiveness in the information age and knowledge economy. But due to a still fragmented employment market compounded by the enlargement of the EU, the human resources are not effectively exchanged and deployed. The business innovation of SEEMP1 develops a vision of an Employment Mediation Marketplace (EMM) for market transparency and effic ient mediation. Its technological innovation provides a federated marketplace of employment agencies through a peer-to-peer network of employment data and mediation services. In other words, the solution under development is a de-fragmentation of the employment market by a web-based collaborative network. The SEEMP-enabled employment marketplace will strengthen the social organization of public employment administration, maximize the business turnover of private employment agencies, improve citizens' productivity and welfare, and increase the competitiveness and performance of business.

  6. 45 CFR 2555.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be... pursue training; (9) Employer-sponsored activities, including social or recreational programs; and...

  7. 32 CFR 1656.8 - Employment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE..., Selective Service and the employer shall enter into an employment agreement that specifies their respective duties and responsibilities under the Alternative Service Program. (b) Restrictions on Selective...

  8. 32 CFR 1656.8 - Employment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE..., Selective Service and the employer shall enter into an employment agreement that specifies their respective duties and responsibilities under the Alternative Service Program. (b) Restrictions on Selective...

  9. 32 CFR 1656.8 - Employment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE..., Selective Service and the employer shall enter into an employment agreement that specifies their respective duties and responsibilities under the Alternative Service Program. (b) Restrictions on Selective...

  10. 32 CFR 1656.8 - Employment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE..., Selective Service and the employer shall enter into an employment agreement that specifies their respective duties and responsibilities under the Alternative Service Program. (b) Restrictions on Selective...

  11. 32 CFR 1656.8 - Employment agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE..., Selective Service and the employer shall enter into an employment agreement that specifies their respective duties and responsibilities under the Alternative Service Program. (b) Restrictions on Selective...

  12. 45 CFR 85.31 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (9 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 9 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment...

  13. 22 CFR 219.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment...

  14. Employment Characteristics of Indochinese Refugees: January 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bach, Robert L.

    1980-01-01

    Summarizes Immigration and Naturalization Service data on demographic characteristics and employment of Indochinese refugees. Reports that employment increases with time in the United States, and that refugee dependence on public assistance will be reduced. (ST)

  15. Employer's Perceptions of Agribusiness Placement SOE Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Gregory W.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Research was conducted to determine the benefits derived from agribusiness supervised occupational experience programs and to identify factors important in planning and/or conducting students' agribusiness employment experiences as perceived by employers of vocational agriculture students. (CT)

  16. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent.... Seasonal employment may not be used as a substitute for full-time employment or as a buffer for the...

  17. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent.... Seasonal employment may not be used as a substitute for full-time employment or as a buffer for the...

  18. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  19. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  20. 21 CFR 1314.50 - Employment measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment measures. 1314.50 Section 1314.50 Food... CHEMICAL PRODUCTS Sales by Regulated Sellers § 1314.50 Employment measures. A regulated seller may take reasonable measures to guard against employing individuals who may present a risk with respect to the...

  1. 29 CFR 2205.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 2205.140 Section 2205.140 Labor Regulations... REVIEW COMMISSION § 2205.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  2. Legislation and Part-Time Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Allan L.; And Others

    This document presents an analysis of part-time employment issues in California community colleges, including a review of historical developments of the law covering the employment of certificated personnel, a review of some benefits and problems associated with part-time teaching, and consideration of part-time faculty employment as a major issue…

  3. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 86.51 Section 86.51 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN... in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 86.51 Employment. (a) General. (1)...

  4. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent.... Seasonal employment may not be used as a substitute for full-time employment or as a buffer for the...

  5. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent.... Seasonal employment may not be used as a substitute for full-time employment or as a buffer for the...

  6. 5 CFR 340.402 - Seasonal employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS OTHER THAN FULL-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT (PART-TIME, SEASONAL, ON-CALL, AND INTERMITTENT) Seasonal and intermittent.... Seasonal employment may not be used as a substitute for full-time employment or as a buffer for the...

