Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Kollaritsch, Herwig; Kundi, Michael; Zwazl, Ines; Seidl-Friedrich, Claudia; Jelinek, Tomas
Japanese Encephalitis (JE) virus occurs in wide regions of Asia with over 3 billion people living in areas at risk for JE. An estimated 68,000 clinical cases of JE occur every year, and vaccination is the most effective prophylactic measure. One internationally licensed vaccine containing the inactivated JE virus strain SA14-14-2 is Ixiaro (Valneva, Austria). According to recommendations, basic immunization consists of vaccinations on day 0, day 28, and a booster dose 12-24 months later. Protection in terms of neutralizing antibody titers has been assessed up to 12 months after the third dose of the vaccine. The current investigation was designed to evaluate antibody decline over time and to predict long-term duration of seroprotection after a booster dose. In a preceding trial, volunteers received basic immunization (day 0, day 28) and one booster dose against JE 15 months later. A follow up blood draw 6 years following their booster dose was carried out in 67 subjects. For antibody testing, a 50% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT50-test) was used. PRNT50 values of 10 and above are surrogate levels of protection according to WHO standards. Seventy-six months following the booster dose, 96% of the tested subjects had PRNT50 titers of 10 or higher. Geometric mean titer (GMT) was 148 (95% CI confidence interval: 107-207). Antibody titers were lower in volunteers 50 years of age and older. Vaccination history against other flaviviruses (yellow fever or tick borne encephalitis) did not significantly influence PRNT50 titers. A two-step log-linear decline model predicted protection against JE of approximately 14 years after the booster dose. Six years after a booster dose against JE, long-term protection could be demonstrated. According to our results, further booster doses should be scheduled 10 years following the first booster dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lobigs, Mario; Larena, Maximilian; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lee, Eva; Pavy, Megan
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex, which also includes Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), is a group of antigenically closely related, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that are responsible for severe encephalitic disease in humans. While vaccines against the prominent members of this serocomplex are available or under development, it is unlikely that they will be produced specifically against those viruses which cause less-frequent disease, such as MVEV. Here we have evaluated the cross-protective values of an inactivated JEV vaccine (JE-VAX) and a live chimeric JEV vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) against MVEV in two mouse models of flaviviral encephalitis. We show that (i) a three-dose vaccination schedule with JE-VAX provides cross-protective immunity, albeit only partial in the more severe challenge model; (ii) a single dose of ChimeriVax-JE gives complete protection in both challenge models; (iii) the cross-protective immunity elicited with ChimeriVax-JE is durable (≥5 months) and broad (also giving protection against West Nile virus); (iv) humoral and cellular immunities elicited with ChimeriVax-JE contribute to protection against lethal challenge with MVEV; (v) ChimeriVax-JE remains fully attenuated in immunodeficient mice lacking type I and type II interferon responses; and (vi) immunization with JE-VAX, but not ChimeriVax-JE, can prime heterologous infection enhancement in recipients of vaccination on a low-dose schedule, designed to mimic vaccine failure or waning of vaccine-induced immunity. Our results suggest that the live chimeric JEV vaccine will protect against other viruses belonging to the JEV serocomplex, consistent with the observation of cross-protection following live virus infections. PMID:19109382
Lobigs, Mario; Larena, Maximilian; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Lee, Eva; Pavy, Megan
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex, which also includes Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV), is a group of antigenically closely related, mosquito-borne flaviviruses that are responsible for severe encephalitic disease in humans. While vaccines against the prominent members of this serocomplex are available or under development, it is unlikely that they will be produced specifically against those viruses which cause less-frequent disease, such as MVEV. Here we have evaluated the cross-protective values of an inactivated JEV vaccine (JE-VAX) and a live chimeric JEV vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) against MVEV in two mouse models of flaviviral encephalitis. We show that (i) a three-dose vaccination schedule with JE-VAX provides cross-protective immunity, albeit only partial in the more severe challenge model; (ii) a single dose of ChimeriVax-JE gives complete protection in both challenge models; (iii) the cross-protective immunity elicited with ChimeriVax-JE is durable (>or=5 months) and broad (also giving protection against West Nile virus); (iv) humoral and cellular immunities elicited with ChimeriVax-JE contribute to protection against lethal challenge with MVEV; (v) ChimeriVax-JE remains fully attenuated in immunodeficient mice lacking type I and type II interferon responses; and (vi) immunization with JE-VAX, but not ChimeriVax-JE, can prime heterologous infection enhancement in recipients of vaccination on a low-dose schedule, designed to mimic vaccine failure or waning of vaccine-induced immunity. Our results suggest that the live chimeric JEV vaccine will protect against other viruses belonging to the JEV serocomplex, consistent with the observation of cross-protection following live virus infections.
Fine, Donald L; Jenkins, Erin; Martin, Shannon S; Glass, Pamela; Parker, Michael D; Grimm, Brad
A multisystem approach was used to assess the efficiency of several methods for inactivation of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidates. A combination of diverse assays (plaque, in vitro cytopathology and mouse neurovirulence) was used to verify virus inactivation, along with the use of a specific ELISA to measure retention of VEEV envelope glycoprotein epitopes in the development of several inactivated VEEV candidate vaccines derived from an attenuated strain of VEEV (V3526). Incubation of V3526 aliquots at temperatures in excess of 64 degrees C for periods >30 min inactivated the virus, but substantially reduced VEEV specific monoclonal antibody binding of the inactivated material. In contrast, V3526 treated either with formalin at concentrations of 0.1% or 0.5% (v/v) for 4 or 24 h, or irradiated with 50 kGy gamma radiation rendered the virus non-infectious while retaining significant levels of monoclonal antibody binding. Loss of infectivity of both the formalin inactivated (fV3526) and gamma irradiated (gV3526) preparations was confirmed via five successive blind passages on BHK-21 cells. Similarly, loss of neurovirulence for fV3526 and gV3526 was demonstrated via intracerebral inoculation of suckling BALB/c mice. Excellent protection against subcutaneous challenge with VEEV IA/B Trinidad donkey strain was demonstrated using a two dose immunization regimen with either fV3526 or gV3526. The combination of in vitro and in vivo assays provides a practical approach to optimize manufacturing process parameters for development of other inactivated viral vaccines.
Li, Jieqiong; Chen, Hui; Wu, Na; Fan, Dongying; Liang, Guodong; Gao, Na; An, Jing
Vaccination is the most effective countermeasure for protecting individuals from Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection. There are two types of JEV vaccines currently used in China: the Vero cell-derived inactivated vaccine and the live attenuated vaccine. In this study, we characterized the immune response and protective efficacy induced in mice by the inactivated vaccine, live attenuated vaccine and the DNA vaccine candidate pCAG-JME, which expresses JEV prM-E proteins. We found that the live attenuated vaccine conferred 100% protection and resulted in the generation of high levels of specific anti-JEV antibodies and cytokines. The pCAG-JME vaccine induced protective immunity as well as the live attenuated vaccine. Unexpectedly, immunization with the inactivated vaccine only induced a limited immune response and partial protection, which may be due to the decreased activity of dendritic cells and the expansion of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells observed in these mice. Altogether, our results suggest that the live attenuated vaccine is more effective in providing protection against JEV infection than the inactivated vaccine and that pCAG-JME will be a potential JEV vaccine candidate.
Carpenter, J.W.; Dein, F.J.; Clark, G.G.; Watts, D.M.; Crabbs, C.L.
An unprecedented outbreak of fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus occurred during the late summer and fall of 1984 in endangered whooping cranes (Grus americana) at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, Maryland. As part of efforts to prevent future epizootics of EEE. studies were conducted to evaluate the antibody response of cranes following vaccination with a formalin-inactivated EEE virus vaccine. Viral specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) and whooping cranes following 1M inoculation with the vaccine. Among the 1M-inoculated cranes, peak antibody titers of 1:80 on days 30 to 60 had waned to undetectable levels by days 90 to 120. Although the initial titers were not increased by the first booster dose, the duration of the antibody was extended considerably. Whooping cranes, receiving vaccine 6 months after their first vaccination, developed titers of 1:80 to 1:320 by day 30. At 45 days after the final vaccination, these titers had dropped to 1:10 to 1:160. Cranes with preexisting EEE virus antibody, apparently reflecting natural infection, exhibited an anamnestic response indicated by a rapid increase and sustained high antibody titer. Even though EEE virus vaccine induced neutralizing antibody and produced no adverse side effects, further studies will be required to assess the significance of this response as a strategy for protecting whooping cranes against natural EEE virus infection. The loss of captive whooping cranes to the EEE virus presented a previously unrecognized risk and obstacle to recovery of this species. Not only was, there a setback in the captive breeding and reintroduction program for the whooping crane, but, because of the susceptibility of the species to the EEE virus. establishment of additional crane populations may be more complicated than initially envisioned. However, through continued surveillance, serological monitoring, and vaccination activities, we are confident that
Loginova, I V; Deriabin, P G; Tikhomirov, E E; Karpova, E F
A process flow diagram was elaborated for production and control of tissue culture inactivated vaccine (TCIV) against Japanese encephalitis (JE). The vaccine was prepared on the basis of the earlier patented JE virus strain (K3). Experimental laboratory JE TCIV series were obtained; their safety and high immunogenicity were tested on animals. Regulations (an instruction) for preparing and controlling JE TCIV have been worked out, which have been approved by the Academic Council of the D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology.
Dubischar, Katrin L; Kadlecek, Vera; Sablan, Jr Benjamin; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Gatchalian, Salvacion; Eder-Lingelbach, Susanne; Kiermayr, Sigrid; Spruth, Martin; Westritschnig, Kerstin
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a major public health concern in Asia and poses a small but potentially fatal threat to travelers from nonendemic countries, including children. No JE vaccine for pediatric use has been available in Europe and the United States. Age-stratified cohorts of children between 2 months and 17 years received 2 doses of Vero cell-derived inactivated JE virus vaccine (IXIARO; Valneva Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria) administered 28 days apart [<3 years, 0.25 mL (half adult dose); ≥3 years, 0.5 mL (full adult dose)]. Immunogenicity endpoints were seroconversion rate, 4-fold increase in JE neutralizing antibody titer and geometric mean titer assessed 56 days and 7 months after the first vaccination in 496 subjects of the intent-to-treat population. The immune response to JE virus at both time points was also analyzed according to prevaccination JE virus and dengue virus serostatus. At day 56, seroconversion was attained in ≥99.2% of subjects with age-appropriate dosing, 4-fold increases in titer were reported for 77.4%-100% in various age groups, and geometric mean titers ranged from 176 to 687, with younger children having the strongest immune response. At month 7, seroconversion was maintained in 85.5%-100% of subjects. Pre-existing JE virus immunity did not impact on immune response at day 56; however, it led to a better persistence of protective antibody titers at month 7. IXIARO is highly immunogenic at both doses tested in the pediatric population, leading to protective antibody titers at day 56 in >99% of subjects who received the age-appropriate dose.
Schlegl, Robert; Weber, Michael; Wruss, Jürgen; Low, Donald; Queen, Kirsten; Stilwell, Shaun; Lindblad, Erik B; Möhlen, Michael
Aluminum hydroxide is a critical raw material in the production of many vaccines. It is used as an adjuvant in the formulation of the final bulk vaccine, and for this it must meet the specifications of the European Pharmacopeia Monograph. We investigated whether vaccine stability was affected by the presence of trace amounts of elemental impurities in commercially available aluminum hydroxide. The content of residual elemental impurities in commercially available aluminum hydroxide was determined by selective and sensitive inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. We found significant differences between different suppliers, but also between different lots from the same supplier. Inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine, IXIARO(®), was used to study the effect of residual metals in aluminum hydroxide on antigen stability. We propose that antigen degradation occurred via a pathway involving the metal-catalyzed, auto-oxidation of a process-related impurity (sulfite). Thus, sulfite auto-oxidation resulted in antigen degradation when residual Cu was present at elevated concentrations in aluminum hydroxide. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Erra, Elina O; Kantele, Anu
With an estimated 68,000 cases each year, Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia. Vaccination against the disease is recommended for endemic populations and also for travelers at risk. Recently, a Vero cell-derived, inactivated, SA14-14-2 strain-based JE vaccine (JE-VC) became available for travelers from non-endemic regions, replacing the traditional mouse brain-derived vaccines. First licensed in 2009, JE-VC is currently available in Europe, the USA, Canada, Australia and several other countries. In 2013, the vaccine was approved by the European Medicines Agency and the US Food and Drug Administration for use in children. This review summarizes current data on the immunogenicity, safety and clinical use of JE-VC.
Rabe, Ingrid B; Miller, Elaine R; Fischer, Marc; Hills, Susan L
In March 2009, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration licensed an inactivated, Vero cell culture-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-VC [Ixiaro]) for use in adults. The vaccine was licensed based on clinical trial safety data in 3558 JE-VC recipients. It is essential to monitor post-licensure surveillance data to evaluate the safety of JE-VC because rare adverse events may not be detected until the vaccine is administered to a larger population. We reviewed adverse events reported to the U.S. Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) for adults (≥17 years) who received JE-VC from May 2009 through April 2012. Adverse event reporting rates were calculated using 275,848 JE-VC doses distributed. Over the 3 year period, 42 adverse events following vaccination with JE-VC were reported to VAERS for an overall reporting rate of 15.2 adverse events per 100,000 doses distributed. Of the 42 total reports, 5 (12%) were classified as serious for a reporting rate of 1.8 per 100,000 doses distributed; there were no deaths. Hypersensitivity reactions (N=12) were the most commonly reported type of adverse event, with a rate of 4.4 per 100,000 doses distributed; no cases of anaphylaxis were reported. Three adverse events of the central nervous system were reported (one case of encephalitis and two seizures) for a rate of 1.1 per 100,000; all occurred after receipt of JE-VC with other vaccines. These post-marketing surveillance data suggest a good safety profile for JE-VC consistent with findings from pre-licensure clinical trials. Post-licensure safety data should continue to be monitored for any evidence of rare serious or neurologic adverse events. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Reisler, Ronald B; Gibbs, Paul H; Danner, Denise K; Boudreau, Ellen F
We compared the effect on primary vaccination plaque-reduction neutralization 80% titers (PRNT80) responses of same-day administration (at different injection sites) of two similar investigational inactivated alphavirus vaccines, eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) vaccine (TSI-GSD 104) and western equine encephalitis (WEE) vaccine (TSI-GSD 210) to separate administration. Overall, primary response rate for EEE vaccine was 524/796 (66%) and overall primary response rate for WEE vaccine was 291/695 (42%). EEE vaccine same-day administration yielded a 59% response rate and a responder geometric mean titer (GMT)=89 while separate administration yielded a response rate of 69% and a responder GMT=119. WEE vaccine same-day administration yielded a 30% response rate and a responder GMT=53 while separate administration yielded a response rate of 54% and a responder GMT=79. EEE response rates for same-day administration (group A) vs. non-same-day administration (group B) were significantly affected by gender. A logistic regression model predicting response to EEE comparing group B to group A for females yielded an OR=4.10 (95% CL 1.97-8.55; p=.0002) and for males yielded an OR=1.25 (95% CL 0.76-2.07; p=.3768). WEE response rates for same-day administration vs. non-same-day administration were independent of gender. A logistic regression model predicting response to WEE comparing group B to group A yielded an OR=2.14 (95% CL 1.22-3.73; p=.0077). We report immune interference occurring with same-day administration of two completely separate formalin inactivated viral vaccines in humans. These findings combined with the findings of others regarding immune interference would argue for a renewed emphasis on studying the immunological mechanisms of induction of inactivated viral vaccine protection.
1 1,5 iodonaphthyl Azide-Inactivated V3526 Protects against Aerosol Challenge with Virulent Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus . Paridhi...UNCLASSIFIED 2 Abstract: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus. There is no licensed vaccine for prophylaxis...Introduction: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine development has been marred by failure of inactivated vaccines to develop efficient
Fan, Yi-Chin; Chiu, Hsien-Chung; Chen, Li-Kuang; Chang, Gwong-Jen J.; Chiou, Shyan-Song
Formalin-inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccines are widely available, but the effects of formalin inactivation on the antigenic structure of JEV and the profile of antibodies elicited after vaccination are not well understood. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to map the antigenic structure of live JEV virus, untreated control virus (UCV), formalin-inactivated commercial vaccine (FICV), and formalin-inactivated virus (FIV). The binding activity of T16 MAb against Nakayama-derived FICV and several strains of FIV was significantly lower compared to live virus and UCV. T16 MAb, a weakly neutralizing JEV serocomplex antibody, was found to inhibit JEV infection at the post-attachment step. The T16 epitope was mapped to amino acids 329, 331, and 389 within domain III (EDIII) of the envelope (E) glycoprotein. When we explored the effect of formalin inactivation on the immunogenicity of JEV, we found that Nakayama-derived FICV, FIV, and UCV all exhibited similar immunogenicity in a mouse model, inducing anti-JEV and anti-EDII 101/106/107 epitope-specific antibodies. However, the EDIII 329/331/389 epitope-specific IgG antibody and neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower for FICV-immunized and FIV-immunized mouse serum than for UCV-immunized. Formalin inactivation seems to alter the antigenic structure of the E protein, which may reduce the potency of commercially available JEV vaccines. Virus inactivation by H2O2, but not by UV or by short-duration and higher temperature formalin treatment, is able to maintain the antigenic structure of the JEV E protein. Thus, an alternative inactivation method, such as H2O2, which is able to maintain the integrity of the E protein may be essential to improving the potency of inactivated JEV vaccines. PMID:26495991
Chen, Hui-Lan; Chang, Jia-Kan; Tang, Ren-Bin
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus infection and an important cause of encephalitis in most of Asia and parts of the western Pacific. Most people infected with the JE virus (JEV) are asymptomatic or seemingly suffer from a nonspecific, flu-like illness; in others, JE can cause illness ranging from fever and headache to severe encephalitis. Although it can cause significant morbidity and mortality, JE is a vaccine-preventable disease, and vaccination programs have proven most effective in preventing and diminishing the burden of disease. Such JE vaccines have been available for decades with four types of JE vaccines-live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine, inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccine (JE-MB), inactivated Vero cell culture vaccine (JE-VC), and live attenuated chimeric vaccine (IMOJEV)-and are currently used in most countries. In some Asian countries such as Japan, China, Taiwan, Korea, and Thailand, immunization programs have been conducted for children and so the ongoing incidence of JE has declined considerably in recent decades. Until quite recently, the primary JE vaccine in use internationally has been the JE-MB, which is now commonly replaced by cell culture-based vaccines. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.
Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development.
An inactivated cell culture Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JE-ADVAX) formulated with delta inulin adjuvant provides robust heterologous protection against West Nile encephalitis via cross-protective memory B cells and neutralizing antibody.
Petrovsky, Nikolai; Larena, Maximilian; Siddharthan, Venkatraman; Prow, Natalie A; Hall, Roy A; Lobigs, Mario; Morrey, John
West Nile virus (WNV), currently the cause of a serious U.S. epidemic, is a mosquito-borne flavivirus and member of the Japanese encephalitis (JE) serocomplex. There is currently no approved human WNV vaccine, and treatment options remain limited, resulting in significant mortality and morbidity from human infection. Given the availability of approved human JE vaccines, this study asked whether the JE-ADVAX vaccine, which contains an inactivated cell culture JE virus antigen formulated with Advax delta inulin adjuvant, could provide heterologous protection against WNV infection in wild-type and β2-microglobulin-deficient (β2m(-/-)) murine models. Mice immunized twice or even once with JE-ADVAX were protected against lethal WNV challenge even when mice had low or absent serum cross-neutralizing WNV titers prior to challenge. Similarly, β2m(-/-) mice immunized with JE-ADVAX were protected against lethal WNV challenge in the absence of CD8(+) T cells and prechallenge WNV antibody titers. Protection against WNV could be adoptively transferred to naive mice by memory B cells from JE-ADVAX-immunized animals. Hence, in addition to increasing serum cross-neutralizing antibody titers, JE-ADVAX induced a memory B-cell population able to provide heterologous protection against WNV challenge. Heterologous protection was reduced when JE vaccine antigen was administered alone without Advax, confirming the importance of the adjuvant to induction of cross-protective immunity. In the absence of an approved human WNV vaccine, JE-ADVAX could provide an alternative approach for control of a major human WNV epidemic.
Safety and immunogenicity of a freeze-dried, Vero cell culture-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (KD-287, ENCEVAC®) versus a mouse brain-derived inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in children: a phase III, multicenter, double-blinded, randomized trial.
Yun, Ki Wook; Lee, Hoan Jong; Kang, Jin Han; Eun, Byung Wook; Kim, Yae-Jean; Kim, Kyung-Hyo; Kim, Nam Hee; Hong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Ho; Kim, Hwang Min; Cha, Sung-Ho
Although mouse brain-derived, inactivated Japanese encephalitis vaccines (JE-MBs) have been successfully used for a long time, potential rare neurological complications have prompted the development of a Vero cell culture-derived inactivated vaccine (JE-VC). In a phase III clinical study, we aimed to compare the safety and immunogenicity of a JE-VC, KD-287 with a JE-MB, JEV-GCC, in children. In this multicenter, double-blinded, randomized controlled trial, the study population consisted of 205 healthy Korean children aged 12-23 months. Each subject was subcutaneously vaccinated with either KD-287 or JEV-GCC twice at an interval of 2 weeks and then vaccinated once 12 months after the second vaccination. Neutralizing antibodies were measured by the plaque reduction neutralization test using the homologous and heterologous, as a post hoc analysis, challenge virus strains. The three-dose regimen of KD-287 showed a comparable safety profile with JEV-GCC except higher incidence of fever after the first dose (30.4% and 14.7%, respectively). Most of the fever was mild degree (61.3% and 66.7%, respectively). KD-287 fulfilled the non-inferiority criteria for seroconversion rate (SCR) and geometric mean titer (GMT) of the neutralizing antibody, which were the primary endpoints, at 4 weeks after the third vaccination (95% CI: -1.00, 3.10 for the SCR difference and 10.8, 17.6 for the GMT ratio). The SCRs of KD-287 were all 100% and the GMTs were higher in the KD-287 group than in the JEV-GCC group after the second vaccination and before and after the third vaccination (GMT ratio: 5.59, 20.13, and 13.79, respectively, p < 0.001 in all). GMTs were higher in the KD-287 group in the heterologous analysis also (GMT ratio: 4.05, 5.15, and 4.19, respectively, p < 0.001 in all). This study suggests that the KD-287, a JE-VC is as safe as and may be more effective than the licensed MB-derived vaccine. KD-287 could thus be useful as a second-generation vaccine and substitute
... disability. It is believed that infection in a pregnant woman could harm her unborn baby. JE vaccine can ... your doctor if you have any severe allergies. Pregnant women should usually not get JE vaccine. If you ...
One-year immunogenicity kinetics and safety of a purified chick embryo cell rabies vaccine and an inactivated Vero cell-derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine administered concomitantly according to a new, 1-week, accelerated primary series.
Cramer, Jakob P; Jelinek, Tomas; Paulke-Korinek, Maria; Reisinger, Emil C; Dieckmann, Sebastian; Alberer, Martin; Bühler, Silja; Bosse, Dietrich; Meyer, Seetha; Fragapane, Elena; Costantini, Marco; Pellegrini, Michele; Lattanzi, Maria; Dovali, Claudia
Conventional rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) primary series vaccination regimens each require up to 4 weeks to complete and, thus, may not be feasible for individuals who need these immunizations on short notice. This Phase 3b, randomized, controlled, observer-blind study evaluated the immunogenicity and safety of concomitant administration of a purified chick embryo cell culture rabies vaccine and an inactivated, adsorbed JE vaccine according to an accelerated (1 week) regimen when compared with the conventional regimens (4 weeks). This report describes the kinetics of immune responses up to 1 year after vaccination. A total of 661 healthy adults (18 to ≤65 years) were randomized into the following accelerated or conventional vaccine regimens: Rabies + JE-Conventional, Rabies + JE-Accelerated, Rabies-Conventional and JE-Conventional. Immunogenicity was assessed by virus neutralization tests. Safety and tolerability were also evaluated. Irrespective of rabies vaccination regimen, ≥97% of subjects had adequate levels of rabies virus neutralizing antibody (RVNA) concentrations (≥0.5 IU/ml) up to Day 57, with percentages of subjects with RVNA concentrations ≥0.5 IU/ml at Day 366 ranging between 68% in the Rabies + JE-Accelerated group and 80% of subjects in the Rabies-Conventional group. The Rabies + JE-Accelerated group revealed high JE neutralizing antibody titers at all-time points. At Day 366, the percentage of subjects with antibody titers indicative of seroprotection (PRNT50 titers ≥1:10) remained high across JE vaccine groups (86-94%). The accelerated PrEP rabies and JE vaccination regimens, once licensed, could represent a valid alternative in the short-term to currently recommended conventional regimens. The concomitant administration of these two vaccines does not compromise immune responses to any of the vaccine antigens particularly when aiming for short-term protection. Further evidence
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint.
Anti-N-methyl-d-aspartate (Anti-NMDA) receptor encephalitis is an acute autoimmune neurological disorder. The cause of this disease is often unknown, and previous studies revealed that it might be caused by a virus, vaccine or tumor. It occurs more often in females than in males. Several cases were reported to be related to vaccination such as the H1N1 vaccine and tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccines. In this study, we reported an anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis case that may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination. To investigate the association between anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis and vaccination, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationship of the microRNAs, which significantly regulate these vaccine viruses or bacteria, and the phylogenetic relationship of these viruses and bacteria. This reveals that anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis may be caused by Japanese encephalitis vaccination, as well as H1N1 vaccination or tetanus/diphtheria/pertussis and polio vaccinations, from the phylogenetic viewpoint. PMID:28106787
... due to some viruses, including: Measles Mumps Polio Rabies Rubella Varicella (chickenpox) Other viruses that cause encephalitis ... Vaccinate animals to prevent encephalitis caused by the rabies virus. References Aksamit AJ. Acute viral encephalitis. In: ...
... die from flu, and many more are hospitalized.Flu vaccine can:keep you from getting flu, make flu ... inactivated or recombinant influenza vaccine?A dose of flu vaccine is recommended every flu season. Children 6 months ...
Casault, Colin; Alikhani, Katayoun; Pillay, Neelan; Koch, Marcus
This is a case of autoimmune encephalitis with features of faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS) pathognomonic for Leucine Rich Glioma inactivated (LGI)1 antibody encephalitis. This voltage-gated potassium channel complex encephalitis is marked by rapid onset dementia, FBDS and hyponatremia, which is sensitive to management with immunotherapy including steroids, IVIG and other agents. In this case report we review the clinical features, imaging and management of this condition. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Dubischar, Katrin L; Kadlecek, Vera; Sablan, Benjamin; Borja-Tabora, Charissa Fay; Gatchalian, Salvacion; Eder-Lingelbach, Susanne; Mueller, Zsuzsanna; Westritschnig, Kerstin
Japanese encephalitis remains a serious health concern in Asian countries and has sporadically affected pediatric travelers. In the present study, we monitored the safety profile of the Japanese encephalitis virus vaccine IXIARO (Valneva Austria GmbH, Vienna, Austria) in a pediatric population. We randomized 1869 children between 2 months and 17 years of age in an age-stratified manner to vaccination with IXIARO or one of the control vaccines, Prevnar (formerly Wyeth Pharmaceuticals Inc., now Pfizer Inc., Kent, United Kingdom) and HAVRIX 720 (GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals, Rixensart, Belgium). Adverse events (AEs) (unsolicited and solicited local and systemic AEs), serious AEs and medically attended AEs were assessed up to day 56 and month 7 after the first dose. Incidences of AEs, serious AEs or medically attended AEs did not differ significantly between the groups in any age stratum. AEs were most frequent in children <1 year of age and decreased with age. AEs of special interest, predefined as AEs associated with potential hypersensitivity/allergy or neurologic disorders up to day 56, were reported in 4.6% (IXIARO) versus 6.3% (Prevnar) in the ≥2 months to <1 year age group and 3.4% (IXIARO) versus 3.3% (HAVRIX) in the ≥1 to <18 years age group. Fever, the most frequent systemic reaction in 23.7% of infants to 3.8% of adolescents, decreased with age and did not differ between groups. The safety profile of IXIARO was comparable to the control vaccines in terms of overall AE rates, serious AEs and medically attended AEs.
Needle-free jet injection of small doses of Japanese encephalitis DNA and inactivated vaccine mixture induces neutralizing antibodies in miniature pigs and protects against fetal death and mummification in pregnant sows.
Imoto, Jun-ichi; Ishikawa, Tomohiro; Yamanaka, Atsushi; Konishi, Misako; Murakami, Kenji; Shibahara, Tomoyuki; Kubo, Masanori; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Hamano, Masataka; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Kurane, Ichiro; Udagawa, Haruhide; Mukuta, Yoshihiro; Konishi, Eiji
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus causes abortion and stillbirth in swine, and encephalitis in humans and horses. We have previously reported that immunogenicity of a DNA vaccine against JE was synergistically enhanced in mice by co-immunization with a commercial inactivated JE vaccine (JEVAX) under a needle-free injection system. Here, we found that this immunization strategy was also effective in miniature pigs. Because of the synergism, miniature pigs immunized twice with a mixture of 10 μg of DNA and a 1/100 dose of JEVAX developed a high neutralizing antibody titer (1:190 at 90% plaque reduction assay). Even using 1 μg of DNA, 3 of 4 pigs developed neutralizing antibodies. Following challenge, all miniature pigs with detectable neutralizing antibodies were protected against viremia. Pregnant sows inoculated with 10 or 1 μg of DNA mixed with JEVAX (1/100 dose) developed antibody titers of 1:40-1:320. Following challenge, fetal death and mummification were protected against in DNA/JEVAX-immunized sows. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bunai, Yasuo; Ishii, Akira; Akaza, Kayoko; Nagai, Atsushi; Nishida, Naoki; Yamaguchi, Seiji
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is estimated to result in 3500-50,000 clinical cases every year, with mortality rates of up to 20-50% and a high percentage of neurological sequelae in survivors. Vaccination is the single most important measure in preventing this disease. Inactivated Vero cell culture-derived JE vaccines have not been linked to any fatalities, and few serious adverse events after vaccination have been reported. Here, we report a case of sudden death in which a 10-year-old boy experienced cardiopulmonary arrest 5 min after receiving a Japanese encephalitis vaccination. He had been receiving psychotropic drugs for the treatment of pervasive developmental disorders. Postmortem examinations were nonspecific, and no signs of dermatologic or mucosal lesions or an elevation of the serum tryptase level, which are characteristic of anaphylaxis, were observed. A toxicological examination revealed that the blood concentrations of the orally administered psychotropic drugs were within the therapeutic ranges. The patient was considered to have died of an arrhythmia that was not directly associated with the vaccination. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rumyantsev, Alexander A.; Goncalvez, Ana P.; Giel-Moloney, Maryann; Catalan, John; Liu, Yuxi; Gao, Qing-sheng; Almond, Jeff; Kleanthous, Harry; Pugachev, Konstantin V.
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus is the most important human pathogen transmitted by ticks in Eurasia. Inactivated vaccines are available but require multiple doses and frequent boosters to induce and maintain immunity. Thus far, the goal of developing a safe, live attenuated vaccine effective after a single dose has remained elusive. Here we used a replication-defective (single-cycle) flavivirus platform, RepliVax, to generate a safe, single-dose TBE vaccine. Several RepliVax-TBE candidates attenuated by a deletion in the capsid gene were constructed using different flavivirus backbones containing the envelope genes of TBE virus. RepliVax-TBE based on a West Nile virus backbone (RV-WN/TBE) grew more efficiently in helper cells than candidates based on Langat E5, TBE, and yellow fever 17D backbones, and was found to be highly immunogenic and efficacious in mice. Live chimeric yellow fever 17D/TBE, Dengue 2/TBE, and Langat E5/TBE candidates were also constructed but were found to be underattenuated. RV-WN/TBE was demonstrated to be highly immunogenic in Rhesus macaques after a single dose, inducing a significantly more durable humoral immune response compared with three doses of a licensed, adjuvanted human inactivated vaccine. Its immunogenicity was not significantly affected by preexisting immunity against WN. Immunized monkeys were protected from a stringent surrogate challenge. These results support the identification of a single-cycle TBE vaccine with a superior product profile to existing inactivated vaccines, which could lead to improved vaccine coverage and control of the disease. PMID:23858441
Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus. Japanese encephalitis is the most common vaccine-preventable virus causing encephalitis in Asia, affecting more than 50,000 persons and leading to 15,000 fatalities per year in endemic countries. For most travelers to Asia, the risk of Japanese encephalitis infection is extremely low and depends on destination, duration of travel, season, and activities. This article reviews travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis with a focus on epidemiology and prevention in the light of the newly available options for active immunization against Japanese encephalitis which have become available, and of the increasing popularity of travels to Japanese encephalitis endemic countries.
Jarvis, Jodie A; Franke, Mary A; Davis, April D
An examination using the routine rabies direct fluorescent antibody test was performed on rabies or Eastern equine encephalitis positive mammalian brain tissue to assess inactivation of the virus. Neither virus was inactivated with acetone fixation nor the routine test, thus laboratory employees should treat all samples as rabies and when appropriate Eastern equine encephalitis positive throughout the whole procedure.
