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Sample records for enables cleistothecial formation

  1. DISK FORMATION ENABLED BY ENHANCED RESISTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang Hsien; Li Zhiyun

    2010-06-20

    Disk formation in magnetized cloud cores is hindered by magnetic braking. Previous work has shown that for realistic levels of core magnetization, the magnetic field suppresses the formation of rotationally supported disks during the protostellar mass accretion phase of low-mass star formation both in the ideal MHD limit and in the presence of ambipolar diffusion for typical rates of cosmic-ray ionization. Additional effects, such as ohmic dissipation, the Hall effect, and protostellar outflow, are needed to weaken the magnetic braking and enable the formation of persistent, rotationally supported, protostellar disks. In this paper, we first demonstrate that the classic microscopic resistivity is not large enough to enable disk formation by itself. We then experiment with a set of enhanced values for the resistivity in the range {eta} = 10{sup 17}-10{sup 22} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1}. We find that a value of order 10{sup 19} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} is needed to enable the formation of a 10{sup 2} AU scale Keplerian disk; the value depends somewhat on the degree of core magnetization. The required resistivity is a few orders of magnitude larger than the classic microscopic values. Whether it can be achieved naturally during protostellar collapse remains to be determined.

  2. Microsatellites enabling multicaptor formation flying ; the Essaim demonstrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alary, D.; Carrin, G.

    2004-11-01

    In the last decade, the microsatellites capabilities have been strongly enhanced. On the same time, costs have been reduced to enable the conception of formation flying systems, sent to orbit with a single lauch. This kind of system is made of several identical satellites, each making an individual measurement ; all the individual measurements can be processed on ground to provide an enriched synthetic measurement, which would have required a big satellite for a less or equal level of performance. The techniques are well known since years, but micro or minisatellites can now turn them into real spaceborne applications. A few years ago, under a French MoD contract, EADS Astrium and THALES Airborne Systems started the development of the Essaim demonstrator. Essaim is designed to demonstrate the electro-magnetic signal interception feasibility from space, and the possibilities of a formation flying (swarm) system to prepare for coming fully operational systems. It is based onseveral microsatellites of 120kg each, flying in a "swarm" configuration, roughly controlled. All the microsatellites are launched simultaneously as piggyback payloads on ARIANE 5, by the end of this year. The microsatellites are built around the Myriade bus developed by CNES in cooperation with EADS Astrium. A three years experimentation phase is scheduled under the contract. This experiment opens the route to other experiments based on the same principle. Several months prior the launch, we already know that it shall be a very promising way.

  3. Enabling Technologies for Direct Detection Optical Phase Modulation Formats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xian

    Phase modulation formats are believed to be one of the key enabling techniques for next generation high speed long haul fiber-optic communication systems due to the following main advantages: (1) with a balanced detection, a better receiver sensitivity over conventional intensity modulation formats, e.g., a ˜3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential phase shift keying (DPSK) and a ˜1.3-dB sensitivity improvement using differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK); (2) excellent robustness against fiber nonlinearities; (3) high spectrum efficiency when using multilevel phase modulation formats, such as DQPSK. As the information is encoded in the phase of the optical field, the phase modulation formats are sensitive to the phase-related impairments and the deterioration induced in the phase-intensity conversion. This consequently creates new challenging issues. The research objective of this thesis is to depict some of the challenging issues and provide possible solutions. The first challenge is the cross-phase modulation (XPM) penalty for the phase modulated channels co-propagating with the intensity modulated channels. The penalty comes from the pattern dependent intensity fluctuations of the neighboring intensity modulated channels being converted into phase noise in the phase modulation channels. We propose a model to theoretically analyze the XPM penalty dependence on the walk off effect. From this model, we suggest that using fibers with large local dispersion or intentionally introducing some residual dispersion per span would help mitigate the XPM penalty. The second challenge is the polarization dependent frequency shift (PDf) induced penalty during the phase-intensity conversion. The direct detection DPSK is usually demodulated in a Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer (DI). The polarization dependence of DI introduces a PDf causing a frequency offset between the laser's frequency and the transmissivity peak of DI, degrading the demodulated DPSK

  4. Protostellar disc formation enabled by removal of small dust grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Bo; Caselli, Paola; Li, Zhi-Yun; Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Nakamura, Fumitaka

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown that a realistic level of magnetization of dense molecular cloud cores can suppress the formation of a rotationally supported disc (RSD) through catastrophic magnetic braking in the axisymmetric ideal MHD limit. In this study, we present conditions for the formation of RSDs through non-ideal MHD effects computed self-consistently from an equilibrium chemical network. We find that removing from the standard MRN distribution the large population of very small grains (VSGs) of ˜ 10 Å to few 100 Å that dominate the coupling of the bulk neutral matter to the magnetic field increases the ambipolar diffusivity by ˜ 1-2 orders of magnitude at densities below 1010/cm-3. The enhanced ambipolar diffusion (AD) in the envelope reduces the amount of magnetic flux dragged by the collapse into the circumstellar disc-forming region. Therefore, magnetic braking is weakened and more angular momentum can be retained. With continuous high angular momentum inflow, RSDs of tens of au are able to form, survive, and even grow in size, depending on other parameters including cosmic ray ionization rate, magnetic field strength, and rotation speed. Some discs become self-gravitating and evolve into rings in our 2D (axisymmetric) simulations, which have the potential to fragment into (close) multiple systems in 3D. We conclude that disc formation in magnetized cores is highly sensitive to chemistry, especially to grain sizes. A moderate grain coagulation/growth to remove the large population of VSGs, either in the prestellar phase or during free-fall collapse, can greatly promote AD and help formation of tens of au RSDs.

  5. L1 retrotransposition alters the hippocampal genomic landscape enabling memory formation.

    PubMed

    Bachiller, Sara; Del-Pozo-Martín, Yaiza; Carrión, Ángel Manuel

    2016-12-21

    Somatic LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposition is a source of genomic mosaicism and potential phenotypic diversity among neurons during brain development. In the adult brain, L1 expression can be triggered by different environmental alterations, but its functional role in this context remains unknown. Here we demonstrate a neural activation-dependent increase in the number of L1 retrotransposon insertions in the hippocampus. Using both pharmacologic and genetic approaches in mice, we demonstrate that L1 expression in the adult hippocampus enables long-term memory formation. These results provide experimental evidence that L1 retrotransposition-induced genomic mosaicism is involved in cognitive processes such as memory formation.

  6. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying in Any Earth Orbit Through Spaceborne GPS and Enhanced Autonomy Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, F. H.; Bristow, J. O.; Carpenter, J. R.; Garrison, J. L.; Hartman, K. R.; Lee, T.; Long, A. C.; Kelbel, D.; Lu, V.; How, J. P.; Busse, F.

    2000-01-01

    Formation flying is quickly revolutionizing the way the space community conducts autonomous science missions around the Earth and in space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for this community to gather scientific information, share this information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, this technology will result in swarms of space vehicles flying as a virtual platform and gathering significantly more and better science data than is possible today. Formation flying will be enabled through the development and deployment of spaceborne differential Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and through innovative spacecraft autonomy techniques, This paper provides an overview of the current status of NASA/DoD/Industry/University partnership to bring formation flying technology to the forefront as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve the formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe some of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate these innovative GPS sensing and formation control technologies.

  7. Harnessing Colloidal Crack Formation by Flow-Enabled Self-Assembly.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Jiang, Beibei; Han, Wei; He, Ming; Li, Xiao; Wang, Wei; Hong, Suck Won; Byun, Myunghwan; Lin, Shaoliang; Lin, Zhiqun

    2017-03-02

    Self-assembly of nanomaterials to yield a wide diversity of high-order structures, materials, and devices promises new opportunities for various technological applications. Herein, we report that crack formation can be effectively harnessed by elaborately restricting the drying of colloidal suspension using a flow-enabled self-assembly (FESA) strategy to yield large-area periodic cracks (i.e., microchannels) with tunable spacing. These uniform microchannels can be utilized as a template to guide the assembly of Au nanoparticles, forming intriguing nanoparticle threads. This strategy is simple and convenient. As such, it opens the possibility for large-scale manufacturing of crack-based or crack-derived assemblies and materials for use in optics, electronics, optoelectronics, photonics, magnetic device, nanotechnology, and biotechnology.

  8. Homogeneous immunosubtraction integrated with sample preparation is enabled by a microfluidic format

    PubMed Central

    Apori, Akwasi A.; Herr, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    Immunosubtraction is a powerful and resource-intensive laboratory medicine assay that reports both protein mobility and binding specificity. To expedite and automate this electrophoretic assay, we report on advances to the electrophoretic immunosubtraction assay by introducing a homogeneous, not heterogeneous, format with integrated sample preparation. To accomplish homogeneous immunosubtraction, a step-decrease in separation matrix pore-size at the head of a polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) separation channel enables ‘subtraction’ of target analyte when capture antibody is present (as the large immune-complex is excluded from PAGE), but no subtraction when capture antibody is absent. Inclusion of sample preparation functionality via small pore size polyacrylamide membranes is also key to automated operation (i.e., sample enrichment, fluorescence sample labeling, and mixing of sample with free capture antibody). Homogenous sample preparation and assay operation allows on-the-fly, integrated subtraction of one to multiple protein targets and reuse of each device. Optimization of the assay is detailed which allowed for ~95% subtraction of target with 20% non-specific extraction of large species at the optimal antibody-antigen ratio, providing conditions needed for selective target identification. We demonstrate the assay on putative markers of injury and inflammation in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), an emerging area of diagnostics research, by rapidly reporting protein mobility and binding specificity within the sample matrix. We simultaneously detect S100B and C-reactive protein, suspected biomarkers for traumatic brain injury (TBI), in ~2 min. Lastly, we demonstrate S100B detection (65 nM) in raw human CSF with a lower limit of detection of ~3.25 nM, within the clinically relevant concentration range for detecting TBI in CSF. Beyond the novel CSF assay introduced here, a fully automated immunosubtraction assay would impact a spectrum of routine but labor

  9. Covalent small-molecule-RNA complex formation enables cellular profiling of small-molecule-RNA interactions.

    PubMed

    Guan, Lirui; Disney, Matthew D

    2013-09-16

    Won't let you go! A strategy is described to design small molecules that react with their cellular RNA targets. This approach not only improves the activity of compounds targeting RNA in cell culture by a factor of about 2500 but also enables cell-wide profiling of its RNA targets.

  10. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  11. Percolation blockage: A process that enables melt pond formation on first year Arctic sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, Chris; Golden, Kenneth M.; Perovich, Donald K.; Skyllingstad, Eric; Arnsten, Alexandra; Stwertka, Carolyn; Wright, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Melt pond formation atop Arctic sea ice is a primary control of shortwave energy balance in the Arctic Ocean. During late spring and summer, the ponds determine sea ice albedo and how much solar radiation is transmitted into the upper ocean through the sea ice. The initial formation of ponds requires that melt water be retained above sea level on the ice surface. Both theory and observations, however, show that first year sea ice is so highly porous prior to the formation of melt ponds that multiday retention of water above hydraulic equilibrium should not be possible. Here we present results of percolation experiments that identify and directly demonstrate a mechanism allowing melt pond formation. The infiltration of fresh water into the pore structure of sea ice is responsible for blocking percolation pathways with ice, sealing the ice against water percolation, and allowing water to pool above sea level. We demonstrate that this mechanism is dependent on fresh water availability, known to be predominantly from snowmelt, and ice temperature at melt onset. We argue that the blockage process has the potential to exert significant control over interannual variability in ice albedo. Finally, we suggest that incorporating the mechanism into models would enhance their physical realism. Full treatment would be complex. We provide a simple temperature threshold-based scheme that may be used to incorporate percolation blockage behavior into existing model frameworks.

  12. High-throughput synthesis of conopeptides: a safety-catch linker approach enabling disulfide formation in 96-well format.

    PubMed

    Brust, Andreas; Tickle, Alice E

    2007-02-01

    Conotoxins exhibit a high degree of selectivity and potency for a range of pharmacologically relevant targets. The rapid access to libraries of conotoxin analogues, containing multiple intramolecular disulfide bridges for use in drug development, can be a very labor intensive, multi-step task. This work describes a high-throughput method for the synthesis of cystine-bridged conopeptides. Peptides were assembled on a peptide synthesizer employing the Fmoc solid-phase strategy using a safety-catch amide linker (SCAL). Side-chain protecting groups were removed on solid phase before SCAL activation with ammonium iodide in TFA, finally releasing the peptide into the TFA solution. Disulfide bond formation was performed in the cleavage mixture employing DMSO. This improved method allows mixtures of oxidized peptides to be obtained in parallel directly from a peptide synthesizer. A single HPLC purification of the resulting crude oxidized material produced peptides of > 95% purity.

  13. Regulated Formation of LncRNA-DNA Hybrids Enables Faster Transcriptional Induction and Environmental Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Cloutier, Sara C.; Wang, Siwen; Ma, Wai Kit; Al Husini, Nadra; Dhoondia, Zuzer; Ansari, Athar; Pascuzzi, Pete E.; Tran, Elizabeth J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Long non-coding (lnc)RNAs, once thought to merely represent noise from imprecise transcription initiation, have now emerged as major regulatory entities in all eukaryotes. In contrast to the rapidly expanding identification of individual lncRNAs, mechanistic characterization has lagged behind. Here we provide evidence that the GAL lncRNAs in the budding yeast S. cerevisiae promote transcriptional induction in trans by formation of lncRNA-DNA hybrids or R-loops. The evolutionarily conserved RNA helicase Dbp2 regulates formation of these R-loops as genomic deletion or nuclear depletion results in accumulation of these structures across the GAL cluster gene promoters and coding regions. Enhanced transcriptional induction is manifested by lncRNA-dependent displacement of the Cyc8 co-repressor and subsequent gene looping, suggesting that these lncRNAs promote induction by altering chromatin architecture. Moreover, the GAL lncRNAs confer a competitive fitness advantage to yeast cells as expression of these non-coding molecules correlates with faster adaptation in response to an environmental switch. PMID:26833086

  14. SPHERES tethered formation flight testbed: advancements in enabling NASA's SPECS mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Soon-Jo; Adams, Danielle; Saenz-Otero, Alvar; Kong, Edmund; Miller, David W.; Leisawitz, David; Lorenzini, Enrico; Sell, Steve

    2006-06-01

    This paper reports on efforts to control a tethered formation flight spacecraft array for NASA's SPECS mission using the SPHERES test-bed developed by the MIT Space Systems Laboratory. Specifically, advances in methodology and experimental results realized since the 2005 SPIE paper are emphasized. These include a new test-bed setup with a reaction wheel assembly, a novel relative attitude measurement system using force torque sensors, and modeling of non-ideal tethers to account for tether vibration modes. The nonlinear equations of motion of multi-vehicle tethered spacecraft with elastic flexible tethers are derived from Lagrange's equations. The controllability analysis indicates that both array resizing and spin-up are fully controllable by the reaction wheels and the tether motor, thereby saving thruster fuel consumption. Based upon this analysis, linear and nonlinear controllers have been successfully implemented on the tethered SPHERES testbed, and tested at the NASA MSFC's flat floor facility using two and three SPHERES configurations.

  15. New Approach to Develop Optimized Sunscreens that Enable Cutaneous Vitamin D Formation with Minimal Erythema Risk

    PubMed Central

    Kockott, Dieter; Herzog, Bernd; Reichrath, Jörg; Keane, Kevin; Holick, Michael F.

    2016-01-01

    Sunscreens protect the skin against erythemal radiation (Eer). But at the same time they reduce the effective radiation dose (EVD) responsible for the formation of previtamin D in the skin. The paper describes a calculation method for optimizing the ratio EVD/Eer behind sunscreens e.g. with SPF 5, 15 and 30 respectively. Taking into account that a majority of people in industrialized countries suffer from a shortage in vitamin D even in summer time, the ratio Evd/Eer is a new and important criterion for the quality of sunscreens. Furthermore the exposure time tvd needed per day for forming the equivalent of the recommended amount of 2000 IU of vitamin D per day for skin type 2 is estimated when sunscreens with different filter compositions are used. In vitro experiments show a significant increase of the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) to previtamin D when exposed to artificial solar radiation behind an experimental sunscreen optimized for previtamin D production compared to a commercial sunscreen having the same SPF. PMID:26824688

  16. Spontaneous Self-Organization Enables Dielectrophoresis of Small Nanoparticles and Formation of Photoconductive Microbridges

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Seung-Ho; Chen, Chen; Cha, Sang-Ho; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Srivastava, Sudhanshu; Zhu, Jian; Yang, Ming; Liu, Shaoqin; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2011-07-20

    Detailed understanding of the mechanism of dielectrophoresis (DEP) and the drastic improvement of its efficiency for small size-quantized nanoparticles (NPs) open the door for the convergence of microscale and nanoscale technologies. It is hindered, however, by the severe reduction of DEP force in particles with volumes below a few hundred cubic nanometers. We report here DEP assembly of size-quantized CdTe nanoparticles (NPs) with a diameter of 4.2 nm under AC voltage of 4–10 V. Calculations of the nominal DEP force for these NPs indicate that it is several orders of magnitude smaller than the force of the Brownian motion destroying the assemblies even for the maximum applied AC voltage. Despite this, very efficient formation of NP bridges between electrodes separated by a gap of 2 μm was observed even for AC voltages of 6 V and highly diluted NP dispersions. The resolution of this conundrum was found in the intrinsic ability of CdTe NPs to self-assemble. The species being assembled by DEP are substantially bigger than the individual NPs. DEP assembly should be treated as a process taking place for NP chains with a length of ~140 nm. The self-assembled chains increase the nominal volume where the polarization of the particles takes place, while retaining the size-quantized nature of the material. The produced NP bridges were found to be photoactive, producing photocurrent upon illumination. DEP bridges of quantum confined NPs can be used in fast parallel manufacturing of novel MEMS components, sensors, and optical and optoelectronic devices. Purposeful engineering of self-assembling properties of NPs makes possible further facilitation of the DEP and increase of complexity of the produced nano- and microscale structures.

  17. Trade-off between multiple constraints enables simultaneous formation of modules and hubs in neural systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuhan; Wang, Shengjun; Hilgetag, Claus C; Zhou, Changsong

    2013-01-01

    The formation of the complex network architecture of neural systems is subject to multiple structural and functional constraints. Two obvious but apparently contradictory constraints are low wiring cost and high processing efficiency, characterized by short overall wiring length and a small average number of processing steps, respectively. Growing evidence shows that neural networks are results from a trade-off between physical cost and functional value of the topology. However, the relationship between these competing constraints and complex topology is not well understood quantitatively. We explored this relationship systematically by reconstructing two known neural networks, Macaque cortical connectivity and C. elegans neuronal connections, from combinatory optimization of wiring cost and processing efficiency constraints, using a control parameter α, and comparing the reconstructed networks to the real networks. We found that in both neural systems, the reconstructed networks derived from the two constraints can reveal some important relations between the spatial layout of nodes and the topological connectivity, and match several properties of the real networks. The reconstructed and real networks had a similar modular organization in a broad range of α, resulting from spatial clustering of network nodes. Hubs emerged due to the competition of the two constraints, and their positions were close to, and partly coincided, with the real hubs in a range of α values. The degree of nodes was correlated with the density of nodes in their spatial neighborhood in both reconstructed and real networks. Generally, the rebuilt network matched a significant portion of real links, especially short-distant ones. These findings provide clear evidence to support the hypothesis of trade-off between multiple constraints on brain networks. The two constraints of wiring cost and processing efficiency, however, cannot explain all salient features in the real networks. The

  18. A Novel 96well-formatted Micro-gap Plate Enabling Drug Response Profiling on Primary Tumour Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Wei-Yuan; Hsiung, Lo-Chang; Wang, Chen-Ho; Chiang, Chi-Ling; Lin, Ching-Hung; Huang, Chiun-Sheng; Wo, Andrew M.

    2015-04-01

    Drug-based treatments are the most widely used interventions for cancer management. Personalized drug response profiling remains inherently challenging with low cell count harvested from tumour sample. We present a 96well-formatted microfluidic plate with built-in micro-gap that preserves up to 99.2% of cells during multiple assay/wash operation and only 9,000 cells needed for a single reagent test (i.e. 1,000 cells per test spot x 3 selected concentration x triplication), enabling drug screening and compatibility with conventional automated workstations. Results with MCF7 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines showed that no statistical significance was found in dose-response between the device and conventional 96-well plate control. Primary tumour samples from breast cancer patients tested in the device also showed good IC50 prediction. With drug screening of primary cancer cells must consider a wide range of scenarios, e.g. suspended/attached cell types and rare/abundant cell availability, the device enables high throughput screening even for suspended cells with low cell count since the signature microfluidic cell-trapping feature ensures cell preservation in a multiple solution exchange protocol.

  19. Highly Stable Operation of Lithium Metal Batteries Enabled by the Formation of a Transient High Concentration Electrolyte Layer

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Jianming; Yan, Pengfei; Mei, Donghai; Engelhard, Mark H.; Cartmell, Samuel S.; Polzin, Bryant; Wang, Chong M.; Zhang, Jiguang; Xu, Wu

    2016-02-08

    Lithium (Li) metal has been extensively investigated as an anode for rechargeable battery applications due to its ultrahigh specific capacity and the lowest redox potential. However, significant challenges including dendrite growth and low Coulombic efficiency are still hindering the practical applications of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Here, we demonstrate that long-term cycling of Li metal batteries can be realized by the formation of a transient high concentration electrolyte layer near the surface of Li metal anode during high rate discharge process. The highly concentrated Li+ ions in this transient layer will immediately solvate with the available solvent molecules and facilitate the formation of a stable and flexible SEI layer composed of a poly(ethylene carbonate) framework integrated with other organic/inorganic lithium salts. This SEI layer largely suppresses the corrosion of Li metal anode by free organic solvents and enables the long-term operation of Li metal batteries. The fundamental findings in this work provide a new direction for the development and operation of Li metal batteries that could be operated at high current densities for a wide range of applications.

  20. Dual-beam histotripsy: a low-frequency pump enabling a high-frequency probe for precise lesion formation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuang-Wei; Duryea, Alexander P; Kim, Yohan; Hall, Timothy L; Xu, Zhen; Cain, Charles A

    2014-02-01

    Histotripsy produces tissue fractionation through dense energetic bubble clouds generated by short, high-pressure, ultrasound pulses. When using pulses shorter than 2 cycles, the generation of these energetic bubble clouds only depends on where the peak negative pressure (P-) exceeds the intrinsic threshold of the medium (26 to 30 MPa in soft tissue with high water content). This paper investigates a strategic method for precise lesion generation in which a low-frequency pump pulse is applied to enable a sub-threshold high-frequency probe pulse to exceed the intrinsic threshold. This pump-probe method of controlling a supra-threshold volume can be called dual-beam histotripsy. A 20-element dual-frequency (500-kHz and 3-MHz elements confocally aligned) array transducer was used to generate dual-beam histotripsy pulses in red blood cell phantoms and porcine hepatic tissue specimens. The results showed that when sub-intrinsic-threshold pump (500-kHz) and probe (3-MHz) pulses were applied together, dense bubble clouds (and resulting lesions) were only generated when their peak negative pressures combined constructively to exceed the intrinsic threshold. The smallest reproducible lesion varied with the relative amplitude between the pump and probe pulses, and, with a higher proportion of the probe pulse, smaller lesions could be generated. When the propagation direction of the probe pulse relative to the pump pulse was altered, the shape of the produced lesion changed based on the region that exceeded intrinsic threshold. Because the low-frequency pump pulse is more immune to attenuation and aberrations, and the high-frequency probe pulse can provide precision in lesion formation, this dual-beam histotripsy approach would be very useful in situations in which precise lesion formation is required through a highly attenuative and aberrative medium, such as transcranial therapy. This is particularly true if a small low-attenuation acoustic window is available for the high

  1. MIiSR: Molecular Interactions in Super-Resolution Imaging Enables the Analysis of Protein Interactions, Dynamics and Formation of Multi-protein Structures

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Fabiana A.; Dirk, Brennan S.; Tam, Joshua H. K.; Cavanagh, P. Craig; Goiko, Maria; Ferguson, Stephen S. G.; Pasternak, Stephen H.; Dikeakos, Jimmy D.; de Bruyn, John R.; Heit, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Our current understanding of the molecular mechanisms which regulate cellular processes such as vesicular trafficking has been enabled by conventional biochemical and microscopy techniques. However, these methods often obscure the heterogeneity of the cellular environment, thus precluding a quantitative assessment of the molecular interactions regulating these processes. Herein, we present Molecular Interactions in Super Resolution (MIiSR) software which provides quantitative analysis tools for use with super-resolution images. MIiSR combines multiple tools for analyzing intermolecular interactions, molecular clustering and image segmentation. These tools enable quantification, in the native environment of the cell, of molecular interactions and the formation of higher-order molecular complexes. The capabilities and limitations of these analytical tools are demonstrated using both modeled data and examples derived from the vesicular trafficking system, thereby providing an established and validated experimental workflow capable of quantitatively assessing molecular interactions and molecular complex formation within the heterogeneous environment of the cell. PMID:26657340

  2. Assessment of factors enabling halite formation in a marsh in a humid temperate climate (Ajó Marsh, Argentina).

    PubMed

    Carol, Eleonora S; Alvarez, María Del Pilar; Borzi, Guido E

    2016-05-15

    The formation of evaporites associated with the final stages of the precipitation sequence, such as the case of halite, is frequent in marshes in arid areas, but it is not to be expected in those humid climates. This work, by means of the study of the hydrological, climatic and land use conditions, identifies the factors that allow the formation of saline precipitations in a marsh located in a humid climate area. The results obtained show that the exclusion of the marsh as a result of the embankment is the main reason for the presence of halite. It is to be expected that in the future the growth of the embanked marsh areas, together with the climatic and tidal condition tendencies recorded, will favour a higher rate of formation of evaporite salts. The identification of these factors makes it possible to set basic sustainable management guidelines to avoid soil salinisation.

  3. Boronic acid-modified alginate enables direct formation of injectable, self-healing and multistimuli-responsive hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Pettignano, Asja; Grijalvo, Santiago; Häring, Marleen; Eritja, Ramon; Tanchoux, Nathalie; Quignard, Françoise; Díaz Díaz, David

    2017-03-16

    One-step functionalization of alginate with boronic acid groups allowed spontaneous formation of biocompatible hydrogels under basic conditions without additional complementary molecules or crosslinking agents. The dynamic nature of boronate ester bonds formed with vicinal diols present on alginate pyranose rings provided remarkable self-healing, injectable and multi-stimuli responsive properties to the material.

  4. Reversible bond formation enables the replication and amplification of a crosslinking salen complex as an orthogonal base pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaul, Corinna; Müller, Markus; Wagner, Mirko; Schneider, Sabine; Carell, Thomas

    2011-10-01

    The universal genetic code relies on two hydrogen-bonded Watson-Crick base pairs that can form 64 triplet codons. This places a limit on the number of amino acids that can be encoded, which has motivated efforts to create synthetic base pairs that are orthogonal to the natural ones. An additional base pair would result in another 61 triplet codons. Artificial organic base pairs have been described in enzymatic incorporation studies, and inorganic T-Hg-T and C-Ag-C base pairs have been reported to form in primer extension studies. Here, we demonstrate a metal base pair that is fully orthogonal and can be replicated, and can even be amplified by polymerase chain reaction in the presence of the canonical pairs dA:dT and dG:dC. Crystal structures of a dS-Cu-dS base pair inside a polymerase show that reversible chemistry is possible directly inside the polymerase, which enables the efficient copying of the inorganic crosslink. The results open up the possibility of replicating and amplifying artificial inorganic DNA nanostructures by extending the genetic alphabet.

  5. Oligo-(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate modification of sorting signal enables pore formation by Escherichia coli OmpA.

    PubMed

    Negoda, A; Negoda, E; Reusch, R N

    2010-08-01

    The outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli is a well-known model for protein targeting and protein folding. Wild-type OmpA, isolated either from cytoplasmic inclusion bodies or from outer membranes, forms narrow pores of approximately 80 pS in planar lipid bilayers at room temperature. The pores are well structured with narrow conductance range when OmpA is isolated using lithium dodecyl sulfate (LDS) or RapiGest surfactant but display irregular conductance when OmpA is isolated with urea or guanidine hydrochloride. Previous studies have shown that serine residues S163 and S167 of the sorting signal of OmpA (residues 163-169), i.e., the essential sequence for outer membrane incorporation, are covalently modified by oligomers of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate (cOHB). Here we find that single-mutants S163 and S167 of OmpA, which still contain cOHB on one serine of the sorting signal, form narrow pores in planar lipid bilayers at room temperature with lower and more irregular conductance than wild-type OmpA, whereas double mutants S163:S167 and S163:V166 of OmpA, with no cOHB on the sorting signal, are unable to form stable pores in planar lipid bilayers. Our results indicate that modification of serines in the sorting signal of OmpA by cOHB in the cytoplasm enables OmpA to incorporate into lipid bilayers at room temperature as a narrow pore. They further suggest that cOHB modification may be an important factor in protein targeting and protein folding.

  6. Oxygen Diffusion Enables Anti-Wear Boundary Film Formation on Titanium Surfaces in Zinc-Dialkyl-Dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-Containing Lubricants

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Jun; Blau, Peter Julian; Howe, Jane Y; Meyer III, Harry M

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports a wear reduction by up to six orders of magnitude for Ti-6Al-4V alloy when treated by an oxygen diffusion (OD) process and subsequently tested in a zinc-dialkyl-dithiophosphate (ZDDP)-containing lubricant. In addition to case hardening, it is discovered that OD enables the formation of an anti-wear boundary film on the titanium surface. Transmission electron microscopy and surface chemical analyses revealed that this boundary film has a two-layer structure comprising an amorphous oxide interlayer and a ZDDP-based top film with complex compounds.

  7. Boron-Catalyzed Regioselective Deoxygenation of Terminal 1,2-Diols to 2-Alkanols Enabled by the Strategic Formation of a Cyclic Siloxane Intermediate.

    PubMed

    Drosos, Nikolaos; Morandi, Bill

    2015-07-20

    The selective deoxygenation of polyols is a frontier in our ability to harness the stereochemical and structural complexity of natural and synthetic feedstocks. Herein, we describe a highly active and selective boron-based catalytic system for the selective deoxygenation of terminal 1,2-diols at the primary position, a process that is enabled by the transient formation of a cyclic siloxane. The method provides an ideal complement to well-known catalytic asymmetric reactions to prepare synthetically challenging chiral 2-alkanols in nearly perfect enantiomeric excess, as illustrated in a short synthesis of the anti-inflammatory drug (R)-lisofylline.

  8. The exopolysaccharide Psl–eDNA interaction enables the formation of a biofilm skeleton in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shiwei; Liu, Xi; Liu, Hongsheng; Zhang, Li; Guo, Yuan; Yu, Shan; Wozniak, Daniel J.; Ma, Luyan Z.

    2015-01-01

    Summary A hallmark of bacterial biofilms is a self-produced extracellular matrix of exopolysaccharide, extracellular DNA (eDNA) and proteins that hold bacterial cells together in the community. However, interactions among matrix components and how the interactions contribute to the formation of matrix remain unclear. Here, we show the physical interaction between exopolysaccharide Psl and eDNA, the two key biofilm matrix components of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The interaction allows the two components to combine to form a web of eDNA–Psl fibres, which resembles a biofilm skeleton in the centre of pellicles to give bacteria structural support and capability against agents targeted on one matrix component. The web of eDNA–Psl fibres was also found in flow-cell biofilms at microcolonies initiation stage. The colocalization of eDNA or Psl fibres with bacterial cell membrane stain suggests that fibre-like eDNA is likely derived from the lysis of dead bacteria in biofilms. Psl can interact with DNA from diverse sources, suggesting that P. aeruginosa has the ability to use DNA of other organisms (such as human neutrophils and other bacterial species) to form its own communities, which might increase the survival of P. aeruginosa in multispecies biofilms or within a human host. PMID:25472701

  9. Enhanced cholinergic suppression of previously strengthened synapses enables the formation of self-organized representations in olfactory cortex.

    PubMed

    Linster, Christiane; Maloney, Michaella; Patil, Madhvi; Hasselmo, Michael E

    2003-11-01

    Computational modeling assists in analyzing the specific functional role of the cellular effects of acetylcholine within cortical structures. In particular, acetylcholine may regulate the dynamics of encoding and retrieval of information by regulating the magnitude of synaptic transmission at excitatory recurrent connections. Many abstract models of associative memory function ignore the influence of changes in synaptic strength during the storage process and apply the effect of these changes only during a so-called recall-phase. Efforts to ensure stable activity with more realistic, continuous updating of the synaptic strength during the storage process have shown that the memory capacity of a realistic cortical network can be greatly enhanced if cholinergic modulation blocks transmission at synaptic connections of the association fibers during the learning process. We here present experimental data from an olfactory cortex brain slice preparation showing that previously potentiated fibers show significantly greater suppression (presynaptic inhibition) by the cholinergic agonist carbachol than unpotentiated fibers. We conclude that low suppression of non-potentiated fibers during the learning process ensures the formation of self-organized representations in the neural network while the higher suppression of previously potentiated fibers minimizes interference between overlapping patterns. We show in a computational model of olfactory cortex, that, together, these two phenomena reduce the overlap between patterns that are stored within the same neural network structure. These results further demonstrate the contribution of acetylcholine to mechanisms of cortical plasticity. The results are consistent with the extensive evidence supporting a role for acetylcholine in encoding of new memories and enhancement of response to salient sensory stimuli.

  10. Modular protein expression by RNA trans-splicing enables flexible expression of antibody formats in mammalian cells from a dual-host phage display vector.

    PubMed

    Shang, Yonglei; Tesar, Devin; Hötzel, Isidro

    2015-10-01

    A recently described dual-host phage display vector that allows expression of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in mammalian cells bypasses the need for subcloning of phage display clone inserts to mammalian vectors for IgG expression in large antibody discovery and optimization campaigns. However, antibody discovery and optimization campaigns usually need different antibody formats for screening, requiring reformatting of the clones in the dual-host phage display vector to an alternative vector. We developed a modular protein expression system mediated by RNA trans-splicing to enable the expression of different antibody formats from the same phage display vector. The heavy-chain region encoded by the phage display vector is directly and precisely fused to different downstream heavy-chain sequences encoded by complementing plasmids simply by joining exons in different pre-mRNAs by trans-splicing. The modular expression system can be used to efficiently express structurally correct IgG and Fab fragments or other antibody formats from the same phage display clone in mammalian cells without clone reformatting.

  11. Correlating shaped charge performance with processing conditions and microstructure of an aluminum alloy 1100 liner enabled by a new method to arrest nascent jet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheid, James Eric

    Aluminum-lined shaped charges are used in special applications where jet and / or slug residue in the target is undesired. The three different microstructures of the aluminum liners studied herein resulted from three different manufacturing interpretations of the same design. One interpretation was completely machining the liners from best available annealed round stock. The second was to cold-forge the liners from annealed round-stock in an open-die forge to near-final dimensions, and then machine the liners to the final dimensions. The third variant in this study was to use the above forged liner, but with annealing after the machining. These three manufacturing choices resulted in significant variations in shaped charge performance. The goal of this research was to clarify the relationships between the liner metal microstructure and properties, and the corresponding shaped charge dynamic flow behavior. What began as an investigation into user-reported performance problems associated inherently with liner manufacturing processes and resultant microstructure, resolved into new understandings of the relationships between aluminum liner microstructure and shaped charge collapse kinetics. This understanding was achieved through an extensive literature review and the comprehensive characterization of the material properties of three variants of an 1100 aluminum shaped charge liner with a focus on collapse and nascent jet formation. The machined liner had a microstructure with large millimeter-sized grains and fine particles aligned in bands parallel to the charge axis. The forged liner microstructure consisted of very small one micrometer-sized (1 mum) subgrains and fine particles aligned largely in bands elongated parallel to the liner contour. The annealed liner was characterized by ten micrometer (10 mum) sized equiaxed grains with residual fine particles in the forged alignment. This characterization was enabled by the development, execution and validation of a

  12. Binding of factor VIII to von willebrand factor is enabled by cleavage of the von Willebrand factor propeptide and enhanced by formation of disulfide-linked multimers.

    PubMed

    Bendetowicz, A V; Morris, J A; Wise, R J; Gilbert, G E; Kaufman, R J

    1998-07-15

    von Willebrand factor (vWF) is a multimeric adhesive glycoprotein with one factor VIII binding site/subunit. Prior reports suggest that posttranslational modifications of vWF, including formation of N-terminal intersubunit disulfide bonds and subsequent cleavage of the propeptide, influence availability and/or affinity of factor VIII binding sites. We found that deletion of the vWF propeptide produced a dimeric vWF molecule lacking N-terminal intersubunit disulfide bonds. This molecule bound fluorescein-labeled factor VIII with sixfold lower affinity than multimeric vWF in an equilibrium flow cytometry assay (approximate KDs, 5 nmol/L v 0.9 nmol/L). Coexpression of propeptide-deleted vWF with the vWF propeptide in trans yielded multimeric vWF that displayed increased affinity for factor VIII. Insertion of an alanine residue at the N-terminus of the mature vWF subunit destroyed binding to factor VIII, indicating that the native mature N-terminus is required for factor VIII binding. The requirement for vWF propeptide cleavage was shown by (1) a point mutation of the vWF propeptide cleavage site yielding pro-vWF that was defective in factor VIII binding and (2) correlation between efficiency of intracellular propeptide cleavage and factor VIII binding. Furthermore, in a cell-free system, addition of the propeptide-cleaving enzyme PACE/furin enabled factor VIII binding in parallel with propeptide cleavage. Our results indicate that high-affinity factor VIII binding sites are located on N-terminal disulfide-linked vWF subunits from which the propeptide has been cleaved.

  13. Online Learning in Divorce: How the Formation of a Community of Practice in a Divorce Support Website Enables and Inhibits Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paechter, Carrie

    2012-01-01

    This article is about the informal learning that took place in an online divorce support and advice forum. In it, the author discusses the formation of a community of practice among the members during the first nine months of the site's operation. The author shows how the key markers of mutual engagement, joint enterprise and shared repertoire…

  14. Two-dimensional paper network format that enables simple multistep assays for use in low-resource settings in the context of malaria antigen detection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Elain; Liang, Tinny; Spicar-Mihalic, Paolo; Houghtaling, Jared; Ramachandran, Sujatha; Yager, Paul

    2012-05-15

    The lateral flow test has become the standard bioassay format in low-resource settings because it is rapid, easy to use, and low in cost, uses reagents stored in dry form, and is equipment-free. However, lateral flow tests are often limited to a single chemical delivery step and not capable of the multistep processing characteristic of high performance laboratory-based assays. To address this limitation, we are developing a paper network platform that extends the conventional lateral flow test to two dimensions; this allows incorporation of multistep chemical processing, while still retaining the advantages of conventional lateral flow tests. Here, we demonstrate this format for an easy-to-use, signal-amplified sandwich format immunoassay for the malaria protein PfHRP2. The card contains reagents stored in dry form such that the user need only add sample and water. The multiple flows in the device are activated in a single user step of folding the card closed; the configuration of the paper network automatically delivers the appropriate volumes of (i) sample plus antibody conjugated to a gold particle label, (ii) a rinse buffer, and (iii) a signal amplification reagent to the capture region. These results highlight the potential of the paper network platform to enhance access to high-quality diagnostic capabilities in low-resource settings in the developed and developing worlds.

  15. Surfaces Presenting α-Phenyl Mannoside Derivatives Enable Formation of Stable, High Coverage, Non-pathogenic Escherichia coli Biofilms against Pathogen Colonization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiling; Wang, Jun; Lopez, Analette I; Yu, Fei; Huang, Yongkai; Kumar, Amit; Li, Siheng; Zhang, Lijuan; Cai, Chengzhi

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of pathogenic colonization on medical devices over a long period of time remains a great challenge, especially in a high-nutrient environment that accelerates production of biomass leading to biofouling of the device. Since biofouling and the subsequent pathogen colonization is eventually inevitable, a new strategy using non-pathogenic bacteria as living guards against pathogenic colonization on medical devices has attracted increasing interest. Crucial to the success of this strategy is to pre-establish a high coverage and stable biofilm of benign bacteria on the surface. Silicone elastomers are one of the most widely used materials in biomedical devices. In this work, we modified silicone surfaces to promote formation of high coverage and stable biofilms by a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain 83972 with type 1 fimbriae (fim+) to interfere the colonization of an aggressive biofilm-forming, uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis. Although it is well known that mannoside surfaces promote the initial adherence of fim+ E. coli through binding to the FimH receptor at the tip of the type 1 fimbriae, it is not clear whether the fast initial adherence could lead to a high coverage and stable protective biofilm. To explore the role of mannoside ligands, we synthesized a series of alkyl and aryl mannosides varied in structure and immobilized them on silicone surfaces pre-coated with poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. We found that stable and densely packed benign E. coli biofilms were formed on the surfaces presenting biphenyl mannoside with the highest initial adherence of fim+ E. coli. These non-pathogenic biofilms prevented the colonization of E. faecalis for 11 days at a high concentration (10(8) CFU mL(-1), 100,000 times above the diagnostic threshold for urinary tract infection) in the nutrient-rich Lysogeny Broth (LB) media. The result shows a correlation among the initial adherence of fim+ E. coli 83972, the coverage and long-term stability of the

  16. Surfaces presenting α-phenyl mannoside derivatives enable formation of stable, high coverage, non-pathogenic Escherichia coli biofilms against pathogen colonization.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhiling; Wang, Jun; Lopez, Analette I; Yu, Fei; Huang, Yongkai; Kumar, Amit; Li, Siheng; Zhang, Lijuan; Cai, Chengzhi

    2015-06-01

    Prevention of pathogenic colonization on medical devices over a long period of time remains a great challenge, especially in a high-nutrient environment that accelerates the production of biomass leading to biofouling of the device. Since biofouling and the subsequent pathogen colonization is eventually inevitable, a new strategy using non-pathogenic bacteria as living guards against pathogenic colonization on medical devices has attracted increasing interest. Crucial to the success of this strategy is to pre-establish a high coverage and stable biofilm of benign bacteria on the surface. Silicone elastomers are one of the most widely used materials in biomedical devices. In this work, we modified silicone surfaces to promote formation of high coverage and stable biofilms by a non-pathogenic Escherichia coli strain 83972 with type 1 fimbriae (fim+) to interfere with the colonization of an aggressive biofilm-forming, uropathogenic Enterococcus faecalis. Although it is well known that mannoside surfaces promote the initial adherence of fim+ E. coli through binding to the FimH receptor at the tip of the type 1 fimbriae, it is not clear whether the fast initial adherence could lead to a high coverage and stable protective biofilm. To explore the role of mannoside ligands, we synthesized a series of alkyl and aryl mannosides varied in the structure and immobilized them on silicone surfaces pre-coated with a poly(amidoamine) (PAMAM) dendrimer. We found that stable and densely packed benign E. coli biofilms were formed on the surfaces presenting biphenyl mannoside with the highest initial adherence of fim+ E. coli. These non-pathogenic biofilms prevented the colonization of E. faecalis for 11 days at a high concentration (10(8) CFU mL(-1), 100,000 times above the diagnostic threshold for urinary tract infection) in the nutrient-rich Lysogeny Broth (LB) media. The result shows a correlation among the initial adherence of fim+ E. coli 83972, the coverage and long

  17. Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A.; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K. R. S.; Erdemir, Ali; Sumant, Anirudha V.

    2015-06-01

    Friction and wear remain as the primary modes of mechanical energy dissipation in moving mechanical assemblies; thus, it is desirable to minimize friction in a number of applications. We demonstrate that superlubricity can be realized at engineering scale when graphene is used in combination with nanodiamond particles and diamondlike carbon (DLC). Macroscopic superlubricity originates because graphene patches at a sliding interface wrap around nanodiamonds to form nanoscrolls with reduced contact area that slide against the DLC surface, achieving an incommensurate contact and substantially reduced coefficient of friction (~0.004). Atomistic simulations elucidate the overall mechanism and mesoscopic link bridging the nanoscale mechanics and macroscopic experimental observations.

  18. Liquid metal enabled microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Tang, Shi-Yang; Zhu, Jiu Yang; Schaefer, Samira; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Dickey, Michael D

    2017-03-14

    Several gallium-based liquid metal alloys are liquid at room temperature. As 'liquid', such alloys have a low viscosity and a high surface tension while as 'metal', they have high thermal and electrical conductivities, similar to mercury. However, unlike mercury, these liquid metal alloys have low toxicity and a negligible vapor pressure, rendering them much safer. In comparison to mercury, the distinguishing feature of these alloys is the rapid formation of a self-limiting atomically thin layer of gallium oxide over their surface when exposed to oxygen. This oxide layer changes many physical and chemical properties of gallium alloys, including their interfacial and rheological properties, which can be employed and modulated for various applications in microfluidics. Injecting liquid metal into microfluidic structures has been extensively used to pattern and encapsulate highly deformable and reconfigurable electronic devices including electrodes, sensors, antennas, and interconnects. Likewise, the unique features of liquid metals have been employed for fabricating miniaturized microfluidic components including pumps, valves, heaters, and electrodes. In this review, we discuss liquid metal enabled microfluidic components, and highlight their desirable attributes including simple fabrication, facile integration, stretchability, reconfigurability, and low power consumption, with promising applications for highly integrated microfluidic systems.

  19. Outcomes from Enabling Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phan, Oanh; Ball, Katrina

    The outcomes of enabling courses offered in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector were examined. "Enabling course" was defined as lower-level preparatory and prevocational courses covering a wide range of areas, including remedial education, bridging courses, precertificate courses, and general employment preparation…

  20. Technology Enabled Learning. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers on technology-enabled learning and human resource development. Among results found in "Current State of Technology-enabled Learning Programs in Select Federal Government Organizations: a Case Study of Ten Organizations" (Letitia A. Combs) are the following: the dominant delivery method is traditional…

  1. Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Hudon, Catherine; Lambert, Mireille; Almirall, José

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To evaluate the reliability and validity of the newly developed Physician Enabling Skills Questionnaire (PESQ) by assessing its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, concurrent validity with patient-centred care, and predictive validity with patient activation and patient enablement. Design Validation study. Setting Saguenay, Que. Participants One hundred patients with at least 1 chronic disease who presented in a waiting room of a regional health centre family medicine unit. Main outcome measures Family physicians’ enabling skills, measured with the PESQ at 2 points in time (ie, while in the waiting room at the family medicine unit and 2 weeks later through a mail survey); patient-centred care, assessed with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument; patient activation, assessed with the Patient Activation Measure; and patient enablement, assessed with the Patient Enablement Instrument. Results The internal consistency of the 6 subscales of the PESQ was adequate (Cronbach α = .69 to .92). The test-retest reliability was very good (r = 0.90; 95% CI 0.84 to 0.93). Concurrent validity with the Patient Perception of Patient-Centredness instrument was good (r = −0.67; 95% CI −0.78 to −0.53; P < .001). The PESQ accounts for 11% of the total variance with the Patient Activation Measure (r2 = 0.11; P = .002) and 19% of the variance with the Patient Enablement Instrument (r2 = 0.19; P < .001). Conclusion The newly developed PESQ presents good psychometric properties, allowing for its use in practice and research. PMID:26889507

  2. Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    ScienceCinema

    Gupta, Vipin; Nielson, Greg; Okandan, Murat, Granata, Jennifer; Nelson, Jeff; Haney, Mike; Cruz-Campa, Jose Luiz

    2016-07-12

    Sandia's microsystems enabled photovoltaic advances combine mature technology and tools currently used in microsystem production with groundbreaking advances in photovoltaics cell design, decreasing production and system costs while improving energy conversion efficiency. The technology has potential applications in buildings, houses, clothing, portable electronics, vehicles, and other contoured structures.

  3. Liquid metal enabled pump

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shi-Yang; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Sivan, Vijay; Petersen, Phred; O’Mullane, Anthony P.; Abbott, Derek; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-zadeh, Kourosh

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale pumps will be the heartbeat of many future micro/nanoscale platforms. However, the integration of small-scale pumps is presently hampered by limited flow rate with respect to the input power, and their rather complicated fabrication processes. These issues arise as many conventional pumping effects require intricate moving elements. Here, we demonstrate a system that we call the liquid metal enabled pump, for driving a range of liquids without mechanical moving parts, upon the application of modest electric field. This pump incorporates a droplet of liquid metal, which induces liquid flow at high flow rates, yet with exceptionally low power consumption by electrowetting/deelectrowetting at the metal surface. We present theory explaining this pumping mechanism and show that the operation is fundamentally different from other existing pumps. The presented liquid metal enabled pump is both efficient and simple, and thus has the potential to fundamentally advance the field of microfluidics. PMID:24550485

  4. Nanotechnology - Enabled Sensing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-07

    via subwavelength confinement of optical fields near metallic nanostructures, as shown in Figure 2.3. When a single cadmium selenide quantum dot is...optical modulator uses a coating of cadmium selenide quantum dots to convert two light beams into surface plasmon polaritons. (Reprinted by permission...helpful. Two- and three-dimensional photonic crystals can enable new sensing systems based on fluorescent molecules and/or quantum dots and

  5. Enabling Wind Power Nationwide

    SciTech Connect

    Jose, Zayas; Michael, Derby; Patrick, Gilman; Ananthan, Shreyas; Lantz, Eric; Cotrell, Jason; Beck, Fredic; Tusing, Richard

    2015-05-01

    Leveraging this experience, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Wind and Water Power Technologies Office has evaluated the potential for wind power to generate electricity in all 50 states. This report analyzes and quantifies the geographic expansion that could be enabled by accessing higher above ground heights for wind turbines and considers the means by which this new potential could be responsibly developed.

  6. Smart Grid Enabled EVSE

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-01-12

    The combined team of GE Global Research, Federal Express, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and Consolidated Edison has successfully achieved the established goals contained within the Department of Energy’s Smart Grid Capable Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment funding opportunity. The final program product, shown charging two vehicles in Figure 1, reduces by nearly 50% the total installed system cost of the electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE) as well as enabling a host of new Smart Grid enabled features. These include bi-directional communications, load control, utility message exchange and transaction management information. Using the new charging system, Utilities or energy service providers will now be able to monitor transportation related electrical loads on their distribution networks, send load control commands or preferences to individual systems, and then see measured responses. Installation owners will be able to authorize usage of the stations, monitor operations, and optimally control their electricity consumption. These features and cost reductions have been developed through a total system design solution.

  7. Enable, mediate, advocate.

    PubMed

    Saan, Hans; Wise, Marilyn

    2011-12-01

    The authors of the Ottawa Charter selected the words enable, mediate and advocate to describe the core activities in what was, in 1986, the new Public Health. This article considers these concepts and the values and ideas upon which they were based. We discuss their relevance in the current context within which health promotion is being conducted, and discuss the implications of changes in the health agenda, media and globalization for practice. We consider developments within health promotion since 1986: its central role in policy rhetoric, the increasing understanding of complexities and the interlinkage with many other societal processes. So the three core activities are reviewed: they still fit well with the main health promotion challenges, but should be refreshed by new ideas and values. As the role of health promotion in the political arena has grown we have become part of the policy establishment and that is a mixed blessing. Making way for community advocates is now our challenge. Enabling requires greater sensitivity to power relations involved and an understanding of the role of health literacy. Mediating keeps its central role as it bridges vital interests of parties. We conclude that these core concepts in the Ottawa Charter need no serious revision. There are, however, lessons from the last 25 years that point to ways to address present and future challenges with greater sensitivity and effectiveness. We invite the next generation to avoid canonizing this text: as is true of every heritage, the heirs must decide on its use.

  8. Enabling graphene nanoelectronics.

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei; Ohta, Taisuke; Biedermann, Laura Butler; Gutierrez, Carlos; Nolen, C. M.; Howell, Stephen Wayne; Beechem Iii, Thomas Edwin; McCarty, Kevin F.; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III

    2011-09-01

    Recent work has shown that graphene, a 2D electronic material amenable to the planar semiconductor fabrication processing, possesses tunable electronic material properties potentially far superior to metals and other standard semiconductors. Despite its phenomenal electronic properties, focused research is still required to develop techniques for depositing and synthesizing graphene over large areas, thereby enabling the reproducible mass-fabrication of graphene-based devices. To address these issues, we combined an array of growth approaches and characterization resources to investigate several innovative and synergistic approaches for the synthesis of high quality graphene films on technologically relevant substrate (SiC and metals). Our work focused on developing the fundamental scientific understanding necessary to generate large-area graphene films that exhibit highly uniform electronic properties and record carrier mobility, as well as developing techniques to transfer graphene onto other substrates.

  9. Enabling immersive simulation.

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, Josh; Mateas, Michael; Hart, Derek H.; Whetzel, Jonathan; Basilico, Justin Derrick; Glickman, Matthew R.; Abbott, Robert G.

    2009-02-01

    The object of the 'Enabling Immersive Simulation for Complex Systems Analysis and Training' LDRD has been to research, design, and engineer a capability to develop simulations which (1) provide a rich, immersive interface for participation by real humans (exploiting existing high-performance game-engine technology wherever possible), and (2) can leverage Sandia's substantial investment in high-fidelity physical and cognitive models implemented in the Umbra simulation framework. We report here on these efforts. First, we describe the integration of Sandia's Umbra modular simulation framework with the open-source Delta3D game engine. Next, we report on Umbra's integration with Sandia's Cognitive Foundry, specifically to provide for learning behaviors for 'virtual teammates' directly from observed human behavior. Finally, we describe the integration of Delta3D with the ABL behavior engine, and report on research into establishing the theoretical framework that will be required to make use of tools like ABL to scale up to increasingly rich and realistic virtual characters.

  10. Enabling responsible public genomics.

    PubMed

    Conley, John M; Doerr, Adam K; Vorhaus, Daniel B

    2010-01-01

    As scientific understandings of genetics advance, researchers require increasingly rich datasets that combine genomic data from large numbers of individuals with medical and other personal information. Linking individuals' genetic data and personal information precludes anonymity and produces medically significant information--a result not contemplated by the established legal and ethical conventions governing human genomic research. To pursue the next generation of human genomic research and commerce in a responsible fashion, scientists, lawyers, and regulators must address substantial new issues, including researchers' duties with respect to clinically significant data, the challenges to privacy presented by genomic data, the boundary between genomic research and commerce, and the practice of medicine. This Article presents a new model for understanding and addressing these new challenges--a "public genomics" premised on the idea that ethically, legally, and socially responsible genomics research requires openness, not privacy, as its organizing principle. Responsible public genomics combines the data contributed by informed and fully consenting information altruists and the research potential of rich datasets in a genomic commons that is freely and globally available. This Article examines the risks and benefits of this public genomics model in the context of an ambitious genetic research project currently under way--the Personal Genome Project. This Article also (i) demonstrates that large-scale genomic projects are desirable, (ii) evaluates the risks and challenges presented by public genomics research, and (iii) determines that the current legal and regulatory regimes restrict beneficial and responsible scientific inquiry while failing to adequately protect participants. The Article concludes by proposing a modified normative and legal framework that embraces and enables a future of responsible public genomics.

  11. Enabling interstellar probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNutt, Ralph L.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.; International Interstellar Probe Team

    2011-04-01

    The scientific community has advocated a scientific probe to the interstellar medium for over 30 years. While the Voyager spacecraft have passed through the termination shock of the solar wind, they have limited lifetimes as their radioisotope power supplies decay. It remains unclear whether they can reach the heliopause, the boundary between shocked solar wind and interstellar plasmas, and, in any case, they will not reach the undisturbed interstellar medium. As with most exploratory space missions, their ongoing observations continue to raise even more questions about the nature of the interaction of our heliosphere and the interstellar medium. Scientific questions including: What is the nature of the nearby interstellar medium? How do the Sun and galaxy affect the dynamics of the heliosphere? What is the structure of the heliosphere? How did matter in the solar system and interstellar medium originate and evolve? can only be answered by an "interstellar precursor" probe. Such a mission is required to make in situ measurements in the interaction region and interstellar medium itself at distances far from the Sun, but in a finite mission lifetime. By launching a probe toward the incoming "interstellar wind," whose direction is known, the distance to be traveled can be minimized but is still large. The current consensus is that a scientifically compelling mission must function to at least a distance of 200 astronomical units (AU) from the Sun and return a reasonable stream of data during the voyage. The central problem is that of providing a means of propulsion to accelerate a probe from the Solar System. Even with a low-mass payload and spacecraft, achieving the high speeds needed, even with gravity assists, have remained problematic. Voyager 1, the fastest object ever to leave the system is now traveling ˜3.6 AU/yr, and a credible probe must reach at least 2-3 times this speed. The use of an Ares V is an approach for enabling a fast interstellar precursor

  12. FOILFEST :community enabled security.

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Judy Hennessey; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Whitley, John B.; Drayer, Darryl Donald; Cummings, John C., Jr.