  7. Hispanic Self-Employment: Does Gender Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiker, Virginia Solis; Katras, Mary Jo; Montalto, Catherine P.; Olson, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    Drawing on human capital, social capital, and acculturation theories, gender differences in income were examined among 7,760 self-employed Hispanic Americans in California, using 1990 census data. Hispanic self-employed women earned less than Hispanic self-employed men and were more likely to be in service occupations. Having less than a high…

  8. Employment Considerations of AIDS in Dental Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crumpler, Diane C.; Carey, Moses

    1987-01-01

    Policies governing the employment of health care workers with AIDS, and the AIDS employment issue facing dental practitioners, administrators, and educators are discussed. Legal considerations of AIDS in the workplace are addressed as to HIV testing, employee rights to gain and/or retain employment, economic considerations, and confidentiality…

  9. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a...

  10. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a...

  11. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a...

  12. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a...

  13. 32 CFR 1656.7 - Employer responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM ALTERNATIVE SERVICE § 1656.7 Employer responsibilities. Employers participating in the Alternative Service Program are responsible for: (a) Complying with the employment agreement with Selective Service; (b) Providing a...

  14. Employment Policy in the Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Eddy; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This special issue on employment policy in the global economy looks at macroeconomic policies and employment, institutional requirements for full employment, the world trade system, foreign investment, the marginalism of Africa, productivity enhancing policies, influence of information and communication technology, industrialized countries, and…

  15. High School Employment and Youths' Academic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothstein, Donna S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper asks whether employment during high school impacts youths' grade point average. Unlike much of the prior literature, it allows for the endogeneity of the hours and dropout decisions, uses ASVAB test scores, and tests whether youth employment is dynamic. The results indicate that high school employment and its lag have small, negative…

  16. Employer Preferences for Resumes and Cover Letters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullery, Nancy M.; Ickes, Linda; Schullery, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of employers' preferences for resume style, resume delivery method, and cover letters. Employers still widely prefer the standard chronological resume, with only 3% desiring a scannable resume. The vast majority of employers prefer electronic delivery, either by email (46%) or at the company's Web site…

  17. Employer Engagement in Education: Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mann, Anthony; Dawkins, James

    2014-01-01

    The subject of this paper is employer engagement in education. In this, the authors consider the range of different ways that employers can support the learning and progression of young people in British schools. The paper draws on a wide range of source material to ask: What are the typical benefits of different types of employer engagement? Do…

  18. Developing Employability in Higher Education Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    The development of employability in higher music education concerns students, musicians, educators, administrators and funding bodies, and yet employability is both impossible to measure and poorly defined. This paper sets the context for a set of short papers that explore employability from the perspective of music. Because many of the issues…

  19. TANF Education and Training: Nebraska's Employment First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohan, Lavanya

    2014-01-01

    Nebraska's Employment First (EF) program allows parents who receive TANF cash assistance to pursue education and training that improves their ability to secure employment and long-term economic success. A parent must negotiate and sign an Employment First contract, facilitated by a case worker, between the participating parent and the state of…

  20. 1970 Inter-Agency Employment Meeting (Navajo).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona Commission of Indian Affairs, Phoenix.

    The document provides names of participants, a meeting agenda, and a record of proceedings of the Inter-Agency Employment Meeting held in Window Rock, Arizona, on April 15, 1970. Representatives of various agencies concerned with the problem of Navajo Indian employment (e.g., the Arizona State Employment Commission, Bureau of Indian Affairs, and…

  1. 47 CFR 1.1840 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... U.S.C. 791, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR parts 1614 and... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1.1840 Section 1.1840... Commission § 1.1840 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  2. 24 CFR 9.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613 (subpart G), shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 9.140 Section 9.140... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.140 Employment. No qualified individual with...

  3. 5 CFR 1850.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1850.140 Section 1850.140... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE OFFICE OF SPECIAL COUNSEL § 1850.140 Employment. No...

  4. 34 CFR 105.30 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 105.30 Section 105.30 Education Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.30 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis...

  5. 5 CFR 1207.130 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1207.130 Section 1207.130... BOARD § 1207.130 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  6. 45 CFR 1803.9 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1803.9 Section 1803.9 Public Welfare... THE BASIS OF HANDICAP § 1803.9 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the...

  7. 45 CFR 1175.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1175.140 Section 1175.140 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES § 1175.140 Employment....

  8. 49 CFR 1014.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1014.140 Section 1014.140... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1014.140 Employment....

  9. 43 CFR 3861.5-2 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 3861.5-2 Section 3861.5-2 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...-2 Employment. A mineral claimant may employ any United States mineral surveyor qualified...