Monath, T P
Vaccination against JE ideally should be practiced in all areas of Asia where the virus is responsible for human disease. The WHO has placed a high priority on the development of a new vaccine for prevention of JE. Some countries in Asia (Japan, South Korea, North Korea, Taiwan, Vietnam, Thailand, and the PRC) manufacture JE vaccines and practice childhood immunization, while other countries suffering endemic or epidemic disease (India, Nepal, Laos, Cambodia, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines) have no JE vaccine manufacturing or policy for use. With the exception of the PRC, all countries practicing JE vaccination use formalin inactivated mouse brain vaccines, which are relatively expensive and are associated with rare but clinically significant allergic and neurological adverse events. New inactivated JE vaccines manufactured in Vero cells are in advanced preclinical or early clinical development in Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and the PRC. An empirically derived, live attenuated vaccine (SA14-14-2) is widely used in the PRC. Trials in the PRC have shown SA14-14-2 to be safe and effective when administered in a two-dose regimen, but regulatory concerns over manufacturing and control have restricted international distribution. The genetic basis of attenuation of SA14-14-2 has been partially defined. A new live attenuated vaccine (ChimeriVax-JE) that uses a reliable flavivirus vaccine--yellow fever 17D--as a live vector for the envelope genes of SA14-14-2 virus is in early clinical trials and appears to be well tolerated and immunogenic after a single dose. Vaccinia and avipox vectored vaccines have also been tested clinically, but are no longer being pursued due to restricted effectiveness mediated by anti-vector immunity. Other approaches to JE vaccines--including naked DNA, oral vaccination, and recombinant subunit vaccines--have been reviewed.
Gupta, Paridhi; Sharma, Anuj; Spurgers, Kevin B; Bakken, Russell R; Eccleston, Lori T; Cohen, Jeffrey W; Honnold, Shelley P; Glass, Pamela J; Maheshwari, Radha K
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a New World alphavirus. VEEV is highly infectious in aerosolized form and has been identified as a bio-terrorism agent. There is no licensed vaccine for prophylaxis against VEEV. The current IND vaccine is poorly immunogenic and does not protect against an aerosol challenge with virulent VEEV. We have previously shown that VEEV inactivated by 1,5-iodonaphthyl azide (INA) protects against footpad challenge with virulent VEEV. In this study, we inactivated an attenuated strain of VEEV, V3526, with INA and evaluated its protective efficacy against aerosol challenge with wild type VEEV. We demonstrated that among three routes of immunization, intramuscular immunization with INA-inactivate V3526 (INA-iV3526) provided complete protection against aerosol challenge with virulent VEEV. Our data suggests that INA-iV3526 can be explored further for development as an effective vaccine candidate against aerosol challenge of virulent VEEV.
The JEV widely is used in Asian countries each year and is an important vaccine for travelers to the East from other parts of the world. JE virus is a zoonotic disease with natural reservoirs and cannot be eliminated. Although a declining incidence of JE has been observed in Asia because of reduced transmission by agricultural approaches and vaccination, the most important control measure now, and in the future, is vaccination of humans against JE. The inactivated vaccine, produced from infected mouse-brain-derived tissue, is the only commercially available vaccine. There are several concerns with the use of this vaccine. It is expensive, requires two or three doses to achieve protective efficacy, and, in practice, requires further booster doses to maintain immunity. The apparent increase in allergic reactions in the first part of the 1990s has set focus on the safety of the JEV. A cheap, live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccine is used almost exclusively in China and parts of Korea, but there have been no trials of SA 14-14-2 vaccine outside JE endemic countries. The vaccine seems to be highly efficient, and few adverse events have been observed; however, PHK cells are used for the production of this vaccine, and these cells are not approved by the WHO. A satisfactory cell substrate is needed. A committee under the WHO has proposed that for the live JEV, there should be validity of the assays for retrovirus when applied to PHK cell substrate and validity of the mouse assays for neurovirulence. Further information should be reviewed on the long-term follow-up of recipients of the vaccine. Several new types of vaccines have reached the phase of clinical trials; however, studies remain to be completed. Until a new vaccine is available, the priority of surveillance of adverse events and the continuous reporting of such events to the users of the vaccines must be of importance. This fact is highlighted by the possibility of the varying frequency of adverse events with
Reisler, Ronald B; Danner, Denise K; Gibbs, Paul H
Two hundred and ninety-three subjects received a three-dose primary JE-VAX series and had post-primary shot 3 titers within 56 days at USAMRIID from 1985 to 2005. Overall, the PRNT50 primary response rate (titer of 1:10 or greater) was 269/293 (92%). Eighteen out of 19 subjects (95%) responded with adequate PRNT50 titer within 56 days after first JE-VAX boost. Primary PRNT50 responses to JE-VAX varied significantly in response rates and in geometric means (GMT) by vaccine lot. We recommend that future vaccine studies using PRNT as an immunologic endpoint include a coefficient of variation result alongside the GMT to assist in evaluating GMT results. For subjects who responded within 56 days of primary shot 3, 50% experienced a PRNT50 decline in titer to <1:10 at 805 days and a PRNT80 decline in titer to <1:10 at 355 days. Consequently, for individuals traveling to JE endemic areas, we recommend JE-VAX boost every 2 years and for individuals working with high titers of JE virus in the lab setting, we would recommend JE-VAX boost annually.
... org/ vis 1 Why get vaccinated? Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious infection caused by the Japanese ... long periods of time. • Most people infected with JE virus don’t have any symptoms. Others might ...
Goodman, C H; Russell, B J; Velez, J O; Laven, J J; Bagarozzi, D A; Moon, J L; Bedi, K; Johnson, B W
Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a medically important pathogen that can cause severe encephalitis in humans, with mortality rates ranging from 30 to 80%. Unfortunately there are no antivirals or licensed vaccines available for human use, and laboratory diagnosis is essential to differentiate EEEV infection from other pathogens with similar clinical manifestations. The Arboviral Diseases Branch (ADB) reference laboratory at the CDC Division of Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) produces reference antigens used in serological assays such as the EEEV immunoglobulin M antibody-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAC-ELISA). However, EEEV is classified as a HHS select agent and requires biosafety level (BSL) three containment, limiting EEEV antigen production in non-select agent and BSL-2 laboratories. A recombinant Sindbis virus (SINV)/EEEV has been constructed for use under BSL-2 conditions and is not regulated as a select agent. Cell culture production of inactivated EEEV antigen from SINV/EEEV for use in the EEEV MAC-ELISA is reported here. Cell culture conditions and inactivation procedures were analyzed for SINV/EEEV using a recently developed antigen production algorithm, with the MAC-ELISA as the performance indicator.
Sharma, Anuj; Raviv, Yossef; Puri, Anu; Viard, Mathias; Blumenthal, Robert; Maheshwari, Radha K. . E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Hydrophobic alkylating compounds like 1,5-iodonaphthylazide (INA) partitions into biological membranes and accumulates selectively into the hydrophobic domain of the lipid bilayer. Upon irradiation with far UV light, INA binds selectively to transmembrane proteins in the viral envelope and renders them inactive. Such inactivation does not alter the ectodomains of the membrane proteins thus preserving the structural and conformational integrity of immunogens on the surface of the virus. In this study, we have used INA to inactivate Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV). Treatment of VEEV with INA followed by irradiation with UV light resulted in complete inactivation of the virus. Immuno-fluorescence for VEEV and virus titration showed no virus replication in-vitro. Complete loss of infectivity was also achieved in mice infected with INA treated plus irradiated preparations of VEEV. No change in the structural integrity of VEEV particles were observed after treatment with INA plus irradiation as assessed by electron microscopy. This data suggest that such inactivation strategies can be used for developing vaccine candidates for VEEV and other enveloped viruses.
Turner, G. S.; Squires, E. J.; Murray, H. G. S.
Vaccines were prepared from a single pool of high-titred vaccinia virus and inactivated by six methods, namely heat, formalin, hydroxylamine, β-propiolactone, ultraviolet irradiation, and visible light and methylene blue. Large doses of the vaccines were required to protect mice against intracerebral challenge. Differences in protection were not attributable to the method of their inactivation. The vaccines also induced similar degrees of skin immunity in rabbits which showed no severe dermal reactions when challenged with either homologous killed vaccine or live virus. The virus-neutralizing, haemagglutinin-inhibiting and complement fixing antibody responses to the vaccines differed; heat-inactivation preserved these antigens least well and β-propiolactone apparently the best. In both rabbits and mice there was little association between the different antibody responses to each vaccine or between the degrees of antibody response and the protection they induced. The relation of these findings to pox-virus immunity and the use of inactivated smallpox vaccine in man is discussed. PMID:4988047
Hidalgo, Hildegard; Kallweit, Ulf; Mathis, Johannes; Bassetti, Claudio L.
Study Objectives: Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a chronic neurological disorder thought to result from an altered immune response based on a genetic predisposition coupled with environmental factors. Pandemrix vaccination has been reported to increase the risk of narcolepsy. We aimed at identifying other vaccines associated with the onset of narcolepsy. Methods: Case series and retrospective database study. Results: We identified four cases of NC following a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination with FSME Immun. Additional four cases could be detected in the database of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines in Germany. Conclusions: Our findings implicate TBE vaccination as a potential additional environmental factor for the development of NC and add additional evidence for an immunological mechanism in the pathogenesis of the disease. Citation: Hidalgo H, Kallweit U, Mathis J, Bassetti CL. Post tick-borne encephalitis virus vaccination narcolepsy with cataplexy. SLEEP 2016;39(10):1811–1814. PMID:27397572
Cha, Go Woon; Cho, Jung Eun; Ju, Young Ran; Hong, Young-Jin; Han, Myung Guk; Lee, Won-Ja; Choi, Eui Yul; Jeong, Young Eui
Objectives Several different methods are currently used to detect antibodies to Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) in serum samples or cerebrospinal fluid. These methods include the plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of each method in detecting vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV. Methods The study included 29 children who had completed a primary immunization schedule with an inactivated vaccine against JEV derived from mouse brain (n = 15) or a live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine (n = 14). Serum samples were collected between 3 months and 47 months after the last immunization. The serum samples were tested by performing the PRNT, HI test, in-house IFA, and commercial ELISA. The antibody detection rates were compared between tests. Results All 29 serum samples were positive with the PRNT, showing antibody titers from 1:20 to 1:2560. The HI test showed positive rates of 86.7% (13/15) and 71.4% (10/14) in the inactivated and live attenuated vaccine groups, respectively. The results of the IFA for immunoglobulin (Ig)G were positive in 53.3% (8/15) of children in the inactivated vaccine group and 35.7% (5/14) in the live attenuated vaccine group. Neither the IFA nor ELISA detected JEV IgM antibodies in any of the 29 children. Conclusion These results show that detection rates of vaccine-induced antibodies to JEV have a wide range (0–100%) depending on the testing method as well as the time since immunization and individual differences between children. These findings are helpful in interpreting serological test results for the diagnosis of Japanese encephalitis in situations where vaccines are widely administered. PMID:25389515
Takeshita, Nozomi; Lim, Chang-Kweng; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Shimbo, Takuro; Kotaki, Akira; Ujiie, Mugen; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Kato, Yasuyuki; Kanagawa, Shuzo; Kaku, Mitsuo; Takasaki, Tomohiko
In Japan, intensive immunization against Japanese encephalitis (JE) was performed from 1967 to 1976, and regular JE immunization was performed thereafter. However, for Japanese adults facing JE risk, dates of vaccination with new inactivated Vero cell-derived JE vaccine are unavailable. This study investigated how a single dose of Vero cell-derived JE vaccine affects Japanese adults. Neutralizing antibodies were measured pre- and post-JE vaccination in 79 participants (age 40.7 ± 9.4 years), enrolled between October 2009 and March 2011, whose JE-vaccination data were gathered from vaccination records and history taking. Before vaccination, the participants' seroprotection rate (SPR) was 51.9%, whereas SPR after vaccination was 93.7%. The seroconversion rate (SCR), which measures seronegative cases that turn seropositive after vaccination, was 86.8%. The geometric mean titer (GMT) was 14.7 before vaccination and 70.1 after vaccination. Age was a significant difference between seroprotected (42.8 years) and non-seroprotected (38.7 years) groups before vaccination. Then the difference of age, SCR, pre-vaccination GMT, post-vaccination GMT and sex ratio were also significant in participants aged 25-39 years and ≥40 years, who represent generations born when Japan's JE-vaccination policy changed. SCR was 100% in participants aged 25-39 years with a vaccination recorded 55.6% in participants aged 25-39 without a vaccination record, and 96.0% in participants aged ≥40 years. Thus, more participants aged 25-39 years were seroprotected before vaccination, but SCR was higher in those aged ≥40 years. Most Japanese adults can be protected after one-dose vaccination, but this may be insufficient for people aged 25-39 years without recorded JE vaccination.
Goncharova, Elena P; Koroleva, Ludmila S; Silnikov, Vladimir N; Ternovoy, Vladimir A; Vlassov, Valentin V; Zenkova, Marina A
The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an RNA-containing enveloped virus, which poses a major threat to the well-being and health of humans. In this study, we describe an approach to the inactivation of TBEV, which involves the degradation of viral RNA by artificial ribonucleases (aRNases, small organic compounds that exhibit ribonuclease activity in vitro). We demonstrate that the incubation of TBEV with aRNases lead to the total inactivation of the virus as indicated by the plaque formation assay data, but retain the viral immunogenic properties, as shown by the ELISA data. We propose that a possible mechanism of TBEV inactivation with aRNase, which includes: i) formation of local breaks in the lipid membrane of the virus caused by aRNase, ii) penetration of aRNase into the viral capsid, iii) degradation of genomic RNA by aRNase. These data suggest that the proposed approach can be used in the production of killed-virus vaccine. PMID:22872801
Anderson, E; Clouthier, S; Shewmaker, W; Weighall, A; LaPatra, S
The inactivation dynamics of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) by b-propiolactone (BPL), binary ethylenimine (BEI), formaldehyde or heat and the antigenic and immunogenic properties of the inactivated vaccines were evaluated. Chemical treatment of IHNV with 2.7 mm BPL, 1.5 mm BEI or 50 mm formaldehyde abolished virus infectivity within 48 h whereas heat treatment at 50 or 100 degrees C rendered the virus innocuous within 30 min. The inactivated IHNV vaccines were recognized by rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, IHNV-specific antibodies and were differentially recognized by antigenic site I or antigenic site II IHNV glycoprotein-specific neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. The BPL inactivated whole virus vaccine was highly efficacious in vaccinated rainbow trout challenged by waterborne exposure to IHNV 7, 28, 42 or 56 days (15 degrees C) after immunization. The formaldehyde inactivated whole virus vaccine was efficacious 7 or 11 days after vaccination of rainbow trout but performed inconsistently when tested at later time points. The other vaccines tested were not efficacious.
Stowe, Julia; Andrews, Nick; Wise, Lesley; Miller, Elizabeth
Concern about a possible increased risk of Bell's palsy after parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine was raised following the publication in 2004 of a Swiss study in which there was an increased risk following the nasal inactivated formulation of the vaccine. When data from passive reporting systems in the United States and the United Kingdom were examined there was some evidence of increased reporting following the parenteral vaccine. A large population based study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) was therefore performed to test the hypothesis that there was an increased risk of Bell's palsy in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine. The risk was also assessed for the same period following pneumococcal vaccine and was stratified into three age groups (<45, 45-64 and 65+ years). Relative incidence (RI) estimates were calculated using the self-controlled case-series method and showed no evidence of an increased risk in the three months following parenteral inactivated influenza vaccine RI 0.92 (95% confidence interval 0.78-1.08). There was also no evidence of an increased risk in any age group or following pneumococcal vaccine. A significant increase was seen on the day of vaccination (day 0) probably due to opportunistic recording of cases.
Pandya, Jyotsna; Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Weaver, Scott C.
To develop an effective vaccine against eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), we engineered a recombinant EEE virus (EEEV) that was attenuated and capable of replicating only in vertebrate cells, an important safety feature for live vaccines against mosquito-borne viruses. The subgenomic promoter was inactivated with 13 synonymous mutations and expression of the EEEV structural proteins was placed under the control of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) derived from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). We tested this vaccine candidate for virulence, viremia and efficacy in the murine model. A single subcutaneous immunization with 104 infectious units protected 100% of mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a highly virulent North American EEEV strain. None of the mice developed any signs of disease or viremia after immunization or following challenge. Our findings suggest that the IRES-based attenuation approach can be used to develop a safe and effective vaccine against EEE and other alphaviral diseases. PMID:22222869
Pandya, Jyotsna; Gorchakov, Rodion; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Weaver, Scott C
To develop an effective vaccine against eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), we engineered a recombinant EEE virus (EEEV) that was attenuated and capable of replicating only in vertebrate cells, an important safety feature for live vaccines against mosquito-borne viruses. The subgenomic promoter was inactivated with 13 synonymous mutations and expression of the EEEV structural proteins was placed under the control of an internal ribosomal entry site (IRES) derived from encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV). We tested this vaccine candidate for virulence, viremia and efficacy in the murine model. A single subcutaneous immunization with 10(4) infectious units protected 100% of mice against intraperitoneal challenge with a highly virulent North American EEEV strain. None of the mice developed any signs of disease or viremia after immunization or following challenge. Our findings suggest that the IRES-based attenuation approach can be used to develop a safe and effective vaccine against EEE and other alphaviral diseases.
Leonova, G N; Liubimova, N B; Sergeev, G A; Muratkina, S M; Krugliak, S P; Bobkov, A V; Bondarenko, S I; Tutubalina, G N; Beliaev, M M
Inactivated vaccine against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE), prepared on the basis of strain 205, is characterized by epidemiological (53%) and immunobiological activity. The appearance of a few TBE cases among the vaccinees is probably due to different maturation rate of immune response to various strains (different specificity of immune response). A suggestion has been made that no inactivated vaccine prepared from a single strain can produce a reliable protective effect because of pronounced heterogeneity of the population of TBE virus.
Connor, Bradley; Bunn, William B
The epidemiology of Japanese Encephalitis and risk to the traveler has changed and continues to evolve. The spread of Japanese Encephalitis virus into new environments, changes in agricultural practice and animal vectors, climate change, peri-urban growth, changes in international travel to Asia, personal risk factors, mosquito vector free transmission, interactions with other flaviviruses and better information on infections without encephalitis and other factors make Japanese Encephalitis an underappreciated risk. There has also been a change in the incidence of Japanese Encephalitis cases that questions the current travel duration and geographic based recommendations. A safe, effective vaccine (Ixiaro) that may be administered in a short course regimen is now available in the United States without the risks of the previous vaccine. However, the vaccine is significantly underutilized. These changes in the epidemiology and new data on the risks of the Japanese Encephalitis virus require a review of the practice guidelines and expert recommendations that do not reflect the current state of knowledge.
Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe
In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.
Posadas-Herrera, Guillermo; Inoue, Shingo; Fuke, Isao; Muraki, Yuko; Mapua, Cynthia A; Khan, Afjal Hossain; Parquet, Maria Del Carmen; Manabe, Sadao; Tanishita, Osamu; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Natividad, Filipinas F; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Hasebe, Futoshi; Morita, Kouichi
A formalin-inactivated West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccine (WN-VAX) derived from the WNV-NY99 strain was tested for its safety, efficacy, dilution limit for complete protection, and cross-neutralization. Safety tests performed with experimental animals, bacteria, or cultured cell lines showed no evidence of short- or long-term adverse effects. WN-VAX also protected 100% of 4-week-old mice against a lethal challenge from the WNV-NY99 strain after two doses of intraperitoneal inoculation-even when the vaccine was diluted to 3.2ng/dose. Moreover, very limited cross-neutralization activity against Japanese encephalitis virus, Dengue virus, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Yellow fever virus or St. Louis encephalitis virus was observed. Therefore, the WN-VAX satisfies the requirements for human trials planned to be done in Japan.
Russo, P; Vitu, C; Fontaine, J J; Vignoni, M
In purpose to protect goats against caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV), the first group of kids (I) was inoculated with purified, inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions, the second group (II) with adjuvant and the third one (III) with culture medium. 2-4 months later, the three groups were challenged with virulent CAEV by intraarticular route. On the clinical level, vaccinated and challenged kids show more early and severe arthritis than other groups. On the virological level, isolation of lentivirus from white blood cells and different organs is more important in group I than groups II and III. Therefore, vaccinations with inactivated and adjuvant-treated virions do not protect against a virulent challenge; there is an enhancement of lesions. We note that the adjuvant elicits a mild non-specific protection against virulent challenge.
Gualberto, Felipe Augusto Souza; de Oliveira, Maria Isabel; Alves, Venancio A F; Kanamura, Cristina T; Rosemberg, Sérgio; Sato, Helena Keico; Arantes, Benedito A F; Curti, Suely Pires; Figueiredo, Cristina Adelaide
Involvement of the central nervous system is common in measles, but rare in rubella. However, rubella virus (RV) can cause a variety of central nervous system syndromes, including meningitis, encephalitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome and sub acute sclerosing panencephalitis. We report the occurrence of one fatal case of the encephalitis associated with measles-rubella (MR) vaccine during an immunization campaign in São Paulo, Brazil. A 31 year-old-man, previously in good health, was admitted at emergency room, with confusion, agitation, inability to stand and hold his head up. Ten days prior to admission, he was vaccinated with combined MR vaccine (Serum Institute of India) and three days later he developed 'flu-like' illness with fever, myalgia and headache. Results of clinical and laboratory exams were consistent with a pattern of viral encephalitis. During hospitalization, his condition deteriorated rapidly with tetraplegia and progression to coma. On the 3rd day of hospitalization he died. Histopathology confirmed encephalitis and immunohistochemistry was positive for RV on brain tissue. RV was also detected by qPCR and virus isolation in cerebrospinal fluid, brain and other clinical samples. The sequence obtained from the isolated virus was identical to that of the RA 27/3 vaccine strain.
Krastinova, E; Vigneron, M; Le Bras, P; Gasnault, J; Goujard, C
We report a 72-year-old patient who developed acute limbic encephalitis initially considered of uncertain aetiology. Detailed information on clinical presentation, MRI appearance, antibody levels, cognitive impairment assessment, treatment and evolution of the patient is reported here. Since the early 2000s, many antibodies implied in central nervous system autoimmune disorders have been identified. Anti-glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) antibodies have been recently identified as associated with limbic encephalitis, as was the case in our patient.
Hidalgo, Hildegard; Kallweit, Ulf; Mathis, Johannes; Bassetti, Claudio L
Narcolepsy with cataplexy (NC) is a chronic neurological disorder thought to result from an altered immune response based on a genetic predisposition coupled with environmental factors. Pandemrix vaccination has been reported to increase the risk of narcolepsy. We aimed at identifying other vaccines associated with the onset of narcolepsy. Case series and retrospective database study. We identified four cases of NC following a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccination with FSME Immun. Additional four cases could be detected in the database of the Paul-Ehrlich-Institut, Federal Institute for Vaccines and Biomedicines in Germany. Our findings implicate TBE vaccination as a potential additional environmental factor for the development of NC and add additional evidence for an immunological mechanism in the pathogenesis of the disease.
This article presents the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommendations on the use of Japanese Encephalitis (JE) vaccines excerpted from the WHO position paper on Japanese Encephalitis vaccines recently published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record . This updated position paper on JE vaccines replaces the 2006 position paper on this subject ; it focuses on new information concerning the availability, safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness of JE vaccines and the duration of protection they confer. Recent data on global prevalence and burden of disease caused by JE and cost-effectiveness considerations regarding JE vaccination are also summarized. Footnotes to this paper provide a number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of the scientific evidence. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its October 2014 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html. Copyright © 2015 The World Health Organization. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing
Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention. PMID:26818736
Li, Jieqiong; Gao, Na; Fan, Dongying; Chen, Hui; Sheng, Ziyang; Fu, Shihong; Liang, Guodong; An, Jing
Dengue viruses (DENVs) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are closely related mosquito-borne flaviviruses that cause very high global disease burdens. Although cross-reactivity and cross-protection within flaviviruses have been demonstrated, the effect of JEV vaccination on susceptibility to DENV infection has not been well elucidated. In this study, we found that vaccination with the JEV inactivated vaccine (INV) and live attenuated vaccine (LAV) could induce cross-immune responses and cross-protection against DENV1-4 in mice. Despite the theoretical risk of immune enhancement, no increased mortality was observed in our mouse model. Additionally, low but consistently detectable cross-neutralizing antibodies against DENV2 and DENV3 were also observed in the sera of JEV vaccine-immunized human donors. The results suggested that both JEV-LAV and JEV-INV could elicit strong cross-immunity and protection against DENVs, indicating that inoculation with JEV vaccines may influence the distribution of DENVs in co-circulated areas and that the cross-protection induced by JEV vaccines against DENVs might provide important information in terms of DENV prevention.
Oliveira-Nascimento, L; Caricati, A T P; Abdulack-Lopes, F; Neves, L C M; Caricati, C P; Penna, T C V; Stephano, M A
Rabies is a viral encephalitis, nearly always fatal, but preventable through vaccines. Rabid animal bite is the prime transmission act, while veterinary vaccination is one of the best strategies for rabies general prevention. Aluminum compounds and saponin are the commercial adjuvants used for this vaccine nowadays. Nevertheless, aluminum compounds can provoke undesired side effects and saponin has a narrow activity range without toxicity. B. atrophaeus inactivated spores (BAIS), with or without saponin, were then used as an alternative to boost the inactivated rabies virus response. BAIS was as effective as saponin in augmenting antibody titers, but combination of both adjuvants doubled the titers raised by them individually. The combined adjuvant formulation maintained viability for 21 months when stored at 4-8°C. Overall, BAIS was demonstrated as a viable alternative to commercial adjuvants, while its combination with saponin resulted in even higher vaccine potency with good stability.
Clark, G G; Dein, F J; Crabbs, C L; Carpenter, J W; Watts, D M
As a possible strategy to protect whooping cranes (Grus americana) from fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viral infection, studies were conducted to determine the immune response of this species and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to a formalin-inactivated EEE viral vaccine. Viral-specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in both species after intramuscular (IM) vaccination. Subcutaneous and intravenous routes of vaccination failed to elicit detectable antibody in sandhill cranes. Among the IM vaccinated cranes, the immune response was characterized by nondetectable or low antibody titers that waned rapidly following primary exposure to the vaccine. However, one or more booster doses consistently elicited detectable antibody and/or increased antibody titers in the whooping cranes. In contrast, cranes with pre-existing EEE viral antibody, apparently induced by natural infection, exhibited a rapid increase and sustained high-antibody titers. Even though EEE virus vaccine induced neutralizing antibody and produced no adverse side effects, further studies will be required to determine the protective efficacy of the antibody.
Clark, G.G.; Dein, F.J.; Crabbs, C.L.; Carpenter, J.W.; Watts, D.M.
As a possible strategy to protect whooping cranes (Grus americana) from fatal eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) viral infection, studies were conducted to determine the immune response of this species and sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis) to a formalin-inactivated EEE viral vaccine. Viral-specific neutralizing antibody was elicited in both species after intramuscular (IM) vaccination. Subcutaneous and intravenous routes of vaccination failed to elicit detectable antibody in sandhill cranes. Among the IM vaccinated cranes, the immune response was characterized by nondetectable or low antibody titers that waned rapidly following primary exposure to the vaccine. However, one or more booster doses consistently elicited detectable antibody and/or increased antibody titers in the whooping cranes. In contrast, cranes with pre-existing EEE viral antibody, apparently induced by natural infection, exhibited a rapid increase and sustained high-antibody titers. Even though EEE virus vaccine induced neutralizing antibody and produced no adverse side effects, further studies will be required to determine the protective efficacy of the antibody.
Kunze, Ursula; Kunze, Michael
This paper describes a paradoxical situation in Austria. The vaccination rate against tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the general population is 82%, which is the highest worldwide, whereas the vaccination rate against influenza is about 8% and is among the lowest worldwide. A high awareness of TBE among the Austrian population achieved by an annual social marketing programme and the wide use of effective and well-tolerated vaccines have led to a successful containment of that disease. The vaccination coverage increased from 6% in 1980 to 82% in 2013 and exceeds 90% in some high-risk areas. This has led to a steady decline in the number of TBE cases from several hundred cases to 50 to 100 cases per year. The situation in regard to influenza vaccination is the opposite. Although Austria has issued one of the most extensive recommendations for influenza vaccination worldwide, the vaccination rate of the general population is extremely low. The possible reasons for the failure in the implementation of recommendations are ignorance, lack of social marketing and the predominance of a distinct discordance within the health system in general, and the Austrian medical fraternity in particular.
Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine, Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger, Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; de Soárez, Patricia Coelho; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil. METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the “National Immunization Days”, during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011. RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of “National Immunization Days” carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one “National Immunization Day” was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011. PMID:25741645
Sartori, Ana Marli Christovam; Vicentine, Margarete Paganotti; Gryninger, Lígia Castelloni Figueiredo; Soárez, Patricia Coelho de; Novaes, Hillegonda Maria Dutilh
OBJECTIVE To analyze the costs of vaccination regimens for introducing inactivated polio vaccine in routine immunization in Brazil. METHODS A cost analysis was conducted for vaccines in five vaccination regimens, including inactivated polio vaccine, compared with the oral polio vaccine-only regimen. The costs of the vaccines were estimated for routine use and for the "National Immunization Days", during when the oral polio vaccine is administered to children aged less than five years, independent of their vaccine status, and the strategic stock of inactivated polio vaccine. The presented estimated costs are of 2011. RESULTS The annual costs of the oral vaccine-only program (routine and two National Immunization Days) were estimated at US$19,873,170. The incremental costs of inclusion of the inactivated vaccine depended on the number of vaccine doses, presentation of the vaccine (bottles with single dose or ten doses), and number of "National Immunization Days" carried out. The cost of the regimen adopted with two doses of inactivated vaccine followed by three doses of oral vaccine and one "National Immunization Day" was estimated at US$29,653,539. The concomitant replacement of the DTPw/Hib and HepB vaccines with the pentavalent vaccine enabled the introduction of the inactivated polio without increasing the number of injections or number of visits needed to complete the vaccination. CONCLUSIONS The introduction of the inactivated vaccine increased the annual costs of the polio vaccines by 49.2% compared with the oral vaccine-only regimen. This increase represented 1.13% of the expenditure of the National Immunization Program on the purchase of vaccines in 2011.
AD-A236 920 MOLECULAR STRATEGY FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF A GENETICALLY ENGINEERED VACCINE FOR VENEZUELAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS FINAL REPORT ROBERT...89-C-9089 engineered vaccine for Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus 62787A 3M162787A871 AD Robert Edward Johnston WUDA318408 Nancy Lee Davis...multiple mutants were more attenuated than those containing a single attenuating Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEE) full-length clones; In vitro
Japanese encephalitis (ICD 10: A83.0) is an important specific viral encephalitis caused by the Japanese encephalitis virus, a virus of the Flavivirus group. Millions of people, especially those in endemic areas of developing countries in Asia, are at high risk from this infection. Therefore proper management to deal with this virus is essential. There is no specific treatment for Japanese encephalitis virus. Supportive and symptomatic treatments are usually used, which emphasize the importance of prevention in this specific neurological disorder. Vector control or vaccination can be used to prevent the disease. Because the existing Japanese encephalitis vaccine poses some undesirable problems, a new vaccine is needed. The process of developing a new vaccine is briefly discussed. PMID:20360904
Higuchi, Akira; Toriniwa, Hiroko; Komiya, Tomoyoshi; Nakayama, Tetsuo
An inactivated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine, which induces neutralizing antibodies, has been used for many years in Japan. In the present study, the JEV prM-E protein gene was cloned, inserted at the P/M junction of measles AIK-C cDNA, and an infectious virus was recovered. The JEV E protein was expressed in B95a cells infected with the recombinant virus. Cotton rats were inoculated with recombinant virus. Measles PA antibodies were detected three weeks after immunization. Neutralizing antibodies against JEV developed one week after inoculation, and EIA antibodies were detected three weeks after immunization. The measles AIK-C-based recombinant virus simultaneously induced measles and JEV immune responses, and may be a candidate for infant vaccines. Therefore, the present strategy of recombinant viruses based on a measles vaccine vector would be applicable to the platform for vaccine development.