    2005-09-01

    The Advanced Concepts Group of Sandia National Laboratories hosted a workshop, ''FOILFest: Community Enabled Security'', on July 18-21, 2005, in Albuquerque, NM. This was a far-reaching look into the future of physical protection consisting of a series of structured brainstorming sessions focused on preventing and foiling attacks on public places and soft targets such as airports, shopping malls, hotels, and public events. These facilities are difficult to protect using traditional security devices since they could easily be pushed out of business through the addition of arduous and expensive security measures. The idea behind this Fest was to explore how the public, which is vital to the function of these institutions, can be leveraged as part of a physical protection system. The workshop considered procedures, space design, and approaches for building community through technology. The workshop explored ways to make the ''good guys'' in public places feel safe and be vigilant while making potential perpetrators of harm feel exposed and convinced that they will not succeed. Participants in the Fest included operators of public places, social scientists, technology experts, representatives of government agencies including DHS and the intelligence community, writers and media experts. Many innovative ideas were explored during the fest with most of the time spent on airports, including consideration of the local airport, the Albuquerque Sunport. Some provocative ideas included: (1) sniffers installed in passage areas like revolving door, escalators, (2) a ''jumbotron'' showing current camera shots in the public space, (3) transparent portal screeners allowing viewing of the screening, (4) a layered open/funnel/open/funnel design where open spaces are used to encourage a sense of ''communitas'' and take advantage of citizen ''sensing'' and funnels are technological tunnels of sensors (the tunnels of truth), (5) curved benches with blast proof walls or backs, (6

  13. Enabling Space Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation on enabling space science and exploration covers the following topics: 1) Today s Deep Space Network; 2) Next Generation Deep Space Network; 3) Needed technologies; 4) Mission IT and networking; and 5) Multi-mission operations.

  14. Empowering versus Enabling in Academia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espeland, Karen; Shanta, Linda

    2001-01-01

    Enabling behaviors that encourage dependence should be avoided by nursing faculty. An empowerment model that includes collegiality, communication, accountability, and autonomy is more suited to the professional preparation of nurses. (Contains 30 references.) (SK)

  15. Immiscible solvents enabled nanostructure formation for efficient polymer photovoltaic cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Michael Yang, Yang; You, Jingbi; Richard, Eric; Li, Gang

    2014-07-25

    Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) fabricated via solution processing are an attractive way to realize low cost solar energy harvesting. Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) devices are the most successful design, but their morphology is less controllable. In this manuscript, we describe a simple approach to realize 'ordered' BHJ morphology using two immiscible solvents with different boiling point and a quasi-bilayer approach. Tunable fine structures were demonstrated in poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) model systems, and the devices with optimized fine structure showed a 33% efficiency enhancement compared to those with a planar bilayer structure.

  16. Friction. Macroscale superlubricity enabled by graphene nanoscroll formation.

    PubMed

    Berman, Diana; Deshmukh, Sanket A; Sankaranarayanan, Subramanian K R S; Erdemir, Ali; Sumant, Anirudha V

    2015-06-05

    Friction and wear remain as the primary modes of mechanical energy dissipation in moving mechanical assemblies; thus, it is desirable to minimize friction in a number of applications. We demonstrate that superlubricity can be realized at engineering scale when graphene is used in combination with nanodiamond particles and diamondlike carbon (DLC). Macroscopic superlubricity originates because graphene patches at a sliding interface wrap around nanodiamonds to form nanoscrolls with reduced contact area that slide against the DLC surface, achieving an incommensurate contact and substantially reduced coefficient of friction (~0.004). Atomistic simulations elucidate the overall mechanism and mesoscopic link bridging the nanoscale mechanics and macroscopic experimental observations.

  17. Secure Enclaves-Enabled Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-25

    solution. Recommendations There is the potential to exploit extremely lucrative opportunities utilizing our first- mover advantage in this...emerging market segment. However, there is still significant work to be completed. The SE Enabled browser extension application is still in the early

  18. Exogenous Attention Enables Perceptual Learning.

    PubMed

    Szpiro, Sarit F A; Carrasco, Marisa

    2015-12-01

    Practice can improve visual perception, and these improvements are considered to be a form of brain plasticity. Training-induced learning is time-consuming and requires hundreds of trials across multiple days. The process of learning acquisition is understudied. Can learning acquisition be potentiated by manipulating visual attentional cues? We developed a protocol in which we used task-irrelevant cues for between-groups manipulation of attention during training. We found that training with exogenous attention can enable the acquisition of learning. Remarkably, this learning was maintained even when observers were subsequently tested under neutral conditions, which indicates that a change in perception was involved. Our study is the first to isolate the effects of exogenous attention and to demonstrate its efficacy to enable learning. We propose that exogenous attention boosts perceptual learning by enhancing stimulus encoding.

  19. Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stupakov, Gennady; /SLAC

    2012-06-28

    A recently proposed concept of the Echo-Enabled Harmonic Generation (EEHG) FEL uses two laser modulators in combination with two dispersion sections to generate a high-harmonic density modulation in a relativistic beam. This seeding technique holds promise of a one-stage soft x-ray FEL that radiates not only transversely but also longitudinally coherent pulses. Currently, an experimental verification of the concept is being conducted at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory aimed at the demonstration of the EEHG.

  20. Technologies for Networked Enabled Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, B.; Levine, J.

    2005-01-01

    Current point-to-point data links will not scale to support future integration of surveillance, security, and globally-distributed air traffic data, and already hinders efficiency and capacity. While the FAA and industry focus on a transition to initial system-wide information management (SWIM) capabilities, this paper describes a set of initial studies of NAS network-enabled operations technology gaps targeted for maturity in later SWIM spirals (201 5-2020 timeframe).

  1. Nanofluidics: enabling processes for biotech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulmanella, Umberto; Ho, Chih-Ming

    2001-10-01

    The advance of micro and nanodevice manufacturing technology enables us to carry out biological and chemical processes in a more efficient manner. In fact, fluidic processes connect the macro and the micro/nano worlds. For devices approaching the size of the fluid molecules, many physical phenomena occur that are not observed in macro flows. In this brief review, we discuss a few selected topics which of are interest for basic research and are important for applications in biotechnology.

  2. New Generation Sensor Web Enablement

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Echterhoff, Johannes; Jirka, Simon; Simonis, Ingo; Everding, Thomas; Stasch, Christoph; Liang, Steve; Lemmens, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Many sensor networks have been deployed to monitor Earth’s environment, and more will follow in the future. Environmental sensors have improved continuously by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent. Due to the large number of sensor manufacturers and differing accompanying protocols, integrating diverse sensors into observation systems is not straightforward. A coherent infrastructure is needed to treat sensors in an interoperable, platform-independent and uniform way. The concept of the Sensor Web reflects such a kind of infrastructure for sharing, finding, and accessing sensors and their data across different applications. It hides the heterogeneous sensor hardware and communication protocols from the applications built on top of it. The Sensor Web Enablement initiative of the Open Geospatial Consortium standardizes web service interfaces and data encodings which can be used as building blocks for a Sensor Web. This article illustrates and analyzes the recent developments of the new generation of the Sensor Web Enablement specification framework. Further, we relate the Sensor Web to other emerging concepts such as the Web of Things and point out challenges and resulting future work topics for research on Sensor Web Enablement. PMID:22163760

  3. 'Ethos' Enabling Organisational Knowledge Creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsudaira, Yoshito

    This paper examines knowledge creation in relation to improvements on the production line in the manufacturing department of Nissan Motor Company and aims to clarify embodied knowledge observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation will be clarified. For that purpose, this study adopts an approach that adds a first, second, and third-person's viewpoint to the theory of knowledge creation. Embodied knowledge, observed in the actions of organisational members who enable knowledge creation, is the continued practice of 'ethos' (in Greek) founded in Nissan Production Way as an ethical basis. Ethos is knowledge (intangible) assets for knowledge creating companies. Substantiated analysis classifies ethos into three categories: the individual, team and organisation. This indicates the precise actions of the organisational members in each category during the knowledge creation process. This research will be successful in its role of showing the indispensability of ethos - the new concept of knowledge assets, which enables knowledge creation -for future knowledge-based management in the knowledge society.

  4. Enablement as a Positive Force in Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    1996-01-01

    Explores the concept of enablement and provides a framework for the counselor and counselor educator to use in facilitating client- or student-directed goals. Examines use of enablement, enablement versus co-dependency, the use of the enablement framework in the counseling role, and clinical examples of the enablement framework. (RJM)

  5. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    PubMed Central

    León-Montiel, Roberto de J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-01-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors. PMID:28287152

  6. Optimized microsystems-enabled photovoltaics

    DOEpatents

    Cruz-Campa, Jose Luis; Nielson, Gregory N.; Young, Ralph W.; Resnick, Paul J.; Okandan, Murat; Gupta, Vipin P.

    2015-09-22

    Technologies pertaining to designing microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) cells are described herein. A first restriction for a first parameter of an MEPV cell is received. Subsequently, a selection of a second parameter of the MEPV cell is received. Values for a plurality of parameters of the MEPV cell are computed such that the MEPV cell is optimized with respect to the second parameter, wherein the values for the plurality of parameters are computed based at least in part upon the restriction for the first parameter.

  7. Noise-enabled optical ratchets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León-Montiel, Roberto De J.; Quinto-Su, Pedro A.

    2017-03-01

    In this contribution, we report on the implementation of a novel noise-enabled optical ratchet system. We demonstrate that, unlike commonly-used ratchet schemes—where complex asymmetric optical potentials are needed—efficient transport of microparticles across a one-dimensional optical lattice can be produced by introducing controllable noise in the system. This work might open interesting routes towards the development of new technologies aimed at enhancing the efficiency of transport occurring at the micro- and nanoscale, from novel particle-sorting tools to efficient molecular motors.

  8. Autonomy enables new science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Gor, Victoria; Man, Guy K.; Stolorz, Paul E.; Chapman, Clark; Merline, William J.; Stern, Alan

    1997-01-01

    The challenge of space flight in NASA's future is to enable smaller, more frequent and intensive space exploration at much lower total cost without substantially decreasing mission reliability, capability, or the scientific return on investment. The most effective way to achieve this goal is to build intelligent capabilities into the spacecraft themselves. Our technological vision for meeting the challenge of returning quality science through limited communication bandwidth will actually put scientists in a more direct link with the spacecraft than they have enjoyed to date. Technologies such as pattern recognition and machine learning can place a part of the scientist's awareness onboard the spacecraft to prioritize downlink or to autonomously trigger time-critical follow-up observations-particularly important in flyby missions-without ground interaction. Onboard knowledge discovery methods can be used to include candidate discoveries in each downlink for scientists' scrutiny. Such capabilities will allow scientists to quickly reprioritize missions in a much more intimate and efficient manner than is possible today. Ultimately, new classes of exploration missions will be enabled.

  9. Nanomaterial-Enabled Neural Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongchen; Guo, Liang

    2016-01-01

    Neural stimulation is a critical technique in treating neurological diseases and investigating brain functions. Traditional electrical stimulation uses electrodes to directly create intervening electric fields in the immediate vicinity of neural tissues. Second-generation stimulation techniques directly use light, magnetic fields or ultrasound in a non-contact manner. An emerging generation of non- or minimally invasive neural stimulation techniques is enabled by nanotechnology to achieve a high spatial resolution and cell-type specificity. In these techniques, a nanomaterial converts a remotely transmitted primary stimulus such as a light, magnetic or ultrasonic signal to a localized secondary stimulus such as an electric field or heat to stimulate neurons. The ease of surface modification and bio-conjugation of nanomaterials facilitates cell-type-specific targeting, designated placement and highly localized membrane activation. This review focuses on nanomaterial-enabled neural stimulation techniques primarily involving opto-electric, opto-thermal, magneto-electric, magneto-thermal and acousto-electric transduction mechanisms. Stimulation techniques based on other possible transduction schemes and general consideration for these emerging neurotechnologies are also discussed. PMID:27013938

  10. Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2012-01-01

    Human exploration missions beyond low earth orbit will likely require international cooperation in order to leverage limited resources. International standards can help enable cooperative missions by providing well understood, predefined interfaces allowing compatibility between unique spacecraft and systems. The International Space Station (ISS) partnership has developed a publicly available International Docking System Standard (IDSS) that provides a solution to one of these key interfaces by defining a common docking interface. The docking interface provides a way for even dissimilar spacecraft to dock for exchange of crew and cargo, as well as enabling the assembly of large space systems. This paper provides an overview of the key attributes of the IDSS, an overview of the NASA Docking System (NDS), and the plans for updating the ISS with IDSS compatible interfaces. The NDS provides a state of the art, low impact docking system that will initially be made available to commercial crew and cargo providers. The ISS will be used to demonstrate the operational utility of the IDSS interface as a foundational technology for cooperative exploration.

  11. Directory Enabled Policy Based Networking

    SciTech Connect

    KELIIAA, CURTIS M.

    2001-10-01

    This report presents a discussion of directory-enabled policy-based networking with an emphasis on its role as the foundation for securely scalable enterprise networks. A directory service provides the object-oriented logical environment for interactive cyber-policy implementation. Cyber-policy implementation includes security, network management, operational process and quality of service policies. The leading network-technology vendors have invested in these technologies for secure universal connectivity that transverses Internet, extranet and intranet boundaries. Industry standards are established that provide the fundamental guidelines for directory deployment scalable to global networks. The integration of policy-based networking with directory-service technologies provides for intelligent management of the enterprise network environment as an end-to-end system of related clients, services and resources. This architecture allows logical policies to protect data, manage security and provision critical network services permitting a proactive defense-in-depth cyber-security posture. Enterprise networking imposes the consideration of supporting multiple computing platforms, sites and business-operation models. An industry-standards based approach combined with principled systems engineering in the deployment of these technologies allows these issues to be successfully addressed. This discussion is focused on a directory-based policy architecture for the heterogeneous enterprise network-computing environment and does not propose specific vendor solutions. This document is written to present practical design methodology and provide an understanding of the risks, complexities and most important, the benefits of directory-enabled policy-based networking.

  12. Spatially Enabling the Health Sector

    PubMed Central

    Weeramanthri, Tarun Stephen; Woodgate, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Spatial information describes the physical location of either people or objects, and the measured relationships between them. In this article, we offer the view that greater utilization of spatial information and its related technology, as part of a broader redesign of the architecture of health information at local and national levels, could assist and speed up the process of health reform, which is taking place across the globe in richer and poorer countries alike. In making this point, we describe the impetus for health sector reform, recent developments in spatial information and analytics, and current Australasian spatial health research. We highlight examples of uptake of spatial information by the health sector, as well as missed opportunities. Our recommendations to spatially enable the health sector are applicable to high- and low-resource settings. PMID:27867933

  13. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Bean; Trond Bjornard; Thomas Larson

    2007-09-01

    It is expected that nuclear energy will be a significant component of future supplies. New facilities, operating under a strengthened international nonproliferation regime will be needed. There is good reason to believe virtual engineering applied to the facility design, as well as to the safeguards system design will reduce total project cost and improve efficiency in the design cycle. Simulation Enabled Safeguards Assessment MEthodology (SESAME) has been developed as a software package to provide this capability for nuclear reprocessing facilities. The software architecture is specifically designed for distributed computing, collaborative design efforts, and modular construction to allow step improvements in functionality. Drag and drop wireframe construction allows the user to select the desired components from a component warehouse, render the system for 3D visualization, and, linked to a set of physics libraries and/or computational codes, conduct process evaluations of the system they have designed.

  14. Context-Enabled Business Intelligence

    SciTech Connect

    Troy Hiltbrand

    2012-04-01

    To truly understand context and apply it in business intelligence, it is vital to understand what context is and how it can be applied in addressing organizational needs. Context describes the facets of the environment that impact the way that end users interact with the system. Context includes aspects of location, chronology, access method, demographics, social influence/ relationships, end-user attitude/ emotional state, behavior/ past behavior, and presence. To be successful in making Business Intelligence content enabled, it is important to be able to capture the context of use user. With advances in technology, there are a number of ways in which this user based information can be gathered and exposed to enhance the overall end user experience.

  15. Enabling the Kepler Exoplanet Census

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Tim

    2013-01-01

    The Kepler mission, with its unrivaled photometric precision and nearly continuous monitoring, provides an unprecedented opportunity for an exoplanet census. However, while it has identified thousands of transiting planet candidates, only relatively few have yet been dynamically confirmed as bona fide planets, with only a handful more even conceivably amenable to future dynamical confirmation. As a result, the ability to draw detailed conclusions about the diversity of exoplanet systems from Kepler detections relies critically on assigning false positive probabilities to thousands of unconfirmed candidates. I have developed a procedure to calculate these probabilities using only the Kepler photometry, optionally including available follow-up observations. Using this, I can often statistically validate a candidate signal using two single-epoch observations: a stellar spectrum and a high-resolution image. Accordingly, I have applied this procedure to the publicly released Kepler Objects of Interest (KOIs) using results from several large follow-up campaigns: spectroscopic surveys of >100 KOIs with TripleSpec at the Palomar 200-in and >700 KOIs with Keck/HIRES, and imaging surveys of >60 KOIs with Keck/NIRC2 and nearly 1000 KOIs with the Palomar Robo-AO system. This has enabled me to identify hundreds of Kepler candidates as newly secure planets, identify some as likely false positives, and prescribe the most useful follow-up observations for the rest of the KOIs. These results will enable Kepler to fulfill its promise as a mission to study the statistics of exoplanet systems. In addition, this new approach to transit survey follow-up---detailed probabilistic assessment of large numbers of candidates in order to inform the application of relatively scarce follow-up resources---will remain fruitful as transit surveys continue to produce many more candidates than can be followed up with traditional strategies.

  16. Policy enabled information sharing system

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  17. Enabling Participation In Exoplanet Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Stuart F.

    2015-08-01

    Determining the distribution of exoplanets has required the contributions of a community of astronomers, who all require the support of colleagues to finish their projects in a manner to enable them to enter new collaborations to continue to contribute to understanding exoplanet science.The contributions of each member of the astronomy community are to be encouraged and must never be intentionally obstructed.We present a member’s long pursuit to be a contributing part of the exoplanet community through doing transit photometry as a means of commissioning the telescopes for a new observatory, followed by pursuit of interpreting the distributions in exoplanet parameter data.We present how the photometry projects have been presented as successful by the others who have claimed to have completed them, but how by requiring its employees to present results while omitting one member has been obstructive against members working together and has prevented the results from being published in what can genuinely be called a peer-reviewed fashion.We present how by tolerating one group to obstruct one member from finishing participation and then falsely denying credit is counterproductive to doing science.We show how expecting one member to attempt to go around an ostracizing group by starting something different is destructive to the entire profession. We repeat previously published appeals to help ostracized members to “go around the observatory” by calling for discussion on how the community must act to reverse cases of shunning, bullying, and other abuses. Without better recourse and support from the community, actions that do not meet standard good collegial behavior end up forcing good members from the community. The most important actions are to enable an ostracized member to have recourse to participating in group papers by either working through other authors or through the journal. All journals and authors must expect that no co-author is keeping out a major

  18. Enabling technology for human collaboration.

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Tim Andrew; Jones, Wendell Bruce; Warner, David Jay; Doser, Adele Beatrice; Johnson, Curtis Martin; Merkle, Peter Benedict

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-month LDRD late start project which explored the potential of enabling technology to improve the performance of small groups. The purpose was to investigate and develop new methods to assist groups working in high consequence, high stress, ambiguous and time critical situations, especially those for which it is impractical to adequately train or prepare. A testbed was constructed for exploratory analysis of a small group engaged in tasks with high cognitive and communication performance requirements. The system consisted of five computer stations, four with special devices equipped to collect physiologic, somatic, audio and video data. Test subjects were recruited and engaged in a cooperative video game. Each team member was provided with a sensor array for physiologic and somatic data collection while playing the video game. We explored the potential for real-time signal analysis to provide information that enables emergent and desirable group behavior and improved task performance. The data collected in this study included audio, video, game scores, physiological, somatic, keystroke, and mouse movement data. The use of self-organizing maps (SOMs) was explored to search for emergent trends in the physiological data as it correlated with the video, audio and game scores. This exploration resulted in the development of two approaches for analysis, to be used concurrently, an individual SOM and a group SOM. The individual SOM was trained using the unique data of each person, and was used to monitor the effectiveness and stress level of each member of the group. The group SOM was trained using the data of the entire group, and was used to monitor the group effectiveness and dynamics. Results suggested that both types of SOMs were required to adequately track evolutions and shifts in group effectiveness. Four subjects were used in the data collection and development of these tools. This report documents a proof of concept

  19. CUDA Enabled Graph Subset Examiner

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, Jeremy T.

    2016-12-22

    Finding Godsil-McKay switching sets in graphs is one way to demonstrate that a specific graph is not determined by its spectrum--the eigenvalues of its adjacency matrix. An important area of active research in pure mathematics is determining which graphs are determined by their spectra, i.e. when the spectrum of the adjacency matrix uniquely determines the underlying graph. We are interested in exploring the spectra of graphs in the Johnson scheme and specifically seek to determine which of these graphs are determined by their spectra. Given a graph G, a Godsil-McKay switching set is an induced subgraph H on 2k vertices with the following properties: I) H is regular, ii) every vertex in G/H is adjacent to either 0, k, or 2k vertices of H, and iii) at least one vertex in G/H is adjacent to k vertices in H. The software package examines each subset of a user specified size to determine whether or not it satisfies those 3 conditions. The software makes use of the massive parallel processing power of CUDA enabled GPUs. It also exploits the vertex transitivity of graphs in the Johnson scheme by reasoning that if G has a Godsil-McKay switching set, then it has a switching set which includes vertex 1. While the code (in its current state) is tuned to this specific problem, the method of examining each induced subgraph of G can be easily re-written to check for any user specified conditions on the subgraphs and can therefore be used much more broadly.

  20. Solar Glitter -- Microsystems Enabled Photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielson, Gregory N.

    2012-02-01

    Many products have significantly benefitted from, or been enabled by, the ability to manufacture structures at an ever decreasing length scale. Obvious examples of this include integrated circuits, flat panel displays, micro-scale sensors, and LED lighting. These industries have benefited from length scale effects in terms of improved performance, reduced cost, or new functionality (or a combination of these). In a similar manner, we are working to take advantage of length scale effects that exist within solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. While this is a significant step away from traditional approaches to solar power systems, the benefits in terms of new functionality, improved performance, and reduced cost for solar power are compelling. We are exploring scale effects that result from the size of the solar cells within the system. We have developed unique cells of both crystalline silicon and III-V materials that are very thin (5-20 microns thick) and have very small lateral dimensions (on the order of hundreds of microns across). These cells minimize the amount of expensive semiconductor material required for the system, allow improved cell performance, and provide an expanded design space for both module and system concepts allowing optimized power output and reduced module and balance of system costs. Furthermore, the small size of the cells allows for unique high-efficiency, high-flexibility PV panels and new building-integrated PV options that are currently unavailable. These benefits provide a pathway for PV power to become cost competitive with grid power and allow unique power solutions independent of grid power.

  1. Enabling individualized therapy through nanotechnology

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Jason H.; van de Ven, Anne L.; Godin, Biana; Blanco, Elvin; Serda, Rita E.; Grattoni, Alessandro; Ziemys, Arturas; Bouamrani, Ali; Hu, Tony; Ranganathan, Shivakumar I.; De Rosa, Enrica; Martinez, Jonathan O.; Smid, Christine A.; Buchanan, Rachel M.; Lee, Sei-Young; Srinivasan, Srimeenakshi; Landry, Matthew; Meyn, Anne; Tasciotti, Ennio; Liu, Xuewu; Decuzzi, Paolo; Ferrari, Mauro

    2010-01-01

    Individualized medicine is the healthcare strategy that rebukes the idiomatic dogma of ‘losing sight of the forest for the trees’. We are entering a new era of healthcare where it is no longer acceptable to develop and market a drug that is effective for only 80% of the patient population. The emergence of “-omic” technologies (e.g. genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics) and advances in systems biology are magnifying the deficiencies of standardized therapy, which often provide little treatment latitude for accommodating patient physiologic idiosyncrasies. A personalized approach to medicine is not a novel concept. Ever since the scientific community began unraveling the mysteries of the genome, the promise of discarding generic treatment regimens in favor of patient-specific therapies became more feasible and realistic. One of the major scientific impediments of this movement towards personalized medicine has been the need for technological enablement. Nanotechnology is projected to play a critical role in patient-specific therapy; however, this transition will depend heavily upon the evolutionary development of a systems biology approach to clinical medicine based upon “-omic” technology analysis and integration. This manuscript provides a forward looking assessment of the promise of nanomedicine as it pertains to individualized medicine and establishes a technology “snapshot” of the current state of nano-based products over a vast array of clinical indications and range of patient specificity. Other issues such as market driven hurdles and regulatory compliance reform are anticipated to “self-correct” in accordance to scientific advancement and healthcare demand. These peripheral, non-scientific concerns are not addressed at length in this manuscript; however they do exist, and their impact to the paradigm shifting healthcare transformation towards individualized medicine will be critical for its success. PMID:20045055

  2. Enabling Community Through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Haythornthwaite, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Background Social network analysis provides a perspective and method for inquiring into the structures that comprise online groups and communities. Traces from interaction via social media provide the opportunity for understanding how a community is formed and maintained online. Objective The paper aims to demonstrate how social network analysis provides a vocabulary and set of techniques for examining interaction patterns via social media. Using the case of the #hcsmca online discussion forum, this paper highlights what has been and can be gained by approaching online community from a social network perspective, as well as providing an inside look at the structure of the #hcsmca community. Methods Social network analysis was used to examine structures in a 1-month sample of Twitter messages with the hashtag #hcsmca (3871 tweets, 486 unique posters), which is the tag associated with the social media–supported group Health Care Social Media Canada. Network connections were considered present if the individual was mentioned, replied to, or had a post retweeted. Results Network analyses revealed patterns of interaction that characterized the community as comprising one component, with a set of core participants prominent in the network due to their connections with others. Analysis showed the social media health content providers were the most influential group based on in-degree centrality. However, there was no preferential attachment among people in the same professional group, indicating that the formation of connections among community members was not constrained by professional status. Conclusions Network analysis and visualizations provide techniques and a vocabulary for understanding online interaction, as well as insights that can help in understanding what, and who, comprises and sustains a network, and whether community emerges from a network of online interactions. PMID:24176835

  3. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    SciTech Connect

    Wix, S.; Kanipe, F.; McMurtry, W.

    1998-09-01

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience.

  4. Commentary: Academic Enablers and School Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.

    2002-01-01

    This commentary presents academic enablers within the broader, overlapping context of school learning theory, including the theories of Carroll, Harnishfeger and Wiley, Walberg, and others. Multivariate models are needed to understand the influences of academic enabler and school learning variables on learning, as well as the influences of these…

  5. The Xenopus ORFeome: A resource that enables functional genomics

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Ian M.; Balcha, Dawit; Hao, Tong; Shen, Yun; Trivedi, Prasad; Patrushev, Ilya; Fortriede, Joshua D.; Karpinka, John B.; Liu, Limin; Zorn, Aaron M.; Stukenberg, P. Todd; Hill, David E.; Gilchrist, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Functional characterisation of proteins and large-scale, systems-level studies are enabled by extensive sets of cloned open reading frames (ORFs) in an easily-accessible format that enables many different applications. Here we report the release of the first stage of the Xenopus ORFeome, which contains 8673 ORFs from the Xenopus Gene Collection (XGC) for Xenopus laevis, cloned into a Gateway® donor vector enabling rapid in-frame transfer of the ORFs to expression vectors. This resource represents an estimated 7871 unique genes, approximately 40% of the non-redundant X. laevis gene complement, and includes 2724 genes where the human ortholog has an association with disease. Transfer into the Gateway system was validated by 5′ and 3′ end sequencing of the entire collection and protein expression of a set of test clones. In a parallel process, the underlying ORF predictions from the original XGC collection were re-analysed to verify quality and full-length status, identifying those proteins likely to exhibit truncations when translated. These data are integrated into Xenbase, the Xenopus community database, which associates genomic, expression, function and human disease model metadata to each ORF, enabling end-users to search for ORFeome clones with links to commercial distributors of the collection. When coupled with the experimental advantages of Xenopus eggs and embryos, the ORFeome collection represents a valuable resource for functional genomics and disease modelling. PMID:26391338

  6. The OGC Sensor Web Enablement framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, S. J.; Botts, M.

    2006-12-01

    Sensor observations are at the core of natural sciences. Improvements in data-sharing technologies offer the promise of much greater utilisation of observational data. A key to this is interoperable data standards. The Open Geospatial Consortium's (OGC) Sensor Web Enablement initiative (SWE) is developing open standards for web interfaces for the discovery, exchange and processing of sensor observations, and tasking of sensor systems. The goal is to support the construction of complex sensor applications through real-time composition of service chains from standard components. The framework is based around a suite of standard interfaces, and standard encodings for the message transferred between services. The SWE interfaces include: Sensor Observation Service (SOS)-parameterized observation requests (by observation time, feature of interest, property, sensor); Sensor Planning Service (SPS)-tasking a sensor- system to undertake future observations; Sensor Alert Service (SAS)-subscription to an alert, usually triggered by a sensor result exceeding some value. The interface design generally follows the pattern established in the OGC Web Map Service (WMS) and Web Feature Service (WFS) interfaces, where the interaction between a client and service follows a standard sequence of requests and responses. The first obtains a general description of the service capabilities, followed by obtaining detail required to formulate a data request, and finally a request for a data instance or stream. These may be implemented in a stateless "REST" idiom, or using conventional "web-services" (SOAP) messaging. In a deployed system, the SWE interfaces are supplemented by Catalogue, data (WFS) and portrayal (WMS) services, as well as authentication and rights management. The standard SWE data formats are Observations and Measurements (O&M) which encodes observation metadata and results, Sensor Model Language (SensorML) which describes sensor-systems, Transducer Model Language (TML) which

  7. Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Debban, Theresa; Yen, Chen wan; Sherwood, Robert; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Brul, Michael; Fukunaga, Alex; Fukunaga, Alex; Doggett, Thomas; Williams, Kevin; Dohm, James

    2003-01-01

    Breakthrough autonomy technologies enable a new range of spire missions that acquire vast amounts of data and return only the most scientifically important data to Earth. These missions would monitor science phenomena in great detail (either with frequent observations or at extremely high spatial resolution) and onboard analyze the data to detect specific science events of interest. These missions would monitor volcanic eruptions, formation and movement of aeolian features. and atmospheric phenomena. The autonomous spacecraft would respond to science events by planning its future operations to revisit or perform complementary observations. In this paradigm, the spacecraft represents the scientists agent enabling optimization of the downlink data volume resource. This paper describes preliminary efforts to define and design such missions.

  8. Enabling technologies for Chinese Mars lander guidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiuqiang; Li, Shuang

    2017-04-01

    Chinese first Mars exploration activity, orbiting landing and roaming collaborative mission, has been programmed and started. As a key technology, Mars lander guidance system is intended to serve atmospheric entry, descent and landing (EDL) phases. This paper is to report the formation process of enabling technology road map for Chinese Mars lander guidance system. First, two scenarios of the first-stage of the Chinese Mars exploration project are disclosed in detail. Second, mission challenges and engineering needs of EDL guidance, navigation, and control (GNC) are presented systematically for Chinese Mars exploration program. Third, some useful related technologies developed in China's current aerospace projects are pertinently summarized, especially on entry guidance, parachute descent, autonomous hazard avoidance and safe landing. Finally, an enabling technology road map of Chinese Mars lander guidance is given through technological inheriting and improving.

  9. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Karen; Vasquez, Deb

    2017-01-01

    The Federal Energy Management Program's 'Utility Energy Service Contracts: Enabling Documents' provide legislative information and materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy service contracts, or UESCs.

  10. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  11. ISS - Enabling Exploration Through Docking Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, Caris A.

    2011-01-01

    NASA and the ISS partnership are jointly developing a key standard to enable future collaborative exploration. The IDSS is based on flight proven design while incorporating new low impact technology. Low impact technology accommodates a wide range of vehicle contact and capture conditions. This standard will get early demonstration on the ISS. Experience gained here will enable operational experience and the opportunity to refine the standard.

  12. GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    polygons, visual databases include texture information to provide a visualization of ground and material types. These databases include 3D models ...US Army TEC GIS-Enabled Modeling and Simulation project, and was the lead developer on the building interior semantic information portion of the...GIS Enabled Modeling and Simulation (GEMS) Thomas Stanzione Kevin Johnson MAK Technologies 68 Moulton Street Cambridge, MA 02138 (617) 876

  13. Enabling Self-Monitoring Data Exchange in Participatory Medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Campos, Guillermo; Ofoghi, Bahadorreza; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The development of new methods, devices and apps for self-monitoring have enabled the extension of the application of these approaches for consumer health and research purposes. The increase in the number and variety of devices has generated a complex scenario where reporting guidelines and data exchange formats will be needed to ensure the quality of the information and the reproducibility of results of the experiments. Based on the Minimal Information for Self Monitoring Experiments (MISME) reporting guideline we have developed an XML format (MISME-ML) to facilitate data exchange for self monitoring experiments. We have also developed a sample instance to illustrate the concept and a Java MISME-ML validation tool. The implementation and adoption of these tools should contribute to the consolidation of a set of methods that ensure the reproducibility of self monitoring experiments for research purposes.

  14. New Labour and the enabling state.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ian

    2000-11-01

    The notion of the 'enabling state' gained currency in the UK during the 1990s as an alternative to the 'providing' or the welfare state. It reflected the process of contracting out in the NHS and compulsory competitive tendering (CCT) in local government during the 1980s, but was also associated with developments during the 1990s in health, social care and education in particular. The creation of an internal market in the NHS and the associated purchaser-provider split appeared to transfer 'ownership' of services increasingly to the providers - hospitals, General Practitioners (GPs) and schools. The mixed economy of care that was stimulated by the 1990 NHS and Community Care Act appeared to offer local authorities the opportunity to enable non state providers to offer care services in the community. The new service charters were part of the enablement process because they offered users more opportunity to influence provision. This article examines how far service providers were enabled and assesses the extent to which new Labour's policies enhance or reject the 'enabling state' in favour of more direct provision.

  15. Standardizing intensive care device data to enable secondary usages.

    PubMed

    Ingenerf, Josef; Kock, Ann-Kristin; Poelker, Marcel; Seidl, Konrad; Zeplin, Georg; Mersmann, Stefan; Handels, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    To represent medical device observations in a format that is consumable by clinical software, standards like HL7v3 and ISO/IEEE 11073 should be used jointly. This is demonstrated in a project with Dräger Medical GmbH focusing on their Patient Data Management System (PDMS) in intensive care, called Integrated Care Manager (ICM). Patient and device data of interest should be mapped to suitable formats to enable data exchange and decision support. Instead of mapping device data to target formats bilaterally we use a generic HL7v3 Refined Message Information Model (RMIM) with device specific parts adapted to ISO/IEEE 11073 DIM. The generality of the underlying model (based on Yuksel et al. [1]) allows the flexible inclusion of IEEE 11073 conformant device models of interest on the one hand and the generation of needed artifacts for secondary usages on the other hand, e.g. HL7 V2 messages, HL7 CDA documents like the Personal Health Monitoring Report (PHMR) or web services. Hence, once the medical device data are obtained in the RMIM format, it can quite easily be transformed into HL7-based standard interfaces through XSL transformations because these interfaces all have their building blocks from the same RIM. From there data can be accessed uniformly, e.g. as needed by Dräger´s decision support system SmartCare [2] for automated control and optimization of weaning from mechanical ventilation.

  16. Enabling the Discovery of Gravitational Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaacson, Richard

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of gravitational radiation was announced with the publication of the results of a physics experiment involving over a thousand participants. This was preceded by a century of theoretical work, involving a similarly large group of physicists, mathematicians, and computer scientists. This huge effort was enabled by a substantial commitment of resources, both public and private, to develop the different strands of this complex research enterprise, and to build a community of scientists to carry it out. In the excitement following the discovery, the role of key enablers of this success has not always been adequately recognized in popular accounts. In this talk, I will try to call attention to a few of the key ingredients that proved crucial to enabling the successful discovery of gravitational waves, and the opening of a new field of science.

  17. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  18. Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE Program

    SciTech Connect

    2012-06-01

    The Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) ENABLE program, a new project funding approach, allows small Federal facilities to realize energy and water savings in six months or less. ESPC ENABLE provides a standardized and streamlined process to install targeted energy conservation measures (ECMs) such as lighting, water, and controls with measurement and verification (M&V) appropriate for the size and scope of the project. This allows Federal facilities smaller than 200,000 square feet to make progress towards important energy efficiency and water conservation requirements.

  19. Enabling human HUMS with data modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaenisch, Holger M.; Handley, James W.; Jaenisch, Kristina K.; Hicklen, Michael L.

    2006-05-01

    We simulate a notional Navy SEAL rebreather diver on an extended mission using Model Predictive Control (MPC) theory. A mathematical framework for enabling physiological HUMS (Health Usage Management Systems) is shown. A rebreather simulation is used to derive MPC baseline Data Models of diver status by converting the simulation first into differential equations and then into lookup tables (LUT). When abnormal readings are indicated, sensor data from the diver is published to the ad hoc network, enabling intermittent upload. Mission success confidence is updated and determined during the mission. A novel method of converting MPC Data Models into lookup tables worn by the diver is given.

  20. Upgraded NERVA systems: Enabler nuclear system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farbman, Gerry

    1991-01-01

    The NERVA/Rover Enabler technology enables to go on a low risk, short-term program to meet the requirements of the Mars mission and maybe some lunar missions. The following subject areas are covered: NERVA technology - the foundation for tomorrow's space missions; NERVA/Rover reactor system test sequence; NERVA engine development program; nuclear thermal reactor capability based on many related Westinghouse technology programs; investment in Rover/Nerva technology; synergistic applications of NERVA technology; flow schematic of the NDR engine; the NERVA nuclear subsystem; and technology evolution.

  1. Networking Technologies Enable Advances in Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Marjory; Freeman, Kenneth; Gilstrap, Raymond; Beck, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes an experiment to prototype a new way of conducting science by applying networking and distributed computing technologies to an Earth Science application. A combination of satellite, wireless, and terrestrial networking provided geologists at a remote field site with interactive access to supercomputer facilities at two NASA centers, thus enabling them to validate and calibrate remotely sensed geological data in near-real time. This represents a fundamental shift in the way that Earth scientists analyze remotely sensed data. In this paper we describe the experiment and the network infrastructure that enabled it, analyze the data flow during the experiment, and discuss the scientific impact of the results.

  2. Network Enabled Operations: A Canadian Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-05-13

    Decisive: US Naval Institute Proceedings. ** VERDON , J. (2004) Transformation in the CF - People Implications of Effects-Based and Network-Enabled...Operations: A Canadian Perspective (U) 4. AUTHORS (First name, middle initial and last name. If military, show rank, e.g. Maj. John E. Doe.) Michael H

  3. Nanotechnologv Enabled Biological and Chemical Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koehne, Jessica; Meyyappan, M.

    2011-01-01

    Nanotechnology is an enabling technology that will impact almost all economic sectors: one of the most important and with great potential is the health/medical sector. - Nanomaterials for drug delivery - Early warning sensors - Implantable devices - Artificial parts with improved characteristics Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers show promise for use in sensor development, electrodes and other biomedical applications.

  4. School Bureaucracies That Work: Enabling, Not Coercive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoy, Wayne K.; Sweetland, Scott R.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to reconcile two theoretically opposing perspectives of bureaucracy (as either alienating or facilitative) by creating and testing a new construct called "enabling bureaucracy." Empirical results are encouraging. Schools can be designed with formalized procedures and hierarchical structures that help rather than hinder teaching and…

  5. ICT-Enabled Learning: The Student Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Geoff; Grebennikov, Leonid; Gozzard, Terry

    2009-01-01

    This research seeks to contribute to current discussions in Australian higher education on how best to deploy ICT-enabled learning. Its particular focus is on examining the qualitative data from students on their experience of using Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at one college in an Australian university. In total, about 71,240…

  6. Enabling a Comprehensive Teaching Strategy: Video Lectures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brecht, H. David; Ogilby, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    This study empirically tests the feasibility and effectiveness of video lectures as a form of video instruction that enables a comprehensive teaching strategy used throughout a traditional classroom course. It examines student use patterns and the videos' effects on student learning, using qualitative and nonparametric statistical analyses of…

  7. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  8. Safely Enabling Low-Altitude Airspace Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2015-01-01

    Near-term Goal: Enable initial low-altitude airspace and UAS operations with demonstrated safety as early as possible, within 5 years. Long-term Goal: Accommodate increased UAS operations with highest safety, efficiency, and capacity as much autonomously as possible (10-15 years).

  9. Technology-Enabled Crime, Policing and Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McQuade, Sam

    2006-01-01

    Crime, policing and security are enabled by and co-evolve with technologies that make them possible. As criminals compete with security and policing officials for technological advantage perpetually complex crime, policing and security results in relatively confusing and therefore unmanageable threats to society. New, adaptive and ordinary crimes…

  10. Enabling room temperature sodium metal batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Cao, Ruiguo; Mishra, Kuber; Li, Xiaolin; Qian, Jiangfeng; Engelhard, Mark H.; Bowden, Mark E.; Han, Kee Sung; Mueller, Karl T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Zhang, Ji-Guang

    2016-12-01

    Rechargeable batteries based upon sodium (Na+) cations are at the core of many new battery chemistries beyond Li-ion batteries. Rather than using carbon or alloy-based anodes, the direct utilization of solid sodium metal as an anode would be highly advantageous, but its use has been highly problematic due to its high reactivity. In this work, however, it is demonstrated that, by tailoring the electrolyte formulation, solid Na metal can be electrochemically plated/stripped at ambient temperature with high efficiency (> 99%) on both copper and inexpensive aluminum current collectors thereby enabling a shift in focus to new battery chemical couples based upon Na metal operating at ambient temperature. These highly concentrated electrolytes has enabled stable cycling of Na metal batteries based on a Na metal anode and Na3V2(PO4)3 cathode at high rates with very high efficiency.

  11. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation.

    PubMed

    Vreeman, Daniel J; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J

    2012-08-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component "hepatitis c virus" separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such "Ab.IgG", "DNA", and "RNA". We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into nine languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC's open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange.

  12. Enabling Tactical Edge Mashups with Live Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    and visual Situation Reports (SITREPs) while airborne, via his Live Objects-enabled IP radio, to better vector the bird to the site of the downed...including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources , gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and...Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to a

  13. NASA Missions Enabled by Space Nuclear Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.; Schmidt, George R.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews NASA Space Missions that are enabled by Space Nuclear Systems. The topics include: 1) Space Nuclear System Applications; 2) Trade Space for Electric Power Systems; 3) Power Generation Specific Energy Trade Space; 4) Radioisotope Power Generation; 5) Radioisotope Missions; 6) Fission Power Generation; 7) Solar Powered Lunar Outpost; 8) Fission Powered Lunar Outpost; 9) Fission Electric Power Generation; and 10) Fission Nuclear Thermal Propulsion.

  14. Enabling technologies for petascale electromagnetic accelerator simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Lixin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark

    2007-07-01

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  15. Open Architecture as an Enabler for FORCEnet

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-01

    Functional Area Manager FCP Fire Control Picture FCS Fire Control Solution FCQ Fire Control Quality FFBD Functional Flow Block Diagram Fn/OA FORCEnet...a) Firing Unit (FRU) receive Fire Control Quality ( FCQ ) data on threat from Remote Unit(s) (RUs). b) Validate FCQ data, enable FRU to act. c...Maintain Common Operational Picture (COP) of local tracks. d) Develop Fire Control Solution (FCS) based on FCQ data. e) Correlate FRU FCS with RU

  16. Enabling technologies: fermentation and downstream processing.

    PubMed

    Weuster-Botz, Dirk; Hekmat, Dariusch; Puskeiler, Robert; Franco-Lara, Ezequiel

    2007-01-01

    Efficient parallel tools for bioprocess design, consequent application of the concepts for metabolic process analysis as well as innovative downstream processing techniques are enabling technologies for new industrial bioprocesses from an engineering point of view. Basic principles, state-of-the-art techniques and cutting-edge technologies are briefly reviewed. Emphasis is on parallel bioreactors for bioprocess design, biochemical systems characterization and metabolic control analysis, as well as on preparative chromatography, affinity filtration and protein crystallization on a process scale.

  17. Enabling international adoption of LOINC through translation

    PubMed Central

    Vreeman, Daniel J.; Chiaravalloti, Maria Teresa; Hook, John; McDonald, Clement J.

    2012-01-01

    Interoperable health information exchange depends on adoption of terminology standards, but international use of such standards can be challenging because of language differences between local concept names and the standard terminology. To address this important barrier, we describe the evolution of an efficient process for constructing translations of LOINC terms names, the foreign language functions in RELMA, and the current state of translations in LOINC. We also present the development of the Italian translation to illustrate how translation is enabling adoption in international contexts. We built a tool that finds the unique list of LOINC Parts that make up a given set of LOINC terms. This list enables translation of smaller pieces like the core component “hepatitis c virus” separately from all the suffixes that could appear with it, such “Ab.IgG”, “DNA”, and “RNA”. We built another tool that generates a translation of a full LOINC name from all of these atomic pieces. As of version 2.36 (June 2011), LOINC terms have been translated into 9 languages from 15 linguistic variants other than its native English. The five largest linguistic variants have all used the Part-based translation mechanism. However, even with efficient tools and processes, translation of standard terminology is a complex undertaking. Two of the prominent linguistic challenges that translators have faced include: the approach to handling acronyms and abbreviations, and the differences in linguistic syntax (e.g. word order) between languages. LOINC’s open and customizable approach has enabled many different groups to create translations that met their needs and matched their resources. Distributing the standard and its many language translations at no cost worldwide accelerates LOINC adoption globally, and is an important enabler of interoperable health information exchange PMID:22285984

  18. Enabling Technologies for Petascale Electromagnetic Accelerator Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Lie-Quan; Akcelik, Volkan; Chen, Sheng; Ge, Li-Xin; Prudencio, Ernesto; Schussman, Greg; Uplenchwar, Ravi; Ng, Cho; Ko, Kwok; Luo, Xiaojun; Shephard, Mark; /Rensselaer Poly.

    2007-11-09

    The SciDAC2 accelerator project at SLAC aims to simulate an entire three-cryomodule radio frequency (RF) unit of the International Linear Collider (ILC) main Linac. Petascale computing resources supported by advances in Applied Mathematics (AM) and Computer Science (CS) and INCITE Program are essential to enable such very large-scale electromagnetic accelerator simulations required by the ILC Global Design Effort. This poster presents the recent advances and achievements in the areas of CS/AM through collaborations.

  19. Enabling Research Tools for Sustained Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leidner, Allison K.; Bosilovich, Michael G.; Jasinski, Michael F.; Nemani, Ramakrishna R.; Waliser, Duane Edward; Lee, Tsengdar J.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Global Change Research Program Sustained Assessment process benefits from long-term investments in Earth science research that enable the scientific community to conduct assessment-relevant science. To this end, NASA initiated several research programs over the past five years to support the Earth observation community in developing indicators, datasets, research products, and tools to support ongoing and future National Climate Assessments. These activities complement NASA's ongoing Earth science research programs. One aspect of the assessment portfolio funds four "enabling tools" projects at NASA research centers. Each tool leverages existing capacity within the center, but has developed tailored applications and products for National Climate Assessments. The four projects build on the capabilities of a global atmospheric reanalysis (MERRA-2), a continental U.S. land surface reanalysis (NCA-LDAS), the NASA Earth Exchange (NEX), and a Regional Climate Model Evaluation System (RCMES). Here, we provide a brief overview of each enabling tool, highlighting the ways in which it has advanced assessment science to date. We also discuss how the assessment community can access and utilize these tools for National Climate Assessments and other sustained assessment activities.

  20. Enabling conditions and children's understanding of pretense.

    PubMed

    Sobel, David M

    2009-11-01

    Two experiments examined whether preschoolers' difficulties on tasks that required relating pretending and knowledge (e.g., Lillard, A. S. (1993a). Young children's conceptualization of pretense: Action or mental representational state? Child Development, 64, 372-386) were due to children's inability to appreciate the causal mechanism behind enabling conditions. In Experiment 1, 4-year-olds were told about a character who knew about one kind of animal and did not know about another. The character acted in a manner consistent with both animals. Children were asked whether the character was pretending to be the animal of which he was ignorant. The character's knowledge was either represented in a generic manner (as a picture) or in a manner that suggested a particular enabling condition relation that children found accessible (as a battery, which most 4-year-olds recognize is critical for making toys work). Children were more successful at relating knowledge and pretending in the battery condition. This improvement in performance extended to another task in which children had to identify the enabling condition relation between knowledge and identification, in which there were reduced demands on the inhibitory mechanisms necessary for success. Experiment 2 found that the results in Experiment 1 were not due to demands of the procedure used in Experiment 1. These results are discussed in the context of recent theories of theory of mind that focus on the importance of causal relations among mental states.

  1. Web-enabling technologies for the factory floor: a web-enabling strategy for emanufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velez, Ricardo; Lastra, Jose L. M.; Tuokko, Reijo O.

    2001-10-01

    This paper is intended to address the different technologies available for Web-enabling of the factory floor. It will give an overview of the importance of Web-enabling of the factory floor, in the application of the concepts of flexible and intelligent manufacturing, in conjunction with e-commerce. As a last section, it will try to define a Web-enabling strategy for the application in eManufacturing. This is made under the scope of the electronics manufacturing industry, so every application, technology or related matter is presented under such scope.

  2. Small-RPS Enabled Mars Rover Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balint, Tibor S.

    2005-02-01

    Both the MER and the Mars Pathfinder rovers operated on Mars in an energy-limited mode, since the solar panels generated power during daylight hours only. At other times the rovers relied on power stored in batteries. In comparison, Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) offer a power-enabled paradigm, where power can be generated for long mission durations (measured in years), independently from the Sun, and on a continuous basis. A study was performed at JPL to assess the feasibility of a small-RPS enabled MER-class rover concept and any associated advantages of its mission on Mars, The rover concept relied on design heritage from MER with two significant changes. First, the solar panels were replaced with two single GPHS module based small-RPSs. Second, the Mossbauer spectroscope was substituted with a laser Raman spectroscope, in order to move towards MEPAG defined astrobiology driven science goals. The highest power requirements were contributed to mobility and telecommunication type operating modes, hence influencing power system sizing. The resulting hybrid power system included two small-RPSs and two batteries. Each small-RPS was assumed to generate 50 We of power or 620 Wh/sol of energy (BOL), comparable to that of MER. The two 8 Ah batteries were considered available during peak power usage. Mission architecture, power trades, science instruments, data, communication, thermal and radiation environments, mobility, and mass issues were also addressed. The study demonstrated that a new set of RPS-enabled rover missions could be envisioned for Mars exploration within the next decade, targeting astrobiology oriented science objectives, while powered by 2 to 4 GPHS modules.

  3. A wireless sensor enabled by wireless power.

    PubMed

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-11-22

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network.

  4. Astronomy Enabled by Ares V -- A Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lester, Daniel F.; Langhoff, S.; Worden, S. P.; Thronson, H.; Correll, R.

    2009-01-01

    On April 26th and 27th, 2008, NASA Ames Research Center hosted a two-day weekend workshop entitled "Astronomy Enabled by Ares V.” The primary goal of the workshop was to begin the process of bringing the Ares V designers together with senior representatives of the astronomical community to discuss the feasibility of using the Ares V heavy-lift launch vehicle to enable both new astronomical telescope architectures and new science. When developed in the latter part of the upcoming decade Ares V will be by far the most capable launch vehicle, with mass and volume launch capability many times that now available. The vehicle is understood to be the main workhorse in carrying humans and cargo to the Moon and beyond and, as such, is a key lynchpin for NASA's new space transportation architecture. Participants included experts from academia, industry, and NASA, including representatives of the Constellation architecture. Participants considered, in the context of identified astronomy needs: (1) Are there telescope concepts or missions capable of breakthrough science that are either enabled or significantly enhanced by the capabilities of an Ares V? (2) What demands do large telescopes place on the payload environment of the Ares V, such as mass, volume, fairing shape, cleanliness, acoustics, etc.? (3) What technology and environmental issues need to be addressed to facilitate launching observatories on an Ares V? (4) Is there a trade-off between mass and complexity that could reduce launch risk and, thereby, the cost of building large telescopes? We report on the results of this workshop, which included discussion on the operations model for such large-investment astronomical facilities. Such an operations model might well involve human and or robotic maintenance and servicing, in order to fully capitalize on the science potential of such facilities.

  5. A Wireless Sensor Enabled by Wireless Power

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Da-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Hong; Lin, Chii-Ruey

    2012-01-01

    Through harvesting energy by wireless charging and delivering data by wireless communication, this study proposes the concept of a wireless sensor enabled by wireless power (WPWS) and reports the fabrication of a prototype for functional tests. One WPWS node consists of wireless power module and sensor module with different chip-type sensors. Its main feature is the dual antenna structure. Following RFID system architecture, a power harvesting antenna was designed to gather power from a standard reader working in the 915 MHz band. Referring to the Modbus protocol, the other wireless communication antenna was integrated on a node to send sensor data in parallel. The dual antenna structure integrates both the advantages of an RFID system and a wireless sensor. Using a standard UHF RFID reader, WPWS can be enabled in a distributed area with a diameter up to 4 m. Working status is similar to that of a passive tag, except that a tag can only be queried statically, while the WPWS can send dynamic data from the sensors. The function is the same as a wireless sensor node. Different WPWSs equipped with temperature and humidity, optical and airflow velocity sensors are tested in this study. All sensors can send back detection data within 8 s. The accuracy is within 8% deviation compared with laboratory equipment. A wireless sensor network enabled by wireless power should be a totally wireless sensor network using WPWS. However, distributed WPWSs only can form a star topology, the simplest topology for constructing a sensor network. Because of shielding effects, it is difficult to apply other complex topologies. Despite this limitation, WPWS still can be used to extend sensor network applications in hazardous environments. Further research is needed to improve WPWS to realize a totally wireless sensor network. PMID:23443370

  6. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nicholas P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit paths by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabricated parts were hybridized using a flip-chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  7. Surface acoustic wave enabled pipette on a chip.

    PubMed

    Sesen, Muhsincan; Devendran, Citsabehsan; Malikides, Sean; Alan, Tuncay; Neild, Adrian

    2017-01-31

    Mono-disperse droplet formation in microfluidic devices allows the rapid production of thousands of identical droplets and has enabled a wide range of chemical and biological studies through repeat tests performed at pico-to-nanoliter volume samples. However, it is exactly this efficiency of production which has hindered the ability to carefully control the location and quantity of the distribution of various samples on a chip - the key requirement for replicating micro well plate based high throughput screening in vastly reduced volumetric scales. To address this need, here, we present a programmable microfluidic chip capable of pipetting samples from mobile droplets with high accuracy using a non-contact approach. Pipette on a chip (PoaCH) system selectively ejects (pipettes) part of a droplet into a customizable reaction chamber using surface acoustic waves (SAWs). Droplet pipetting is shown to range from as low as 150 pL up to 850 pL with precision down to tens of picoliters. PoaCH offers ease of integration with existing lab on a chip systems as well as a robust and contamination-free droplet manipulation technique in closed microchannels enabling potential implementation in screening and other studies.

  8. Enabling Large Focal Plane Arrays Through Mosaic Hybridization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Timothy M.; Jhabvala, Christine A.; Leong, Edward; Costen, Nick P.; Sharp, Elmer; Adachi, Tomoko; Benford, Dominic J.

    2012-01-01

    We have demonstrated advances in mosaic hybridization that will enable very large format far-infrared detectors. Specifically we have produced electrical detector models via mosaic hybridization yielding superconducting circuit patbs by hybridizing separately fabricated sub-units onto a single detector unit. The detector model was made on a 100mm diameter wafer while four model readout quadrant chips were made from a separate 100mm wafer. The individually fabric.ted parts were hybridized using a Suss FCI50 flip chip bonder to assemble the detector-readout stack. Once all of the hybridized readouts were in place, a single, large and thick silicon substrate was placed on the stack and attached with permanent epoxy to provide strength and a Coefficient of Thermal Expansion match to the silicon components underneath. Wirebond pads on the readout chips connect circuits to warm readout electronics; and were used to validate the successful superconducting electrical interconnection of the model mosaic-hybrid detector. This demonstration is directly scalable to 150 mm diameter wafers, enabling pixel areas over ten times the area currently available.

  9. MOPED enables discoveries through consistently processed proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Roger; Stewart, Elizabeth; Stanberry, Larissa; Haynes, Winston; Choiniere, John; Montague, Elizabeth; Anderson, Nathaniel; Yandl, Gregory; Janko, Imre; Broomall, William; Fishilevich, Simon; Lancet, Doron; Kolker, Natali; Kolker, Eugene

    2014-01-03

    The Model Organism Protein Expression Database (MOPED, http://moped.proteinspire.org) is an expanding proteomics resource to enable biological and biomedical discoveries. MOPED aggregates simple, standardized and consistently processed summaries of protein expression and metadata from proteomics (mass spectrometry) experiments from human and model organisms (mouse, worm, and yeast). The latest version of MOPED adds new estimates of protein abundance and concentration as well as relative (differential) expression data. MOPED provides a new updated query interface that allows users to explore information by organism, tissue, localization, condition, experiment, or keyword. MOPED supports the Human Proteome Project's efforts to generate chromosome- and diseases-specific proteomes by providing links from proteins to chromosome and disease information as well as many complementary resources. MOPED supports a new omics metadata checklist to harmonize data integration, analysis, and use. MOPED's development is driven by the user community, which spans 90 countries and guides future development that will transform MOPED into a multiomics resource. MOPED encourages users to submit data in a simple format. They can use the metadata checklist to generate a data publication for this submission. As a result, MOPED will provide even greater insights into complex biological processes and systems and enable deeper and more comprehensive biological and biomedical discoveries.