  10. 39 CFR 255.5 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in 29 CFR part 1614 shall apply to employment within the Postal Service. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 255.5 Section 255.5 Postal Service... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability, be subjected...

  11. 34 CFR 1200.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1200.140 Section 1200.140 Education... COUNCIL ON DISABILITY § 1200.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis...

  12. 32 CFR 1699.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1699.140 Section 1699.140 National....140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap, be subjected...

  13. 1 CFR 457.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 457.140 Section 457.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.140 Employment. No...

  14. 49 CFR 1014.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1014.140 Section 1014.140... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD § 1014.140 Employment....

  15. 22 CFR 1510.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1510.140 Section 1510.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.140 Employment. No...

  16. 14 CFR 1251.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1251.540 Section 1251.540... Aeronautics and Space Administration § 1251.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall,...

  17. 12 CFR 268.705 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 268.705 Section 268.705 Banks and... Physical or Mental Disability § 268.705 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of a disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  18. 24 CFR 9.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613 (subpart G), shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 9.140 Section 9.140... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT § 9.140 Employment. No qualified individual with...

  19. 43 CFR 17.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 17.540 Section 17.540 Public... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.540 Employment. No...

  20. 22 CFR 1103.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1103.140 Section 1103.140 Foreign... BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION § 1103.140 Employment....

  1. 45 CFR 1153.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1153.140 Section 1153.140 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS § 1153.140 Employment. No...

  2. 28 CFR 39.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 39.140 Section 39.140... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE § 39.140 Employment. No qualified...

  3. 5 CFR 1207.130 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1207.130 Section 1207.130... BOARD § 1207.130 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  4. 10 CFR 1041.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1041.140 Section 1041.140 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY § 1041.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person...

  5. 46 CFR 507.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 507.140 Section 507.140 Shipping FEDERAL... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION § 507.140 Employment....

  6. 44 CFR 16.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 16.140 Section 16... CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.140 Employment. No qualified individual...

  7. 15 CFR 8c.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 8c.40 Section 8c.40... BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE § 8c.40...

  8. 36 CFR 1208.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1208.140 Section... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION § 1208.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall,...

  9. 41 CFR 105-8.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 105-8.140... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION § 105-8.140 Employment. No...

  10. 36 CFR 909.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 909.140 Section... DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION § 909.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  11. 12 CFR 794.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 794.140 Section 794.140 Banks and... CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION § 794.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped...

  12. 36 CFR 1154.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally-conducted programs or activities. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1154.140 Section... ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.140 Employment. No qualified...

  13. 25 CFR 720.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 720.140 Section 720.140 Indians THE OFFICE OF... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION § 720.140 Employment....

  14. 45 CFR 2490.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 2490.140 Section 2490.140 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps...

  15. 22 CFR 1005.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1005.140 Section 1005.140 Foreign... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped...

  16. 47 CFR 1.1840 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... U.S.C. 791, as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR parts 1614 and... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1.1840 Section 1.1840... Commission § 1.1840 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of...

  17. 1 CFR 457.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 457.140 Section 457.140 General... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL CAPITAL PLANNING COMMISSION § 457.140 Employment. No...

  18. 12 CFR 268.705 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 268.705 Section 268.705 Banks and... Physical or Mental Disability § 268.705 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of a disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or...

  19. 45 CFR 2490.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 2490.140 Section 2490.140 Public... MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION § 2490.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps...

  20. 29 CFR 4907.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 29 Labor 9 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 4907.140 Section 4907.140 Labor Regulations... THE PENSION BENEFIT GUARANTY CORPORATION § 4907.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person...

  1. 36 CFR 1154.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally-conducted programs or activities. ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1154.140 Section... ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD § 1154.140 Employment. No qualified...

  2. 12 CFR 410.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 410.140 Section 410.140 Banks and... IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES § 410.140...

  3. 34 CFR 105.30 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 105.30 Section 105.30 Education Regulations... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION § 105.30 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis...

  4. 45 CFR 1153.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1153.140 Section 1153.140 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE ARTS § 1153.140 Employment. No...

  5. 10 CFR 4.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 4.540 Section 4.540 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY... Activities Conducted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission § 4.540 Employment. No qualified...

  6. 12 CFR 352.6 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... CFR parts 1614 and 1630, shall apply to employment in the FDIC. ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 352.6 Section 352.6 Banks and... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY § 352.6 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall,...