Ishimaru, Daniella; Sá-Carvalho, Daniel; Silva, Jerson L
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the causative agent of the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). Alternative FMD vaccines have been pursued due to important disadvantages of the one currently in use. High hydrostatic pressure (HP) has been observed to inactivate some viruses. Here, we investigated the effects of HP on FMDV O1 Campos-Vallée (CVa) infectivity. A treatment consisting of 2.5 kbar at -15 degrees C and 1M urea, completely abolished FMDV infectivity, maintaining the integrity of its capsid structure. Moreover, its ability to elicit neutralizing antibody production in rabbits was preserved. Taken together, our results suggest that HP could be a safe, simple, cheap and reproducible way for viral vaccine production.
was like immunization with formaldehyde - inactivated C-84 VEE virus. These results raise questions concerning the route of immunization and perhaps the...immunized mice was less effective in inhibiting replication of the challenge virus. Prechallange Nt antibody titers in individual animals receiving various...virulent TRD virus. The VACC/TC-5A vaccine effectively protected mice against peripheral infection but not intranasal challenge with TRD virus
Wang, Shi-Yuan; Cheng, Xiao-Hua; Li, Jing-Xin; Li, Xi-Yan; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liu, Pei
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a leading cause of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in children and adults, is a major public health problem in Asian countries. This study reports a meta-analysis of the immunogenicity and safety of vaccines used to protect infants or children from JE. Three types of JE vaccine were examined, namely, Japanese encephalitis live-attenuated vaccine (JEV-L), Japanese encephalitis inactivated vaccine (Vero cell) (JEV-I(Vero)), and Japanese encephalitis inactivated vaccine (primary hamster kidney cell) (JEV-I(PHK)). These vaccines are used to induce fundamental immunity against JE; however, few studies have compared their immunogenicity and safety in infants and young children less than 2 years of age. Data were obtained by searching 5 databases: Web of Science, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the China Wanfang database, and the Cochrane database. Fifteen articles were identified and scored using the Jadad score for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Random effect models were used to calculate the pooled seroconversion rate and adverse reaction rate when tests for heterogeneity were significant. The results showed that the pooled seroconversion rate for JEV-I(PHK) (62.23%) was lower than that for JEV-I(Vero) (86.49%) and JEV-L (83.52%), and that the pooled adverse reaction rate for JEV-L (18.09%) was higher than that for JEV-I(PHK) (10.08%) and JEV-I(Vero) (12.49%). The pooled relative risk was then calculated to compare the seroconversion and adverse reaction rates. The results showed that JEV-I(Vero) and JEV-L were more suitable than JEV-I(PHK) for inducing fundamental immunity to JE in infants and children less than 2 years of age. PMID:25915588
Wang, Shi-Yuan; Cheng, Xiao-Hua; Li, Jing-Xin; Li, Xi-Yan; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Liu, Pei
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a leading cause of Japanese encephalitis (JE) in children and adults, is a major public health problem in Asian countries. This study reports a meta-analysis of the immunogenicity and safety of vaccines used to protect infants or children from JE. Three types of JE vaccine were examined, namely, Japanese encephalitis live-attenuated vaccine (JEV-L), Japanese encephalitis inactivated vaccine (Vero cell) (JEV-I(Vero)), and Japanese encephalitis inactivated vaccine (primary hamster kidney cell) (JEV-I(PHK)). These vaccines are used to induce fundamental immunity against JE; however, few studies have compared their immunogenicity and safety in infants and young children less than 2 years of age. Data were obtained by searching 5 databases: Web of Science, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, the China Wanfang database, and the Cochrane database. Fifteen articles were identified and scored using the Jadad score for inclusion in the meta-analysis. Random effect models were used to calculate the pooled seroconversion rate and adverse reaction rate when tests for heterogeneity were significant. The results showed that the pooled seroconversion rate for JEV-I(PHK) (62.23%) was lower than that for JEV-I(Vero) (86.49%) and JEV-L (83.52%), and that the pooled adverse reaction rate for JEV-L (18.09%) was higher than that for JEV-I(PHK) (10.08%) and JEV-I(Vero) (12.49%). The pooled relative risk was then calculated to compare the seroconversion and adverse reaction rates. The results showed that JEV-I(Vero) and JEV-L were more suitable than JEV-I(PHK) for inducing fundamental immunity to JE in infants and children less than 2 years of age.
The mosquito-borne Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is the major etiological agent of viral encephalitis in children living in South-East Asia, causing comas, seizures and Parkinson's disease-like movement disorders. Travelers and military personnel visiting the region are also highly susceptible to the disease. As the population in South-East Asia increases, more land is irrigated to produce rice paddies (the ideal breeding habitat for mosquitoes), and pig breeding (a zoonotic host for mosquitoes) becomes more widespread. Given the exponential growth in tourism to the region and the globalization of business and commerce, an enhanced requirement for mass vaccination exists. In the West, the current licensed vaccine against JE, JE-VAX, has been highly effective; however, the use of mouse brain-derived virus has been linked to cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Intercell AG, under license from VaccGen International LLC, is developing IC-51, a formalin-inactivated vaccine derived from cell culture-based attenuated virus that has been adapted to grow in Vero cells (African green monkey kidney cells). In extensive clinical trials performed to date, IC-51 was safe, with mild to moderate adverse events reported. In terms of immunogenicity, IC-51 was highly effective, demonstrating rapid seroconversion rates and long-term maintenance of geometric mean titers that exceeded the protective titer. The results suggests that IC-51 is fully compliant with the stringent regulatory requirements set by the WHO, has an acceptable safety profile and is non-inferior to JE-VAX.
Le Dault, E; Lagarde, S; Guedj, E; Dufournet, B; Rey, C; Kaphan, E; Tanguy, G; Bregigeon, M; Sagui, E; Brosset, C
Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis is a common and a treatable etiology of autoimmune encephalitis. Its diagnosis is a challenge because the initial diagnostic work-up is often normal. A 48-year-old man experienced cognitive and behavioral troubles, facio-brachial dystonic seizures and a syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. First line tests excluded infectious, neoplastic, systemic inflammatory, endrocrine or toxic etiologies. Cerebral (18)Fluoro-desoxy-glucose (FDG) position emission tomography and research of specific antibodies in cerebro-spinal fluid and serum led to diagnose an anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis. Intravenous immunoglobulins and corticosteroids were partially effective. Cyclophosphamid permitted a good recovery. In the presence of acute neuropsychiatric disorders with a negative etiologic research, physician should think about dysimmune encephalitis. Facio-brachial dystonic seizures and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion are highly evocative of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 encephalitis. The diagnosis needs specific diagnostic tests (cerebral (18)FDG position emission tomography and antibodies research in cerebro-spinal fluid and in serum), after the exclusion of alternative diagnoses. Extensive and repeated diagnostic work-up for neoplasia is required. Immunosupressive therapies are effective in most cases. Copyright © 2015 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Prompetchara, Eakachai; Ketloy, Chutitorn; Keelapang, Poonsook; Sittisombut, Nopporn; Ruxrungtham, Kiat
Asian countries are an endemic area for both dengue (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis viruses (JEV). While JEV vaccines have been used extensively in this region, DENV vaccines remains under development. Whether preexisting naturally acquired or vaccination-induced immunity against JEV may affect the immune response to dengue vaccine candidate is unclear. In this study we used mice previously immunized with JEV vaccines to evaluate the impact on dengue-specific neutralizing antibody responses to a tetravalent dengue DNA vaccine candidate (TDNA). A tetravalent cocktail of plasmids encoding pre-membrane and envelope proteins from each dengue serotype was administered into mice which had been previously primed with inactivated or live-attenuated JEV vaccines, or dengue serotype2 virus (DENV-2). Neutralizing antibody response was measured employing a plaque reduction neutralization test at two weeks after the priming and at four weeks after the second dose of the dengue tetravalent plasmids. Inactivated or live-attenuated JEV vaccines, or DENV-2 induced low levels of neutralizing antibodies against the homologous viruses (JE and dengue virus, respectively). DENV-2 injection induced also low levels of cross-reactive antibodies against DENV-1, -3 and -4. JEV vaccines have no effect on the dengue-specific neutralizing antibody responses to the subsequent TDNA immunization. Pre-exposure to DENV-2 infection increased DENV-2 specific response neutralizing antibody to two doses of TDNA plasmids by six folds, but did not affect antibody response to other serotypes. Priming with JEV vaccines did not impact on dengue virus-specific neutralizing antibody response to a dengue TDNA vaccine candidate in mice.
Wang, Guomin; Zhu, Ruihao; Yang, Licong; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Qian; Su, Xia; Yang, Bing; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing
Vaccines are of great importance in controlling the spread of infectious diseases in poultry farming. The safety and efficacy of vaccines are also essential. To explore the feasibility of a novel technology (non-thermal plasma) in inactivated vaccine preparation, an alternating current atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma (NTP) jet with Ar/O2/N2 as the operating gas was used to inactivate a Newcastle disease virus (NDV, LaSota) strain and H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV, A/Chicken/Hebei/WD/98) for vaccine preparation. The results showed that complete inactivation could be achieved with 2 min of NTP treatment for both NDV and AIV. Moreover, a proper NTP treatment time is needed for inactivation of a virus without destruction of the antigenic determinants. Compared to traditional formaldehyde-inactivated vaccine, the vaccine made from NDV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine) could induce a higher NDV-specific antibody titer in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens, and the results of a chicken challenge experiment showed that NTP-2 min-NDV-vaccine could protect SPF chickens from a lethal NDV challenge. Vaccines made from AIV treated by NTP for 2 min (NTP-2 min-AIV-vaccine) also showed a similar AIV-specific antibody titer compared with traditional AIV vaccines prepared using formaldehyde inactivation. Studies of the morphological changes of the virus, chemical analysis of NDV allantoic fluid and optical emission spectrum analysis of NTP suggested that reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species produced by NTP played an important role in the virus inactivation process. All of these results demonstrated that it could be feasible to use non-thermal NTP as an alternative strategy to prepare inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease and avian influenza.
Choi, Ui Yoon; Lee, Soo Young; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Dong Soo; Choi, Kyong Min; Cha, Sung Ho; Kang, Jin Han
Japanese encephalitis virus is a common cause of encephalitis in Asian children; therefore, maintenance of immunity against Japanese encephalitis virus is essential. Although many countries recommend booster vaccination, some trials have concluded that administration of one or two vaccinations is sufficient. The current study was conducted to evaluate immunogenicity and safety after a booster vaccination with live attenuated vaccine. For 68 study subjects, measurement of antibody titer was performed before and at 4-6 weeks after administration of a booster dose. Adverse reactions occurring at the injection site and systemic adverse reactions were documented. The percentages of subjects with seroprotective neutralizing antibody titers was 100% before and after booster vaccination, and the geometric mean titer increased after booster vaccination. Thus, we predict that immunity will be maintained for a long time by an amnestic response. Low percentages of adverse reactions indicated the safety of the immunizations.
Tretyakova, Irina; Lukashevich, Igor S; Glass, Pamela; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott; Pushko, Peter
DNA vaccines combine remarkable genetic and chemical stability with proven safety and efficacy in animal models, while remaining less immunogenic in humans. In contrast, live-attenuated vaccines have the advantage of inducing rapid, robust, long-term immunity after a single-dose vaccination. Here we describe novel iDNA vaccine technology that is based on an infectious DNA platform and combines advantages of DNA and live attenuated vaccines. We applied this technology for vaccination against infection with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), an alphavirus from the Togaviridae family. The iDNA vaccine is based on transcription of the full-length genomic RNA of the TC-83 live-attenuated virus from plasmid DNA in vivo. The in vivo-generated viral RNA initiates limited replication of the vaccine virus, which in turn leads to efficient immunization. This technology allows the plasmid DNA to launch a live-attenuated vaccine in vitro or in vivo. Less than 10 ng of pTC83 iDNA encoding the full-length genomic RNA of the TC-83 vaccine strain initiated replication of the vaccine virus in vitro. In order to evaluate this approach in vivo, BALB/c mice were vaccinated with a single dose of pTC83 iDNA. After vaccination, all mice seroconverted with no adverse reactions. Four weeks after immunization, animals were challenged with the lethal epidemic strain of VEEV. All iDNA-vaccinated mice were protected from fatal disease, while all unvaccinated controls succumbed to infection and died. To our knowledge, this is the first example of launching a clinical live-attenuated vaccine from recombinant plasmid DNA in vivo.
Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide distribution that is caused by pathogenic spirochete bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is transmitted by the urine of an infected animal and contagious in a moist environment. Epidemiological studies indicate that infection is commonly associated with certain occupational workers such as farmers, sewage workers, veterinarians, and animal handlers. The annual incidence is estimated at 0.1–1 per 100,000 in temperate climates to 10–100 per 100,000 in the humid tropics. A disease incidence of more than 100 per 100,000 is encountered during outbreaks and in high-exposure risk groups. The 11 countries in South-East Asia (SEA) together have a population of more than 1.7 billion and a work force of about 770 million with more than 450 million people engaged in agriculture. Because of the large number of serovars and infection sources and the wide differences in conditions of transmission, the control of leptospirosis is complicated and will depend on local conditions. The available leptospirosis vaccines are mono- or polyvalent cellular suspensions. These cells are inactivated by chemical agents like formaldehyde and phenol, or by physical agents like heat. The vaccine confers protection for not longer than about one year, while there are cases that need revaccination six months later during epidemic periods. PMID:23295984
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test... Inactivated influenza vaccine, general safety test. For inactivated influenza vaccine, the general safety test... subcutaneous or intraperitoneal injection of 5.0 milliliters of inactivated influenza vaccine into each guinea...
This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis excerpted from the recently published Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper. This is the first WHO position paper on the use of tick-borne encephalitis. It was published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in June 2011. In this paper, footnotes provide a limited number of core references including references to grading tables that assess the quality of scientific evidence for a few key conclusions; a more comprehensive list of references is offered in the Background document on vaccines and vaccination against tick-borne encephalitis available at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/6_TBE_backgr_18_Mar_net_apr_2011.pdf. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This paper reflects the recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts (SAGE) on immunization. These recommendations were discussed by SAGE at its April 2011 meeting. Evidence presented at the meeting can be accessed at http://www.who.int/immunization/sage/previous/en/index.html.
Yun, Sang-Im; Lee, Young-Min
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an infectious disease of the central nervous system caused by Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a zoonotic mosquito-borne flavivirus. JEV is prevalent in much of Asia and the Western Pacific, with over 4 billion people living at risk of infection. In the absence of antiviral intervention, vaccination is the only strategy to develop long-term sustainable protection against JEV infection. Over the past half-century, a mouse brain-derived inactivated vaccine has been used internationally for active immunization. To date, however, JEV is still a clinically important, emerging, and re-emerging human pathogen of global significance. In recent years, production of the mouse brain-derived vaccine has been discontinued, but 3 new cell culture-derived vaccines are available in various parts of the world. Here we review current aspects of JEV biology, summarize the 4 types of JEV vaccine, and discuss the potential of an infectious JEV cDNA technology for future vaccine development. PMID:24161909
Zavadska, Dace; Anca, Ioana; André, Francis; Bakir, Mustafa; Chlibek, Roman; Cižman, Milan; Ivaskeviciene, Inga; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Pokorn, Marko; Prymula, Roman; Richter, Darko; Salman, Nuran; Simurka, Pavol; Tamm, Eda; Tešović, Goran; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Usonis, Vytautas
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral neurological zoonotic disease transmitted to humans by ticks or by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows, goats, or sheep. TBE is highly endemic in areas of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia where it is a major public health concern. However, it is difficult to diagnose TBE as clinical manifestations tend to be relatively nonspecific and a standardized case definition does not exist across the region. TBE is becoming more important in Europe due to the appearance of new endemic areas. Few Central European Vaccination Awareness Group (CEVAG) member countries have implemented universal vaccination programmes against TBE and vaccination coverage is not considered sufficient to control the disease. When implemented, immunization strategies only apply to risk groups under certain conditions, with no harmonized recommendations available to date across the region. Effective vaccination programmes are essential in preventing the burden of TBE. This review examines the current situation of TBE in CEVAG countries and contains recommendations for the vaccination of children and high-risk groups. For countries at very high risk of TBE infections, CEVAG strongly recommends the introduction of universal TBE vaccination in children > 1 y of age onwards. For countries with a very low risk of TBE, recommendations should only apply to those traveling to endemic areas. Overall, it is generally accepted that each country should be free to make its own decision based on regional epidemiological data and the vaccination calendar, although recommendations should be made, especially for those living in endemic areas.
Morozova, O V; Bakhvalova, V N; Potapova, O F; Grishechkin, A E; Isaeva, E I; Aldarov, K V; Klinov, D V; Vorovich, M F
Among three main subtypes of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), the Siberian subtype is currently dominant in a majority of the endemic regions of Russia. However, inactivated vaccines are based on TBEV strains of the heterologous Far Eastern or the European subtypes isolated 40-77 years ago. To analyze the efficacy of the available vaccines against currently prevailing TBEV isolates of the Siberian subtype, mice were immunized subcutaneously three times (one group per each vaccine). The expression of seven cytokine genes was determined using RT-PCR. Sera were studied using homologous and heterologous ELISA, hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and neutralization tests with TBEV strains of the Far Eastern, Siberian and European subtypes. Cross-protective efficacy of the vaccines was evaluated with the TBEV strain 2689 of Siberian subtype isolated from an ixodid tick from the Novosibirsk, South-Western Siberia, Russia in 2010. The cytokine gene expression profile indicates a predominantly Th2 response due to exogenous antigen presentation. Titers for homologous combinations of vaccine strain and strain in ELISA, HI and neutralization tests exceeded those for heterologous antigen-antibody pairs. Despite antibody detection by means of ELISA, HI and neutralization tests, the mouse protection afforded by the vaccines differed significantly. Complete protection of mice challenged with 100 LD50 virus of the Siberian subtype was induced by the vaccine "Encevir" ("Microgen", Tomsk, Russia). The minimal immunization doze (MID50) of "Encevir" protecting 50% of the mice was less than 0.0016 ml. Partial protective effect of vaccines produced in Moscow, Russia and Austria revealed MID50 within recommended intervals (0.001-0.017 ml). However, the MID50 for the vaccine "Encepur" (Novartis, Germany) 0.04 ml exceeded acceptable limits with total loss of mice immunized with vaccine diluted 32, 100 and 320 fold. These results suggest regular evaluation of TBEV vaccines in regions
... dialect) (繁體中文) Expand Section Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know - English Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) -- Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: What You Need to Know - 繁體中文 ( ...
Nordin, James D; Kharbanda, Elyse Olshen; Benitez, Gabriela Vazquez; Nichol, Kristin; Lipkind, Heather; Naleway, Allison; Lee, Grace M; Hambidge, Simon; Shi, Wei; Olsen, Avalow
To estimate the risks for medically attended events occurring within 42 days of receiving trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and to evaluate specific risks of first-trimester vaccination. This retrospective observational cohort study compared rates of medically attended adverse events in trivalent inactivated influenza-vaccinated and unvaccinated pregnant women in the Vaccine Safety Datalink. Using a Poisson distribution and log link, we calculated maternal adjusted incident rate ratios for composite safety outcomes for the full cohort and the subset vaccinated during the first trimester. The cohort included 75,906 vaccinated (28.4% in the first trimester) and 147,992 unvaccinated women matched by age, site, and pregnancy start date. In the first 3 days after vaccination, trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was not associated with increased risk of specified medically attended events, including allergic reactions, cellulitis, and seizures (full cohort adjusted incident rate ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81-1.55; P=.48; first-trimester adjusted incident rate ratio .97, 95% CI 0.53-1.78; P=.93). In the first 42 days, no incident cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome, optic neuritis, transverse myelitis, or Bells palsy were identified. Trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was not associated with thrombocytopenia (full cohort adjusted incident rate ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.68--1.19; P=.45; first-trimester adjusted incident rate ratio 0.56, 95% CI 0.22-1.39; P=.21) or an acute neurologic event (full cohort adjusted incident rate ratio 0.92, 95% CI 0.54-1.6; P=.75; first-trimester adjusted incident rate ratio 1.05, 95% CI 0.46-2.38; P=.91). Receipt of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine during pregnancy was not associated with increased risk of adverse events in the 42 days after vaccination, supporting its safety for the mother.
Ussel, Isabelle Van; Boer, Willem; Parizel, Paul; Cras, Patrick; Jorens, Philippe G
To illustrate that acute, even dramatic, demyelination of the central nervous system and encephalitis can occur after viral, i.e., influenza A/H1N1 vaccination or infection. We describe a case of encephalitis/acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with vaccination against influenza A/H1N1 and review the available literature. We report a case of a 26-year-old female who developed symptoms of acute encephalitis 5 days after vaccination against the pandemic 2009 A/H1N1 influenza. MRI of the brain showed confluent T2-hyperintense signal intensity changes in the deep white matter which further confirmed the diagnosis of encephalitis/acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Despite therapy with immunoglobulins and corticosteroids, her persistent vegetative state continued. In light of the dramatic cause of this case, we reviewed all 21 other previously reported cases of central nervous system demyelination related to H1N1 vaccination and/or infection. The available data suggest that even severe central nervous system demyelination i.e. acute encephalitis/disseminated encephalomyelitis and transverse myelitis may very rarely be associated with vaccination against novel influenza A/H1N1 or with A/H1N1 infection itself. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Salleras, Luis; Navas, Encarna; Torner, Nuria; Prat, Andreu A.; Garrido, Patricio; Soldevila, Núria; Domínguez, Angela
The aim of this study was to systematically review published studies that evaluated the efficiency of inactivated influenza vaccination in preventing seasonal influenza in children. The vaccine evaluated was the influenza-inactivated vaccine in 10 studies and the virosomal inactivated vaccine in 3 studies. The results show that yearly vaccination of children with the inactivated influenza vaccine saves money from the societal and family perspectives but not from the public or private provider perspective. When vaccination does not save money, the cost-effectiveness ratios were very acceptable. It can be concluded, that inactivated influenza vaccination of children is a very efficient intervention. PMID:23295894
Daley, Matthew F; Yih, W Katherine; Glanz, Jason M; Hambidge, Simon J; Narwaney, Komal J; Yin, Ruihua; Li, Lingling; Nelson, Jennifer C; Nordin, James D; Klein, Nicola P; Jacobsen, Steven J; Weintraub, Eric
In 2008, a diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis, and inactivated poliovirus combined vaccine (DTaP-IPV) was licensed for use in children 4 through 6 years of age. While pre-licensure studies did not demonstrate significant safety concerns, the number vaccinated in these studies was not sufficient to examine the risk of uncommon but serious adverse events. To assess the risk of serious adverse events following DTaP-IPV vaccination. The study was conducted from January 2009 through September 2012 in the Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD) project. In the VSD, electronic vaccination and encounter data are updated and aggregated weekly as part of ongoing surveillance activities. Based on previous reports and biologic plausibility, eight potential adverse events were monitored: meningitis/encephalitis; seizures; stroke; Guillain-Barré syndrome; Stevens-Johnson syndrome; anaphylaxis; serious allergic reactions other than anaphylaxis; and serious local reactions. Adverse event rates in DTaP-IPV recipients were compared to historical incidence rates in the VSD population prior to 2009. Sequential probability ratio testing was used to analyze the data on a weekly basis. During the study period, 201,116 children received DTaP-IPV vaccine. Ninety-seven percent of DTaP-IPV recipients also received other vaccines on the same day, typically measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines. There was no statistically significant increased risk of any of the eight pre-specified adverse events among DTaP-IPV recipients when compared to historical incidence rates. In this safety surveillance study of more than 200,000 DTaP-IPV vaccine recipients, there was no evidence of increased risk for any of the pre-specified adverse events monitored. Continued surveillance of DTaP-IPV vaccine safety may be warranted to monitor for rare adverse events, such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Salinas, L M; Casais, R; García Marín, J F; Dalton, K P; Royo, L J; Del Cerro, A; Gayo, E; Dagleish, M P; Alberdi, P; Juste, R A; de la Fuente, J; Balseiro, A
Spanish goat encephalitis virus (SGEV) is a recently described member of the genus Flavivirus belonging to the tick-borne encephalitis group of viruses, and is closely related to louping ill virus (LIV). Naturally acquired disease in goats results in severe, acute encephalitis and 100% mortality. Eighteen goats were challenged subcutaneously with SGEV; nine were vaccinated previously against LIV and nine were not. None of the vaccinated goats showed any clinical signs of disease or histological lesions, but all of the non-vaccinated goats developed pyrexia and 5/9 developed neurological clinical signs, primarily tremors in the neck and ataxia. All non-vaccinated animals developed histological lesions restricted to the central nervous system and consistent with a lymphocytic meningomyeloencephalitis. Vaccinated goats had significantly (P <0.003) greater concentrations of serum IgG and lower levels of IgM (P <0.0001) compared with unvaccinated animals. SGEV RNA levels were below detectable limits in the vaccinated goats throughout the experiment, but increased rapidly and were significantly (P <0.0001) greater 2-10 days post challenge in the non-vaccinated group. In conclusion, vaccination of goats against LIV confers highly effective protection against SGEV; this is probably mediated by IgG and prevents an increase in viral RNA load in serum such that vaccinated animals would not be an effective reservoir of the virus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Xing; Ma, Shu-Juan; Liu, Xie; Jiang, Li-Na; Zhou, Jun-Hua; Xiong, Yi-Quan; Ding, Hong; Chen, Qing
A number of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccines have been used for preventing Japanese encephalitis around the world. We here reviewed the immunogenicity and safety of the currently available Japanese encephalitis vaccines. We searched Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and other online databases up to March 25, 2014 for studies focusing on currently used JE vaccines in any language. The primary outcomes were the seroconversion rate against JEV and adverse events. Meta-analysis was performed for the primary outcome when available. A total of 51 articles were included. Studies were grouped on the basic types of vaccines. This systematic review led to 2 aspects of the conclusions. On one hand, all the currently available JE vaccines are safe and effective. On the other hand, the overall of JE vaccine evaluation is disorganized, the large variation in study designs, vaccine types, schedules, doses, population and few hand-to-hand trails, make direct comparisons difficult. In order to make a more evidence-based decision on optimizing the JE vaccine, it is warranted to standardize the JE vaccine evaluation research. PMID:25668666
Kawano, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Michio; Kawada, Jun-ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kamei, Hideya; Ohnishi, Yasuharu; Ono, Yasuyuki; Uchida, Hiroo; Ogura, Yasuhiro; Ito, Yoshinori
Liver transplantation recipients are at high risk for severe complications due to infections because of being treated with immunosuppressive drugs that affect the immune system. Vaccination for liver transplantation candidates is generally recommended before surgery, but the opportunities for vaccination prior to transplantation in pediatric candidates are often limited by severe disease conditions. The participants in this study comprised 39 pediatric recipients of living donor liver transplantation performed between 2005 and 2013. Criteria for administering live-attenuated (measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella) and inactivated (hepatitis B, pertussis, and Japanese encephalitis) vaccines were as follows: (1) >1 year after transplantation; (2) no use of systemic steroids to treat acute rejection within the last 6 months; (3) serum trough concentration of tacrolimus <5 ng/mL; (4) no severe immunosuppression according to blood examinations; and (5) provision of written informed consent. Median age at transplantation was 17 months, and median period from transplantation to the beginning of immunization was 18 months. Seroprotection rates for measles, rubella, mumps, varicella, hepatitis B, pertussis, and Japanese encephalitis after post-transplant immunization were 44% (11/25), 70% (19/27), 48% (12/25), 32% (6/19), 83% (19/23), 87% (13/15), and 88% (7/8), respectively. Seroprotection rates for measles, rubella, mumps, and varicella after second vaccination for recipients with primary vaccine failure after first vaccination were 100% (8/8), 50% (1/2), 71% (5/7), and 50% (5/10), respectively. While four recipients contracted mumps and eight contracted varicella before immunization, one recipient developed varicella after immunization. No serious systemic adverse events were observed in vaccinated recipients. Seroprotection rates for measles, mumps, and varicella appeared low in children after the first post-transplantation vaccination. Immunizations with four live
Pavlova, Borislava G; Loew-Baselli, Alexandra; Fritsch, Sandor; Poellabauer, Eva Maria; Vartian, Nina; Rinke, Ingeborg; Ehrlich, Hartmut J
A new, highly purified, inactivated tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine FSME-IMMUN "NEW" has been developed by Baxter using a production virus seed derived from chick embryo cells instead of mouse brain. In clinical trials, the vaccine was shown to be highly immunogenic and well tolerated in adults and children. Following licensure in 2001, the tolerability of half the adult dose of FSME-IMMUN "NEW" (1.2 microg antigen/0.25 ml) was investigated in a post-marketing surveillance in 1899 children aged 6 months to 12 years. Rectal body temperature was measured daily for 3 days after the first vaccination. An overall fever rate of 20.3% (95% CI=18.5; 22%) was observed, which was mostly mild in nature (>38.0 to
Ginsburg, Amy Sarah; Meghani, Ankita; Halstead, Scott B; Yaich, Mansour
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral neurological disease and disability in Asia. Some 50-80% of children with clinical JE die or have long-term neurologic sequelae. Since there is no cure, human vaccination is the only effective long-term control measure, and the World Health Organization recommends that at-risk populations receive a safe and effective vaccine. Four different types of JE vaccines are currently available: inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines, inactivated Vero cell vaccines, live attenuated SA 14-14-2 vaccines and a live recombinant (chimeric) vaccine. With the rapidly increasing demand for and availability and use of JE vaccines, countries face an important decision in the selection of a JE vaccine. This article provides a comprehensive review of the available safety literature for the live attenuated SA 14-14-2 JE vaccine (LAJEV), the most widely used new generation JE vaccine. With well-established effectiveness data, a single dose of LAJEV protects against clinical JE disease for at least 5 years, providing a long duration of protection compared with inactivated mouse brain-derived vaccines. Since 1988, about 700 million doses of the LAJEV have been distributed globally. Our review found that LAJEV is well tolerated across a wide age range and can safely be given to children as young as 8 months of age. While serious adverse events attributable to LAJEV have been reported, independent experts have not found sufficient evidence for causality based on the available data.
Larghi, O P; Nebel, A E
The inactivation dynamics of rabies virus (PV strain) by binary ethylenimine, and the immunogenic properites and the stability of the vaccines prepared using this agent, were studied. Binary ethylenimine at a final concentration of 0.01 M was prepared wtih 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide in alkaline solutions, either separately from or in suspensions of rabies virus propagated in BHK cells. The infectivity of virus suspensions containing more than 108 plaque-forming units per 0.1 ml was inactivated in 2 h when the inactivating agent was prepared before its addition to the suspensions, and in3 h when prepared directly in the suspensions. Liquid vaccines prepared in this manner and stored at different temperatures maintained potency for 1 month at 37 degrees C and for 6 months at 4 degrees C and 22 to 25 degrees C. Lyophilized vaccine maintained its potency for 6 months at the three temperatures. The inactivated vaccine mixed with aluminum or oil adjuvant at high dilutions protected guinea pigs against challenge. This safer procedure for rabies virus inactivation offers promise for the production of effective vaccines for the immunization of dogs and cattle. PMID:7358836
Zavadska, Dace; Anca, Ioana; André, Francis; Bakir, Mustafa; Chlibek, Roman; Čižman, Milan; Ivaskeviciene, Inga; Mangarov, Atanas; Mészner, Zsófia; Pokorn, Marko; Prymula, Roman; Richter, Darko; Salman, Nuran; Šimurka, Pavol; Tamm, Eda; Tešović, Goran; Urbancikova, Ingrid; Usonis, Vytautas
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a viral neurological zoonotic disease transmitted to humans by ticks or by consumption of unpasteurized dairy products from infected cows, goats, or sheep. TBE is highly endemic in areas of Central and Eastern Europe and Russia where it is a major public health concern. However, it is difficult to diagnose TBE as clinical manifestations tend to be relatively nonspecific and a standardized case definition does not exist across the region. TBE is becoming more important in Europe due to the appearance of new endemic areas. Few Central European Vaccination Awareness Group (CEVAG) member countries have implemented universal vaccination programmes against TBE and vaccination coverage is not considered sufficient to control the disease. When implemented, immunization strategies only apply to risk groups under certain conditions, with no harmonized recommendations available to date across the region. Effective vaccination programmes are essential in preventing the burden of TBE. This review examines the current situation of TBE in CEVAG countries and contains recommendations for the vaccination of children and high-risk groups. For countries at very high risk of TBE infections, CEVAG strongly recommends the introduction of universal TBE vaccination in children > 1 y of age onwards. For countries with a very low risk of TBE, recommendations should only apply to those traveling to endemic areas. Overall, it is generally accepted that each country should be free to make its own decision based on regional epidemiological data and the vaccination calendar, although recommendations should be made, especially for those living in endemic areas. PMID:23291941
Tamura, Shin-Ichi; Ainai, Akira; Suzuki, Tadaki; Kurata, Takeshi; Hasegawa, Hideki
Influenza is a contagious, acute respiratory disease caused by the influenza virus. The mucosal lining in the host respiratory tract is not only the site of virus infection, but also the site of defense; it is at this site that the host immune response targets the virus and protects against reinfection. One of the most effective methods to prevent influenza is to induce specific antibody (Ab) responses in the respiratory tract by vaccination. Two types of influenza vaccines, intranasal live attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines and parenteral (injectable) inactivated vaccines, are currently used worldwide. These vaccines are approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration. Live attenuated vaccines induce both secretory IgA (S-IgA) and serum IgG antibodies (Abs), whereas parenteral vaccines induce only serum IgG Abs. However, intranasal administration of inactivated vaccines together with an appropriate adjuvant induces both S-IgA and IgG Abs. Several preclinical studies on adjuvant-combined, nasal-inactivated vaccines revealed that nasal S-IgA Abs, a major immune component in the upper respiratory tract, reacted with homologous virus hemagglutinin (HA) and were highly cross-reactive with viral HA variants, resulting in protection and cross-protection against infection by both homologous and variant viruses, respectively. Serum-derived IgG Abs, which are present mainly in the lower respiratory tract, are less cross-reactive and cross-protective. In addition, our own clinical trials have shown that nasal-inactivated whole virus vaccines, including a built-in adjuvant (single-stranded RNA), induced serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) Ab titers that fulfilled the EMA criteria for vaccine efficacy. The nasal-inactivated whole virus vaccines also induced high levels of nasal HI and neutralizing Ab titers, although we have not yet evaluated the nasal HI titers due to the lack of official criteria to establish efficacy based
Glass, Pamela J.; Bakken, Russell R.; Barth, James F.; Lind, Cathleen M.; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Parker, Michael D.; Smith, Jonathan
ABSTRACT Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. IMPORTANCE Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the
Erra, Elina O; Askling, Helena Hervius; Yoksan, Sutee; Rombo, Lars; Riutta, Jukka; Vene, Sirkka; Lindquist, Lars; Vapalahti, Olli; Kantele, Anu
The inactivated Vero cell-derived vaccine (JE-VC, IXIARO) has replaced the traditional mouse brain-derived preparations (JE-MB) in travelers' vaccinations against Japanese encephalitis. We showed recently that a single JE-VC dose efficiently boosts immunity in JE-MB-primed vaccinees, and that JE-VC elicits cross-protective immunity against non-vaccine genotypes, including the emerging genotype I. While these studies only provided short-term data, the present investigation evaluates the longevity of seroprotection in the same volunteers. The study comprised 48 travelers who had received (1) JE-VC primary series, (2) JE-MB primary series followed by a single JE-VC booster dose, or (3) JE-MB primary series and a single JE-MB booster dose. Serum samples were collected two years after the last vaccine dose, and evaluated with the plaque-reduction neutralization test against seven Japanese encephalitis virus strains representing genotypes I-IV. PRNT50 titers ≥ 10 were considered protective. Two years after the primary series with JE-VC, 87-93% of the vaccinees proved to be cross-protected against test strains representing genotypes II-IV and 73% against those of genotype I. After a single homologous or heterologous booster dose to JE-MB-primed subjects, the two-year seroprotection rates against genotype I-IV strains were 89-100%. After JE-VC primary series, seroprotection appeared to wane first against genotype I. The first booster should not be delayed beyond two years. In JE-MB-primed subjects, a single JE-VC booster provided cross-protective immunity against genotype I-IV strains in almost all vaccinees, suggesting an interval of two years or even longer for the second booster. These data further support the use of a single JE-VC dose for boosting JE-MB immunity. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
... taken in its entirety from the CDC Inactivated Influenza Vaccine Information Statement (VIS) www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/flu.html CDC review information for Inactivated Influenza VIS: ...