  10. ENABLER Nuclear Propulsion System Conceptual Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pauley, Keith A.; Woodham, Kurt; Ohi, Don; Haga, Heath; Henderson, Bo

    2004-02-01

    The Titan Corporation conducted a systems engineering study to develop an overall architecture that meets both the articulated and unarticulated requirements on the Prometheus Program with the least development effort. Key elements of the Titan-designed ENABLER system include a thermal fission reactor, thermionic power converters, sodium heat pipes, ion thruster engines, and a radiation shield and deployable truss to protect the payload. The overall design is scaleable over a wide range of power requirements from 10s of kilowatts to 10s of megawatts.

  11. Enabling Strain Hardening Simulations with Dislocation Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Arsenlis, A; Cai, W

    2006-12-20

    Numerical algorithms for discrete dislocation dynamics simulations are investigated for the purpose of enabling strain hardening simulations of single crystals on massively parallel computers. The algorithms investigated include the /(N) calculation of forces, the equations of motion, time integration, adaptive mesh refinement, the treatment of dislocation core reactions, and the dynamic distribution of work on parallel computers. A simulation integrating all of these algorithmic elements using the Parallel Dislocation Simulator (ParaDiS) code is performed to understand their behavior in concert, and evaluate the overall numerical performance of dislocation dynamics simulations and their ability to accumulate percents of plastic strain.

  12. Enabling Rapid Naval Architecture Design Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Michael A.; Dufresne, Stephane; Balestrini-Robinson, Santiago; Mavris, Dimitri

    2011-01-01

    Well accepted conceptual ship design tools can be used to explore a design space, but more precise results can be found using detailed models in full-feature computer aided design programs. However, defining a detailed model can be a time intensive task and hence there is an incentive for time sensitive projects to use conceptual design tools to explore the design space. In this project, the combination of advanced aerospace systems design methods and an accepted conceptual design tool facilitates the creation of a tool that enables the user to not only visualize ship geometry but also determine design feasibility and estimate the performance of a design.

  13. Camera-enabled techniques for organic synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Richard J; O’Brien, Matthew; Browne, Duncan L

    2013-01-01

    Summary A great deal of time is spent within synthetic chemistry laboratories on non-value-adding activities such as sample preparation and work-up operations, and labour intensive activities such as extended periods of continued data collection. Using digital cameras connected to computer vision algorithms, camera-enabled apparatus can perform some of these processes in an automated fashion, allowing skilled chemists to spend their time more productively. In this review we describe recent advances in this field of chemical synthesis and discuss how they will lead to advanced synthesis laboratories of the future. PMID:23766820

  14. Enabling plant synthetic biology through genome engineering.

    PubMed

    Baltes, Nicholas J; Voytas, Daniel F

    2015-02-01

    Synthetic biology seeks to create new biological systems, including user-designed plants and plant cells. These systems can be employed for a variety of purposes, ranging from producing compounds of industrial or therapeutic value, to reducing crop losses by altering cellular responses to pathogens or climate change. To realize the full potential of plant synthetic biology, techniques are required that provide control over the genetic code - enabling targeted modifications to DNA sequences within living plant cells. Such control is now within reach owing to recent advances in the use of sequence-specific nucleases to precisely engineer genomes. We discuss here the enormous potential provided by genome engineering for plant synthetic biology.

  15. PHM Enabled Autonomous Propellant Loading Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The utility of Prognostics and Health Management (PHM) software capability applied to Autonomous Operations (AO) remains an active research area within aerospace applications. The ability to gain insight into which assets and subsystems are functioning properly, along with the derivation of confident predictions concerning future ability, reliability, and availability, are important enablers for making sound mission planning decisions. When coupled with software that fully supports mission planning and execution, an integrated solution can be developed that leverages state assessment and estimation for the purposes of delivering autonomous operations. The authors have been applying this integrated, model-based approach to the autonomous loading of cryogenic spacecraft propellants at Kennedy Space Center.

  16. Robo-Enabled Tumor Cell Extrusion.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Helena E; Portela, Marta

    2016-12-19

    How aberrant cells are removed from a tissue to prevent tumor formation is a key question in cancer biology. Reporting in this issue of Developmental Cell, Vaughen and Igaki (2016) show that a pathway with an important role in neural guidance also directs extrusion of tumor cells from epithelial tissues.

  17. Essays on Technology-Enabled Platforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Tat Koon

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three studies that examine dynamics on Business-to-Business (B2B) exchanges and crowd-based design contest platforms. In the first study, we examine trust formation and development in global buyer-supplier relationships. Trust affects all business relationships, especially global B2B transactions due to the distances…

  18. Autonomous Formation Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schkolnik, Gerard S.; Cobleigh, Brent

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Strategic Plan for the Aerospace Technology Enterprise includes ambitious objectives focused on affordable air travel, reduced emissions, and expanded aviation-system capacity. NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, in cooperation with NASA Ames Research Center, the Boeing Company, and the University of California, Los Angeles, has embarked on an autonomous-formation-flight project that promises to make significant strides towards these goals. For millions of years, birds have taken advantage of the aerodynamic benefit of flying in formation. The traditional "V" formation flown by many species of birds (including gulls, pelicans, and geese) enables each of the trailing birds to fly in the upwash flow field that exists just outboard of the bird immediately ahead in the formation. The result for each trailing bird is a decrease in induced drag and thus a reduction in the energy needed to maintain a given speed. Hence, for migratory birds, formation flight extends the range of the system of birds over the range of birds flying solo. The Autonomous Formation Flight (AFF) Project is seeking to extend this symbiotic relationship to aircraft.

  19. Enabling Meaningful Affiliation Searches in the ADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, C. S.; Thompson, D. M.; Chyla, R.; Holachek, A.; Accomazzi, A.; Henneken, E. A.; Kurtz, M. J.; Luker, J.; Murray, S. S.

    2015-04-01

    For many years, users have wanted to search affiliations in the ADS in order to build institutional databases and to help with author disambiguation. Although we currently provide this capability upon request, we have yet to incorporate it as part of the operational Abstract Service. This is because it cannot be used reliably, primarily because of the lack of uniform representation of the affiliation data. In an effort to make affiliation searches more meaningful, we have designed a two-tiered hierarchy of standard institutional names based on Ringgold identifiers, with the expectation that this will enable us to implement a search by institution, which will work for the vast majority of institutions. It is our intention to provide the capability of searching the ADS both by standard affiliation name and original affiliation string, as well as to enable autosuggest of affiliations as a means of helping to disambiguate author identification. Some institutions are likely to require manual work, and we encourage interested librarians to assist us in standardizing the representation of their institutions in the affiliation field.

  20. Nano-enabled SERS reporting photosensitizers.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Arash; Roxin, Áron; Wilson, Brian C; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    To impart effective cellular damage via photodynamic therapy (PDT), it is vital to deliver the appropriate light dose and photosensitizer concentration, and to monitor the PDT dose delivered at the site of interest. In vivo monitoring of photosensitizers has in large part relied on their fluorescence emission. Palladium-containing photosensitizers have shown promising clinical results by demonstrating near full conversion of light to PDT activity at the cost of having undetectable fluorescence. We demonstrate that, through the coupling of plasmonic nanoparticles with palladium-photosensitizers, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) provides both reporting and monitoring capability to otherwise quiescent molecules. Nano-enabled SERS reporting of photosensitizers allows for the decoupling of the therapeutic and imaging mechanisms so that both phenomena can be optimized independently. Most importantly, the design enables the use of the same laser wavelength to stimulate both the PDT and imaging features, opening the potential for real-time dosimetry of photosensitizer concentration and PDT dose delivery by SERS monitoring.

  1. The Master Enabler: In Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  2. In-Orbit Servicing: The Master Enabler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin B.; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool--a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  3. The "Master Enabler" - In-Orbit Servicing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Benjamin; Kienlen, Michael; Naasz, Bo; Roberts, Brian; Deweese, Keith; Cassidy, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most noteworthy missions in space exploration have occurred in the last two decades and owe their success to on-orbit servicing. The tremendously successful Hubble Space Telescope repair and upgrade missions, as well as the completed assembly of the International Space Station (ISS) and its full utilization, lead us to the next chapter and set of challenges. These include fully exploiting the many space systems already launched, assembling large structures in situ thereby enabling new scientific discoveries, and providing systems that reliably and cost-effectively support the next steps in space exploration. In-orbit servicing is a tool-a tool that can serve as the master enabler to create space architectures that would otherwise be unattainable. This paper will survey how NASA's satellite-servicing technology development efforts are being applied to the planning and execution of two such ambitious missions, specifically asteroid capture and the in-space assembly of a very large life-finding telescope.

  4. MENTOR: an enabler for interoperable intelligent systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarraipa, João; Jardim-Goncalves, Ricardo; Steiger-Garcao, Adolfo

    2010-07-01

    A community with knowledge organisation based on ontologies will enable an increase in the computational intelligence of its information systems. However, due to the worldwide diversity of communities, a high number of knowledge representation elements, which are not semantically coincident, have appeared representing the same segment of reality, becoming a barrier to business communications. Even if a domain community uses the same kind of technologies in its information systems, such as ontologies, it doesn't solve its semantics differences. In order to solve this interoperability problem, a solution is to use a reference ontology as an intermediary in the communications between the community enterprises and the outside, while allowing the enterprises to keep their own ontology and semantics unchanged internally. This work proposes MENTOR, a methodology to support the development of a common reference ontology for a group of organisations sharing the same business domain. This methodology is based on the mediator ontology (MO) concept, which assists the semantic transformations among each enterprise's ontology and the referential one. The MO enables each organisation to keep its own terminology, glossary and ontological structures, while providing seamless communication and interaction with the others.

  5. Enabling collaboration across communities through blogs and mashups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blower, Jon; Frey, Jeremy; Haines, Keith; Gemmell, Alastair; Milsted, Andrew

    2010-05-01

    The use of Web technologies to visualize and explore geoscientific data is now well-established (e.g. [1]). Many systems are now available, based upon standard approaches, to provide interactive online capabilities for publishing data, hiding much of the complexities of the underlying data and infrastructure. Recently, progress has been made in moving beyond simple visualization to enabling intercomparison of diverse datasets (e.g. [2]), supporting scientific work in model validation, data assimilation and other areas. These systems typically lack an important feature, namely the ability of the user to contribute to the information on these sites, rather than simply acting as a consumer. We present early results from two recent projects that apply Web 2.0 and social networking techniques to enable collaborative geoscientific work on the Web in which user-contributed material is just as important as that provided by the central data providers. "BlogMyData" combines an interactive online visualization system (Godiva2) with a sophisticated blogging engine, which was originally designed for laboratory chemists. Scientists use the blog to make comments on the visualizations they see, for example to hold discussions on particular features of interest, such as a potential problem with a numerical forecast model. The blog entries are geospatially tagged, meaning that comments can be discovered by location and time, enabling scientists to find new collaborators in similar areas of interest. A use case in climate reanalysis will be discussed. "MashMyData" builds on previous work in online intercomparison systems by allowing users to upload their own data for automated intercomparison with other datasets. This brings complex datasets within the reach of new communities; for example, we shall demonstrate a particular use case in which an ocean geochemist employs the system to compare her own temperature proxy data (derived from coccolithophore studies) with physical

  6. Reck enables cerebrovascular development by promoting canonical Wnt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Florian; Carretero-Ortega, Jorge; Menéndez, Javier; Narvaez, Carlos; Sun, Belinda; Lancaster, Eva; Pershad, Valerie; Trzaska, Sean; Véliz, Evelyn; Kamei, Makoto; Prendergast, Andrew; Kidd, Kameha R.; Shaw, Kenna M.; Castranova, Daniel A.; Pham, Van N.; Lo, Brigid D.; Martin, Benjamin L.; Raible, David W.; Weinstein, Brant M.; Torres-Vázquez, Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The cerebral vasculature provides the massive blood supply that the brain needs to grow and survive. By acquiring distinctive cellular and molecular characteristics it becomes the blood-brain barrier (BBB), a selectively permeable and protective interface between the brain and the peripheral circulation that maintains the extracellular milieu permissive for neuronal activity. Accordingly, there is great interest in uncovering the mechanisms that modulate the formation and differentiation of the brain vasculature. By performing a forward genetic screen in zebrafish we isolated no food for thought (nft y72), a recessive late-lethal mutant that lacks most of the intracerebral central arteries (CtAs), but not other brain blood vessels. We found that the cerebral vascularization deficit of nft y72 mutants is caused by an inactivating lesion in reversion-inducing cysteine-rich protein with Kazal motifs [reck; also known as suppressor of tumorigenicity 15 protein (ST15)], which encodes a membrane-anchored tumor suppressor glycoprotein. Our findings highlight Reck as a novel and pivotal modulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway that acts in endothelial cells to enable intracerebral vascularization and proper expression of molecular markers associated with BBB formation. Additional studies with cultured endothelial cells suggest that, in other contexts, Reck impacts vascular biology via the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) cascade. Together, our findings have broad implications for both vascular and cancer biology. PMID:26657775

  7. Nanoplasmon-enabled macroscopic thermal management

    PubMed Central

    Jonsson, Gustav Edman; Miljkovic, Vladimir; Dmitriev, Alexandre

    2014-01-01

    In numerous applications of energy harvesting via transformation of light into heat the focus recently shifted towards highly absorptive nanoplasmonic materials. It is currently established that noble metals-based absorptive plasmonic platforms deliver significant light-capturing capability and can be viewed as super-absorbers of optical radiation. Naturally, approaches to the direct experimental probing of macroscopic temperature increase resulting from these absorbers are welcomed. Here we derive a general quantitative method of characterizing heat-generating properties of optically absorptive layers via macroscopic thermal imaging. We further monitor macroscopic areas that are homogeneously heated by several degrees with nanostructures that occupy a mere 8% of the surface, leaving it essentially transparent and evidencing significant heat generation capability of nanoplasmon-enabled light capture. This has a direct bearing to a large number of applications where thermal management is crucial. PMID:24870613

  8. Enabling Computational Technologies for Terascale Scientific Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, S.F.

    2000-08-24

    We develop scalable algorithms and object-oriented code frameworks for terascale scientific simulations on massively parallel processors (MPPs). Our research in multigrid-based linear solvers and adaptive mesh refinement enables Laboratory programs to use MPPs to explore important physical phenomena. For example, our research aids stockpile stewardship by making practical detailed 3D simulations of radiation transport. The need to solve large linear systems arises in many applications, including radiation transport, structural dynamics, combustion, and flow in porous media. These systems result from discretizations of partial differential equations on computational meshes. Our first research objective is to develop multigrid preconditioned iterative methods for such problems and to demonstrate their scalability on MPPs. Scalability describes how total computational work grows with problem size; it measures how effectively additional resources can help solve increasingly larger problems. Many factors contribute to scalability: computer architecture, parallel implementation, and choice of algorithm. Scalable algorithms have been shown to decrease simulation times by several orders of magnitude.

  9. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  10. Enabling a New Planning and Scheduling Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Flight Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called "tasks models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that they want to be done. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, another cadre further modifies the models to be compatible with the scheduling engine. This last cadre also submits the models to the scheduling engine or builds the timeline manually to accommodate requirements that are expressed in notes. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components. (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphics methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models

  11. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  12. Focus on atomtronics-enabled quantum technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amico, Luigi; Birkl, Gerhard; Boshier, Malcolm; Kwek, Leong-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Atomtronics is an emerging field in quantum technology that promises to realize ‘atomic circuit’ architectures exploiting ultra-cold atoms manipulated in versatile micro-optical circuits generated by laser fields of different shapes and intensities or micro-magnetic circuits known as atom chips. Although devising new applications for computation and information transfer is a defining goal of the field, atomtronics wants to enlarge the scope of quantum simulators and to access new physical regimes with novel fundamental science. With this focus issue we want to survey the state of the art of atomtronics-enabled quantum technology. We collect articles on both conceptual and applicative aspects of the field for diverse exploitations, both to extend the scope of the existing atom-based quantum devices and to devise platforms for new routes to quantum technology.

  13. Health-Enabled Smart Sensor Fusion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Ray

    2012-01-01

    A process was designed to fuse data from multiple sensors in order to make a more accurate estimation of the environment and overall health in an intelligent rocket test facility (IRTF), to provide reliable, high-confidence measurements for a variety of propulsion test articles. The object of the technology is to provide sensor fusion based on a distributed architecture. Specifically, the fusion technology is intended to succeed in providing health condition monitoring capability at the intelligent transceiver, such as RF signal strength, battery reading, computing resource monitoring, and sensor data reading. The technology also provides analytic and diagnostic intelligence at the intelligent transceiver, enhancing the IEEE 1451.x-based standard for sensor data management and distributions, as well as providing appropriate communications protocols to enable complex interactions to support timely and high-quality flow of information among the system elements.

  14. Enabling MEMS technologies for communications systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubecke, Victor M.; Barber, Bradley P.; Arney, Susanne

    2001-11-01

    Modern communications demands have been steadily growing not only in size, but sophistication. Phone calls over copper wires have evolved into high definition video conferencing over optical fibers, and wireless internet browsing. The technology used to meet these demands is under constant pressure to provide increased capacity, speed, and efficiency, all with reduced size and cost. Various MEMS technologies have shown great promise for meeting these challenges by extending the performance of conventional circuitry and introducing radical new systems approaches. A variety of strategic MEMS structures including various cost-effective free-space optics and high-Q RF components are described, along with related practical implementation issues. These components are rapidly becoming essential for enabling the development of progressive new communications systems technologies including all-optical networks, and low cost multi-system wireless terminals and basestations.

  15. Provision of enabling technology in professional sports.

    PubMed

    McBride, D K

    2000-06-01

    Multiple-round golf tournaments are designed intentionally to separate individuals' scores as play proceeds. Variance analyses and consideration of individual differences (vs group mean effects) for a sample of professional events confirm that 3-, 4-, and 5-round tournaments show significantly increased variability (though stable means) from first to last rounds. It is argued here that the dispersion of scores increases as play proceeds because the more physically or mentally fit players emerge and continue to perform best. Furthermore, a marginal income analysis indicates that the average gain in earnings from a one-shot improvement in score is approximately $8,000. An interpretation based on fatigue, competition, and stress supports the Professional Golf Association's claim that provision of enabling devices, like a golf cart for disabled players, is also an enhancement and is thus unfair.

  16. Enabling patients to manage altered body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2016-12-14

    The author presented a model in the 1990s to explain altered body image, which has been used to characterise the difficulties encountered by patients who experience body change as a result of illness, injury or disability. However, it remains a challenge for nurses to establish care plans that can assist patients to manage the psychological adjustments associated with disfigurement. This article presents some simple questions to help patients narrate their psychological experiences and needs, and proposes a model of psychological change, based on the work of Kübler-Ross, to enable nurses to anticipate patient requirements that might arise at different stages of the individual's recovery and rehabilitation. Body-image rehabilitation may be protracted. Therefore, it is essential for nurses to understand what the patient is thinking and feeling throughout the rehabilitation process and which stage of psychological change the patient is working through.

  17. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    DOE PAGES

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; ...

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study thatmore » contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.« less

  18. Science Missions Enabled by the Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worden, Simon Peter; Weiler, Edward J.

    2008-01-01

    NASA's planned heavy-lift Ares V rocket is a centerpiece of U.S. Space Exploration Policy. With approximately 30% more capacity to Trans-Lunar Injection (TLI) than the Saturn V, Ares V could also enable additional science and exploration missions currently unachievable or extremely unworkable under current launch vehicle architectures. During the spring and summer of 2008, NASA held two workshops dedicated to the discussion of these new mission concepts for the Ares V rocket. The first workshop dealt with astronomy and astrophysics, and the second dealt primarily with planetary science and exploration, but did touch on Earth science and heliophysics. We present here the summary results and outcomes of these meetings, including a discussion of specific mission concepts and ideas, as well as suggestions on design for the Ares V fairing and flight configurations that improve science return.

  19. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  20. Enabling communication concurrency through flexible MPI endpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Dinan, James; Grant, Ryan E.; Balaji, Pavan; Goodell, David; Miller, Douglas; Snir, Marc; Thakur, Rajeev

    2014-09-23

    MPI defines a one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. This model captures many use cases effectively; however, it also limits communication concurrency and interoperability between MPI and programming models that utilize threads. Our paper describes the MPI endpoints extension, which relaxes the longstanding one-to-one relationship between MPI processes and ranks. Using endpoints, an MPI implementation can map separate communication contexts to threads, allowing them to drive communication independently. Also, endpoints enable threads to be addressable in MPI operations, enhancing interoperability between MPI and other programming models. Furthermore, these characteristics are illustrated through several examples and an empirical study that contrasts current multithreaded communication performance with the need for high degrees of communication concurrency to achieve peak communication performance.

  1. Microdevices enabled by rarefied flow phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeenko, Alina A.; Strongrich, A. D.; Cofer, A. G.; Pikus, A.; Sebastiao, I. B.; Tholeti, S. S.; Shivkumar, G.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper we review emerging applications of rarefied gas dynamics for microscale sensing, actuation, power generation and thermal management. The performance of conventional fluidic devices such as pumps, combustors and heat engines drops with the decrease of characteristic length scale due to greater viscous and heat transfer losses. However, the close coupling between non-equilibrium gas, liquid and solid-state transport and electromagnetic phenomena enables unconventional micro/nanodevices. We specifically consider three distinct examples of devices with non-equilibrium gas-phase transport based on i) very large thermal gradients; ii) increased capillary forces; iii) high electric fields - all of which are generated by scaling down device size by using nano/micromanufacturing techniques.

  2. Microsystem enabled photovoltaic modules and systems

    DOEpatents

    Nielson, Gregory N; Sweatt, William C; Okandan, Murat

    2015-05-12

    A microsystem enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) module including: an absorber layer; a fixed optic layer coupled to the absorber layer; a translatable optic layer; a translation stage coupled between the fixed and translatable optic layers; and a motion processor electrically coupled to the translation stage to controls motion of the translatable optic layer relative to the fixed optic layer. The absorber layer includes an array of photovoltaic (PV) elements. The fixed optic layer includes an array of quasi-collimating (QC) micro-optical elements designed and arranged to couple incident radiation from an intermediate image formed by the translatable optic layer into one of the PV elements such that it is quasi-collimated. The translatable optic layer includes an array of focusing micro-optical elements corresponding to the QC micro-optical element array. Each focusing micro-optical element is designed to produce a quasi-telecentric intermediate image from substantially collimated radiation incident within a predetermined field of view.

  3. Laboratory Astrophysics: Enabling Scientific Discovery and Understanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirby, K.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Science Strategic Roadmap for Universe Exploration lays out a series of science objectives on a grand scale and discusses the various missions, over a wide range of wavelengths, which will enable discovery. Astronomical spectroscopy is arguably the most powerful tool we have for exploring the Universe. Experimental and theoretical studies in Laboratory Astrophysics convert "hard-won data into scientific understanding". However, the development of instruments with increasingly high spectroscopic resolution demands atomic and molecular data of unprecedented accuracy and completeness. How to meet these needs, in a time of severe budgetary constraints, poses a significant challenge both to NASA, the astronomical observers and model-builders, and the laboratory astrophysics community. I will discuss these issues, together with some recent examples of productive astronomy/lab astro collaborations.

  4. Bluetooth-enabled teleradiology: applications and complications.

    PubMed

    Hura, Angela M

    2002-01-01

    Wireless personal area networks and local area networks are becoming increasingly more prevalent in the teleradiology and telemedicine industry. Although there has been much debate about the role that Bluetooth will play in the future of wireless technology, both promoters and doubters acknowledge that Bluetooth will have an impact on networking, even if only as a "niche" product. This article provides an overview of the Bluetooth standard and highlights current and future areas of inclusion for use in a teleradiology environment. The possibilities for Bluetooth in a teleradiology environment without wires are nearly boundless and an overview of current and proposed Bluetooth-enabled radiology equipment and vendors is provided. A comparison of Bluetooth and other wireless technologies is provided, including areas of similarity and potential conflict. Bluetooth and other wireless technologies can not only peacefully coexist but also complement each other and provide enhanced teleradiology services.

  5. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  6. Grid Enabled Geospatial Catalogue Web Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Ai-Jun; Di, Li-Ping; Wei, Ya-Xing; Liu, Yang; Bui, Yu-Qi; Hu, Chau-Min; Mehrotra, Piyush

    2004-01-01

    Geospatial Catalogue Web Service is a vital service for sharing and interoperating volumes of distributed heterogeneous geospatial resources, such as data, services, applications, and their replicas over the web. Based on the Grid technology and the Open Geospatial Consortium (0GC) s Catalogue Service - Web Information Model, this paper proposes a new information model for Geospatial Catalogue Web Service, named as GCWS which can securely provides Grid-based publishing, managing and querying geospatial data and services, and the transparent access to the replica data and related services under the Grid environment. This information model integrates the information model of the Grid Replica Location Service (RLS)/Monitoring & Discovery Service (MDS) with the information model of OGC Catalogue Service (CSW), and refers to the geospatial data metadata standards from IS0 19115, FGDC and NASA EOS Core System and service metadata standards from IS0 191 19 to extend itself for expressing geospatial resources. Using GCWS, any valid geospatial user, who belongs to an authorized Virtual Organization (VO), can securely publish and manage geospatial resources, especially query on-demand data in the virtual community and get back it through the data-related services which provide functions such as subsetting, reformatting, reprojection etc. This work facilitates the geospatial resources sharing and interoperating under the Grid environment, and implements geospatial resources Grid enabled and Grid technologies geospatial enabled. It 2!so makes researcher to focus on science, 2nd not cn issues with computing ability, data locztic, processir,g and management. GCWS also is a key component for workflow-based virtual geospatial data producing.

  7. Enabling Technologies for Ceramic Hot Section Components

    SciTech Connect

    Venkat Vedula; Tania Bhatia

    2009-04-30

    Silicon-based ceramics are attractive materials for use in gas turbine engine hot sections due to their high temperature mechanical and physical properties as well as lower density than metals. The advantages of utilizing ceramic hot section components include weight reduction, and improved efficiency as well as enhanced power output and lower emissions as a result of reducing or eliminating cooling. Potential gas turbine ceramic components for industrial, commercial and/or military high temperature turbine applications include combustor liners, vanes, rotors, and shrouds. These components require materials that can withstand high temperatures and pressures for long duration under steam-rich environments. For Navy applications, ceramic hot section components have the potential to increase the operation range. The amount of weight reduced by utilizing a lighter gas turbine can be used to increase fuel storage capacity while a more efficient gas turbine consumes less fuel. Both improvements enable a longer operation range for Navy ships and aircraft. Ceramic hot section components will also be beneficial to the Navy's Growth Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) and VAATE (Versatile Affordable Advanced Turbine Engines) initiatives in terms of reduced weight, cooling air savings, and capability/cost index (CCI). For DOE applications, ceramic hot section components provide an avenue to achieve low emissions while improving efficiency. Combustors made of ceramic material can withstand higher wall temperatures and require less cooling air. Ability of the ceramics to withstand high temperatures enables novel combustor designs that have reduced NO{sub x}, smoke and CO levels. In the turbine section, ceramic vanes and blades do not require sophisticated cooling schemes currently used for metal components. The saved cooling air could be used to further improve efficiency and power output. The objectives of this contract were to develop technologies critical for ceramic hot section

  8. Technology-enabled Airborne Spacing and Merging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, James; Barmore, Bryan; Abbott, Tetence

    2005-01-01

    Over the last several decades, advances in airborne and groundside technologies have allowed the Air Traffic Service Provider (ATSP) to give safer and more efficient service, reduce workload and frequency congestion, and help accommodate a critically escalating traffic volume. These new technologies have included advanced radar displays, and data and communication automation to name a few. In step with such advances, NASA Langley is developing a precision spacing concept designed to increase runway throughput by enabling the flight crews to manage their inter-arrival spacing from TRACON entry to the runway threshold. This concept is being developed as part of NASA s Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAG-TM) project under the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies Program. Precision spacing is enabled by Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), which provides air-to-air data exchange including position and velocity reports; real-time wind information and other necessary data. On the flight deck, a research prototype system called Airborne Merging and Spacing for Terminal Arrivals (AMSTAR) processes this information and provides speed guidance to the flight crew to achieve the desired inter-arrival spacing. AMSTAR is designed to support current ATC operations, provide operationally acceptable system-wide increases in approach spacing performance and increase runway throughput through system stability, predictability and precision spacing. This paper describes problems and costs associated with an imprecise arrival flow. It also discusses methods by which Air Traffic Controllers achieve and maintain an optimum interarrival interval, and explores means by which AMSTAR can assist in this pursuit. AMSTAR is an extension of NASA s previous work on in-trail spacing that was successfully demonstrated in a flight evaluation at Chicago O Hare International Airport in September 2002. In addition to providing for precision inter-arrival spacing, AMSTAR

  9. Enabling Wireless Avionics Intra-Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Omar; Nguyen, Truong; Mackenzie, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The Electromagnetics and Sensors Branch of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) is investigating the potential of an all-wireless aircraft as part of the ECON (Efficient Reconfigurable Cockpit Design and Fleet Operations using Software Intensive, Networked and Wireless Enabled Architecture) seedling proposal, which is funded by the Convergent Aeronautics Solutions (CAS) project, Transformative Aeronautics Concepts (TAC) program, and NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI). The project consists of a brief effort carried out by a small team in the Electromagnetic Environment Effects (E3) laboratory with the intention of exposing some of the challenges faced by a wireless communication system inside the reflective cavity of an aircraft and to explore potential solutions that take advantage of that environment for constructive gain. The research effort was named EWAIC for "Enabling Wireless Aircraft Intra-communications." The E3 laboratory is a research facility that includes three electromagnetic reverberation chambers and equipment that allow testing and generation of test data for the investigation of wireless systems in reflective environments. Using these chambers, the EWAIC team developed a set of tests and setups that allow the intentional variation of intensity of a multipath field to reproduce the environment of the various bays and cabins of large transport aircraft. This setup, in essence, simulates an aircraft environment that allows the investigation and testing of wireless communication protocols that can effectively be used as a tool to mitigate some of the risks inherent to an aircraft wireless system for critical functions. In addition, the EWAIC team initiated the development of a computational modeling tool to illustrate the propagation of EM waves inside the reflective cabins and bays of aircraft and to obtain quantifiable information regarding the degradation of signals in aircraft subassemblies. The nose landing gear of a UAV CAD model was used

  10. Willing and Enabled: The Academic Outcomes of a Tertiary Enabling Program in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrewartha, Lisa; Harvey, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the achievement levels of students undertaking the Tertiary Enabling Program (TEP) at La Trobe University. The TEP is an alternative pathway program that traverses multiple institutions, campuses, and disciplinary areas, and is designed to prepare a diverse student cohort for tertiary study. The Program integrates several…

  11. Agile SE Enablers and Quantification Project: Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    Development of the evaluation white paper .......................................................................................... 7 3 References...enablers as they are identified. The ultimate result of the process is an evaluation white paper supporting one of three decisions: 1. not likely to...be effective, 2. possibly suitable but more research is needed, or 3. definitely suitable and expedited transition is recommended. This paper

  12. Nanomaterials Enabled Dye-sensitized Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Pei

    Dye sensitized solar cells (DSCs), as the third generation of solar cells, have attracted tremendous attention for their unique properties. The semi-transparent nature, low-cost, environmental friendliness, and convenient manufacturing conditions of this generation of solar cells are promising aspects of DSCs that make them competitive in their future applications. However, much improvement in many aspects of DSCs' is required for the realization of its full potential. In this thesis, various nanomaterials, such as graphene, multi wall carbon nanotubes, vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, hybrid structures and etc, have been used to improve the performance of DSCs. First, the application of graphene covered metal grids as transparent conductive electrodes in DSCs is explored. It is demonstrated that the mechanical properties of these flexible hybrid transparent electrodes, in both bending and stretching tests, are better than their oxide-based counter parts. Moreover, different kinds of carbon nanotubes, for instance vertically aligned single wall carbon nanotubes, have been used as a replacement for traditional platinum counter electrodes, in both iodine electrolyte, and sulfide-electrolyte. Further, a flexible, seamlessly connected, 3-dimensional vertically-aligned few wall carbon nanotubes graphene hybrid structures on Ni foil as DSCs' counter electrodes improve their efficiency significantly. All these nanomaterials enabled DSCs architectures achieve a comparable or better performance than standard brittle platinum/fluorine doped tin oxide combination. The large surface area of such nanomaterials in addition to the high electrical conductivity and their mechanical robustness provides a platform for significant enhancements in DSCs' performance.

  13. Ion Implant Enabled 2x Lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Patrick M.; Godet, Ludovic; Cheung, Andrew; de Cock, Gael; Hatem, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Ion implantation has many applications in microelectronics beyond doping. The broad range of species available combined with the ability to precisely control dose, angle, and energy offers compelling advantages for use in precision material modification. The application to lithography has been reported elsewhere. Integrating ion implantation into the lithography process enables scaling the feature size requirements beyond the 15 nm node with a simplified double patterning sequence. In addition, ion implant may be used to remove line edge roughness, providing tremendous advantages to meet extreme lithography imaging requirements and provide additional device stability. We examine several species (e.g. Si, Ar, etc.) and the effect of energy and impact angle on several commercially available 193 nm immersion photoresists using a Varian VIISta® single wafer high current ion implanter. The treated photoresist will be evaluated for stability in an integrated double patterning application with ion implant used to freeze the primary image. We report on critical dimension impact, pattern integrity, optical property modification, and adhesion. We analyze the impact of line edge roughness improvement beyond the work of C. Struck including the power spectral distribution. TGA and FTIR Spectroscopy results for the implanted photoresist materials will also be included.

  14. Imaging enabled platforms for development of therapeutics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celli, Jonathan; Rizvi, Imran; Blanden, Adam R.; Evans, Conor L.; Abu-Yousif, Adnan O.; Spring, Bryan Q.; Muzikansky, Alona; Pogue, Brian W.; Finkelstein, Dianne M.; Hasan, Tayyaba

    2011-03-01

    Advances in imaging and spectroscopic technologies have enabled the optimization of many therapeutic modalities in cancer and noncancer pathologies either by earlier disease detection or by allowing therapy monitoring. Amongst the therapeutic options benefiting from developments in imaging technologies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is exceptional. PDT is a photochemistry-based therapeutic approach where a light-sensitive molecule (photosensitizer) is activated with light of appropriate energy (wavelength) to produce reactive molecular species such as free radicals and singlet oxygen. These molecular entities then react with biological targets such as DNA, membranes and other cellular components to impair their function and lead to eventual cell and tissue death. Development of PDT-based imaging also provides a platform for rapid screening of new therapeutics in novel in vitro models prior to expensive and labor-intensive animal studies. In this study we demonstrate how an imaging platform can be used for strategizing a novel combination treatment strategy for multifocal ovarian cancer. Using an in vitro 3D model for micrometastatic ovarian cancer in conjunction with quantitative imaging we examine dose and scheduling strategies for PDT in combination with carboplatin, a chemotherapeutic agent presently in clinical use for management of this deadly form of cancer.

  15. Smart Sensors Enable Smart Air Conditioning Control

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-01-01

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection. PMID:24961213

  16. Enabling electroweak baryogenesis through dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewicki, Marek; Rindler-Daller, Tanja; Wells, James D.

    2016-06-01

    We study the impact on electroweak baryogenesis from a swifter cosmological expansion induced by dark matter. We detail the experimental bounds that one can place on models that realize it, and we investigate the modifications of these bounds that result from a non-standard cosmological history. The modifications can be sizeable if the expansion rate of the Universe increases by several orders of magnitude. We illustrate the impact through the example of scalar field dark matter, which can alter the cosmological history enough to enable a strong-enough first-order phase transition in the Standard Model when it is supplemented by a dimension six operator directly modifying the Higgs boson potential. We show that due to the modified cosmological history, electroweak baryogenesis can be realized, while keeping deviations of the triple Higgs coupling below HL-LHC sensitivies. The required scale of new physics to effectuate a strong-enough first order phase transition can change by as much as twenty percent as the expansion rate increases by six orders of magnitude.

  17. Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations: Examining the Possibilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Renema, Fritz; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Bandwidth Enabled Flight Operations project is a research effort at the NASA Ames Research Center to investigate the use of satellite communications to improve aviation safety and capacity. This project is a follow on to the AeroSAPIENT Project, which demonstrated methods for transmitting high bandwidth data in various configurations. For this research, we set a goal to nominally use only 10 percent of the available bandwidth demonstrated by AeroSAPIENT or projected by near-term technology advances. This paper describes the results of our research, including available satellite bandwidth, commercial and research efforts to provide these services, and some of the limiting factors inherent with this communications medium. It also describes our investigation into the needs of the stakeholders (Airlines, Pilots, Cabin Crews, ATC, Maintenance, etc). The paper also describes our development of low-cost networked flight deck and airline operations center simulations that were used to demonstrate two application areas: Providing real time weather information to the commercial flight deck, and enhanced crew monitoring and control for airline operations centers.

  18. Smart sensors enable smart air conditioning control.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chin-Chi; Lee, Dasheng

    2014-06-24

    In this study, mobile phones, wearable devices, temperature and human motion detectors are integrated as smart sensors for enabling smart air conditioning control. Smart sensors obtain feedback, especially occupants' information, from mobile phones and wearable devices placed on human body. The information can be used to adjust air conditioners in advance according to humans' intentions, in so-called intention causing control. Experimental results show that the indoor temperature can be controlled accurately with errors of less than ±0.1 °C. Rapid cool down can be achieved within 2 min to the optimized indoor capacity after occupants enter a room. It's also noted that within two-hour operation the total compressor output of the smart air conditioner is 48.4% less than that of the one using On-Off control. The smart air conditioner with wearable devices could detect the human temperature and activity during sleep to determine the sleeping state and adjusting the sleeping function flexibly. The sleeping function optimized by the smart air conditioner with wearable devices could reduce the energy consumption up to 46.9% and keep the human health. The presented smart air conditioner could provide a comfortable environment and achieve the goals of energy conservation and environmental protection.

  19. Nanocrystal-enabled solid state bonding.

    SciTech Connect

    San Diego State University, San Diego, CA; Puskar, Joseph David; Tikare, Veena; Garcia Cardona, Cristina; Reece, Mark; Brewer, Luke N.; Holm, Elizabeth Ann

    2010-10-01

    In this project, we performed a preliminary set of sintering experiments to examine nanocrystal-enabled diffusion bonding (NEDB) in Ag-on-Ag and Cu-on-Cu using Ag nanoparticles. The experimental test matrix included the effects of material system, temperature, pressure, and particle size. The nanoparticle compacts were bonded between plates using a customized hot press, tested in shear, and examined post mortem using microscopy techniques. NEDB was found to be a feasible mechanism for low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding of like materials, creating bonded interfaces that were able to support substantial loads. The maximum supported shear strength varied substantially within sample cohorts due to variation in bonded area; however, systematic variation with fabrication conditions was also observed. Mesoscale sintering simulations were performed in order to understand whether sintering models can aid in understanding the NEDB process. A pressure-assisted sintering model was incorporated into the SPPARKS kinetic Monte Carlo sintering code. Results reproduce most of the qualitative behavior observed in experiments, indicating that simulation can augment experiments during the development of the NEDB process. Because NEDB offers a promising route to low-temperature, low-pressure, solid-state bonding, we recommend further research and development with a goal of devising new NEDB bonding processes to support Sandia's customers.

  20. Water: A Critical Material Enabling Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Karen D.

    2014-01-01

    Water is one of the most critical materials in human spaceflight. The availability of water defines the duration of a space mission; the volume of water required for a long-duration space mission becomes too large, heavy, and expensive for launch vehicles to carry. Since the mission duration is limited by the amount of water a space vehicle can carry, the capability to recycle water enables space exploration. In addition, water management in microgravity impacts spaceflight in other respects, such as the recent emergency termination of a spacewalk caused by free water in an astronaut's spacesuit helmet. A variety of separation technologies are used onboard spacecraft to ensure that water is always available for use, and meets the stringent water quality required for human space exploration. These separation technologies are often adapted for use in a microgravity environment, where water behaves in unique ways. The use of distillation, membrane processes, ion exchange and granular activated carbon will be reviewed. Examples of microgravity effects on operations will also be presented. A roadmap for future technologies, needed to supply water resources for the exploration of Mars, will also be reviewed.

  1. Glass ceramic ZERODUR enabling nanometer precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedamzik, Ralf; Kunisch, Clemens; Nieder, Johannes; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The IC Lithography roadmap foresees manufacturing of devices with critical dimension of < 20 nm. Overlay specification of single digit nanometer asking for nanometer positioning accuracy requiring sub nanometer position measurement accuracy. The glass ceramic ZERODUR® is a well-established material in critical components of microlithography wafer stepper and offered with an extremely low coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), the tightest tolerance available on market. SCHOTT is continuously improving manufacturing processes and it's method to measure and characterize the CTE behavior of ZERODUR® to full fill the ever tighter CTE specification for wafer stepper components. In this paper we present the ZERODUR® Lithography Roadmap on the CTE metrology and tolerance. Additionally, simulation calculations based on a physical model are presented predicting the long term CTE behavior of ZERODUR® components to optimize dimensional stability of precision positioning devices. CTE data of several low thermal expansion materials are compared regarding their temperature dependence between - 50°C and + 100°C. ZERODUR® TAILORED 22°C is full filling the tight CTE tolerance of +/- 10 ppb / K within the broadest temperature interval compared to all other materials of this investigation. The data presented in this paper explicitly demonstrates the capability of ZERODUR® to enable the nanometer precision required for future generation of lithography equipment and processes.

  2. Enabler for the agile virtual enterprise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuerst, Karl; Schmidt, Thomas; Wippel, Gerald

    2001-10-01

    In this presentation, a new approach for a flexible low-cost Internet extended enterprise (project FLoCI-EE) will be presented. FLoCI-EE is a project in the fifth framework program of the European commission with 8 partners from 4 countries, which started in January 2001 and will be finished in December 2003. The main objective of FLoCI-EE is the development of a software prototype, which enables flexible enterprise cooperation with the aim to design, manufacture and sell products commonly, independent of enterprise borderlines. The needed IT-support includes functions of product data management (PDM), enterprise resource planning (ERP), supply chain management (SCM) and customer relationship management (CRM). Especially for small and medium sized enterprises, existing solutions are too expensive and inflexible to be of use under current turbulent market conditions. The second part of this paper covers the item Web Services, because in the role-specific support approach of FLoCI-EE, there are user- interface-components, which are tailored for specific roles in an enterprise. These components integrate automatically the services of the so-called basic-components, and the externally offered Web Services like UDDI.

  3. Barriers and enablers to academic health leadership.

    PubMed

    Bharwani, Aleem; Kline, Theresa; Patterson, Margaret; Craighead, Peter

    2017-02-06

    Purpose This study sought to identify the barriers and enablers to leadership enactment in academic health-care settings. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews ( n = 77) with programme stakeholders (medical school trainees, university leaders, clinical leaders, medical scientists and directors external to the medical school) were conducted, and the responses content-analysed. Findings Both contextual and individual factors were identified as playing a role in affecting academic health leadership enactment that has an impact on programme development, success and maintenance. Contextual factors included sufficient resources allocated to the programme, opportunities for learners to practise leadership skills, a competent team around the leader once that person is in place, clear expectations for the leader and a culture that fosters open communication. Contextual barriers included highly bureaucratic structures, fear-of-failure and non-trusting cultures and inappropriate performance systems. Programmes were advised to select participants based on self-awareness, strong communication skills and an innovative thinking style. Filling specific knowledge and skill gaps, particularly for those not trained in medical school, was viewed as essential. Ineffective decision-making styles and tendencies to get involved in day-to-day activities were barriers to the development of academic health leaders. Originality/value Programmes designed to develop academic health-care leaders will be most effective if they develop leadership at all levels; ensure that the organisation's culture, structure and processes reinforce positive leadership practices; and recognise the critical role of teams in supporting its leaders.

  4. Enabling scientific workflows in virtual reality

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kreylos, O.; Bawden, G.; Bernardin, T.; Billen, M.I.; Cowgill, E.S.; Gold, R.D.; Hamann, B.; Jadamec, M.; Kellogg, L.H.; Staadt, O.G.; Sumner, D.Y.

    2006-01-01

    To advance research and improve the scientific return on data collection and interpretation efforts in the geosciences, we have developed methods of interactive visualization, with a special focus on immersive virtual reality (VR) environments. Earth sciences employ a strongly visual approach to the measurement and analysis of geologic data due to the spatial and temporal scales over which such data ranges, As observations and simulations increase in size and complexity, the Earth sciences are challenged to manage and interpret increasing amounts of data. Reaping the full intellectual benefits of immersive VR requires us to tailor exploratory approaches to scientific problems. These applications build on the visualization method's strengths, using both 3D perception and interaction with data and models, to take advantage of the skills and training of the geological scientists exploring their data in the VR environment. This interactive approach has enabled us to develop a suite of tools that are adaptable to a range of problems in the geosciences and beyond. Copyright ?? 2008 by the Association for Computing Machinery, Inc.

  5. Survey of Enabling Technologies for CAPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antol, Jeffrey; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Koons, Robert H.

    2005-01-01

    The enabling technologies required for the development of a viable Comet/Asteroid Protection System (CAPS) can be divided into two principal areas: detection and deflection/orbit modification. With the proper funding levels, many of the technologies needed to support a CAPS architecture could be achievable within the next 15 to 20 years. In fact, many advanced detection technologies are currently in development for future in-space telescope systems such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST), formerly known as the Next Generation Space Telescope. It is anticipated that many of the JWST technologies would be available for application for CAPS detection concepts. Deflection/orbit modification technologies are also currently being studied as part of advanced power and propulsion research. However, many of these technologies, such as extremely high-output power systems, advanced propulsion, heat rejection, and directed energy systems, would likely be farther term in availability than many of the detection technologies. Discussed subsequently is a preliminary examination of the main technologies that have been identified as being essential to providing the element functionality defined during the CAPS conceptual study. The detailed requirements for many of the technology areas are still unknown, and many additional technologies will be identified as future in-depth studies are conducted in this area.

  6. 'Slings' enable neutrophil rolling at high shear.

    PubMed

    Sundd, Prithu; Gutierrez, Edgar; Koltsova, Ekaterina K; Kuwano, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Satoru; Pospieszalska, Maria K; Groisman, Alex; Ley, Klaus

    2012-08-16

    Most leukocytes can roll along the walls of venules at low shear stress (1 dyn cm−2), but neutrophils have the ability to roll at tenfold higher shear stress in microvessels in vivo. The mechanisms involved in this shear-resistant rolling are known to involve cell flattening and pulling of long membrane tethers at the rear. Here we show that these long tethers do not retract as postulated, but instead persist and appear as 'slings' at the front of rolling cells. We demonstrate slings in a model of acute inflammation in vivo and on P-selectin in vitro, where P-selectin-glycoprotein-ligand-1 (PSGL-1) is found in discrete sticky patches whereas LFA-1 is expressed over the entire length on slings. As neutrophils roll forward, slings wrap around the rolling cells and undergo a step-wise peeling from the P-selectin substrate enabled by the failure of PSGL-1 patches under hydrodynamic forces. The 'step-wise peeling of slings' is distinct from the 'pulling of tethers' reported previously. Each sling effectively lays out a cell-autonomous adhesive substrate in front of neutrophils rolling at high shear stress during inflammation.

  7. Graphene-Enabled Electrodes for Electrocardiogram Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Celik, Numan; Manivannan, Nadarajah; Strudwick, Andrew; Balachandran, Wamadeva

    2016-01-01

    The unique parameters of graphene (GN)—notably its considerable electron mobility, high surface area, and electrical conductivity—are bringing extensive attention into the wearable technologies. This work presents a novel graphene-based electrode for acquisition of electrocardiogram (ECG). The proposed electrode was fabricated by coating GN on top of a metallic layer of a Ag/AgCl electrode using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique. To investigate the performance of the fabricated GN-based electrode, two types of electrodes were fabricated with different sizes to conduct the signal qualities and the skin-electrode contact impedance measurements. Performances of the GN-enabled electrodes were compared to the conventional Ag/AgCl electrodes in terms of ECG signal quality, skin–electrode contact impedance, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and response time. Experimental results showed the proposed GN-based electrodes produced better ECG signals, higher SNR (improved by 8%), and lower contact impedance (improved by 78%) values than conventional ECG electrodes. PMID:28335284

  8. Enabling Nanoparticle Networking in Semicrystalline Polymer Matrices

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Lee, Ji Hoon; Bucknall, David G.; Shofner, Meisha L.

    2012-10-23

    Among the physical and chemical attributes of the nanocomposite components and their interactions that contribute to the ultimate material properties, nanoparticle arrangement in the matrix is a key contributing factor that has been targeted through materials choices and processing strategies in numerous previous studies. Often, the desired nanocomposite morphology contains individually dispersed and distributed nanoparticles. In this research, a phase-segregated morphology containing nanoparticle networks was studied. A model nanocomposite system composed of calcium phosphate nanoparticles and a poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) matrix was produced to understand how polymer crystallization and crystal structure can facilitate the formation of a phase-segregated morphology containing nanoparticle networks. Two chemically similar calcium phosphate nanoparticle systems with different shapes, near-spherical and nanofiber, were synthesized for use in the nanocomposites. The different shapes were used independently in nanocomposites in an attempt to understand the effect of the nanoparticle shapes on crystallization-mediated nanoparticle network formation. The resulting nanocomposites were characterized to establish the effects of component interactions on the polymer structure. Additionally from the viscoelastic properties, structure-property relationships in these materials can be defined as a function of nanoparticle shape and concentration. The results of this research suggest that when the nanocomposite components are not strongly interacting, polymer crystallization may be used as a forced assembly method for nanoparticle networks. Such a methodology has applications to the design of functional polymer nanocomposites such as biomedical implant materials and organic photovoltaic materials where judicious choice of nanoparticle-polymer pairs and control of polymer crystal nucleation and growth processes could be used to control the length scale of phase segregation.

  9. Enabling a Scientific Cloud Marketplace: VGL (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, R.; Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L. A.; Vote, J.; Rankine, T.; Cox, S. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Virtual Geophysics Laboratory (VGL) provides a flexible, web based environment where researchers can browse data and use a variety of scientific software packaged into tool kits that run in the Cloud. Both data and tool kits are published by multiple researchers and registered with the VGL infrastructure forming a data and application marketplace. The VGL provides the basic work flow of Discovery and Access to the disparate data sources and a Library for tool kits and scripting to drive the scientific codes. Computation is then performed on the Research or Commercial Clouds. Provenance information is collected throughout the work flow and can be published alongside the results allowing for experiment comparison and sharing with other researchers. VGL's "mix and match" approach to data, computational resources and scientific codes, enables a dynamic approach to scientific collaboration. VGL allows scientists to publish their specific contribution, be it data, code, compute or work flow, knowing the VGL framework will provide other components needed for a complete application. Other scientists can choose the pieces that suit them best to assemble an experiment. The coarse grain workflow of the VGL framework combined with the flexibility of the scripting library and computational toolkits allows for significant customisation and sharing amongst the community. The VGL utilises the cloud computational and storage resources from the Australian academic research cloud provided by the NeCTAR initiative and a large variety of data accessible from national and state agencies via the Spatial Information Services Stack (SISS - http://siss.auscope.org). VGL v1.2 screenshot - http://vgl.auscope.org

  10. New Catalog of Resources Enables Paleogeosciences Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lingo, R. C.; Horlick, K. A.; Anderson, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    The 21st century promises a new era for scientists of all disciplines, the age where cyber infrastructure enables research and education and fuels discovery. EarthCube is a working community of over 2,500 scientists and students of many Earth Science disciplines who are looking to build bridges between disciplines. The EarthCube initiative will create a digital infrastructure that connects databases, software, and repositories. A catalog of resources (databases, software, repositories) has been produced by the Research Coordination Network for Paleogeosciences to improve the discoverability of resources. The Catalog is currently made available within the larger-scope CINERGI geosciences portal (http://hydro10.sdsc.edu/geoportal/catalog/main/home.page). Other distribution points and web services are planned, using linked data, content services for the web, and XML descriptions that can be harvested using metadata protocols. The databases provide searchable interfaces to find data sets that would otherwise remain dark data, hidden in drawers and on personal computers. The software will be described in catalog entries so just one click will lead users to methods and analytical tools that many geoscientists were unaware of. The repositories listed in the Paleogeosciences Catalog contain physical samples found all across the globe, from natural history museums to the basements of university buildings. EarthCube has over 250 databases, 300 software systems, and 200 repositories which will grow in the coming year. When completed, geoscientists across the world will be connected into a productive workflow for managing, sharing, and exploring geoscience data and information that expedites collaboration and innovation within the paleogeosciences, potentially bringing about new interdisciplinary discoveries.

  11. Web enabled data management with DPM & LFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez Ayllon, Alejandro; Beche, Alexandre; Furano, Fabrizio; Hellmich, Martin; Keeble and, Oliver; Brito Da Rocha, Ricardo

    2012-12-01

    The Disk Pool Manager (DPM) and LCG File Catalog (LFC) are two grid data management components currently used in production with more than 240 endpoints. Together with a set of grid client tools they give the users a unified view of their data, hiding most details concerning data location and access. Recently we've put a lot of effort in developing a reliable and high performance HTTP/WebDAV frontend to both our grid catalog and storage components, exposing the existing functionality to users accessing the services via standard clients - e.g. web browsers, curl - present in all operating systems, giving users a simple and straight-forward way of interaction. In addition, as other relevant grid storage components (like dCache) expose their data using the same protocol, for the first time we had the opportunity of attempting a unified view of all grid storage using HTTP. We describe the HTTP redirection mechanism used to integrate the grid catalog(s) with the multiple storage components, including details on some assumptions made to allow integration with other implementations. We describe the way we hide the details regarding site availability or catalog inconsistencies by switching the standard HTTP client automatically between multiple replicas. We also present measurements of access performance, and the relevant factors regarding replica selection - current throughput and load, geographic proximity, etc. Finally, we report on some additional work done to have this system as a viable alternative to GridFTP, providing multi-stream transfers and exploiting some additional features of WebDAV to enable third party copies - essential for managing data movements between storage systems - with equivalent performance.

  12. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  13. Hydrologic Prediction Through Earthcube Enabled Hydrogeophysical Cyberinfrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versteeg, R. J.; Johnson, D.

    2012-12-01

    to "develop a framework to understand and predict responses of the Earth as a system— from the space-atmosphere boundary to the core, including the influences of humans and ecosystems." Effective development of hydrologic prediction tools will require the hydrogeophysical community to engage in and become conversant with the cyberinfrastructure community. In my presentation I will provide several examples of how such tools could look like, and what some of the opportunities are for getting this engagement going and develop cyberinfrastructure enabled hydrologic prediction tools.

  14. Bioblendstocks that Enable High Efficiency Engine Designs

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Robert L.; Fioroni, Gina M.; Ratcliff, Matthew A.; Zigler, Bradley T.; Farrell, John

    2016-11-03

    The past decade has seen a high level of innovation in production of biofuels from sugar, lipid, and lignocellulose feedstocks. As discussed in several talks at this workshop, ethanol blends in the E25 to E50 range could enable more highly efficient spark-ignited (SI) engines. This is because of their knock resistance properties that include not only high research octane number (RON), but also charge cooling from high heat of vaporization, and high flame speed. Emerging alcohol fuels such as isobutanol or mixed alcohols have desirable properties such as reduced gasoline blend vapor pressure, but also have lower RON than ethanol. These fuels may be able to achieve the same knock resistance benefits, but likely will require higher blend levels or higher RON hydrocarbon blendstocks. A group of very high RON (>150) oxygenates such as dimethyl furan, methyl anisole, and related compounds are also produced from biomass. While providing no increase in charge cooling, their very high octane numbers may provide adequate knock resistance for future highly efficient SI engines. Given this range of options for highly knock resistant fuels there appears to be a critical need for a fuel knock resistance metric that includes effects of octane number, heat of vaporization, and potentially flame speed. Emerging diesel fuels include highly branched long-chain alkanes from hydroprocessing of fats and oils, as well as sugar-derived terpenoids. These have relatively high cetane number (CN), which may have some benefits in designing more efficient CI engines. Fast pyrolysis of biomass can produce diesel boiling range streams that are high in aromatic, oxygen and acid contents. Hydroprocessing can be applied to remove oxygen and consequently reduce acidity, however there are strong economic incentives to leave up to 2 wt% oxygen in the product. This oxygen will primarily be present as low CN alkyl phenols and aryl ethers. While these have high heating value, their presence in diesel fuel

  15. Technical Assessment: Data-Enabled Technology Watch and Horizon Scanning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    current and can manage technology-enabled opportunities and challenges. All of these decisions can benefit substantially from a keen understanding of...1 Potential Benefits from Data-Enabled TW/HS...6 Leveraging Knowledge Management

  16. Enabling Star Formation via Spontaneous Molecular Dipole Orientation in Icy Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosu-Finsen, Alexander; Lasne, Jérôme; Cassidy, Andrew; McCoustra, Martin R. S.; Field, David

    2016-11-01

    It is shown here how new experimental data, for the electrical properties of solid CO, can be used to fill important gaps in our understanding of the evolution of prestellar cores. Dust grains with a mantle of CO lead to a reduction in the degree of ionization in these cores by a factor of between 5 and 6. The lifetimes for expulsion of magnetic fields from cores, a process generally necessary for gravitational collapse, are reduced from current estimates of several megayears, by a similar factor. This removes a major inconsistency, since lifetimes now tally with typical ages of prestellar cores of a few hundred thousand to 106 yr, derived from observations. With the reduced timescales, cores also escape disruption by Galactic supernova remnants. Our results provide a natural mechanism for the generation of so-called magnetically supercritical cores, in which the magnetic field alone cannot prevent gravitational collapse. In addition, we find a minimum value for the density of prestellar cores of ≥(1.1 ± 0.1) × 104 H2 cm-3, in agreement with observations.