  7. 43 CFR 17.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 17.540 Section 17.540 Public... Programs or Activities Conducted by the Department of the Interior § 17.540 Employment. No...

  8. 10 CFR 1041.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1041.140 Section 1041.140 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY § 1041.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person...

  9. 39 CFR 255.5 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in 29 CFR part 1614 shall apply to employment within the Postal Service. ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 255.5 Section 255.5 Postal Service... Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability, be subjected...

  10. 44 CFR 16.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 16.140 Section 16... CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY § 16.140 Employment. No qualified individual...

  11. 22 CFR 1005.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Employment. 1005.140 Section 1005.140 Foreign... ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION § 1005.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped...

  12. 25 CFR 720.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 720.140 Section 720.140 Indians THE OFFICE OF... OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NAVAJO AND HOPI INDIAN RELOCATION COMMISSION § 720.140 Employment....

  13. 14 CFR 1251.540 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Employment. 1251.540 Section 1251.540... Aeronautics and Space Administration § 1251.540 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall,...

  14. 36 CFR 909.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 909.140 Section... DEVELOPMENT CORPORATION § 909.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of...

  15. 36 CFR 1208.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employment. 1208.140 Section... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION § 1208.140 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall,...

  16. 32 CFR 1807.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 1807.140 Section 1807.140 National... CENTER § 1807.140 Employment. No qualified individual with disabilities shall, solely on the basis...

  17. 22 CFR 1510.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1510.140 Section 1510.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE AFRICAN DEVELOPMENT FOUNDATION § 1510.140 Employment. No...

  18. 13 CFR 136.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... established by the EEOC in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 136.140 Section 136....140 Employment. (a) No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on the basis of handicap,...

  19. 46 CFR 507.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 507.140 Section 507.140 Shipping FEDERAL... HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION § 507.140 Employment....

  20. 22 CFR 144.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 144.140 Section 144.140 Foreign... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF STATE § 144.140 Employment....

  1. 22 CFR 1103.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Employment. 1103.140 Section 1103.140 Foreign... BOUNDARY AND WATER COMMISSION, UNITED STATES AND MEXICO, UNITED STATES SECTION § 1103.140 Employment....

  2. 45 CFR 1175.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 1175.140 Section 1175.140 Public... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY THE NATIONAL ENDOWMENT FOR THE HUMANITIES § 1175.140 Employment....

  3. 15 CFR 8c.40 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR Part 1613, shall apply to employment in...

  4. 7 CFR 15e.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1614, shall apply to employment in federally...

  5. 12 CFR 410.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally...

  6. 40 CFR 12.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment under any program or activity conducted by the agency. The definitions, requirements, and procedures of section 501 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally...

  7. 10 CFR 4.124 - Employment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Employment criteria. 4.124 Section 4.124 Energy NUCLEAR... 1973, as Amended Discriminatory Practices § 4.124 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may not make use... available. (b) A recipient shall select and administer tests concerning employment so as best to ensure...

  8. Workplace Basics: The Skills Employers Want.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnevale, Anthony P.; And Others

    A two-year research project was conducted to determine the skills employers consider necessary for the workplace. Recent changes in the economy have made employers begin to realize that they must assist their current and future workers in achieving competency in workplace basics if they are to be competitive. Employers have come to realize the…

  9. 45 CFR 1170.23 - Employment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicant's or employee's job skills, aptitude, or other factors relevant to adequate performance of the job... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment criteria. 1170.23 Section 1170.23... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.23 Employment criteria. (a) A recipient may...

  10. 16 CFR 1034.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Employment. 1034.140 Section 1034.140 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...

  11. 16 CFR 1034.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Employment. 1034.140 Section 1034.140 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...

  12. 49 CFR 807.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD § 807.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 807.140 Section 807.140...

  13. 49 CFR 807.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....C. 791), as established by the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall... TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD § 807.140 Employment. No qualified handicapped person shall, on the basis of handicap... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Employment. 807.140 Section 807.140...

  14. 46 CFR 12.805 - Employer requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... an employer-conducted background check. The report must contain— (i) A statement that the applicant has successfully undergone an employer-conducted background check; (ii) A description of the employer-conducted background check, including all databases and records searched. The background check must, at...