Hawken, Jennifer; Troy, Stephanie B.
Poliomyelitis is nearing universal eradication; in 2011, there were 650 cases reported globally. When wild polio is eradicated, global oral polio vaccine (OPV) cessation followed by universal use of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is believed to be the safest vaccination strategy as IPV does not mutate or run the risk of vaccine derived outbreaks that OPV does. However, IPV is significantly more expensive than OPV. One strategy to make IPV more affordable is to reduce the dose by adding adjuvants, compounds that augment the immune response to the vaccine. No adjuvants are currently utilized in stand-alone IPV; however, several have been explored over the past six decades. From aluminum, used in many licensed vaccines, to newer and more experimental adjuvants such as synthetic DNA, a diverse group of compounds has been assessed with varying strengths and weaknesses. This review summarizes the studies to date evaluating the efficacy and safety of adjuvants used with IPV. PMID:23041122
Wang, Yali; Dong, Duo; Cheng, Gang; Zuo, Shuyan; Liu, Dawei; Du, Xiaoxi
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the most severe form of viral encephalitis in Asia and no specific treatment is available. Vaccination provides an effective intervention to prevent JE. In this paper, surveillance data for adverse events following immunization (AEFI) related to SA-14-14-2 live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine (Chengdu Institute of Biological Products) was presented. This information has been routinely generated by the Chinese national surveillance system for the period 2009-2012. There were 6024 AEFI cases (estimated reported rate 96.55 per million doses). Most common symptoms of adverse events were fever, redness, induration and skin rash. There were 70 serious AEFI cases (1.12 per million doses), including 9 cases of meningoencephalitis and 4 cases of death. The post-marketing surveillance data add the evidence that the Chengdu institute live attenutated vaccine has a reasonable safety profile. The relationship between encephalitis and SA-14-14-2 vaccination should be further studied. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Girginov, G; Vodas, K; Bozhilov, B
An inactivated saponine vaccine is prepared from five highly immunogenic Salmonella abortus ovis strains, selected by means of a biological test on white rats. Saline was used as a diluent of the vaccine, with the addition of 30 per cent glycerine, 0.012 per cent saponine and 0.1 per cent propiolactone. The optimum immunization dose of 5 cm3 is injected singly subcutaneously behind the elbow, two and a half months after impregnation. The vaccine is applied on infected farms before the disease occurs. The cellular-humoral immunity, which forms 14 days after the injection, lasts 4--5 months and protects the sheep against salmonellosis abortion.
Sullivan, K M; Monto, A S; Foster, D A
Four inactivated influenza vaccines (containing the recommended antigens for the 1985-1986 influenza season) of various antigenic concentration levels were randomly administered to 140 study participants. The effect of the increasing antigen concentration resulted in significantly higher influenza hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody levels 3 weeks after vaccination for the A/H1N1 antigen but not for the A/H3N2 or B antigens. Also, at 3 weeks after vaccination, there were significantly lower antibody titer levels associated with increasing age for the A/H1N1 and B antigens (adjusting for the prevaccination antibody titer and antigen content).
Huang, Kuan-Ying A.; Chang, Shih-Cheng; Huang, Yhu-Chering; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Lin, Tzou-Yien
Inactivated influenza vaccination induces a hemagglutinin-specific antibody response to the strain used for immunization. Annual vaccination is strongly recommended for health care personnel. However, it is debatable if repeated vaccination would affect the antibody response to inactivated influenza vaccine through the time. We enrolled health care personnel who had repeated and first trivalent inactivated influenza vaccination in 2005–2008. Serological antibody responses were measured by hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. Subjects with repeated vaccination had higher pre-vaccination and lower post-vaccination HI titer than those with first vaccination, although serological responses between groups might vary with different antigen types and while the drifted strain was introduced in the vaccine. Higher fold rise in the HI titer was observed in the group with first than repeated vaccination and the fold increase in the HI titer was inversely correlated with pre-vaccination titer in 2007 and 2008. Nevertheless, no significant difference in the day 28 seroprotection rate was observed between groups with repeated and first vaccination in most circumstances. Further studies are needed to understand the long-term effect of repeated vaccination on the antibody response both at the serological and repertoire levels among health care personnel. PMID:28098157
Patel, Manish; Zipursky, Simona; Orenstein, Walt; Garon, Julie; Zaffran, Michel
In 2013, the World Health Assembly endorsed a plan that calls for the ultimate withdrawal of oral polio vaccines (OPV) from all immunization programs globally. The withdrawal would begin in a phased manner with removal of the type 2 component of OPV in 2016 through a global switch from trivalent OPV to bivalent OPV (containing only types 1 and 3). To mitigate risks associated with immunity gaps after OPV type 2 withdrawal, the WHO Strategic Advisory Group of Experts has recommended that all 126 OPV-only using countries introduce at least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine into routine immunization programs by end-2015, before the trivalent OPV-bivalent OPV switch. The introduction of inactivated polio vaccine would reduce risks of reintroduction of type 2 poliovirus by providing some level of seroprotection, facilitating interruption of transmission if outbreaks occur, and accelerating eradication by boosting immunity to types 1 and 3 polioviruses.
Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ooi, Mong How; Diggle, Peter J.; Caminade, Cyril; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Morse, Andrew P.
Background Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis across Asia with approximately 70,000 cases a year and 10,000 to 15,000 deaths. Because JE incidence varies widely over time, partly due to inter-annual climate variability effects on mosquito vector abundance, it becomes more complex to assess the effects of a vaccination programme since more or less climatically favourable years could also contribute to a change in incidence post-vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify vaccination effect on confirmed Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases in Sarawak, Malaysia after controlling for climate variability to better understand temporal dynamics of JE virus transmission and control. Methodology/principal findings Monthly data on serologically confirmed JE cases were acquired from Sibu Hospital in Sarawak from 1997 to 2006. JE vaccine coverage (non-vaccine years vs. vaccine years) and meteorological predictor variables, including temperature, rainfall and the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) were tested for their association with JE cases using Poisson time series analysis and controlling for seasonality and long-term trend. Over the 10-years surveillance period, 133 confirmed JE cases were identified. There was an estimated 61% reduction in JE risk after the introduction of vaccination, when no account is taken of the effects of climate. This reduction is only approximately 45% when the effects of inter-annual variability in climate are controlled for in the model. The Poisson model indicated that rainfall (lag 1-month), minimum temperature (lag 6-months) and SOI (lag 6-months) were positively associated with JE cases. Conclusions/significance This study provides the first improved estimate of JE reduction through vaccination by taking account of climate inter-annual variability. Our analysis confirms that vaccination has substantially reduced JE risk in Sarawak but this benefit may be overestimated if climate effects
Impoinvil, Daniel E; Ooi, Mong How; Diggle, Peter J; Caminade, Cyril; Cardosa, Mary Jane; Morse, Andrew P; Baylis, Matthew; Solomon, Tom
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is the leading cause of viral encephalitis across Asia with approximately 70,000 cases a year and 10,000 to 15,000 deaths. Because JE incidence varies widely over time, partly due to inter-annual climate variability effects on mosquito vector abundance, it becomes more complex to assess the effects of a vaccination programme since more or less climatically favourable years could also contribute to a change in incidence post-vaccination. Therefore, the objective of this study was to quantify vaccination effect on confirmed Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases in Sarawak, Malaysia after controlling for climate variability to better understand temporal dynamics of JE virus transmission and control. Monthly data on serologically confirmed JE cases were acquired from Sibu Hospital in Sarawak from 1997 to 2006. JE vaccine coverage (non-vaccine years vs. vaccine years) and meteorological predictor variables, including temperature, rainfall and the Southern Oscillation index (SOI) were tested for their association with JE cases using Poisson time series analysis and controlling for seasonality and long-term trend. Over the 10-years surveillance period, 133 confirmed JE cases were identified. There was an estimated 61% reduction in JE risk after the introduction of vaccination, when no account is taken of the effects of climate. This reduction is only approximately 45% when the effects of inter-annual variability in climate are controlled for in the model. The Poisson model indicated that rainfall (lag 1-month), minimum temperature (lag 6-months) and SOI (lag 6-months) were positively associated with JE cases. This study provides the first improved estimate of JE reduction through vaccination by taking account of climate inter-annual variability. Our analysis confirms that vaccination has substantially reduced JE risk in Sarawak but this benefit may be overestimated if climate effects are ignored.
Vidor, J D; Jean-Denis, Shu
The inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is a very old tool in the fight against poliomyelitis. Though supplanted by oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) in the 1960s and 1970s, the IPV has now become an inevitable choice because of the increasingly recognized risks associated with continuous use of OPVs. Following the pioneering work of Jonas Salk, who established key principles for the IPV, considerable experience has accumulated over the years. This work has led to modern Salk IPV-containing vaccines, based on the use of inactivated wildtype polioviruses, which have been deployed for routine use in many countries. Very good protection against paralysis is achieved with IPV through the presence of circulating antibodies able to neutralize virus infectivity toward motor neurons. In addition, with IPV, a variable degree of protection against mucosal infection (and therefore transmission) through mucosal antibodies and immune cells is achieved, depending on previous exposure of subjects to wildtype or vaccine polioviruses. The use of an IPV-followed-by-OPV sequential immunization schedule has the potential advantage of eliminating the vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis (VAPP) risk, while limiting the risks of vaccine-derived poliovirus (VDPVs). Sabin strain-derived IPVs are new tools, only recently beginning to be deployed, and data are being generated to document their performance. IPVs will play an irreplaceable role in global eradication of polio.
Cao, Lei; Fu, Shihong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Li, Minghua; Cui, Shiheng; Li, Xiaolong; Cao, Yuxi; Lei, Wenwen; Lu, Zhi; He, Ying; Wang, Huanyu; Yan, Jinghua; Gao, George Fu; Liang, Guodong
The current Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine derived from G3 JE virus (JEV) can induce protective immunity against G1-G4 JEV genotypes. However, protective efficacy against the emerging G5 genotype has not been reported. Using in vitro and in vivo tests, biological phenotype and cross-immunoreactions were compared between G3 JEV and G5 JEV (wild strains). The PRNT90 method was used to detect neutralizing antibodies against different genotypes of JEV in JE vaccine-immunized subjects and JE patients. In JE vaccine-immunized mice, the lethal challenge protection rates against G3 and G5 JEV wild strains were 100% and 50%, respectively. The seroconversion rates (SCRs) of virus antibodies against G3 and G5 JEV among vaccinated healthy subjects were 100% and 35%, respectively. All clinically identified JE patients showed high levels of G3 JEV neutralizing antibodies (≥1:10-1280) with positive serum geometric mean titers (GMTs) of 43.2, while for G5 JEV, neutralizing antibody conversion rates were only 64% with positive serum GMTs of 11.14. Moreover, the positive rate of JEV neutralizing antibodies against G5 JEV in pediatric patients was lower than in adults. Low levels of neutralizing/protective antibodies induced by the current JE vaccine, based on the G3 genotype, were observed against the emerging G5 JEV genotype. Our results demonstrate the need for more detailed studies to reevaluate whether or not the apparent emergence of G5 JEV can be attributed to failure of the current vaccine to induce appropriate immune protectivity against this genotype of JEV.
Ye, Qing; Xu, Yan-Peng; Zhang, Yu; Li, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Hong-Jiang; Liu, Zhong-Yu; Li, Shi-Hua; Liu, Long; Zhao, Hui; Nian, Qing-Gong; Deng, Yong-Qiang; Qin, E-De; Qin, Cheng-Feng
Japanese encephalitis remains the leading cause of viral encephalitis in children in Asia and is expanding its geographical range to larger areas in Asia and Australasia. Five genotypes of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) co-circulate in the geographically affected areas. In particular, the emergence of genotype I (GI) JEV has displaced genotype III (GIII) as the dominant circulating genotype in many Asian regions. However, all approved vaccine products are derived from GIII strains. In the present study, bioinformatic analysis revealed that GI and GIII JEV strains shared two distinct amino acid residues within the envelope (E) protein (E222 and E327). By using reverse genetics approaches, A222S and S327T mutations were demonstrated to decrease live-attenuated vaccine (LAV) SA14-14-2-induced neutralizing antibodies in humans, without altering viral replication. A222S or S327T mutations were then rationally engineered into the infectious clone of SA14-14-2, and the resulting mutant strains retained the same genetic stability and attenuation characteristics as the parent strain. More importantly, immunization of mice with LAV-A222S or LAV-S327T elicited increased neutralizing antibodies against GI strains. Together, these results demonstrated that E222 and E327 are potential genotype-related neutralization determinants and are critical in determining the protective efficacy of live Japanese encephalitis vaccine SA14-14-2 against circulating GI strains. Our findings will aid in the rational design of the next generation of Japanese encephalitis LAVs capable of providing broad protection against all JEV strains belonging to different genotypes.
The International Scientific Working Group on Tick-Borne Encephalitis (ISW TBE) held its 13th Annual Meeting in February 2011 to discuss epidemiological developments, news in TBE research, initiatives of the European Union, vaccination-immune response, clinical cases and TBE consequences, awareness of TBE prevention and the role of the ISW TBE to break vaccination fatigue. TBE may be considered a complex system, characterized by an intricate interplay between tick biology and socioeconomic conditions. The same may be said about vaccination behaviour. Thus, although the facts are simple--vaccination is the best prevention--the socioeconomic conditions keep changing, and with them the ability or willingness of people to get vaccinated. The ISW TBE is part of this complex system, and because the world keeps changing--so should the strategies.
Wang, Eryu; Petrakova, Olga; Adams, A. Paige; Aguilar, Patricia V.; Kang, Wenli; Paessler, Slobodan; Volk, Sara M.; Frolov, Ilya; Weaver, Scott C.
We developed chimeric Sindbis (SINV)/Eastern equine encephalitis (EEEV) viruses and investigated their potential for use as live virus vaccines against EEEV. One vaccine candidate contained structural protein genes from a typical North American EEEV strain, while the other had structural proteins from a naturally attenuated Brazilian isolate. Both chimeric viruses replicated efficiently in mammalian and mosquito cell cultures and were highly attenuated in mice. Vaccinated mice did not develop detectable disease or viremia, but developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies. Upon challenge with EEEV, mice vaccinated with >104PFU of the chimeric viruses were completely protected from disease. These findings support the potential use of these SIN/EEEV chimeras as safe and effective vaccines. PMID:17904699
Deshpande, Bhushan R; Rao, Sowmya R; Jentes, Emily S; Hills, Susan L; Fischer, Marc; Gershman, Mark D; Brunette, Gary W; Ryan, Edward T; LaRocque, Regina C
Few data regarding the use of Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine in clinical practice are available. We identified 711 travelers at higher risk and 7,578 travelers at lower risk for JE who were seen at US Global TravEpiNet sites from September of 2009 to August of 2012. Higher-risk travelers were younger than lower-risk travelers (median age = 29 years versus 40 years, P < 0.001). Over 70% of higher-risk travelers neither received JE vaccine during the clinic visit nor had been previously vaccinated. In the majority of these instances, clinicians determined that the JE vaccine was not indicated for the higher-risk traveler, which contradicts current recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Better understanding is needed of the clinical decision-making regarding JE vaccine in US travel medicine practices.
Zlamy, Manuela; Haberlandt, Edda; Brunner, Jürgen; Dozcy, Ludwig; Rostasy, Kevin
We report the case of a 13-year-old girl who presented with fever, headache, nausea and pain behind the right ear. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; leukocytes 227/μL), electroencephalogram and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging were indicative of meningoencephalitis. Despite intensive therapy the general condition worsened and the patient was admitted to the intensive care unit. Serological analysis of CSF and serum indicated acute tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection (IgG and IgM positive). TBEV infection has been reported after incomplete and complete vaccination. TBEV vaccination breakthrough in childhood has been shown to cause severe disease. It has been suggested that immunized patients develop more severe disease due to altered immune response, but the exact mechanism is unknown. In the presence of typical symptoms and a history of vaccination, possible vaccination breakthrough or missing booster vaccination should be considered.
Roy, Chad J.; Adams, A. Paige; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Seymour, Robert L.; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Mega, William; Frolov, Ilya; Didier, Peter J.; Weaver, Scott C.
Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes sporadic, often fatal disease outbreaks in humans and equids, and is also a biological threat agent. Two chimeric vaccine candidates were constructed using a cDNA clone with a Sindbis virus (SINV) backbone and structural protein genes from either a North (SIN/NAEEEV) or South American (SIN/SAEEEV) strain of EEEV. The vaccine candidates were tested in a nonhuman primate (NHP) model of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE). Cynomolgus macaques were either sham-vaccinated, or vaccinated with a single dose of either SIN/NAEEEV or SIN/SAEEEV. After vaccination, animals were challenged by aerosol with a virulent North American strain of EEEV (NA EEEV). The SIN/NAEEEV vaccine provided significant protection, and most vaccinated animals survived EEEV challenge (82%) with little evidence of disease, whereas most SIN/SAEEEV-vaccinated (83%) and control (100%) animals died. Protected animals exhibited minimal changes in temperature and cardiovascular rhythm, whereas unprotected animals showed profound hyperthermia and changes in heart rate post-exposure. Acute inflammation and neuronal necrosis were consistent with EEEV-induced encephalitis in unprotected animals, whereas no encephalitis-related histopathologic changes were observed in the SIN/NAEEEV-vaccinated animals. These results demonstrate that the chimeric SIN/NAEEEV vaccine candidate protects against an aerosol EEEV exposure. PMID:23333212
Gromowski, Gregory D; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Hanson, Christopher T; Whitehead, Stephen S
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a leading cause of viral encephalitis worldwide and vaccination is one of the most effective ways to prevent disease. A suitable live-attenuated JEV vaccine could be formulated with a live-attenuated tetravalent dengue vaccine for the control of these viruses in endemic areas. Toward this goal, we generated chimeric virus vaccine candidates by replacing the precursor membrane (prM) and envelope (E) protein structural genes of recombinant dengue virus type 4 (rDEN4) or attenuated vaccine candidate rDEN4Δ30 with those of wild-type JEV strain India/78. Mutations were engineered in E, NS3 and NS4B protein genes to improve replication in Vero cells. The chimeric viruses were attenuated in mice and some elicited modest but protective levels of immunity after a single dose. One particular chimeric virus, bearing E protein mutation Q264H, replicated to higher titer in tissue culture and was significantly more immunogenic in mice. The results are compared with live-attenuated JEV vaccine strain SA14-14-2. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Thomassen, Yvonne E; van 't Oever, Aart G; Vinke, Marian; Spiekstra, Arjen; Wijffels, René H; van der Pol, Leo A; Bakker, Wilfried A M
The anticipated increase in the demand for inactivated polio vaccines resulting from the success in the polio eradication program requires an increase in production capacity and cost price reduction of the current inactivated polio vaccine production processes. Improvement of existing production processes is necessary as the initial process development has been done decades ago. An up-to-date lab-scale version encompassing the legacy inactivated polio vaccine production process was set-up. This lab-scale version should be representative of the large scale, meaning a scale-down model, to allow experiments for process optimization that can be readily applied. Initially the separate unit operations were scaled-down at setpoint. Subsequently, the unit operations were applied successively in a comparative manner to large-scale manufacturing. This allows the assessment of the effects of changes in one unit operation to the consecutive units at small-scale. Challenges in translating large-scale operations to lab-scale are discussed, and the concessions that needed to be made are described. The current scale-down model for cell and virus culture (2.3-L) presents a feasible model with its production scale counterpart (750-L) when operated at setpoint. Also, the current scale-down models for the DSP unit operations clarification, concentration, size exclusion chromatography, ion exchange chromatography, and inactivation are in agreement with the manufacturing scale. The small-scale units can be used separately, as well as sequentially, to study variations and critical product quality attributes in the production process. Finally, it is shown that the scale-down unit operations can be used consecutively to prepare trivalent vaccine at lab-scale with comparable characteristics to the product produced at manufacturing scale.
Wilson, J H; Hermann-Dekkers, W M
The significance of canine parvovirus (CPV) infections as a permanent threat susceptible dogs, in particular pups, made the authors develop three liquid homologous inactivated adjuvant CPV vaccines that were compatible with existing canine vaccines and could be incorporated in current vaccination programmes. On vaccine (Kavak Parvo) contained only the CPV component, the second product (Kavak i-LP) also contained two inactivated leptospiral antigens, and the third vaccine (Kavak i-HLP) contained in addition an inactivated canine hepatitis virus. This paper reports on the studies conducted to test the safety and efficacy of the three products. They were used as such and as diluents for freeze dried vaccines containing live attenuated measles, distemper, and hepatitis viruses. The study was performed in a breeding kennel where all dogs were free from CPV antibodies and the nonvaccinated sentinels remained so for the course of the study. All vaccines proved to be safe in dogs of all ages, including pregnant bitches. The efficacy of the CPV component was studied both by monitoring antibody titres for more than a year and by challenge exposure of some dogs to virulent CPV. The results obtained from these studies prove that the CPV component used in the three vaccines can be incorporated as indicated in the recommended canine vaccination programmes. The observations that the inactivated CPV and hepatitis components do induce an active immunity in pups that are still protected by low levels of maternally derived antibodies against these viruses, make those vaccines very suitable in breeding kennels. Additional studies on a comparative basis are being continued in edemically CPV infected breeding kennels to quantify the significance of these observations in these special conditions.
Monath, Thomas P; Fowler, Elizabeth; Johnson, Casey T; Balser, John; Morin, Merribeth J; Sisti, Maggie; Trent, Dennis W
Yellow fever is a lethal viral hemorrhagic fever occurring in Africa and South America. A highly effective live vaccine (17D) is widely used for travelers to and residents of areas in which yellow fever is endemic, but the vaccine can cause serious adverse events, including viscerotropic disease, which is associated with a high rate of death. A safer, nonreplicating vaccine is needed. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, dose-escalation, phase 1 study of 60 healthy subjects between 18 and 49 years of age, we investigated the safety and immunogenicity of XRX-001 purified whole-virus, β-propiolactone-inactivated yellow fever vaccine produced in Vero cell cultures and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum) adjuvant. On two visits 21 days apart, subjects received intramuscular injections of vaccine that contained 0.48 μg or 4.8 μg of antigen. Levels of neutralizing antibodies were measured at baseline and on days 21, 31, and 42. The vaccine induced the development of neutralizing antibodies in 100% of subjects receiving 4.8 μg of antigen in each injection and in 88% of subjects receiving 0.48 μg of antigen in each injection. Antibody levels increased by day 10 after the second injection, at which time levels were significantly higher with the 4.8-μg formulation than with the 0.48-μg formulation (geometric mean titer, 146 vs. 39; P<0.001). Three adverse events occurred at a higher incidence in the two vaccine groups than in the placebo group: mild pain, tenderness, and (much less frequently) itching at the injection site. One case of urticaria was observed on day 3 after the second dose of 4.8 μg of vaccine. A two-dose regimen of the XRX-001 vaccine, containing inactivated yellow fever antigen with an alum adjuvant, induced neutralizing antibodies in a high percentage of subjects. XRX-001 has the potential to be a safer alternative to live attenuated 17D vaccine. (Funded by Xcellerex; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00995865.).
Lin, Chih-Wei; Chang, Ching-Yun; Chen, Wei-Lin; Lin, Shih-Chang; Liao, Chien-Chun; Chang, Jui-Yuan; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Hu, Alan Yung-Chih; Lu, Tsung-Chun; Chou, Ai-Hsiang; Wu, Suh-Chin; Chong, Pele; Huang, Ming-Hsi
Combination vaccines can reduce the number of injections and simplify the immunization schedule required to prevent different diseases. Here we assessed the immunogenicity in a mouse model of a vaccine composition comprising inactivated influenza viruses (H5N1/H1N1), enterovirus 71 (EV71), and/or Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) and investigated whether the vaccine formulations can overcome the immunologic interference between the individual vaccine components. We demonstrated that the antigenic competition happens between H5N1/H1N1 or H5N1/EV71 inactivated virions when the vaccine combinations either formulated with Alum suspensions or without adjuvant. In the presence of PELC emulsified particles, EV71-specific immune responses before and after incorporating H5N1 virus into EV71 vaccine were detected of no significant difference; in addition, H5N1- and EV71-specific immune responses were found at the same level when H5N1/EV71/JEV consolidating into combination vaccine. Emulsified vaccine formulation was represented as a potential tool that is found to reduce the number of injections required to prevent multiple infectious strains causing the same disease (H5N1/H1N1) and/or that protect against different diseases (H5N1/EV71). Combination vaccines can also include a third component to protect against H5N1/EV71/JEV at the same time.
Rossi, Shannan L; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E; Killeen, Stephanie Z; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Bergren, Nicholas A; Vinet-Oliphant, Heather; Weaver, Scott C; Roy, Chad J
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an arbovirus endemic to the Americas that is responsible for severe, sometimes fatal, disease in humans and horses. We previously described an IRES-based VEE vaccine candidate based up the IE serotype that offers complete protection against a lethal subtype IE VEEV challenge in mice. Here we demonstrate the IRES-based vaccine's ability to protect against febrile disease in cynomolgus macaques. Vaccination was well tolerated and elicited robust neutralizing antibody titers noticed as early as day 14. Moreover, complete protection from disease characterized by absence of viremia and characteristic fever following aerosolized IE VEEV challenge was observed in all vaccinees compared to control animals, which developed clinical disease. Together, these results highlight the safety and efficacy of IRES-based VEEV vaccine to protect against an endemic, pathogenic VEEV IE serotype.
In mice vaccinated subcutaneously with different doses of virulent W.E.E. virus or with formolized vaccine, neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies paralleled resistance to some extent yet appeared in groups in which resistance remained undetectable, persisted at a similar maximum level in spite of different titers of resistance, and after resistance had become negligible. In mice vaccinated subcutaneously with different doses of virulent St. Louis encephalitis virus or with formolized vaccine, neutralizing and complement-fixing antibodies bore little relation to resistance. Neutralizing antibodies appeared only in the group showing resistance but not until resistance was diminishing. Complement-fixing antibodies developed equally well in groups with or without resistance. PMID:19871341
Chokephaibulkit, K; Houillon, G; Feroldi, E; Bouckenooghe, A
JE-CV (IMOJEV®, Sanofi Pasteur, France) is a live attenuated virus vaccine constructed by inserting coding sequences of the prM and E structural proteins of the Japanese encephalitis SA14-14-2 virus into the genome of yellow fever 17D virus. Primary immunization with JE-CV requires a single dose of the vaccine. This article reviews clinical trials of JE-CV in children aged up to 6 years conducted in countries across South-East Asia. Strong and persistent antibody responses were observed after single primary and booster doses, with 97% of children seroprotected up to five years after booster vaccination. Models of long-term antibody persistence predict a median duration of protection of approximately 30 years after a booster dose. The safety and reactogenicity profiles of JE-CV primary and booster doses are comparable to other widely used childhood vaccines.
Osipova, E G; Kiseleva, N N; Khasanshin, R R; Sokolova, E D
The method of rocket immunoelectrophoresis permits the detection of all antigenic admixtures in tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine. Human serum albumin constitutes the main part of protein admixtures in the preparation. Purification by microfiltration is an effective stage of the technological process of obtaining purified TBE vaccine.
VEEV IA/B challenge. Our results indicate that it is pos- sible to improve the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of alphavirus DNA vaccines using... alphaviruses that ause periodic epizootics in the Americas . These New World lphaviruses cause diseases in humans characterized by fever, eadache...equine encephalitis virus, VEE, alphavirus , DNA vaccine, envelope glycoproteins, directed molecular evolution, efficacy, immunogenicity, laboratory
Li, Xiaolong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Ren, Zhoupeng; Cao, Yuxi; Wang, Jinfeng; Liang, Guodong
More than a million Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases occurred in mainland China from the 1960s to 1970s without vaccine interventions. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal pattern of JE cases reported in mainland China from 1965 to 1973 in the absence of JE vaccination, and to discuss the impacts of climatic and geographical factors on JE during that period. Thus, the data of reported JE cases at provincial level and monthly precipitation and monthly mean temperature from 1963 to 1975 in mainland China were collected. Local Indicators of Spatial Association analysis was performed to identify spatial clusters at the province level. During that period, The epidemic peaked in 1966 and 1971 and the JE incidence reached up to 20.58/100000 and 20.92/100000, respectively. The endemic regions can be divided into three classes including high, medium, and low prevalence regions. Through spatial cluster analysis, JE epidemic hot spots were identified; most were located in the Yangtze River Plain which lies in the southeast of China. In addition, JE incidence was shown to vary among eight geomorphic units in China. Also, the JE incidence in the Loess Plateau and the North China Plain was showed to increase with the rise of temperature. Likewise, JE incidence in the Loess Plateau and the Yangtze River Plain was observed a same trend with the increase of rainfall. In conclusion, the JE cases clustered geographically during the epidemic period. Besides, the JE incidence was markedly higher on the plains than plateaus. These results may provide an insight into the epidemiological characteristics of JE in the absence of vaccine interventions and assist health authorities, both in China and potentially in Europe and Americas, in JE prevention and control strategies.
Ren, Zhoupeng; Cao, Yuxi; Wang, Jinfeng; Liang, Guodong
More than a million Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases occurred in mainland China from the 1960s to 1970s without vaccine interventions. The aim of this study is to analyze the spatial and temporal pattern of JE cases reported in mainland China from 1965 to 1973 in the absence of JE vaccination, and to discuss the impacts of climatic and geographical factors on JE during that period. Thus, the data of reported JE cases at provincial level and monthly precipitation and monthly mean temperature from 1963 to 1975 in mainland China were collected. Local Indicators of Spatial Association analysis was performed to identify spatial clusters at the province level. During that period, The epidemic peaked in 1966 and 1971 and the JE incidence reached up to 20.58/100000 and 20.92/100000, respectively. The endemic regions can be divided into three classes including high, medium, and low prevalence regions. Through spatial cluster analysis, JE epidemic hot spots were identified; most were located in the Yangtze River Plain which lies in the southeast of China. In addition, JE incidence was shown to vary among eight geomorphic units in China. Also, the JE incidence in the Loess Plateau and the North China Plain was showed to increase with the rise of temperature. Likewise, JE incidence in the Loess Plateau and the Yangtze River Plain was observed a same trend with the increase of rainfall. In conclusion, the JE cases clustered geographically during the epidemic period. Besides, the JE incidence was markedly higher on the plains than plateaus. These results may provide an insight into the epidemiological characteristics of JE in the absence of vaccine interventions and assist health authorities, both in China and potentially in Europe and Americas, in JE prevention and control strategies. PMID:24911168
Fang, Ying; Brault, Aaron C; Reisen, William K
During the monitoring of arbovirus seroprevalence in wild birds collected in California, we inadvertently made two isolates of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) from California quail sera being tested by plaque reduction neutralization assay for antibodies against St Louis encephalitis (SLEV) and West Nile (WNV) viruses despite heating the sera at 56 degrees C for 30 minutes. These data prompted us to examine the thermostability of these viruses during heat treatment. The flaviviruses, SLEV and WNV, at titers up to 10(6) plaque-forming units (PFU), were readily inactivated by the standard protocol of heating at 56 degrees C for 30 minutes. In contrast, solutions containing 10(5) and 10(6) PFU of WEEV required 2 hours for complete inactivation. Occasional presence of live virus within sera could lead to false negatives using standard plaque reduction neutralization test protocols.
Inactivated vaccines comprise 95% of all vaccine used for avian influenza virus (AIV) by dose. Optimizing the adjuvant is one way to improve vaccine efficacy. Inactivated vaccines were produced with beta-propiolactone inactivated A/chicken/BC/314514-1/2004 H7N3 low pathogenicity AIV and standardiz...