  17. Phase selection enabled formation of abrupt axial heterojunctions in branched oxide nanowires.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Lebedev, Oleg I; Turner, Stuart; Li, Yong Feng; Lu, Yun Hao; Feng, Yuan Ping; Boullay, Philippe; Prellier, Wilfrid; van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Wu, Tom

    2012-01-11

    Rational synthesis of nanowires via the vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) mechanism with compositional and structural controls is vitally important for fabricating functional nanodevices from bottom up. Here, we show that branched indium tin oxide nanowires can be in situ seeded in vapor transport growth using tailored Au-Cu alloys as catalyst. Furthermore, we demonstrate that VLS synthesis gives unprecedented freedom to navigate the ternary In-Sn-O phase diagram, and a rare and bulk-unstable cubic phase can be selectively stabilized in nanowires. The stabilized cubic fluorite phase possesses an unusual almost equimolar concentration of In and Sn, forming a defect-free epitaxial interface with the conventional bixbyite phase of tin-doped indium oxide that is the most employed transparent conducting oxide. This rational methodology of selecting phases and making abrupt axial heterojunctions in nanowires presents advantages over the conventional synthesis routes, promising novel composition-modulated nanomaterials.

  18. Enabling and Integrating Online Formative Assessment in a Flipped Calculus Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schroeder, Larissa Bucchi; Dorn, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The increased use of videos in mathematics courses means that direct instruction, traditionally part of class lectures, now often occurs outside of the classroom. Although students come to class with some baseline level of understanding, instructors lose opportunities to assess students' understanding of content as it is seen for the first time.…

  19. Wnt/β-catenin signaling enables developmental transitions during valvulogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bosada, Fernanda M; Devasthali, Vidusha; Jones, Kimberly A; Stankunas, Kryn

    2016-03-15

    Heart valve development proceeds through coordinated steps by which endocardial cushions (ECs) form thin, elongated and stratified valves. Wnt signaling and its canonical effector β-catenin are proposed to contribute to endocardial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) through postnatal steps of valvulogenesis. However, genetic redundancy and lethality have made it challenging to define specific roles of the canonical Wnt pathway at different stages of valve formation. We developed a transgenic mouse system that provides spatiotemporal inhibition of Wnt/β-catenin signaling by chemically inducible overexpression of Dkk1. Unexpectedly, this approach indicates canonical Wnt signaling is required for EMT in the proximal outflow tract (pOFT) but not atrioventricular canal (AVC) cushions. Furthermore, Wnt indirectly promotes pOFT EMT through its earlier activity in neighboring myocardial cells or their progenitors. Subsequently, Wnt/β-catenin signaling is activated in cushion mesenchymal cells where it supports FGF-driven expansion of ECs and then AVC valve extracellular matrix patterning. Mice lacking Axin2, a negative Wnt regulator, have larger valves, suggesting that accumulating Axin2 in maturing valves represents negative feedback that restrains tissue overgrowth rather than simply reporting Wnt activity. Disruption of these Wnt/β-catenin signaling roles that enable developmental transitions during valvulogenesis could account for common congenital valve defects.

  20. Science Enabling Roles and Services of SPDF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGuire, Robert E.; Bilitza, Dieter; Candey, Robert M.; Chimiak, Reine A.; Cooper, John F.; Garcia, Leonard N.; Harris, Bernard T.; Johnson, Rita C.; King, Joseph H.; Kovalick, Tamara J.; Lal, Nand; Leckner, Howard A.; Liu, Michael H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Roberts, D. Aaron

    2011-01-01

    The current Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy defines the roles of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project as a heliophysics active Final Archive, a focus for critical data infrastructure services and a center of excellence for data and ancillary information services. This presentation will highlight some of our current activities and our understanding of why and how our services are useful to researchers, as well as SPDF's programmatic emphasis in the coming year. We will discuss how. in cooperation with the Heliophysics Virtual discipline Observatories (VxOs), we are working closely with the RBSP and MMS mission teams to support their decisions to use CDF as a primary format for their public data products, to leverage the ongoing data flows and capabilities of CDAWeb (directly and through external clients such as Autoplot) to serve their data in a multi-mission context and to use SSCWeb to assist community science planning and analysis. Among other current activities, we will also discuss and demonstrate our continuing effort to make the Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) service comprehensive in all significant and NASA relevant heliophysics data. The OMNI and OMNI High Resolution datasets remain current and heavily cited in publications. We are expanding our FTP file services to include online archived non-CDF data from all active missions, which is a re-hosting of this function from NSSDC's FTP site. We have extended the definitions of time in CDF to unambiguously and consistently handle leap seconds. We are improving SSCWeb for much faster per1ormance, more capabilities and a web services inter1ace to Query functionality. We will also review how CDAWeb data can be easily accessed within IDL and new features in CDAWeb.

  1. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p < .05). When groups composed of students and professors were compared, professors were less likely to perceive student's teaming skills as effective. The study indicated the need to: (1) improve non-technical performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team

  2. Science Enabling Roles and Services of SPDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, R. E.; Bilitza, D.; Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R. A.; Cooper, J. F.; Garcia, L. N.; Harris, B. T.; Johnson, R. C.; King, J. H.; Kovalick, T. J.; Lal, N.; Leckner, H. A.; Liu, M. H.; Papitashvili, N. E.; Roberts, D.

    2011-12-01

    The current Heliophysics Science Data Management Policy defines the roles of the Space Physics Data Facility (SPDF) project as a heliophysics active Final Archive, a focus for critical data infrastructure services and a center of excellence for data and ancillary information services. This presentation will highlight some of our current activities and our understanding of why and how our services are useful to researchers, as well as SPDF's programmatic emphasis in the coming year. We will discuss how, in cooperation with the Heliophysics Virtual discipline Observatories (VxOs), we are working closely with the RBSP and MMS mission teams to support their decisions to use CDF as a primary format for their public data products, to leverage the ongoing data flows and capabilities of CDAWeb (directly and through external clients such as Autoplot) to serve their data in a multi-mission context and to use SSCWeb to assist community science planning and analysis. Among other current activities, we will also discuss and demonstrate our continuing effort to make the Virtual Space Physics Observatory (VSPO) service comprehensive in all significant and NASA relevant heliophysics data. The OMNI and OMNI High Resolution datasets remain current and heavily cited in publications. We are expanding our FTP file services to include online archived non-CDF data from all active missions, which is a re-hosting of this function from NSSDC's FTP site. We have extended the definitions of time in CDF to unambiguously and consistently handle leap seconds. We are improving SSCWeb for much faster performance, more capabilities and a web services interface to Query functionality. We will also review how CDAWeb data can be easily accessed within IDL and new features in CDAWeb.

  3. An Investigation of Relations among Academic Enablers and Reading Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Lyndsay N.; Demaray, Michelle Kilpatrick

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined the link between academic enablers and different types of reading achievement measures. Academic enablers are skills and behaviors that support, or enable, students to perform well academically, such as engagement, interpersonal skills, motivation, and study skills. The sample in this study consisted of 61 third-,…

  4. 78 FR 76603 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 26, 2013, Enable Gas Transmission, LLC (Enable) 1111 Louisiana Street, Houston, Texas 77002, filed... Gas Transmission, LLC, P.O. Box 21734 Shreveport, LA 71151 at (318) 429- 3708. Specifically,...

  5. FINESSE: Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heldmann, Jennifer; Lim, Darlene; Colaprete, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The FINESSE (Field Investigations to Enable Solar System Science and Exploration) team is focused on a science and exploration field-based research program aimed at generating strategic knowledge in preparation for the human and robotic exploration of the Moon, near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) and Phobos and Deimos. We follow the philosophy that "science enables exploration and exploration enables science." 1) FINESSE Science: Understand the effects of volcanism and impacts as dominant planetary processes on the Moon, NEAs, and Phobos & Deimos. 2) FINESSE Exploration: Understand which exploration concepts of operations (ConOps) and capabilities enable and enhance scientific return. To accomplish these objectives, we are conducting an integrated research program focused on scientifically-driven field exploration at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve in Idaho and at the West Clearwater Lake Impact Structure in northern Canada. Field deployments aimed at reconnaissance geology and data acquisition were conducted in 2014 at Craters of the Moon National Monument and Preserve. Targets for data acquisition included selected sites at Kings Bowl eruptive fissure, lava field and blowout crater, Inferno Chasm vent and outflow channel, North Crater lava flow and Highway lava flow. Field investigation included (1) differential GPS (dGPS) measurements of lava flows, channels (and ejecta block at Kings Bowl); (2) LiDAR imaging of lava flow margins, surfaces and other selected features; (3) digital photographic documentation; (4) sampling for geochemical and petrographic analysis; (5) UAV aerial imagery of Kings Bowl and Inferno Chasm features; and (6) geologic assessment of targets and potential new targets. Over the course of the 5-week field FINESSE campaign to the West Clearwater Impact Structure (WCIS) in 2014, the team focused on several WCIS research topics, including impactites, central uplift formation, the impact-generated hydrothermal system, multichronometer

  6. Galaxy formation

    SciTech Connect

    Silk, J.

    1984-11-01

    Implications of the isotropy of the cosmic microwave background on large and small angular scales for galaxy formation are reviewed. In primeval adiabatic fluctuations, a universe dominated by cold, weakly interacting nonbaryonic matter, e.g., the massive photino is postulated. A possible signature of photino annihilation in our galactic halo involves production of cosmic ray antiprotons. If the density is near its closure value, it is necessary to invoke a biasing mechanism for suppressing galaxy formation throughout most of the universe in order to reconcile the dark matter density with the lower astronomical determinations of the mean cosmological density. A mechanism utilizing the onset of primordial massive star formation to strip gaseous protogalaxies is described. Only the densest, early collapsing systems form luminous galaxies. (ESA)

  7. Comet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, J.

    2014-07-01

    There has been vast progress in our understanding of planetesimal formation over the past decades, owing to a number of laboratory experiments as well as to refined models of dust and ice agglomeration in protoplanetary disks. Coagulation rapidly forms cm-sized ''pebbles'' by direct sticking in collisions at low velocities (Güttler et al. 2010; Zsom et al. 2010). For the further growth, two model approaches are currently being discussed: (1) Local concentration of pebbles in nebular instabilities until gravitational instability occurs (Johansen et al. 2007). (2) A competition between fragmentation and mass transfer in collisions among the dusty bodies, in which a few ''lucky winners'' make it to planetesimal sizes (Windmark et al. 2012a,b; Garaud et al. 2013). Predictions of the physical properties of the resulting bodies in both models allow a distinction of the two formation scenarios of planetesimals. In particular, the tensile strength (i.e, the inner cohesion) of the planetesimals differ widely between the two models (Skorov & Blum 2012; Blum et al. 2014). While model (1) predicts tensile strengths on the order of ˜ 1 Pa, model (2) results in rather compactified dusty bodies with tensile strengths in the kPa regime. If comets are km-sized survivors of the planetesimal-formation era, they should in principle hold the secret of their formation process. Water ice is the prime volatile responsible for the activity of comets. Thermophysical models of the heat and mass transport close to the comet-nucleus surface predict water-ice sublimation temperatures that relate to maximum sublimation pressures well below the kPa regime predicted for formation scenario (2). Model (1), however, is in agreement with the observed dust and gas activity of comets. Thus, a formation scenario for cometesimals involving gravitational instability is favored (Blum et al. 2014).

  8. Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    de Supinski, B R

    2010-02-14

    The Petascale Computing Enabling Technologies (PCET) project addressed challenges arising from current trends in computer architecture that will lead to large-scale systems with many more nodes, each of which uses multicore chips. These factors will soon lead to systems that have over one million processors. Also, the use of multicore chips will lead to less memory and less memory bandwidth per core. We need fundamentally new algorithmic approaches to cope with these memory constraints and the huge number of processors. Further, correct, efficient code development is difficult even with the number of processors in current systems; more processors will only make it harder. The goal of PCET was to overcome these challenges by developing the computer science and mathematical underpinnings needed to realize the full potential of our future large-scale systems. Our research results will significantly increase the scientific output obtained from LLNL large-scale computing resources by improving application scientist productivity and system utilization. Our successes include scalable mathematical algorithms that adapt to these emerging architecture trends and through code correctness and performance methodologies that automate critical aspects of application development as well as the foundations for application-level fault tolerance techniques. PCET's scope encompassed several research thrusts in computer science and mathematics: code correctness and performance methodologies, scalable mathematics algorithms appropriate for multicore systems, and application-level fault tolerance techniques. Due to funding limitations, we focused primarily on the first three thrusts although our work also lays the foundation for the needed advances in fault tolerance. In the area of scalable mathematics algorithms, our preliminary work established that OpenMP performance of the AMG linear solver benchmark and important individual kernels on Atlas did not match the predictions of our

  9. Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions Conference and Workshop: Poster Session. Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, Henry (Compiler)

    2004-01-01

    Reports are presented from volume 2 of the conference titled Strategic Research to Enable NASA's Exploration Missions, poster session. Topics included spacecraft fire suppression and fire extinguishing agents,materials flammability, various topics on the effects of microgravity including crystal growth, fluid mechanics, electric particulate suspension, melting and solidification, bubble formation, the sloshing of liquid fuels, biological studies, separation of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide for Mars ISRU.

  10. Scientific Data Management Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Vouk, Mladen A.

    2013-01-15

    Managing scientific data has been identified by the scientific community as one of the most important emerging needs because of the sheer volume and increasing complexity of data being collected. Effectively generating, managing, and analyzing this information requires a comprehensive, end-to-end approach to data management that encompasses all of the stages from the initial data acquisition to the final analysis of the data. Fortunately, the data management problems encountered by most scientific domains are common enough to be addressed through shared technology solutions. Based on community input, we have identified three significant requirements. First, more efficient access to storage systems is needed. In particular, parallel file system and I/O system improvements are needed to write and read large volumes of data without slowing a simulation, analysis, or visualization engine. These processes are complicated by the fact that scientific data are structured differently for specific application domains, and are stored in specialized file formats. Second, scientists require technologies to facilitate better understanding of their data, in particular the ability to effectively perform complex data analysis and searches over extremely large data sets. Specialized feature discovery and statistical analysis techniques are needed before the data can be understood or visualized. Furthermore, interactive analysis requires techniques for efficiently selecting subsets of the data. Finally, generating the data, collecting and storing the results, keeping track of data provenance, data post-processing, and analysis of results is a tedious, fragmented process. Tools for automation of this process in a robust, tractable, and recoverable fashion are required to enhance scientific exploration. The SDM center was established under the SciDAC program to address these issues. The SciDAC-1 Scientific Data Management (SDM) Center succeeded in bringing an initial set of advanced

  11. Formation Algorithms and Simulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wette, Matthew; Sohl, Garett; Scharf, Daniel; Benowitz, Edward

    2004-01-01

    Formation flying for spacecraft is a rapidly developing field that will enable a new era of space science. For one of its missions, the Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) project has selected a formation flying interferometer design to detect earth-like planets orbiting distant stars. In order to advance technology needed for the TPF formation flying interferometer, the TPF project has been developing a distributed real-time testbed to demonstrate end-to-end operation of formation flying with TPF-like functionality and precision. This is the Formation Algorithms and Simulation Testbed (FAST) . This FAST was conceived to bring out issues in timing, data fusion, inter-spacecraft communication, inter-spacecraft sensing and system-wide formation robustness. In this paper we describe the FAST and show results from a two-spacecraft formation scenario. The two-spacecraft simulation is the first time that precision end-to-end formation flying operation has been demonstrated in a distributed real-time simulation environment.

  12. Cloud Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, Mark Talmage

    2004-05-01

    Cloud formation is crucial to the heritage of modern physics, and there is a rich literature on this important topic. In 1927, Charles T.R. Wilson was awarded the Nobel Prize in physics for applications of the cloud chamber.2 Wilson was inspired to study cloud formation after working at a meteorological observatory on top of the highest mountain in Scotland, Ben Nevis, and testified near the end of his life, "The whole of my scientific work undoubtedly developed from the experiments I was led to make by what I saw during my fortnight on Ben Nevis in September 1894."3 To form clouds, Wilson used the sudden expansion of humid air.4 Any structure the cloud may have is spoiled by turbulence in the sudden expansion, but in 1912 Wilson got ion tracks to show up by using strobe photography of the chamber immediately upon expansion.5 In the interim, Millikan's study in 1909 of the formation of cloud droplets around individual ions was the first in which the electron charge was isolated. This study led to his famous oil drop experiment.6 To Millikan, as to Wilson, meteorology and physics were professionally indistinct. With his meteorological physics expertise, in WWI Millikan commanded perhaps the first meteorological observation and forecasting team essential to military operation in history.7 But even during peacetime meteorology is so much of a concern to everyone that a regular news segment is dedicated to it. Weather is the universal conversation topic, and life on land could not exist as we know it without clouds. One wonders then, why cloud formation is never covered in physics texts.

  13. Triple aryne–tetrazine reaction enabling rapid access to a new class of polyaromatic heterocycles† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental protocols, characterization data, X-ray crystallographic data (CIF) and NMR spectra of all new compounds. CCDC 1400529. For ESI and crystallographic data in CIF or other electronic format see DOI: 10.1039/c5sc01726b Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Sung-Eun; Barros, Stephanie A.

    2015-01-01

    One of the most challenging goals of modern synthetic chemistry is to develop multi-step reactions for rapid and efficient access to complex molecules. We report a triple aryne–tetrazine reaction that enables rapid access to a new class of polyaromatic heterocycles. This new reaction, which couples diverse reactivity modes between simple aryne and tetrazine starting materials, proceeds in a single operation and takes less than 5 minutes in air with no metal catalyst. PMID:26388984

  14. Enabling Linked Science in Global Climate Uncertainty Quantification (UQ) Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsethagen, T.; Stephan, E.; Lin, G.; Williams, D.; Banks, E.

    2012-12-01

    This paper shares a real-world global climate UQ science use case and illustrates how a linked science application called Provenance Environment (ProvEn), currently being developed, enables and facilitates scientific teams to publish, share, link, and discover new links over their UQ research results. UQ results include terascale datasets that are published to an Earth Systems Grid Federation (ESGF) repository. ProvEn demonstrates how a scientific team conducting UQ studies can discover dataset links using its domain knowledgebase, allowing them to better understand the UQ study research objectives, the experimental protocol used, the resulting dataset lineage, related analytical findings, ancillary literature citations, along with the social network of scientists associated with the study. This research claims that scientists using this linked science approach will not only allow them to greatly benefit from understanding a particular dataset within a knowledge context, a benefit can also be seen by the cross reference of knowledge among the numerous UQ studies being stored in ESGF. ProvEn collects native forms of data provenance resources as the UQ study is carried out. The native data provenance resources can be collected from a variety of sources such as scripts, a workflow engine log, simulation log files, scientific team members etc. Schema alignment is used to translate the native forms of provenance into a set of W3C PROV-O semantic statements used as a common interchange format which will also contain URI references back to resources in the UQ study dataset for querying and cross referencing. ProvEn leverages Fedora Commons' digital object model in a Resource Oriented Architecture (ROA) (i.e. a RESTful framework) to logically organize and partition native and translated provenance resources by UQ study. The ROA also provides scientists the means to both search native and translated forms of provenance.

  15. Science Enabling Exploration: Using LRO to Prepare for Future Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, S. J.; Jolliff, B. L.; Stopar, J. D.; Speyerer, E. J.; Petro, N. E.

    2016-01-01

    Discoveries from LRO have transformed our understanding of the Moon, but LRO's instruments were originally designed to collect the measurements required to enable future lunar surface exploration. A high lunar exploration priority is the collection of new samples and their return to Earth for comprehensive analysis. The importance of sample return from South Pole-Aitken is well-established [Jolliff et al., this conference], but there are numerous other locations where sample return will yield important advances in planetary science. Using new LRO data, we have defined an achievability envelope based on the physical characteristics of successful lunar landing sites. Those results were then used to define 1km x 1km regions of interest where sample return could be executed, including: the basalt flows in Oceanus Procellarum (22.1N, 53.9W), the Gruithuisen Domes (36.1N, 39.7W), the Dewar cryptomare (2.2S, 166.8E), the Aristarchus pyroclastic deposit (24.8N, 48.5W), the Sulpicius Gallus formation (19.9N, 10.3E), the Sinus Aestuum pyroclastic deposit (5.2N, 9.2W), the Compton-Belkovich volcanic complex (61.5N, 99.9E), the Ina Irregular Mare Patch (18.7N, 5.3E), and the Marius Hills volcanic complex (13.4N, 55.9W). All of these locations represent safe landing sites where sample returns are needed to advance our understanding of the evolution of the lunar interior and the timescales of lunar volcanism. If LRO is still active when any future mission reaches the surface, LRO's capability to rapidly place surface activities into broader geologic context will provide operational advantages. LRO remains a unique strategic asset that continues to address the needs of future missions.

  16. Amphiplex Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Shannon; Laaser, Jennifer; Lodge, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Polymer-micelle complexes are currently under heavy investigation due to their potential applications in targeted drug delivery and gene therapy, yet the dynamics of the complex formation is still relatively unstudied. By varying the ratios of poly(styrene sulfonate) chains and cationic poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate)-b-poly(styrene) micelles and the ionic strength of the system, we created a variety of complex configurations of different sizes and charges. The complexes were characterized dynamic light scattering and zeta potential measurements which provided information regarding the hydrodynamic radius, distribution of sizes, and effective charge.

  17. Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Fonda, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Modern theories of star and planet formation and of the orbital stability of planetary systems are described and used to discuss possible characteristics of undiscovered planetary systems. The most detailed models of planetary growth are based upon observations of planets and smaller bodies within our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. These models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most single stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. A potential hazard to planetary systems is radial decay of planetary orbits resulting from interactions with material within the disk. Planets more massive than Earth have the potential to decay the fastest, and may be able to sweep up smaller planets in their path. The implications of the giant planets found in recent radial velocity searches for the abundances of habitable planets are discussed, and the methods that are being used and planned for detecting and characterizing extrasolar planets are reviewed.

  18. Battlefield Renewable Energy: A Key Joint Force Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Environment, Energy Security & Sustainability Symposium Jun 2010 Battlefield Renewable Energy A Key Joint Force Enabler Roy H. Adams III, LTC, USA...COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Battlefield Renewable Energy : A Key Joint Force Enabler 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  19. AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mooney, Helen P.; Brandt, John B.; Lacy, Douglas S.; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-01-01

    This document serves as the final report for the SMAAART AFC-Enabled Vertical Tail System Integration Study. Included are the ground rule assumptions which have gone into the study, layouts of the baseline and AFC-enabled configurations, critical sizing information, system requirements and architectures, and assumed system properties that result in an NPV assessment of the two candidate AFC technologies.

  20. Habit formation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kyle S.; Graybiel, Ann M.

    2016-01-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network. PMID:27069378

  1. Habit formation.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyle S; Graybiel, Ann M

    2016-03-01

    Habits, both good ones and bad ones, are pervasive in animal behavior. Important frameworks have been developed to understand habits through psychological and neurobiological studies. This work has given us a rich understanding of brain networks that promote habits, and has also helped us to understand what constitutes a habitual behavior as opposed to a behavior that is more flexible and prospective. Mounting evidence from studies using neural recording methods suggests that habit formation is not a simple process. We review this evidence and take the position that habits could be sculpted from multiple dissociable changes in neural activity. These changes occur across multiple brain regions and even within single brain regions. This strategy of classifying components of a habit based on different brain signals provides a potentially useful new way to conceive of disorders that involve overly fixed behaviors as arising from different potential dysfunctions within the brain's habit network.

  2. A Semantically Enabled Metadata Repository for Solar Irradiance Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, A.; Cox, M.; Lindholm, D. M.; Nadiadi, I.; Traver, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, LASP, has been conducting research in Atmospheric and Space science for over 60 years, and providing the associated data products to the public. LASP has a long history, in particular, of making space-based measurements of the solar irradiance, which serves as crucial input to several areas of scientific research, including solar-terrestrial interactions, atmospheric, and climate. LISIRD, the LASP Interactive Solar Irradiance Data Center, serves these datasets to the public, including solar spectral irradiance (SSI) and total solar irradiance (TSI) data. The LASP extended metadata repository, LEMR, is a database of information about the datasets served by LASP, such as parameters, uncertainties, temporal and spectral ranges, current version, alerts, etc. It serves as the definitive, single source of truth for that information. The database is populated with information garnered via web forms and automated processes. Dataset owners keep the information current and verified for datasets under their purview. This information can be pulled dynamically for many purposes. Web sites such as LISIRD can include this information in web page content as it is rendered, ensuring users get current, accurate information. It can also be pulled to create metadata records in various metadata formats, such as SPASE (for heliophysics) and ISO 19115. Once these records are be made available to the appropriate registries, our data will be discoverable by users coming in via those organizations. The database is implemented as a RDF triplestore, a collection of instances of subject-object-predicate data entities identifiable with a URI. This capability coupled with SPARQL over HTTP read access enables semantic queries over the repository contents. To create the repository we leveraged VIVO, an open source semantic web application, to manage and create new ontologies and populate repository content. A variety of ontologies were used in

  3. ASIC-enabled High Resolution Optical Time Domain Reflectometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skendzic, Sandra

    Fiber optics has become the preferred technology in communication systems because of what it has to offer: high data transmission rates, immunity to electromagnetic interference, and lightweight, flexible cables. An optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) provides a convenient method of locating and diagnosing faults (e.g. break in a fiber) along a fiber that can obstruct crucial optical pathways. Both the ability to resolve the precise location of the fault and distinguish between two discrete, closely spaced faults are figures of merit. This thesis presents an implementation of a high resolution OTDR through the use of a compact and programmable ASIC (application specific integrated circuit). The integration of many essential OTDR functions on a single chip is advantageous over existing commercial instruments because it enables small, lightweight packaging, and offers low power and cost efficiency. Furthermore, its compactness presents the option of placing multiple ASICs in parallel, which can conceivably ease the characterization of densely populated fiber optic networks. The OTDR ASIC consists of a tunable clock, pattern generator, precise timer, electrical receiver, and signal sampling circuit. During OTDR operation, the chip generates narrow electrical pulse, which can then be converted to optical format when coupled with an external laser diode driver. The ASIC also works with an external photodetector to measure the timing and amplitude of optical reflections in a fiber. It has a 1 cm sampling resolution, which allows for a 2 cm spatial resolution. While this OTDR ASIC has been previously demonstrated for multimode fiber fault diagnostics, this thesis focuses on extending its functionality to single mode fiber. To validate this novel approach to OTDR, this thesis is divided into five chapters: (1) introduction, (2) implementation, (3), performance of ASIC-based OTDR, (4) exploration in optical pre-amplification with a semiconductor optical amplifier, and

  4. Laser capture microdissection enables cellular and molecular studies of tooth root development

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jian-Xun; Horst, Orapin V; Bumgarner, Roger; Lakely, Bryce; Somerman, Martha J; Zhang, Hai

    2012-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal interactions (EMIs) are critical for tooth development. Molecular mechanisms mediating these interactions in root formation is not well understood. Laser capture microdissection (LCM) and subsequent microarray analyses enable large scale in situ molecular and cellular studies of root formation but to date have been hindered by technical challenges of gaining intact histological sections of non-decalcified mineralized teeth or jaws with well-preserved RNA. Here,we describe a new method to overcome this obstacle that permits LCM of dental epithelia,adjacent mesenchyme,odontoblasts and cementoblasts from mouse incisors and molars during root development. Using this method,we obtained RNA samples of high quality and successfully performed microarray analyses. Robust differences in gene expression,as well as genes not previously associated with root formation,were identified. Comparison of gene expression data from microarray with real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) supported our findings. These genes include known markers of dental epithelia,mesenchyme,cementoblasts and odontoblasts,as well as novel genes such as those in the fibulin family. In conclusion,our new approach in tissue preparation enables LCM collection of intact cells with well-preserved RNA allowing subsequent gene expression analyses using microarray and RT-PCR to define key regulators of tooth root development. PMID:22422086

  5. Multi-omic data integration enables discovery of hidden biological regularities

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahim, Ali; Brunk, Elizabeth; Tan, Justin; O'Brien, Edward J.; Kim, Donghyuk; Szubin, Richard; Lerman, Joshua A.; Lechner, Anna; Sastry, Anand; Bordbar, Aarash; Feist, Adam M.; Palsson, Bernhard O.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid growth in size and complexity of biological data sets has led to the ‘Big Data to Knowledge' challenge. We develop advanced data integration methods for multi-level analysis of genomic, transcriptomic, ribosomal profiling, proteomic and fluxomic data. First, we show that pairwise integration of primary omics data reveals regularities that tie cellular processes together in Escherichia coli: the number of protein molecules made per mRNA transcript and the number of ribosomes required per translated protein molecule. Second, we show that genome-scale models, based on genomic and bibliomic data, enable quantitative synchronization of disparate data types. Integrating omics data with models enabled the discovery of two novel regularities: condition invariant in vivo turnover rates of enzymes and the correlation of protein structural motifs and translational pausing. These regularities can be formally represented in a computable format allowing for coherent interpretation and prediction of fitness and selection that underlies cellular physiology. PMID:27782110

  6. XNsim: Internet-Enabled Collaborative Distributed Simulation via an Extensible Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Novotny, John; Karpov, Igor; Zhang, Chendi; Bedrossian, Nazareth S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the XNsim approach to achieve Internet-enabled, dynamically scalable collaborative distributed simulation capabilities is presented. With this approach, a complete simulation can be assembled from shared component subsystems written in different formats, that run on different computing platforms, with different sampling rates, in different geographic locations, and over singlelmultiple networks. The subsystems interact securely with each other via the Internet. Furthermore, the simulation topology can be dynamically modified. The distributed simulation uses a combination of hub-and-spoke and peer-topeer network topology. A proof-of-concept demonstrator is also presented. The XNsim demonstrator can be accessed at http://www.jsc.draver.corn/xn that hosts various examples of Internet enabled simulations.

  7. Adaptability of protein structures to enable functional interactions and evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Haliloglu, Turkan; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-12-01

    Several studies in recent years have drawn attention to the ability of proteins to adapt to intermolecular interactions by conformational changes along structure-encoded collective modes of motions. These so-called soft modes, primarily driven by entropic effects, facilitate, if not enable, functional interactions. They represent excursions on the conformational space along principal low-ascent directions/paths away from the original free energy minimum, and they are accessible to the protein even before protein-protein/ligand interactions. An emerging concept from these studies is the evolution of structures or modular domains to favor such modes of motion that will be recruited or integrated for enabling functional interactions. Structural dynamics, including the allosteric switches in conformation that are often stabilized upon formation of complexes and multimeric assemblies, emerge as key properties that are evolutionarily maintained to accomplish biological activities, consistent with the paradigm sequence→structure→dynamics→function where 'dynamics' bridges structure and function.

  8. Advanced Coatings Enabling High Performance Instruments for Astrophysics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikzad, Shouleh

    We propose a three-year effort to develop techniques for far-ultraviolet (FUV) and ultraviolet coatings both as reflective optics coatings and as out-of-band-rejection (solar-blind) filters that will have a dramatic effect on the throughput and efficiency of instruments. This is an ideal time to address this problem. On the one hand, exciting new science questions posed in UV and optical realm place exacting demands on instrument capabilities far beyond HST-COS, FUSE, and GALEX with large focal plane arrays and high efficiency requirements. And on the other hand, the development of techniques and process such as atomic layer deposition with its atomically precise capability and nano-engineered materials approach enables us to address the challenging materials issues in the UV where interaction of photons and matter happen in the first few nanometers of the material surface. Aluminum substrates with protective overlayers (typically XFy, where X = Li, Mg, or Ca) have been the workhorse of reflective coatings for ultraviolet and visible instruments; however, they have demonstrated severe limitations. The formation of oxide at the Al-XFy interface and thick protective layers both affect the overall optical performance, leading to diminished reflection at shorter wavelengths. To address these long-standing shortcomings of coatings, we will use our newly developed processes and equipment to produce high-quality single- and multi-layer films of a variety of dielectrics and metals deposited with nano-scale control. JPL s new ALD system affords high uniformity, low oxygen background, good plasma processes, and precise temperature control, which are vital to achieving the large scale, uniform, and ultrathin films that are free of oxygen at interfaces. For example, ALD-grown aluminum can be protected using our newly developed chemistry for ALD magnesium fluoride. Our work will verify that the ALD technique reliably prevents the oxidation of aluminum, and will subsequently be

  9. Alginate Hydrogel Microencapsulation Inhibits Devitrification and Enables Large-Volume Low-CPA Cell Vitrification.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haishui; Choi, Jung Kyu; Rao, Wei; Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Gang; He, Xiaoming

    2015-11-25

    Cryopreservation of stem cells is important to meet their ever-increasing demand by the burgeoning cell-based medicine. The conventional slow freezing for stem cell cryopreservation suffers from inevitable cell injury associated with ice formation and the vitrification (i.e., no visible ice formation) approach is emerging as a new strategy for cell cryopreservation. A major challenge to cell vitrification is intracellular ice formation (IIF, a lethal event to cells) induced by devitrification (i.e., formation of visible ice in previously vitrified solution) during warming the vitrified cells at cryogenic temperature back to super-zero temperatures. Consequently, high and toxic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotectants (i.e., high CPAs, up to ~8 M) and/or limited sample volumes (up to ~2.5 μl) have been used to minimize IIF during vitrification. We reveal that alginate hydrogel microencapsulation can effectively inhibit devitrification during warming. Our data show that if ice formation were minimized during cooling, IIF is negligible in alginate hydrogel-microencapsulated cells during the entire cooling and warming procedure of vitrification. This enables vitrification of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with up to ~4 times lower concentration of penetrating CPAs (up to 2 M, low CPA) in up to ~100 times larger sample volume (up to ~250 μl, large volume).

  10. Alginate Hydrogel Microencapsulation Inhibits Devitrification and Enables Large-Volume Low-CPA Cell Vitrification

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Haishui; Choi, Jung Kyu; Rao, Wei; Zhao, Shuting; Agarwal, Pranay; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    Cryopreservation of stem cells is important to meet their ever-increasing demand by the burgeoning cell-based medicine. The conventional slow freezing for stem cell cryopreservation suffers from inevitable cell injury associated with ice formation and the vitrification (i.e., no visible ice formation) approach is emerging as a new strategy for cell cryopreservation. A major challenge to cell vitrification is intracellular ice formation (IIF, a lethal event to cells) induced by devitrification (i.e., formation of visible ice in previously vitrified solution) during warming the vitrified cells at cryogenic temperature back to super-zero temperatures. Consequently, high and toxic concentrations of penetrating cryoprotectants (i.e., high CPAs, up to ~8 M) and/or limited sample volumes (up to ~2.5 μl) have been used to minimize IIF during vitrification. We reveal that alginate hydrogel microencapsulation can effectively inhibit devitrification during warming. Our data show that if ice formation were minimized during cooling, IIF is negligible in alginate hydrogel-microencapsulated cells during the entire cooling and warming procedure of vitrification. This enables vitrification of pluripotent and multipotent stem cells with up to ~4 times lower concentration of penetrating CPAs (up to 2 M, low CPA) in up to ~100 times larger sample volume (up to ~250 μl, large volume). PMID:26640426

  11. Barrier Formation

    PubMed Central

    Lyaruu, D.M.; Medina, J.F.; Sarvide, S.; Bervoets, T.J.M.; Everts, V.; DenBesten, P.; Smith, C.E.; Bronckers, A.L.J.J.

    2014-01-01

    Enamel fluorosis is an irreversible structural enamel defect following exposure to supraoptimal levels of fluoride during amelogenesis. We hypothesized that fluorosis is associated with excess release of protons during formation of hypermineralized lines in the mineralizing enamel matrix. We tested this concept by analyzing fluorotic enamel defects in wild-type mice and mice deficient in anion exchanger-2a,b (Ae2a,b), a transmembrane protein in maturation ameloblasts that exchanges extracellular Cl− for bicarbonate. Defects were more pronounced in fluorotic Ae2a,b−/− mice than in fluorotic heterozygous or wild-type mice. Phenotypes included a hypermineralized surface, extensive subsurface hypomineralization, and multiple hypermineralized lines in deeper enamel. Mineral content decreased in all fluoride-exposed and Ae2a,b−/− mice and was strongly correlated with Cl−. Exposure of enamel surfaces underlying maturation-stage ameloblasts to pH indicator dyes suggested the presence of diffusion barriers in fluorotic enamel. These results support the concept that fluoride stimulates hypermineralization at the mineralization front. This causes increased release of protons, which ameloblasts respond to by secreting more bicarbonates at the expense of Cl− levels in enamel. The fluoride-induced hypermineralized lines may form barriers that impede diffusion of proteins and mineral ions into the subsurface layers, thereby delaying biomineralization and causing retention of enamel matrix proteins. PMID:24170372

  12. Pattern Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, Rebecca

    2006-03-01

    From the stripes of a zebra and the spots on a leopard's back to the ripples on a sandy beach or desert dune, regular patterns arise everywhere in nature. The appearance and evolution of these phenomena has been a focus of recent research activity across several disciplines. This book provides an introduction to the range of mathematical theory and methods used to analyse and explain these often intricate and beautiful patterns. Bringing together several different approaches, from group theoretic methods to envelope equations and theory of patterns in large-aspect ratio-systems, the book also provides insight behind the selection of one pattern over another. Suitable as an upper-undergraduate textbook for mathematics students or as a fascinating, engaging, and fully illustrated resource for readers in physics and biology, Rebecca Hoyle's book, using a non-partisan approach, unifies a range of techniques used by active researchers in this growing field. Accessible description of the mathematical theory behind fascinating pattern formation in areas such as biology, physics and materials science Collects recent research for the first time in an upper level textbook Features a number of exercises - with solutions online - and worked examples

  13. 'Enabling' of male problem drinkers in work groups.

    PubMed

    Roman, P M; Blum, T C; Martin, J K

    1992-02-01

    Theoretical understanding of the effects of groups on the development and the maintenance of adult problem drinking is sparse. Sociological theories predict that adult problem drinkers find support for their behavior among those with similar drinking patterns. By contrast, a widely diffused clinical conceptualization posits that 'significant others' who are not problem drinkers facilitate the maintenance of problem drinking. Several previous lines of research lead to the hypothesis that observed delays in identification and referral of problem drinkers in the workplace may be due to supportive relationships between problem drinkers and their coworkers and supervisors. Data from the 1973-77 Quality of Employment Panel Survey are utilized to provide a longitudinal test of this hypothesis among employed men. Results support the existence of enabling in the workplace. Data comparing 'enabled' and 'non-enabled' problem drinking workers fail to support four possible explanations of enabling.

  14. Micro-concentrators for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic system.

    PubMed

    Jared, Bradley H; Saavedra, Michael P; Anderson, Ben J; Goeke, Ron S; Sweatt, William C; Nielson, Gregory N; Okandan, Murat; Elisberg, Brenton; Snively, Dave; Duncan, John; Gu, Tian; Agrawal, Gautam; Haney, Michael W

    2014-03-10

    A 100X magnification, ± 2.5° field of view micro-concentrating optical system has been developed for a microsystems-enabled photovoltaic (MEPV) prototype module using 250 µm diameter multi-junction "stacked" PV cells.

  15. An IT-enabled supply chain model: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannella, Salvatore; Framinan, Jose M.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana

    2014-11-01

    During the last decades, supply chain collaboration practices and the underlying enabling technologies have evolved from the classical electronic data interchange (EDI) approach to a web-based and radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled collaboration. In this field, most of the literature has focused on the study of optimal parameters for reducing the total cost of suppliers, by adopting operational research (OR) techniques. Herein we are interested in showing that the considered information technology (IT)-enabled structure is resilient, that is, it works well across a reasonably broad range of parameter settings. By adopting a methodological approach based on system dynamics, we study a multi-tier collaborative supply chain. Results show that the IT-enabled supply chain improves operational performance and customer service level. Nonetheless, benefits for geographically dispersed networks are of minor entity.

  16. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents, May 2009 (Book)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2009-05-01

    Enabling Documents, delivered by the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) to provide materials that clarify the authority for federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs).

  17. 78 FR 69405 - Enable Gas Transmission, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility, also located in the state of Oklahoma, all as... . Specifically, Enable proposes to abandon in place the Leedey Purification Facility and to abandon by sale...

  18. Mechanical Engineering Design Project report: Enabler control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cullen, Christian; Delvecchio, Dave; Scarborough, Alan; Havics, Andrew A.

    1992-01-01

    The Controls Group was assigned the responsibility for designing the Enabler's control system. The requirement for the design was that the control system must provide a simple user interface to control the boom articulation joints, chassis articulation joints, and the wheel drive. The system required controlling hydraulic motors on the Enabler by implementing 8-bit microprocessor boards. In addition, feedback to evaluate positions and velocities must be interfaced to provide the operator with confirmation as well as control.

  19. Ceramic Electrolyte Membrane Technology: Enabling Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-05

    Electrochemical Energy Storage The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author(s) and should not contrued as an official...Revolutionary Electrochemical Energy Storage Report Title The goal of this work is to enable the development of safe, high energy density batteries by...Reporting Period: January 1, 2014 – December 31, 2014) CERAMIC ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY: ENABLING REVOLUTIONARY ELECTROCHEMICAL ENERGY STORAGE

  20. Catalysis of Dialanine Formation by Glycine in the Salt-Induced Peptide Formation Reaction.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwannachot, Yuttana; Rode, Bernd M.

    1998-02-01

    Mutual catalysis of amino acids in the salt-induced peptide formation (SIPF) reaction is demonstrated for the case of glycine/alanine. The presence of glycine enhances dialanine formation by a factor up to 50 and enables dialanine formation at much lower alanine concentrations. The actual amounts of glycine play an important role for this catalytic effect, the optimal glycine concentration is 1/8 of the alanine concentration. The mechanism appears to be based on the formation of the intermediate Gly-Ala-Ala tripeptide, connected to one coordination site of copper(II) ion, and subsequent hydrolysis to dialanine and glycine.

  1. Computational protein design enables a novel one-carbon assimilation pathway.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Justin B; Smith, Amanda Lee; Poust, Sean; Wargacki, Adam J; Bar-Even, Arren; Louw, Catherine; Shen, Betty W; Eiben, Christopher B; Tran, Huu M; Noor, Elad; Gallaher, Jasmine L; Bale, Jacob; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Gelb, Michael H; Keasling, Jay D; Stoddard, Barry L; Lidstrom, Mary E; Baker, David

    2015-03-24

    We describe a computationally designed enzyme, formolase (FLS), which catalyzes the carboligation of three one-carbon formaldehyde molecules into one three-carbon dihydroxyacetone molecule. The existence of FLS enables the design of a new carbon fixation pathway, the formolase pathway, consisting of a small number of thermodynamically favorable chemical transformations that convert formate into a three-carbon sugar in central metabolism. The formolase pathway is predicted to use carbon more efficiently and with less backward flux than any naturally occurring one-carbon assimilation pathway. When supplemented with enzymes carrying out the other steps in the pathway, FLS converts formate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and other central metabolites in vitro. These results demonstrate how modern protein engineering and design tools can facilitate the construction of a completely new biosynthetic pathway.

  2. Computational protein design enables a novel one-carbon assimilation pathway

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Justin B.; Smith, Amanda Lee; Poust, Sean; Wargacki, Adam J.; Bar-Even, Arren; Louw, Catherine; Shen, Betty W.; Eiben, Christopher B.; Tran, Huu M.; Noor, Elad; Gallaher, Jasmine L.; Bale, Jacob; Yoshikuni, Yasuo; Gelb, Michael H.; Keasling, Jay D.; Stoddard, Barry L.; Lidstrom, Mary E.; Baker, David

    2015-01-01

    We describe a computationally designed enzyme, formolase (FLS), which catalyzes the carboligation of three one-carbon formaldehyde molecules into one three-carbon dihydroxyacetone molecule. The existence of FLS enables the design of a new carbon fixation pathway, the formolase pathway, consisting of a small number of thermodynamically favorable chemical transformations that convert formate into a three-carbon sugar in central metabolism. The formolase pathway is predicted to use carbon more efficiently and with less backward flux than any naturally occurring one-carbon assimilation pathway. When supplemented with enzymes carrying out the other steps in the pathway, FLS converts formate into dihydroxyacetone phosphate and other central metabolites in vitro. These results demonstrate how modern protein engineering and design tools can facilitate the construction of a completely new biosynthetic pathway. PMID:25775555

  3. Enabling conformity to international standards within SeaDataNet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaap, Dick M. A.; Boldrini, Enrico; de Korte, Arjen; Santoro, Mattia; Manzella, Giuseppe; Nativi, Stefano

    2010-05-01

    SeaDataNet objective is to construct a standardized system for managing the large and diverse data sets collected by the oceanographic fleets and the new automatic observation systems. The aim is to network and enhance the currently existing infrastructures, which are the national oceanographic data centres and satellite data centres of 36 countries, active in data collection. The networking of these professional data centres, in a unique virtual data management system will provide integrated data sets of standardized quality on-line. The Common Data Index (CDI) is the middleware service adopted by SeaDataNet for discovery and access of the available data. In order to develop an interoperable and effective system, the use of international de facto and de jure standards is required. In particular the new goal object of this presentation is to introduce and discuss the solutions for making SeaDataNet compliant with the European Union (EU) INSPIRE directive and in particular with its Implementing Rules (IR). The European INSPIRE directive aims to rule the creation of an European Spatial Data Infrastructure (ESDI). This will enable the sharing of environmental spatial information among public sector organisations and better facilitate public access to spatial information across Europe. To ensure that the spatial data infrastructures of the European Member States are compatible and usable in a community and transboundary context, the directive requires that common IRs are adopted in a number of specific areas (Metadata, Data Specifications, Network Services, Data and Service Sharing and Monitoring and Reporting). Often the use of already approved digital geographic information standards is mandated, drawing from international organizations like the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the latter by means of its Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211). In the context of geographic data discovery a set of mandatory

  4. Vulnerabilities in First-Generation RFID-enabled Credit Cards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydt-Benjamin, Thomas S.; Bailey, Daniel V.; Fu, Kevin; Juels, Ari; O'Hare, Tom

    RFID-enabled credit cards are widely deployed in the United States and other countries, but no public study has thoroughly analyzed the mechanisms that provide both security and privacy. Using samples from a variety of RFID-enabled credit cards, our study observes that (1) the cardholder's name and often credit card number and expiration are leaked in plaintext to unauthenticated readers, (2) our homemade device costing around 150 effectively clones one type of skimmed cards thus providing a proof-of-concept implementation for the RF replay attack, (3) information revealed by the RFID transmission cross contaminates the security of RFID and non-RFID payment contexts, and (4) RFID-enabled credit cards are susceptible in various degrees to a range of other traditional RFID attacks such as skimming and relaying.

  5. Detailed Modeling and Response of Demand Response Enabled Appliances

    SciTech Connect

    Vyakaranam, Bharat; Fuller, Jason C.

    2014-04-14

    Proper modeling of end use loads is very important in order to predict their behavior, and how they interact with the power system, including voltage and temperature dependencies, power system and load control functions, and the complex interactions that occur between devices in such an interconnected system. This paper develops multi-state time variant residential appliance models with demand response enabled capabilities in the GridLAB-DTM simulation environment. These models represent not only the baseline instantaneous power demand and energy consumption, but the control systems developed by GE Appliances to enable response to demand response signals and the change in behavior of the appliance in response to the signal. These DR enabled appliances are simulated to estimate their capability to reduce peak demand and energy consumption.

  6. How language enables abstraction: a study in computational cultural psychology.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Yair; Turney, Peter; Cohen, Yohai

    2012-06-01

    The idea that language mediates our thoughts and enables abstract cognition has been a key idea in socio-cultural psychology. However, it is not clear what mechanisms support this process of abstraction. Peirce argued that one mechanism by which language enables abstract thought is hypostatic abstraction, the process through which a predicate (e.g., dark) turns into an object (e.g., darkness). By using novel computational tools we tested Peirce's idea. Analysis of the data provides empirical support for Peirce's mechanism and evidence of the way the use of signs enables abstraction. These conclusions are supported by the in-depth analysis of two case studies concerning the abstraction of sweet and dark. The paper concludes by discussing the findings from a broad and integrative theoretical perspective and by pointing to computational cultural psychology as a promising perspective for addressing long-lasting questions of the field.

  7. Solar Sail Propulsion: Enabling New Capabilities for Heliophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, L.; Young, R.; Alhorn, D.; Heaton, A.; Vansant, T.; Campbell, B.; Pappa, R.; Keats, W.; Liewer, P. C.; Alexander, D.; Wawrzyniak, G.; Ayon, J.; Burton, R.; Carroll, D.; Matloff, G.; Kezerashvili, R. Ya.

    2010-01-01

    Solar sails can play a critical role in enabling solar and heliophysics missions. Solar sail technology within NASA is currently at 80% of TRL-6, suitable for an in-flight technology demonstration. It is conceivable that an initial demonstration could carry scientific payloads that, depending on the type of mission, are commensurate with the goals of the three study panels of the 2010 Heliophysics Survey. Follow-on solar sail missions, leveraging advances in solar sail technology to support Heliophysics Survey goals, would then be feasible. This white paper reports on a sampling of missions enabled by solar sails, the current state of the technology, and what funding is required to advance the current state of technology such that solar sails can enable these missions

  8. Building from Where We Are: Web Services and Java-Based Clients to Enable Virtual Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candey, R. M.; Chimiak, R. A.; Han, D. B.; Harris, B. T.; Johnson, R. C.; Klipsch, C. A.; Kovalick, T. J.; Leckner, H. A.; Liu, M. H.; McGuire, R. E.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Physics Data Facility at NASA Goddard has developed a strong foundation in space science mission services and data for enhancing the scientific return of space physics research and enabling integration of these services into the emerging Virtual discipline Observatory (VxO) paradigm. We are deploying a critical set of foundation components, leveraging our data format expertise and our existing and very popular science and orbit data web-based services, such as Coordinated Data Analysis Web [CDAWeb] and Satellite Situation Center Web [SSCweb]. We have developed web services APIs for orbit location, data finding across FTP sites and in CDAWeb, data file format translation, and data visualizations that tie together existing data holdings, standardize and simplify their use, and enable much enhanced interoperability and data analysis. We describe the technologies we've developed, our experiences and lessons-learned in implementing them, why we chose some technologies over others (web services vs. CORBA or simple CGI, Java vs. JavaScript or Flash), what we might do differently now, and our future direction. We discuss the difficulties in maintaining compatibility and inter-operability through various versions of web services and in merging various client projects, while adding extended functionality such as sonification interfaces in a modular fashion.

  9. Adaptive Voltage Management Enabling Energy Efficiency in Nanoscale Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, Alexander E.

    Battery powered devices emphasize energy efficiency in modern sub-22 nm CMOS microprocessors rendering classic power reduction solutions not sufficient. Classical solutions that reduce power consumption in high performance integrated circuits are superseded with novel and enhanced power reduction techniques to enable the greater energy efficiency desired in modern microprocessors and emerging mobile platforms. Dynamic power consumption is reduced by operating over a wide range of supply voltages. This region of operation is enabled by a high speed and power efficient level shifter which translates low voltage digital signals to higher voltages (and vice versa), a key component that enables communication among circuits operating at different voltage levels. Additionally, optimizing the wide supply voltage range of signals propagating across long interconnect enables greater energy savings. A closed-form delay model supporting wide voltage range is developed to enable this capability. The model supports an ultra-wide voltage range from nominal voltages to subthreshold voltages, and a wide range of repeater sizes. To mitigate the drawback of lower operating speed at reduced supply voltages, the high performance exhibited by MOS current mode logic technology is exploited. High performance and energy efficient circuits are enabled by combining this logic style with power efficient near threshold circuits. Many-core systems that operate at high frequencies and process highly parallel workloads benefit from this combination of MCML with NTC. Due to aggressive scaling, static power consumption can in some cases overshadow dynamic power. Techniques to lower leakage power have therefore become an important objective in modern microprocessors. To address this issue, an adaptive power gating technique is proposed. This technique utilizes high levels of granularity to save additional leakage power when a circuit is active as opposed to standard power gating that saves static

  10. Grid computing : enabling a vision for collaborative research.

    SciTech Connect

    von Laszewski, G.

    2002-04-09

    In this paper the authors provide a motivation for Grid computing based on a vision to enable a collaborative research environment. The authors vision goes beyond the connection of hardware resources. They argue that with an infrastructure such as the Grid, new modalities for collaborative research are enabled. They provide an overview showing why Grid research is difficult, and they present a number of management-related issues that must be addressed to make Grids a reality. They list projects that provide solutions to subsets of these issues.

  11. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M.; Peppas, Nicholas A.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications. PMID:25530795

  12. Fabric opto-electronics enabling healthcare applications; a case study.

    PubMed

    van Pieterson, L; van Abeelen, F A; van Os, K; Hornix, E; Zhou, G; Oversluizen, G

    2011-01-01

    Textiles are a ubiquitous part of human life. By combining them with electronics to create electronic textile systems, new application fields emerge. In this paper, technology and applications of light-emitting textile systems are presented, with emphasis on the healthcare domain: A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. This fabric enables the creation of different forms of comfortable light therapy systems. Specific challenges to enable this use in medical applications are discussed.

  13. Preliminary evaluations of a spoken web enabled care management platform.

    PubMed

    Padman, Rema; Beam, Erika; Szewczyk, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Telephones are a ubiquitous and widely accepted technology worldwide. The low ownership cost, simple user interface, intuitive voice-based access and long history contribute to the wide-spread use and success of telephones, and more recently, that of mobile phones. This study reports on our preliminary efforts to leverage this technology to bridge disparities in the access to and delivery of personalized health and wellness care by developing and evaluating a Spoken Web enabled Care Management solution. Early results with two proxy evaluations and a few visually impaired users highlight both the potential and challenges associated with this novel, voice-enabled healthcare delivery solution.

  14. A survey of enabling technologies in synthetic biology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Realizing constructive applications of synthetic biology requires continued development of enabling technologies as well as policies and practices to ensure these technologies remain accessible for research. Broadly defined, enabling technologies for synthetic biology include any reagent or method that, alone or in combination with associated technologies, provides the means to generate any new research tool or application. Because applications of synthetic biology likely will embody multiple patented inventions, it will be important to create structures for managing intellectual property rights that best promote continued innovation. Monitoring the enabling technologies of synthetic biology will facilitate the systematic investigation of property rights coupled to these technologies and help shape policies and practices that impact the use, regulation, patenting, and licensing of these technologies. Results We conducted a survey among a self-identifying community of practitioners engaged in synthetic biology research to obtain their opinions and experiences with technologies that support the engineering of biological systems. Technologies widely used and considered enabling by survey participants included public and private registries of biological parts, standard methods for physical assembly of DNA constructs, genomic databases, software tools for search, alignment, analysis, and editing of DNA sequences, and commercial services for DNA synthesis and sequencing. Standards and methods supporting measurement, functional composition, and data exchange were less widely used though still considered enabling by a subset of survey participants. Conclusions The set of enabling technologies compiled from this survey provide insight into the many and varied technologies that support innovation in synthetic biology. Many of these technologies are widely accessible for use, either by virtue of being in the public domain or through legal tools such as non

  15. Integrated Control with Structural Feedback to Enable Lightweight Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    This presentation for the Fundamental Aeronautics Program Technical Conference covers the benefits of active structural control, related research areas, and focuses on the use of optimal control allocation for the prevention of critical loads. Active control of lightweight structures has the potential to reduce aircraft weight and fuel burn. Sensor, control law, materials, control effector, and system level research will be necessary to enable active control of lightweight structures. Optimal control allocation with structural feedback has been shown in simulation to be feasible in preventing critical loads and is one example of a control law to enable future lightweight aircraft.

  16. The Enabler: A concept for a lunar work vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brazell, James W.; Campbell, Craig; Kaser, Ken; Austin, James A.; Beard, Clark; Ceniza, Glenn; Hamby, Thomas; Robinson, Anne; Wooters, Dana

    1992-01-01

    The Enabler is an earthbound prototype designed to model an actual lunar work vehicle and is able to perform many of the tasks that might be expected of a lunar work vehicle. The vehicle will be constructed entirely from parts made by students and from standard stock parts. The design utilizes only four distinct chassis pieces and sixteen moving parts. The Enabler has non-orthogonal articulating joints that give the vehicle a wide range of mobility and reduce the total number of parts. Composite wheels provide the primary suspension system for the vehicle.