  15. Specialized ADR To Settle Faculty Employment Disputes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiNardo, Lawrence C.; Sherrill, John A.; Palmer, Anna R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents an innovative approach to resolution of faculty employment disputes at institutions of higher education. Discusses the framework in which faculty employment issues arise, the current state of alternative dispute resolution (ADR) as it is relevant to employment disputes, and the substantial benefits which could be achieved by developing a…

  16. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  17. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  18. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  19. 29 CFR 1604.6 - Employment agencies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... BECAUSE OF SEX § 1604.6 Employment agencies. (a) Section 703(b) of the Civil Rights Act specifically... of sex. The Commission has determined that private employment agencies which deal exclusively with one sex are engaged in an unlawful employment practice, except to the extent that such agencies...

  20. Discourses on Employability: Constituting the Responsible Citizen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fejes, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    In the last couple of decades, there has been a shift from speaking about employment to speaking about employability. The interest in this article is directed at how discourses on employability are mobilised in the wider discursive terrain of governance. How does governance operate, what subject is produced and, more specifically, who is…

  1. Employment Patterns of Methadone Maintenance Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Harriet I.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Analysis of employment patterns of methadone maintenance clients had indicated that the majority were not employed at time of program admission. At time of evaluation, 70 percent of the sample were employed; 88 percent of these clients had previous work histories and brought marketable skills with them. (Author)

  2. 20 CFR 655.940 - Employer attestations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... positions unrelated to their field of study, is that the employer provides the educational institution and...) Having jobs requiring a substantially similar level of skills within the area of intended employment; or... employer for the duration of the F-1 student's course of study or until September 30, 1996,...

  3. Psychological Factors Associated with Obtaining Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Elizabeth; Kroese, Biza Stenfert; Rose, John

    2007-01-01

    Background: Less than 10% of people with intellectual disabilities are employed. The aim of the present study was to investigate what psychological factors might predict employment outcome for people with intellectual disability who had received a placement in a supported employment service. Method: Sixty people were interviewed whilst they were…

  4. 20 CFR 702.111 - Employer's records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employer's records. 702.111 Section 702.111 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF WORKERS' COMPENSATION PROGRAMS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LONGSHOREMEN'S AND HARBOR... § 702.111 Employer's records. Every employer shall maintain adequate records of injury sustained...

  5. Teenagers: Employment and Contributions to Family Spending.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David S.; Lino, Mark

    2000-01-01

    One-third of all teenagers were employed during 1997 98. Adolescents were more likely to be employed if one or both parents worked. The average family income of employed teens was greater than that of unemployed teens. Most working adolescents' earnings do not go toward family necessities. (Contains 24 notes and references.) (SK)

  6. Functional domains of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1p and Pms1p DNA mismatch repair proteins and their relevance to human hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer-associated mutations.

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Q; Prolla, T A; Liskay, R M

    1997-01-01

    The MutL protein is an essential component of the Escherichia coli methyl-directed mismatch repair system but has no known enzymatic function. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the MutL equivalent, an Mlh1p and Pms1p heterodimer, interacts with Msh2p bound to mismatch-containing DNA. Little is known of the functional domains of Mlh1p and Pms1p. In this report, we define the Mlh1p and Pms1p domains required for Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. The Mlh1p-interactive domain of Pms1p is comprised of 260 amino acids near the carboxyl terminus while the Pms1p-interactive domain of Mlh1p resides in the final 212 residues. The two domains are sufficient for Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction, as determined by the two-hybrid assay and by in vitro protein affinity chromatography. Deletions within the domains completely eliminated Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we altered a number of highly conserved residues in the Mlh1p and Pms1p proteins, including some alterations that mimic germline mutations observed for human hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer. Alterations either in the consensus MutL box located in the amino-terminal portion of each protein or in the carboxyl-terminal homology motif of Mlh1p eliminated DNA mismatch repair function but had no effect on Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. In addition, certain MLH1 and PMS1 mutant alleles caused a dominant negative mutator effect when overexpressed. We discuss the implications of these findings for the structural organization of the Mlh1p and Pms1p proteins and the importance of Mlh1p-Pms1p interaction. PMID:9234704