Tsen, Shaw-Wei David; Donthi, Nisha; La, Victor; Hsieh, Wen-Han; Li, Yen-Der; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Achilefu, Samuel; Tsen, Kong-Thon
Abstract. There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines represent an ideal strategy for this purpose; however, a universal method for producing safe and immunogenic inactivated vaccines is lacking. Conventional pathogen inactivation methods such as formalin, heat, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays cause structural alterations in vaccines that lead to reduced neutralizing antibody specificity, and in some cases, disastrous T helper type 2-mediated immune pathology. We have evaluated the potential of a visible ultrashort pulsed (USP) laser method to generate safe and immunogenic WIV vaccines without adjuvants. Specifically, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with laser-inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at about a 10-fold lower dose than that required using conventional formalin-inactivated influenza vaccines results in protection against lethal H1N1 challenge in mice. The virus, inactivated by the USP laser irradiation, has been shown to retain its surface protein structure through hemagglutination assay. Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. Therefore, USP laser treatment is an attractive potential strategy to generate WIV vaccines with greater potency and safety than vaccines produced by current inactivation techniques. PMID:25423046
Tsen, Shaw-Wei David; Donthi, Nisha; La, Victor; Hsieh, Wen-Han; Li, Yen-Der; Knoff, Jayne; Chen, Alexander; Wu, Tzyy-Choou; Hung, Chien-Fu; Achilefu, Samuel; Tsen, Kong-Thon
There is an urgent need for rapid methods to develop vaccines in response to emerging viral pathogens. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines represent an ideal strategy for this purpose; however, a universal method for producing safe and immunogenic inactivated vaccines is lacking. Conventional pathogen inactivation methods such as formalin, heat, ultraviolet light, and gamma rays cause structural alterations in vaccines that lead to reduced neutralizing antibody specificity, and in some cases, disastrous T helper type 2-mediated immune pathology. We have evaluated the potential of a visible ultrashort pulsed (USP) laser method to generate safe and immunogenic WIV vaccines without adjuvants. Specifically, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with laser-inactivated H1N1 influenza virus at about a 10-fold lower dose than that required using conventional formalin-inactivated influenza vaccines results in protection against lethal H1N1 challenge in mice. The virus, inactivated by the USP laser irradiation, has been shown to retain its surface protein structure through hemagglutination assay. Unlike conventional inactivation methods, laser treatment did not generate carbonyl groups in protein, thereby reducing the risk of adverse vaccine-elicited T helper type 2 responses. Therefore, USP laser treatment is an attractive potential strategy to generate WIV vaccines with greater potency and safety than vaccines produced by current inactivation techniques.
Torres, Andrea N; O'Halloran, Kevin P; Larson, Laurie J; Schultz, Ronald D; Hoover, Edward A
A fraction of cats exposed to feline leukemia virus (FeLV) effectively contain virus and resist persistent antigenemia/viremia. Using real-time PCR (qPCR) to quantitate circulating viral DNA levels, previously we detected persistent FeLV DNA in blood cells of non-antigenemic cats considered to have resisted FeLV challenge. In addition, previously we used RNA qPCR to quantitate circulating viral RNA levels and determined that the vast majority of viral DNA is transcriptionally active, even in the absence of antigenemia. A single comparison of all USDA-licensed commercially available FeLV vaccines using these modern sensitive methods has not been reported. To determine whether FeLV vaccination would prevent nucleic acid persistence, we assayed circulating viral DNA, RNA, antigen, infectious virus, and virus neutralizing (VN) antibody in vaccinated and unvaccinated cats challenged with infectious FeLV. We identified challenged vaccinates with undetectable antigenemia and viremia concomitant with persistent FeLV DNA and/or RNA. Moreover, these studies demonstrated that two whole inactivated virus (WIV) adjuvanted FeLV vaccines (Fort Dodge Animal Health's Fel-O-Vax Lv-K) and Schering-Plough Animal Health's FEVAXYN FeLV) provided effective protection against FeLV challenge. In nearly every recipient of these vaccines, neither viral DNA, RNA, antigen, nor infectious virus could be detected in blood after FeLV challenge. Interestingly, this effective viral containment occurred despite a weak to undetectable VN antibody response. The above findings reinforce the precept of FeLV infection as a unique model of effective retroviral immunity elicited by WIV vaccination, and as such holds valuable insights into retroviral immunoprevention and therapy.
Gendon, Iu Z
Published data related with comparison studies of safety, efficiency and some other properties of cold-adapted live influenza vaccine (LIV) and of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) are analyzed. LIV and IIV do not differ by systemic reactions after administration; however, it is not ruled out that there can be unfavorable reactions in vaccination of persons with allergy to the chicken-embryo proteins as well as in cases of persistence/reversion of cold-adapted strain observed in vaccination of persons with primary impairments of the immune system. There are no convincing data, up to now, on that LIV is superior to IIV in coping with influenza pandemics. The efficiency of LIV and IIV for children aged 3 years and more and for healthy adults is virtually identical. Additional controllable field comparative studies of LIV and IIV efficiency in immunization of elderly persons are needed. Limited data on LIV efficiency for children aged 2 months and more were obtained. The need in a 2-stage vaccination of all age group with the aim of ensuring responses to all 3 LIV components is, certainly, a LIV disadvantage. In case of IIV, the 2-stage vaccination is needed only for persons who were not ill with influenza. The intranasal LIV administration has, from the practical and psychological standpoints, an advantage before the IIV administration by syringe. The ability of LIV to protect from the drift influenza-virus variations could be its advantage before IIV; still, more research is needed to verify it. Transplantable cell lines meeting the WHO requirements could be an optimal substrate for the production of LIV and IIV. Children are the optimal age group for influenza prevention by cold-adapted LIV, whereas, IIV fits better for vaccination of adults and elderly persons.
Rossi, Shannan L.; Russell-Lodrigue, Kasi E.; Killeen, Stephanie Z.; Wang, Eryu; Leal, Grace; Bergren, Nicholas A.; Vinet-Oliphant, Heather; Weaver, Scott C.; Roy, Chad J.
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an arbovirus endemic to the Americas that is responsible for severe, sometimes fatal, disease in humans and horses. We previously described an IRES-based VEE vaccine candidate based up the IE serotype that offers complete protection against a lethal subtype IE VEEV challenge in mice. Here we demonstrate the IRES-based vaccine’s ability to protect against febrile disease in cynomolgus macaques. Vaccination was well tolerated and elicited robust neutralizing antibody titers noticed as early as day 14. Moreover, complete protection from disease characterized by absence of viremia and characteristic fever following aerosolized IE VEEV challenge was observed in all vaccinees compared to control animals, which developed clinical disease. Together, these results highlight the safety and efficacy of IRES-based VEEV vaccine to protect against an endemic, pathogenic VEEV IE serotype. PMID:26020513
Leonova, G N
The use of different vaccines manufactured in the USSR under the condition of the Far East has revealed that killed vaccines do not produce a protective effect, sufficient for the prophylaxis of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). This is probably due to the circulation of a highly virulent population of TBE virus at the Territory. This virus population may produce a severe course of infection and aggravate the clinico-epidemiological characteristics of the effectiveness of vaccines. Besides, low levels of specific and nonspecific humoral resistance factors in the residents of the Far East, especially in spring and summer, contribute to this fact. The negative effect of specific serotherapy for persons over 40 years of age has been established.
Morfopoulou, Sofia; Mee, Edward T; Connaughton, Sarah M; Brown, Julianne R; Gilmour, Kimberly; Chong, W K 'Kling'; Duprex, W Paul; Ferguson, Deborah; Hubank, Mike; Hutchinson, Ciaran; Kaliakatsos, Marios; McQuaid, Stephen; Paine, Simon; Plagnol, Vincent; Ruis, Christopher; Virasami, Alex; Zhan, Hong; Jacques, Thomas S; Schepelmann, Silke; Qasim, Waseem; Breuer, Judith
Routine childhood vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella has virtually abolished virus-related morbidity and mortality. Notwithstanding this, we describe here devastating neurological complications associated with the detection of live-attenuated mumps virus Jeryl Lynn (MuV(JL5)) in the brain of a child who had undergone successful allogeneic transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). This is the first confirmed report of MuV(JL5) associated with chronic encephalitis and highlights the need to exclude immunodeficient individuals from immunisation with live-attenuated vaccines. The diagnosis was only possible by deep sequencing of the brain biopsy. Sequence comparison of the vaccine batch to the MuV(JL5) isolated from brain identified biased hypermutation, particularly in the matrix gene, similar to those found in measles from cases of SSPE. The findings provide unique insights into the pathogenesis of paramyxovirus brain infections.
Jafari, Hamid; Deshpande, Jagadish M; Sutter, Roland W; Bahl, Sunil; Verma, Harish; Ahmad, Mohammad; Kunwar, Abhishek; Vishwakarma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashutosh; Jain, Shilpi; Estivariz, Concepcion; Sethi, Raman; Molodecky, Natalie A; Grassly, Nicholas C; Pallansch, Mark A; Chatterjee, Arani; Aylward, R Bruce
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is efficacious against paralytic disease, but its effect on mucosal immunity is debated. We assessed the efficacy of IPV in boosting mucosal immunity. Participants received IPV, bivalent 1 and 3 oral poliovirus vaccine (bOPV), or no vaccine. A bOPV challenge was administered 4 weeks later, and excretion was assessed 3, 7, and 14 days later. Nine hundred and fifty-four participants completed the study. Any fecal shedding of poliovirus type 1 was 8.8, 9.1, and 13.5% in the IPV group and 14.4, 24.1, and 52.4% in the control group by 6- to 11-month, 5-year, and 10-year groups, respectively (IPV versus control: Fisher's exact test P < 0.001). IPV reduced excretion for poliovirus types 1 and 3 between 38.9 and 74.2% and 52.8 and 75.7%, respectively. Thus, IPV in OPV-vaccinated individuals boosts intestinal mucosal immunity.
Flannery, Brendan; Thompson, Mark G.; Gaglani, Manjusha; Jackson, Michael L.; Monto, Arnold S.; Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Talbot, H. Keipp; Treanor, John J.; Belongia, Edward A.; Murthy, Kempapura; Jackson, Lisa A.; Petrie, Joshua G.; Zimmerman, Richard K.; Griffin, Marie R.; McLean, Huong Q.; Fry, Alicia M.
BACKGROUND: Few observational studies have evaluated the relative effectiveness of live attenuated (LAIV) and inactivated (IIV) influenza vaccines against medically attended laboratory-confirmed influenza. METHODS: We analyzed US Influenza Vaccine Effectiveness Network data from participants aged 2 to 17 years during 4 seasons (2010–2011 through 2013–2014) to compare relative effectiveness of LAIV and IIV against influenza-associated illness. Vaccine receipt was confirmed via provider/electronic medical records or immunization registry. We calculated the ratio (odds) of influenza-positive to influenza-negative participants among those age-appropriately vaccinated with either LAIV or IIV for the corresponding season. We examined relative effectiveness of LAIV and IIV by using adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression. RESULTS: Of 6819 participants aged 2 to 17 years, 2703 were age-appropriately vaccinated with LAIV (n = 637) or IIV (n = 2066). Odds of influenza were similar for LAIV and IIV recipients during 3 seasons (2010–2011 through 2012–2013). In 2013–2014, odds of influenza were significantly higher among LAIV recipients compared with IIV recipients 2 to 8 years old (OR 5.36; 95% CI, 2.37 to 12.13). Participants vaccinated with LAIV or IIV had similar odds of illness associated with influenza A/H3N2 or B. LAIV recipients had greater odds of illness due to influenza A/H1N1pdm09 in 2010–2011 and 2013–2014. CONCLUSIONS: We observed lower effectiveness of LAIV compared with IIV against influenza A/H1N1pdm09 but not A(H3N2) or B among children and adolescents, suggesting poor performance related to the LAIV A/H1N1pdm09 viral construct. PMID:26738884
Sheppard, Haynes W
Inactivated or "killed" virus (KV) is a "classical" approach that has produced safe and effective human and veterinary vaccines but has received relatively little attention in the effort to develop an HIV/AIDS vaccine. Initially, KV and rgp120 subunit vaccines were the two most obvious approaches but, unfortunately, rgp120 has not been efficacious and the KV approach has been limited by a variety of scientific, technical, and sociological factors. For example, when responses to cellular antigens, present on SIV grown in human cells, proved to be largely responsible for efficacy, the KV approach was widely discounted. Similarly, when lab-adapted HIV-1 appeared to lose envelope glycoprotein during preparation (not the case for primary isolates), this was viewed as a fundamental barrier to the KV concept. Also, a preference for "safer", genetically-engineered vaccines, and emphasis on cellular immunity, have left KV low on the priority list for funding agencies and investigators. The recent suggestion that "native" trimeric gp120 displays conserved conformational neutralization epitopes, along with the failure of rgp120, and difficulties in raising strong cellular responses with DNA or vectored vaccines, has restored some interest in the KV concept. In the past 15 years, several groups have initiated pre-clinical development of KV candidates for SIV or HIV and promising, albeit limited, information has been produced. In this chapter we discuss the rationale (including pros and cons) for producing and testing killed-HIV vaccines, the prospects for success, the nature and scope of research needed to test the KV concept, what has been learned to date, and what remains undone.
Barry, David W.; Staton, Eldridge; Mayner, Ronald E.
Groups of 60 to 120 mice were given a single intraperitoneal inoculation of varying dilutions of commercially prepared and licensed bivalent (A/England and B/Mass) and monovalent (A/Aichi or B/Hong Kong) inactivated influenza vaccines, and their antibody responses at 14 days were quantitated by hemagglutination inhibition tests. Split-product vaccines prepared by the treatment of A/England, B/Mass, and B/Hong Kong whole virus with Tween-80 and either tributylphosphate or ether produced significantly lower mean antibody titers than did equivalent whole-virus preparations. The rates of seroconversion (<1:8 to ≥1:8) at the various dilutions tested were also significantly reduced when these split-product vaccines were given. When the antigen content of all vaccines was quantitated by the chick cell agglutination test, between 10 and 100 times more split-product antigen than whole-virus antigen was required to produce seroconversion in 50% of the mice tested. Differences between split-product and whole-virus A/Aichi vaccines were less marked. These data point out the need to consider factors other than hemagglutinin content alone in determining the immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccines. PMID:4435958
The adjuvant activity of chitosan and calcium phosphate-particles (CAP) was studied following intranasal coadministration of commercial chickens with inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine. After three vaccinations with inactivated NDV in combination with chitosan or CAP an increase in an...
Amicizia, Daniela; Domnich, Alexander; Panatto, Donatella; Lai, Piero Luigi; Cristina, Maria Luisa; Avio, Ulderico; Gasparini, Roberto
Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE), which is caused by a Flavivirus, is the most common tick-transmitted disease in Central and Eastern Europe and Russia. Today, TBE is endemic in 27 European countries, and has become an international public health problem. The epidemiology of TBE is changing owing to various factors, such as improvements in diagnosis and case reporting, increased recreational activities in areas populated by ticks, and changes in climatic conditions affecting tick habitats. Vaccination remains the most effective protective measure against TBE for people living in risk zones, occupationally exposed subjects and travelers to endemic areas. The vaccines currently in use are FSME-Immun®, Encepur®, EnceVir® and TBE vaccine Moscow®. The numerous studies performed on the efficacy and safety of these vaccines have shown a high level of immunogenicity and an excellent safety profile. Several studies have also shown a high level of cross-protection among strains belonging to different subtypes. In the present paper we attempted to describe the continuously changing epidemiology of TBE in European States and to overview clinical development of available vaccines paying particular attention on cross-protection elicited by the vaccines. PMID:23377671
Maves, Ryan C; Castillo Oré, Roger M; Porter, Kevin R; Kochel, Tadeusz J
We evaluated a novel psoralen-inactivated dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) vaccine candidate in Mus musculus mice. Mice received intradermal alum or 5 to 10 ng of psoralen-inactivated virus. Anti-DENV-1 neutralizing antibody was detectable in 10/11 mice receiving a 10-ng dose at 90 days. Psoralen-inactivated DENV-1 is immunogenic in mice.
Moore, R M; Moulthrop, J I; Sather, G E; Holmes, C L; Parker, R L
Field studies were conducted in 1972 to determine the immunization status of equines along the Mexico, Arizona, and New Mexico borders. Interviews with horse owners were conducted along roads selected at random in the counties of Santa Cruz and Yuma, Ariz., and in Dona Ana County, N. Mex. At least 450 horse owners in each county were asked about the vaccination status of their animals, and information was taken on 1,260 animals. Blood specimens were obtained from every third equine, regardless of stated vaccination status, and tested for the presence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE), and eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) neutralization antibodies. Serum samples were collected from 446 equines in the 3-county area; only 227 (50.7 percent) had both a history of VEE vaccination in 1971 (including 20 vaccinated in 1972) and serum neutralization antibody against VEE. Of the remaining 220 with no detectable neutralization antibody to VEE, 197 (89.5 percent) had a history of VEE vaccination in 1971 (including 5 revaccinated in 1972), 14 (6.4 percent) had no history of vaccination, and 9 (4.1 percent) had an unknown vaccination status. Eighty-two percent (160 of 1971) of the equines with a history of VEE vaccination and presence of dectectable WEE or EEE antibodies, or both, had no detectable levels of VEE antibody. Therefore, the results of this study suggest that the presence of WEE or EEE antibodies, or both, may suppress the development of dectable vaccine-induced VEE antibody response in the equine. As a result of this investigation, the U.S. Department of Agriculture, as an added precaution, recommended the revaccination of equines in areas of the United States bordering Mexico.
Heterologous influenza A virus (IAV) challenge following vaccination with an intramuscular (IM) whole inactivated vaccine (WIV) can result in vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD). The objective of this study was to use an adenovirus (Ad5) vector vaccine platform that expressed IAV...
Zhang, Yanfang; Du, Ruikun; Huang, Shaomei; Zhang, Tao; Liu, Jinliang; Zhu, Bibo; Wang, Hualin; Deng, Fei; Cao, Shengbo
The cDNA fragment of JEV prME gene was cloned into the baculovirus shuttle vector (bacmid) to construct a recombinant baculovirus vector, defined as AcBac-prME. Then the recombinant baculovirus Ac-prME was obtained by transfecting Sf9 cells with AcBac-prME. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence results indicated that both prM and E proteins were efficiently expressed in Sf9 cells. Electron microscopy suggested that prME was assembled into JEV-VLPs. To further evaluate the potential of JEV-VLPs as vaccine, the mice were immunized with JEV-VLPs and then challenged with lethal JEV. The results of mice survival and pathological changes demonstrated that the JEV-VLPs performed complete protection against JEV-P3 strain and relieved pathological changes in the mice brain significant. This study suggest that JEV-VLPs would be a potential vaccine for Japanese encephalitis virus.
Cirone, Francesco; Elia, Gabriella; Campolo, Marco; Friedrich, Klaus; Martella, Vito; Pratelli, Annamaria; Buonavoglia, Canio
The immunogenicity of an inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against canine distemper virus was evaluated in nine captive African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus). Antibody levels were determined by neutralization test in Vero cells. No significant local or systemic adverse reactions were observed in the animals. Virus neutralizing antibody levels >1:20 were detected, especially in animals that were vaccinated twice. The use of oil adjuvants is suggested as a good way to enhance the immune response to inactivated canine distemper vaccine.
formulations of individual Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon- vectored vaccines against a bacterial disease, anthrax; a viral disease...here the results of using formulations of individual Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon-vectored vaccines against a bacterial disease...on days 0, 35, and 70 with the indicated vaccines. Ne b Infectious units were used to measure VRP and milliliters were used to measur c The
Martin, Shannon S; Bakken, Russell R; Lind, Cathleen M; Garcia, Patricia; Jenkins, Erin; Glass, Pamela J; Parker, Michael D; Hart, Mary Kate; Fine, Donald L
We recently developed a gamma-irradiation method to inactivate V3526, a live-attenuated Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) vaccine candidate. Dosage and schedule studies were conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and efficacy of gamma-irradiated V3526 (gV3526). Subcutaneous (SC) and low dosage intramuscular (IM) administration of gV3526 were highly effective in protecting mice against a SC challenge with VEEV IA/B Trinidad Donkey strain, but not against an equivalent aerosol challenge. More robust immune responses and increased protective efficacy were noted when the IM dosage of gV3526 was increased. IM administration of gV3526 formulated with either CpG or CpG plus Alhydrogel further augmented the immune response in mice and resulted in 100% protection against aerosol challenge.
Aziz-Boaron, Orly; Leibovitz, Keren; Gelman, Boris; Kedmi, Maor; Klement, Eyal
Bovine ephemeral fever (BEF) is an economically important viral vector-borne cattle disease. Several live-attenuated, inactivated and recombinant vaccines have been tested, demonstrating varying efficacy. However, to the best of our knowledge, duration of immunity conferred by an inactivated vaccine has never been reported. In the last decade, Israel has faced an increasing number of BEF outbreaks. The need for an effective vaccine compatible with strains circulating in the Middle East region led to the development of a MONTANIDE™ ISA 206 VG (water-in-oil-in-water), inactivated vaccine based on a local strain. We tested the safety, immunogenicity and duration of immunity conferred by this vaccine. The induced neutralizing antibody (NA) response was followed for 493 days in 40 cows vaccinated by different protocols. The vaccine did not cause adverse reactions or a decrease in milk production. All cows [except 2 (6.7%) which did not respond to vaccination] showed a significant rise in NA titer of up to 1:256 following the second, third or fourth booster vaccination. Neutralizing antibody levels declined gradually to 1:16 up to 120 days post vaccination. This decline continued in cows vaccinated only twice, whereas cows vaccinated 3 or 4 times showed stable titers of approximately 1:16 for up to 267 days post vaccination. At least three vaccinations with the inactivated BEF vaccine were needed to confer long-lasting immunity. These results may have significant implications for the choice of vaccination protocol with inactivated BEF vaccines. Complementary challenge data should however be added to the above results in order to determine what is the minimal NA response conferring protection from clinical disease. PMID:24349225
Pereira, Renata C; Silva, Andrea N M R; Souza, Marta Cristina O; Silva, Marlon V; Neves, Patrícia P C C; Silva, Andrea A M V; Matos, Denise D C S; Herrera, Miguel A O; Yamamura, Anna M Y; Freire, Marcos S; Gaspar, Luciane P; Caride, Elena
Yellow fever is an acute infectious disease caused by prototype virus of the genus Flavivirus. It is endemic in Africa and South America where it represents a serious public health problem causing epidemics of hemorrhagic fever with mortality rates ranging from 20% to 50%. There is no available antiviral therapy and vaccination is the primary method of disease control. Although the attenuated vaccines for yellow fever show safety and efficacy it became necessary to develop a new yellow fever vaccine due to the occurrence of rare serious adverse events, which include visceral and neurotropic diseases. The new inactivated vaccine should be safer and effective as the existing attenuated one. In the present study, the immunogenicity of an inactivated 17DD vaccine in C57BL/6 mice was evaluated. The yellow fever virus was produced by cultivation of Vero cells in bioreactors, inactivated with β-propiolactone, and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide (alum). Mice were inoculated with inactivated 17DD vaccine containing alum adjuvant and followed by intracerebral challenge with 17DD virus. The results showed that animals receiving 3 doses of the inactivated vaccine (2 μg/dose) with alum adjuvant had neutralizing antibody titers above the cut-off of PRNT50 (Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test). In addition, animals immunized with inactivated vaccine showed survival rate of 100% after the challenge as well as animals immunized with commercial attenuated 17DD vaccine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kim, Hyun-Kyoung; Nam, Ji-Eun; Chang, Woo-Yong; Rho, Yong-Kyun; Choi, Min-Kyu
Improvement of additional immunization rate is indicated as an important factor for effective immunization of diseases. In this study, the relationship between retention of mother and child health handbook and additional immunization rate of Japanese encephalitis and tetanus was examined. A survey via questionnaire was performed against parents of students of middle schools in Gwangmyeong-si, Gyeonggi-do, and elementary schools in Seoul. Among 350 copies of the questionnaire delivered via post mail, 261 copies were collected and used in the analysis. The questionnaire included general features of subjects and their children, retention of the mother and child health handbook, and recognition of additional immunization of the Japanese encephalitis and tetanus vaccine. It was found that 80.8% of subjects answered affirmative to retaining the mother and child health handbook, and the group retaining the handbook had higher recognition rate of the need for additional immunization than the group that did not, for the Japanese encephalitis vaccine (83.2% vs. 51.2%, P < 0.001) and for the tetanus vaccine (66.5% vs. 31.7%, P < 0.001). Although the group retaining the handbook had a significantly higher additional immunization rate of the tetanus vaccine of 48.6% vs. 17.1% (P = 0.001), the immunization rate of the Japanese encephalitis vaccine did not show a significant difference (P = 0.231). The group recognizing the need for additional immunization of the Japanese encephalitis and tetanus vaccine had a significantly higher additional immunization rate than the counterpart (P < 0.001). It was considered that retention of the mother and child health handbook was related to recognition and execution of additional immunizations.
Vidor, E; Dumas, R; Porteret, V; Bailleux, F; Veitch, K
Inactivated hepatitis A vaccines were developed in the 1980s and were introduced during the early 1990s. The Aventis Pasteur (AvP) inactivated hepatitis A virus antigen is used in several different vaccine formulations licensed for adults and children. Presented here are the immunogenicity results compiled from 37 clinical trials performed in 20 different countries between 1991 and 2001 in which these vaccines were administered to adults (16 years of age and over), children (aged 12 months-17 years), and infants (younger than 12 months). The accumulated clinical experience with these hepatitis A virus-containing vaccines demonstrates the excellent immunogenicity of this antigen in a wide range of situations. As with other licensed inactivated hepatitis A vaccines, immunological priming is achieved in virtually all vaccinees after a single-dose primary immunization, and it may be reinforced by a booster vaccination administered 6-36 months after the primary vaccination.
Beck, Yvonne; Fritz, Richard; Orlinger, Klaus; Kiermayr, Stefan; Ilk, Reinhard; Portsmouth, Daniel; Pöllabauer, Eva-Maria; Löw-Baselli, Alexandra; Hessel, Annett; Kölch, Doris; Howard, M. Keith; Barrett, P. Noel
ABSTRACT Studies evaluating the immunogenicity of two pediatric tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) vaccines have reported contradictory results. These vaccines are based on two different strains of the European TBEV subtype: FSME-Immun Junior is based on the Neudörfl (Nd) strain, whereas Encepur Children is based on the Karlsruhe (K23) strain. The antibody (Ab) response induced by these two vaccines might be influenced by antigenic differences in the envelope (E) protein, which is the major target of neutralizing antibodies. We used an established hybrid virus assay platform to compare the levels of induction of neutralizing antibodies against the two vaccine virus strains in children aged 1 to 11 years who received two immunizations with FSME-Immun Junior or Encepur Children. The influence of amino acid differences between the E proteins of the Nd and K23 vaccine strains was investigated by mutational analyses and three-dimensional computer modeling. FSME-Immun Junior induced 100% seropositivity and similar neutralizing antibody titers against hybrid viruses containing the TBEV E protein of the two vaccine strains. Encepur Children induced 100% seropositivity only against the hybrid virus containing the E protein of the homologous K23 vaccine strain. Antibody responses induced by Encepur Children to the hybrid virus containing the E protein of the heterologous Nd strain were substantially and significantly (P < 0.001) lower than those to the K23 vaccine strain hybrid virus. Structure-based mutational analyses of the TBEV E protein indicated that this is due to a mutation in the DI-DII hinge region of the K23 vaccine strain E protein which may have occurred during production of the vaccine seed virus and which is not present in any wild-type TBE viruses. IMPORTANCE Our data suggest that there are major differences in the abilities of two European subtype pediatric TBEV vaccines to induce antibodies capable of neutralizing heterologous TBEV strains. This is a
Purpose: To evaluate and compare humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine. Methods: Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each....
Humoral and cellular immune responses to inactivated swine influenza virus (SIV) vaccine were evaluated and compared. Fifty 3-week-old weaned pigs from a herd free of SIV and PRRSV were randomly divided into the non-vaccinated control group and vaccinated group containing 25 pigs each. Pigs were va...
Liao, Z; Feng, X W; Liu, X E; Zhou, Y S; Wen, H R; Peng, S H; Zhang, Y X; Xu, B; Zhuang, H; Chen, H Y
Objective: To evaluate the safety and immunogenicity of one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine in young adults. Methods: The subjects were selected from participants in the clinical trial of immunogenicity of inactivated and attenuated live hepatitis A vaccine in young adults. Eligible subjects were those who had received one dose of inactivated or attenuated hepatitis A vaccine, could be contacted and were sero-negative before primary vaccination. All qualified subjects were immunized with one booster dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. The blood samples were collected before booster dose vaccination and 28 days after the immunization. Anti-HAV antibody titer ≥20 mIU/ml was considered to be sero-protected against hepatitis A virus. Results: The GMCs in the inactivated HAV vaccine group and attenuated live vaccine group before booster dose vaccination were 70.80 mIU/ml and 50.12 mIU/ml, respectively, and the sero-protection rates were 94.7% and 65.0%, respectively. After the vaccination of the booster dose, the sero-protection rates in both groups were 100.0%, and the GMCs were 2 816.09 mIU/ml and 2 654.55 mIU/ml, respectively. Conclusion: The GMCs and sero-protection rates of anti-HAV antibody in young adults declined after three years of the primary vaccination. However, the higher GMC and sero-protection rate were observed in the inactivated vaccine group than in the attenuated live vaccine group. Significant increases of GMC levels were observed in both groups after one booster dose vaccination.
... of Page How long does the Japanese encephalitis vaccination last? The duration of protection is unknown. For ... What are the side effects of Japanese encephalitis vaccination? Pain and tenderness are the most commonly reported ...
Stuurman, Anke L; Marano, Cinzia; Bunge, Eveline M; De Moerlooze, Laurence; Shouval, Daniel
The WHO recommends integration of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in national immunization schedules for children aged ≥1 year, if justified on the basis of acute HAV incidence, declining endemicity from high to intermediate and cost-effectiveness. This recommendation has been implemented in several countries. Our aim was to assess the impact of UMV using monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines on incidence and persistence of anti-HAV (IgG) antibodies in pediatric populations. We conducted a systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, IBECS identifying a total of 27 studies (Argentina, Belgium, China, Greece, Israel, Panama, the United States and Uruguay). All except one study showed a marked decline in the incidence of hepatitis A post introduction of UMV. The incidence in non-vaccinated age groups decreased as well, suggesting herd immunity but also rising susceptibility. Long-term anti-HAV antibody persistence was documented up to 17 y after a 2-dose primary vaccination. In conclusion, introduction of UMV in countries with intermediate endemicity for HAV infection led to a considerable decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in vaccinated and in non-vaccinated age groups alike.
Stuurman, Anke L.; Marano, Cinzia; Bunge, Eveline M.; De Moerlooze, Laurence; Shouval, Daniel
ABSTRACT The WHO recommends integration of universal mass vaccination (UMV) against hepatitis A virus (HAV) in national immunization schedules for children aged ≥1 year, if justified on the basis of acute HAV incidence, declining endemicity from high to intermediate and cost-effectiveness. This recommendation has been implemented in several countries. Our aim was to assess the impact of UMV using monovalent inactivated hepatitis A vaccines on incidence and persistence of anti-HAV (IgG) antibodies in pediatric populations. We conducted a systematic review of literature published between 2000 and 2015 in PubMed, Cochrane Library, LILACS, IBECS identifying a total of 27 studies (Argentina, Belgium, China, Greece, Israel, Panama, the United States and Uruguay). All except one study showed a marked decline in the incidence of hepatitis A post introduction of UMV. The incidence in non-vaccinated age groups decreased as well, suggesting herd immunity but also rising susceptibility. Long-term anti-HAV antibody persistence was documented up to 17 y after a 2-dose primary vaccination. In conclusion, introduction of UMV in countries with intermediate endemicity for HAV infection led to a considerable decrease in the incidence of hepatitis A in vaccinated and in non-vaccinated age groups alike. PMID:27786671
Verma, Ramesh; Khanna, Pardeep; Chawla, Suraj
Leptospirosis is an infectious disease of worldwide distribution that is caused by pathogenic spirochete bacteria of the genus Leptospira. It is transmitted by the urine of an infected animal and contagious in a moist environment. Epidemiological studies indicate that infection is commonly associated with certain occupational workers such as farmers, sewage workers, veterinarians, and animal handlers. The annual incidence is estimated at 0.1-1 per 100,000 in temperate climates to 10-100 per 100,000 in the humid tropics. A disease incidence of more than 100 per 100,000 is encountered during outbreaks and in high-exposure risk groups. The 11 countries in South-East Asia (SEA) together have a population of more than 1.7 billion and a work force of about 770 million with more than 450 million people engaged in agriculture. Because of the large number of serovars and infection sources and the wide differences in conditions of transmission, the control of leptospirosis is complicated and will depend on local conditions. The available leptospirosis vaccines are mono- or polyvalent cellular suspensions. These cells are inactivated by chemical agents like formaldehyde and phenol, or by physical agents like heat. The vaccine confers protection for not longer than about one year, while there are cases that need revaccination six months later during epidemic periods.
Inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) plays an instrumental role in the Global Poliovirus Eradication Initiative (GPEI). The quality of IPV is controlled by assessment of the potency of vaccine batches. The potency of IPV can be assessed by both in vivo and in vitro methods. In vitro potency assessment is based upon the assessment of the quantity of the D-Antigen (D-Ag) units in an IPV. The D-Ag unit is used as a measure of potency as it is largely expressed on native infectious virions and is the protective immunogen. The most commonly used in vitro test is the indirect ELISA which is used to ensure consistency throughout production.A range of in vivo assays have been developed in monkeys, chicks, guinea pigs, mice, and rats to assess the potency of IPV. All are based on assessment of the neutralizing antibody titer within the sera of the respective animal model. The rat potency test has become the favored in vivo potency test as it shows minimal variation between laboratories and the antibody patterns of rats and humans are similar. With the development of transgenic mice expressing the human poliovirus receptor, immunization-challenge tests have been developed to assess the potency of IPVs. This chapter describes in detail the methodology of these three laboratory tests to assess the quality of IPVs.
Garrido, Joseba M.; Sevilla, Iker A.; Beltrán-Beck, Beatriz; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Ballesteros, Cristina; Galindo, Ruth C.; Boadella, Mariana; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Romero, Beatriz; Geijo, Maria Victoria; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Aranaz, Alicia; Juste, Ramón A.; Vicente, Joaquín; de la Fuente, José; Gortázar, Christian
Tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis and closely related members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex continues to affect humans and animals worldwide and its control requires vaccination of wildlife reservoir species such as Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa). Vaccination efforts for TB control in wildlife have been based primarily on oral live BCG formulations. However, this is the first report of the use of oral inactivated vaccines for controlling TB in wildlife. In this study, four groups of 5 wild boar each were vaccinated with inactivated M. bovis by the oral and intramuscular routes, vaccinated with oral BCG or left unvaccinated as controls. All groups were later challenged with a field strain of M. bovis. The results of the IFN-gamma response, serum antibody levels, M. bovis culture, TB lesion scores, and the expression of C3 and MUT genes were compared between these four groups. The results suggested that vaccination with heat-inactivated M. bovis or BCG protect wild boar from TB. These results also encouraged testing combinations of BCG and inactivated M. bovis to vaccinate wild boar against TB. Vaccine formulations using heat-inactivated M. bovis for TB control in wildlife would have the advantage of being environmentally safe and more stable under field conditions when compared to live BCG vaccines. The antibody response and MUT expression levels can help differentiating between vaccinated and infected wild boar and as correlates of protective response in vaccinated animals. These results suggest that vaccine studies in free-living wild boar are now possible to reveal the full potential of protecting against TB using oral M. bovis inactivated and BCG vaccines. PMID:21935486
Ilyushina, Natalia A.; Haynes, Brenda C.; Hoen, Anne G.; Khalenkov, Alexey M.; Housman, Molly L.; Brown, Eric P.; Ackerman, Margaret E.; Treanor, John J.; Luke, Catherine J.; Subbarao, Kanta; Wright, Peter F.
Background. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) are available for children. Local and systemic immunity induced by LAIV followed a month later by LAIV and IIV followed by LAIV were investigated with virus recovery after LAIV doses as surrogates for protection against influenza on natural exposure. Methods. Fifteen children received IIV followed by LAIV, 13 an initial dose of LAIV, and 11 a second dose of LAIV. The studies were done during autumn 2009 and autumn 2010 with the same seasonal vaccine (A/California/07/09 [H1N1], A/Perth/16/09 [H3N2], B/Brisbane/60/08). Results. Twenty-eight of 39 possible influenza viral strains were recovered after the initial dose of LAIV. When LAIV followed IIV, 21 of 45 viral strains were identified. When compared to primary LAIV infection, the decreased frequency of shedding with the IIV-LAIV schedule was significant (P = .023). With LAIV-LAIV, the fewest viral strains were recovered (3/33)—numbers significantly lower (P < .001) than shedding after initial LAIV and after IIV-LAIV (P < .001). Serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses were more frequent after IIV than LAIV (P = .02). In contrast, more mucosal immunoglobulin A responses were seen with LAIV. Conclusions. LAIV priming induces greater inhibition of virus recovery on LAIV challenge than IIV priming. The correlate(s) of protection are the subject of ongoing analysis. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01246999. PMID:25165161
Ilyushina, Natalia A; Haynes, Brenda C; Hoen, Anne G; Khalenkov, Alexey M; Housman, Molly L; Brown, Eric P; Ackerman, Margaret E; Treanor, John J; Luke, Catherine J; Subbarao, Kanta; Wright, Peter F
Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) are available for children. Local and systemic immunity induced by LAIV followed a month later by LAIV and IIV followed by LAIV were investigated with virus recovery after LAIV doses as surrogates for protection against influenza on natural exposure. Fifteen children received IIV followed by LAIV, 13 an initial dose of LAIV, and 11 a second dose of LAIV. The studies were done during autumn 2009 and autumn 2010 with the same seasonal vaccine (A/California/07/09 [H1N1], A/Perth/16/09 [H3N2], B/Brisbane/60/08). Twenty-eight of 39 possible influenza viral strains were recovered after the initial dose of LAIV. When LAIV followed IIV, 21 of 45 viral strains were identified. When compared to primary LAIV infection, the decreased frequency of shedding with the IIV-LAIV schedule was significant (P = .023). With LAIV-LAIV, the fewest viral strains were recovered (3/33)--numbers significantly lower (P < .001) than shedding after initial LAIV and after IIV-LAIV (P < .001). Serum hemagglutination inhibition antibody responses were more frequent after IIV than LAIV (P = .02). In contrast, more mucosal immunoglobulin A responses were seen with LAIV. LAIV priming induces greater inhibition of virus recovery on LAIV challenge than IIV priming. The correlate(s) of protection are the subject of ongoing analysis. NCT01246999. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Li, Jingliang; Liu, Guanchen; Liu, Xin; Yang, Jiaxin; Chang, Junliang; Zhang, Wenyan; Yu, Xiao-Fang
Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71), both of which can cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), are responsible for large epidemics in Asian and Pacific areas. Although inactivated EV71 vaccines have completed testing in phase III clinical trials in Mainland China, CA16 vaccines are still under development. A Vero cell-based inactivated CA16 vaccine was developed by our group. Screening identified a CA16 vaccine strain (CC024) isolated from HFMD patients, which had broad cross-protective abilities and satisfied all requirements for vaccine production. Identification of the biological characteristics showed that the CA16CC024 strain had the highest titer (107.5 CCID50/mL) in Vero cells, which would benefit the development of an EV71/CA16 divalent vaccine. A potential vaccine manufacturing process was established, including the selection of optimal time for virus harvesting, membrane for diafiltration and concentration, gel-filtration chromatography for the down-stream virus purification and virus inactivation method. Altogether, the analyses suggested that the CC-16, a limiting dilution clone of the CC024 strain, with good genetic stability, high titer and broad-spectrum immunogenicity, would be the best candidate strain for a CA16 inactivated vaccine. Therefore, our study provides valuable information for the development of a Vero cell-based CA16 or EV71-CA16 divalent inactivated vaccine. PMID:26193302
Monath, Thomas P; Lee, Cynthia K; Julander, Justin G; Brown, Alicja; Beasley, David W; Watts, Douglas M; Hayman, Edward; Guertin, Patrick; Makowiecki, Joseph; Crowell, Joseph; Levesque, Philip; Bowick, Gavin C; Morin, Merribeth; Fowler, Elizabeth; Trent, Dennis W
In the last 10 years new concerns have arisen about safety of the live, attenuated yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine, in particular viscerotropic adverse events, which have a case-fatality rate of 64%. A non-replicating cell culture-based vaccine would not cause these adverse events, and potentially could be used in persons with precautions or contraindications to use of the live vaccine, including age <9 months and >60 years, egg allergy, immune suppression, and pregnancy. We developed a whole virion vaccine from the 17D strain inactivated with beta-propiolactone, and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide. The inactivated vaccine was highly immunogenic in mice, hamsters, and cynomolgus macaques. After a single dose in hamsters and macaques, neutralizing antibody titers were similar to those elicited by the live 17D vaccine (YF-VAX, Sanofi Pasteur). After two doses of inactivated vaccine, neutralizing antibody titers in hamsters were significantly higher than after a single dose of YF-VAX [geometric mean titer (GMT) 20,480 vs. 1940, respectively (P<0.001, ANOVA)]. Hamsters given a single dose or two doses of inactivated vaccine or a single dose of YF-VAX were fully protected against hepatitis, viremia, weight loss and death after challenge with YF virus (Jimenez strain). A clinical trial of the inactivated vaccine (XRX-001) has been initiated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ott, J J; Wiersma, S T
Our objective was to identify evidence on the protection achieved by single-dose use of inactivated hepatitis A vaccines in order to evaluate the potential of a flexible booster administration in the form of a second dose. A search was conducted for evidence on single-dose administration of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine and its potential impacts on long-term seropositivity rates. The main pharmaceutical vaccine manufacturer federations and the corresponding authors of manuscripts were approached for additional epidemiologic data. Correspondence was also sent to the Argentinean Ministry of Health. We identified 15 data sources reporting on protection achieved by a single dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine. The consistent finding was that the immune and memory response to the booster dose, or post-booster geometric mean titer, was independent of the time since initial vaccination. The impact of the booster on seroprotection was the same across sexes and age-groups. The longest time interval between initial and booster dose was 10.67 years, indicating that booster doses can be highly immunogenic for up to 10.67 years after primary vaccination. Protective anti-hepatitis A virus antibody levels after a single dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine can persist for almost 11 years and increase or reappear after booster vaccination. Further research on the vaccine doses needed to achieve long-term protection against hepatitis A infection is required. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Wittermann, Christoph; Izu, Allen; Petri, Eckhardt; Gniel, Dieter; Fragapane, Elena
A first tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) vaccine booster in children is currently suggested 3 years after completing either a conventional (doses on Days 0, 28 and 300) or accelerated conventional (doses on Days 0, 14 and 300) TBE immunization schedule. This recommendation, however, may not be appropriate in cases where different TBE vaccines have been used interchangeably during the primary immunization series. To provide robust data to better inform such recommendations, TBE antibody persistence was evaluated after 3-5 years in four groups of children (aged 5-15 years): two groups previously primed with three doses of Encepur(®) Children (conventional/accelerated conventional schedule); and two groups previously primed with two doses of FSME-IMMUN(®) followed by a third dose of Encepur(®) Children (conventional/accelerated conventional schedule). Immunogenicity was evaluated using neutralization (NT) assays based on both vaccine antigens as well as on the Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). In the two Encepur(®) Children groups (full series), protective NT titers of ≥10 were detected in 98-100% of children up to 5 years after their last primary vaccination, irrespective of schedule. In contrast, only 65-70% subjects in the FSME-IMMUN(®) Junior groups (mixed series) displayed NT titers ≥10 after 3 years. Thus, due to lower probability of achieving/maintaining long-term protective antibody levels (recently defined by the World Health Organization as an NT titer ≥10) after this time point, both FSME-IMMUN Junior groups were discontinued. A strong antibody response persists for at least 5 years after full primary vaccination with Encepur(®) Children. The study thus provides support for extending the time interval for a first booster dose after primary vaccination (conventional/accelerated conventional schedule) with Encepur(®) Children from 3 to 5 years. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hammon. 1966. Studies on Japanese B encephalitis virus vaccines from tissue culture. VI. Development of a hamster kidney tissue culture inactivated... tissue culture passage, storage, temperature and drying on viability of SE polyoma virus. Exper. Biol. and Hed. Proc. of the Soc. for Exper. Biol...studies of heated tissue suspensions containing foot- and-mouth disease virus. Amer. J. Vet. Res. 20:510-521. Dupre’, M. V., and M. Frobisher. 1966
Anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis show distinct patterns of brain glucose metabolism in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography
Background Pathogenic autoantibodies targeting the recently identified leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and the subunit 1 of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor induce autoimmune encephalitis. A comparison of brain metabolic patterns in 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography of anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients has not been performed yet and shall be helpful in differentiating these two most common forms of autoimmune encephalitis. Methods The brain 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose uptake from whole-body positron emission tomography of six anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis patients and four patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein encephalitis admitted to Hannover Medical School between 2008 and 2012 was retrospectively analyzed and compared to matched controls. Results Group analysis of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate encephalitis patients demonstrated regionally limited hypermetabolism in frontotemporal areas contrasting an extensive hypometabolism in parietal lobes, whereas the anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein syndrome was characterized by hypermetabolism in cerebellar, basal ganglia, occipital and precentral areas and minor frontomesial hypometabolism. Conclusions This retrospective 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography study provides novel evidence for distinct brain metabolic patterns in patients with anti-leucine rich glioma inactivated 1 protein and anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis. PMID:24950993
Takahashi, H; Pool, V; Tsai, T F; Chen, R T
We determined the reporting rates for adverse events following the administration of inactivated mouse-brain derived Japanese encephalitis vaccine (JEV) based on post-marketing surveillance data from Japan and the United States. The rate of total adverse events per 100,000 doses was 2.8 in Japan and 15.0 in the United States. In Japan, 17 neurological disorders were reported from April 1996 to October 1998 for a rate of 0.2 per 100,000 doses. In the United States, no serious neurological adverse events temporally associated with JEV were reported from January 1993 to June 1999. Rates for systemic hypersensitivity reactions were 0.8 and 6.3 per 100,000 doses in Japan and the United States, respectively. Passively collected VAERS surveillance data indicate that characteristic hypersensitivity reactions with a delayed onset continue to occur among JEV recipients and that conservative recommendations limiting its use to travelers at high risk of infection with Japanese encephalitis are appropriate.
Okada, Chika; Fujieda, Megumi; Fukushima, Wakaba; Ohfuji, Satoko; Kondo, Kyoko; Maeda, Akiko; Nakano, Takashi; Kaji, Masaro; Hirota, Yoshio
In order to assess factors associated with reactogenicity of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3) among young children, data on 1538 vaccinees aged 0-5 years in a previous vaccine effectiveness study were analyzed. The most frequent reaction was redness (19%), followed by induration, swelling, itching, and pain (6-12%); there were no serious adverse events. For some local reactions, multivariate analyses indicated associations of younger age, preschool attendance, presence of siblings, and allergy with lower risk, and use of thinner needles with higher risk. Most notably, administration of one or more IIV3 vaccines during the previous 3 seasons was positively associated with each local reaction (adjusted odds ratios: 3.6-5.4). For subjects aged ≥3 years, prior successive annual vaccinations were associated with substantially increased local reactions, with clear dose-response relationships (P for trend: <0.001 for each); for example, an 9.8-fold greater risk of swelling following three successive annual vaccinations before the study season.
Mwirigi, Martin; Nkando, Isabel; Aye, Racheal; Soi, Reuben; Ochanda, Horace; Berberov, Emil; Potter, Andrew; Gerdts, Volker; Perez-Casal, Jose; Naessens, Jan; Wesonga, Hezron
The current control method for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in Africa is vaccination with a live, attenuated strain of Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides (Mmm). However, this method is not very efficient and often causes serious adverse reactions. Several studies have attempted to induce protection using inactivated mycoplasma, but with widely contradictory results. Therefore, we compared the protective capacity of the live T1/44 vaccine with two inactivated preparations of Mmm strain Afadé, inoculated with an adjuvant. Protection was measured after a challenge with Afadé. The protection levels were 31%, 80.8% and 74.1% for the formalin-inactivated, heat-inactivated and live attenuated preparations, respectively. These findings indicate that low doses of heat-inactivated Mmm can offer protection to a level similar to the current live attenuated (T1/44) vaccine formulation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Multiple subtypes and many antigenic variants of influenza A virus (IAV) co-circulate in swine in the USA, complicating effective use of commercial vaccines to control disease and transmission. Whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccines may provide partial protection against IAV with substantial antigen...
Renukaradhya, Gourapura J; Meng, Xiang-Jin; Calvert, Jay G; Roof, Michael; Lager, Kelly M
Within a few years of its emergence in the late 1980s, the PRRS virus had spread globally to become the foremost infectious disease concern for the pork industry. Since 1994, modified live-attenuated vaccines against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV-MLV) have been widely used, but have failed to provide complete protection against emerging and heterologous field strains of the virus. Moreover, like many other MLVs, PRRSV-MLVs have safety concerns including vertical and horizontal transmission of the vaccine virus and several documented incidences of reversion to virulence. Thus, the development of efficacious inactivated vaccines is warranted for the control and eradication of PRRS. Since the early 1990s, researchers have been attempting to develop inactivated PRRSV vaccines, but most of the candidates have failed to elicit protective immunity even against homologous virus challenge. Recent research findings relating to both inactivated and subunit candidate PRRSV vaccines have shown promise, but they need to be pursued further to improve their heterologous efficacy and cost-effectiveness before considering commercialization. In this comprehensive review, we provide information on attempts to develop PRRSV inactivated and subunit vaccines. These includes various virus inactivation strategies, adjuvants, nanoparticle-based vaccine delivery systems, DNA vaccines, and recombinant subunit vaccines produced using baculovirus, plant, and replication-deficient viruses as vector vaccines. Finally, future directions for the development of innovative non-infectious PRRSV vaccines are suggested. Undoubtedly there remains a need for novel PRRSV vaccine strategies targeted to deliver cross-protective, non-infectious vaccines for the control and eradication of PRRS.
Leonova, G N; Krugliak, S P; Stepanova, N M; Gorelikov, V N
Analysis of the severity of the clinical course of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in the Maritime Territory, 1966-1983, showed a decline in the incidence of the disease by 20% in the group of subjects vaccinated against TBE, whereas the severity of the disease showed no statistically significant difference from that among nonvaccinated subjects. The causes of the poor protective effect of the liquid tissue culture vaccine produced by the Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera, Ministry of Health of the USSR, Tomsk, were demonstrated alongside with the advantages of the lyophilized concentrated vaccine manufactured by the Institute for Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, which should be used for prophylactic vaccinations of subjects working in forests who comprised 29% of the vaccines. In this way, TBE incidence in the region could be reduced considerably.
Walker, Xaviour J; Barnett, Elizabeth D; Wilson, Mary E; Macleod, William B; Jentes, Emily S; Karchmer, Adolf W; Hamer, Davidson H; Chen, Lin H
Japanese encephalitis (JE) and rabies are serious vaccine preventable diseases which are an important consideration for travelers to Asia. Five Boston-area travel clinics collected demographic data, trip information, and interventions for travelers to Asia seen at pre-travel consultations from March 1, 2008, through July 31, 2010. We evaluated travelers for proportion vaccinated for JE and rabies, those traveling for >1 month, and whether travelers had adequate time to complete the JE series (clinic visit ≥28 days before departure) and rabies pre-exposure prophylaxis (clinic visit ≥21 days before departure). Among 15,440 travelers from five Boston Area Travel Medicine Network travel clinics, Asia was the most common destination region, visited by 5,582 (36%) of travelers. Among these travelers, 4,810 (86%) planned to travel to only one Asian subregion. Median trip duration was 17 days, with more than 20% traveling for >1 month. The most common destinations were South (41%), Southeast (26%), and East (23%) Asia. Of those traveling to South, Southeast, or East Asia, over one-third with trips >1 month had insufficient time to complete a series for either JE or rabies vaccine. Overall, only 10% of travelers were vaccinated (past and pre-travel visit) for either JE or rabies, with lowest percentages among travelers visiting friends and relatives. Most travelers received advice on vector precautions (96%) and rabies prevention, which included avoiding animal contact, washing wounds, and obtaining appropriate post-exposure prophylaxis (88%). Given the insufficient time for completion and relatively low vaccination rates, greater awareness of earlier pre-travel consultations, at least 4-6 weeks before travel, and accurate risk assessment for travelers are important. Effective counseling about vector avoidance, rabies, and animal bite prevention and management remains critical. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.
... for Yellow Fever Vaccine Course Travel Medicine References: Books, Journals, Articles & Websites Resources for the Travel Industry Yellow Book Contents Chapter 3 (81) Japanese Encephalitis more Tables ...
Billah, Mallick M; Zaman, K; Estivariz, Concepcion F; Snider, Cynthia J; Anand, Abhijeet; Hampton, Lee M; Bari, Tajul I A; Russell, Kevin L; Chai, Shua J
Introduction of inactivated polio vaccine creates challenges in maintaining the cold chain for vaccine storage and distribution. We evaluated the cold chain in 23 health facilities and 36 outreach vaccination sessions in 8 districts and cities of Bangladesh, using purposive sampling during August-October 2015. We interviewed immunization and cold-chain staff, assessed equipment, and recorded temperatures during vaccine storage and transportation. All health facilities had functioning refrigerators, and 96% had freezers. Temperature monitors were observed in all refrigerators and freezers but in only 14 of 66 vaccine transporters (21%). Recorders detected temperatures >8°C for >60 minutes in 5 of 23 refrigerators (22%), 3 of 6 cold boxes (50%) transporting vaccines from national to subnational depots, and 8 of 48 vaccine carriers (17%) used in outreach vaccination sites. Temperatures <2°C were detected in 4 of 19 cold boxes (21%) transporting vaccine from subnational depots to health facilities and 14 of 48 vaccine carriers (29%). Bangladesh has substantial cold-chain storage and transportation capacity after inactivated polio vaccine introduction, but temperature fluctuations during vaccine transport could cause vaccine potency loss that could go undetected. Bangladesh and other countries should strive to ensure consistent and sufficient cold-chain storage and monitor the cold chain during vaccine transportation at all levels.
Bertelsen, Mads F; Klausen, Joan; Holm, Elisabeth; Grøndahl, Carsten; Jørgensen, Poul H
Five hundred and forty birds in three zoos were vaccinated twice against avian influenza with a 6-week interval using an inactivated H5N9 vaccine. Serological response was evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition test 4-6 weeks following the second vaccine administration. 84% of the birds seroconverted, and 76% developed a titre > or =32. The geometric mean titre after vaccination was 137. A significant species variation in response was noted; penguins, pelicans, ducks, geese, herons, Guinea fowl, cranes, cockatiels, lovebirds, and barbets showed very poor response to vaccination, while very high titres and seroconversion rates were seen in flamingos, ibis, rheas, Congo peafowl, black-winged stilts, amazon parrots, and kookaburras.
Teng, Qiaoyang; Shen, Weixia; Liu, Qinfang; Rong, Guangyu; Chen, Lin; Li, Xuesong; Chen, Hongjun; Yang, Jianmei; Li, Zejun
Wild ducks play an important role in the evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). Domestic ducks in China are known to carry and spread H9N2 AIVs that are thought to have contributed internal genes for the recent outbreak of zoonotic H7N9 virus. In order to protect animal and public health, an effective vaccine is urgently needed to block and prevent the spread of H9N2 virus in ducks. We developed an inactivated H9N2 vaccine (with adjuvant Montanide ISA 70VG) based on an endemic H9N2 AIV and evaluated this vaccine in ducks. The results showed that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine was able to induce a strong and fast humoral immune response in vaccinated ducks. The hemagglutination inhibition titer in the sera increased fast, and reached its peak of 12.3 log2 at 5 weeks post-vaccination in immunized birds and remained at a high level for at least 37 weeks post-vaccination. Moreover, viral shedding was completely blocked in vaccinated ducks after challenge with a homologous H9N2 AIV at both 3 and 37 weeks post-vaccination. The results of this study indicate that the inactivated H9N2 vaccine induces high and prolonged immune response in vaccinated ducks and are efficacious in protecting ducks from H9N2 infection.
The increasing incidence of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Sweden and several other European countries has sparked a discussion about the need for a public vaccination strategy. However, TBE vaccination coverage is incomplete and there is little knowledge about the factors influencing vaccination behavior. Based on a survey of 1,500 randomly selected respondents in Sweden, we estimate vaccination coverage in areas with different TBE risk levels and analyze the role of vaccine price and other factors influencing the demand for vaccination. First, we find that the average rate of TBE vaccination in Sweden is 33% in TBE risk areas and 18% elsewhere. Income, age and risk-related factors such as incidence of TBE in the area of residence, frequency of visits to areas with TBE risk, and experience with tick bites are positively associated with demand for TBE vaccine. Next, using contingent valuation methodology, we estimate the willingness to pay for TBE vaccination among the unvaccinated respondents and the effect of a possible subsidy. Among the unvaccinated respondents in TBE risk areas, we estimate the mean willingness to pay for the recommended three doses of TBE vaccine to be 465 SEK (approximately 46 euros or 40% of the current market price). We project that a subsidy making TBE vaccines free of charge could increase the vaccination rate in TBE risk areas to around 78%, with a larger effect on low-income households, whose current vaccination rate is only 15% in risk areas. However, price is not the only factor affecting demand. We find significant effects on vaccination behavior associated with trust in vaccine recommendations, perceptions about tick bite-related health risks and knowledge about ticks and tick-borne diseases. Hence, increasing knowledge and trust, as well as ease of access to vaccinations, can also be important measures for public health agencies that want to increase the vaccination rate.
Mateen, Farrah J.; Shinohara, Russell T.; Sutter, Roland W.
Background Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) remains the vaccine-of-choice for routine immunization and supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) to eradicate poliomyelitis globally. Recent data from India suggested lowerthanexpected immunogenicity of an OPV birth dose, prompting a review of the immunogenicity of OPV or inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) when administered at birth. Methods We evaluated the seroconversion and reported adverse events among infants given a single birth dose (given ≤7 days of life) of OPV or IPV through a systematic review of published articles and conference abstracts from 1959-2011 in any language found on PubMed, Google Scholar, or reference lists of selected articles. Results 25 articles from 13 countries published between1959 and 2011 documented seroconversion rates in newborns following an OPV dose given within the first seven days of life. There were 10 studies that measured seroconversion rates between 4 and 8 weeks of a single birth dose of TOPV, using an umbilical cord blood draw at the time of birth to establish baseline antibody levels. The percentage of newborns who seroconverted at 8 weeks range 6-42% for poliovirus type 1, 2-63% for type 2, and 1-35% for type 3). For mOPV type 1, seroconversion ranged from 10-76%; mOPV type 3, the range was 12-58%; and for the one study reporting bOPV, it was 20% for type 1 and 7% for type 3. There were four studies of IPV in newborns with a seroconversion rate of 8-100% for serotype 1, 15-100% for serotype 2, and 15-94% for serotype 3, measured at 4-6 weeks of life. No serious adverse events related to newborn OPV or IPV dosing were reported, including no cases of acute flaccid paralysis. Conclusions There is great variability of the immunogenicity of a birth dose of OPV for reasons largely unknown. Our review confirms the utility of a birth dose of OPV, particularly in countries where early induction of polio immunity is imperative. IPV has higher seroconversion rates in newborns and
Shrestha, Bimmi; Ng, Terry; Chu, Hsien-Jue; Noll, Michelle; Diamond, Michael S.
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito borne, neurotropic flavivirus that causes a severe central nervous system (CNS) infection in humans and animals. Although commercial vaccines are available for horses, none is currently approved for human use. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy and mechanism of immune protection of two candidate WNV vaccines in mice. A formalin-inactivated WNV vaccine induced higher levels of specific and neutralizing antibodies compared to a DNA plasmid vaccine that produces virus-like particles. Accordingly, partial and almost complete protection against a highly stringent lethal intracranial WNV challenge were observed in mice 60 days after single dose immunization with the DNA plasmid and inactivated virus vaccines, respectively. In mice immunized with a single dose of DNA plasmid or inactivated vaccine, antigen-specific CD8+ T cells were induced and contributed to protective immunity as acquired or genetic deficiencies of CD8+ T cells lowered the survival rates. In contrast, in boosted animals, WNV-specific antibody titers were higher, survival rates after challenge were greater, and an absence of CD8+ T cells did not appreciably affect mortality. Overall, our experiments suggest that in mice, both inactivated WNV and DNA plasmid vaccines are protective after two doses, and the specific contribution of antibody and CD8+ T cells to vaccine immunity against WNV is modulated by the prime-boost strategy. PMID:18339459
Jirjis, Faris F; Davis, Tamara; Lane, Jennifer; Carritt, Kari; Sweeney, Diane; Williams, James; Wasmoen, Terri
Twelve cats were vaccinated at 8 and 11 weeks of age with a commercially available inactivated FeLV vaccine (Nobivac FeLV, Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health). Eleven cats served as age-matched, placebo-vaccinated controls. All cats were kept in isolation for 2 years after vaccination and were then challenged with virulent FeLV to evaluate vaccine efficacy and duration of immunity. Cats were monitored for 12 weeks after challenge for development of persistent viremia using a commercial FeLV p27 ELISA. Persistent viremia developed in all 11 (100%) of the control cats, whereas 10 of 12 (83%) vaccinated cats were fully protected from persistent viremia following challenge. The results demonstrate that the vaccine used in this study protects cats from persistent FeLV viremia for at least 2 years after vaccination.
Laboratory staff and students were vaccinated with a formalin-inactivated rift valley fever (RVF) vaccine. This study showed that the vaccine used (TSI-GSD 200) was able to bring about the production of antibodies in recipients. For the production of a high titered antibody response, three doses of the vaccine were required. One or two doses of the vaccine did not produce a greater than four-fold rise in antibody titre. A greater than four-fold rise in antibody titre following vaccination, is considered significant. The complete dose of the vaccine, that is, three doses, was necessary for protection. This study also showed that the haemagglutination inhibition (HI) test was capable of detecting antibodies, few weeks post vaccination. Though such HI antibodies broaden with time, it could be used for screening purposes and a more specific test, e.g., plaque reduction neutralisation (PRN) test used for confirmation of such results.
Baldovin, Tatjana; Mel, Rosanna; Bertoncello, Chiara; Carpenè, Graziella; Soppelsa, Fabio; Giliberti, Aurore; Baldo, Vincenzo
Long-term persistence of immunity was assessed in 66 patients who had contracted tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) and in 126 subjects who had completed primary TBE immunization using a conventional three-dose schedule from 3 to 8 years earlier. Immunity was tested in the subjects stratified by age as follows: ≤40 years (N = 37); 41-60 years (N = 100); and over 60 years (N = 55). Antibody levels decreased significantly with increasing age in the vaccinated cohort by comparison with the individuals who had previously contracted TBE. Consistently higher geometric mean antibody levels were found in the patients infected naturally. When the vaccinated subjects were compared, subjects ≤40 years old had significantly higher antibody levels than either of the older groups. Analyzing immunity to TBE over time revealed a remarkable (50%) decline in seroprotection rates in the vaccinated group at 50 months of follow-up, while stable, high levels persisted in all subjects after natural TBE infection. In the vaccinees over 60 years old, the TBE antibody levels reached 60% at 60 months, and 20% at 70 months of follow-up; in contrast, in the 41-60-year-old group, the antibody levels remained high for 70 months, and then fell rapidly. For people aged <60 years old, booster doses are recommended every 5 years after the fourth dose of vaccine, which should be administered 3 years after primary immunization. In subjects aged 60 years or older, booster doses should be given every 3 years. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Elnekave, E; Li, Y; Zamir, L; Even-Tov, B; Hamblin, P; Gelman, B; Hammond, J; Klement, E
High potency, inactivated foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccines may be used in non endemic countries for emergency vaccination during outbreaks in order to prevent virus spread. In endemic countries either standard or high potency vaccines are used for routine vaccination. Despite their wide use there is a shortage of data on the field effectiveness of inactivated FMD vaccines. Epidemics of FMD caused by viruses of serotype O occur frequently in Israel, where a high potency (≥6PD(50)) vaccine is used for both routine and emergency vaccination. We investigated an outbreak of FMD caused by a virus of serotype O, which took place during 2011 in a feedlot and an adjacent dairy herd. Post outbreak testing of antibodies against non-structural protein demonstrated that infection occurred in 96% of the calves that received two doses of vaccine at least three months prior to the outbreak and more than 50% showed clinical signs consistent with FMD. Replacement heifers that had been vaccinated 3-5 times with the last vaccination administered 7 months prior to the outbreak were all infected and 18% showed clinical signs. Testing of cattle sera of the same vaccination status as the affected cattle demonstrated low neutralizing antibody (NA) titers against the field virus strain and an r(1) value of 0.37 compared to the vaccine strain. In contrast, cattle vaccinated only once but up to two weeks before the outbreak, were almost all protected from clinical disease and to a lesser extent, protected from FMD virus infection, despite low NA titers. We conclude that emergency vaccination was highly effective due to a mechanism not associated with NA, whereas routine vaccination with the same vaccine formulation provided only limited protection due to poor longevity of the elicited immunity and low matching with the field strain (despite an r(1) higher than 0.3).
Yu, Yali; Zhou, Ming; Zhang, Jin; Hua, Yuping; Wang, Ligang; Liu, Yinan; Liu, Dan; Xia, Xianzhu
To prepare a vaccine with inactivated Feline Panleukopenia Virus (FPV) isolated from Siberian tigers and to evaluate its immunological effect. FPV-HLJ, an FPV strain previously isolated from Siberian tiger in our lab was used to inoculate cat kidney cell line F81 with dose 1/10(v/v) using the synchronizing inoculation method. Inoculated F81 cell line was cultured at 37 degrees C and collected when cytopathic effect was up to 75%. Viral suspension was inactivated by using formaldehyde for 24 h and inactive vaccine preapred by adding aluminium hydroxide gel as adjuvant to the suspension. The inactive vaccine was applied to 2-month-old kitten tigers of hypodermically after protection effect was proved in 2-month-old nonimmunized cats by using the same vaccination procedure. Antibody level in vaccinated cats revealed an increasing trend that the valence of antibody reached 1:1024-2048 after three times of vaccination. All vaccinated cats survived challenges of virulent FPV virus. The valence of antibody reached 1:1024 in most vaccinated tigers 15 days after the third vaccination. The results indicated that the inactivated vaccine can produce immunoprotection for tigers.