  17. Surgical Materials: Current Challenges and Nano-enabled Solutions.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Nasim; Tamayol, Ali; Shin, Su Ryon; Ghaemmaghami, Amir M; Peppas, Nicholas A; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2014-10-01

    Surgical adhesive biomaterials have emerged as substitutes to sutures and staples in many clinical applications. Nano-enabled materials containing nanoparticles or having a distinct nanotopography have been utilized for generation of a new class of surgical materials with enhanced functionality. In this review, the state of the art in the development of conventional surgical adhesive biomaterials is critically reviewed and their shortcomings are outlined. Recent advancements in generation of nano-enabled surgical materials with their potential future applications are discussed. This review will open new avenues for the innovative development of the next generation of tissue adhesives, hemostats, and sealants with enhanced functionality for various surgical applications.

  18. Explorations of Psyche and Callisto Enabled by Ion Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenkert, Daniel D.; Landau, Damon F.; Bills, Bruce G.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2013-01-01

    Recent developments in ion propulsion (specifically solar electric propulsion - SEP) have the potential for dramatically reducing the transportation cost of planetary missions. We examine two representative cases, where these new developments enable missions which, until recently, would have required resouces well beyond those allocated to the Discovery program. The two cases of interest address differentiation of asteroids and large icy satellites

  19. Measuring Noncommissioned Officer Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-01

    U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences Research Report 1952 Measuring Noncommissioned Officer...Knowledge and Experience to Enable Tailored Training Peter S. Schaefer U.S. Army Research Institute Paul N. Blankenbeckler Northrop...Grumman Corporation Christopher J. Brogdon Mercer University Consortium Research Fellows Program November 2011 Approved for

  20. Transactional network: Improving efficiency and enabling grid services for buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Katipamula, Srinivas; Lutes, Robert; Hernandez, George; Haack, Jereme; Akyol, Bora

    2016-04-08

    This paper describes the transactional network concept, the platform and two example agents/applications within VOLTTRON™ that improve operational efficiency and enable grid services for packaged air conditioners and heat pumps (RTUs). It also describes the results from testing the concept on some demonstration sites.

  1. Microfluidics-Enabled Diagnostic Systems: Markets, Challenges, and Examples.

    PubMed

    Becker, Holger; Gärtner, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Microfluidics has become an important tool for the commercial product development in diagnostics. This article will focus on current technical demands during the development process such as material and integration challenges. Furthermore, we present data on the diagnostics market as well as examples of microfluidics-enabled systems currently under commercial development or already on the market.

  2. Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    Networks by Colonel Daniel J. W. King United States Army Dr. Richard M. Meinhart Department of Command...Enabled Masses: Challenge and Trust within Modern Social Networks by Colonel Daniel J. W. King United States Army ...United States Army War College Class of 2013 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT: A Approved for Public Release Distribution is

  3. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  4. Barriers and Enablers to Evidence-Based Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Robyn

    2014-01-01

    The importance of educational practices based on evidence is well-supported in the literature, however barriers to their implementation in classrooms still exist. This paper examines the phenomenon of evidence-based practice in education highlighting enablers and barriers to their implementation with particular reference to RTLB practice.

  5. Enabling Science and Technology Research Teams: A Breadmaking Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Deana

    2010-01-01

    Anyone who has been involved with a cross-disciplinary team that combines scientists and information technology specialists knows just how tough it can be to move these efforts forward. Decades of experience point to the transformative potential of technology-enabled science efforts, and the success stories offer hope for future efforts. But for…

  6. Neuronix enables continuous, simultaneous neural recording and electrical microstimulation.

    PubMed

    Zhi Yang; Jian Xu; Anh Tuan Nguyen; Tong Wu; Wenfeng Zhao; Wing-Kin Tam

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports a novel neurotechnology (Neuronix) and its validation through experiments. It is a miniature system-on-chip (SoC) that allows recording with simultaneous electrical microstimulation. This function has not been demonstrated before and enables precise, closed-loop neuromodulation. Neuronix represents recent advancement in brain technology and applies to both animal research and clinical applications.

  7. Fraternity as "Enabling Environment:" Does Membership Lead to Gambling Problems?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biddix, J. Patrick; Hardy, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers have suggested that fraternity membership is the most reliable predictor of gambling and gambling problems on campus. The purpose of this study was to determine if problematic gambling could be linked to specific aspects of fraternity membership. Though the null hypothesis (no enabling environment) failed to be rejected, descriptive…

  8. Biotechniques Laboratory: An Enabling Course in the Biological Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Trapani, Giovanna; Clarke, Frank

    2012-01-01

    Practical skills and competencies are critical to student engagement and effective learning in laboratory courses. This article describes the design of a yearlong, stand-alone laboratory course--the Biotechniques Laboratory--a common core course in the second year of all our degree programs in the biological sciences. It is an enabling,…

  9. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  10. Large Scale PEM Electrolysis to Enable Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Production

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-02-10

    applications are enabled by PEM electrolyzer technology: Unmanned underwater and aerial vehicles Remote camp energy storage Space based systems – lunar ... colonies and satellites Submarine life support Fueling of specialty vehicles 15UNCLASSIFIED: Dist A. Approved for public release 65 kg/day Fueling

  11. Thrice Disabling Disability: Enabling Inclusive, Socially Just Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, S. Anthony

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this inquiry was to create a social justice-oriented inclusive and enabling pedagogy by situating traditional individualised views of disability alongside three alternative understandings: a disability studies in education perspective, a First Nations view of disability and one based upon the autism pride/autism-as-culture movement.…

  12. Integrated Children's Services: Enablers, Challenges and Impact. Research Briefing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Atkinson, Mary; Downing, Dick

    2008-01-01

    This summary provides background information about the enablers, challenges and impact of integration, based on a thorough literature review of thirty-five sources. The review findings are presented under thematic headings that reflect the: (1) extent of integration: the "stage" or depth of the collaborative activity in integrated services; (2)…

  13. Interactive BIM-Enabled Safety Training Piloted in Construction Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clevenger, Caroline; Lopez del Puerto, Carla; Glick, Scott

    2015-01-01

    This paper documents and assesses the development of a construction safety training module featuring interactive, BIM-enabled, 3D visualizations to test if such a tool can enhance safety training related to scaffolds. This research documents the technical challenges and the lessons learned through the development and administration of a prototype…

  14. Mechanical Design Engineering Enabler Project wheel and wheel drives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nutt, Richard E.; Couch, Britt K.; Holley, John L., Jr.; Garris, Eric S.; Staut, Paul V.

    1992-01-01

    Our group was assigned the responsibility of designing the wheel and wheel drive system for a proof-of-concept model of the lunar-based ENABLER. ENABLER is a multi-purpose, six wheeled vehicle designed to lift and transport heavy objects associated with the construction of a lunar base. The resulting design was based on the performance criteria of the ENABLER. The drive system was designed to enable the vehicle to achieve a speed of 7 mph on a level surface, climb a 30 percent grade, and surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies were designed to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels were designed to serve as the main component of the vehicle's suspension and will provide suitable traction for lunar-type surfaces. The expected performance of the drive system for the ENABLER was influenced by many mechanical factors. The expected top speed on a level sandy surface is 4 mph instead of the desired 7 mph. This is due to a lack of necessary power at the wheels. The lack of power resulted from dimension considerations that allowed only an eight horsepower engine and also from mechanical inefficiencies of the hydraulic system. However, the vehicle will be able to climb a 30 percent grade, surpass a one meter high object and one meter wide crevice. The wheel assemblies will be able to support the entire weight of the vehicle on two wheels. The wheels will also provide adequate suspension for the vehicle and sufficient traction for lunar-type surfaces.

  15. PSB27: A thylakoid protein enabling Arabidopsis to adapt to changing light intensity.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xin; Fu, Aigen; Garcia, Veder J; Buchanan, Bob B; Luan, Sheng

    2015-02-03

    In earlier studies we have identified FKBP20-2 and CYP38 as soluble proteins of the chloroplast thylakoid lumen that are required for the formation of photosystem II supercomplexes (PSII SCs). Subsequent work has identified another potential candidate functional in SC formation (PSB27). We have followed up on this possibility and isolated mutants defective in the PSB27 gene. In addition to lack of PSII SCs, mutant plants were severely stunted when cultivated with light of variable intensity. The stunted growth was associated with lower PSII efficiency and defective starch accumulation. In response to high light exposure, the mutant plants also displayed enhanced ROS production, leading to decreased biosynthesis of anthocyanin. Unexpectedly, we detected a second defect in the mutant, namely in CP26, an antenna protein known to be required for the formation of PSII SCs that has been linked to state transitions. Lack of PSII SCs was found to be independent of PSB27, but was due to a mutation in the previously described cp26 gene that we found had no effect on light adaptation. The present results suggest that PSII SCs, despite being required for state transitions, are not associated with acclimation to changing light intensity. Our results are consistent with the conclusion that PSB27 plays an essential role in enabling plants to adapt to fluctuating light intensity through a mechanism distinct from photosystem II supercomplexes and state transitions.

  16. Small secreted proteins enable biofilm development in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus

    PubMed Central

    Parnasa, Rami; Nagar, Elad; Sendersky, Eleonora; Reich, Ziv; Simkovsky, Ryan; Golden, Susan; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins characterized by a double-glycine (GG) secretion motif, typical of secreted bacterial antibiotics, are encoded by the genomes of diverse cyanobacteria, but their functions have not been investigated to date. Using a biofilm-forming mutant of Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and a mutational approach, we demonstrate the involvement of four small secreted proteins and their GG-secretion motifs in biofilm development. These proteins are denoted EbfG1-4 (enable biofilm formation with a GG-motif). Furthermore, the conserved cysteine of the peptidase domain of the Synpcc7942_1133 gene product (dubbed PteB for peptidase transporter essential for biofilm) is crucial for biofilm development and is required for efficient secretion of the GG-motif containing proteins. Transcriptional profiling of ebfG1-4 indicated elevated transcript levels in the biofilm-forming mutant compared to wild type (WT). However, these transcripts decreased, acutely but transiently, when the mutant was cultured in extracellular fluids from a WT culture, and biofilm formation was inhibited. We propose that WT cells secrete inhibitor(s) that suppress transcription of ebfG1-4, whereas secretion of the inhibitor(s) is impaired in the biofilm-forming mutant, leading to synthesis and secretion of EbfG1-4 and supporting the formation of biofilms. PMID:27558743

  17. Probabilistic Modeling of Rosette Formation

    PubMed Central

    Long, Mian; Chen, Juan; Jiang, Ning; Selvaraj, Periasamy; McEver, Rodger P.; Zhu, Cheng

    2006-01-01

    Rosetting, or forming a cell aggregate between a single target nucleated cell and a number of red blood cells (RBCs), is a simple assay for cell adhesion mediated by specific receptor-ligand interaction. For example, rosette formation between sheep RBC and human lymphocytes has been used to differentiate T cells from B cells. Rosetting assay is commonly used to determine the interaction of Fc γ-receptors (FcγR) expressed on inflammatory cells and IgG coated on RBCs. Despite its wide use in measuring cell adhesion, the biophysical parameters of rosette formation have not been well characterized. Here we developed a probabilistic model to describe the distribution of rosette sizes, which is Poissonian. The average rosette size is predicted to be proportional to the apparent two-dimensional binding affinity of the interacting receptor-ligand pair and their site densities. The model has been supported by experiments of rosettes mediated by four molecular interactions: FcγRIII interacting with IgG, T cell receptor and coreceptor CD8 interacting with antigen peptide presented by major histocompatibility molecule, P-selectin interacting with P-selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1), and L-selectin interacting with PSGL-1. The latter two are structurally similar and are different from the former two. Fitting the model to data enabled us to evaluate the apparent effective two-dimensional binding affinity of the interacting molecular pairs: 7.19 × 10−5 μm4 for FcγRIII-IgG interaction, 4.66 × 10−3 μm4 for P-selectin-PSGL-1 interaction, and 0.94 × 10−3 μm4 for L-selectin-PSGL-1 interaction. These results elucidate the biophysical mechanism of rosette formation and enable it to become a semiquantitative assay that relates the rosette size to the effective affinity for receptor-ligand binding. PMID:16603493

  18. Federated and Cloud Enabled Resources for Data Management and Utilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rankin, R.; Gordon, M.; Potter, R. G.; Satchwill, B.

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of cloud computing over the past three years has led to a paradigm shift in how data can be managed, processed and made accessible. Building on the federated data management system offered through the Canadian Space Science Data Portal (www.cssdp.ca), we demonstrate how heterogeneous and geographically distributed data sets and modeling tools have been integrated to form a virtual data center and computational modeling platform that has services for data processing and visualization embedded within it. We also discuss positive and negative experiences in utilizing Eucalyptus and OpenStack cloud applications, and job scheduling facilitated by Condor and Star Cluster. We summarize our findings by demonstrating use of these technologies in the Cloud Enabled Space Weather Data Assimilation and Modeling Platform CESWP (www.ceswp.ca), which is funded through Canarie's (canarie.ca) Network Enabled Platforms program in Canada.

  19. Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal

    2017-01-01

    NASA is developing a system to safely enable low altitude unmanned aerial system (UAS) operations. The system is referred to as UAS Traffic Management (UTM). The UTM will safely enable a variety of business models and multiple operations in the same airspace. The UTM will provide services such as airspace configuration and geo-fencing, weather and wind integration, demand-capacity imbalance management, and separation management, and contingency management. The UTM research and development has been conducted in collaboration with many in industry, academia, and government. The UTM system will evolve through four builds. Each build will be collaboratively tested with partners. The final prototype will be available for persistent daily use of UAS operations beyond visual line of sight (BVLOS).

  20. Polysulfide flow batteries enabled by percolating nanoscale conductor networks.

    PubMed

    Fan, Frank Y; Woodford, William H; Li, Zheng; Baram, Nir; Smith, Kyle C; Helal, Ahmed; McKinley, Gareth H; Carter, W Craig; Chiang, Yet-Ming

    2014-01-01

    A new approach to flow battery design is demonstrated wherein diffusion-limited aggregation of nanoscale conductor particles at ∼1 vol % concentration is used to impart mixed electronic-ionic conductivity to redox solutions, forming flow electrodes with embedded current collector networks that self-heal after shear. Lithium polysulfide flow cathodes of this architecture exhibit electrochemical activity that is distributed throughout the volume of flow electrodes rather than being confined to surfaces of stationary current collectors. The nanoscale network architecture enables cycling of polysulfide solutions deep into precipitation regimes that historically have shown poor capacity utilization and reversibility and may thereby enable new flow battery designs of higher energy density and lower system cost. Lithium polysulfide half-flow cells operating in both continuous and intermittent flow mode are demonstrated for the first time.

  1. NASA Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    SLS provides capability for human exploration missions. 70 t configuration enables EM-1 and EM-2 flight tests. Evolved configurations enable missions including humans to Mars. u? SLS offers unrivaled benefits for a variety of missions. 70 t provides greater mass lift than any contemporary launch vehicle; 130 t offers greater lift than any launch vehicle ever. With 8.4m and 10m fairings, SLS will over greater volume lift capability than any other vehicle. center dot Initial ICPS configuration and future evolution will offer high C3 for beyond- Earth missions. SLS is currently on schedule for first launch in December 2017. Preliminary design completed in July 2013; SLS is now in implementation. Manufacture and testing are currently underway. Hardware now exists representing all SLS elements.

  2. Differentially photo-crosslinked polymers enable self-assembling microfluidics

    PubMed Central

    Jamal, Mustapha; Zarafshar, Aasiyeh M.; Gracias, David H.

    2012-01-01

    An important feature of naturally self-assembled systems such as leaves and tissues is that they are curved and have embedded fluidic channels that enable the transport of nutrients to, or removal of waste from, specific three-dimensional (3D) regions. Here, we report the self-assembly of photopatterned polymers, and consequently microfluidic devices, into curved geometries. We discovered that differentially photo-crosslinked SU-8 films spontaneously and reversibly curved upon film de-solvation and re-solvation. Photolithographic patterning of the SU-8 films enabled the self-assembly of cylinders, cubes, and bidirectionally folded sheets. We integrated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels with these SU-8 films to self-assemble curved microfluidic networks. PMID:22068594

  3. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna P.; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enable maintenance of an intracellular steady state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles, and ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behaviour: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest that such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs.

  4. A Revolution in Plant Metabolism: Genome-Enabled Pathway Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeongwoon; Buell, C. Robin

    2015-01-01

    Genome-enabled discoveries are the hallmark of 21st century biology, including major discoveries in the biosynthesis and regulation of plant metabolic pathways. Access to next generation sequencing technologies has enabled research on the biosynthesis of diverse plant metabolites, especially secondary metabolites, resulting in a broader understanding of not only the structural and regulatory genes involved in metabolite biosynthesis but also in the evolution of chemical diversity in the plant kingdom. Several paradigms that govern secondary metabolism have emerged, including that (1) gene family expansion and diversification contribute to the chemical diversity found in the plant kingdom, (2) genes encoding biochemical pathway components are frequently transcriptionally coregulated, and (3) physical clustering of nonhomologous genes that encode components of secondary metabolic pathways can occur. With an increasing knowledge base that is coupled with user-friendly and inexpensive technologies, biochemists are poised to accelerate the annotation of biochemical pathways relevant to human health, agriculture, and the environment. PMID:26224805

  5. Discussion of the enabling environments for decentralised water systems.

    PubMed

    Moglia, M; Alexander, K S; Sharma, A

    2011-01-01

    Decentralised water supply systems are becoming increasingly affordable and commonplace in Australia and have the potential to alleviate urban water shortages and reduce pollution into natural receiving marine and freshwater streams. Learning processes are necessary to support the efficient implementation of decentralised systems. These processes reveal the complex socio-technical and institutional factors to be considered when developing an enabling environment supporting decentralised water and wastewater servicing solutions. Critical to the technological transition towards established decentralised systems is the ability to create strategic and adaptive capacity to promote learning and dialogue. Learning processes require institutional mechanisms to ensure the lessons are incorporated into the formulation of policy and regulation, through constructive involvement of key government institutions. Engagement of stakeholders is essential to the enabling environment. Collaborative learning environments using systems analysis with communities (social learning) and adaptive management techniques are useful in refining and applying scientists' and managers' knowledge (knowledge management).

  6. Devices to enable persons with amputation to participate in sports.

    PubMed

    Rubin, G; Fleiss, D

    1983-01-01

    Participation in physically challenging competitive sports is as important to some persons with amputations as are work and leisure, both of which are ordinarily of a sedentary character. Sports participation contributes not only to physical but also to psychologic well-being. The manner in which a prosthetic clinic team can aid in this aspect of rehabilitation is discussed. Some of the more sophisticated prostheses prescribed to enable participation in sports include above-knee and below-knee water-resistant prostheses for swimmers, an adjustable foot-ankle unit for the proficient swimmer and scuba diver, prostheses and special equipment for skiers, special devices for golfers with upper extremity or lower extremity amputations, and various commercially available terminal devices to enable persons with an upper extremity amputation to bowl, to hold a fishing pole and reel, to play baseball, to hold tools, to fire a pistol, and to swim.

  7. SciDAC Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, Kenneth I.

    2014-09-14

    This project focuses on leveraging scientific visualization and analytics software technology as an enabling technology for increasing scientific productivity and insight. Advances in computational technology have resulted in an "information big bang," which in turn has created a significant data understanding challenge. This challenge is widely acknowledged to be one of the primary bottlenecks in contemporary science. The vision for our Center is to respond directly to that challenge by adapting, extending, creating when necessary and deploying visualization and data understanding technologies for our science stakeholders. Using an organizational model as a Visualization and Analytics Center for Enabling Technologies (VACET), we are well positioned to be responsive to the needs of a diverse set of scientific stakeholders in a coordinated fashion using a range of visualization, mathematics, statistics, computer and computational science and data management technologies.

  8. Increasing the Capacity of Primary Care Through Enabling Technology.

    PubMed

    Young, Heather M; Nesbitt, Thomas S

    2017-02-27

    Primary care is the foundation of effective and high-quality health care. The role of primary care clinicians has expanded to encompass coordination of care across multiple providers and management of more patients with complex conditions. Enabling technology has the potential to expand the capacity for primary care clinicians to provide integrated, accessible care that channels expertise to the patient and brings specialty consultations into the primary care clinic. Furthermore, technology offers opportunities to engage patients in advancing their health through improved communication and enhanced self-management of chronic conditions. This paper describes enabling technologies in four domains (the body, the home, the community, and the primary care clinic) that can support the critical role primary care clinicians play in the health care system. It also identifies challenges to incorporating these technologies into primary care clinics, care processes, and workflow.

  9. Global tree network for computing structures enabling global processing operations

    DOEpatents

    Blumrich; Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Heidelberger, Philip; Hoenicke, Dirk; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D.; Takken, Todd E.; Vranas, Pavlos M.

    2010-01-19

    A system and method for enabling high-speed, low-latency global tree network communications among processing nodes interconnected according to a tree network structure. The global tree network enables collective reduction operations to be performed during parallel algorithm operations executing in a computer structure having a plurality of the interconnected processing nodes. Router devices are included that interconnect the nodes of the tree via links to facilitate performance of low-latency global processing operations at nodes of the virtual tree and sub-tree structures. The global operations performed include one or more of: broadcast operations downstream from a root node to leaf nodes of a virtual tree, reduction operations upstream from leaf nodes to the root node in the virtual tree, and point-to-point message passing from any node to the root node. The global tree network is configurable to provide global barrier and interrupt functionality in asynchronous or synchronized manner, and, is physically and logically partitionable.

  10. Jamming as an enabling technology for soft robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steltz, E.; Mozeika, A.; Rembisz, J.; Corson, N.; Jaeger, H. M.

    2010-04-01

    This paper presents a new architecture in soft robotics that utilizes particulate jamming technology. A novel concept of actuation is described that utilizes jamming technology to modulate the direction and magnitude of the work performed by a single central actuator. Jamming "activators" modulate work by jamming and unjamming (solidifying and liquifying) a granular medium coupled to a core actuator. These ideas are demonstrated in the Jamming Skin Enabled Locomotion (JSEL) prototype which can morph its shape and achieve locomotion. Next, a new actuator, denoted a Jamming Modulated Unimorph (JMU), is presented in addition to the JSEL topology. The JMU uses a single linear actuator and a discrete number of jamming cells to turn the 1 degree of freedom (DOF) linear actuator into a multi DOF bending actuator. Full characterization of the JMU actuator is presented, followed by a concluding argument for jamming as an enabling mechanism for soft robots in general, regardless of actuation technology.

  11. Split rheometer Couette attachment to enable sample extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guthrie, Sarah E.; Idziak, Stefan H. J.

    2005-02-01

    We report on the development of a Couette attachment insert for a rheometer, which is designed to split in half, enabling intact sample extraction of cocoa butter crystallized from the melt under known dynamic stress conditions. This cell is capable of producing a sample 1mm thick. At shear rates of 90-720s-1 and final temperatures of 18-20°C it was shown that the sample will completely separate from the cell surface intact.

  12. Content Management Serves as a Vital Cyberspace Operations Enabler

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    cyberspace operations. (Continued from page 23) CCP - Concept Capability Plan CM - Content Management DoD - Department of Defense IIA - Inform Infl uence...22 Summer - 2011 Content management serves as a vital cyberspace operations enabler By Russell Fenton The importance of cyberspace, as part...kinetic effects in and through cyberspace. So the question must be asked, “Are content management capabilities (with the goal of getting the right

  13. Global Strike 2035: Considerations for Enabling Effective Command and Control

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-16

    Enabling Theater Time-Sensitive Targeting Much has been learned over the past decade about the command and control attributes required to conduct...future. However, for Global Strike missions in 2035, the lessons learned through theater level operations must be extrapolated to a global scale and...established norms.44 For any organization that must learn to operate in new ways in support of innovative capabilities, leadership must ensure the

  14. Progress Towards a NASA Earth Science Reuse Enablement System (RES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, James J.; Downs, Robert R.; Mattmann, Chris A.

    2010-01-01

    A Reuse Enablement System (RES) allows developers of Earth science software to contribute software for reuse by others and.for users to find, select, and obtain software for reuse in their own systems. This paper describes work that the X4S,4 Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Software Reuse Working Group has completed to date in the development of an RES for NASA.

  15. Web-Enabled Design Review and Lessons Learned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Additional information regarding cookie variables may be found through any WWW search engine . Computer Hardware Resource Utilization The extent to...i:. US Army Corps of Engineers Construction Engineering Research Laboratories USACERL Technical Report 98/31 April 1998 Web-Enabled Design...Information source, design data or procedure, management procedure, source of ideas, etc.) 3. Has the information in this report led to any quantitative

  16. Leadership Training Module on Enable Others to Act (Kouzes & Posner)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Ananya

    2013-01-01

    Everyone has either come in contact with a leader or played the role of a leader. Everyone has also worked with effective leaders and ineffective leaders. And all of us want to work with leaders who can share a vision with us and empower and enable us to meet our goals. One can say that leaders play a crucial role in the success or failure of a…

  17. Improving Air Force Enterprise Resource Planning-Enabled Business Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    5. Business logistics—United States. 6. Reengineering (Management)—United States. I. Title. II. Title: Improving Air Force ERP -enabled business...transformation. UG633.2.R57 2013 358.4�—dc23 2013030449 - iii - Preface Enterprise Resource Planning ( ERP ) systems are configurable...of internal business activities, including procurement, accounting, finance, and human resources. ERP programs tend to be very large, involve a

  18. Fly-by-Wire Systems Enable Safer, More Efficient Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    Using the ultra-reliable Apollo Guidance Computer that enabled the Apollo Moon missions, Dryden Flight Research Center engineers, in partnership with industry leaders such as Cambridge, Massachusetts-based Draper Laboratory, demonstrated that digital computers could be used to fly aircraft. Digital fly-by-wire systems have since been incorporated into large airliners, military jets, revolutionary new aircraft, and even cars and submarines.

  19. Ames Coronagraph Experiment: Enabling Missions to Directly Image Exoplanets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belikov, Ruslan

    2014-01-01

    Technology to find biomarkers and life on other worlds is rapidly maturing. If there is a habitable planet around the nearest star, we may be able to detect it this decade with a small satellite mission. In the 2030 decade, we will likely know if there is life in our Galactic neighborhood (1000 nearest stars). The Ames Coronagraph Experiment is developing coronagraphic technologies to enable such missions.

  20. Identification, Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-16

    monitoring communications in social media groups and websites (such as LinkedIn or Facebook groups associated with the Scaled Agile Framework, Lean... Identification , Characterization, and Evaluation Criteria for Systems Engineering Agile Enablers Technical Report SERC-2015-TR-049-1...currently valid OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE 16 JAN 2015 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Identification

  1. Potential Astrophysics Science Missions Enabled by NASA's Planned Ares V

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Thronson, Harley; Langhoff, Stepheni; Postman, Marc; Lester, Daniel; Lillie, Chuck

    2009-01-01

    NASA s planned Ares V cargo vehicle with its 10 meter diameter fairing and 60,000 kg payload mass to L2 offers the potential to launch entirely new classes of space science missions such as 8-meter monolithic aperture telescopes, 12- meter aperture x-ray telescopes, 16 to 24 meter segmented telescopes and highly capable outer planet missions. The paper will summarize the current Ares V baseline performance capabilities and review potential mission concepts enabled by these capabilities.

  2. Informatics Methods to Enable Sharing of Quantitative Imaging Research Data

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mia A.; Freymann, John B.; Kirby, Justin S.; Fedorov, Andriy; Fennessy, Fiona M.; Eschrich, Steven A.; Berglund, Anders E.; Fenstermacher, David A.; Tan, Yongqiang; Guo, Xiaotao; Casavant, Thomas L.; Brown, Bartley J.; Braun, Terry A.; Dekker, Andre; Roelofs, Erik; Mountz, James M.; Boada, Fernando; Laymon, Charles; Oborski, Matt; Rubin, Daniel L

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Quantitative Research Network (QIN) is a collaborative research network whose goal is to share data, algorithms and research tools to accelerate quantitative imaging research. A challenge is the variability in tools and analysis platforms used in quantitative imaging. Our goal was to understand the extent of this variation and to develop an approach to enable sharing data and to promote reuse of quantitative imaging data in the community. Methods We performed a survey of the current tools in use by the QIN member sites for representation and storage of their QIN research data including images, image meta-data and clinical data. We identified existing systems and standards for data sharing and their gaps for the QIN use case. We then proposed a system architecture to enable data sharing and collaborative experimentation within the QIN. Results There area variety of tools currently used by each QIN institution. We developed a general information system architecture to support the QIN goals. We also describe the remaining architecture gaps we are developing to enable members to share research images and image meta-data across the network. Conclusions As a research network, the QIN will stimulate quantitative imaging research by pooling data, algorithms and research tools. However, there are gaps in current functional requirements that will need to be met by future informatics development. Special attention must be given to the technical requirements needed to translate these methods into the clinical research workflow to enable validation and qualification of these novel imaging biomarkers. PMID:22770688

  3. Liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis and electro-osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    This work presents a comparative review of electrokinetic effects in isotropic and anisotropic (liquid crystalline) electrolytes. A special emphasis is placed on nonlinear electrokinetics with ow velocities growing as the square of the applied electric field. This phenomenon allows one to drive steady motion of particles and uids with an alternating-current electric field. In isotropic electrolytes, spatial separation of charges that leads to nonlinear electrokinetics is achieved through the properties of the solid component (typically a metal). If the electrolyte is a liquid crystal (LC), its anisotropic properties enable separation of charges in the presence of orientational distortions and under the action of an electric field. LC anisotropy leads to electrically-driven motion of colloidal particles (liquid crystal-enabled electrophoresis, LCEP) and of the LC itself (liquid crystal-enabled electro-osmosis, LCEO). The induced charge is proportional to the applied field, director gradients, anisotropy of conductivity, and anisotropy of permittivity. The electric field acts on the space separated charges to drive the electro-osmotic ows. If the director deformations lack mirror symmetry, the LC enables electrophoresis of free particles and electro-osmotic pumping. The advantage of LCenabled electrokinetics (LCEK) is that its mechanism lifts many restrictions imposed on the properties of the solid counterpart. For example, LCEP can transport particles even if these particles are deprived of any surface charges; the particles can even be a uid immiscible with a LC or a gas bubble. In a similar fashion, LCEO can drive ows even if there are no oating electrodes. Ionic currents in LCs which have been traditionally considered an undesirable feature in displays offer a broad platform for versatile applications in electrokinetics of particles and uids, micropumping and mixing, and lab-on-a-chip analysis...

  4. Useful Sensor Web Capabilities to Enable Progressive Mission Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandl, Dan

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews using the Sensor Web capabilities as an enabling technology to allow for progressive autonomy of NASA space missions. The presentation reviews technical challenges for future missions, and some of the capabilities that exist to meet those challenges. To establish the ability of the technology to meet the challenges, experiments were conducted on three missions: Earth Observing 1 (EO-1), Cosmic Hot Interstellar Plasma Spectrometer (CHIPS) and Space Technology 5 (ST-5). These experiments are reviewed.

  5. LENS(Registered) and SFF: Enabling Technologies for Optimized Structures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    LENS® and SFF: Enabling Technologies for Optimized Structures D.D. Gill, C.J. Atwood , T.E. Voth, J. Robbins Sandia National Laboratories...manufacturing development required for LENS to make these complex structures has included the addition of rotational axes to Sandia’s LENS machine ...conventional machining process. Advances in computing power and research into better design methods for optimizing structures, and developments toward fully

  6. Optical Thermal Characterization Enables High-Performance Electronics Applications

    SciTech Connect

    2016-02-01

    NREL developed a modeling and experimental strategy to characterize thermal performance of materials. The technique provides critical data on thermal properties with relevance for electronics packaging applications. Thermal contact resistance and bulk thermal conductivity were characterized for new high-performance materials such as thermoplastics, boron-nitride nanosheets, copper nanowires, and atomically bonded layers. The technique is an important tool for developing designs and materials that enable power electronics packaging with small footprint, high power density, and low cost for numerous applications.

  7. Enabling students to develop confidence in basic clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Mayne, Wendy; Jootun, Dev; Young, Beverley; Marland, Glenn; Harris, Margaret; Lyttle, C Paul

    An increase in the number of nursing students is making it difficult to guarantee those on the common foundation programme the opportunity to practise basic nursing skills. In order to address this problem a nursing college developed a skills week that enabled students to practise their skills and develop confidence. Simulated clinical situations gave students the opportunity to relate these skills to practice while learning about teamwork and holistic patient care.

  8. Terahertz Characterization of DNA: Enabling a Novel Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    nucleic acid sequence, requirement of a thick DNA testing layer, and conductor structure complexity. This project enables a novel method to identify...researchers. These nucleic acid fragments are used to locate and analyze identical base pair sequences in full strands. Compilation of their...nucleic acid sequences within a genetic library would pave the way for improved forensic analysis, genetic testing, and DNA production processes.1 Other

  9. Expanding the MEU(SOC) Joint Task Force Enabler Concept

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-28

    concept. 2 The influential twentieth-century linguistic philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein argued that real understanding rests on the precise use...of language and universally agreed upon meanings. Without clarity and common understanding, Wittgenstein observed, we can never really communicate... Wittgenstein anticipated when we don’t share a common understanding of what a term means. The Joint Task Force Enabler is potentially a critical concept, both

  10. Enabling Desktop Nanofabrication with the Targeted Use of Soft Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelsdoerfer, Daniel James

    This thesis focuses on the application of soft materials to scanning probe-based molecular printing techniques, such as dip-pen nanolithography (DPN). The selective incorporation of soft materials in place of hard materials in traditional cantilever-based scanning probe lithography (SPL) systems not only enables the deposition of a broader range of materials, but also dramatically lowers the cost while simultaneously increasing the throughput of SPL. Chapter 1 introduces SPL and DPN, and highlights a few recent advances in using DPN to control surface chemical functionality at the nanoscale. In addition to introducing the material deposition capabilities of DPN, Chapter 1 introduces the development of the cantilever-free architecture, a relatively recent paradigm shift in high-throughput SPL. Furthermore, an in-depth synthetic methodology for making the most widely used cantilever-free tip arrays, consisting of elastomeric nanoscale pens adhered to an elastomeric backing layer on a glass slide, is included as an appendix. Chapter 2 discusses the synthesis of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles at specified locations by using DPN to deposit the precursors dispersed in a polymer matrix; after deposition, the precursors are annealed to form single nanoparticles. This work builds on previous soft material-based advances in DPN by utilizing the polymer as a "nanoreactor" to synthesize the desired nanoparticles, where the precursors can diffuse and coalesce into a single nanoparticle within each spot. The process of precursor aggregation and single nanoparticle formation is studied, and it is found that metal precursors follow one of three pathways based upon their reduction potential. Chapter 3 is the first of three chapters that highlights the power of soft materials in the cantilever-free architecture. In particular, Chapter 3 examines the role of the elastomeric backing layer as a compliant spring whose stiffness (as measured by the spring constant, k) can be tuned

  11. Sexual reproduction is the default mode in apomictic Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, in which two dominant loci function to enable apomixis.

    PubMed

    Koltunow, Anna M G; Johnson, Susan D; Rodrigues, Julio C M; Okada, Takashi; Hu, Yingkao; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Wilson, Saira; Fletcher, Pam; Ito, Kanae; Suzuki, Go; Mukai, Yasuhiko; Fehrer, Judith; Bicknell, Ross A

    2011-06-01

    Asexual seed formation, or apomixis, in the Hieracium subgenus Pilosella is controlled by two dominant independent genetic loci, LOSS OF APOMEIOSIS (LOA) and LOSS OF PARTHENOGENESIS (LOP). We examined apomixis mutants that had lost function in one or both loci to establish their developmental roles during seed formation. In apomicts, sexual reproduction is initiated first. Somatic aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiate near meiotic cells, and the sexual pathway is terminated as AI cells undergo mitotic embryo sac formation. Seed initiation is fertilization-independent. Using a partially penetrant cytotoxic reporter to inhibit meioisis, we showed that developmental events leading to the completion of meiotic tetrad formation are required for AI cell formation. Sexual initiation may therefore stimulate activity of the LOA locus, which was found to be required for AI cell formation and subsequent suppression of the sexual pathway. AI cells undergo nuclear division to form embryo sacs, in which LOP functions gametophytically to stimulate fertilization-independent embryo and endosperm formation. Loss of function in either locus results in partial reversion to sexual reproduction, and loss of function in both loci results in total reversion to sexual reproduction. Therefore, in these apomicts, sexual reproduction is the default reproductive mode upon which apomixis is superimposed. These loci are unlikely to encode genes essential for sexual reproduction, but may function to recruit the sexual machinery at specific time points to enable apomixis.

  12. Ammonia recycling enables sustainable operation of bioelectrochemical systems.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ka Yu; Kaksonen, Anna H; Cord-Ruwisch, Ralf

    2013-09-01

    Ammonium (NH4(+)) migration across a cation exchange membrane is commonly observed during the operation of bioelectrochemical systems (BES). This often leads to anolyte acidification (pH <5.5) and complete inactivation of biofilm electroactivity. Without using conventional pH controls (dosage of alkali or pH buffers), the present study revealed that anodic biofilm activity (current) could be sustained if recycling of ammonia (NH3) was implemented. A simple gas-exchange apparatus was designed to enable continuous recycling of NH3 (released from the catholyte at pH >10) from the cathodic headspace to the acidified anolyte. Results indicated that current (110 mA or 688 Am(-3) net anodic chamber volume) was sustained as long as the NH3 recycling path was enabled, facilitating continuous anolyte neutralization with the recycled NH3. Since the microbial current enabled NH4(+) migration against a strong concentration gradient (~10-fold), a novel way of ammonia recovery from wastewaters could be envisaged.

  13. Enabling Disabled Persons to Gain Access to Digital Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beach, Glenn; OGrady, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    A report describes the first phase in an effort to enhance the NaviGaze software to enable profoundly disabled persons to operate computers. (Running on a Windows-based computer equipped with a video camera aimed at the user s head, the original NaviGaze software processes the user's head movements and eye blinks into cursor movements and mouse clicks to enable hands-free control of the computer.) To accommodate large variations in movement capabilities among disabled individuals, one of the enhancements was the addition of a graphical user interface for selection of parameters that affect the way the software interacts with the computer and tracks the user s movements. Tracking algorithms were improved to reduce sensitivity to rotations and reduce the likelihood of tracking the wrong features. Visual feedback to the user was improved to provide an indication of the state of the computer system. It was found that users can quickly learn to use the enhanced software, performing single clicks, double clicks, and drags within minutes of first use. Available programs that could increase the usability of NaviGaze were identified. One of these enables entry of text by using NaviGaze as a mouse to select keys on a virtual keyboard.

  14. Multi-target electrochemical biosensing enabled by integrated CMOS electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, J.; Lewandowska, M. K.; Heer, F.; Frey, O.; Hierlemann, A.

    2011-05-01

    An integrated electrochemical measurement system, based on CMOS technology, is presented, which allows the detection of several analytes in parallel (multi-analyte) and enables simultaneous monitoring at different locations (multi-site). The system comprises a 576-electrode CMOS sensor chip, an FPGA module for chip control and data processing, and the measurement laptop. The advantages of the highly versatile system are demonstrated by two applications. First, a label-free, hybridization-based DNA sensor is enabled by the possibility of large-scale integration in CMOS technology. Second, the detection of the neurotransmitter choline is presented by assembling the chip with biosensor microprobe arrays. The low noise level enables a limit of detection of, e.g., 0.3 µM choline. The fully integrated system is self-contained: it features cleaning, functionalization and measurement functions without the need for additional electrical equipment. With the power supplied by the laptop, the system is very suitable for on-site measurements.

  15. Fundamental plant biology enabled by the space shuttle.

    PubMed

    Paul, Anna-Lisa; Wheeler, Ray M; Levine, Howard G; Ferl, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between fundamental plant biology and space biology was especially synergistic in the era of the Space Shuttle. While all terrestrial organisms are influenced by gravity, the impact of gravity as a tropic stimulus in plants has been a topic of formal study for more than a century. And while plants were parts of early space biology payloads, it was not until the advent of the Space Shuttle that the science of plant space biology enjoyed expansion that truly enabled controlled, fundamental experiments that removed gravity from the equation. The Space Shuttle presented a science platform that provided regular science flights with dedicated plant growth hardware and crew trained in inflight plant manipulations. Part of the impetus for plant biology experiments in space was the realization that plants could be important parts of bioregenerative life support on long missions, recycling water, air, and nutrients for the human crew. However, a large part of the impetus was that the Space Shuttle enabled fundamental plant science essentially in a microgravity environment. Experiments during the Space Shuttle era produced key science insights on biological adaptation to spaceflight and especially plant growth and tropisms. In this review, we present an overview of plant science in the Space Shuttle era with an emphasis on experiments dealing with fundamental plant growth in microgravity. This review discusses general conclusions from the study of plant spaceflight biology enabled by the Space Shuttle by providing historical context and reviews of select experiments that exemplify plant space biology science.

  16. Enabling a Science Support Structure for NASAs Global Hawk UASs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Donald V.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the information technologies developed by NASA for the Winter/Spring 2013/2014, and Fall 2014, NASA Earth Venture Campaigns, Hurricane and Severe Storm Sentinel (HS3) and Airborne Tropical TRopopause EXperiment (ATTREX). These campaigns utilized Global Hawk UAS vehicles equipped at the NASA Armstrong (previously Dryden) Flight Research Facility (AFRC), Edwards Air Force Base, California, and operated from there, the NASA Wallops Flight Facility (WFF), Virginia, and Anderson Air Force Base (AAFB), Guam. Part of this enabling infrastructure utilized a layer 2 encrypted terrestrial Virtual Local Area Network (VLAN) that, at times, spanned greater than ten thousand miles (AAFB <-> AFRC <-> WFF) and was routed over geosynchronous Ku band communication Satellites directly to the aircraft sensor network. This infrastructure enabled seamless hand off between Satellites, and Satellite ground stations in Guam, California and Virginia, so allowing simultaneous Aircraft Command and Control and Science operations from remote locations. Additionally, we will describe the other elements of this infrastructure, from on-board geo-enabled databases, to real time communications directly from the instruments (in some cases, more than twelve were carried, and simultaneously operated, on one aircraft) to the researchers and other interested parties, world wide.

  17. Quantum dots enabled LCD displays and solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Wengang; Xu, Shu; Geng, Chong; Zhao, Fei; Jiang, Xiaofang

    2016-09-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) with unique properties have evolved to be a key player in the next generation display and lighting applications. Followed by studies on the optimization of QD nanomaterials with low self-absorption properties, we analyze and identify the key parameters of the QDs that impact the color gamut and energy efficiency features of LCD displays using QD-enabled LED backlights, which consist of red and green QDs as well as blue LEDs that act as pumping sources. It is found that both the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the emission peak positions of the green and the red QDs affect the color gamut. A narrower FWHM for both color QDs is preferred to achieve a wider color gamut while a combination of green QDs with shorter wavelength and red QDs with longer wavelength within the studied wavelength range (520 nm to 540 nm for the green and 610 nm to 635 nm for the red) is also desired. Nevertheless, QD-enabled LED backlight with a combination of longer-wavelength green QDs and shorter-wavelength red QDs is more energy efficient than the reverse case. Therefore, one needs balance these two key factors based on the targeted display performance requirements. On the solid-state lighting application side with QDs, we propose and show a QD-enabled LED light engine architecture that is more energy efficient with high light quality.

  18. Right timing in formative program evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jori; Freeman, Melissa; Roulston, Kathy

    2014-08-01

    Since many educational researchers and program developers have limited knowledge of formative evaluation, formative data may be underutilized during the development and implementation of an educational program. The purpose of this article is to explain how participatory, responsive, educative, and qualitative approaches to formative evaluation can facilitate a partnership between evaluators and educational researchers and program managers to generate data useful to inform program implementation and improvement. This partnership is critical, we argue, because it enables an awareness of when to take appropriate action to ensure successful educational programs or "kairos". To illustrate, we use examples from our own evaluation work to highlight how formative evaluation may facilitate opportune moments to (1) define the substance and purpose of a program, (2) develop understanding and awareness of the cultural interpretations of program participants, and (3) show the relevance of stakeholder experiences to program goals.

  19. Common File Formats.

    PubMed

    Mills, Lauren

    2014-03-21

    An overview of the many file formats commonly used in bioinformatics and genome sequence analysis is presented, including various data file formats, alignment file formats, and annotation file formats. Example workflows illustrate how some of the different file types are typically used.

  20. Formatting scripts with computers and Extended BASIC.

    PubMed

    Menning, C B

    1984-02-01

    A computer program, written in the language of Extended BASIC, is presented which enables scripts, for educational media, to be quickly written in a nearly unformatted style. From the resulting script file, stored on magnetic tape or disk, the computer program formats the script into either a storyboard , a presentation, or a narrator 's script. Script headings and page and paragraph numbers are automatic features in the word processing. Suggestions are given for making personal modifications to the computer program.

  1. Interactive, Secure Web-enabled Aircraft Engine Simulation Using XML Databinding Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Risheng; Afjeh, Abdollah A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the detailed design of an XML databinding framework for aircraft engine simulation. The framework provides an object interface to access and use engine data. while at the same time preserving the meaning of the original data. The Language independent representation of engine component data enables users to move around XML data using HTTP through disparate networks. The application of this framework is demonstrated via a web-based turbofan propulsion system simulation using the World Wide Web (WWW). A Java Servlet based web component architecture is used for rendering XML engine data into HTML format and dealing with input events from the user, which allows users to interact with simulation data from a web browser. The simulation data can also be saved to a local disk for archiving or to restart the simulation at a later time.

  2. Development of the RIOT Web Service and Information Technologies to Enable Mechanism Reduction for HCCI Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, K; Oluwole, O; Pitz, W J; Rahn, L; Green, W H; Leahy, D; Pancerella, C; Sj?berg, M; Dec, J

    2005-06-13

    New approaches are being explored to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborative research of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. In this paper, collaborative sharing of the Range Identification and Optimization Toolkit (RIOT) and related data and models is discussed. RIOT is a developmental approach to reduce the computational of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, enabling their use in modeling kinetically controlled combustion applications such as HCCI. These approaches are being developed and piloted as a part of the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) project. The capabilities of the RIOT code are shared through a portlet in the CMCS portal that allows easy specification and processing of RIOT inputs, remote execution of RIOT, tracking of data pedigree, and translation of RIOT outputs to a table view and to a commonly-used mechanism format.

  3. Radar-enabled recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite, a carbonaceous chondrite regolith breccia.

    PubMed

    Jenniskens, Peter; Fries, Marc D; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zolensky, Michael; Krot, Alexander N; Sandford, Scott A; Sears, Derek; Beauford, Robert; Ebel, Denton S; Friedrich, Jon M; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wimpenny, Josh; Yamakawa, Akane; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Hamajima, Yasunori; Caffee, Marc W; Welten, Kees C; Laubenstein, Matthias; Davis, Andrew M; Simon, Steven B; Heck, Philipp R; Young, Edward D; Kohl, Issaku E; Thiemens, Mark H; Nunn, Morgan H; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Cahill, Thomas A; Lawton, Jonathan A; Barnes, David; Steele, Andrew; Rochette, Pierre; Verosub, Kenneth L; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Cooper, George; Glavin, Daniel P; Burton, Aaron S; Dworkin, Jason P; Elsila, Jamie E; Pizzarello, Sandra; Ogliore, Ryan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillipe; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Verchovsky, Alexander; Grady, Monica; Nagao, Keisuke; Okazaki, Ryuji; Takechi, Hiroyuki; Hiroi, Takahiro; Smith, Ken; Silber, Elizabeth A; Brown, Peter G; Albers, Jim; Klotz, Doug; Hankey, Mike; Matson, Robert; Fries, Jeffrey A; Walker, Richard J; Puchtel, Igor; Lee, Cin-Ty A; Erdman, Monica E; Eppich, Gary R; Roeske, Sarah; Gabelica, Zelimir; Lerche, Michael; Nuevo, Michel; Girten, Beverly; Worden, Simon P

    2012-12-21

    Doppler weather radar imaging enabled the rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite after a rare 4-kiloton of TNT-equivalent asteroid impact over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The recovered meteorites survived a record high-speed entry of 28.6 kilometers per second from an orbit close to that of Jupiter-family comets (Tisserand's parameter = 2.8 ± 0.3). Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of CM (Mighei)-type carbonaceous chondrite and highly reduced xenolithic materials. It exhibits considerable diversity of mineralogy, petrography, and isotope and organic chemistry, resulting from a complex formation history of the parent body surface. That diversity is quickly masked by alteration once in the terrestrial environment but will need to be considered when samples returned by missions to C-class asteroids are interpreted.

  4. Development of the RIOT web service and information technologies to enable mechanism reduction for HCCI simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuchardt, Karen; Oluwole, Oluwayemisi; Pitz, William; Rahn, Larry A.; Green, William H., Jr.; Leahy, David; Pancerella, Carmen; Sjöberg, Magnus; Dec, John

    2005-01-01

    New approaches are being explored to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborative research of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. In this paper, collaborative sharing of the Range Identification and Optimization Toolkit (RIOT) and related data and models is discussed. RIOT is a developmental approach to reduce the computational complexity of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, enabling their use in modeling kinetically controlled combustion applications such as HCCI. These approaches are being developed and piloted as a part of the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) project. The capabilities of the RIOT code are shared through a portlet in the CMCS portal that allows easy specification and processing of RIOT inputs, remote execution of RIOT, tracking of data pedigree, and translation of RIOT outputs to a table view and to a commonly-used chemical model format.

  5. Development of the RIOT Web Service and Information Technologies to Enable Mechanism Reduction for HCCI Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Schuchardt, Karen L.; Oluwole, O.; Pitz, William; Rahn, Larry A.; Green, William H.; Leahy, David; Pancerella, Carmen M.; Sjoberg, Magnus; Dec, J.

    2005-06-30

    New Approaches are being explored to facilitate multidisciplinary collaborative research of Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion processes. In this paper, collaborative sharing of the Range Identification and Optimization Toolkit (RIOT) and related data and models is discussed. RIOT is a developmental approach to reduce the computational complexity of detailed chemical kinetic mechanisms, enabling their use in modeling kinetically controlled combustion applications such as HCCI. These approaches are being developed and piloted as part of the Collaboratory for Multiscale Chemical Sciences (CMCS) project. The capabilities of the RIOT code are shared through a portlet in the MCS portal that allows easy specification and processing of RIOT inputs, remote execution of RIOT, tracking of data pedigree, and translation of RIOT outputs to a table view and to a commonly-used chemical model format.

  6. Pyruvate carboxylation enables growth of SDH-deficient cells by supporting aspartate biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Cardaci, Simone; Zheng, Liang; MacKay, Gillian; van den Broek, Niels J F; MacKenzie, Elaine D; Nixon, Colin; Stevenson, David; Tumanov, Sergey; Bulusu, Vinay; Kamphorst, Jurre J; Vazquez, Alexei; Fleming, Stewart; Schiavi, Francesca; Kalna, Gabriela; Blyth, Karen; Strathdee, Douglas; Gottlieb, Eyal

    2015-10-01

    Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) is a heterotetrameric nuclear-encoded complex responsible for the oxidation of succinate to fumarate in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Loss-of-function mutations in any of the SDH genes are associated with cancer formation. However, the impact of SDH loss on cell metabolism and the mechanisms enabling growth of SDH-defective cells are largely unknown. Here, we generated Sdhb-ablated kidney mouse cells and used comparative metabolomics and stable-isotope-labelling approaches to identify nutritional requirements and metabolic adaptations to SDH loss. We found that lack of SDH activity commits cells to consume extracellular pyruvate, which sustains Warburg-like bioenergetic features. We further demonstrated that pyruvate carboxylation diverts glucose-derived carbons into aspartate biosynthesis, thus sustaining cell growth. By identifying pyruvate carboxylase as essential for the proliferation and tumorigenic capacity of SDH-deficient cells, this study revealed a metabolic vulnerability for potential future treatment of SDH-associated malignancies.

  7. Radar-Enabled Recovery of the Sutters Mill Meteorite, a Carbonaceous Chondrite Regolith Breccia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Petrus M.; Fries, Marc D.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zolensky, Michael E.; Krot, Alexander N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Sears, Derek; Beauford, Robert; Ebel, Denton S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wimpenny, Josh; Yamakawa, Akane; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Hamajima, Yasunori; Caffee, Marc W.; Welten, Kees C.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Davis, Andrew M.; Simon, Steven B.; Heck, Phillipp R.; Young, Edward D.; Kohl, Issaku E.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Nunn, Morgan H.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Cahill, Thomas A.; Lawton, Jonathan A.; Barnes, David; Steele, Andrew; Rochette, Pierre; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Gattacceca, Jerome

    2012-01-01

    Doppler weather radar imaging enabled the rapid recovery of the Sutter's Mill meteorite after a rare 4-kiloton of TNT-equivalent asteroid impact over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The recovered meteorites survived a record high-speed entry of 28.6 kilometers per second from an orbit close to that of Jupiter-family comets (Tisserand's parameter = 2.8 +/- 0.3). Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of CM (Mighei)-type carbonaceous chondrite and highly reduced xenolithic materials. It exhibits considerable diversity of mineralogy, petrography, and isotope and organic chemistry, resulting from a complex formation history of the parent body surface. That diversity is quickly masked by alteration once in the terrestrial environment but will need to be considered when samples returned by missions to C-class asteroids are interpreted.

  8. Radar-Enabled Recovery of the Sutter’s Mill Meteorite, a Carbonaceous Chondrite Regolith Breccia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Fries, Marc D.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Zolensky, Michael; Krot, Alexander N.; Sandford, Scott A.; Sears, Derek; Beauford, Robert; Ebel, Denton S.; Friedrich, Jon M.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Wimpenny, Josh; Yamakawa, Akane; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Hamajima, Yasunori; Caffee, Marc W.; Welten, Kees C.; Laubenstein, Matthias; Davis, Andrew M.; Simon, Steven B.; Heck, Philipp R.; Young, Edward D.; Kohl, Issaku E.; Thiemens, Mark H.; Nunn, Morgan H.; Mikouchi, Takashi; Hagiya, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kazumasa; Cahill, Thomas A.; Lawton, Jonathan A.; Barnes, David; Steele, Andrew; Rochette, Pierre; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Cooper, George; Glavin, Daniel P.; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Pizzarello, Sandra; Ogliore, Ryan; Schmitt-Kopplin, Phillipe; Harir, Mourad; Hertkorn, Norbert; Verchovsky, Alexander; Grady, Monica; Nagao, Keisuke; Okazaki, Ryuji; Takechi, Hiroyuki; Hiroi, Takahiro; Smith, Ken; Silber, Elizabeth A.; Brown, Peter G.; Albers, Jim; Klotz, Doug; Hankey, Mike; Matson, Robert; Fries, Jeffrey A.; Walker, Richard J.; Puchtel, Igor; Lee, Cin-Ty A.; Erdman, Monica E.; Eppich, Gary R.; Roeske, Sarah; Gabelica, Zelimir; Lerche, Michael; Nuevo, Michel; Girten, Beverly; Worden, Simon P.

    2012-12-01

    Doppler weather radar imaging enabled the rapid recovery of the Sutter’s Mill meteorite after a rare 4-kiloton of TNT-equivalent asteroid impact over the foothills of the Sierra Nevada in northern California. The recovered meteorites survived a record high-speed entry of 28.6 kilometers per second from an orbit close to that of Jupiter-family comets (Tisserand’s parameter = 2.8 ± 0.3). Sutter’s Mill is a regolith breccia composed of CM (Mighei)-type carbonaceous chondrite and highly reduced xenolithic materials. It exhibits considerable diversity of mineralogy, petrography, and isotope and organic chemistry, resulting from a complex formation history of the parent body surface. That diversity is quickly masked by alteration once in the terrestrial environment but will need to be considered when samples returned by missions to C-class asteroids are interpreted.

  9. Formate Formation and Formate Conversion in Biological Fuels Production

    PubMed Central

    Crable, Bryan R.; Plugge, Caroline M.; McInerney, Michael J.; Stams, Alfons J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Biomethanation is a mature technology for fuel production. Fourth generation biofuels research will focus on sequestering CO2 and providing carbon-neutral or carbon-negative strategies to cope with dwindling fossil fuel supplies and environmental impact. Formate is an important intermediate in the methanogenic breakdown of complex organic material and serves as an important precursor for biological fuels production in the form of methane, hydrogen, and potentially methanol. Formate is produced by either CoA-dependent cleavage of pyruvate or enzymatic reduction of CO2 in an NADH- or ferredoxin-dependent manner. Formate is consumed through oxidation to CO2 and H2 or can be further reduced via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway for carbon fixation or industrially for the production of methanol. Here, we review the enzymes involved in the interconversion of formate and discuss potential applications for biofuels production. PMID:21687599

  10. MEMS-enabled Dip Pen Nanolithography for directed nanoscale deposition and high-throughput nanofabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haaheim, J. R.; Nafday, O. A.; Levesque, T.; Fragala, J.; Shile, R.