  7. Physician-hospital alignment: "employment lite".

    PubMed

    Hunter, Craig; Baum, Neil

    2013-01-01

    The American healthcare delivery system is undergoing a major change that involves independent solo and small groups of doctors becoming employed by hospitals. Some describe this as a paradigm shift; we view it as a tsunami that is engulfing physicians across the nation. This phenomenon is unfamiliar to most physicians and represents huge risks with the shift from private, fee-for-service practices to practicing as an employee of a hospital. This article discusses the pitfalls associated with the transfer to a hospital employee using a concept called "employment lite." It presents the advantages and disadvantages of employment lite and why this might serve as an alternative to a fully employed hospital physician. The employment lite option is similar to employment in that it allows the physician to enjoy most of the nuances of employment, yet maintain a desirable level of independence. PMID:23547505

  8. 45 CFR 400.75 - Registration for employment services, participation in employability service programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., participation in employability service programs and targeted assistance programs, going to job interviews, and... Employment General Requirements § 400.75 Registration for employment services, participation in employability... which is arranged through such agency or service; and (iii) Participate in a social service or...

  9. 45 CFR 400.75 - Registration for employment services, participation in employability service programs and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., participation in employability service programs and targeted assistance programs, going to job interviews, and... Employment General Requirements § 400.75 Registration for employment services, participation in employability... which is arranged through such agency or service; and (iii) Participate in a social service or...

  10. The ICD Survey II: Employing Disabled Americans. A Nationwide Survey of 920 Employers. Study No. 864009.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on the Handicapped, Washington, DC.

    A survey explored what 921 managers nationwide are doing to employ disabled people and return disabled employees to work. It identified barriers that prevent employers from hiring disabled people and steps public and private sectors could take to increase their employment. Employers gave their disabled employees high marks as hard working,…

  11. 41 CFR 60-3.10 - Employment agencies and employment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment services. 60-3.10 Section 60-3.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... Employment agencies and employment services. A. Where selection procedures are devised by agency. An... elsewhere. Where an employment agency or service is requested to administer a selection procedure which...

  12. 41 CFR 60-3.10 - Employment agencies and employment services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... employment services. 60-3.10 Section 60-3.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions... Employment agencies and employment services. A. Where selection procedures are devised by agency. An... elsewhere. Where an employment agency or service is requested to administer a selection procedure which...

  13. 29 CFR 33.7 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Act of 1973 (29 U.S.C. 791), as established in 29 CFR part 1613 (subpart G), shall apply to employment... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Employment. 33.7 Section 33.7 Labor Office of the Secretary... CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF LABOR § 33.7 Employment. No qualified individual with handicaps shall, on...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1009 - Who is an employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Who is an employer. 404.1009 Section 404.1009...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1009 Who is an employer. A person is an employer if he or she employs at least one employee. Sometimes it is not clear who a...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1009 - Who is an employer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Who is an employer. 404.1009 Section 404.1009...- ) Employment, Wages, Self-Employment, and Self-Employment Income Employment § 404.1009 Who is an employer. A person is an employer if he or she employs at least one employee. Sometimes it is not clear who a...

  16. 29 CFR 530.103 - Employer assurances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... made available for inspection and transcription by the Administrator or a duly authorized and designated representative, or transcription by the employer upon written request. (g) Piece rates paid...

  17. Full employment maintenance in the private sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, G. A.

    1976-01-01

    Operationally, full employment can be accomplished by applying modern computer capabilities, game and decision concepts, and communication feedback possibilities, rather than accepted economic tools, to the problem of assuring invariant full employment. The government must provide positive direction to individual firms concerning the net number of employees that each firm must hire or refrain from hiring to assure national full employment. To preserve free enterprise and the decision making power of the individual manager, this direction must be based on each private firm's own numerical employment projections.

  18. 45 CFR 86.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... recipient; (8) Selection and financial support for training, including apprenticeship, professional meetings... leaves of absence to pursue training; (9) Employer-sponsored activities, including those that are...

  19. Employer attitudes toward persons with visible tattoos.

    PubMed

    Bekhor, P S; Bekhor, L; Gandrabur, M

    1995-05-01

    A total of 242 employers were surveyed over the telephone to assess their attitudes toward prospective employees with visible tattooing. Employers were divided into eight categories according to type of industry. Responses to the survey were tabulated and confidence intervals produced. It would appear that significant bias exists against the employment of persons with visible tattoos in the hospitality, beauty, retail and office sectors where less than 30% of those surveyed would employ a person with a tattoo. All industries except building and the public service admitted that they would be influenced by a visible tattoo in over 40% of cases. PMID:7646392