Comparison of the efficacy of autogenous inactivated Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus (PRRSV) vaccines with that of commercial vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenges.
Geldhof, Marc F; Vanhee, Merijn; Van Breedam, Wander; Van Doorsselaere, Jan; Karniychuk, Uladzimir U; Nauwynck, Hans J
The porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a rapidly evolving pathogen of swine. At present, there is a high demand for safe and more effective vaccines that can be adapted regularly to emerging virus variants. A recent study showed that, by the use of a controlled inactivation procedure, an experimental BEI-inactivated PRRSV vaccine can be developed that offers partial protection against homologous challenge with the prototype strain LV. At present, it is however not known if this vaccine can be adapted to currently circulating virus variants. In this study, two recent PRRSV field isolates (07 V063 and 08 V194) were used for BEI-inactivated vaccine production. The main objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of these experimental BEI-inactivated vaccines against homologous and heterologous challenge and to compare it with an experimental LV-based BEI-inactivated vaccine and commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines. In addition, the induction of challenge virus-specific (neutralizing) antibodies by the different vaccines was assessed. In a first experiment (challenge with 07 V063), vaccination with the experimental homologous (07 V063) inactivated vaccine shortened the viremic phase upon challenge with approximately 2 weeks compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. Vaccination with the commercial attenuated vaccines reduced the duration of viremia with approximately one week compared to the mock-vaccinated control group. In contrast, the experimental heterologous (LV) inactivated vaccine and the commercial inactivated vaccine did not influence viremia. Interestingly, both the homologous and the heterologous experimental inactivated vaccine induced 07 V063-specific neutralizing antibodies upon vaccination, while the commercial inactivated and attenuated vaccines failed to do so.In the second experiment (challenge with 08 V194), use of the experimental homologous (08 V194) inactivated vaccine shortened viremia upon
Liu, Yu; Lin, Hualiang; Zhu, Qi; Wu, Chenggang; Zhao, Zhanjie; Zheng, Huizhen
We reviewed the adverse events following immunization of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine in Guangdong Province, China. During the period of 2005-2012, 23 million doses of live attenuated Japanese encephalitis vaccine were used and 1426 adverse events were reported (61.24 per million doses); of which, 570 (40%) were classified as allergic reactions (24.48 per million doses), 31 (2%) were neurologic events (1.33 per million doses), and 36 (2.5%) were diagnosed as serious adverse events (1.55 per million doses). This study suggests that the JEV-L has a reasonable safety profile, most adverse events are relatively mild, with relatively rare neurologic events being observed.
Baldwin, Susan L; Fox, Christopher B; Pallansch, Mark A; Coler, Rhea N; Reed, Steven G; Friede, Martin
The use of inactivated poliovirus vaccines (IPV) will be required to achieve, world-wide eradication of polio. The current expense of IPV is however prohibitive for, some countries, and therefore efforts to decrease the costs of the vaccine are a high, priority. Our results show that the addition of oil-in-water emulsion adjuvants to an, inactivated trivalent poliovirus vaccine are dose-sparing and are capable of enhancing, neutralizing antibody titers in the rat potency model. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Baoming; Wang, Yuhuan; Glass, Roger I
There is substantial evidence for broad cross-reactive immunity and heterotypic protection among human rotavirus strains in children with natural infection or with monovalent Rotarix vaccination. In this commentary, we addressed this same topic by testing sera of guinea pigs and gnotobiotic piglets that were intramuscularly immunized with an inactivated human rotavirus vaccine and also demonstrated a broad cross-protective immunity among human rotavirus strains. Our findings from a single human strain in animal studies bode well for a low cost and efficacious inactivated vaccine to protect children against rotavirus disease throughout the world.
Li, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-shu; An, Jing
To evaluate the safety of both domestic live attenuated and inactivated hepatitis A vaccines, and to provide reference for emergent vaccination after hepatitis A outbreaks. 493 children aged 6 - 9 with negative antibody to HAV (produced by Abbott) were randomly divided into four groups as vaccinated with domestic live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (Group A), domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Group B), imported inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Group C) and hepatitis B vaccine (Group D) respectively. Adverse events following the immunization were observed 30 minutes, 24, 48 and 72 hours after the vaccination, under double-blind method. The main AEFIs were: fever, local pain and scleroma but no other severe AEFIs were observed. The rates of AEFIs were 13.95% in Group A, 15.25% in group B, 16.80% in group C and 25.62% in group D, with no statistical differences between these groups (χ(2) = 6.953, P > 0.05). 2 weeks after the vaccination, the positive conversion rates of domestic live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine and domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine were 85.0% and 94.59% respectively. The rate of domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine reached 100% at 4 weeks after the vaccination. The antibody levels of HAV-IgG of Group A and B in 2, 4 and 12 weeks of vaccination and of Group C were higher than that of Group D. After 12 weeks of vaccination, the antibody level of group B became higher than it was Group C. There were no differences on safety among domestic live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine, domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine or imported inactivated hepatitis A vaccine under routine or emergency vaccination. All the vaccines showed satisfactory effects.
Herbert, Andrew S; Kuehne, Ana I; Barth, James F; Ortiz, Ramon A; Nichols, Donald K; Zak, Samantha E; Stonier, Spencer W; Muhammad, Majidat A; Bakken, Russell R; Prugar, Laura I; Olinger, Gene G; Groebner, Jennifer L; Lee, John S; Pratt, William D; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I; Smith, Jonathan F; Hart, Mary Kate; Dye, John M
There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine.
Herbert, Andrew S.; Kuehne, Ana I.; Barth, James F.; Ortiz, Ramon A.; Nichols, Donald K.; Zak, Samantha E.; Stonier, Spencer W.; Muhammad, Majidat A.; Bakken, Russell R.; Prugar, Laura I.; Olinger, Gene G.; Groebner, Jennifer L.; Lee, John S.; Pratt, William D.; Custer, Max; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Smith, Jonathan F.; Hart, Mary Kate
There are no vaccines or therapeutics currently approved for the prevention or treatment of ebolavirus infection. Previously, a replicon vaccine based on Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) demonstrated protective efficacy against Marburg virus in nonhuman primates. Here, we report the protective efficacy of Sudan virus (SUDV)- and Ebola virus (EBOV)-specific VEEV replicon particle (VRP) vaccines in nonhuman primates. VRP vaccines were developed to express the glycoprotein (GP) of either SUDV or EBOV. A single intramuscular vaccination of cynomolgus macaques with VRP expressing SUDV GP provided complete protection against intramuscular challenge with SUDV. Vaccination against SUDV and subsequent survival of SUDV challenge did not fully protect cynomolgus macaques against intramuscular EBOV back-challenge. However, a single simultaneous intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP combined with VRP expressing EBOV GP did provide complete protection against intramuscular challenge with either SUDV or EBOV in cynomolgus macaques. Finally, intramuscular vaccination with VRP expressing SUDV GP completely protected cynomolgus macaques when challenged with aerosolized SUDV, although complete protection against aerosol challenge required two vaccinations with this vaccine. PMID:23408633
Paessler, Slobodan; Ni, Haolin; Petrakova, Olga; Fayzulin, Rafik Z; Yun, Nadezhda; Anishchenko, Michael; Weaver, Scott C; Frolov, Ilya
Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important, naturally emerging zoonotic pathogen. Recent outbreaks in Venezuela and Colombia in 1995, involving an estimated 100,000 human cases, indicate that VEEV still poses a serious public health threat. To develop a safe, efficient vaccine that protects against disease resulting from VEEV infection, we generated chimeric Sindbis (SIN) viruses expressing structural proteins of different strains of VEEV and analyzed their replication in vitro and in vivo, as well as the characteristics of the induced immune responses. None of the chimeric SIN/VEE viruses caused any detectable disease in adult mice after either intracerebral (i.c.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) inoculation, and all chimeras were more attenuated than the vaccine strain, VEEV TC83, in 6-day-old mice after i.c. infection. All vaccinated mice were protected against lethal encephalitis following i.c., s.c., or intranasal (i.n.) challenge with the virulent VEEV ZPC738 strain (ZPC738). In spite of the absence of clinical encephalitis in vaccinated mice challenged with ZPC738 via i.n. or i.c. route, we regularly detected high levels of infectious challenge virus in the central nervous system (CNS). However, infectious virus was undetectable in the brains of all immunized animals at 28 days after challenge. Hamsters vaccinated with chimeric SIN/VEE viruses were also protected against s.c. challenge with ZPC738. Taken together, our findings suggest that these chimeric SIN/VEE viruses are safe and efficacious in adult mice and hamsters and are potentially useful as VEEV vaccines. In addition, immunized animals provide a useful model for studying the mechanisms of the anti-VEEV neuroinflammatory response, leading to the reduction of viral titers in the CNS and survival of animals.
Kim, Dong Soo; Jang, Gwang Cheon; Cha, Sung-Ho; Choi, Soo-Han; Kim, Hwang Min; Kim, Ji Hong; Kang, Jin Han; Kim, Jong-Hyun; Kim, Ki Hwan; Bang, Joon; Naimi, Zulaikha; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Bosch-Castells, Valérie; Houillon, Guy
This study evaluated the effect of a booster vaccination of a new, live attenuated, Japanese encephalitis chimeric vaccine (JE-CV). Previously this vaccine has been used as a booster 12 months after priming with an inactivated vaccine and at >24 months after priming with the same JE-CV. This study evaluates the immunogenicity and safety of the JE-CV given at 12-24 months after JE-CV priming. Phase III, open-label study in the Republic of Korea in which 119 children previously vaccinated with JE-CV at 12-24 months of age received a JE-CV booster at 12-24 months after primary vaccination. JE neutralizing antibody titers were measured using >50% plaque reduction neutralization test prebooster and 1 month postbooster vaccination. Seroprotection (SP) was defined as ≥10 (1/dil). Safety was assessed for 28 days postvaccination by parental reports. Serious adverse events were monitored for 6 months postvaccination. Antibody persistence was high prebooster (SP rate 93.5%). There was a strong anamnestic response postbooster vaccination, with an SP rate of 100% and a >50-fold increase in geometric mean titer from the prebooster level. Both antibody persistence and the booster response were independent of whether the booster was given at 12-17 or 18-24 months. The safety profile was good and comparable with the primary vaccination; there were no vaccine-related serious adverse events and no deaths. This study confirms the suitability of a JE-CV booster vaccination at 12-24 months after a primary dose of the same vaccine given at 12-24 months of age in children in the Republic of Korea.
Lloyd, Christopher; Wernery, Ulrich
Paramyxovirus serotype 1 (PMV-1), the etiologic agent of Newcastle disease, is an important cause of morbidity in falcons in the Middle East. To determine whether a commercial, oil-based, inactivated poultry vaccine produces humoral response in falcons, we vaccinated 38 young, unvaccinated gyr-peregrine hybrid falcons (Falco rusticolis X Falco peregrinus) and monitored antibody response for a 45-day period after vaccination. To determine whether immunity is vertically transmitted, we additionally tested the yolks of 15 unfertile eggs of falcons vaccinated 5 months previously. All testing was done by commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for PMV-1 antibody designed for use in poultry. In the vaccinated falcons, serum antibody levels to avian PMV-1 increased by day 14 after vaccination, and titers continued to increase until day 45 when the study ended. Five percent of birds failed to seroconvert. Adult female falcons vaccinated with inactivated vaccine produced eggs with high antibody levels. The inactivated vaccine caused no detectable adverse affects in the gyr-peregrine hybrids.
Lee, J S; Pushko, P; Parker, M D; Dertzbaugh, M T; Smith, L A; Smith, J F
A candidate vaccine against botulinum neurotoxin serotype A (BoNT/A) was developed by using a Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon vector. This vaccine vector is composed of a self-replicating RNA containing all of the VEE nonstructural genes and cis-acting elements and also a heterologous immunogen gene placed downstream of the subgenomic 26S promoter in place of the viral structural genes. In this study, the nontoxic 50-kDa carboxy-terminal fragment (H(C)) of the BoNT/A heavy chain was cloned into the replicon vector (H(C)-replicon). Cotransfection of BHK cells in vitro with the H(C)-replicon and two helper RNA molecules, the latter encoding all of the VEE structural proteins, resulted in the assembly and release of propagation-deficient, H(C) VEE replicon particles (H(C)-VRP). Cells infected with H(C)-VRP efficiently expressed this protein when analyzed by either immunofluorescence or by Western blot. To evaluate the immunogenicity of H(C)-VRP, mice were vaccinated with various doses of H(C)-VRP at different intervals. Mice inoculated subcutaneously with H(C)-VRP were protected from an intraperitoneal challenge of up to 100,000 50% lethal dose units of BoNT/A. Protection correlated directly with serum enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay titers to BoNT/A. The duration of the immunity achieved was tested at 6 months and at 1 year postvaccination, and mice challenged at these times remained refractory to challenge with BoNT/A.
Barrett, P Noel; Terpening, Sara J; Snow, Doris; Cobb, Ronald R; Kistner, Otfried
Rapid development and production of vaccines against emerging diseases requires well established, validated, robust technologies to allow industrial scale production and accelerated licensure of products. Areas covered: A versatile Vero cell platform has been developed and utilized to deliver a wide range of candidate and licensed vaccines against emerging viral diseases. This platform builds on the 35 years' experience and safety record with inactivated whole virus vaccines such as polio vaccine. The current platform has been optimized to include a novel double inactivation procedure in order to ensure a highly robust inactivation procedure for novel emerging viruses. The utility of this platform in rapidly developing inactivated whole virus vaccines against pandemic (-like) influenza viruses and other emerging viruses such as West Nile, Chikungunya, Ross River and SARS is reviewed. The potential of the platform for development of vaccines against other emerging viruses such as Zika virus is described. Expert commentary: Use of this platform can substantially accelerate process development and facilitate licensure because of the substantial existing data set available for the cell matrix. However, programs to provide vaccines against emerging diseases must allow alternative clinical development paths to licensure, without the requirement to carry out large scale field efficacy studies.
Fan, Tingjun; Hu, Xiuzhong; Wang, Liyan; Geng, Xiaofen; Jiang, Guojian; Yang, Xiuxia; Yu, Miaomiao
Turbot ( Scophthalmus maximus L.) reddish body iridovirus (TRBIV) was propagated in turbot fin cells (TF cells) and inactivated as the TRBIV vaccine with its protection efficiency evaluated in this study. TF cells were cultured in 10% bovine calf serum (BCS)-containing MEM medium (pH7.0) at 22°C, in which TRBIV propagated to a titer as high as 105.6 TCID50 mL-1. The TRBIV was inactivated with 0.1% formalin and formulated with 0.5% aluminum hydroxide. The inactivated vaccine caused neither cytopathogenic effect (CPE) on TF cells nor pathogenic effect on turbots. After being administered with the vaccine twice via muscle injection, the turbot developed high-tittered TRBIV neutralizing antibodies in a dose-dependent manner. The vaccine protected the turbot from dying with an immunoprotection rate of 83.3% as was determined via subcutaneous vaccination in the laboratory and 90.5% via bath vaccination in turbot farms, respectively. The inactivated vaccine was very immunogenic, efficiently preventing turbot from death. It holds the potential of being applied in aquaculture.
Abstract The objective of this study was to determine whether a commercially available, saponin-adjuvanted, inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) vaccine would protect calves from experimental infection with virulent BRSV. This was a randomized controlled trial comprising 14, 8- to 9-week-old calves seronegative for BRSV. Group 1 calves (n = 8) were not vaccinated and group 2 calves (n = 6) were vaccinated on days 0 and 19 with an inactivated BRSV vaccine. All calves were challenged with virulent BRSV on day 46. Clinical signs, arterial PO2, and immune responses were monitored after challenge. Calves were euthanatized on day 54 (8 d after challenge) and lungs were examined for lesions. Vaccination elicited increases in BRSV-specific immunoglobulin (Ig) G and virus neutralizing antibody titers. Challenge with BRSV resulted in severe respiratory tract disease and extensive pulmonary lesions in control calves, but no signs of clinical disease and minimal or no pulmonary lesions in vaccinated calves. Arterial blood oxygen values on day 53 (7 d after challenge) in control calves were significantly lower than those in vaccinated calves, which remained within normal limits. Control calves shed BRSV for several days after challenge, whereas BRSV was not detected on deep nasal swabs from vaccinated calves. In summary, the results indicated that this inactivated BRSV vaccine provided clinical protection from experimental infection with virulent virus 27 d after vaccination and significantly decreased the prevalence and severity of pulmonary lesions. Efficacy was similar to that reported for other commercial inactivated and modified-live BRSV vaccines. PMID:15825518
Powers, D C; Fries, L F; Murphy, B R; Thumar, B; Clements, M L
In a double-blind, randomized trial, 102 healthy elderly subjects were inoculated with one of four preparations: (i) intranasal bivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine containing cold-adapted A/Kawasaki/86 (H1N1) and cold-adapted A/Bethesda/85 (H3N2) viruses; (ii) parenteral trivalent inactivated subvirion vaccine containing A/Taiwan/86 (H1N1), A/Leningrad/86 (H3N2), and B/Ann Arbor/86 antigens; (iii) both vaccines; or (iv) placebo. To determine whether local or systemic immunization augmented mucosal immunologic memory, all volunteers were challenged intranasally 12 weeks later with the inactivated virus vaccine. We used a hemagglutination inhibition assay to measure antibodies in sera and a kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA antibodies in sera and nasal washes, respectively. In comparison with the live virus vaccine, the inactivated virus vaccine elicited higher and more frequent rises of serum antibodies, while nasal wash antibody responses were similar. The vaccine combination induced serum and local antibodies slightly more often than the inactivated vaccine alone did. Coadministration of live influenza A virus vaccine did not alter the serum antibody response to the influenza B virus component of the inactivated vaccine. The anamnestic nasal antibody response elicited by intranasal inactivated virus challenge did not differ in the live, inactivated, or combined vaccine groups from that observed in the placebo group not previously immunized. These results suggest that in elderly persons cold-adapted influenza A virus vaccines offer little advantage over inactivated virus vaccines in terms of inducing serum or secretory antibody or local immunological memory. Studies are needed to determine whether both vaccines in combination are more efficacious than inactivated vaccine alone in people in this age group. PMID:2037667
Baek, Pil-Soo; Choi, Hwan-Won; Lee, Sunhee; Yoon, In-Joong; Lee, Young Ju; Lee, Du Sik; Lee, Seungyoon; Lee, Changhee
Massive outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) recurred in South Korea in 2013-2014 and affected approximately 40% of the swine breeding herds across the country, incurring a tremendous financial impact on producers and consumers. Despite the nationwide use of commercially available attenuated and inactivated vaccines in South Korea, PEDV has continued to plague the domestic pork industry, raising concerns regarding their protective efficacies and the need for new vaccine development. In a previous study, we isolated and serially cultivated a Korean PEDV epidemic strain, KOR/KNU-141112/2014, in Vero cells. With the availability of a cell culture-propagated PEDV strain, we are able to explore vaccination and challenge studies on pigs. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to produce an inactivated PEDV vaccine using the KNU-141112 strain and evaluate its effectiveness in neonatal piglets. Pregnant sows were immunized intramuscularly with the inactivated adjuvanted monovalent vaccine at six and three weeks prior to farrowing. Six-day-old piglets born to vaccinated or unvaccinated sows were challenged with the homogeneous KNU-141112 virus. The administration of the inactivated vaccine to sows greatly increased the survival rate of piglets challenged with the virulent strain, from 0% to approximately 92% (22/24), and significantly reduced diarrhea severity including viral shedding in feces. In addition, litters from unvaccinated sows continued to lose body weight throughout the experiment, whereas litters from vaccinated sows started recovering their daily weight gain at 7 days after the challenge. Furthermore, strong neutralizing antibody responses to PEDV were verified in immunized sows and their offspring, but were absent in the unvaccinated controls. Altogether, our data demonstrated that durable lactogenic immunity was present in dams administrated with the inactivated vaccine and subsequently conferred critical passive immune protection to
Chin, Ruth; Torresi, Joseph
The Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is endemic in many countries in southern Asia and the western Pacific Rim, with new spread to previously unrecognized countries. It is an important cause of childhood neurological disease associated with permanent neurological sequelae and death. Fortunately, JE is a vaccine-preventable disease. The ChimeriVax™-JE (Sanofi Pasteur, Lyon, France) is a live-attenuated chimeric vaccine derived from the live-attenuated yellow fever virus, YF17D, which expresses the envelope proteins of the attenuated JEV vaccine strain, SA14-14-2. It is a safe, well-tolerated vaccine that is highly immunogenic in adults and children. The average geometric mean neutralizing antibody titer (GMT) in adults is 1,392 and over 90% of adults remain seroprotected 5 years after vaccination. In children and toddlers, more than 80% remain seroprotected 2 years after primary vaccination and demonstrate a robust and durable anamnestic response (>500-fold rise in GMT) with 99.1% seroprotection rates 1 year after a booster vaccine dose. The ChimeriVax™-JE is effective in children living in endemic regions where the vaccine could possibly be integrated into existing childhood vaccination programs. ChimeriVax™-JE is also indicated for travelers at risk of JE infection.
Souza, Thiago Moreno L; Santini-Oliveira, Marilia; Martorelli, Andressa; Luz, Paula M; Vasconcellos, Mauricio T L; Giacoia-Gripp, Carmem B W; Morgado, Mariza; Nunes, Estevão P; Lemos, Alberto S; Ferreira, Ana C G; Moreira, Ronaldo I; Veloso, Valdiléa G; Siqueira, Marilda; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Camacho, Luiz A B
HIV-infected individuals have a higher risk of serious illnesses following infection by infection with influenza. Although anti-influenza vaccination is recommended, immunosuppression may limit their response to active immunization. We followed-up a cohort of HIV-infected individuals vaccinated against influenza to assess the immunogenicity and sustainability of the immune response to vaccination. Individuals were vaccinated 2011 with inactivated triple influenza vaccine (TIV), and they had received in 2010 the monovalent anti-A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. The sustainability of the immune response to A(H1N1)pdm09 at 12 months after monovalent vaccination fell, both in individuals given two single or two double doses. For these individuals, A(H1N1)pdm09 component from TIV acted as a booster, raising around 40% the number of seroprotected individuals. Almost 70% of the HIV-infected individuals were already seroprotected to A/H3N2 at baseline. Again, TIV boosted over 90% the seroprotection to A/H3N2. Anti-A/H3N2 titers dropped by 20% at 6 months after vaccination. Pre-vaccination seroprotection rate to influenza B (victoria lineage) was the lowest among those tested, seroconversion rates were higher after vaccination. Seroconversion/protection after TIV vaccination did not differ significantly across categories of clinical and demographic variables. Anti-influenza responses in Brazilian HIV-infected individuals reflected both the previous history of virus circulation in Brazil and vaccination.
Bidin, Z; Cajavec, S; Sladić, D; Ergotić, N; Cizelj, A; Pokrić, B
A four-component vaccine, prepared by combining the single vaccines, contains subunits of Newcastle disease and infectious bronchitis viruses, as well as whole inactivated infectious bursal disease and egg drop syndrome viruses. The vaccine is prepared in the form of a low-viscosity water-in-oil-in-water emulsion with low mineral oil content. Heavy breeders were vaccinated at the age of 20 weeks by intramuscular administration of 0.5 ml vaccine/bird in an experiment carried out under field conditions, involving 5000 female and 450 male parents. The birds had previously been vaccinated with live vaccines according to an obligatory field vaccination programme. Vaccination with the WOWE vaccine near the point of lay elicited serological responses protecting both the parents and their progeny. Each of the antigens administered in the four-component vaccine was as effective as the respective single component vaccine. The mortality, recorded during the 31-week experimental period, was 6.2%. Mortality and morbidity were not triggered by viruses against which vaccination was carried out. Egg production was not affected by the vaccination and was 170.2 eggs per hen during the 28-week production period.
Mihail, A; Steiner, N; Berca, C; Jucu, V; Muşat, G
A comparative study was conducted in patients vaccinated with the NIVGRIP trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine and in placebo receiving controls on the kinetics of the serum hemagglutination inhibiting (HAI) antibodies and the neutralizing secretory antibodies in the nasopharyngeal secretions (NPS), of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes index, of the rosette formation index and of the serum immunoglobulins. A significant rise of the H.A.I. and the neutralizing secretory antibodies as well as of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes index was recorded after stimulation with the influenza vaccine. There were no significant changes in controls. No significant variations of the blastic transformation of lymphocytes index after stimulation with P.P.D. and of the rosette formation index were recorded in both investigated groups. Serum immunoglobulin titres showed significant variations in vaccinated as well as in control groups. The results point out the stimulating effect of the NIVGRIP inactivated influenza vaccine on both humoral and cell mediated immune responses.
Sassa, Yukiko; Fukui, Daisuke; Takeshi, Kouichi; Miyazawa, Takayuki
The virus neutralization (VN) antibody titers of serum samples from 18 individuals representing 8 carnivore species vaccinated with commercial polyvalent vaccines optimized for domestic cats containing inactivated feline panleukopenia virus (FPLV) were evaluated against canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV2). In addition, the titers among 5 individuals from 4 carnivore were evaluated against antigenic variants of feline parvoviruses; FPLV, CPV2, CPV2a, CPV2b, CPV2c, mink enteritis virus type 1 (MEV1) and MEV2. The polyvalent vaccines induced cross-reactive VN titers against antigenic variants of feline parvoviruses in nondomestic felids. However, we observed very low cross-reactive VN antibody in lions and Siberian tigers, therefore we should pay attention to CPV infections in these animals even if they were vaccinated with inactivated FPLV vaccines.
Ronchi, Gaetano Federico; Monaco, Federica; Harrak, Mehdi El; Chafiqa, Loutfi; Capista, Sara; Bortone, Grazia; Orsini, Gianluca; Pinoni, Chiara; Iorio, Mariangela; Iapaolo, Federica; Pini, Attilio; Di Ventura, Mauro
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus belongs to the family Paramyxoviridae and represents a major threat to small livestock industry. In recent years, outbreaks of PPR have occurred in Turkey and North Africa. In endemic areas, disease prevention is accomplished using live‑attenuated vaccines. However, the use of live vaccines in non‑endemic regions, such as Europe, is not approved by Veterinary Authorities. In these regions inactivated vaccines are then the only viable alternative. In this study an inactivated vaccine (iPPRVac) was formulated with either a water‑in‑oil emulsion (ISA 71 VG) or with delta inulin adjuvant, alone (AFSA1) or combined with a TLR9 agonist oligonucleotide (AFSA2). These formulations were then tested for immunogenicity on rats. The iPPRV formulation with AFSA2 adjuvant induced 100% seroconversion in rats after 2 injections and was subsequently evaluated in goats. Five goats were immunised twice subcutaneously, 36 days apart with iPPRVac + AFSA2. The immunised goats all seroconverted to PPR by day 9 and remained seropositive until the end of the experimental period (133 days). These data indicate that the rat model is useful in predicting vaccine responses in goats and that inactivated vaccine, when formulated with a delta inulin adjuvant, represents a promising alternative to live attenuated vaccines for PPR vaccination campaigns in non‑endemic areas.
Liang, Zheng-Lun; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Feng-Cai; Li, Jing-Xin; Yao, Xin; Gao, Fan; Wu, Xing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Jun-Zhi
The prevalence of diseases caused by EV71 infection has become a serious public health problem in the Western Pacific region. Due to a lack of effective treatment options, controlling EV71 epidemics has mainly focused on the research and development (R&D) of EV71 vaccines. Thus far, five organizations have completed pre-clinical studies focused on the development of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines, including vaccine strain screening, process optimization, safety and immunogenicity evaluation, and are in different stages of clinical trials. Among these organizations, three companies in Mainland China [Beijing Vigoo Biological Co., Ltd. (Vigoo), Sinovac Biotech Ltd. (Sinovac) and Institute of Medical Biology, Chinese Academy of Medical Science (CAMS)] have recently completed Phase III trials for the vaccines they developed. In addition, the other two vaccines, developed by National Health Research Institutes (NHRI) of Taiwan and Inviragen Pte., Ltd (Inviragen), of Singapore, have also completed Phase I clinical trials. Published clinical trial results indicate that the inactivated EV71 vaccines have good safety and immunogenicity in the target population (infants) and confer a relatively high rate of protection against EV71 infection-related diseases. The results of clinical trials suggest a promising future for the clinical use of EV71 vaccines. Here, we review and highlight the recent progress on the R&D of inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines.
González, Ana M; Arnaiz, Ignacio; Yus, Eduardo; Eiras, Carmen; Sanjuán, María; Diéguez, Francisco J
The aim of the present study was to determine the serological response of heifers after vaccination with two inactivated bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) vaccines by means of various ELISA tests. Three dairy farms were selected from the Galicia region of Spain. In each herd, a batch of heifers to be vaccinated for the first time was selected and followed for 15 months. Heifers from farm 1 (n=25) were vaccinated with Vaccine A, whereas heifers from farm 2 (n=16) were vaccinated with Vaccine B. Heifers from farm 3 (n=17), where no BVDV vaccines were used, acted as controls. Blood samples were analyzed periodically for BVDV antibodies, using five commercial ELISAs, based on BVDV p80 antigen or whole virus. At the end of the study, none of the animals vaccinated with Vaccine A seroconverted according to p80 antibody status, whereas up to 80% tested positive by ELISA against whole virus antigen. For the animals vaccinated with Vaccine B, 2/16 animals seroconverted according to p80 antibody ELISAs, whereas all had seroconverted according to the ELISA against whole virus antigen. In most cases, based on the use of ELISAs to detect specific antibodies against the p80 protein, at 15 months post-vaccination with inactivated BVDV vaccines the responses did not seem to interfere with detection of antibody to BVDV infection. However, the finding of a small proportion of vaccinated animals seropositive against BVDV p80 antigen suggests that antibodies that interfere with diagnosis of BVDV infection within the herd could exist, even when using p80 ELISAs.
Lankester, Felix J; Wouters, Pieter A W M; Czupryna, Anna; Palmer, Guy H; Mzimbiri, Imam; Cleaveland, Sarah; Francis, Mike J; Sutton, David J; Sonnemans, Denny G P
This study provides the first robust data that the antibody response of dogs vaccinated with Nobivac® Rabies vaccine stored for several months at high temperatures (up to 30°C) is not inferior to that of dogs vaccinated with vaccine stored under recommended cold-chain conditions (2-8°C). A controlled and randomized non-inferiority study was carried out comparing the four-week post vaccination serological responses of Tanzanian village dogs inoculated with vaccine which had been stored at elevated temperatures for different periods of time with those of dogs vaccinated with the same product stored according to label recommendations. Specifically, the neutralizing antibody response following the use of vaccine which had been stored for up to six months at 25°C or for three months at 30°C was not inferior to that following the use of cold-chain stored vaccine. These findings provide reassurance that the vaccine is likely to remain efficacious even if exposed to elevated temperatures for limited periods of time and, under these circumstances, it can safely be used and not necessarily destroyed or discarded. The availability of thermotolerant vaccines has been an important factor in the success of several disease control and elimination programs and could greatly increase the capacity of rabies vaccination campaigns to access hard to reach communities in Africa and Asia. We have not confirmed a 3-year duration of immunity for the high temperature stored vaccine, however because annual re-vaccination is usually practiced for dogs presented for vaccination during campaigns in Africa and Asia this should not be a cause for concern. These findings will provide confidence that, for rabies control and elimination programs using this vaccine in low-income settings, more flexible delivery models could be explored, including those that involve limited periods of transportation and storage at temperatures higher than that currently recommended. Copyright © 2016 The Authors
Okada, M; Sakano, T; Senna, K; Maruyama, T; Murofushi, J; Okonogi, H; Sato, S
An inactivated vaccine prepared from broth culture supernatant of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with an aluminum adjuvant was evaluated in three herds (herd A: specific pathogen-free herd, herd B: high health status herd with no clinical signs of respiratory infection, herd C: low health status herd with serious epidemiological and economical problems). A total of 212 pigs from the three herds were divided into two groups. One group was injected twice with the vaccine at 4-week intervals and the other was a control group. No adverse reactions were noted following the vaccinations either systematically or locally in any of the vaccinated pigs from any of the herds. In herd A, the vaccination provided antibody response within 4 weeks after the second vaccination and antibody responses continued for more than 12 weeks. In herds B and C, the number of pigs with lung lesions, mean percentage of lung lesions, and the numbers of M. hyopneumoniae recovered from pigs at slaughter in the vaccinated group were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced compared to the control group. Furthermore, vaccination resulted in improved average daily weight gain (ADG), improved feed conversion ratio (FCR), and improved days to market weight in herd C, whereas no difference in growth performance was shown in herd B. It is suggested that the inactivated vaccine prepared from broth culture supernatant of M. hyopneumoniae is effective in reducing clinical signs and lung lesions. Also, vaccination resulted in improved growth performance in herds where clinical signs and economic losses were significant.