    2009-02-01

    Precision nanoscale deposition is a fundamental requirement for nanoscience research, development, and commercial implementation. Dip Pen Nanolithography(R) (DPN) is an inherently additive SPM-based technique which operates under ambient conditions, making it suitable to deposit a wide range of biological and inorganic materials. This technique is fundamentally enabled by a portfolio of MEMS devices tailored for microfluidic ink delivery, directed placement of nanoscale materials via actuated cantilevers, and cm2 tip arrays for high-throughput nanofabrication. Multiplexed deposition of nanoscale materials is a challenging problem, but we have implemented InkWells(TM) to enable selective delivery of ink materials to different tips in multiple probe arrays, while preventing cross-contamination. Active Pens(TM) can take advantage of this, directly place a variety of materials in nanoscale proximity, and do so in a "clean" fashion since the cantilevers can be manipulated in Z. Further, massively parallel two-dimensional nanopatterning with DPN is now commercially available via NanoInk's 2D nano PrintArray(TM), making DPN a highthroughput, flexible and versatile method for precision nanoscale pattern formation. By fabricating 55,000 tip-cantilevers across a 1 cm2 chip, we leverage the inherent versatility of DPN and demonstrate large area surface coverage, routinely achieving throughputs of 3×107 μm2 per hour. Further, we have engineered the device to be easy to use, wire-free, and fully integrated with the NSCRIPTOR's scanner, stage, and sophisticated lithography routines. In this talk we discuss the methods of operating this commercially available device, and subsequent results showing sub-100 nm feature sizes and excellent uniformity (standard deviation < 16%). Finally, we will discuss applications enabled by this MEMS portfolio including: 1) rapidly and flexibly generating nanostructures; 2) chemically directed assembly and 3) directly writing biological materials.

  11. Networking between community health programs: a case study outlining the effectiveness, barriers and enablers

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In India, since the 1990s, there has been a burgeoning of NGOs involved in providing primary health care. This has resulted in a complex NGO-Government interface which is difficult for lone NGOs to navigate. The Uttarakhand Cluster, India, links such small community health programs together to build NGO capacity, increase visibility and better link to the government schemes and the formal healthcare system. This research, undertaken between 1998 and 2011, aims to examine barriers and facilitators to such linking, or clustering, and the effectiveness of this clustering approach. Methods Interviews, indicator surveys and participant observation were used to document the process and explore the enablers, the barriers and the effectiveness of networks improving community health. Results The analysis revealed that when activating, framing, mobilising and synthesizing the Uttarakhand Cluster, key brokers and network players were important in bridging between organisations. The ties (or relationships) that held the cluster together included homophily around common faith, common friendships and geographical location and common mission. Self interest whereby members sought funds, visibility, credibility, increased capacity and access to trainings was also a commonly identified motivating factor for networking. Barriers to network synthesizing included lack of funding, poor communication, limited time and lack of human resources. Risk aversion and mistrust remained significant barriers to overcome for such a network. Conclusions In conclusion, specific enabling factors allowed the clustering approach to be effective at increasing access to resources, creating collaborative opportunities and increasing visibility, credibility and confidence of the cluster members. These findings add to knowledge regarding social network formation and collaboration, and such knowledge will assist in the conceptualisation, formation and success of potential health networks in India

  12. Micropatterned comet assay enables high throughput and sensitive DNA damage quantification.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Chow, Danielle N; Fessler, Jessica L; Weingeist, David M; Wood, David K; Engelward, Bevin P

    2015-01-01

    The single cell gel electrophoresis assay, also known as the comet assay, is a versatile method for measuring many classes of DNA damage, including base damage, abasic sites, single strand breaks and double strand breaks. However, limited throughput and difficulties with reproducibility have limited its utility, particularly for clinical and epidemiological studies. To address these limitations, we created a microarray comet assay. The use of a micrometer scale array of cells increases the number of analysable comets per square centimetre and enables automated imaging and analysis. In addition, the platform is compatible with standard 24- and 96-well plate formats. Here, we have assessed the consistency and sensitivity of the microarray comet assay. We showed that the linear detection range for H2O2-induced DNA damage in human lymphoblastoid cells is between 30 and 100 μM, and that within this range, inter-sample coefficient of variance was between 5 and 10%. Importantly, only 20 comets were required to detect a statistically significant induction of DNA damage for doses within the linear range. We also evaluated sample-to-sample and experiment-to-experiment variation and found that for both conditions, the coefficient of variation was lower than what has been reported for the traditional comet assay. Finally, we also show that the assay can be performed using a 4× objective (rather than the standard 10× objective for the traditional assay). This adjustment combined with the microarray format makes it possible to capture more than 50 analysable comets in a single image, which can then be automatically analysed using in-house software. Overall, throughput is increased more than 100-fold compared to the traditional assay. Together, the results presented here demonstrate key advances in comet assay technology that improve the throughput, sensitivity, and robustness, thus enabling larger scale clinical and epidemiological studies.

  13. Towards Grid-Enabling the Global Geodynamics Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumb, I.; Aldridge, K. D.

    2004-05-01

    The Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) allows Earth scientists to access a network of globally distributed superconducting gravimeters (SGs). By establishing standards around SG instrumentation and data, in concert with various bilateral agreements, the GGP ensures scientific and organizational integrity. Now in its second phase, the GGP is proactively engaging non-traditional disciplines - i.e., those outside the tidal gravimetry community. Although GGP has generated interest with geodynamicists, seismologists, and others, there are practicalities which inhibit engangement by these `non-specialists'. For example, to geodynamicists and seismologists, tidal, atmospheric, hydrologic and oceanic signals are all unwanted. This means that the processed GGP Data must undergo further, non-trivial reductions before it is useful for geodynamic and seismic purposes. The requirement to correlate data in time and space presents another example. Currently this is a manually intensive process that requires geodynamicists and seismologists to specify temporal (e.g., a period of time, an event in time) and/or spatial (e.g., global, regional, specific instruments) specifics to allow for further analysis. These and other examples suggest infrastructural opportunities for further enabling GGP scientists. With decided emphasis on Virtual Organizations, open standards and qualities of experience, Grid Computing has the potential to facilitate deeper degrees of collaboration within the context of the GGP. Through use cases which seek to identify core resonance effects at semi-diurnal periods (e.g., Lumb et al., AGU Monograph 72, 51-68, 1993) and earthquake activity, various opportunities for Grid-enabling the GGP are identified and prioritized. Because the High Energy Physics community has figured so significantly in the development of the World Wide Web and The Grid, a Grid-enabled GGP also has the potential to play a role in shaping the ongoing evolution of Grid Computing.

  14. Automatic Offloading C++ Expression Templates to CUDA Enabled GPUs

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Jie; Joo, Balint; Watson, William A.; Edwards, Robert G.

    2012-05-01

    In the last few years, many scientific applications have been developed for powerful graphics processing units (GPUs) and have achieved remarkable speedups. This success can be partially attributed to high performance host callable GPU library routines that are offloaded to GPUs at runtime. These library routines are based on C/C++-like programming toolkits such as CUDA from NVIDIA and have the same calling signatures as their CPU counterparts. Recently, with the sufficient support of C++ templates from CUDA, the emergence of template libraries have enabled further advancement in code reusability and rapid software development for GPUs. However, Expression Templates (ET), which have been very popular for implementing data parallel scientific software for host CPUs because of their intuitive and mathematics-like syntax, have been underutilized by GPU development libraries. The lack of ET usage is caused by the difficulty of offloading expression templates from hosts to GPUs due to the inability to pass instantiated expressions to GPU kernels as well as the absence of the exact form of the expressions for the templates at the time of coding. This paper presents a general approach that enables automatic offloading of C++ expression templates to CUDA enabled GPUs by using the C++ metaprogramming technique and Just-In-Time (JIT) compilation methodology to generate and compile CUDA kernels for corresponding expression templates followed by executing the kernels with appropriate arguments. This approach allows developers to port applications to run on GPUs with virtually no code modifications. More specifically, this paper uses a large ET based data parallel physics library called QDP++ as an example to illustrate many aspects of the approach to offload expression templates automatically and to demonstrate very good speedups for typical QDP++ applications running on GPUs against running on CPUs using this method of offloading. In addition, this approach of automatic offlo

  15. Solar Sail Propulsion: An Enabling Technology for Fundamental Physics Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dachwald, Bernd; Seboldt, Wolfgang; Lämmerzahl, Claus

    Solar sails enable a wide range of high-energy missions, many of which are difficult or even impossible to accomplish with any other type of conventional propulsion system. They are also an enabling propulsion technology for two types of deep-space missions that are very favorable for testing current gravitational theories and the large-scale gravitational field of the solar system: the first type comprises missions that go very close to the Sun (<8 solar radii) and the second one comprises missions that go fast very far away from the Sun ( 200AU). Being propelled solely by the freely available solar radiation pressure, solar sails do not consume any propellant. Therefore, their capability to gain (or reduce) orbital energy is theoretically unlimited and practically only limited by their lifetime in the space environment and their distance from the Sun (because the solar radiation pressure decreases with the square of solar distance). Nevertheless, solar sails make also missions that go far away from the Sun feasible because they can gain a large amount of orbital energy by first making one or more close solar approaches that turn the trajectory hyperbolic. For both mission types, the temperature limit of the sail film is a critical issue. In this chapter, we briefly review the physics and the current technological status of solar sails, and then present mission outlines and trade-offs for both mission types. Thereby, we will show that even near- or medium-term solar sails with a relatively moderate performance enable these kinds of missions.

  16. Adaptability of Protein Structures to Enable Functional Interactions and Evolutionary Implications

    PubMed Central

    Haliloglu, Turkan; Bahar, Ivet

    2015-01-01

    Several studies in recent years have drawn attention to the ability of proteins to adapt to intermolecular interactions by conformational changes along structure-encoded collective modes of motions. These so-called soft modes, primarily driven by entropic effects, facilitate, if not enable, functional interactions. They represent excursions on the conformational space along principal low-ascent directions/paths away from the original free energy minimum, and they are accessible to the protein even prior to protein-protein/ligand interactions. An emerging concept from these studies is the evolution of structures or modular domains to favor such modes of motion that will be recruited or integrated for enabling functional interactions. Structural dynamics, including the allosteric switches in conformation that are often stabilized upon formation of complexes and multimeric assemblies, emerge as key properties that are evolutionarily maintained to accomplish biological activities, consistent with the paradigm sequence → structure → dynamics → function where ‘dynamics’ bridges structure and function. PMID:26254902

  17. Insight into Transmetalation Enables Cobalt-Catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura Cross Coupling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Among the fundamental transformations that comprise a catalytic cycle for cross coupling, transmetalation from the nucleophile to the metal catalyst is perhaps the least understood. Optimizing this elementary step has enabled the first example of a cobalt-catalyzed Suzuki–Miyaura cross coupling between aryl triflate electrophiles and heteroaryl boron nucleophiles. Key to this discovery was the preparation and characterization of a new class of tetrahedral, high-spin bis(phosphino)pyridine cobalt(I) alkoxide and aryloxide complexes, (iPrPNP)CoOR, and optimizing their reactivity with 2-benzofuranylBPin (Pin = pinacolate). Cobalt compounds with small alkoxide substituents such as R = methyl and ethyl underwent swift transmetalation at 23 °C but also proved kinetically unstable toward β–H elimination. Secondary alkoxides such as R = iPr or CH(Ph)Me balanced stability and reactivity. Isolation and structural characterization of the product following transmetalation, (iPrPNP)Co(2-benzofuranyl), established a planar, diamagnetic cobalt(I) complex, demonstrating the high- and low-spin states of cobalt(I) rapidly interconvert during this reaction. The insights from the studies in this elementary step guided selection of appropriate reaction conditions to enable the first examples of cobalt-catalyzed C–C bond formation between neutral boron nucleophiles and aryl triflate electrophiles, and a model for the successful transmetalation reactivity is proposed. PMID:28058283

  18. NCBI2RDF: enabling full RDF-based access to NCBI databases.

    PubMed

    Anguita, Alberto; García-Remesal, Miguel; de la Iglesia, Diana; Maojo, Victor

    2013-01-01

    RDF has become the standard technology for enabling interoperability among heterogeneous biomedical databases. The NCBI provides access to a large set of life sciences databases through a common interface called Entrez. However, the latter does not provide RDF-based access to such databases, and, therefore, they cannot be integrated with other RDF-compliant databases and accessed via SPARQL query interfaces. This paper presents the NCBI2RDF system, aimed at providing RDF-based access to the complete NCBI data repository. This API creates a virtual endpoint for servicing SPARQL queries over different NCBI repositories and presenting to users the query results in SPARQL results format, thus enabling this data to be integrated and/or stored with other RDF-compliant repositories. SPARQL queries are dynamically resolved, decomposed, and forwarded to the NCBI-provided E-utilities programmatic interface to access the NCBI data. Furthermore, we show how our approach increases the expressiveness of the native NCBI querying system, allowing several databases to be accessed simultaneously. This feature significantly boosts productivity when working with complex queries and saves time and effort to biomedical researchers. Our approach has been validated with a large number of SPARQL queries, thus proving its reliability and enhanced capabilities in biomedical environments.

  19. Prefrontal compensatory mechanism may enable normal semantic memory performance in mild cognitive impairment (MCI).

    PubMed

    Gigi, Ariela; Babai, Reuven; Penker, Avichen; Hendler, Talma; Korczyn, Amos D

    2010-04-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered as a potential transitional state between normal aging and dementia. Studies addressing semantic memory in patients with incipient dementia and MCI show inconsistent results. In the current report we focused on MCI and examined memory performance (semantic, episodic, and working memory) in addition to structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements. We studied 6 MCI, 6 normal controls, and 4 Alzheimer disease (AD) patients. MCI participants demonstrated normal semantic memory performance while fMRI examination revealed distinct patterns of activations between MCI and normal aged subjects. According to our previous study, time courses were taken from parietal, dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex (DLPFC), hippocampal formation, and fusiform gyri. A small number of activated voxels in parietal regions were depicted in MCI participants and were correlated with structural changes in this region. In contrast, significantly higher activation (intensity and number of voxels) was observed in DLPFC of MCI subjects. The overactivity seen in DLPFC of MCI may represent a compensatory mechanism that enables them to perform normally. These preliminary results suggest that functional imaging may be useful for early diagnosis of dementia and call to develop reliable tests and criteria that will enable using such methods clinically.

  20. Hippocampus-dependent place learning enables spatial flexibility in C57BL6/N mice.

    PubMed

    Kleinknecht, Karl R; Bedenk, Benedikt T; Kaltwasser, Sebastian F; Grünecker, Barbara; Yen, Yi-Chun; Czisch, Michael; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2012-01-01

    Spatial navigation is a fundamental capability necessary in everyday life to locate food, social partners, and shelter. It results from two very different strategies: (1) place learning which enables for flexible way finding and (2) response learning that leads to a more rigid "route following." Despite the importance of knockout techniques that are only available in mice, little is known about mice' flexibility in spatial navigation tasks. Here we demonstrate for C57BL6/N mice in a water-cross maze (WCM) that only place learning enables spatial flexibility and relearning of a platform position, whereas response learning does not. This capability depends on an intact hippocampal formation, since hippocampus lesions by ibotenic acid (IA) disrupted relearning. In vivo manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging revealed a volume loss of ≥60% of the hippocampus as a critical threshold for relearning impairments. In particular the changes in the left ventral hippocampus were indicative of relearning deficits. In summary, our findings establish the importance of hippocampus-dependent place learning for spatial flexibility and provide a first systematic analysis on spatial flexibility in mice.

  1. Cholecystokinin from the entorhinal cortex enables neural plasticity in the auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Yu, Kai; Zhang, Zicong; Sun, Wenjian; Yang, Zhou; Feng, Jingyu; Chen, Xi; Liu, Chun-Hua; Wang, Haitao; Guo, Yi Ping; He, Jufang

    2014-03-01

    Patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe show deficits in forming new declarative memories but can still recall older memories, suggesting that the medial temporal lobe is necessary for encoding memories in the neocortex. Here, we found that cortical projection neurons in the perirhinal and entorhinal cortices were mostly immunopositive for cholecystokinin (CCK). Local infusion of CCK in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats induced plastic changes that enabled cortical neurons to potentiate their responses or to start responding to an auditory stimulus that was paired with a tone that robustly triggered action potentials. CCK infusion also enabled auditory neurons to start responding to a light stimulus that was paired with a noise burst. In vivo intracellular recordings in the auditory cortex showed that synaptic strength was potentiated after two pairings of presynaptic and postsynaptic activity in the presence of CCK. Infusion of a CCKB antagonist in the auditory cortex prevented the formation of a visuo-auditory association in awake rats. Finally, activation of the entorhinal cortex potentiated neuronal responses in the auditory cortex, which was suppressed by infusion of a CCKB antagonist. Together, these findings suggest that the medial temporal lobe influences neocortical plasticity via CCK-positive cortical projection neurons in the entorhinal cortex.

  2. High power laser for peening of metals enabling production technology

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J; Dane, C B; Hackel, L A; Harrison, J

    1998-06-11

    Laser shot peening, a surface treatment for metals, is known to induce compressive residual stresses of over 0.040 inch depth providing improved component resistance to various forms of failure. Additionally recent information suggests that thermal relaxation of the laser induced stress is significantly less than that experienced by other forms of surface stressing that involve significantly higher levels of cold work. We have developed a unique solid state laser technology employing Nd:glass slabs and phase conjugation that enables this process to move into high throughput production processing.

  3. Enabling New Operations Concepts for Lunar and Mars Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Maxwell, Theresa

    2005-01-01

    The planning and scheduling of human space activities is an expensive and time-consuming task that seldom provides the crew with the control, flexibility, or insight that they need. During the past thirty years, scheduling software has seen only incremental improvements; however, software limitations continue to prevent even evolutionary improvements in the operations concept that is used for human space missions. Space missions are planned on the ground long before they are executed in space, and the crew has little input or influence on the schedule. In recent years the crew has been presented with a job jar of activities that they can do whenever they have time, but the contents of the jar is limited to tasks that do not use scarce shared resources and do not have external timing constraints. Consequently, the crew has no control over the schedule of the majority of their own tasks. As humans venture farther from earth for longer durations, it will become imperative that they have the ability to plan and schedule not only their own activities, but also the unattended activities of the systems, equipment, and robots on the journey with them. Significant software breakthroughs are required to enable the change in the operations concept. The crew does not have the time to build or modify the schedule by hand. They only need to issue a request to schedule a task and the system should automatically do the rest. Of course, the crew should not be required to build the complete schedule. Controllers on the ground should contribute the models and schedules where they have the better knowledge. The system must allow multiple simultaneous users, some on earth and some in space. The Mission Operations Laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space flight Center has been researching and prototyping a modeling schema, scheduling engine, and system architecture that can enable the needed paradigm shift - it can make the crew autonomous. This schema and engine can be the core of a

  4. Smart phones: platform enabling modular, chemical, biological, and explosives sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finch, Amethist S.; Coppock, Matthew; Bickford, Justin R.; Conn, Marvin A.; Proctor, Thomas J.; Stratis-Cullum, Dimitra N.

    2013-05-01

    Reliable, robust, and portable technologies are needed for the rapid identification and detection of chemical, biological, and explosive (CBE) materials. A key to addressing the persistent threat to U.S. troops in the current war on terror is the rapid detection and identification of the precursor materials used in development of improvised explosive devices, homemade explosives, and bio-warfare agents. However, a universal methodology for detection and prevention of CBE materials in the use of these devices has proven difficult. Herein, we discuss our efforts towards the development of a modular, robust, inexpensive, pervasive, archival, and compact platform (android based smart phone) enabling the rapid detection of these materials.

  5. Intelligent security and privacy solutions for enabling personalized telepathology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment. PMID:21489199

  6. Enabling Large-Scale Biomedical Analysis in the Cloud

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Yu, Chin-Sheng; Lin, Yen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Recent progress in high-throughput instrumentations has led to an astonishing growth in both volume and complexity of biomedical data collected from various sources. The planet-size data brings serious challenges to the storage and computing technologies. Cloud computing is an alternative to crack the nut because it gives concurrent consideration to enable storage and high-performance computing on large-scale data. This work briefly introduces the data intensive computing system and summarizes existing cloud-based resources in bioinformatics. These developments and applications would facilitate biomedical research to make the vast amount of diversification data meaningful and usable. PMID:24288665

  7. Web-enabled medical databases: a threat to security?

    PubMed

    Herrin, J; Dempsey, B J

    2000-12-01

    An increasing number of clinical databases are being adapted to allow access through Internet protocols, particularly Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP). The World Wide Web (WWW) provides a user-friendly, standardized, broadly distributed database interface; at the same time, it may also present a threat to the security and confidentiality of patient data. However, there is little empirical evidence concerning such threats. Using publicly available records we estimate the additional risk of security violations due to web-enabling a database. The evidence, though limited, suggests that the additional risk may be small relative to more traditional security threats.

  8. Enabling a systems biology knowledgebase with gaggle and firegoose

    SciTech Connect

    Baliga, Nitin S.

    2014-12-12

    The overall goal of this project was to extend the existing Gaggle and Firegoose systems to develop an open-source technology that runs over the web and links desktop applications with many databases and software applications. This technology would enable researchers to incorporate workflows for data analysis that can be executed from this interface to other online applications. The four specific aims were to (1) provide one-click mapping of genes, proteins, and complexes across databases and species; (2) enable multiple simultaneous workflows; (3) expand sophisticated data analysis for online resources; and enhance open-source development of the Gaggle-Firegoose infrastructure. Gaggle is an open-source Java software system that integrates existing bioinformatics programs and data sources into a user-friendly, extensible environment to allow interactive exploration, visualization, and analysis of systems biology data. Firegoose is an extension to the Mozilla Firefox web browser that enables data transfer between websites and desktop tools including Gaggle. In the last phase of this funding period, we have made substantial progress on development and application of the Gaggle integration framework. We implemented the workspace to the Network Portal. Users can capture data from Firegoose and save them to the workspace. Users can create workflows to start multiple software components programmatically and pass data between them. Results of analysis can be saved to the cloud so that they can be easily restored on any machine. We also developed the Gaggle Chrome Goose, a plugin for the Google Chrome browser in tandem with an opencpu server in the Amazon EC2 cloud. This allows users to interactively perform data analysis on a single web page using the R packages deployed on the opencpu server. The cloud-based framework facilitates collaboration between researchers from multiple organizations. We have made a number of enhancements to the cmonkey2 application to enable and

  9. Technical innovation: Multidimensional computerized software enabled subtraction computed tomographic angiography.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Mona; Rosset, Antoine; Platon, Alexandra; Didier, Dominique; Becker, Christoph D; Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomographic angiography (CTA) is a frequent noninvasive alternative to digital subtraction angiography. We previously reported the development of a new subtraction software to overcome limitations of adjacent bone and calcification in CT angiographic subtraction. Our aim was to further develop and improve this fast and automated computerized software, universally available for free use and compatible with most CT scanners, thus enabling better delineation of vascular structures, artifact reduction, and shorter reading times with potential clinical benefits. This computer-based free software will be available as an open source in the next release of OsiriX at the Web site http://www.osirix-viewer.com.

  10. A Voice Enabled Procedure Browser for the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rayner, Manny; Chatzichrisafis, Nikos; Hockey, Beth Ann; Farrell, Kim; Renders, Jean-Michel

    2005-01-01

    Clarissa, an experimental voice enabled procedure browser that has recently been deployed on the International Space Station (ISS), is to the best of our knowledge the first spoken dialog system in space. This paper gives background on the system and the ISS procedures, then discusses the research developed to address three key problems: grammar-based speech recognition using the Regulus toolkit; SVM based methods for open microphone speech recognition; and robust side-effect free dialogue management for handling undos, corrections and confirmations.

  11. SixDOF position sensor: enabling manufacturing flexibility

    SciTech Connect

    Vann, C.S.

    1998-03-24

    A small, non-contact optical sensor invented by the author attaches to a robot (or other machines), enabling the robot to detect objects, adjust its alignment in all six degrees of freedom (SixDOF), and read a task from a code on the part. Thus, the SixDOF sensor provides robots more intelligence to operate autonomously and adapt to changes without human intervention. A description of the sensor is provided. Also, an operating arrangement of a robot using the SixDOF sensor is presented with performance results described.

  12. Enabling aspects of fiber optic acoustic sensing in harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxena, Indu F.

    2013-05-01

    The advantages of optical fiber sensing in harsh electromagnetic as well as physical stress environments make them uniquely suited for structural health monitoring and non-destructive testing. In addition to aerospace applications they are making a strong footprint in geophysical monitoring and exploration applications for higher temperature and pressure environments, due to the high temperature resilience of fused silica glass sensors. Deeper oil searches and geothermal exploration and harvesting are possible with these novel capabilities. Progress in components and technologies that are enabling these systems to be fieldworthy are reviewed and emerging techniques summarized that could leapfrog the system performance and reliability.

  13. Semantically Enabling Knowledge Representation of Metamorphic Petrology Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, P.; Fox, P. A.; Spear, F. S.; Adali, S.; Nguyen, C.; Hallett, B. W.; Horkley, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    More and more metamorphic petrology data is being collected around the world, and is now being organized together into different virtual data portals by means of virtual organizations. For example, there is the virtual data portal Petrological Database (PetDB, http://www.petdb.org) of the Ocean Floor that is organizing scientific information about geochemical data of ocean floor igneous and metamorphic rocks; and also The Metamorphic Petrology Database (MetPetDB, http://metpetdb.rpi.edu) that is being created by a global community of metamorphic petrologists in collaboration with software engineers and data managers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. The current focus is to provide the ability for scientists and researchers to register their data and search the databases for information regarding sample collections. What we present here is the next step in evolution of the MetPetDB portal, utilizing semantically enabled features such as discovery, data casting, faceted search, knowledge representation, and linked data as well as organizing information about the community and collaboration within the virtual community itself. We take the information that is currently represented in a relational database and make it available through web services, SPARQL endpoints, semantic and triple-stores where inferencing is enabled. We will be leveraging research that has taken place in virtual observatories, such as the Virtual Solar Terrestrial Observatory (VSTO) and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO); vocabulary work done in various communities such as Observations and Measurements (ISO 19156), FOAF (Friend of a Friend), Bibo (Bibliography Ontology), and domain specific ontologies; enabling provenance traces of samples and subsamples using the different provenance ontologies; and providing the much needed linking of data from the various research organizations into a common, collaborative virtual observatory. In addition to better

  14. CMS@home: Enabling Volunteer Computing Usage for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Borras, H.; Spiga, D.; Riahi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volunteer computing remains a largely untapped opportunistic resource for the LHC experiments. The use of virtualization in this domain was pioneered by the Test4Theory project and enabled the running of high energy particle physics simulations on home computers. This paper describes the model for CMS to run workloads using a similar volunteer computing platform. It is shown how the original approach is exploited to map onto the existing CMS workflow and identifies missing functionality along with the components and changes that are required. The final implementation of the prototype is detailed along with the identification of areas that would benefit from further development.

  15. Chandra enables study of x-ray jets

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The exquisite angular resolution of the Chandra x-ray telescope has enabled the detection and study of resolved x-ray jets in a wide variety of astronomical systems. Chandra has detected extended jets in our galaxy from protostars, symbiotic binaries, neutron star pulsars, black hole binaries, extragalactic jets in radio sources, and quasars. The x-ray data play an essential role in deducing the emission mechanism of the jets, in revealing the interaction of jets with the intergalactic or intracluster media, and in studying the energy generation budget of black holes. PMID:20378839

  16. Working Towards New Transformative Geoscience Analytics Enabled by Petascale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodcock, R.; Wyborn, L.

    2012-04-01

    Currently the top 10 supercomputers in the world are petascale and already exascale computers are being planned. Cloud computing facilities are becoming mainstream either as private or commercial investments. These computational developments will provide abundant opportunities for the earth science community to tackle the data deluge which has resulted from new instrumentation enabling data to be gathered at a greater rate and at higher resolution. Combined, the new computational environments should enable the earth sciences to be transformed. However, experience in Australia and elsewhere has shown that it is not easy to scale existing earth science methods, software and analytics to take advantage of the increased computational capacity that is now available. It is not simply a matter of 'transferring' current work practices to the new facilities: they have to be extensively 'transformed'. In particular new Geoscientific methods will need to be developed using advanced data mining, assimilation, machine learning and integration algorithms. Software will have to be capable of operating in highly parallelised environments, and will also need to be able to scale as the compute systems grow. Data access will have to improve and the earth science community needs to move from the file discovery, display and then locally download paradigm to self describing data cubes and data arrays that are available as online resources from either major data repositories or in the cloud. In the new transformed world, rather than analysing satellite data scene by scene, sensor agnostic data cubes of calibrated earth observation data will enable researchers to move across data from multiple sensors at varying spatial data resolutions. In using geophysics to characterise basement and cover, rather than analysing individual gridded airborne geophysical data sets, and then combining the results, petascale computing will enable analysis of multiple data types, collected at varying

  17. Nursing home quality of life: study of an enabling garden.

    PubMed

    Raske, Martha

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an in-depth evaluation of the impact of the construction and use of an enabling garden on resident quality of life in a rural nursing home. This qualitative study used interviews with residents, family members, staff members, and community volunteers who built the garden. Findings suggest the garden had positive effects on resident quality of life, particularly in terms of meaningful daily activities, enjoyment of daily life, resident relationships, and functional competency. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Intelligent security and privacy solutions for enabling personalized telepathology.

    PubMed

    Blobel, Bernd

    2011-03-30

    Starting with the paradigm change of health systems towards personalized health services, the paper introduces the technical paradigms to be met for enabling ubiquitous pHealth including ePathology. The system-theoretical, architecture-centric approach to mobile, pervasive and autonomous solutions has to be based on an open component system framework such as the Generic Component Model. The crucial challenge to be met for comprehensive interoperability is multi-disciplinary knowledge representation, which must be integrated into the aforementioned framework. The approach is demonstrated for security and privacy services fundamental for any eHealth or ePathology environment.

  19. Enabling Technologies for the Future of Chemical Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Technology is evolving at breakneck pace, changing the way we communicate, travel, find out information, and live our lives. Yet chemistry as a science has been slower to adapt to this rapidly shifting world. In this Outlook we use highlights from recent literature reports to describe how progresses in enabling technologies are altering this trend, permitting chemists to incorporate new advances into their work at all levels of the chemistry development cycle. We discuss the benefits and challenges that have arisen, impacts on academic–industry relationships, and future trends in the area of chemical synthesis. PMID:27163040

  20. Private loan enables co-op to mitigate 'rate shock'

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    An unsecured bank loan from the Irving Trust Company will enable the Sunflower Electric Cooperative to moderate the rate increase it would have needed to recover the costs of the new 296 MW Holcomb coal-fired plant. Simultaneous agreements with the Kansas Corporation Commission, the state commission, other state cooperatives, the Rural Electrification Administration, and with Sunflower's distribution systems will provide the cooperative with a $60 million revolving line of credit for five years. Other utilities are watching the Sunflower scheme to see if it has the potential for broader application in mitigating the rate increases caused by new plant construction.

  1. UTM Safely Enabling UAS Operations in Low-Altitude Airspace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kopardekar, Parimal H.

    2016-01-01

    Conduct research, development and testing to identify airspace operations requirements to enable large-scale visual and beyond visual line of sight UAS operations in the low-altitude airspace. Use build-a-little-test-a-little strategy remote areas to urban areas Low density: No traffic management required but understanding of airspace constraints. Cooperative traffic management: Understanding of airspace constraints and other operations. Manned and unmanned traffic management: Scalable and heterogeneous operations. UTM construct consistent with FAAs risk-based strategy. UTM research platform is used for simulations and tests. UTM offers path towards scalability.

  2. VisTrails : enabling interactive multiple-view visualizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Scheidegger, Carlos E.; Vo, Huy T.; Crossno, Patricia Joyce; Callahan, Steven P.; Bavoil, Louis; Freire, Juliana.; Silva, Claudio

    2005-04-01

    VisTrails is a new system that enables interactive multiple-view visualizations by simplifying the creation and maintenance of visualization pipelines, and by optimizing their execution. It provides a general infrastructure that can be combined with existing visualization systems and libraries. A key component of VisTrails is the visualization trail (vistrail), a formal specification of a pipeline. Unlike existing dataflow-based systems, in VisTrails there is a clear separation between the specification of a pipeline and its execution instances. This separation enables powerful scripting capabilities and provides a scalable mechanism for generating a large number of visualizations. VisTrails also leverages the vistrail specification to identify and avoid redundant operations. This optimization is especially useful while exploring multiple visualizations. When variations of the same pipeline need to be executed, substantial speedups can be obtained by caching the results of overlapping subsequences of the pipelines. In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of VisTrails, and show its effectiveness in different application scenarios.

  3. Automated NFC enabled rural healthcare for reliable patient record maintainance.

    PubMed

    Sethia, Divyashikha; Jain, Shantanu; Kakkar, Himadri

    2012-01-01

    Body sensor networks can be used for health monitoring of patients by expert medical doctors, in remote locations like rural areas in developing countries, and can also be used to provide medical aid to areas affected by natural disasters in any part of the world. An important issue to be addressed, when the number of patients is large, is to reliably maintain the patient records and have simple automated mobile applications for healthcare helpers to use. We propose an automated healthcare architecture using NFC-enabled mobile phones and patients having their patient ID on RFID tags. It utilizes NFC-enabled mobile phones to read the patient ID, followed by automated gathering of healthcare vital parameters from body sensors using Bluetooth, analyses the information and transmits it to a medical server for expert feedback. With limited hospital resources and less training requirement for healthcare helpers through simpler applications, this automation of healthcare processing can provide time effective and reliable mass health consultation from medical experts in remote locations.

  4. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Antonio; Palattella, Maria Rita; Soua, Ridha; Lamorte, Luca; Vilajosana, Xavier; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Engel, Thomas

    2016-12-06

    The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens' quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers' behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture.

  5. Space Partitioning for Privacy Enabled 3D City Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippovska, Y.; Wichmann, A.; Kada, M.

    2016-10-01

    Due to recent technological progress, data capturing and processing of highly detailed (3D) data has become extensive. And despite all prospects of potential uses, data that includes personal living spaces and public buildings can also be considered as a serious intrusion into people's privacy and a threat to security. It becomes especially critical if data is visible by the general public. Thus, a compromise is needed between open access to data and privacy requirements which can be very different for each application. As privacy is a complex and versatile topic, the focus of this work particularly lies on the visualization of 3D urban data sets. For the purpose of privacy enabled visualizations of 3D city models, we propose to partition the (living) spaces into privacy regions, each featuring its own level of anonymity. Within each region, the depicted 2D and 3D geometry and imagery is anonymized with cartographic generalization techniques. The underlying spatial partitioning is realized as a 2D map generated as a straight skeleton of the open space between buildings. The resulting privacy cells are then merged according to the privacy requirements associated with each building to form larger regions, their borderlines smoothed, and transition zones established between privacy regions to have a harmonious visual appearance. It is exemplarily demonstrated how the proposed method generates privacy enabled 3D city models.

  6. Fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and graphene oxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan; Zhang, Honglu; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei; Fan, Chunhai; Mi, Xianqiang

    2017-03-15

    During the past few years, graphene and graphene oxide (GO) have attracted numerous attentions for the potential applications in various fields from energy technology, biosensing to biomedical diagnosis and therapy due to their various functionalization, high volume surface ratio, unique physical and electrical properties. Among which, graphene and graphene oxide based fluorescent biosensors enabled by their fluorescence-quenching properties have attracted great interests. The fluorescence of fluorophore or dye labeled on probes (such as molecular beacon, aptamer, DNAzymes and so on) was quenched after adsorbed on to the surface of graphene. While in the present of the targets, due to the strong interactions between probes and targets, the probes were detached from the surface of graphene, generating dramatic fluorescence, which could be used as signals for detection of the targets. This strategy was simple and economy, together with great programmable abilities of probes; we could realize detection of different kinds of species. In this review, we first briefly introduced the history of graphene and graphene oxide, and then summarized the fluorescent biosensors enabled by graphene and GO, with a detailed account of the design mechanism and comparison with other nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes and gold nanoparticles). Following that, different sensing platforms for detection of DNAs, ions, biomolecules and pathogens or cells as well as the cytotoxicity issue of graphene and GO based in vivo biosensing were further discussed. We hope that this review would do some help to researchers who are interested in graphene related biosening research work.

  7. A Successful Infusion Process for Enabling Lunar Exploration Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Over, Ann P.; Klem, Mark K.; Motil, Susan M.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Vision for Space Exploration begins with a more reliable flight capability to the International Space Station and ends with sending humans to Mars. An important stepping stone on the path to Mars encompasses human missions to the Moon. There is little doubt throughout the stakeholder community that new technologies will be required to enable this Vision. However, there are many factors that influence the ability to successfully infuse any technology including the technical risk, requirement and development schedule maturity, and, funds available. This paper focuses on effective infusion processes that have been used recently for the technologies in development for the lunar exploration flight program, Constellation. Recent successes with Constellation customers are highlighted for the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP) Projects managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Following an overview of the technical context of both the flight program and the technology capability mapping, the process is described for how to effectively build an integrated technology infusion plan. The process starts with a sound risk development plan and is completed with an integrated project plan, including content, schedule and cost. In reality, the available resources for this development are going to change over time, necessitating some level of iteration in the planning. However, the driving process is based on the initial risk assessment, which changes only when the overall architecture changes, enabling some level of stability in the process.

  8. Wavelet-enabled progressive data Access and Storage Protocol (WASP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clyne, J.; Frank, L.; Lesperance, T.; Norton, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current practices for storing numerical simulation outputs hail from an era when the disparity between compute and I/O performance was not as great as it is today. The memory contents for every sample, computed at every grid point location, are simply saved at some prescribed temporal frequency. Though straightforward, this approach fails to take advantage of the coherency in neighboring grid points that invariably exists in numerical solutions to mathematical models. Exploiting such coherence is essential to digital multimedia; DVD-Video, digital cameras, streaming movies and audio are all possible today because of transform-based compression schemes that make substantial reductions in data possible by taking advantage of the strong correlation between adjacent samples in both space and time. Such methods can also be exploited to enable progressive data refinement in a manner akin to that used in ubiquitous digital mapping applications: views from far away are shown in coarsened detail to provide context, and can be progressively refined as the user zooms in on a localized region of interest. The NSF funded WASP project aims to provide a common, NetCDF-compatible software framework for supporting wavelet-based, multi-scale, progressive data, enabling interactive exploration of large data sets for the geoscience communities. This presentation will provide an overview of this work in progress to develop community cyber-infrastructure for the efficient analysis of very large data sets.

  9. BIM: enabling sustainability and asset management through knowledge management.

    PubMed

    Kivits, Robbert Anton; Furneaux, Craig

    2013-11-10

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry.

  10. Radio frequency identification enabled wireless sensing for intelligent food logistics.

    PubMed

    Zou, Zhuo; Chen, Qiang; Chen, Qing; Uysal, Ismail; Zheng, Lirong

    2014-06-13

    Future technologies and applications for the Internet of Things (IoT) will evolve the process of the food supply chain and create added value of business. Radio frequency identifications (RFIDs) and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have been considered as the key technological enablers. Intelligent tags, powered by autonomous energy, are attached on objects, networked by short-range wireless links, allowing the physical parameters such as temperatures and humidities as well as the location information to seamlessly integrate with the enterprise information system over the Internet. In this paper, challenges, considerations and design examples are reviewed from system, implementation and application perspectives, particularly with focus on intelligent packaging and logistics for the fresh food tracking and monitoring service. An IoT platform with a two-layer network architecture is introduced consisting of an asymmetric tag-reader link (RFID layer) and an ad-hoc link between readers (WSN layer), which are further connected to the Internet via cellular or Wi-Fi. Then, we provide insights into the enabling technology of RFID with sensing capabilities. Passive, semi-passive and active RFID solutions are discussed. In particular, we describe ultra-wideband radio RFID which has been considered as one of the most promising techniques for ultra-low-power and low-cost wireless sensing. Finally, an example is provided in the form of an application in fresh food tracking services and corresponding field testing results.

  11. Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market

    SciTech Connect

    Weeks, John; Pugh, Jerry

    2015-03-31

    In 2011, the DOE issued Funding Opportunity DE-FOA-0000554 as a means of addressing two major task areas identified by the Grid Integration Tech Team (GITT) that would help transition Electric vehicles from a market driven by early adopters and environmental supporters to a market with mainstream volumes. Per DE-FOA-0000554, these tasks were: To reduce the cost of Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE), thereby increasing the likelihood of the build out of EV charging infrastructure. The goal of increasing the number of EVSE available was to ease concerns over range anxiety, and promote the adoption of electric vehicles: To allow EV loads to be managed via the smart grid, thereby maintaining power quality, reliability and affordability, while protecting installed distribution equipment. In December of that year, the DOE awarded one of the two contracts targeted toward commercial EVSE to Eaton, and in early 2012, we began in earnest the process of developing a Smart Grid Enable L2 EVSE for the Commercial Market (hereafter known as the DOE Charger). The design of the Smart Grid Enabled L2 EVSE was based primarily on the FOA requirements along with input from the Electric Transportation Infrastructure product line (hereafter ETI) marketing team who aided in development of the customer requirements.

  12. Laser enabled Auger decay in argon atoms and dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranitovic, Predrag; Tong, Xiao-Min; Hogle, Craig W.; Toshima, N.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H. C.

    2011-05-01

    In rare-gas atoms, Auger decay in which an inner-valence shell ns hole is filled is normally not energetically allowed. However, in the presence of a strong laser field, a new laser-enabled Auger decay channel can open up to increase the double-ionization yield. This process is efficient at high laser intensities, and an ns hole can be filled within a few femtoseconds of its creation. This novel laser-enabled Auger decay (LEAD) process is of fundamental importance for controlling electron dynamics in atoms, molecules, and materials. We then use LEAD to investigate charge transfer in a Coulomb exploding Ar dimer. We can selectively double-ionize either the Ar dimer (threshold ~ 36 eV) or Ar atoms (threshold ~ 43.5 eV) using combined laser (1.5 eV) and XUV photons (36 eV) in a time-resolved fashion, and then comparing the kinetic energy releases. The Ar dimer can be double ionized when the 3s hole is filled by a 3p electron from either one of the two Ar atoms through LEAD. Theoretical calculation will support data taken using COLTRIMS and HHG.

  13. Resource optimization scheme for multimedia-enabled wireless mesh networks.

    PubMed

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-08-08

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment.

  14. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    PubMed

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  15. Enabling SDN in VANETs: What is the Impact on Security?

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Antonio; Palattella, Maria Rita; Soua, Ridha; Lamorte, Luca; Vilajosana, Xavier; Alonso-Zarate, Jesus; Engel, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The demand for safe and secure journeys over roads and highways has been growing at a tremendous pace over recent decades. At the same time, the smart city paradigm has emerged to improve citizens’ quality of life by developing the smart mobility concept. Vehicular Ad hoc NETworks (VANETs) are widely recognized to be instrumental in realizing such concept, by enabling appealing safety and infotainment services. Such networks come with their own set of challenges, which range from managing high node mobility to securing data and user privacy. The Software Defined Networking (SDN) paradigm has been identified as a suitable solution for dealing with the dynamic network environment, the increased number of connected devices, and the heterogeneity of applications. While some preliminary investigations have been already conducted to check the applicability of the SDN paradigm to VANETs, and its presumed benefits for managing resources and mobility, it is still unclear what impact SDN will have on security and privacy. Security is a relevant issue in VANETs, because of the impact that threats can have on drivers’ behavior and quality of life. This paper opens a discussion on the security threats that future SDN-enabled VANETs will have to face, and investigates how SDN could be beneficial in building new countermeasures. The analysis is conducted in real use cases (smart parking, smart grid of electric vehicles, platooning, and emergency services), which are expected to be among the vehicular applications that will most benefit from introducing an SDN architecture. PMID:27929443

  16. Nano-imaging enabled via self-assembly

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, Euan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Imaging object details with length scales below approximately 200 nm has been historically difficult for conventional microscope objective lenses because of their inability to resolve features smaller than one-half the optical wavelength. Here we review some of the recent approaches to surpass this limit by harnessing self-assembly as a fabrication mechanism. Self-assembly can be used to form individual nano- and micro-lenses, as well as to form extended arrays of such lenses. These lenses have been shown to enable imaging with resolutions as small as 50 nm half-pitch using visible light, which is well below the Abbe diffraction limit. Furthermore, self-assembled nano-lenses can be used to boost contrast and signal levels from small nano-particles, enabling them to be detected relative to background noise. Finally, alternative nano-imaging applications of self-assembly are discussed, including three-dimensional imaging, enhanced coupling from light-emitting diodes, and the fabrication of contrast agents such as quantum dots and nanoparticles. PMID:25506387

  17. Synaptic Plasticity Enables Adaptive Self-Tuning Critical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Stepp, Nigel; Plenz, Dietmar; Srinivasa, Narayan

    2015-01-01

    During rest, the mammalian cortex displays spontaneous neural activity. Spiking of single neurons during rest has been described as irregular and asynchronous. In contrast, recent in vivo and in vitro population measures of spontaneous activity, using the LFP, EEG, MEG or fMRI suggest that the default state of the cortex is critical, manifested by spontaneous, scale-invariant, cascades of activity known as neuronal avalanches. Criticality keeps a network poised for optimal information processing, but this view seems to be difficult to reconcile with apparently irregular single neuron spiking. Here, we simulate a 10,000 neuron, deterministic, plastic network of spiking neurons. We show that a combination of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity enables these networks to exhibit criticality in the face of intrinsic, i.e. self-sustained, asynchronous spiking. Brief external perturbations lead to adaptive, long-term modification of intrinsic network connectivity through long-term excitatory plasticity, whereas long-term inhibitory plasticity enables rapid self-tuning of the network back to a critical state. The critical state is characterized by a branching parameter oscillating around unity, a critical exponent close to -3/2 and a long tail distribution of a self-similarity parameter between 0.5 and 1. PMID:25590427

  18. Germanium on silicon to enable integrated photonic circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, F. Kenneth; Walsh, Kevin M.; Benken, Alexander; Jones, John; Averett, Kent; Diggs, Darnell E.; Tan, Loon-Seng; Mou, Shin; Grote, James G.

    2013-09-01

    Electronic circuits alone cannot fully meet future requirements for speed, size, and weight of many sensor systems, such as digital radar technology and as a result, interest in integrated photonic circuits (IPCs) and the hybridization of electronics with photonics is growing. However, many IPC components such as photodetectors are not presently ideal, but germanium has many advantages to enable higher performance designs that can be better incorporated into an IPC. For example, Ge photodetectors offer an enormous responsivity to laser wavelengths near 1.55μm at high frequencies to 40GHz, and they can be easily fabricated as part of a planar silicon processing schedule. At the same time, germanium has enormous potential for enabling 1.55 micron lasers on silicon and for enhancing the performance of silicon modulators. Our new effort has begun by studying the deposition of germanium on silicon and beginning to develop methods for processing these films. In initial experiments comparing several common chemical solutions for selective etching under patterned positive photoresist, it was found that hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at or below room temperature (20 C) produced the sharpest patterns in the Ge films; H2O2 at a higher temperature (50 C) resulted in the greatest lateral etching.

  19. Enabling Interoperable and Selective Data Sharing among Social Networking Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongwan; Lopes, Rodrigo

    With the widespread use of social networking (SN) sites and even introduction of a social component in non-social oriented services, there is a growing concern over user privacy in general, how to handle and share user profiles across SN sites in particular. Although there have been several proprietary or open source-based approaches to unifying the creation of third party applications, the availability and retrieval of user profile information are still limited to the site where the third party application is run, mostly devoid of the support for data interoperability. In this paper we propose an approach to enabling interopearable and selective data sharing among SN sites. To support selective data sharing, we discuss an authenticated dictionary (ADT)-based credential which enables a user to share only a subset of her information certified by external SN sites with applications running on an SN site. For interoperable data sharing, we propose an extension to the OpenSocial API so that it can provide an open source-based framework for allowing the ADT-based credential to be used seamlessly among different SN sites.

  20. ACES: An Enabling Technology for Next Generation Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crocker, Andrew M.; Wuerl, Adam M.; Andrews, Jason E.; Andrews, Dana G.

    2004-02-01

    Andrews Space has developed the ``Alchemist'' Air Collection and Enrichment System (ACES), a dual-mode propulsion system that enables safe, economical launch systems that take off and land horizontally. Alchemist generates liquid oxygen through separation of atmospheric air using the refrigeration capacity of liquid hydrogen. The key benefit of Alchemist is that it minimizes vehicle takeoff weight. All internal and NASA-funded activities have shown that ACES, previously proposed for hypersonic combined cycle RLVs, is a higher payoff, lower-risk technology if LOX generation is performed while the vehicle cruises subsonically. Andrews Space has developed the Alchemist concept from a small system study to viable Next Generation launch system technology, conducting not only feasibility studies but also related hardware tests, and it has planned a detailed risk reduction program which employs an experienced, proven contractor team. Andrews also has participated in preliminary studies of an evolvable Next Generation vehicle architecture-enabled by Alchemist ACES-which could meet civil, military, and commercial space requirements within two decades.

  1. A Registry Framework Enabling Patient-Centred Care.

    PubMed

    Bellgard, Matthew I; Napier, Kathryn; Render, Lee; Radochonski, Maciej; Lamont, Leanne; Graham, Caroline; Wilton, Steve D; Fletcher, Sue; Goldblatt, Jack; Hunter, Adam A; Weeramanthri, Tarun

    2015-01-01

    Clinical decisions rely on expert knowledge that draws on quality patient phenotypic and physiological data. In this regard, systems that can support patient-centric care are essential. Patient registries are a key component of patient-centre care and can come in many forms such as disease-specific, recruitment, clinical, contact, post market and surveillance. There are, however, a number of significant challenges to overcome in order to maximise the utility of these information management systems to facilitate improved patient-centred care. Registries need to be harmonised regionally, nationally and internationally. However, the majority are implemented as standalone systems without consideration for data standards or system interoperability. Hence the task of harmonisation can become daunting. Fortunately, there are strategies to address this. In this paper, a disease registry framework is outlined that enables efficient deployment of national and international registries that can be modified dynamically as registry requirements evolve. This framework provides a basis for the development and implementation of data standards and enables patients to seamlessly belong to multiple registries. Other significant advances include the ability for registry curators to create and manage registries themselves without the need to contract software developers, and the concept of a registry description language for ease of registry template sharing.

  2. Wearable sensors and systems. From enabling technology to clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Bonato, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    It is now more than 50 years since the time when clinical monitoring of individuals in the home and community settings was first envisioned. Until recently, technologies to enable such vision were lacking. However, wearable sensors and systems developed over the past decade have provided the tools to finally implement and deploy technology with the capabilities required by researchers in the field of patients' home monitoring. As discussed, potential applications of these technologies include the early diagnosis of diseases such as congestive heart failure, the prevention of chronic conditions such as diabetes, improved clinical management of neurodegenerative conditions such as Parkinson's disease, and the ability to promptly respond to emergency situations such as seizures in patients with epilepsy and cardiac arrest in subjects undergoing cardiovascular monitoring. Current research efforts are now focused on the development of more complex systems for home monitoring of individuals with a variety of preclinical and clinical conditions. Recent research on the clinical assessment of wearable technology promises to deliver methodologies that are expected to lead to clinical adoption within the next five to ten years. In particular, combining home robots and wearable technology is likely to be a key step toward achieving the goal of effectively monitoring patients in the home. These efforts to merge home robots and wearable technology are expected to enable a new generation of complex systems with the ability to monitor subjects' status, facilitate the administration of interventions, and provide an invaluable tool to respond to emergency situations.

  3. Enabling NVM for Data-Intensive Scientific Services

    SciTech Connect

    Carns, Philip; Jenkins, John; Seo, Sangmin; Snyder, Shane; Ross, Rob; Cranor, Chuck; Atchley, Scott; Hoefler, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Specialized, transient data services are playing an increasingly prominent role in data-intensive scientific computing. These services offer flexible, on-demand pairing of applications with storage hardware using semantics that are optimized for the problem domain. Concurrent with this trend, upcoming scientific computing and big data systems will be deployed with emerging NVM technology to achieve the highest possible price/productivity ratio. Clearly, therefore, we must develop techniques to facilitate the confluence of specialized data services and NVM technology. In this work we explore how to enable the composition of NVM resources within transient distributed services while still retaining their essential performance characteristics. Our approach involves eschewing the conventional distributed file system model and instead projecting NVM devices as remote microservices that leverage user-level threads, RPC services, RMA-enabled network transports, and persistent memory libraries in order to maximize performance. We describe a prototype system that incorporates these concepts, evaluate its performance for key workloads on an exemplar system, and discuss how the system can be leveraged as a component of future data-intensive architectures.

  4. Enabling Scalable Data Analytics for LSST and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becla, Jacek; Wang, D. L.

    2014-04-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST; http://lsst.org) is a large-aperture, wide-field, ground-based survey expected to start construction this summer. It will survey half the sky every few nights in six optical bands from 320 to 1050 nm, enabling exploration of a wide range of astrophysical questions, ranging from discovering "killer" asteroids, to examining the nature of dark energy. The LSST will produce on average 15 terabytes of data per night, yielding an (uncompressed) data set of over 100 petabytes at the end of its 10-year mission. Dedicated HPC facilities will process the image data in near real time, with full-dataset reprocessings on annual scale. A sophisticated data management system will enable a wide range of spatial and temporal analyses, including computationally intensive scientific investigations in multi-dimensional space over the entire data set. The talk will describe the driving requirements, assumptions made, and design trade offs that were considered in developing the baseline architecture for the LSST database. Details of its prototype implementation, Qserv, will be given, highlighting its features, status, and potential for usage outside LSST and even outside astronomy.

  5. Plasma Modeling Enabled Technology Development Empowered by Fundamental Scattering Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kushner, Mark J.

    2016-05-01

    Technology development increasingly relies on modeling to speed the innovation cycle. This is particularly true for systems using low temperature plasmas (LTPs) and their role in enabling energy efficient processes with minimal environmental impact. In the innovation cycle, LTP modeling supports investigation of fundamental processes that seed the cycle, optimization of newly developed technologies, and prediction of performance of unbuilt systems for new applications. Although proof-of-principle modeling may be performed for idealized systems in simple gases, technology development must address physically complex systems that use complex gas mixtures that now may be multi-phase (e.g., in contact with liquids). The variety of fundamental electron and ion scattering, and radiation transport data (FSRD) required for this modeling increases as the innovation cycle progresses, while the accuracy required of that data depends on the intended outcome. In all cases, the fidelity, depth and impact of the modeling depends on the availability of FSRD. Modeling and technology development are, in fact, empowered by the availability and robustness of FSRD. In this talk, examples of the impact of and requirements for FSRD in the innovation cycle enabled by plasma modeling will be discussed using results from multidimensional and global models. Examples of fundamental studies and technology optimization will focus on microelectronics fabrication and on optically pumped lasers. Modeling of systems as yet unbuilt will address the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with liquids. Work supported by DOE Office of Fusion Energy Science and the National Science Foundation.

  6. Enabling Enrichment Analysis with the Human Disease Ontology

    PubMed Central

    LePendu, Paea; Musen, Mark A.; Shah, Nigam H.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced statistical methods used to analyze high-throughput data such as gene-expression assays result in long lists of “significant genes.” One way to gain insight into the significance of altered expression levels is to determine whether Gene Ontology (GO) terms associated with a particular biological process, molecular function, or cellular component are over- or under-represented in the set of genes deemed significant. This process, referred to as enrichment analysis, profiles a gene-set, and is widely used to make sense of the results of high-throughput experiments. Our goal is to develop and apply general enrichment analysis methods to profile other sets of interest, such as patient cohorts from the electronic medical record, using a variety of ontologies including SNOMED CT, MedDRA, RxNorm, and others. Although it is possible to perform enrichment analysis using ontologies other than the GO, a key pre-requisite is the availability of a background set of annotations to enable the enrichment calculation. In the case of the GO, this background set is provided by the Gene Ontology Annotations. In the current work, we describe: (i) a general method that uses hand-curated GO annotations as a starting point for creating background datasets for enrichment analysis using other ontologies; and (ii) a gene–disease background annotation set—that enables disease-based enrichment—to demonstrate feasibility of our method. PMID:21550421

  7. Oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables creative cognition in humans.

    PubMed

    De Dreu, Carsten K W; Baas, Matthijs; Roskes, Marieke; Sligte, Daniel J; Ebstein, Richard P; Chew, Soo Hong; Tong, Terry; Jiang, Yushi; Mayseless, Naama; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2014-08-01

    Creativity enables humans to adapt flexibly to changing circumstances, to manage complex social relations and to survive and prosper through social, technological and medical innovations. In humans, chronic, trait-based as well as temporary, state-based approach orientation has been linked to increased capacity for divergent rather than convergent thinking, to more global and holistic processing styles and to more original ideation and creative problem solving. Here, we link creative cognition to oxytocin, a hypothalamic neuropeptide known to up-regulate approach orientation in both animals and humans. Study 1 (N = 492) showed that plasma oxytocin predicts novelty-seeking temperament. Study 2 (N = 110) revealed that genotype differences in a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene rs1042778 predicted creative ideation, with GG/GT-carriers being more original than TT-carriers. Using double-blind placebo-controlled between-subjects designs, Studies 3-6 (N = 191) finally showed that intranasal oxytocin (vs matching placebo) reduced analytical reasoning, and increased holistic processing, divergent thinking and creative performance. We conclude that the oxytonergic circuitry sustains and enables the day-to-day creativity humans need for survival and prosperity and discuss implications.