  20. Predictors of employment after liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sahota, Amandeep; Zaghla, Hassan; Adkins, Rodney; Ramji, Alnoor; Lewis, Susan; Moser, Jennifer; Sher, Linda S; Fong, Tse-Ling

    2006-01-01

    Employment after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) indicates recipients' physical/psychosocial adjustment. Our aim was to determine clinical, socioeconomic and health-related quality of life parameters influencing employment after OLT. Questionnaire on demographics, medical conditions, alcohol and drug use before/after OLT, and a validated 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) were mailed to 126 adult OLT patients. Stepwise logistic regression was conducted to identify best predictors of post-OLT employment. Among non-retirees, 49% were employed after OLT. The predictors of employment were: employment status, income, disability status before OLT and Model of End Stage Liver Disease score. These variables had prediction rate of 82%. Individuals working during the five yr prior to OLT were likely to return to work (p<0.0001), particularly those who held a job for >6 months prior to OLT (p<0.0001), income>$80 000 before OLT compared with <$30 000 (p=0.036). Patients receiving Social Security Insurance (SSI) payment for >or=6 months prior to OLT, were less likely to work (p=0.0005). Severity/duration of liver dysfunction prior to OLT did not correlate with employment. Sense of physical health was poorer in those employed after OLT than in unemployed (p=0.0003). Socioeconomic factors were the most important predictors of post-OLT employment. PMID:16842527

  1. Employer Practices in Improving Employment Outcomes for People with Disabilities: A Transdisciplinary and Employer-Inclusive Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrington, Linda; Bruyère, M.; Waelder, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Share new knowledge about workplace practices related to employer success in hiring, retaining, and promoting people with disabilities, and promote use of findings to employers and service providers. Design: A transdisciplinary and multifaceted data gathering approach. Results: Provides an overview of the research approach taken and the…

  2. An analysis of the procedural components of supported employment programs associated with employment outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    McDonnell, J; Nofs, D; Hardman, M; Chambless, C

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the relation between the procedural components of supported employment programs and employment outcomes for 120 individuals with disabilities. These individuals were involved in supported employment programs established through the Utah Supported Employment Project. The results suggest that successful implementation of supported employment services led to ongoing employment of study participants in community work sites, increased wages, and ongoing opportunities for workers to interact with nondisabled peers. In addition, several procedural components were found to be strongly associated with successful employment outcomes for workers. Results of the study are discussed in terms of the training needs of supported employment program staff and future research for the dissemination of a cohesive technology of supported employment. PMID:2613600

  3. Considerations and Outcomes in Transitional Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Ross, Robert; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The Employment Retention Program is a supported employment program involved in job placement and intensive worksite training of graduating handicapped youth, emphasizing retention strategies that transfer supervision to nonhandicapped co-workers and that promote social interactions between handicapped employees and co-workers. At followup, 60…

  4. 50 CFR 550.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION § 550.140 Employment. No...

  5. 50 CFR 550.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION § 550.140 Employment. No...

  6. 50 CFR 550.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION § 550.140 Employment. No...

  7. 45 CFR 1706.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... INFORMATION SCIENCE ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY NATIONAL COMMISSION ON LIBRARIES AND INFORMATION SCIENCE § 1706.140 Employment. No...

  8. 50 CFR 550.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION § 550.140 Employment. No...

  9. 50 CFR 550.140 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Commission in 29 CFR part 1613, shall apply to employment in federally conducted programs or activities. ... Wildlife and Fisheries MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION ENFORCEMENT OF NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES CONDUCTED BY MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION § 550.140 Employment. No...

  10. Alternative Youth Employment Strategies Project: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadd, Susan; And Others

    The Alternative Youth Employment Strategies (AYES) Project began as one of the demonstration projects funded under the Youth Employment and Demonstration Project Act in 1980. The program, which features three training models, is targeted toward high-risk, disadvantaged youth, especially minority youths from urban areas who had prior involvement…

  11. 20 CFR 632.79 - Employment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING PROGRAMS Program Design and Management § 632.79 Employment activities. (a) Community... entities. (b) Work experience. (1) Work experience is a short-term or part-time work assignment with an... private-for-profit sector. (2) Participation in work experience shall be for a reasonable length of...

  12. Benefits & Incentives for Students Entering Supported Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Thomas H.; Moore, Stephen C.

    1992-01-01

    This article describes available benefits and work incentives affecting supported employment placement for students with severe disabilities, including payment for necessary supports (state programs and the Department of Labor), protection of benefits (Social Security programs), and incentives to employers (the Targeted Job Tax Credits program and…

  13. Musician and Teacher: Employability and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, James

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study into factors that contribute to the employability of music graduates as teachers. By considering the results of a survey that covered a range of contexts, as well as interviews with secondary school head teachers, it considers the relationship between self-identity and employability. It finds that, in developing…

  14. The Employment of Rural Farm Wives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, James A.

    For the most part an analysis of data from the 1960 Census of Population and Housing, this paper compared the employment rates of married farm women with those of married nonfarm women, the employment rates of rural farm women in different kinds of geographic areas, and the effects of a variety of individual characteristics on the employment…

  15. 29 CFR 36.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  16. 14 CFR 1253.505 - Employment criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 1253.505 Employment... opportunity that has a disproportionately adverse effect on persons on the basis of sex unless: (a) Use...

  17. 29 CFR 36.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  18. 29 CFR 36.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Secretary of Labor NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 36.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be...

  19. Employer Duties to Accommodate Handicapped Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Richard I.

    1980-01-01

    Examines proposed legislation that would add handicapped individuals to Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. Discusses the appropriateness of this proposal, the coverage of the act, the accomodation requirements to be imposed on employers, and the advisability of having the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission administer the legislation.…

  20. Employment Prospects for College Graduates. Policy Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Cathy; Ottinger, Cecilia

    Recent and projected trends in the economy and implications for college graduates are considered. Projected changes during 1982-1995 in the employment of college-educated workers are indicated for about 85 occupations, using percentages indicating fast to slow increases/decreases in opportunity. Employment forecasts for the following types of…

  1. An Employer Needs Assessment for Vocational Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muraski, Ed J.; Whiteman, Dick

    An employer needs assessment study was performed at Porterville College (PC), in California in 1991 as part of a comprehensive educational planning process for PC and the surrounding area. A validated survey instrument was sent to a stratified random sampling of 593 employers in the community, asking them to provide general information about their…

  2. Continuing Controversy in Equal Employment Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Carl W.; Robles, Martin J.

    1980-01-01

    Some current controversies in the growing body of equal employment law are examined: wage comparability in the context of sex discrimination; procedural sections of the laws and related litigation; class actions by the Equal Employment Opportunities Commission; the scope of litigation; and the criteria for conferring standing on the plaintiff.…

  3. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the...

  4. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the...

  5. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the...

  6. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the...

  7. 22 CFR 62.16 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employment. 62.16 Section 62.16 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM General Provisions § 62.16 Employment. (a) An exchange visitor may receive compensation from the sponsor or the...

  8. 22 CFR 62.74 - Student employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Student employment. 62.74 Section 62.74 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.74 Student employment. (a) Students meeting the definition...

  9. 22 CFR 62.74 - Student employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Student employment. 62.74 Section 62.74 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.74 Student employment. (a) Students meeting the definition...

  10. 22 CFR 62.74 - Student employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Student employment. 62.74 Section 62.74 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.74 Student employment. (a) Students meeting the definition...

  11. 22 CFR 62.74 - Student employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Student employment. 62.74 Section 62.74 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PUBLIC DIPLOMACY AND EXCHANGES EXCHANGE VISITOR PROGRAM Student and Exchange Visitor Information System (SEVIS) § 62.74 Student employment. (a) Students meeting the definition...

  12. 7 CFR 15a.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs and Activities Prohibited § 15a.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded... status because of sex. (3) A recipient shall not enter into any contractual or other relationship...

  13. 38 CFR 23.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 23.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  14. 10 CFR 5.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 5.500 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded...

  15. 45 CFR 618.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Employment. 618.500 Section 618.500 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment...

  16. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited...

  17. 34 CFR 106.51 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited § 106.51 Employment. (a) General. (1) No person shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in,...

  18. 31 CFR 28.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Employment. 28.500 Section 28.500 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education...

  19. 15 CFR 8a.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Employment. 8a.500 Section 8a.500 Commerce and Foreign Trade Office of the Secretary of Commerce NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs...

  20. 22 CFR 146.500 - Employment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employment. 146.500 Section 146.500 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE CIVIL RIGHTS NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX IN EDUCATION PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Discrimination on the Basis of Sex in Employment in Education Programs or Activities Prohibited...