  8. BIM: Enabling Sustainability and Asset Management through Knowledge Management

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Building Information Modeling (BIM) is the use of virtual building information models to develop building design solutions and design documentation and to analyse construction processes. Recent advances in IT have enabled advanced knowledge management, which in turn facilitates sustainability and improves asset management in the civil construction industry. There are several important qualifiers and some disadvantages of the current suite of technologies. This paper outlines the benefits, enablers, and barriers associated with BIM and makes suggestions about how these issues may be addressed. The paper highlights the advantages of BIM, particularly the increased utility and speed, enhanced fault finding in all construction phases, and enhanced collaborations and visualisation of data. The paper additionally identifies a range of issues concerning the implementation of BIM as follows: IP, liability, risks, and contracts and the authenticity of users. Implementing BIM requires investment in new technology, skills training, and development of new ways of collaboration and Trade Practices concerns. However, when these challenges are overcome, BIM as a new information technology promises a new level of collaborative engineering knowledge management, designed to facilitate sustainability and asset management issues in design, construction, asset management practices, and eventually decommissioning for the civil engineering industry. PMID:24324392

  9. Sustainable Ecosystems: Enabled by Supply and Demand Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Chandrakant D.

    Continued population growth, coupled with increased per capita consumption of resources, poses a challenge to the quality of life of current and future generations. We cannot expect to meet the future needs of society simply by extending existing infrastructures. The necessary transformation can be enabled by a sustainable IT ecosystem made up of billions of service-oriented client devices and thousands of data centers. The IT ecosystem, with data centers at its core and pervasive measurement at the edges, will need to be seamlessly integrated into future communities to enable need-based provisioning of critical resources. Such a transformation requires a systemic approach based on supply and demand of resources. A supply side perspective necessitates using local resources of available energy, alongside design and management that minimizes the energy required to extract, manufacture, mitigate waste, transport, operate and reclaim components. The demand side perspective requires provisioning resources based on the needs of the user by using flexible building blocks, pervasive sensing, communications, knowledge discovery and policy-based control. This paper presents a systemic framework for supply-demand management in IT - in particular, on building sustainable data centers - and suggests how the approach can be extended to manage resources at the scale of urban infrastructures.

  10. A simple physical mechanism enables homeostasis in primitive cells

    PubMed Central

    Engelhart, Aaron E.; Adamala, Katarzyna; Szostak, Jack W.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of homeostatic mechanisms that enabled maintenance of an intracellular steady-state during growth was critical to the advent of cellular life. Here, we show that concentration-dependent reversible binding of short oligonucleotides, of both specific and random sequence, can modulate ribozyme activity. In both cases, catalysis is inhibited at high concentrations, and dilution activates the ribozyme via inhibitor dissociation, thus maintaining near-constant ribozyme specific activity throughout protocell growth. To mimic the result of RNA synthesis within non-growing protocells, we co-encapsulated high concentrations of ribozyme and oligonucleotides within fatty acid vesicles; ribozyme activity was inhibited. Following vesicle growth, the resulting internal dilution produced ribozyme activation. This simple physical system enables a primitive homeostatic behavior: the maintenance of constant ribozyme activity per unit volume during protocell volume changes. We suggest such systems, wherein short oligonucleotides reversibly inhibit functional RNAs, could have preceded sophisticated modern RNA regulatory mechanisms, such as those involving miRNAs. PMID:27102678

  11. Mammalian enabled (Mena) is a critical regulator of cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Frédérick; Belmonte, Stephen L; Ram, Rashmi; Noujaim, Sami F; Dunaevsky, Olga; Protack, Tricia L; Jalife, Jose; Todd Massey, H; Gertler, Frank B; Blaxall, Burns C

    2011-05-01

    Mammalian enabled (Mena) of the Drosophila enabled/vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein gene family is a cytoskeletal protein implicated in actin regulation and cell motility. Cardiac Mena expression is enriched in intercalated discs (ICD), the critical intercellular communication nexus between adjacent muscle cells. We previously identified Mena gene expression to be a key predictor of human and murine heart failure (HF). To determine the in vivo function of Mena in the heart, we assessed Mena protein expression in multiple HF models and characterized the effects of genetic Mena deletion on cardiac structure and function. Immunoblot analysis revealed significant upregulation of Mena protein expression in left ventricle tissue from patients with end-stage HF, calsequestrin-overexpressing mice, and isoproterenol-infused mice. Characterization of the baseline cardiac function of adult Mena knockout mice (Mena(-/-)) via echocardiography demonstrated persistent cardiac dysfunction, including a significant reduction in percent fractional shortening compared with wild-type littermates. Electrocardiogram PR and QRS intervals were significantly prolonged in Mena(-/-) mice, manifested by slowed conduction on optical mapping studies. Ultrastructural analysis of Mena(-/-) hearts revealed disrupted organization and widening of ICD structures, mislocalization of the gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) to the lateral borders of cardiomyoycytes, and increased Cx43 expression. Furthermore, the expression of vinculin (an adherens junction protein) was significantly reduced in Mena(-/-) mice. We report for the first time that genetic ablation of Mena results in cardiac dysfunction, highlighted by diminished contractile performance, disrupted ICD structure, and slowed electrical conduction.

  12. Gaze-enabled Egocentric Video Summarization via Constrained Submodular Maximization

    PubMed Central

    Xut, Jia; Mukherjee, Lopamudra; Li, Yin; Warner, Jamieson; Rehg, James M.; Singht, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    With the proliferation of wearable cameras, the number of videos of users documenting their personal lives using such devices is rapidly increasing. Since such videos may span hours, there is an important need for mechanisms that represent the information content in a compact form (i.e., shorter videos which are more easily browsable/sharable). Motivated by these applications, this paper focuses on the problem of egocentric video summarization. Such videos are usually continuous with significant camera shake and other quality issues. Because of these reasons, there is growing consensus that direct application of standard video summarization tools to such data yields unsatisfactory performance. In this paper, we demonstrate that using gaze tracking information (such as fixation and saccade) significantly helps the summarization task. It allows meaningful comparison of different image frames and enables deriving personalized summaries (gaze provides a sense of the camera wearer's intent). We formulate a summarization model which captures common-sense properties of a good summary, and show that it can be solved as a submodular function maximization with partition matroid constraints, opening the door to a rich body of work from combinatorial optimization. We evaluate our approach on a new gaze-enabled egocentric video dataset (over 15 hours), which will be a valuable standalone resource. PMID:26973428

  13. Resource Optimization Scheme for Multimedia-Enabled Wireless Mesh Networks

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Amjad; Ahmed, Muhammad Ejaz; Piran, Md. Jalil; Suh, Doug Young

    2014-01-01

    Wireless mesh networking is a promising technology that can support numerous multimedia applications. Multimedia applications have stringent quality of service (QoS) requirements, i.e., bandwidth, delay, jitter, and packet loss ratio. Enabling such QoS-demanding applications over wireless mesh networks (WMNs) require QoS provisioning routing protocols that lead to the network resource underutilization problem. Moreover, random topology deployment leads to have some unused network resources. Therefore, resource optimization is one of the most critical design issues in multi-hop, multi-radio WMNs enabled with multimedia applications. Resource optimization has been studied extensively in the literature for wireless Ad Hoc and sensor networks, but existing studies have not considered resource underutilization issues caused by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. Finding a QoS-provisioned path in wireless mesh networks is an NP complete problem. In this paper, we propose a novel Integer Linear Programming (ILP) optimization model to reconstruct the optimal connected mesh backbone topology with a minimum number of links and relay nodes which satisfies the given end-to-end QoS demands for multimedia traffic and identification of extra resources, while maintaining redundancy. We further propose a polynomial time heuristic algorithm called Link and Node Removal Considering Residual Capacity and Traffic Demands (LNR-RCTD). Simulation studies prove that our heuristic algorithm provides near-optimal results and saves about 20% of resources from being wasted by QoS provisioning routing and random topology deployment. PMID:25111241

  14. Semantically-Enabled Sensor Plug & Play for the Sensor Web

    PubMed Central

    Bröring, Arne; Maúe, Patrick; Janowicz, Krzysztof; Nüst, Daniel; Malewski, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Environmental sensors have continuously improved by becoming smaller, cheaper, and more intelligent over the past years. As consequence of these technological advancements, sensors are increasingly deployed to monitor our environment. The large variety of available sensor types with often incompatible protocols complicates the integration of sensors into observing systems. The standardized Web service interfaces and data encodings defined within OGC’s Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) framework make sensors available over the Web and hide the heterogeneous sensor protocols from applications. So far, the SWE framework does not describe how to integrate sensors on-the-fly with minimal human intervention. The driver software which enables access to sensors has to be implemented and the measured sensor data has to be manually mapped to the SWE models. In this article we introduce a Sensor Plug & Play infrastructure for the Sensor Web by combining (1) semantic matchmaking functionality, (2) a publish/subscribe mechanism underlying the SensorWeb, as well as (3) a model for the declarative description of sensor interfaces which serves as a generic driver mechanism. We implement and evaluate our approach by applying it to an oil spill scenario. The matchmaking is realized using existing ontologies and reasoning engines and provides a strong case for the semantic integration capabilities provided by Semantic Web research. PMID:22164033

  15. GVE-Based Dynamics and Control for Formation Flying Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breger, Louis; How, Jonathan P.

    2004-01-01

    Formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space missions. This paper presents extensions to the equations of relative motion expressed in Keplerian orbital elements, including new initialization techniques for general formation configurations. A new linear time-varying form of the equations of relative motion is developed from Gauss Variational Equations and used in a model predictive controller. The linearizing assumptions for these equations are shown to be consistent with typical formation flying scenarios. Several linear, convex initialization techniques are presented, as well as a general, decentralized method for coordinating a tetrahedral formation using differential orbital elements. Control methods are validated using a commercial numerical propagator.

  16. Novel Tween 20 derivatives enable the formation of efficient pH-sensitive drug delivery vehicles for human hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Masotti, Andrea; Vicennati, Paola; Alisi, Anna; Marianecci, Carlotta; Rinaldi, Federica; Carafa, Maria; Ortaggi, Giancarlo

    2010-05-15

    We describe the synthesis, the physicochemical characterization and the biological evaluation of three novel pH-sensitive systems prepared derivatizing polysorbate 20 (Tween 20) with glycine, N-methyl-glycine and N,N-dimethyl-glycine (TW20-GLY, TW20-MMG and TW20-DMG). These derivatives form pH-sensitive vesicles and translocate small molecules into cells. The reported systems are efficient drug delivery systems for human hepatoblastoma cells.

  17. Boronate Complex Formation with Dopa Containing Mussel Adhesive Protein Retards pH-Induced Oxidation and Enables Adhesion to Mica

    PubMed Central

    Israelachvili, Jacob N.; Chen, Yunfei; Waite, J. Herbert

    2014-01-01

    The biochemistry of mussel adhesion has inspired the design of surface primers, adhesives, coatings and gels for technological applications. These mussel-inspired systems often focus on incorporating the amino acid 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-L-alanine (Dopa) or a catecholic analog into a polymer. Unfortunately, effective use of Dopa is compromised by its susceptibility to auto-oxidation at neutral pH. Oxidation can lead to loss of adhesive function and undesired covalent cross-linking. Mussel foot protein 5 (Mfp-5), which contains ∼30 mole % Dopa, is a superb adhesive under reducing conditions but becomes nonadhesive after pH-induced oxidation. Here we report that the bidentate complexation of borate by Dopa to form a catecholato-boronate can be exploited to retard oxidation. Although exposure of Mfp-5 to neutral pH typically oxidizes Dopa, resulting in a>95% decrease in adhesion, inclusion of borate retards oxidation at the same pH. Remarkably, this Dopa-boronate complex dissociates upon contact with mica to allow for a reversible Dopa-mediated adhesion. The borate protection strategy allows for Dopa redox stability and maintained adhesive function in an otherwise oxidizing environment. PMID:25303409

  18. Dynamic DMF Binding in MOF-5 Enables the Formation of Metastable Cobalt-Substituted MOF-5 Analogues

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Multinuclear solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, and other complementary evidence reveal that the coordination environment around the Zn2+ ions in MOF-5, one of the most iconic materials among metal–organic frameworks (MOFs), is not rigid. The Zn2+ ions bind solvent molecules, thereby increasing their coordination number, and dynamically dissociate from the framework itself. On average, one ion in each cluster has at least one coordinated N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) molecule, such that the formula of as-synthesized MOF-5 is defined as Zn4O(BDC)3(DMF)x (x = 1–2). Understanding the dynamic behavior of MOF-5 leads to a rational low-temperature cation exchange approach for the synthesis of metastable Zn4–xCoxO(terephthalate)3 (x > 1) materials, which have not been accessible through typical high-temperature solvothermal routes thus far. PMID:27162979

  19. A Security Architecture for Grid-enabling OGC Web Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelini, Valerio; Petronzio, Luca

    2010-05-01

    In the proposed presentation we describe an architectural solution for enabling a secure access to Grids and possibly other large scale on-demand processing infrastructures through OGC (Open Geospatial Consortium) Web Services (OWS). This work has been carried out in the context of the security thread of the G-OWS Working Group. G-OWS (gLite enablement of OGC Web Services) is an international open initiative started in 2008 by the European CYCLOPS , GENESI-DR, and DORII Project Consortia in order to collect/coordinate experiences in the enablement of OWS's on top of the gLite Grid middleware. G-OWS investigates the problem of the development of Spatial Data and Information Infrastructures (SDI and SII) based on the Grid/Cloud capacity in order to enable Earth Science applications and tools. Concerning security issues, the integration of OWS compliant infrastructures and gLite Grids needs to address relevant challenges, due to their respective design principles. In fact OWS's are part of a Web based architecture that demands security aspects to other specifications, whereas the gLite middleware implements the Grid paradigm with a strong security model (the gLite Grid Security Infrastructure: GSI). In our work we propose a Security Architectural Framework allowing the seamless use of Grid-enabled OGC Web Services through the federation of existing security systems (mostly web based) with the gLite GSI. This is made possible mediating between different security realms, whose mutual trust is established in advance during the deployment of the system itself. Our architecture is composed of three different security tiers: the user's security system, a specific G-OWS security system, and the gLite Grid Security Infrastructure. Applying the separation-of-concerns principle, each of these tiers is responsible for controlling the access to a well-defined resource set, respectively: the user's organization resources, the geospatial resources and services, and the Grid

  20. Highly Stable Sodium Batteries Enabled by Functional Ionic Polymer Membranes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Shuya; Choudhury, Snehashis; Xu, Jun; Nath, Pooja; Tu, Zhengyuan; Archer, Lynden A

    2017-01-23

    A sodium metal anode protected by an ion-rich polymeric membrane exhibits enhanced stability and high-Columbic efficiency cycling. Formed in situ via electropolymerization of functional imidazolium-type ionic liquid monomers, the polymer membrane protects the metal against parasitic reactions with electrolyte and, for fundamental reasons, inhibits dendrite formation and growth. The effectiveness of the membrane is demonstrated using direct visualization of sodium electrodeposition.

  1. Transforming growth factor-{beta} enables NFATc1 expression during osteoclastogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, S.W. Evans, K.E.; Lovibond, A.C.

    2008-02-01

    Osteoclastogenesis is dependent on distinct stimuli that prime and activate osteoclast differentiation. One cytokine needed to prime monocytes for osteoclastogenesis is TGF-{beta}, which enables and augments RANKL and TNF-{alpha}-induced osteoclast differentiation. However, the precise time-period during which this occurs and the molecular mechanism mediating this action are unknown. We report here TGF-{beta} prime monocytes for osteoclast formation within 24 h by regulating expression of NFATc1, a key osteoclastic transcription factor. TGF-{beta} directly induces cytoplasmic NFATc1 expression within 24 h, but is unable to stimulate NFATc1 nuclear translocation. Furthermore, RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression is dependent on the presence of TGF-{beta} during the early stages of osteoclastogenesis. Similarly, TNF-{alpha} activates osteoclastogenesis by stimulating translocation of TGF-{beta}-induced NFATc1. In light of these findings, it is apparent that osteoclast formation is dependent on coordinated interactions between TGF-{beta} and RANKL/TNF-{alpha} that regulate the expression and intracellular distribution of NFATc1 during early stages of osteoclast differentiation.

  2. Development of a Platform to Enable Fully Automated Cross-Titration Experiments.

    PubMed

    Cassaday, Jason; Finley, Michael; Squadroni, Brian; Jezequel-Sur, Sylvie; Rauch, Albert; Gajera, Bharti; Uebele, Victor; Hermes, Jeffrey; Zuck, Paul

    2017-04-01

    In the triage of hits from a high-throughput screening campaign or during the optimization of a lead compound, it is relatively routine to test compounds at multiple concentrations to determine potency and maximal effect. Additional follow-up experiments, such as agonist shift, can be quite valuable in ascertaining compound mechanism of action (MOA). However, these experiments require cross-titration of a test compound with the activating ligand of the receptor requiring 100-200 data points, severely limiting the number tested in MOA assays in a screening triage. We describe a process to enhance the throughput of such cross-titration experiments through the integration of Hewlett Packard's D300 digital dispenser onto one of our robotics platforms to enable on-the-fly cross-titration of compounds in a 1536-well plate format. The process handles all the compound management and data tracking, as well as the biological assay. The process relies heavily on in-house-built software and hardware, and uses our proprietary control software for the platform. Using this system, we were able to automate the cross-titration of compounds for both positive and negative allosteric modulators of two different G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) using two distinct assay detection formats, IP1 and Ca(2+) detection, on nearly 100 compounds for each target.

  3. Procedural apprenticeship in school science: Constructivist enabling of connoisseurship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, J. Lawrence

    2000-11-01

    In many parts of the world, school science, especially at the secondary school level, is a sort of selection and training camp for future scientists and engineers. For most students, their general lack of cultural capital (Apple, 1990) minimizes their opportunities to survive the rapid coverage of large volumes of abstract, decontextualized laws, theories, and inventions so typical of school science. Most graduates and drop-outs become relatively scientifically and technologically illiterate. They either have forgotten or have confused conceptions of scientific and technological knowledge; often view science and technology as relatively certain, unbiased, and benign with respect to effects on society and the environment; and lack resources necessary to effectively judge products and processes of science and technology or, crucially, to create their own explanations for and changes to phenomena. Citizens with illiteracy to this extent may have little control over their own thoughts and actions and be prey to whims of those who control knowledge, its production and dissemination. Curriculum frameworks are required that enable all students to achieve their maximum potential literacy and, as well, to create their own knowledge, to develop in directions unique to their needs, interests, abilities, and perspectives; that is, to become self-actualized. This latter goal can, in part, be achieved through apprenticeship education in schools, such that students acquire a measure of scientific and technological connoisseurship - expertise enabling them to conduct open-ended scientific investigations and invention projects of their design. In collaboration with five teachers of secondary school science, such a framework was, indeed, developed, and field-tested. Through a spiraling, cyclical process involving synchronous reconstruction of conceptual and procedural understandings, evidence suggests students were able to carry out experiments, studies, and tests of their

  4. A Toolkit to Enable Hydrocarbon Conversion in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Eva K.; Schipper, Kira; Bongaerts, Nadine; Voges, Mathias J.; Abate, Alessandro; Wahl, S. Aljoscha

    2012-01-01

    This work puts forward a toolkit that enables the conversion of alkanes by Escherichia coli and presents a proof of principle of its applicability. The toolkit consists of multiple standard interchangeable parts (BioBricks)9 addressing the conversion of alkanes, regulation of gene expression and survival in toxic hydrocarbon-rich environments. A three-step pathway for alkane degradation was implemented in E. coli to enable the conversion of medium- and long-chain alkanes to their respective alkanols, alkanals and ultimately alkanoic-acids. The latter were metabolized via the native β-oxidation pathway. To facilitate the oxidation of medium-chain alkanes (C5-C13) and cycloalkanes (C5-C8), four genes (alkB2, rubA3, rubA4and rubB) of the alkane hydroxylase system from Gordonia sp. TF68,21 were transformed into E. coli. For the conversion of long-chain alkanes (C15-C36), theladA gene from Geobacillus thermodenitrificans was implemented. For the required further steps of the degradation process, ADH and ALDH (originating from G. thermodenitrificans) were introduced10,11. The activity was measured by resting cell assays. For each oxidative step, enzyme activity was observed. To optimize the process efficiency, the expression was only induced under low glucose conditions: a substrate-regulated promoter, pCaiF, was used. pCaiF is present in E. coli K12 and regulates the expression of the genes involved in the degradation of non-glucose carbon sources. The last part of the toolkit - targeting survival - was implemented using solvent tolerance genes, PhPFDα and β, both from Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. Organic solvents can induce cell stress and decreased survivability by negatively affecting protein folding. As chaperones, PhPFDα and β improve the protein folding process e.g. under the presence of alkanes. The expression of these genes led to an improved hydrocarbon tolerance shown by an increased growth rate (up to 50%) in the presences of 10% n-hexane in the culture

  5. Fuel properties to enable lifted-flame combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Eric

    2015-03-15

    The Fuel Properties to Enable Lifted-Flame Combustion project responded directly to solicitation DE-FOA-0000239 AOI 1A, Fuels and Lubricants for Advanced Combustion Regimes. This subtopic was intended to encompass clean and highly-efficient, liquid-fueled combustion engines to achieve extremely low engine-out nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) as a target and similar efficiency as state-of-the-art direct injection diesel engines. The intent of this project was to identify how fuel properties can be used to achieve controllable Leaner Lifted Flame Combustion (LLFC) with low NOx and PM emissions. Specifically, this project was expected to identify and test key fuel properties to enable LLFC and their compatibility with current fuel systems and to enhance combustion models to capture the effect of fuel properties on advanced combustion. Successful demonstration of LLFC may reduce the need for after treatment devices, thereby reducing costs and improving thermal efficiency. The project team consisted of key technical personnel from Ford Motor Company (FMC), the University of Wisconsin-Madison (UW), Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories (LLNL). Each partner had key roles in achieving project objectives. FMC investigated fuel properties relating to LLFC and sooting tendency. Together, FMC and UW developed and integrated 3D combustion models to capture fuel property combustion effects. FMC used these modeling results to develop a combustion system and define fuel properties to support a single-cylinder demonstration of fuel-enabled LLFC. UW investigated modeling the flame characteristics and emissions behavior of different fuels, including those with different cetane number and oxygen content. SNL led spray combustion experiments to quantify the effect of key fuel properties on combustion characteristics critical for LLFC, as well as single cylinder optical engine experiments to improve fundamental

  6. Exploration of the Moon to Enable Lunar and Planetary Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neal, C. R.

    2014-12-01

    The Moon represents an enabling Solar System exploration asset because of its proximity, resources, and size. Its location has facilitated robotic missions from 5 different space agencies this century. The proximity of the Moon has stimulated commercial space activity, which is critical for sustainable space exploration. Since 2000, a new view of the Moon is coming into focus, which is very different from that of the 20th century. The documented presence of volatiles on the lunar surface, coupled with mature ilmenite-rich regolith locations, represent known resources that could be used for life support on the lunar surface for extended human stays, as well as fuel for robotic and human exploration deeper into the Solar System. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to explore the terrestrial planets and Solar System processes. For example, it is an end-member in terrestrial planetary body differentiation. Ever since the return of the first lunar samples by Apollo 11, the magma ocean concept was developed and has been applied to both Earth and Mars. Because of the small size of the Moon, planetary differentiation was halted at an early (primary?) stage. However, we still know very little about the lunar interior, despite the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiments, and to understand the structure of the Moon will require establishing a global lunar geophysical network, something Apollo did not achieve. Also, constraining the impact chronology of the Moon allows the surfaces of other terrestrial planets to be dated and the cratering history of the inner Solar System to be constrained. The Moon also represents a natural laboratory to study space weathering of airless bodies. It is apparent, then, that human and robotic missions to the Moon will enable both science and exploration. For example, the next step in resource exploration is prospecting on the surface those deposits identified from orbit to understand the yield that can be expected. Such prospecting will also

  7. Star Formation in Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Topics addressed include: star formation; galactic infrared emission; molecular clouds; OB star luminosity; dust grains; IRAS observations; galactic disks; stellar formation in Magellanic clouds; irregular galaxies; spiral galaxies; starbursts; morphology of galactic centers; and far-infrared observations.

  8. Enabling Campus Grids with Open Science Grid Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzel, Derek; Bockelman, Brian; Fraser, Dan; Pordes, Ruth; Swanson, David

    2011-12-01

    The Open Science Grid is a recognized key component of the US national cyber-infrastructure enabling scientific discovery through advanced high throughput computing. The principles and techniques that underlie the Open Science Grid can also be applied to Campus Grids since many of the requirements are the same, even if the implementation technologies differ. We find five requirements for a campus grid: trust relationships, job submission, resource independence, accounting, and data management. The Holland Computing Center's campus grid at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln was designed to fulfill the requirements of a campus grid. A bridging daemon was designed to bring non-Condor clusters into a grid managed by Condor. Condor features which make it possible to bridge Condor sites into a multi-campus grid have been exploited at the Holland Computing Center as well.

  9. An Enabling Technology for New Planning and Scheduling Paradigms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaap, John; Davis, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Night Projects Directorate at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is developing a new planning and scheduling environment and a new scheduling algorithm to enable a paradigm shift in planning and scheduling concepts. Over the past 33 years Marshall has developed and evolved a paradigm for generating payload timelines for Skylab, Spacelab, various other Shuttle payloads, and the International Space Station. The current paradigm starts by collecting the requirements, called ?ask models," from the scientists and technologists for the tasks that are to be scheduled. Because of shortcomings in the current modeling schema, some requirements are entered as notes. Next, a cadre with knowledge of vehicle and hardware modifies these models to encompass and be compatible with the hardware model; again, notes are added when the modeling schema does not provide a better way to represent the requirements. Finally, the models are modified to be compatible with the scheduling engine. Then the models are submitted to the scheduling engine for automatic scheduling or, when requirements are expressed in notes, the timeline is built manually. A future paradigm would provide a scheduling engine that accepts separate science models and hardware models. The modeling schema would have the capability to represent all the requirements without resorting to notes. Furthermore, the scheduling engine would not require that the models be modified to account for the capabilities (limitations) of the scheduling engine. The enabling technology under development at Marshall has three major components: (1) A new modeling schema allows expressing all the requirements of the tasks without resorting to notes or awkward contrivances. The chosen modeling schema is both maximally expressive and easy to use. It utilizes graphical methods to show hierarchies of task constraints and networks of temporal relationships. (2) A new scheduling algorithm automatically schedules the models without the

  10. Nanomaterial-Enabled Dry Electrodes for Electrophysiological Sensing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shanshan; Zhu, Yong

    2016-04-01

    Long-term, continuous, and unsupervised tracking of physiological data is becoming increasingly attractive for health/wellness monitoring and ailment treatment. Nanomaterials have recently attracted extensive attention as building blocks for flexible/stretchable conductors and are thus promising candidates for electrophysiological electrodes. Here we provide a review on nanomaterial-enabled dry electrodes for electrophysiological sensing, focusing on electrocardiography (ECG). The dry electrodes can be classified into contact surface electrodes, contact-penetrating electrodes, and noncontact capacitive electrodes. Different types of electrodes including their corresponding equivalent electrode-skin interface models and the sources of the noise are first introduced, followed by a review on recent developments of dry ECG electrodes based on various nanomaterials, including metallic nanowires, metallic nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, and graphene. Their fabrication processes and performances in terms of electrode-skin impedance, signal-to-noise ratio, resistance to motion artifacts, skin compatibility, and long-term stability are discussed.

  11. Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources.

    PubMed

    Gerrelli, Dianne; Lisgo, Steven; Copp, Andrew J; Lindsay, Susan

    2015-09-15

    Congenital anomalies are a significant burden on human health. Understanding the developmental origins of such anomalies is key to developing potential therapies. The Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR), based in London and Newcastle, UK, was established to provide embryonic and fetal material for a variety of human studies ranging from single gene expression analysis to large-scale genomic/transcriptomic studies. Increasingly, HDBR material is enabling the derivation of stem cell lines and contributing towards developments in tissue engineering. Use of the HDBR and other fetal tissue resources discussed here will contribute to the long-term aims of understanding the causation and pathogenesis of congenital anomalies, and developing new methods for their treatment and prevention.

  12. Specialized equipment enabled completions with large coiled tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, R.W.; Conrad, B.

    1996-02-19

    Specialized equipment enabled successful well completions in Oman with large 3{1/2}-inch coiled tubing. Conventional drilling or completion rigs were not needed. Although the use of 3{1/2}-inch coiled tubing to complete wells is relatively new, it is gaining widespread industry application. One Middle East operating company felt that if downhole completion equipment could be successfully run using coiled tubing, greater cost efficiency, both in initial deployment and in maintenance, could be derived. The paper lists some of the technical considerations for these assumptions. The long-term advantages regarding production and well maintenance cannot yet be determined, but experience in Oman has confirmed the belief that large coiled tubing completions can be technically achieved.

  13. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry.

    PubMed

    Cravotto, Giancarlo; Caporaso, Marina; Jicsinszky, Laszlo; Martina, Katia

    2016-01-01

    The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs) is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols.

  14. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Jonathan D; Walper, Scott A; Melde, Brian J; Daniele, Michael A; Stenger, David A

    2017-01-19

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L(-1).

  15. Enabling On-Demand Scientific Workflows on a Federated Cloud

    SciTech Connect

    Garzoglio, Gabriele

    2014-11-05

    The Fermilab Grid and Cloud Computing Department and the KISTI Global Science experimental Data hub Center are working on a multi-year Collaborative Research and Development Agreement.With the knowledge developed in the first year on how to provision and manage a federation of virtual machines through Cloud management systems. In this second year, we expanded the work on provisioning and federation, increasing both scale and diversity of solutions, and we started to build on-demand services on the established fabric, introducing the paradigm of Platform as a Service to assist with the execution of scientific workflows. We have enabled scientific workflows of stakeholders to run on multiple cloud resources at the scale of 1,000 concurrent machines. The demonstrations have been in the areas of (a) Virtual Infrastructure Automation and Provisioning, (b) Interoperability and Federation of Cloud Resources, and (c) On-demand Services for ScientificWorkflows.

  16. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Dispenser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  17. Systems and Methods for RFID-Enabled Pressure Sensing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  18. System and Method for RFID-Enabled Information Collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor); Lin, Gregory Y. (Inventor); Kennedy, Timothy F. (Inventor); Ngo, Phong H. (Inventor); Byerly, Diane (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Methods, apparatuses and systems for radio frequency identification (RFID)-enabled information collection are disclosed, including an enclosure, a collector coupled to the enclosure, an interrogator, a processor, and one or more RFID field sensors, each having an individual identification, disposed within the enclosure. In operation, the interrogator transmits an incident signal to the collector, causing the collector to generate an electromagnetic field within the enclosure. The electromagnetic field is affected by one or more influences. RFID sensors respond to the electromagnetic field by transmitting reflected signals containing the individual identifications of the responding RFID sensors to the interrogator. The interrogator receives the reflected signals, measures one or more returned signal strength indications ("RSSI") of the reflected signals and sends the RSSI measurements and identification of the responding RFID sensors to the processor to determine one or more facts about the influences. Other embodiments are also described.

  19. Transgenic Mouse Models Enabling Photolabeling of Individual Neurons In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Manuel; Bathellier, Brice; Fontinha, Bruno; Pliota, Pinelopi; Haubensak, Wulf; Rumpel, Simon

    2013-01-01

    One of the biggest tasks in neuroscience is to explain activity patterns of individual neurons during behavior by their cellular characteristics and their connectivity within the neuronal network. To greatly facilitate linking in vivo experiments with a more detailed molecular or physiological analysis in vitro, we have generated and characterized genetically modified mice expressing photoactivatable GFP (PA-GFP) that allow conditional photolabeling of individual neurons. Repeated photolabeling at the soma reveals basic morphological features due to diffusion of activated PA-GFP into the dendrites. Neurons photolabeled in vivo can be re-identified in acute brain slices and targeted for electrophysiological recordings. We demonstrate the advantages of PA-GFP expressing mice by the correlation of in vivo firing rates of individual neurons with their expression levels of the immediate early gene c-fos. Generally, the mouse models described in this study enable the combination of various analytical approaches to characterize living cells, also beyond the neurosciences. PMID:23626779

  20. Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA's Constellation System: Interim Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    In 2004 NASA initiated studies of advanced science mission concepts known as the Vision Missions and inspired by a series of NASA roadmap activities conducted in 2003. Also in 2004 NASA began implementation of the first phases of a new space exploration policy, the Vision for Space Exploration. This implementation effort included development of a new human-carrying spacecraft, known as Orion, and two new launch vehicles, the Ares I and Ares V rockets.collectively called the Constellation System. NASA asked the National Research Council (NRC) to evaluate the science opportunities enabled by the Constellation System (see Preface) and to produce an interim report on a short time schedule and a final report by November 2008. The committee notes, however, that the Constellation System and its Orion and Ares vehicles have been justified by NASA and selected in order to enable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit, and not to enable science missions. This interim report of the Committee on Science Opportunities Enabled by NASA s Constellation System evaluates the 11 Vision Mission studies presented to it and groups them into two categories: those more deserving of future study, and those less deserving of future study. Although its statement of task also refers to Earth science missions, the committee points out that the Vision Missions effort was focused on future astronomy, heliophysics, and planetary exploration and did not include any Earth science studies because, at the time, the NRC was conducting the first Earth science decadal survey, and funding Earth science studies as part of the Vision Missions effort would have interfered with that process. Consequently, no Earth science missions are evaluated in this interim report. However, the committee will evaluate any Earth science mission proposal submitted in response to its request for information issued in March 2008 (see Appendix A). The committee based its evaluation of the preexisting Vision Missions studies

  1. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US–Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms. PMID:24743552

  2. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L−1. PMID:28102316

  3. XOA: Web-Enabled Cross-Ontological Analytics

    SciTech Connect

    Riensche, Roderick M.; Baddeley, Bob; Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Posse, Christian; Gopalan, Banu

    2007-07-09

    The paper being submitted (as an "extended abstract" prior to conference acceptance) provides a technical description of our proof-of-concept prototype for the XOA method. Abstract: To address meaningful questions, scientists need to relate information across diverse classification schemes such as ontologies, terminologies and thesauri. These resources typically address a single knowledge domain at a time and are not cross-indexed. Information that is germane to the same object may therefore remain unlinked with consequent loss of knowledge discovery across disciplines and even sub-domains of the same discipline. We propose to address these problems by fostering semantic interoperability through the development of ontology alignment web services capable of enabling cross-scale knowledge discovery, and demonstrate a specific application of such an approach to the biomedical domain.

  4. Hybrid enabled thin film metrology using XPS and optical

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaid, Alok; Iddawela, Givantha; Mahendrakar, Sridhar; Lenahan, Michael; Hossain, Mainul; Timoney, Padraig; Bello, Abner F.; Bozdog, Cornel; Pois, Heath; Lee, Wei Ti; Klare, Mark; Kwan, Michael; Kang, Byung Cheol; Isbester, Paul; Sendelbach, Matthew; Yellai, Naren; Dasari, Prasad; Larson, Tom

    2016-03-01

    Complexity of process steps integration and material systems for next-generation technology nodes is reaching unprecedented levels, the appetite for higher sampling rates is on the rise, while the process window continues to shrink. Current thickness metrology specifications reach as low as 0.1A for total error budget - breathing new life into an old paradigm with lower visibility for past few metrology nodes: accuracy. Furthermore, for advance nodes there is growing demand to measure film thickness and composition on devices/product instead of surrogate planar simpler pads. Here we extend our earlier work in Hybrid Metrology to the combination of X-Ray based reference technologies (high performance) with optical high volume manufacturing (HVM) workhorse metrology (high throughput). Our stated goal is: put more "eyes" on the wafer (higher sampling) and enable move to films on pattern structure (control what matters). Examples of 1X front-end applications are used to setup and validate the benefits.

  5. Early precursors and enabling skills of reading acquisition.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Ingvar

    2009-12-01

    Research on early linguistic precursors and enabling skills of reading acquisition among young children is reviewed. Language development starts early in infancy when the child learns to categorize the speech sounds according to the pattern typical of the mother tongue. Equipped with these sound categories the child is ready to learn to segment words from the sound stream and to understand and to use words. The precise phonological representation of words will facilitate the important development of phonological awareness, a basic prerequisite for reading acquisition. This paper reviews some of my longitudinal research and training studies indicating the causal direction of the relation between phonological awareness and reading and includes some ongoing studies, where gender differences, socio-economic factors, dose-response-effects and motivational factors are explored. Preventive and remedial implications of the findings are pointed out. Finally, the complexity of the causal relationships between different aspects of early language development, including genetic influences and later reading is pointed out.

  6. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  7. Securing the Use of RFID-Enabled Banknotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Santi; Roig, Concepció; Valls, Magda

    The use of RFID tags (radio-frequency identification tags) in banknotes presents a main challenge that may discourage their usage: how to avoid a possible attacker to count the amount of tags. Such a drawback is faced in this paper by designing an appropriate Medium Access Control (MAC) for this scenario. A MAC is the set of mechanisms and protocols that allows devices to share the communication channel. In a RFID system, a MAC protocol makes it possible for several tags to communicate within a common environment with the RFID reader. In this paper, we present a new MAC protocol that is suitable for ensuring security in the use of RFID-enabled banknotes. It also guarantees privacy and fits scalability requirements when the number of tags is increasing.

  8. TCIA: An information resource to enable open science.

    PubMed

    Prior, Fred W; Clark, Ken; Commean, Paul; Freymann, John; Jaffe, Carl; Kirby, Justin; Moore, Stephen; Smith, Kirk; Tarbox, Lawrence; Vendt, Bruce; Marquez, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Reusable, publicly available data is a pillar of open science. The Cancer Imaging Archive (TCIA) is an open image archive service supporting cancer research. TCIA collects, de-identifies, curates and manages rich collections of oncology image data. Image data sets have been contributed by 28 institutions and additional image collections are underway. Since June of 2011, more than 2,000 users have registered to search and access data from this freely available resource. TCIA encourages and supports cancer-related open science communities by hosting and managing the image archive, providing project wiki space and searchable metadata repositories. The success of TCIA is measured by the number of active research projects it enables (>40) and the number of scientific publications and presentations that are produced using data from TCIA collections (39).

  9. Propulsion with a Reciprocal Stroke Enabled by Nonlinear Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arratia, Paulo; Shen, Xiaoning; Keim, Nathan

    2012-11-01

    In a fluid that is entirely viscous, a reciprocal swimming stroke results in no net displacement. However, complex fluids such as mucus or dense suspensions exhibit nonlinear rheology even at low Reynolds number. This nonlinear fluid response can lead to time-reversal symmetry breaking which can enable a reciprocal swimmer to move. Here we demonstrate this principle with a reciprocally-actuated artificial propeller in two viscoelastic fluids: a polymeric fluid with elasticity but negligible shear thinning, and a wormlike micellar fluid that exhibits shear thinning and shear-bands. Propulsion is absent in Newtonian fluid, and is strongest in the shear-thinning micellar fluid. We report on the role of elasticity (Deborah number) in setting the speed of propulsion, and of body shape and boundary conditions in setting its direction. This work is supported by the Army Research Office through award W911NF-11-1-0488.

  10. Protective jacket enabling decision support for workers in cold climate.

    PubMed

    Seeberg, Trine M; Vardoy, Astrid-Sofie B; Austad, Hanne O; Wiggen, Oystein; Stenersen, Henning S; Liverud, Anders E; Storholmen, Tore Christian B; Faerevik, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The cold and harsh climate in the High North represents a threat to safety and work performance. The aim of this study was to show that sensors integrated in clothing can provide information that can improve decision support for workers in cold climate without disturbing the user. Here, a wireless demonstrator consisting of a working jacket with integrated temperature, humidity and activity sensors has been developed. Preliminary results indicate that the demonstrator can provide easy accessible information about the thermal conditions at the site of the worker and local cooling effects of extremities. The demonstrator has the ability to distinguish between activity and rest, and enables implementation of more sophisticated sensor fusion algorithms to assess work load and pre-defined activities. This information can be used in an enhanced safety perspective as an improved tool to advice outdoor work control for workers in cold climate.

  11. Web-Altairis: An Internet-Enabled Ground System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Phil; Coleman, Jason; Gemoets, Darren; Hughes, Kevin

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes Web-Altairis, an Internet-enabled ground system software package funded by the Advanced Automation and Architectures Branch (Code 588) of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. Web-Altairis supports the trend towards "lights out" ground systems, where the control center is unattended and problems are resolved by remote operators. This client/server software runs on most popular platforms and provides for remote data visualization using the rich functionality of the VisAGE toolkit. Web-Altairis also supports satellite commanding over the Internet. This paper describes the structure of Web-Altairis and VisAGE, the underlying technologies, the provisions for security, and our experiences in developing and testing the software.

  12. ESIM_DSN Web-Enabled Distributed Simulation Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Novotny, John

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, the eSim(sup DSN) approach to achieve distributed simulation capability using the Internet is presented. With this approach a complete simulation can be assembled from component subsystems that run on different computers. The subsystems interact with each other via the Internet The distributed simulation uses a hub-and-spoke type network topology. It provides the ability to dynamically link simulation subsystem models to different computers as well as the ability to assign a particular model to each computer. A proof-of-concept demonstrator is also presented. The eSim(sup DSN) demonstrator can be accessed at http://www.jsc.draper.com/esim which hosts various examples of Web enabled simulations.

  13. Enhanced CARES Software Enables Improved Ceramic Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1997-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center has developed award-winning software that enables American industry to establish the reliability and life of brittle material (e.g., ceramic, intermetallic, graphite) structures in a wide variety of 21st century applications. The CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) series of software is successfully used by numerous engineers in industrial, academic, and government organizations as an essential element of the structural design and material selection processes. The latest version of this software, CARES/Life, provides a general- purpose design tool that predicts the probability of failure of a ceramic component as a function of its time in service. CARES/Life was recently enhanced by adding new modules designed to improve functionality and user-friendliness. In addition, a beta version of the newly-developed CARES/Creep program (for determining the creep life of monolithic ceramic components) has just been released to selected organizations.

  14. CHOIS: enabling grid technologies for obesity surveillance and control.

    PubMed

    Datta, Arun K; Jackson, Victoria; Nandkumar, Radha; Sproat, Jill; Zhu, Weimo; Krahling, Heidi

    2010-01-01

    CHOIS, the Child Health and Obesity Informatics System, is developed using open source portal technology with three-tiered Open Grid Services Architecture, an accepted standard for accessing Grid Computing and other services under Open Grid Collaborating Environments (OGCE). Its web application provides web based forms with 112 different fields to enter data ranging from demographic, height & weight for BMI, to genomic information. Automatic computation of BMI, BMI percentile and the risk of obesity alert are embedded into this system. After successful testing of the prototype, CHOIS is now ready to be used by the Illinois Department of Human Services (DHS) for obesity surveillance. This HIPAA & FERPA compliant secure system, integrating large databases in a high performance grid computing environment, enables school-nurse to collect data on school children and report statistical and surveillance information on BMI to identify those at-risk and obese for obesity prevention and intervention programs.

  15. Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Balci, Osman; Polat, Emre O; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-03-20

    Radar-absorbing materials are used in stealth technologies for concealment of an object from radar detection. Resistive and/or magnetic composite materials are used to reduce the backscattered microwave signals. Inability to control electrical properties of these materials, however, hinders the realization of active camouflage systems. Here, using large-area graphene electrodes, we demonstrate active surfaces that enable electrical control of reflection, transmission and absorption of microwaves. Instead of tuning bulk material property, our strategy relies on electrostatic tuning of the charge density on an atomically thin electrode, which operates as a tunable metal in microwave frequencies. Notably, we report large-area adaptive radar-absorbing surfaces with tunable reflection suppression ratio up to 50 dB with operation voltages <5 V. Using the developed surfaces, we demonstrate various device architectures including pixelated and curved surfaces. Our results provide a significant step in realization of active camouflage systems in microwave frequencies.

  16. Graphene-enabled electrically switchable radar-absorbing surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Osman; Polat, Emre O.; Kakenov, Nurbek; Kocabas, Coskun

    2015-03-01

    Radar-absorbing materials are used in stealth technologies for concealment of an object from radar detection. Resistive and/or magnetic composite materials are used to reduce the backscattered microwave signals. Inability to control electrical properties of these materials, however, hinders the realization of active camouflage systems. Here, using large-area graphene electrodes, we demonstrate active surfaces that enable electrical control of reflection, transmission and absorption of microwaves. Instead of tuning bulk material property, our strategy relies on electrostatic tuning of the charge density on an atomically thin electrode, which operates as a tunable metal in microwave frequencies. Notably, we report large-area adaptive radar-absorbing surfaces with tunable reflection suppression ratio up to 50 dB with operation voltages <5 V. Using the developed surfaces, we demonstrate various device architectures including pixelated and curved surfaces. Our results provide a significant step in realization of active camouflage systems in microwave frequencies.

  17. Subnanowatt carbon nanotube complementary logic enabled by threshold voltage control.

    PubMed

    Geier, Michael L; Prabhumirashi, Pradyumna L; McMorrow, Julian J; Xu, Weichao; Seo, Jung-Woo T; Everaerts, Ken; Kim, Chris H; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2013-10-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate thin-film single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) logic devices with subnanowatt static power consumption and full rail-to-rail voltage transfer characteristics as is required for logic gate cascading. These results are enabled by a local metal gate structure that achieves enhancement-mode p-type and n-type SWCNT thin-film transistors (TFTs) with widely separated and symmetric threshold voltages. These complementary SWCNT TFTs are integrated to demonstrate CMOS inverter, NAND, and NOR logic gates at supply voltages as low as 0.8 V with ideal rail-to-rail operation, subnanowatt static power consumption, high gain, and excellent noise immunity. This work provides a direct pathway for solution processable, large area, power efficient SWCNT advanced logic circuits and systems.

  18. Capability Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William; Merida, Sofia; Adumitroaie, Virgil; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future missions are ready as needed. The responsibilities include development of a Strategic Plan (Antonsson, E., 2005). As part of the planning effort, a structured approach to technology prioritization, based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) (Weisbin, C.R., 2004) team, was developed. The purpose of this paper is to describe this approach and present its current status relative to the JPL technology investment.

  19. Temporal Investment Strategy to Enable JPL Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lincoln, William P.; Hua, Hook; Weisbin, Charles R.

    2006-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) formulates and conducts deep space missions for NASA (the National Aeronautics and Space Administration). The Chief Technologist of JPL has the responsibility for strategic planning of the laboratory's advanced technology program to assure that the required technological capabilities to enable future JPL deep space missions are ready as needed; as such he is responsible for the development of a Strategic Plan. As part of the planning effort, he has supported the development of a structured approach to technology prioritization based upon the work of the START (Strategic Assessment of Risk and Technology) team. A major innovation reported here is the addition of a temporal model that supports scheduling of technology development as a function of time. The JPL Strategic Technology Plan divides the required capabilities into 13 strategic themes. The results reported here represent the analysis of an initial seven.

  20. Spatial propagation of excitonic coherence enables ratcheted energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Hoyer, Stephan; Ishizaki, Akihito; Whaley, K Birgitta

    2012-10-01

    Experimental evidence shows that a variety of photosynthetic systems can preserve quantum beats in the process of electronic energy transfer, even at room temperature. However, whether this quantum coherence arises in vivo and whether it has any biological function have remained unclear. Here we present a theoretical model that suggests that the creation and recreation of coherence under natural conditions is ubiquitous. Our model allows us to theoretically demonstrate a mechanism for a ratchet effect enabled by quantum coherence, in a design inspired by an energy transfer pathway in the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex of the green sulfur bacteria. This suggests a possible biological role for coherent oscillations in spatially directing energy transfer. Our results emphasize the importance of analyzing long-range energy transfer in terms of transfer between intercomplex coupling states rather than between site or exciton states.

  1. Web Enabled Collaborative Climate Visualization in the Earth System Grid

    SciTech Connect

    Kendall, Wesley; Glatter, Markus; Huang, Jian; Hoffman, Forrest M; Bernholdt, David E

    2008-01-01

    The recent advances in high performance computing, storage and networking technologies have enabled fundamental changes in current climate research. While sharing datasets and results is already common practice in climate modeling, direct sharing of the analysis and visualization process is also becoming feasible. We report our efforts to develop a capability, coupled with the Earth System Grid (ESG), for sharing an entire executable workspace of visualization among collaborators. Evolutionary history of visualizations of research findings can also be captured and shared. The data intensive nature of the visualization system requires using several advanced techniques of visualization and parallel computing. With visualization clients implemented through standard web browsers, however, the ensuing complexity is made transparent to end-users. We demonstrate the efficacy of our system using cutting edge climate datasets.

  2. Using EPICS enabled industrial hardware for upgrading control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bjorkland, Eric A; Veeramani, Arun; Debelle, Thierry

    2009-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory has been working with National Instruments (NI) and Cosy lab to implement EPICS Input Output Controller (IOC) software that runs directly on NI CompactRIO Real Time Controller (RTC) and communicates with NI LabVIEW through a shared memory interface. In this presentation, we will discuss our current progress in upgrading the control system at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Centre (LANSCE) and what we have learned about integrating CompactRIO into large experimental physics facilities. We will also discuss the implications of using Channel Access Server for LabVIEW which will enable more commercial hardware platforms to be used in upgrading existing facilities or in commissioning new ones.

  3. Sequestration of ubiquitous dietary derived pigments enables mitochondrial light sensing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dan; Robinson, Kiera; Mihai, Doina M.; Washington, Ilyas

    2016-01-01

    Animals alter their physiological states in response to their environment. We show that the introduction of a chlorophyll metabolite, a light-absorbing pigment widely consumed in human diets, to Caenorhabditis elegans results in animals whose fat mass can be modulated by exposure to light, despite the worm consuming the same amount of food. In the presence of the chlorophyll metabolite, exposing the worms to light increased adenosine triphosphate, reduced oxidative damage, and increased median life spans, without an effect on animal reproduction. Mice fed a dietary metabolite of chlorophyll and exposed to light, over several months, showed reductions in systemic inflammation as measured by plasma α-macroglobulin. We propose that dietary chlorophyll metabolites can enable mitochondria to use light as an environmental cue, by absorbing light and transferring the energy to mitochondrial coenzyme Q. PMID:27731322

  4. Pituitary transplantation: cyclosporine enables transplantation across a minor histocompatibility barrier.

    PubMed

    Tulipan, N B; Huang, S; Allen, G S

    1986-03-01

    Pituitary glands from neonatal donors were transplanted to the median eminence of hypophysectomized adult rats. Rats with transplants were then treated for 2 weeks with the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporine. For 5 weeks thereafter, blood was drawn at regular intervals for determination of serum thyroxine, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone. Cyclosporine-treated recipients of grafts with minor histocompatibility differences had normal levels of thyroxine and prolactin, whereas untreated animals did not. In addition, the treated animals responded to oophorectomy with a marked elevation in serum luteinizing hormone. This evidence indicates that cyclosporine enables successful transplantation across a minor histocompatibility barrier. It also suggests that these grafts interact with the hypothalamus. Transplantation across a major histocompatibility barrier was unsuccessful even in the presence of cyclosporine.

  5. An experiment to enable commercial mobile satellite service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovell, R. R.; Knouse, G. H.; Weber, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    A Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X) is described, based on a planned cooperative U.S./Canadian program. The experiment would establish network architecture, develop system and ground-segment technology, and define the technical characteristics needed to help structure the regulatory/institutional framework needed to enable a first-generation commercial satellite service. A satellite of this type would augment terrestrial systems, both cellular and noncellular, in the thin-route/rural areas of the country where service is either unavailable or inadequate. Applications range from wide-area radio/dispatch (e.g., oil exploration and interstate trucking) to extension of the public mobile telephone service. Market estimates are provided and experiment objectives and requirements are delineated. The requirements are being developed in close coordination with the Department of Communications (DOC) of Canada and with industry and potential-user organizations. The paper closes with a development plan and milestone chart.

  6. Duobinary pulse shaping for frequency chirp enabled complex modulation.

    PubMed

    Che, Di; Yuan, Feng; Khodakarami, Hamid; Shieh, William

    2016-09-01

    The frequency chirp of optical direct modulation (DM) used to be a performance barrier of optical transmission system, because it broadens the signal optical spectrum, which becomes more susceptible to chromatic dispersion induced inter-symbol interference (ISI). However, by considering the chirp as frequency modulation, the single DM simultaneously generates a 2-D signal containing the intensity and phase (namely, the time integral of frequency). This complex modulation concept significantly increases the optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) sensitivity of DM systems. This Letter studies the duobinary pulse shaping (DB-PS) for chirp enabled DM and its impact on the optical bandwidth and system OSNR sensitivity. DB-PS relieves the bandwidth requirement, at the sacrifice of system OSNR sensitivity. As DB-PS induces a controlled ISI, the receiver requires one more tap for maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE). We verify this modified MLSE with a 10-Gbaud duobinary PAM-4 transmission experiment.

  7. Integration services to enable regional shared electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ilídio C; Cunha, João P S

    2011-01-01

    eHealth is expected to integrate a comprehensive set of patient data sources into a coherent continuum, but implementations vary and Portugal is still lacking on electronic patient data sharing. In this work, we present a clinical information hub to aggregate multi-institution patient data and bridge the information silos. This integration platform enables a coherent object model, services-oriented applications development and a trust framework. It has been instantiated in the Rede Telemática de Saúde (www.RTSaude.org) to support a regional Electronic Health Record approach, fed dynamically from production systems at eight partner institutions, providing access to more than 11,000,000 care episodes, relating to over 350,000 citizens. The network has obtained the necessary clearance from the Portuguese data protection agency.

  8. Enabling Genomic-Phenomic Association Discovery without Sacrificing Anonymity

    PubMed Central

    Heatherly, Raymond D.; Loukides, Grigorios; Denny, Joshua C.; Haines, Jonathan L.; Roden, Dan M.; Malin, Bradley A.

    2013-01-01

    Health information technologies facilitate the collection of massive quantities of patient-level data. A growing body of research demonstrates that such information can support novel, large-scale biomedical investigations at a fraction of the cost of traditional prospective studies. While healthcare organizations are being encouraged to share these data in a de-identified form, there is hesitation over concerns that it will allow corresponding patients to be re-identified. Currently proposed technologies to anonymize clinical data may make unrealistic assumptions with respect to the capabilities of a recipient to ascertain a patients identity. We show that more pragmatic assumptions enable the design of anonymization algorithms that permit the dissemination of detailed clinical profiles with provable guarantees of protection. We demonstrate this strategy with a dataset of over one million medical records and show that 192 genotype-phenotype associations can be discovered with fidelity equivalent to non-anonymized clinical data. PMID:23405076

  9. Tablet PC Enabled Body Sensor System for Rural Telehealth Applications

    PubMed Central

    Panicker, Nitha V.; Kumar, A. Sukesh

    2016-01-01

    Telehealth systems benefit from the rapid growth of mobile communication technology for measuring physiological signals. Development and validation of a tablet PC enabled noninvasive body sensor system for rural telehealth application are discussed in this paper. This system includes real time continuous collection of physiological parameters (blood pressure, pulse rate, and temperature) and fall detection of a patient with the help of a body sensor unit and wireless transmission of the acquired information to a tablet PC handled by the medical staff in a Primary Health Center (PHC). Abnormal conditions are automatically identified and alert messages are given to the medical officer in real time. Clinical validation is performed in a real environment and found to be successful. Bland-Altman analysis is carried out to validate the wrist blood pressure sensor used. The system works well for all measurements. PMID:26884757

  10. Oxytocin Enables Maternal Behavior by Balancing Cortical Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Marlin, Bianca J.; Mitre, Mariela; D’amour, James A.; Chao, Moses V.; Froemke, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin is important for social interactions and maternal behavior. However, little is known about when, where, and how oxytocin modulates neural circuits to improve social cognition. Here we show how oxytocin enables pup retrieval behavior in female mice by enhancing auditory cortical pup call responses. Retrieval behavior required left but not right auditory cortex, was accelerated by oxytocin in left auditory cortex, and oxytocin receptors were preferentially expressed in left auditory cortex. Neural responses to pup calls were lateralized, with co-tuned and temporally-precise excitatory and inhibitory responses in left cortex of maternal but not pup-naive adults. Finally, pairing calls with oxytocin enhanced responses by balancing the magnitude and timing of inhibition with excitation. Our results describe fundamental synaptic mechanisms by which oxytocin increases the salience of acoustic social stimuli. Furthermore, oxytocin-induced plasticity provides a biological basis for lateralization of auditory cortical processing. PMID:25874674

  11. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-01-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  12. Electrolyte-Sensing Transistor Decals Enabled by Ultrathin Microbial Nanocellulose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Jonathan D.; Walper, Scott A.; Melde, Brian J.; Daniele, Michael A.; Stenger, David A.

    2017-01-01

    We report an ultra-thin electronic decal that can simultaneously collect, transmit and interrogate a bio-fluid. The described technology effectively integrates a thin-film organic electrochemical transistor (sensing component) with an ultrathin microbial nanocellulose wicking membrane (sample handling component). As far as we are aware, OECTs have not been integrated in thin, permeable membrane substrates for epidermal electronics. The design of the biocompatible decal allows for the physical isolation of the electronics from the human body while enabling efficient bio-fluid delivery to the transistor via vertical wicking. High currents and ON-OFF ratios were achieved, with sensitivity as low as 1 mg·L‑1.

  13. Space Weathering Investigations Enabled by NASA's Virtual Heliophysical Observatories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; King, Joseph H.; Papitashvili, Natalia E.; Lal, Nand; Sittler, Edward C.; Sturner, Steven J.; Hills, Howard K.; Lipatov, Alexander S.; Kovalick, Tamara J.; Johnson, Rita C.; McGuire, Robert E.; Narock, Thomas W.; Szabo, Adam; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; McKibben, Robert B.

    2012-01-01

    Structural and chemical impact of the heliospheric space environment on exposed planetary surfaces and interplanetary dust grains may be generally defined as space weathering . In the inner solar system, from the asteroid belt inwards towards the Sun, the surface regolith structures of airless bodies are primarily determined by cumulative meteoritic impacts over billions of years, but the molecular composition to meters in depth can be substantially modified by irradiation effects. Plasma ions at eV to keV energies may both erode uppermost surfaces by sputtering, and implant or locally produce exogenic material, e.g. He-3 and H2O, while more energetic ions drive molecular change through electronic ionization. Galactic cosmic ray ions and more energetic solar ions can impact chemistry to meters in depth. High energy cosmic ray interactions produce showers of secondary particles and energetic photons that present hazards for robotic and human exploration missions but also enable detection of potentially useable resources such as water ice, oxygen, and many other elements. Surface sputtering also makes ejected elemental and molecular species accessible for in-situ compositional analysis by spacecraft with ion and neutral mass spectrometers. Modeling of relative impacts for these various space weathering processes requires knowledge of the incident species-resolved ion flux spectra at plasma to cosmic ray energies and as integrated over varying time scales. Although the main drivers for investigations of these processes come from NASA's planetary science and human exploration programs, the NASA heliophysics program provides the requisite data measurement and modeling resources to enable specification of the field & plasma and energetic particle irradiation environments for application to space weather and surface weathering investigations. The Virtual Heliospheric Observatory (VHO), Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO), Lunar Solar Origins Exploration (Luna

  14. Raexplore: Enabling Rapid, Automated Architecture Exploration for Full Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yao; Balaprakash, Prasanna; Meng, Jiayuan; Morozov, Vitali; Parker, Scott; Kumaran, Kalyan

    2014-12-01

    We present Raexplore, a performance modeling framework for architecture exploration. Raexplore enables rapid, automated, and systematic search of architecture design space by combining hardware counter-based performance characterization and analytical performance modeling. We demonstrate Raexplore for two recent manycore processors IBM Blue- Gene/Q compute chip and Intel Xeon Phi, targeting a set of scientific applications. Our framework is able to capture complex interactions between architectural components including instruction pipeline, cache, and memory, and to achieve a 3–22% error for same-architecture and cross-architecture performance predictions. Furthermore, we apply our framework to assess the two processors, and discover and evaluate a list of architectural scaling options for future processor designs.

  15. Enabling nanomaterial, nanofabrication and cellular technologies for nanoneuromedicines

    PubMed Central

    Mallapragada, Surya K.; Brenza, Timothy M.; McMillan, JoEllyn M.; Narasimhan, Balaji; Sakaguchi, Donald S.; Sharma, Anup D.; Zbarska, Svitlana; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticulate delivery systems represent an area of particular promise for nanoneuromedicines. They possess significant potential for desperately needed therapies designed to combat a range of disorders associated with aging. As such, the field was selected as the focus for the 2014 meeting of the American Society for Nanomedicine. Regenerative, protective, immune modulatory, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory products, or imaging agents are readily encapsulated in or conjugated to nanoparticles and as such facilitate the delivery of drug payloads to specific action sites across the blood-brain barrier. Diagnostic imaging serves to precisely monitor disease onset and progression while neural stem cell replacement can regenerate damaged tissue through control of stem cell fates. These, taken together, can improve disease burden and limit systemic toxicities. Such enabling technologies serve to protect the nervous system against a broad range of degenerative, traumatic, metabolic, infectious and immune disorders. PMID:25652894

  16. Enabling, empowering, inspiring: research and mentorship through the years*

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne S.

    2000-01-01

    The interrelationship between research and mentorship in an association such as the Medical Library Association (MLA) is revealed through the contributions of individuals and significant association activities in support of research. Research is vital to the well-being and ultimate survival of health sciences librarianship and is not an ivory tower academic activity. Mentorship plays a critical role in setting a standard and model for those individuals who want to be involved in research and, ultimately, for the preparation of the next generation of health sciences librarians. Research and mentorship are discussed in the context of personal experiences, scholarship, and problem solving in a practice environment. Through research and mentorship, we are enabled to enhance our services and programs, empowered to look beyond our own operations for information puzzles to be solved, and inspired to serve society by improving health. PMID:10658958

  17. Structures and practices enabling staff nurses to control their practice.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Marlene; Schmalenberg, Claudia; Maguire, Patricia; Brewer, Barbara B; Burke, Rebecca; Chmielewski, Linda; Cox, Karen; Kishner, Janice; Krugman, Mary; Meeks-Sjostrom, Diana; Waldo, Mary

    2008-08-01

    This mixed-methods study uses interviews, participant observations, and the CWEQII empowerment tool to identify structures and attributes of structures that promote control over nursing practice (CNP). Nearly 3,000 staff nurses completed the Essentials of Magnetism (EOM), an instrument that measures CNP, one of the eight staff nurse-identified essential attributes of a productive work environment. Strategic sampling is used to identify 101 high CNP-scoring clinical units in 8 high-EOM scoring magnet hospitals. In addition to 446 staff nurses, managers, and physicians on these high-scoring units, chief nursing officers, chief operating officers, and representatives from other professional departments are interviewed; participant observations are made of all unit/departmental/hospital council and interdisciplinary meetings held during a 4 to 6 day site visit. Structures and components of viable shared governance structures that enabled CNP are identified through constant comparative analysis of interviews and observations, and through analysis of quantitative measures.

  18. Refined AFC-Enabled High-Lift System Integration Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwich, Peter M.; Shmilovich, Arvin; Lacy, Douglas S.; Dickey, Eric D.; Scalafani, Anthony J.; Sundaram, P.; Yadlin, Yoram

    2016-01-01

    A prior trade study established the effectiveness of using Active Flow Control (AFC) for reducing the mechanical complexities associated with a modern high-lift system without sacrificing aerodynamic performance at low-speed flight conditions representative of takeoff and landing. The current technical report expands on this prior work in two ways: (1) a refined conventional high-lift system based on the NASA Common Research Model (CRM) is presented that is more representative of modern commercial transport aircraft in terms of stall characteristics and maximum Lift/Drag (L/D) ratios at takeoff and landing-approach flight conditions; and (2) the design trade space for AFC-enabled high-lift systems is expanded to explore a wider range of options for improving their efficiency. The refined conventional high-lift CRM (HL-CRM) concept features leading edge slats and slotted trailing edge flaps with Fowler motion. For the current AFC-enhanced high lift system trade study, the refined conventional high-lift system is simplified by substituting simply-hinged trailing edge flaps for the slotted single-element flaps with Fowler motion. The high-lift performance of these two high-lift CRM variants is established using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) solutions to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. These CFD assessments identify the high-lift performance that needs to be recovered through AFC to have the CRM variant with the lighter and mechanically simpler high-lift system match the performance of the conventional high-lift system. In parallel to the conventional high-lift concept development, parametric studies using CFD guided the development of an effective and efficient AFC-enabled simplified high-lift system. This included parametric trailing edge flap geometry studies addressing the effects of flap chord length and flap deflection. As for the AFC implementation, scaling effects (i.e., wind-tunnel versus full-scale flight conditions) are addressed

  19. Planarization techniques for MEMS: enabling new structures and enhancing manufacturability

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Planarization techniques such as chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) have emerged as enabling technologies for the manufacturing of multi- level metal interconnects used in high-density Integrated Circuits (IC). An overview of general planarization techniques for MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) and, in particular, the extension of CMP from sub-micron IC manufacturing to the fabrication of complex surface-micromachined MEMS will be presented. Planarization technique alleviates processing problems associated with fabrication of multi-level polysilicon structures, eliminates design constraints linked with non-planar topography, and provides an avenue for integrating different process technologies. The CMP process and present examples of the use of CMP in fabricating MEMS devices such as microengines, pressure sensors, and proof masses for accelerometers along with its use for monolithically integrating MEMS devices with microelectronics are presented.

  20. Enabling technologies and green processes in cyclodextrin chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Caporaso, Marina; Jicsinszky, Laszlo; Martina, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Summary The design of efficient synthetic green strategies for the selective modification of cyclodextrins (CDs) is still a challenging task. Outstanding results have been achieved in recent years by means of so-called enabling technologies, such as microwaves, ultrasound and ball mills, that have become irreplaceable tools in the synthesis of CD derivatives. Several examples of sonochemical selective modification of native α-, β- and γ-CDs have been reported including heterogeneous phase Pd- and Cu-catalysed hydrogenations and couplings. Microwave irradiation has emerged as the technique of choice for the production of highly substituted CD derivatives, CD grafted materials and polymers. Mechanochemical methods have successfully furnished greener, solvent-free syntheses and efficient complexation, while flow microreactors may well improve the repeatability and optimization of critical synthetic protocols. PMID:26977187

  1. Recent Advances in Skin-Inspired Sensors Enabled by Nanotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, Kenneth J.; Azhari, Faezeh

    2012-07-01

    The highly optimized performance of nature's creations and biological assemblies has inspired the development of their bio-inspired artificial counterparts that can potentially outperform conventional systems. In particular, the skin of humans, animals, and insects exhibits unique functionalities and properties and has subsequently led to active research in developing skin-inspired sensors. This paper presents a summary of selected work related to skin-inspired tactile, distributed strain, and artificial hair cell flow sensors, with a particular focus on technologies enabled by recent advancements in the nanotechnology domain. The purpose is not to present a comprehensive review on this broad subject matter but rather to use selected work to outline the diversity of current research activities.

  2. Enabling, empowering, inspiring: research and mentorship through the years.

    PubMed

    Fuller, S S

    2000-01-01

    The interrelationship between research and mentorship in an association such as the Medical Library Association (MLA) is revealed through the contributions of individuals and significant association activities in support of research. Research is vital to the well-being and ultimate survival of health sciences librarianship and is not an ivory tower academic activity. Mentorship plays a critical role in setting a standard and model for those individuals who want to be involved in research and, ultimately, for the preparation of the next generation of health sciences librarians. Research and mentorship are discussed in the context of personal experiences, scholarship, and problem solving in a practice environment. Through research and mentorship, we are enabled to enhance our services and programs, empowered to look beyond our own operations for information puzzles to be solved, and inspired to serve society by improving health.

  3. Digital watermarking opportunities enabled by mobile media proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modro, Sierra; Sharma, Ravi K.

    2009-02-01

    Consumer usages of mobile devices and electronic media are changing. Mobile devices now include increased computational capabilities, mobile broadband access, better integrated sensors, and higher resolution screens. These enhanced features are driving increased consumption of media such as images, maps, e-books, audio, video, and games. As users become more accustomed to using mobile devices for media, opportunities arise for new digital watermarking usage models. For example, transient media, like images being displayed on screens, could be watermarked to provide a link between mobile devices. Applications based on these emerging usage models utilizing watermarking can provide richer user experiences and drive increased media consumption. We describe the enabling factors and highlight a few of the usage models and new opportunities. We also outline how the new opportunities are driving further innovation in watermarking technologies. We discuss challenges in market adoption of applications based on these usage models.

  4. Enabling research with human embryonic and fetal tissue resources

    PubMed Central

    Gerrelli, Dianne; Lisgo, Steven; Copp, Andrew J.; Lindsay, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Summary Congenital anomalies are a significant burden on human health. Understanding the developmental origins of such anomalies is key to developing potential therapies. The Human Developmental Biology Resource (HDBR), based in London and Newcastle UK, was established to provide embryonic and fetal material for a variety of human studies ranging from single gene expression analysis to large scale genomic/transcriptomic studies. Increasingly HDBR material is enabling the derivation of stem cell lines and contributing towards developments in tissue engineering. Use of the HDBR and other fetal tissue resources discussed here will contribute to the long term aims of understanding the causation and pathogenesis of congenital anomalies, and developing new methods for their treatment and prevention. PMID:26395135

  5. Enabling lunar and space missions by laser power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Young, R. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Humes, D. H.; Meador, W. E.

    1992-09-01

    Applications are proposed for laser power transmission on the Moon. A solar-pumped laser in lunar orbit would beam power to the lunar surface for conversion into either electricity or propulsion needs. For example, lunar rovers could be much more flexible and lighter than rovers using other primary power sources. Also, laser power could be absorbed by lunar soil to create a hard glassy surface for dust-free roadways and launch pads. Laser power could also be used to power small lunar rockets or orbital transfer vehicles, and finally, photovoltaic laser converters could power remote excavation vehicles and human habitats. Laser power transmission is shown to be a highly flexible, enabling primary power source for lunar missions.

  6. Enabling Future Low-Cost Small Mission Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young; Bairstow, Brian; Amini, Rashied; Zakrajsek, June; Oleson, Steven; Cataldo, Robert

    2014-01-01

    A SmallSat using a small Radioisotope Power System for deep space destinations could potentially fit into a Discovery class mission cost cap and perform significant science with a timely return of data. Only applicable when the Discovery 12 guidelines were applied. Commonality of hardware and science instruments among identical spacecraft enabled to meet the Discovery Class mission cost cap. Multiple spacecraft shared the costs of the Launch Approval Engineering Process. Assumed a secondary science instrument was contributed. Small RPS could provide small spacecraft with a relatively high power (approx. 60 We) option for missions to deep space destinations (> 10 AU) with multiple science instruments. Study of Centaur mission demonstrated the ability to achieve New Frontiers level science. Multiple spacecraft possible with small RPS, allowing for multiple targets, science from multiple platforms, and/or redundancy.

  7. Photosensitivity of neurons enabled by cell-targeted gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Carvalho-de-Souza, João L; Treger, Jeremy S; Dang, Bobo; Kent, Stephen B H; Pepperberg, David R; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2015-04-08

    Unmodified neurons can be directly stimulated with light to produce action potentials, but such techniques have lacked localization of the delivered light energy. Here we show that gold nanoparticles can be conjugated to high-avidity ligands for a variety of cellular targets. Once bound to a neuron, these particles transduce millisecond pulses of light into heat, which changes membrane capacitance, depolarizing the cell and eliciting action potentials. Compared to non-functionalized nanoparticles, ligand-conjugated nanoparticles highly resist convective washout and enable photothermal stimulation with lower delivered energy and resulting temperature increase. Ligands targeting three different membrane proteins were tested; all showed similar activity and washout resistance. This suggests that many types of ligands can be bound to nanoparticles, preserving ligand and nanoparticle function, and that many different cell phenotypes can be targeted by appropriate choice of ligand. The findings have applications as an alternative to optogenetics and potentially for therapies involving neuronal photostimulation.

  8. On enabling secure applications through off-line biometric identification

    SciTech Connect

    Davida, G.I.; Frankel, Y.; Matt, B.J.

    1998-04-01

    In developing secure applications and systems, the designers often must incorporate secure user identification in the design specification. In this paper, the authors study secure off line authenticated user identification schemes based on a biometric system that can measure a user`s biometric accurately (up to some Hamming distance). The schemes presented here enhance identification and authorization in secure applications by binding a biometric template with authorization information on a token such as a magnetic strip. Also developed here are schemes specifically designed to minimize the compromise of a user`s private biometrics data, encapsulated in the authorization information, without requiring secure hardware tokens. In this paper the authors furthermore study the feasibility of biometrics performing as an enabling technology for secure system and application design. The authors investigate a new technology which allows a user`s biometrics to facilitate cryptographic mechanisms.

  9. Simple Ontology Format (SOFT)

    SciTech Connect

    Sorokine, Alexandre

    2011-10-01

    Simple Ontology Format (SOFT) library and file format specification provides a set of simple tools for developing and maintaining ontologies. The library, implemented as a perl module, supports parsing and verification of the files in SOFt format, operations with ontologies (adding, removing, or filtering of entities), and converting of ontologies into other formats. SOFT allows users to quickly create ontologies using only a basic text editor, verify it, and portray it in a graph layout system using customized styles.

  10. NASA's Space Launch System: An Enabling Capability for International Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Creech, Stephen D.; May, Todd A.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2014-01-01

    As the program moves out of the formulation phase and into implementation, work is well underway on NASA's new Space Launch System, the world's most powerful launch vehicle, which will enable a new era of human exploration of deep space. As assembly and testing of the rocket is taking place at numerous sites around the United States, mission planners within NASA and at the agency's international partners continue to evaluate utilization opportunities for this ground-breaking capability. Developed with the goals of safety, affordability, and sustainability in mind, the SLS rocket will launch the Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV), equipment, supplies, and major science missions for exploration and discovery. NASA is developing this new capability in an austere economic climate, a fact which has inspired the SLS team to find innovative solutions to the challenges of designing, developing, fielding, and operating the largest rocket in history, via a path that will deliver an initial 70 metric ton (t) capability in December 2017 and then continuing through an incremental evolutionary strategy to reach a full capability greater than 130 t. SLS will be enabling for the first missions of human exploration beyond low Earth in almost half a century, and from its first crewed flight will be able to carry humans farther into space than they have ever voyaged before. In planning for the future of exploration, the International Space Exploration Coordination Group, representing 12 of the world's space agencies, has created the Global Exploration Roadmap, which outlines paths toward a human landing on Mars, beginning with capability-demonstrating missions to the Moon or an asteroid. The Roadmap and corresponding NASA research outline the requirements for reference missions for these destinations. SLS will offer a robust way to transport international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they would need for such missions.

  11. A moveable feast: Exploring barriers and enablers to food citizenship.

    PubMed

    O'Kane, Gabrielle

    2016-10-01

    Despite the ability of the globalised food system to deliver varied and plentiful food supplies to most in the developed world it also disconnects consumers from where, how and by whom food is grown, which discourages food citizenship. This paper uses an ecological framework to examine the individual, social, physical and macro-level environments that can positively or negatively influence peoples' engagement with food citizenship. This research used narrative inquiry methodology and purposive sampling to gather stories through focus group conversations. Fifty-two people voluntarily attended focus groups comprised of food procurers from one of five sources: community gardens, Community Supported Agriculture (CSA), farmers' markets, fresh food markets or supermarkets. A narrative was constructed for each of these groups of food procurers; their commonalities and particularities were illuminated through a final interpretive narrative. The findings showed that the community gardeners exhibited a range of personal characteristics that prioritised engagement with local food systems. The physical setting of the community garden enabled the gardeners to make connections to the earth and the people within their social networks. The CSA and farmers' market groups were cognisant of the implications of their food choices and usually proved to be food citizens, as they selected seasonal, local and ethically produced food from their farmer(s). The fresh food market shoppers were ambivalent towards organic and seasonal food and the market setting did not connect them directly to the provenance of their food. The supermarket shoppers' disconnection from those who grew their food and where it was grown disempowered them from making sustainable food choices. Adjustments to the macro-level food environment are needed to enable people to have a greater commitment to food citizenship.

  12. BioenergyKDF: Enabling Spatiotemporal Data Synthesis and Research Collaboration

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Aaron T; Movva, Sunil; Karthik, Rajasekar; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; White, Devin A; Thomas, Neil; Chase, Adrian S Z

    2014-01-01

    The Bioenergy Knowledge Discovery Framework (BioenergyKDF) is a scalable, web-based collaborative environment for scientists working on bioenergy related research in which the connections between data, literature, and models can be explored and more clearly understood. The fully-operational and deployed system, built on multiple open source libraries and architectures, stores contributions from the community of practice and makes them easy to find, but that is just its base functionality. The BioenergyKDF provides a national spatiotemporal decision support capability that enables data sharing, analysis, modeling, and visualization as well as fosters the development and management of the U.S. bioenergy infrastructure, which is an essential component of the national energy infrastructure. The BioenergyKDF is built on a flexible, customizable platform that can be extended to support the requirements of any user community especially those that work with spatiotemporal data. While there are several community data-sharing software platforms available, some developed and distributed by national governments, none of them have the full suite of capabilities available in BioenergyKDF. For example, this component-based platform and database independent architecture allows it to be quickly deployed to existing infrastructure and to connect to existing data repositories (spatial or otherwise). As new data, analysis, and features are added; the BioenergyKDF will help lead research and support decisions concerning bioenergy into the future, but will also enable the development and growth of additional communities of practice both inside and outside of the Department of Energy. These communities will be able to leverage the substantial investment the agency has made in the KDF platform to quickly stand up systems that are customized to their data and research needs.

  13. Enabling Technologies for High Penetration of Wind and Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.

    2011-01-01

    High penetration of variable wind and solar electricity generation will require modifications to the electric power system. This work examines the impacts of variable generation, including uncertainty, ramp rate, ramp range, and potentially excess generation. Time-series simulations were performed in the Texas (ERCOT) grid where different mixes of wind, solar photovoltaic and concentrating solar power provide up to 80% of the electric demand. Different enabling technologies were examined, including conventional generator flexibility, demand response, load shifting, and energy storage. A variety of combinations of these technologies enabled low levels of surplus or curtailed wind and solar generation depending on the desired penetration of renewable sources. At lower levels of penetration (up to about 30% on an energy basis) increasing flexible generation, combined with demand response may be sufficient to accommodate variability and uncertainty. Introduction of load-shifting through real-time pricing or other market mechanisms further increases the penetration of variable generation. The limited time coincidence of wind and solar generation presents increasing challenges as these sources provide greater than 50% of total demand. System flexibility must be increased to the point of virtually eliminating must-run baseload generators during periods of high wind and solar generation. Energy storage also becomes increasingly important as lower cost flexibility options are exhausted. The study examines three classes of energy storage - electricity storage, including batteries and pumped hydro, hybrid storage (compressed-air energy storage), and thermal energy storage. Ignoring long-distance transmission options, a combination of load shifting and storage equal to about 12 hours of average demand may keep renewable energy curtailment below 10% in the simulated system.

  14. Enabling Virtual Observatory Access to Planetary Resources through PDS4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, J. S.; Hardman, S. H.; Crichton, D. J.; Cecconi, B.; Barbarisi, I.; Arviset, C.

    2015-12-01

    PDS4, the next generation Planetary Data System (PDS), was developed using architectural principles that enable relatively easy access to the planetary science digital archive. The Virtual Observatory's Europlanet-VO Table Access Protocol (EPN-TAP) provides a good use case to demonstrate how an additional international protocol can be applied to allow access to international planetary science resources. PDS4 consists primarily of two architectural components, an information and systems architecture. The information architecture is developed and maintained independent of the systems architecture and provides a formal, sharable, and stable set of requirements that enable understanding of the system, the configuration of system components, and the basis for mapping to and from external systems. The architecture also includes multi-level governance for flexibility. The application architecture is a system based on generic common software and common protocols for accessing that software. These include the PDS Registry Service with its REST-based API as the main component and the PDS Search Service based on Apache Solr providing support for high performance facet-based search. The PDS4 information model provides data object definitions and configures the software where appropriate. The EPN-TAP data access protocol has been set up to search and retrieve Planetary Science data in general. This protocol will allow the user to select a subset of data from an archive in a standard way, based on the IVOA Table Access Protocol (TAP). The TAP mechanism is defined by an underlying Data Model and reference dictionaries. This presentation will provide an overview of PDS4, EPN-TAP, and a test-bed to demonstrate and test the potential capabilities for Virtual Observatory access to NASA's Planetary Science Archive.

  15. Science enabled by ATHENA: Solar system targets and exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branduardi-Raymont, Graziella

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA studies of the solar system will offer some of the deepest insights in the complex workings of planetary magnetospheres and exospheres; ATHENA will answer many of the questions that have only started to be tackled by Chandra and XMM-Newton and will add in a major way to our understanding of the interactions of space plasmas with magnetised and un-magnetised bodies in the solar system. The non-dispersive character of X-IFU spectroscopy will enable Jupiter's auroral and disk X-ray emissions, and that from the Io Plasma Torus, to be mapped spatially and spectrally at high resolution; it will also enable surface composition analysis through fluorescence spectra of the Galilean satellites. ATHENA will establish how planetary exospheres, such as that of Mars, and comets respond to the interaction with the solar wind, in a detailed and global way that other observatories or in situ measurements cannot provide. With its remarkably improved sensitivity over current X-ray telescopes, ATHENA will push the search for auroral X-ray emission on Saturn to much fainter limits, and set very sensitive constraints on Uranus X-ray emission. ATHENA will explore the magnetic interplay between stars and planets in X-rays by searching for X-ray spectral variability over the planet's orbital phases and for systems of different orbital eccentricity, and will investigate ingress/eclipse/egress effects for transiting hot-Jupiter exoplanets; again instrumental to this will be the vastly improved signal-to-noise ratio provided by ATHENA over that achievable by XMM-Newton or Chandra.

  16. Enabling access to seismologic data through a service oriented architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muench, J.; Kamb, L.; Casey, R.; Weertman, B.; Ahern, T.

    2006-12-01

    As research in the geosciences grows more interdisciplinary in nature, the IRIS Data Management Center is developing services to simplify access for non-domain experts as well as to enable expert users to more efficiently access the data and tools they need for their research. By building a service-oriented architecture (SOA) based on data retrieval, basic processing and visualization tools, IRIS will make seismic data products such as record sections and seismic event visualizations available to users without requiring a detailed knowledge of seismic data analysis. These composable web services will allow our expert users to build automated workflows to extract and pre-process their data requests, reducing the need for manual intervention in the data retrieval phase. A significant aspect of our SOA effort is to facilitate data discovery across disciplines and organizations. To provide our users with access to other geological data sources and help non-domain experts find our data, we are working with UNAVCO and MG&G at LDEO to create interoperable data discovery services, called GeoWS, between our unique data repositories. We also plan to collaborate with JAMSTEC, the host institution for the Earth Simulator. This will bring international data access and products produced on the Earth Simulator into our discovery system. Finally, we will develop a service providing discovery and visualization of community-based velocity models provided by selected individual researchers from IRIS member institutions. In a further effort to create community tools, all our services will be accessible from within portlets based on the GridSphere portal framework. We hope to share data and analysis portlets with other geoscience community web sites such as SCEC CME and GEON. Our long-term aim is to provide reusable, composable services with programmatic and interactive interfaces, enabling users to easily customize seismic data access.

  17. Magnetizable stent-grafts enable endothelial cell capture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefft, Brandon J.; Uthamaraj, Susheil; Harburn, J. Jonathan; Hlinomaz, Ota; Lerman, Amir; Dragomir-Daescu, Dan; Sandhu, Gurpreet S.

    2017-04-01

    Emerging nanotechnologies have enabled the use of magnetic forces to guide the movement of magnetically-labeled cells, drugs, and other therapeutic agents. Endothelial cells labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) have previously been captured on the surface of magnetizable 2205 duplex stainless steel stents in a porcine coronary implantation model. Recently, we have coated these stents with electrospun polyurethane nanofibers to fabricate prototype stent-grafts. Facilitated endothelialization may help improve the healing of arteries treated with stent-grafts, reduce the risk of thrombosis and restenosis, and enable small-caliber applications. When placed in a SPION-labeled endothelial cell suspension in the presence of an external magnetic field, magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured cells to the surface regions adjacent to the stent struts. Implantation within the coronary circulation of pigs (n=13) followed immediately by SPION-labeled autologous endothelial cell delivery resulted in widely patent devices with a thin, uniform neointima and no signs of thrombosis or inflammation at 7 days. Furthermore, the magnetized stent-grafts successfully captured and retained SPION-labeled endothelial cells to select regions adjacent to stent struts and between stent struts, whereas the non-magnetized control stent-grafts did not. Early results with these prototype devices are encouraging and further refinements will be necessary in order to achieve more uniform cell capture and complete endothelialization. Once optimized, this approach may lead to more rapid and complete healing of vascular stent-grafts with a concomitant improvement in long-term device performance.

  18. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Susan; Holden, Libby; Golenko, Xanthe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in allied health, a clearer understanding is required of what assists and encourages research as well as the barriers and challenges. Participants and methods This study used written surveys to collect data relating to motivators, enablers, and barriers to research capacity building. Respondents were asked to answer questions relating to them as individuals and other questions relating to their team. Allied health professionals were recruited from multidisciplinary primary health care teams in Queensland Health. Eighty-five participants from ten healthcare teams completed a written version of the research capacity and culture survey. Results The results of this study indicate that individual allied health professionals are more likely to report being motivated to do research by intrinsic factors such as a strong interest in research. Barriers they identified to research are more likely to be extrinsic factors such as workload and lack of time. Allied health professionals identified some additional factors that impact on their research capacity than those reported in the literature, such as a desire to keep at the “cutting edge” and a lack of exposure to research. Some of the factors influencing individuals to do research were different to those influencing teams. These results are discussed with reference to organizational behavior and theories of motivation. Conclusion Supporting already motivated allied health professional individuals and teams to conduct research by increased skills training, infrastructure, and quarantined time is likely to produce better outcomes for research capacity building investment. PMID

  19. Altair Lunar Lander Development Status: Enabling Human Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laurini, Kathleen C.; Connolly, John F.

    2009-01-01

    As a critical part of the NASA Constellation Program lunar transportation architecture, the Altair lunar lander will return humans to the moon and enable a sustained program of lunar exploration. The Altair is to deliver up to four crew to the surface of the moon and return them to low lunar orbit at the completion of their mission. Altair will also be used to deliver large cargo elements to the lunar surface, enabling the buildup of an outpost. The Altair Project initialized its design using a minimum functionality approach that identified critical functionality required to meet a minimum set of Altair requirements. The Altair team then performed several analysis cycles using risk-informed design to selectively add back components and functionality to increase the vehicles safety and reliability. The analysis cycle results were captured in a reference Altair design. This design was reviewed at the Constellation Lunar Capabilities Concept Review, a Mission Concept Review, where key driving requirements were confirmed and the Altair Project was given authorization to begin Phase A project formulation. A key objective of Phase A is to revisit the Altair vehicle configuration, to better optimize it to complete its broad range of crew and cargo delivery missions. Industry was invited to partner with NASA early in the design to provide their insights regarding Altair configuration and key engineering challenges. A blended NASA-industry team will continue to refine the lander configuration and mature the vehicle design over the next few years. This paper will update the international community on the status of the Altair Project as it addresses the challenges of project formulation, including optimizing a vehicle configuration based on the work of the NASA Altair Project team, industry inputs and the plans going forward in designing the Altair lunar lander.

  20. Enabling Sustainable Exploration through the Commercial Development of Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph

    2003-01-01

    The commercial development of space offers enabling benefits to space exploration. This paper examines how those benefits can be realized, and how the Space Product Development Office of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration is taking the first steps towards opening the space frontier through vital and sustainable industrial development. The Space Product Development Office manages 15 Commercial Space Centers that partner with US industry to develop opportunities for commerce in space. This partnership directly benefits NASA exploration in four primary ways. First, by actively involving traditional and non-traditional companies in commercial space activities, it seeks and encourages to the maximum extent possible the fullest commercial use of space, as directed by NASA's charter. Second, the commercial research and technologies pursued and developed in the program often have direct applicability to NASA priority mission areas. This dual use strategy for research and technology has the potential to greatly expand what the NASA scientific community can do. Third, the commercial experiment hardware developed by the Commercial Space Centers and their industrial partners is available for use by NASA researchers in support of priority NASA research. By utilizing low cost and existing commercial hardware, essential NASA research can be more readily accomplished. Fourth, by assisting industry in understanding the use of the environment of space and in helping industry enhance the tools and technologies for NASA and commercial space systems, the market for commercial space utilization and the capability for meeting the future growing market needs is being developed. These two activities taken together form the beginning of a new space economy that will enable sustainable NASA exploration of the universe.

  1. Advanced excimer laser technologies enable green semiconductor manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Hitomi; Yoo, Youngsun; Minegishi, Yuji; Hisanaga, Naoto; Enami, Tatsuo

    2014-03-01

    "Green" has fast become an important and pervasive topic throughout many industries worldwide. Many companies, especially in the manufacturing industries, have taken steps to integrate green initiatives into their high-level corporate strategies. Governments have also been active in implementing various initiatives designed to increase corporate responsibility and accountability towards environmental issues. In the semiconductor manufacturing industry, there are growing concerns over future environmental impact as enormous fabs expand and new generation of equipments become larger and more powerful. To address these concerns, Gigaphoton has implemented various green initiatives for many years under the EcoPhoton™ program. The objective of this program is to drive innovations in technology and services that enable manufacturers to significantly reduce both the financial and environmental "green cost" of laser operations in high-volume manufacturing environment (HVM) - primarily focusing on electricity, gas and heat management costs. One example of such innovation is Gigaphoton's Injection-Lock system, which reduces electricity and gas utilization costs of the laser by up to 50%. Furthermore, to support the industry's transition from 300mm to the next generation 450mm wafers, technologies are being developed to create lasers that offer double the output power from 60W to 120W, but reducing electricity and gas consumption by another 50%. This means that the efficiency of lasers can be improve by up to 4 times in 450mm wafer production environments. Other future innovations include the introduction of totally Heliumfree Excimer lasers that utilize Nitrogen gas as its replacement for optical module purging. This paper discusses these and other innovations by Gigaphoton to enable green manufacturing.

  2. Autophagosome formation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Burman, Chloe; Ktistakis, Nicholas T

    2010-12-01

    Autophagy is a fundamental intracellular trafficking pathway conserved from yeast to mammals. It is generally thought to play a pro-survival role, and it can be up regulated in response to both external and intracellular factors, including amino acid starvation, growth factor withdrawal, low cellular energy levels, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, hypoxia, oxidative stress, pathogen infection, and organelle damage. During autophagy initiation a portion of the cytosol is surrounded by a flat membrane sheet known as the isolation membrane or phagophore. The isolation membrane then elongates and seals itself to form an autophagosome. The autophagosome fuses with normal endocytic traffic to mature into a late autophagosome, before fusing with lysosomes. The molecular machinery that enables formation of an autophagosome in response to the various autophagy stimuli is almost completely identified in yeast and-thanks to the observed conservation-is also being rapidly elucidated in higher eukaryotes including mammals. What are less clear and currently under intense investigation are the mechanism by which these various autophagy components co-ordinate in order to generate autophagosomes. In this review, we will discuss briefly the fundamental importance of autophagy in various pathophysiological states and we will then review in detail the various players in early autophagy. Our main thesis will be that a conserved group of heteromeric protein complexes and a relatively simple signalling lipid are responsible for the formation of autophagosomes in mammalian cells.

  3. CANYVAL-X: Enabling a new class of scientific instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Neerav; Calhoun, Philip C.; Park, Sang-young; Keidar, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Significant new discoveries in space science can be realized by replacing the traditional large monolithic space telescopes with precision formation flying spacecraft to form a “virtual telescope.” Such virtual telescopes will revolutionize occulting imaging systems, provide images of the Sun, accretion disks, and other astronomical objects with unprecedented milli-arcsecond resolution (several orders of magnitude beyond current capability).Since the days of Apollo, NASA and other organizations have been conducting formation flying in space, but not with the precision required for virtual telescopes. These efforts have focused on rendezvous and docking (e.g., crew docking, satellite servicing, etc.) and/or ground-controlled coordinated flight (e.g., EO-1, GRAIL, MMS, etc.). While the TRL of the component level technology for formation flying is high, the capability for the system-level guidance, navigation, and control (GN&C) technology required to align a virtual telescope to an inertial astronomical target with sub-arcsecond precision is not fully developed.The CANYVAL-X (CubeSat Astronomy by NASA and Yonsei using Virtual Telescope Alignment eXperiment) mission is an engineering proof of concept featuring a pair of CubeSats flying as a tandem telescope with a goal of demonstrating the system-level GN&C needed to form a virtual telescope. NASA partnered with the George Washington University and the Yonsei University to design and develop CANYVAL-X. CANYVAL-X will demonstrate key technologies for using virtual telescopes in space, including micro-propulsion using millinewton thrusters, relative position sensing, and communications control between the two spacecraft. CANYVAL-X is scheduled to launch on a Flacon-9 in summer of 2016.

  4. Fast Surface Dynamics of Metallic Glass Enable Superlatticelike Nanostructure Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Cao, C. R.; Shi, J. A.; Lu, Z.; Sun, Y. T.; Luo, P.; Gu, L.; Bai, H. Y.; Pan, M. X.; Wang, W. H.

    2017-01-01

    Contrary to the formation of complicated polycrystals induced by general crystallization, a modulated superlatticelike nanostructure, which grows layer by layer from the surface to the interior of a Pd40Ni10Cu30P20 metallic glass, is observed via isothermal annealing below the glass transition temperature. The generation of the modulated nanostructure can be solely controlled by the annealing temperature, and it can be understood based on the fast dynamic and liquidlike behavior of the glass surface. The observations have implications for understanding the glassy surface dynamics and pave a way for the controllable fabrication of a unique and sophisticated nanostructure on a glass surface to realize the properties' modification.

  5. Ka-Band Autonomous Formation Flying Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, Jeffrey; Purcell, George, Jr.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey; Ciminera, Michael; Srinivasan, Meera; Meehan, Thomas; Young, Lawrence; Aung, MiMi; Amaro, Luis; Chong, Yong; Quirk, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Ka-band integrated range and bearing-angle formation sensor called the Autonomous Formation Flying (AFF) Sensor has been developed to enable deep-space formation flying of multiple spacecraft. The AFF Sensor concept is similar to that of the Global Positioning System (GPS), but the AFF Sensor would not use the GPS. The AFF Sensor would reside in radio transceivers and signal-processing subsystems aboard the formation-flying spacecraft. A version of the AFF Sensor has been developed for initial application to the two-spacecraft StarLight optical-interferometry mission, and several design investigations have been performed. From the prototype development, it has been concluded that the AFF Sensor can be expected to measure distances and directions with standard deviations of 2 cm and 1 arc minute, respectively, for spacecraft separations ranging up to about 1 km. It has also been concluded that it is necessary to optimize performance of the overall mission through design trade-offs among the performance of the AFF Sensor, the field of view of the AFF Sensor, the designs of the spacecraft and the scientific instruments that they will carry, the spacecraft maneuvers required for formation flying, and the design of a formation-control system.

  6. Photoinduced Vesicle Formation via the Copper-Catalyzed Azide-Alkyne Cycloaddition Reaction.

    PubMed

    Konetski, Danielle; Gong, Tao; Bowman, Christopher N

    2016-08-16

    Synthetic vesicles have a wide range of applications from drug and cosmetic delivery to artificial cell and membrane studies, making simple and controlled formation of vesicles a large focus of the field today. Here, we report the use of the photoinitiated copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction using visible light to introduce spatiotemporal control into the formation of vesicles. Upon the establishment of the spatiotemporal control over vesicle formation, it became possible to adjust initiation conditions to modulate vesicle sizes resulting in the formation of controllably small or large vesicles based on light intensity or giant vesicles when the formation was initiated in flow-free conditions. Additionally, this photoinitiated method enables vesicle formation at a density 400-fold higher than initiation using sodium ascorbate as the catalyst. Together, these advances enable the formation of high-density, controlled size vesicles using low-energy wavelengths while producing enhanced control over the formation characteristics of the vesicle.

  7. A data management system to enable urgent natural disaster computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Siew Hoon; Kranzlmüller, Dieter; Frank, Anton

    2014-05-01

    Civil protection, in particular natural disaster management, is very important to most nations and civilians in the world. When disasters like flash floods, earthquakes and tsunamis are expected or have taken place, it is of utmost importance to make timely decisions for managing the affected areas and reduce casualties. Computer simulations can generate information and provide predictions to facilitate this decision making process. Getting the data to the required resources is a critical requirement to enable the timely computation of the predictions. An urgent data management system to support natural disaster computing is thus necessary to effectively carry out data activities within a stipulated deadline. Since the trigger of a natural disaster is usually unpredictable, it is not always possible to prepare required resources well in advance. As such, an urgent data management system for natural disaster computing has to be able to work with any type of resources. Additional requirements include the need to manage deadlines and huge volume of data, fault tolerance, reliable, flexibility to changes, ease of usage, etc. The proposed data management platform includes a service manager to provide a uniform and extensible interface for the supported data protocols, a configuration manager to check and retrieve configurations of available resources, a scheduler manager to ensure that the deadlines can be met, a fault tolerance manager to increase the reliability of the platform and a data manager to initiate and perform the data activities. These managers will enable the selection of the most appropriate resource, transfer protocol, etc. such that the hard deadline of an urgent computation can be met for a particular urgent activity, e.g. data staging or computation. We associated 2 types of deadlines [2] with an urgent computing system. Soft-hard deadline: Missing a soft-firm deadline will render the computation less useful resulting in a cost that can have severe

  8. Marine Profiles for OGC Sensor Web Enablement Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jirka, Simon

    2016-04-01

    The use of OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards in oceanology is increasing. Several projects are developing SWE-based infrastructures to ease the sharing of marine sensor data. This work ranges from developments on sensor level to efforts addressing interoperability of data flows between observatories and organisations. The broad range of activities using SWE standards leads to a risk of diverging approaches how the SWE specifications are applied. Because the SWE standards are designed in a domain independent manner, they intentionally offer a high degree of flexibility enabling implementation across different domains and usage scenarios. At the same time this flexibility allows one to achieve similar goals in different ways. To avoid interoperability issues, an agreement is needed on how to apply SWE concepts and how to use vocabularies in a common way that will be shared by different projects, implementations, and users. To address this need, partners from several projects and initiatives (AODN, BRIDGES, envri+, EUROFLEETS/EUROFLEETS2, FixO3, FRAM, IOOS, Jerico/Jerico-Next, NeXOS, ODIP/ODIP II, RITMARE, SeaDataNet, SenseOcean, X-DOMES) have teamed up to develop marine profiles of OGC SWE standards that can serve as a common basis for developments in multiple projects and organisations. The following aspects will be especially considered: 1.) Provision of metadata: For discovering sensors/instruments as well as observation data, to facilitate the interpretation of observations, and to integrate instruments in sensor platforms, the provision of metadata is crucial. Thus, a marine profile of the OGC Sensor Model Language 2.0 (SensorML 2.0) will be developed allowing to provide metadata for different levels (e.g. observatory, instrument, and detector) and sensor types. The latter will enable metadata of a specific type to be automatically inherited by all devices/sensors of the same type. The application of further standards such as OGC PUCK will benefit from

  9. EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services (KES-B)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varas, J.; Busto, J.; Torguet, R.

    2004-09-01

    This paper recovers and describes a number of major statements with respect to the vision, mission and technological approaches of the Technological Research Project (TRP) "EO Domain Specific Knowledge Enabled Services" (project acronym KES-B), which is currently under development at the European Space Research Institute (ESRIN) under contract "16397/02/I- SB". Resulting from the on-going R&D activities, the KES-B project aims are to demonstrate with a prototype system the feasibility of the application of innovative knowledge-based technologies to provide services for easy, scheduled and controlled exploitation of EO resources (e.g.: data, algorithms, procedures, storage, processors, ...), to automate the generation of products, and to support users in easily identifying and accessing the required information or products by using their own vocabulary, domain knowledge and preferences. The ultimate goals of KES-B are summarized in the provision of the two main types of KES services: 1st the Search service (also referred to as Product Exploitation or Information Retrieval; and 2nd the Production service (also referred to as Information Extraction), with the strategic advantage that they are enabled by Knowledge consolidated (formalized) within the system. The KES-B system technical solution approach is driven by a strong commitment for the adoption of industry (XML-based) language standards, aiming to have an interoperable, scalable and flexible operational prototype. In that sense, the Search KES services builds on the basis of the adoption of consolidated and/or emergent W3C semantic-web standards. Remarkably the languages/models Dublin Core (DC), Universal Resource Identifier (URI), Resource Description Framework (RDF) and Ontology Web Language (OWL), and COTS like Protege [1] and JENA [2] are being integrated in the system as building bricks for the construction of the KES based Search services. On the other hand, the Production KES services builds on top of

  10. Complexity Science Framework for Big Data: Data-enabled Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surjalal Sharma, A.

    2016-07-01

    The ubiquity of Big Data has stimulated the development of analytic tools to harness the potential for timely and improved modeling and prediction. While much of the data is available near-real time and can be compiled to specify the current state of the system, the capability to make predictions is lacking. The main reason is the basic nature of Big Data - the traditional techniques are challenged in their ability to cope with its velocity, volume and variability to make optimum use of the available information. Another aspect is the absence of an effective description of the time evolution or dynamics of the specific system, derived from the data. Once such dynamical models are developed predictions can be made readily. This approach of " letting the data speak for itself " is distinct from the first-principles models based on the understanding of the fundamentals of the system. The predictive capability comes from the data-derived dynamical model, with no modeling assumptions, and can address many issues such as causality and correlation. This approach provides a framework for addressing the challenges in Big Data, especially in the case of spatio-temporal time series data. The reconstruction of dynamics from time series data is based on recognition that in most systems the different variables or degrees of freedom are coupled nonlinearly and in the presence of dissipation the state space contracts, effectively reducing the number of variables, thus enabling a description of its dynamical evolution and consequently prediction of future states. The predictability is analysed from the intrinsic characteristics of the distribution functions, such as Hurst exponents and Hill estimators. In most systems the distributions have heavy tails, which imply higher likelihood for extreme events. The characterization of the probabilities of extreme events are critical in many cases e. g., natural hazards, for proper assessment of risk and mitigation strategies. Big Data with

  11. Thermal analysis of microlens formation on a sensitized gelatin layer

    SciTech Connect

    Muric, Branka; Pantelic, Dejan; Vasiljevic, Darko; Panic, Bratimir; Jelenkovic, Branislav

    2009-07-01

    We analyze a mechanism of direct laser writing of microlenses. We find that thermal effects and photochemical reactions are responsible for microlens formation on a sensitized gelatin layer. An infrared camera was used to assess the temperature distribution during the microlens formation, while the diffraction pattern produced by the microlens itself was used to estimate optical properties. The study of thermal processes enabled us to establish the correlation between thermal and optical parameters.

  12. Enabling Technologies for Characterizing Exoplanet Systems with Exo-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri Lynn; Belikov, Ruslan; Stapelfeldt, Karl R.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Trauger, John T.; Serabyn, Eugene; McElwain, Michael W.; Pong, Christopher M.; Brugarolas, Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Exoplanet Science and Technology Definition Team's Internal Coronagraph mission design, called 'Exo-C', utilizes several technologies that have advanced over the past decade with support from the Exoplanet Exploration Program. Following the flow of photons through the telescope, the science measurement is enabled by (i) a precision pointing system to keep the target exoplanet system precisely positioned on the detector during the integration time, (ii) high-performance coronagraphs to block the parent star's light so that the planet's reflected light can be detected, (iii) a wavefront control system to compensate for any wavefront errors such as those due to thermal or mechanical deformations in the optical path, especially errors with high spatial frequencies that could cause contrast-reducing speckles, and (iv) an integral field spectrograph (IFS) that provides moderate resolution spectra of the target exoplanets, permitting their characterization and comparison with models and other data sets. Technologies such as the wavefront control system and coronagraphs will also benefit from other funded efforts in progress, such as the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope Astrophysics Focused Telescope Assets (WFIRST-AFTA) program. Similarly, the Exo-C IFS will benefit from the Prototype Imaging Spectrograph for Coronagraphic Exoplanet Studies (PISCES) demonstration. We present specific examples for each of these technologies showing that the state of the art has advanced to levels that will meet the overall scientific, cost, and schedule requirements of the Exo-C mission. These capabilities have matured with testbed and/or ground-telescope demonstrations and have reached a technological readiness level (TRL) that supports their inclusion in the baseline design for potential flight at the end of this decade. While additional work remains to build and test flight-like components (that concurrently meet science as well as size, weight, power, and environmental

  13. Online Monitoring to Enable Improved Diagnostics, Prognostics and Maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, Leonard J.

    2011-02-01

    For both existing and new plant designs there are increasing opportunities and needs for the application of advanced online surveillance, diagnostic and prognostic techniques. These methods can continuously monitor and assess the health of nuclear power plant systems and components. The added effectiveness of such programs has the potential to enable holistic plant management, and minimize exposure to future and unknown risks. The 'NDE & On-line Monitoring' activities within the Advanced Instrumentation, Information and Control Systems (II&CS) Pathway are developing R&D to establish advanced condition monitoring and prognostics technologies to understand and predict future phenomena, derived from plant aging in systems, structures, and components (SSC). This research includes utilization of the enhanced functionality and system condition awareness that becomes available through the application of digital technologies at existing nuclear power plants for online monitoring and prognostics. The current state-of-the-art for on-line monitoring applied to active components (eg pumps, valves, motors) and passive structure (eg core internals, primary piping, pressure vessel, concrete, cables, buried pipes) is being reviewed. This includes looking at the current deployment of systems that monitor reactor noise, acoustic signals and vibration in various forms, leak monitoring, and now increasingly condition-based maintenance (CBM) for active components. The NDE and on-line monitoring projects are designed to look beyond locally monitored CBM. Current trends include centralized plant monitoring of SSC, potential fleet-based CBM and technology that will enable operation and maintenance to be performed with limited on-site staff. Attention is also moving to systems that use online monitoring to permit longer term operation (LTO), including a prognostic or predictive element that estimates a remaining useful life (RUL). Many, if not all, active components (pumps, valves, motors

  14. Enabling time resolved microscopy with random Raman lasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hokr, Brett H.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Bixler, Joel N.; Nodurft, Dawson T.; Noojin, Gary D.; Redding, Brandon; Thomas, Robert J.; Cao, Hui; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2017-03-01

    Optical imaging of fast events and processes is essential for understanding dynamics of complex systems. A bright flash of illuminating light is required to acquire sufficient number of photons for superior image quality. Laser pulses can provide extreme brightness and are typically employed to achieve high temporal resolution; however, the high degree of coherence associated with the lasing process degrades the image quality with speckle formation. Random lasers are low-coherence sources of stimulated emission and do not suffer from speckle, but are rather broadband and have a relatively low output power limiting the scope of their potential applications. In this report, we demonstrate the use of random Raman lasing as a novel imaging light source with unprecedented brightness for a speckle-free and narrowband light source. We showcase the advantages of a random Raman laser to image the nanosecond scale dynamics of cavitation formation in water and quantitatively compare these images to those taken with incoherent fluorescent emission and coherent laser light as illumination source.

  15. Heatmapper: web-enabled heat mapping for all

    PubMed Central

    Babicki, Sasha; Arndt, David; Marcu, Ana; Liang, Yongjie; Grant, Jason R.; Maciejewski, Adam; Wishart, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Heatmapper is a freely available web server that allows users to interactively visualize their data in the form of heat maps through an easy-to-use graphical interface. Unlike existing non-commercial heat map packages, which either lack graphical interfaces or are specialized for only one or two kinds of heat maps, Heatmapper is a versatile tool that allows users to easily create a wide variety of heat maps for many different data types and applications. More specifically, Heatmapper allows users to generate, cluster and visualize: (i) expression-based heat maps from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic experiments; (ii) pairwise distance maps; (iii) correlation maps; (iv) image overlay heat maps; (v) latitude and longitude heat maps and (vi) geopolitical (choropleth) heat maps. Heatmapper offers a number of simple and intuitive customization options for facile adjustments to each heat map's appearance and plotting parameters. Heatmapper also allows users to interactively explore their numeric data values by hovering their cursor over each heat map cell, or by using a searchable/sortable data table view. Heat map data can be easily uploaded to Heatmapper in text, Excel or tab delimited formatted tables and the resulting heat map images can be easily downloaded in common formats including PNG, JPG and PDF. Heatmapper is designed to appeal to a wide range of users, including molecular biologists, structural biologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists, environmental scientists, agriculture/forestry scientists, fish and wildlife biologists, climatologists, geologists, educators and students. Heatmapper is available at http://www.heatmapper.ca. PMID:27190236

  16. Enabling Global Kinetic Simulations of the Magnetosphere via Petascale Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimabadi, H.; Vu, H. X.; Omelchenko, Y. A.; Tatineni, M.; Majumdar, A.; Catalyurek, U. V.; Saule, E.

    2009-11-01

    The ultimate goal in magnetospheric physics is to understand how the solar wind transfers its mass, momentum and energy to the magnetosphere. This problem has turned out to be much more complex intellectually than originally thought. MHD simulations have proven useful in predicting eminent features of substorms and other global events. Given the complexity of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions, hybrid (electron fluid, kinetic ion) simulations have recently been emerging in the studies of the global dynamics of the magnetosphere with the goal of accurately predicting the energetic particle transport and structure of plasma boundaries. We take advantage of our recent innovations in hybrid simulations and the power of massively parallel computers to make breakthrough 3D global kinetic simulations of the magnetosphere. The preliminary results reveal many major differences with global MHD simulations. For example, the hybrid simulations predict the formation of the quadruple structure associated with reconnection events, ion/ion kink instability in the tail, turbulence in the magnetosheath, and formation of the ion foreshock region.

  17. Enabling time resolved microscopy with random Raman lasing

    PubMed Central

    Hokr, Brett H.; Thompson, Jonathan V.; Bixler, Joel N.; Nodurft, Dawson T.; Noojin, Gary D.; Redding, Brandon; Thomas, Robert J.; Cao, Hui; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Scully, Marlan O.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Optical imaging of fast events and processes is essential for understanding dynamics of complex systems. A bright flash of illuminating light is required to acquire sufficient number of photons for superior image quality. Laser pulses can provide extreme brightness and are typically employed to achieve high temporal resolution; however, the high degree of coherence associated with the lasing process degrades the image quality with speckle formation. Random lasers are low-coherence sources of stimulated emission and do not suffer from speckle, but are rather broadband and have a relatively low output power limiting the scope of their potential applications. In this report, we demonstrate the use of random Raman lasing as a novel imaging light source with unprecedented brightness for a speckle-free and narrowband light source. We showcase the advantages of a random Raman laser to image the nanosecond scale dynamics of cavitation formation in water and quantitatively compare these images to those taken with incoherent fluorescent emission and coherent laser light as illumination source. PMID:28294165

  18. Star Formation for Predictive Primordial Galaxy Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milosavljević, Miloš; Safranek-Shrader, Chalence

    The elegance of inflationary cosmology and cosmological perturbation theory ends with the formation of the first stars and galaxies, the initial sources of light that launched the phenomenologically rich process of cosmic reionization. Here we review the current understanding of early star formation, emphasizing unsolved problems and technical challenges. We begin with the first generation of stars to form after the Big Bang and trace how they influenced subsequent star formation. The onset of chemical enrichment coincided with a sharp increase in the overall physical complexity of star forming systems. Ab-initio computational treatments are just now entering the domain of the predictive and are establishing contact with local observations of the relics of this ancient epoch.

  19. Enabling comparative modeling of closely related genomes: Example genus Brucella

    DOE PAGES

    Faria, José P.; Edirisinghe, Janaka N.; Davis, James J.; ...

    2014-03-08

    For many scientific applications, it is highly desirable to be able to compare metabolic models of closely related genomes. In this study, we attempt to raise awareness to the fact that taking annotated genomes from public repositories and using them for metabolic model reconstructions is far from being trivial due to annotation inconsistencies. We are proposing a protocol for comparative analysis of metabolic models on closely related genomes, using fifteen strains of genus Brucella, which contains pathogens of both humans and livestock. This study lead to the identification and subsequent correction of inconsistent annotations in the SEED database, as wellmore » as the identification of 31 biochemical reactions that are common to Brucella, which are not originally identified by automated metabolic reconstructions. We are currently implementing this protocol for improving automated annotations within the SEED database and these improvements have been propagated into PATRIC, Model-SEED, KBase and RAST. This method is an enabling step for the future creation of consistent annotation systems and high-quality model reconstructions that will support in predicting accurate phenotypes such as pathogenicity, media requirements or type of respiration.« less

  20. Final report: An enabling architecture for information driven manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Griesmeyer, J.M.

    1997-08-01

    This document is the final report for the LDRD: An Enabling Architecture for Information Driven Manufacturing. The project was motivated by the need to bring quality products to market quickly and to remain efficient and profitable with small lot sizes, intermittent production and short product life cycles. The emphasis is on integration of the product realization process and the information required to drive it. Enterprise level information was not addressed except in so far as the enterprise must provide appropriate information to the production equipment to specify what to produce, and the equipment must return enough information to record what was produced. A production script approach was developed in which the production script specifies all of the information required to produce a quality product. A task sequencer that decomposes the script into process steps which are dispatched to capable Standard Manufacturing Modules. The plug and play interface to these modules allows rapid introduction of new modules into the production system and speeds up the product realization cycle. The results of applying this approach to the Agile Manufacturing Prototyping System are described.