Gotoh, Kensei; Ito, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Eitaro; Kaneko, Kenitiro; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Ando, Hisami; Kimura, Hiroshi
Annual influenza vaccination is recommended for pediatric liver transplant recipients, who are at high risk of influenza-related complications. However, effectiveness and safety of vaccination may differ among influenza seasons in this population and have not been fully evaluated. Subjects comprised 38 pediatric liver transplant recipients with or without influenza vaccination through the 2006-2007, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009 influenza seasons. Recipients received inactivated trivalent (AH1/AH3/B) influenza vaccine, and comparisons were made to non-vaccinated recipients with regard to effectiveness and safety. No significant differences were seen between recipient groups for acute allograft rejection, acute febrile illness, or influenza virus infection. No serious systemic adverse events were observed in vaccinated recipients. Seroprotection rate (defined as the proportion of recipients with HI antibody titer ≥ 1:40), seroconversion rate (proportion of recipients with a ≥ 4-fold increase in HI titers), and geometric mean titers were mostly elevated after vaccination for the three influenza antigens in each season. These three indicators of immunogenicity showed similar results in both vaccinated recipients and vaccinated healthy children in the 2007-2008 season. These findings suggest that pediatric liver transplant patients may respond safely to inactivated seasonal influenza vaccines in a similar manner to healthy children, and effectiveness varies among influenza seasons.
The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated once or twice adult Wh...
Gonzalez, A M; Arnaiz, I; Eiras, C; Camino, F; Sanjuán, M L; Yus, E; Diéguez, F J
This study was designed to determine long-term responses in dairy herds after vaccination with 1 of 3 inactivated bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) vaccines with regard to antibodies against p80 protein in bulk tank milk samples, as detected by ELISA. In the present study, 29 dairy herds were vaccinated with Bovilis BVD (MSD Animal Health, Milton Keynes, UK), 11 with Hiprabovis Balance (Laboratorios Hipra, Amer, Spain), and 9 with Pregsure BVD (Zoetis, Florham Park, NJ). In these herds, bulk tank milk samples were collected and examined at the time of the first vaccination and every 6 mo during a 3-yr period. Samples were analyzed with a commercial ELISA test for the p80 protein of BVDV. The results demonstrated that vaccination affected the level of antibodies against p80. Hence, vaccination status should be taken into consideration when interpreting bulk tank milk antibody tests.
Zhang, Lijiao; Li, Zhanhong; Zhang, Qingshui; Sun, Mengxu; Li, Shuang; Su, Wenliang; Hu, Xueying; He, Weiyong; Su, Jingliang
Duck Tembusu virus (TMUV) is a recently identified pathogen that causes severe egg drop and neurological disease in domestic duck and goose flocks. The infection has spread across the China mainland since its outbreak in 2010. Effective vaccines are needed to fight the disease. In this work, we describe the development and laboratory assessment of a cell culture-derived, inactivated duck TMUV vaccine. The TMUV-JXSP strain was successfully propagated on a baby hamster kidney cell line (BHK-21), inactivated with beta-propiolactone (BPL) and emulsified with mineral oil. The efficacy of different vaccination schedules was assessed in laying ducks and table ducks using virus challenge experiments. Two doses of vaccine provided efficient protection against the virus challenge to avoid the egg production drop in laying ducks. An ELISA demonstrated that 97% (39/40) of ducks seroconverted on day 21 after one dose of the inactivated vaccine and that significant increases in antibody titers against the virus were induced after the second immunization. For table ducks, a single dose of vaccine immunization resulted in a protection index of 87% and significant reduction of viral loads in tissues. Sterilizing immunity can be attained after second immunization. Our results demonstrate that BHK-21 cell culture is suitable for duck TMUV propagation and that BPL-inactivated TMUV vaccine can provide a high level of protection from virus challenge in laying ducks and table ducks. These data provide a scientific basis for the development of an inactivated vaccine for the prevention of duck TMUV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is a mosquito-borne virus first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. The disease in humans is characterized by a dengue-like illness with fever, and a more severe form is characterized by central nervous system involvement, including encephalitis, meningitis, and myelitis. WN encephalitis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in the summer of 1999, there was an outbreak in New York City. Epidemic WNV strains in North America are severely pathogenic, however, attenuated WNV strains were found in Texas and Mexico in 2003. The principal vectors of WNV transmission in North America are Culex. pipiens, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx salinarius and Cx talsalis. The number of WN fever case has exceeded 27,000 since 1999 in the United States and 4,600 since 2002 in Canada. The first imported case of West Nile fever in Japan was confirmed in September, 2005. The patient had returned to Japan from the United States and developed symptoms the next day. There is currently no WN vaccine for use in humans. An inactivated WNV vaccine for use in horses has been available since 2001. A DNA vaccine, a chimeric live attenuated vaccine, and a recombinant vaccine have also been licensed for use in horses.
Myers, Martin G.; Tauraso, Nicola M.
One of the basic problems in the standardization of inactivated polyvalent influenza virus vaccines has been the determination of the relative potency of the individual strain components. The chicken cell agglutination test measures reliably the total hemagglutinin content of these vaccines. With immunodiffusion techniques, it is now possible to quantitate each strain component of polyvalent vaccines. Routine application of these techniques would serve as an interim procedure to assess antigenic potency of individual strain components of commercial vaccines until improved tests are developed. Images PMID:4624212
Oura, C A L; Wood, J L N; Floyd, T; Sanders, A J; Bin-Tarif, A; Henstock, M; Edwards, L; Simmons, H; Batten, C A
Widespread vaccination programmes against Bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8), using inactivated vaccines, are being carried out across many countries in northern, western and southern Europe. This study investigates the extent and length of colostral antibody protection, as well as the degree of colostral antibody induced interference of the immune response to BTV-8, in sheep. Significantly lower titres of neutralising antibodies were transferred in colostrum to lambs born from sheep vaccinated once as opposed those vaccinated twice (single vaccine in the first year and a booster vaccine in the second year). On BTV-8 challenge, lambs born from sheep vaccinated on two occasions, with the second booster vaccine given approximately 1 month prior to lambing, were protected from clinical disease for up to 14 weeks. BTV-8 was isolated from 5 of the 22 challenged lambs, although only one of these lambs showed a transient rise in body temperature with no other clinical signs. Lambs born from ewes given a second booster vaccine 1 month prior to lambing, are likely to be protected from clinical disease for at least 14 weeks, whereas lambs born from ewes vaccinated once are likely to be protected for a shorter time. Colostral antibodies present in the 13-14-week-old lambs appeared to interfere with the humoral response to challenge virus. These results suggest that colostral antibodies may interfere with vaccination in lambs up to at least 14 weeks of age.
Duffy, Mark R; Reed, Christie; Edelson, Paul J; Blumensaadt, Sena; Crocker, Kimberly; Griggs, Anne; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Delorey, Mark J; Hayes, Edward B; Fischer, Marc
Japanese encephalitis (JE) vaccine is recommended for travelers to Asia whose itineraries increase their risk of exposure to JE virus. The numbers of travelers with such itineraries and the proportion of those who receive JE vaccine are unknown. We performed a survey to estimate the proportion of US travelers to Asia who receive JE vaccine according to the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommendations. We surveyed US residents ≥ 18 years old departing on 38 flights to Asia selected through a stratified random sample of all direct flights to JE-endemic countries from three US airports. We asked participants about planned itineraries and activities, sources of travel health information, JE vaccination status, and potential barriers to vaccination. Participants planning to spend ≥ 30 days in Asia or at least half of their time in rural areas were defined as "higher JE risk" travelers for whom vaccination should have been considered. Of 2,341 eligible travelers contacted, 1,691(72%) completed the survey. Among these 1,691 participants, 415 (25%) described itineraries for which JE vaccination should have been considered. Of these 415 higher JE risk travelers, only 47 (11%) reported receiving ≥ 1 dose of JE vaccine. Of the 164 unvaccinated higher JE risk travelers who visited a health care provider before their trip, 113 (69%) indicated that they had never heard of JE vaccine or their health care provider had not offered or recommended JE vaccine. A quarter of surveyed US travelers to Asia reported planned itineraries for which JE vaccination should have been considered. However, few of these at-risk travelers received JE vaccine. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
Swartz, T A; Green, M S; Handscher, R; Sofer, D; Cohen-Dar, M; Shohat, T; Habib, S; Barak, E; Dror, Z; Somekh, E; Peled-Leviathan, T; Yulzari, R; Libling, A; Mendelson, E; Shulman, L M
Intestinal immunity was studied in a polio-free community immunised with a combined enhanced inactivated/oral polio vaccine (EIPV/OPV) vaccination programme. Poliovirus excretion was evaluated in three groups of infants primed with a partial (2 EIPV+2 OPV) or complete (3 EIPV+3 OPV) dose schedule. Poliovirus replicated in the gut of 59.8-55.8% of infants in the three groups 7 days after administration of an additional OPV dose. Significant decreases in the percent of type-specific-virus excreters appeared after 14 and 21 days for serotypes 1 and 2, and after 21 and 28 days for serotype 3. The percent of excreters was inversely correlated with pre-challenge neutralising antibody (NA) titers (p<0.05). Intrafamilial virus transmission to mothers and siblings was minimal. The principal factor for interruption of disease and virus transmission in the community was a strong and persistent humoral immunity with immunological memory. A satisfactory level of family hygiene contributed towards breaking the chain of transmission of poliovirus to contacts.
Jung, Eun Ju; Lee, Kwang Hee; Seong, Baik Lin
Influenza vaccine strains have been traditionally developed by annual reassortment between vaccine donor strain and the epidemic virulent strains. The classical method requires screening and genotyping of the vaccine strain among various reassortant viruses, which are usually laborious and time-consuming. Here we developed an efficient reverse genetic system to generate the 6:2 reassortant vaccine virus from cDNAs derived from the influenza RNAs. Thus, cDNAs of the two RNAs coding for surface antigens, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the epidemic virus and the 6 internal genes from the donor strain were transfected into cells and the infectious viruses of 6:2 defined RNA ratio were rescued. X-31 virus (a high- growth virus in embryonated eggs) and its cold-adapted strain X-31 ca were judiciously chosen as donor strains for the generation of inactivated vaccine and live-attenuated vaccine, respectively. The growth properties of these recombinant viruses in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cell were indistinguishable as compared to those generated by classical reassortment process. Based on the reverse genetic system, we generated 6+2 reassortant avian influenza vaccine strains corresponding to the A/Chicken/Korea/ MS96 (H9N2) and A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1). The results would serve as technical platform for the generation of both injectable inactivated vaccine and the nasal spray live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of influenza epidemics and pandemics.
Jung, Eun-Ju; Lee, Kwang-Hee
Influenza vaccine strains have been traditionally developed by annual reassortment between vaccine donor strain and the epidemic virulent strains. The classical method requires screening and genotyping of the vaccine strain among various reassortant viruses, which are usually laborious and time-consuming. Here we developed an efficient reverse genetic system to generate the 6:2 reassortant vaccine virus from cDNAs derived from the influenza RNAs. Thus, cDNAs of the two RNAs coding for surface antigens, haemagglutinin and neuraminidase from the epidemic virus and the 6 internal genes from the donor strain were transfected into cells and the infectious viruses of 6:2 defined RNA ratio were rescued. X-31 virus (a high-growth virus in embryonated eggs) and its cold-adapted strain X-31 ca were judiciously chosen as donor strains for the generation of inactivated vaccine and live-attenuated vaccine, respectively. The growth properties of these recombinant viruses in embryonated chicken eggs and MDCK cell were indistinguishable as compared to those generated by classical reassortment process. Based on the reverse genetic system, we generated 6 + 2 reassortant avian influenza vaccine strains corresponding to the A/Chicken/Korea/MS96 (H9N2) and A/Indonesia/5/2005 (H5N1). The results would serve as technical platform for the generation of both injectable inactivated vaccine and the nasal spray live attenuated vaccine for the prevention of influenza epidemics and pandemics. PMID:20054235
Immunogenicity, reactogenicity, and safety of inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine candidate versus inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine in healthy adults aged ≥18 years: a phase III, randomized trial.
Tinoco, Juan Carlos; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Cruz-Valdez, Aurelio; Aranza Doniz, Carlos; Chandrasekaran, Vijayalakshmi; Dewé, Walthère; Liu, Aixue; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha K
Two influenza B lineages have been co-circulating since the 1980s, and because inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) contains only one B strain, it provides little/no protection against the alternate B-lineage. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages versus TIV in healthy adults. Subjects received one dose of QIV (lot 1, 2, or 3) or one of two TIVs (B strain from Victoria or Yamagata lineage); randomization was 2:2:2:1:1. Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 21-days post-vaccination; superiority of QIV versus TIV for the alternate B-lineage was demonstrated if the 95% confidence interval (CI) lower limit for the GMT ratio was ≥1.5, and non-inferiority against the shared strains was demonstrated if the 95% CI upper limit for the GMT ratio was ≤1.5. Reactogenicity and safety were assessed during the post-vaccination period. NCT01196975. Immunogenicity of QIV lots was consistent, QIV was superior to TIV for the alternate B-lineage strain, and QIV was non-inferior versus TIVs for shared strains (A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B-strain). Reactogenicity and safety profile of the QIV was consistent with seasonal influenza vaccines. QIV provided superior immunogenicity for the added B strain without affecting the antibody response to the TIV strains, and without compromising safety. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Wagner, B; Goodman, L B; Babasyan, S; Freer, H; Torsteinsdóttir, S; Svansson, V; Björnsdóttir, S; Perkins, G A
Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) continues to cause severe outbreaks of abortions or myeloencephalopathy in horses despite widely used vaccination. The aim of this work was to determine the effects of frequent vaccination with an inactivated EHV vaccine on immune development in horses. Fifteen EHV-1 naïve mares were vaccinated a total of 5 times over a period of 8 months with intervals of 20, 60, 90 and 60 days between vaccine administrations. Total antibody and antibody isotype responses were evaluated with a new sensitive EHV-1 Multiplex assay to glycoprotein C (gC) and gD for up to 14 months after initial vaccination. Antibodies peaked after the first two vaccine doses and then declined despite a third administration of the vaccine. The fourth vaccine dose was given at 6 months and the gC and gD antibody titers increased again. Mixed responses with increasing gC but decreasing gD antibody values were observed after the fifth vaccination at 8 months. IgG4/7 isotype responses mimicked the total Ig antibody production to vaccination most closely. Vaccination also induced short-lasting IgG1 antibodies to gC, but not to gD. EHV-1-specific cellular immunity induced by vaccination developed slower than antibodies, was dominated by IFN-γ producing T-helper 1 (Th1) cells, and was significantly increased compared to pre-vaccination values after administration of 3 vaccine doses. Decreased IFN-γ production and reduced Th1-cell induction were also observed after the second and fourth vaccination. Overall, repeated EHV vaccine administration did not always result in increasing immunity. The adverse effects on antibody and cellular immunity that were observed here when the EHV vaccine was given in short intervals might in part explain why EHV-1 outbreaks are observed worldwide despite widely used vaccination. The findings warrant further evaluation of immune responses to EHV vaccines to optimize vaccination protocols for different vaccines and horse groups at risk.
Westdijk, Janny; Koedam, Patrick; Barro, Mario; Steil, Benjamin P.; Collin, Nicolas; Vedvick, Thomas S.; Bakker, Wilfried A.M.; van der Ley, Peter; Kersten, Gideon
Six different adjuvants, each in combination with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) produced with attenuated Sabin strains (sIPV), were evaluated for their ability to enhance virus neutralizing antibody titers (VNTs) in the rat potency model. The increase of VNTs was on average 3-, 15-, 24-fold with adjuvants after one immunization (serotype 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Also after a boost immunization the VNTs of adjuvanted sIPV were on average another 7- 20- 27 times higher than after two inoculations of sIPV without adjuvant. The results indicate that it is feasible to increase the potency of inactivated polio vaccines by using adjuvants. PMID:23313617
Sasaki, Sanae; Sullivan, Meghan; Narvaez, Carlos F.; Holmes, Tyson H.; Furman, David; Zheng, Nai-Ying; Nishtala, Madhuri; Wrammert, Jens; Smith, Kenneth; James, Judith A.; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Wilson, Patrick C.; Greenberg, Harry B.; He, Xiao-Song
During seasonal influenza epidemics, disease burden is shouldered predominantly by the very young and the elderly. Elderly individuals are particularly affected, in part because vaccine efficacy wanes with age. This has been linked to a reduced ability to induce a robust serum antibody response. Here, we show that this is due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies, rather than a lack of antibody avidity or affinity. We measured levels of vaccine-specific plasmablasts by ELISPOT 1 week after immunization of young and elderly adults with inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine. Plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) were generated from bulk-cultured B cells, while recombinant monoclonal antibodies (re-mAbs) were produced from single plasmablasts. The frequency of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and the concentration of PPAbs were lower in the elderly than in young adults, whereas the yields of secreted IgG per plasmablast were not different. Differences were not detected in the overall vaccine-specific avidity or affinity of PPAbs and re-mAbs between the 2 age groups. In contrast, reactivity of the antibodies induced by the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine toward the 2009 pandemic H1N1 virus, which was not present in the vaccine, was higher in the elderly than in the young. These results indicate that the inferior antibody response to influenza vaccination in the elderly is primarily due to reduced quantities of vaccine-specific antibodies. They also suggest that exposure history affects the cross-reactivity of vaccination-induced antibodies. PMID:21785218
Gong, Yumei; Zhang, Peijun; Wang, Hongjun; Zhu, Wenge; Sun, Huiling; He, Yunxia; Shao, Qinghong; Blackall, P J
The safety and efficacy of an inactivated oil-emulsion infectious coryza vaccine containing three Avibacterium paragallinarum isolates (one each of Page serovars A, B, and C) was evaluated. The safety of six batches of the vaccine was confirmed by testing with chickens vaccinated with a single large dose or vaccinated repeatedly with a normal dose. Efficacy tests were carried out on three batches of vaccine using both specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens and conventional chickens. In SPF chickens given a single vaccination at 42 days of age, the protection rate against all three serovars of Av. paragallinarum was at least 80% at 30 days post vaccination. The conventional chickens, which were immunized at 42 and 110 days of age, were challenged at 9 months post the second vaccination and the protection rate was at least 80% for all three serovars. The effect of storage on the vaccine was evaluated in SPF chickens using three batches of vaccine stored at 4-8°C for 1 year. The protection rate against challenge from all three serovars (single vaccination at 42 days of age and challenge at 30 days post-vaccination) was at least 80%.
Psoralen-Inactivated Dengue Virus Type 1 Vaccine Candidate in Mice ’V Ryan C. Maves,h Roger M. Castillo Ore,1 Kevin R. Porter,2 and Tadeusz J. Kochel1...ceiv!!t.l 2 Sept!!mber 2009/RI!turned for modification 20 Octobl!r 2009/Accepted 2 D!!cembl!r 2009 We evaluated a novel psoralen-inactivated dengue ...neutralizing antibody was detectable in 10/11 mice receiving a 10-ng dose at 90 days. Psoralen-inactivated DENV-1 is immunogenic in mice. Dengue
Gelfi, Jacqueline; Pappalardo, Michael; Claverys, Carine; Peralta, Brigitte; Guerin, Jean-Luc
Haemorrhagic nephritis enteritis of the goose (HNEG) is an epizootic viral disease in domestic geese. The causal agent is a polyomavirus, namely goose haemorrhagic polyomavirus. To help control the disease, an inactivated vaccine was developed, based on viral particles produced in goose kidney cells. Viral material was quantified using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, inactivated with beta-propiolactone and adjuvanted with Carbopol, an acrylic acid polymer. Carbopol proved to be more immunogenic than aluminium hydroxide and was totally safe when administered to young goslings and breeders alike. Carbopol-adjuvanted vaccine induced a high serological response. Moreover, goslings hatched from vaccinated breeders were protected against viral challenge, indicating that maternally-derived neutralizing antibodies (MDA) were efficiently transferred. MDA were still detectable 15 days post-hatch. Clinical trials will be necessary to accurately evaluate a vaccine-based HNEG control strategy under field conditions.
Orr, Nadav; Klement, Eyal; Gillis, David; Sela, Tamar; Kayouf, Raid; Derazne, Estela; Grotto, Itamar; Balicer, Ran; Huerta, Michael; Aviram, Lisa; Ambar, Ruhama; Epstein, Yoram; Heled, Yuval; Cohen, Dani
We evaluated in a prospective study the immune response of naïve subjects to a single dose of inactivated Hepatitis A vaccine. Ninety-seven percent of the vaccinees sero-converted 1 month after vaccination and 93% were still positive 2 years later. All of the vaccinees had a strong booster response 2 years after the single dose. Avaxim was more immunogenic than Vaqta for the primary dose (p = 0.01 for sero-positivity, p<0.001 for antibody level) but no differences were found after boosting with Avaxim. Performance of intense physical activity during the first month after a single vaccine dose was associated with lower antibody levels (p = 0.004). This study indicates that a single dose of inactivated HAV vaccine elicits protective immune memory for at least 2 years.
Chen, S; Ma, G P; Wang, M S; Cheng, A C; Zhu, D K; Luo, Q H; Jia, R Y; Liu, F; Chen, X Y; Han, X F; Bo, Y; Zhou, D C
New type gosling viral enteritis virus (NGVEV) caused a serious disease in naive juvenile goslings. In the described studies the performance of 2 vaccines was analyzed: a vaccine containing adjuvanted inactivated NGVEV and a vaccine containing adjuvanted inactivated NGVEV and recombinant goose IL-2. Breeder geese were subcutaneously vaccinated at the beginning of the egg production period with the vaccines. Breeder geese sham vaccinated with PBS served as control. The cellular and humoral immune responses of the vaccinated breeder geese, as well as the presence of maternally derived antibody to NGVEV, were investigated by ELISA, virus neutralization test, and lymphocyte proliferation assay, respectively. A significantly higher immunogenicity (P < 0.05) was induced by the inactivated NGVEV-recombinant goose IL-2 adjuvant vaccine compared with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine. The offspring of the vaccinated birds were challenged with virulent NGVEV (100 50% lethal dose) and the protective efficacy of the vaccines was determined. Furthermore, in a field trial the efficacy of the inactivated NGVEV vaccine was recorded from years 2003 to 2007. No clinical signs or abnormal health status were observed in the vaccinated breeder geese and the progeny. After a single application, >80% protection was shown in the progeny of geese vaccinated against NGVEV challenge for approximately 5 mo. The extensive field trials further demonstrated that vaccination of breeder geese with the inactivated NGVEV vaccine could be a safe and efficacious means to control NGVE disease. Moreover, the level of maternally derived NGVEV antibody titer in the egg yolk reflected the level of NGVEV antibodies in the breeder geese, suggesting that the egg yolk could be used to monitor the vaccination efficacy in commercial goose breeder flocks.
Sricharoenchai, Sirintip; Lapphra, Keswadee; Chuenkitmongkol, Sunate; Phongsamart, Wanatpreeya; Bouckenooghe, Alain; Wittawatmongkol, Orasri; Rungmaitree, Supattra; Chokephaibulkit, Kulkanya
This single-group study investigated the immunogenicity and safety of a booster dose of the recently licensed live attenuated chimeric Japanese encephalitis vaccine in 50 healthy children (1-5 years old) who were primed with the live attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine. A strong anamnestic response was induced 28 days postbooster: geometric mean titer, 9144 (95% confidence interval: 7365-11353); and seroprotection rate, 49 of 49 (100%) children.
Gary, H E; Smith, B; Jenks, J; Ruiz, J; Sessions, W; Vinje, J; Sobsey, M
While oral polio vaccine (OPV) has been shown to be safe and effective, it has been observed that it can circulate within a susceptible population and revert to a virulent form. Inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) confers protection from paralytic disease, but provides limited protection against infection. It is possible, then, that an IPV-immunized population, when exposed to OPV, could sustain undetected circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus. This study examines the possibility of polio vaccine virus circulating within the United States (highly IPV-immunized) population that borders Mexico (OPV-immunized). A total of 653 stool and 20 sewage samples collected on the US side of the border were tested for the presence of poliovirus. All samples were found to be negative. These results suggest that the risk of circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus is low in fully immunized IPV-using populations in developed countries that border OPV-using populations.
Leemans, Jérôme; Raes, Marianne; Saegerman, Claude; Sustronck, Bart; Makoschey, Birgit; Kirschvink, Nathalie
The aim of this study was to determine whether a single dose of an inactivated bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8) vaccine altered semen quality in rams. Twenty sexually mature rams were assigned to three experimental groups: two groups of four animals were vaccinated and a third group of four animals was unvaccinated. The first group included rams with a history of natural BTV-8 infection in 2007 and the second and third groups included BTV-8 naïve rams. Semen was collected prior to vaccination and for 4 months post-vaccination. There were no significant differences in semen quality traits, including motility and concentration of spermatozoa, and percentages of living, normal dead and abnormal dead spermatozoa, between vaccinated and unvaccinated groups, or over time (P>0.05). The BTV-8 vaccine tested in this study did not appear to have any adverse effect on semen quality in rams. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Dilovski, M; Tekerlekov, P
Formalin, glycidaldehyde, and the binary ethyleneimine were tested under laboratory conditions as inactivators of the foot-and-mouth disease virus along with the possibility of using them in the process of vaccine production. Data is presented on the comparative testing for innocuity and immunogenicity for sheep of F. M. D. vaccines produced with such inactivators. Results showed the advantages of the binary ethyleneimine as against formalin and glycidaldehyde as an inactivator of the F. M. D. virus.
Willet, Mallory; Kurup, Drishya; Papaneri, Amy; Wirblich, Christoph; Hooper, Jay W; Kwilas, Steve A; Keshwara, Rohan; Hudacek, Andrew; Beilfuss, Stefanie; Rudolph, Grit; Pommerening, Elke; Vos, Adriaan; Neubert, Andreas; Jahrling, Peter; Blaney, Joseph E; Johnson, Reed F; Schnell, Matthias J
We previously described the generation of a novel Ebola virus (EBOV) vaccine based on inactivated rabies virus (RABV) containing EBOV glycoprotein (GP) incorporated in the RABV virion. Our results demonstrated safety, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). Protection against viral challenge depended largely on the quality of the humoral immune response against EBOV GP.Here we present the extension and improvement of this vaccine by increasing the amount of GP incorporation into virions via GP codon-optimization as well as the addition of Sudan virus (SUDV) and Marburg virus (MARV) GP containing virions. Immunogenicity studies in mice indicate similar immune responses for both SUDV GP and MARV GP compared to EBOV GP. Immunizing mice with multiple antigens resulted in immune responses similar to immunization with a single antigen. Moreover, immunization of NHP with the new inactivated RABV EBOV vaccine resulted in high titer neutralizing antibody levels and 100% protection against lethal EBOV challenge when applied with adjuvant.Our results indicate that an inactivated polyvalent vaccine against RABV filoviruses is achievable. Finally, the novel vaccines are produced on approved VERO cells and a clinical grade RABV/EBOV vaccine for human trials has been produced.
Chu, Leonard Y.; Ye, Ling; Dong, Ke; Compans, Richard W.; Yang, Chinglai; Prausnitz, Mark R.
Purpose This study tested the hypothesis that encapsulation of influenza vaccine in microneedle patches increases vaccine stability during storage at elevated temperature. Methods Whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine (A/Puerto Rico/8/34) was formulated into dissolving microneedle patches and vaccine stability was evaluated by in vitro and in vivo assays of antigenicity and immunogenicity after storage for up to 3 months at 4, 25, 37 and 45°C. Results While liquid vaccine completely lost potency as determined by hemagglutination (HA) activity within 1–2 weeks outside of refrigeration, vaccine in microneedle patches lost 40–50% HA activity during or shortly after fabrication, but then had no significant additional loss of activity over 3 months of storage, independent of temperature. This level of stability required reduced humidity by packaging with desiccant, but was not affected by presence of oxygen. This finding was consistent with additional stability assays, including antigenicity of the vaccine measured by ELISA, virus particle morphological structure captured by transmission electron microscopy and protective immune responses by immunization of mice in vivo. Conclusions These data show that inactivated influenza vaccine encapsulated in dissolving microneedle patches has enhanced stability during extended storage at elevated temperatures. PMID:26620313
Hepatitis A and B remain serious global public health problems. Monovalent vaccines against hepatitis A and B have been available for many years. Since 1996, licenses have been gradually introduced for different formulations and immunization schedules of the first combined vaccines against both diseases. Twinrix Adult (with conventional and accelerated schedules) is available for the immunization of individuals aged 16 years or older in Europe and 18 years or older the USA. Twinrix Pediatric, with its three-dose schedule, and AmBirix, with its two-dose schedule, are licensed in Europe for ages 1-15 years. These vaccines offer a single injection for satisfactory protection against hepatitis A and B and an excellent safety and reactogenicity profile in comparison with monovalent vaccines. This article focuses on immunogenicity of the vaccines and proposes expert opinion and future directions in this field.
Carr, Silvana; Allison, Kim J; Van De Velde, Lee-Ann; Zhang, Kelly; English, Elizabeth Y; Iverson, Amy; Daw, Najat C; Howard, Scott C; Navid, Fariba; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos; Yang, Jie; Adderson, Elisabeth E; McCullers, Jonathan A; Flynn, Patricia M
The safety and immunogenicity of live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) has not been compared to that of the standard trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in children with cancer. Randomized study of LAIV versus TIV in children with cancer, age 2-21 years, vaccinated according to recommendations based on age and prior vaccination. Data on reactogenicity and other adverse events and blood and nasal swab samples were obtained following vaccination. Fifty-five eligible subjects (mean age, 10.4 years) received vaccine (28 LAIV/27 TIV). Both vaccines were well tolerated. Rhinorrhea reported within 10 days of vaccination was similar in both groups (36% LAIV vs 33% TIV, P > .999). Ten LAIV recipients shed virus; the latest viral shedding was detected 7 days after vaccination. Immunogenicity data were available for 52 subjects, or 26 in each group. TIV induced significantly higher postvaccination geometric mean titers against influenza A viruses (P < .001), greater seroprotection against influenza A/H1N1 (P = .01), and greater seroconversion against A/H3N2 (P = .004), compared with LAIV. No differences after vaccination were observed against influenza B viruses. As expected, serum antibody response against influenza A strains were greater with TIV than with LAIV in children with cancer. Both vaccines were well tolerated, and prolonged viral shedding after LAIV was not detected. NCT00906750.
David, Selwyn A. Wilson; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Ye, Zhiping; Chizhikov, Vladimir
Although mycoplasmas are generally considered to be harmless commensals, some mycoplasma species are able to cause infections in pediatric, geriatric, or immunocompromised patients. Thus, accidental contamination of biologics with mycoplasmas represents a potential risk for the health of individuals who receive cell-derived biological and pharmaceutical products. To assess the efficiency of inactivation of mycoplasmas by the agents used in the manufacture of egg-derived influenza vaccines, we carried out a series of experiments aimed at monitoring the viability of mycoplasmas spiked into both chicken allantoic fluid and protein-rich microbiological media and then treated with beta-propiolactone, formalin, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, Triton X-100, and sodium deoxycholate, which are agents that are commonly used for virus inactivation and disruption of viral particles during influenza vaccine production. Twenty-two mycoplasma species (with one to four strains of each species) were exposed to these inactivating agents at different concentrations. The most efficient inactivation of the mycoplasmas evaluated was observed with either 0.5% Triton X-100 or 0.5% sodium deoxycholate. Cetyltrimethylammonium bromide at concentrations of ≥0.08% was also able to rapidly inactivate (in less than 30 min) all mycoplasmas tested. In contrast, negligible reductions in mycoplasma titers were observed with 0.0125 to 0.025% formaldehyde. However, increasing the concentration of formaldehyde to 0.1 to 0.2% improved the mycoplasmacidal effect. Incubation of mycoplasmas with 0.1% beta-propiolactone for 1 to 24 h had a marked mycoplasmacidal effect. A comparison of the mycoplasma inactivation profiles showed that strains of selected species (Mycoplasma synoviae, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Mycoplasma orale, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Acholeplasma laidlawii) represent a set of strains that can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of mycoplasma clearance obtained by inactivation and
Li, Zhimei; Cui, Tao; Shi, Weixiong; Wang, Qun
Abstract We summarized the clinical characteristics of patients presenting with seizures and limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 protein antibody (LGI1) in order help recognize and treat this condition at its onset. We analyzed clinical, video electroencephalogram (VEEG), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and laboratory data of 10 patients who presented with LGI1-LE and followed up their outcomes from 2 to 16 (9.4 ± 4.2) months. All patients presented with seizures onset, including faciobrachial dystonic seizure (FBDS), partial seizure (PS), and generalized tonic-clonic seizure (GTCS). Four patients (Cases 3, 5, 7, and 8) had mild cognitive deficits. Interictal VEEG showed normal patterns, focal slowing, or sharp waves in the temporal or frontotemporal lobes. Ictal VEEG of Cases 4, 5, and 7 showed diffuse voltage depression preceding FBDS, a left frontal/temporal origin, and a bilateral temporal origin, respectively. Ictal foci could not be localized in other cases. MRI scan revealed T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) hyperintensity and evidence of edema in the right medial temporal lobe in Case 3, left hippocampal atrophy in Case 5, hyperintensities in the bilateral medial temporal lobes in Case 7, and hyperintensities in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex in Case 10. All 10 serum samples were positive for LGI1 antibody, but it was only detected in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of 7 patients. Five patients (Cases 2, 4, 6, 7, and 8) presented with hyponatremia. One patient (Case 2) was diagnosed with small cell lung cancer. While responses to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) were poor, most patients (except Case 2) responded favorably to immunotherapy. LGI1-LE may initially manifest with various types of seizures, particularly FBDS and complex partial seizures (CPS) of mesial temporal origin, and slowly progressive cognitive involvement. Clinical follow-up, VEEG monitoring, and MRI scan are helpful in early
Thornburg, Natalie J; Ray, Caroline A; Collier, Martha L; Liao, Hua-Xin; Pickup, David J; Johnston, Robert E
An anti-poxvirus vaccine based on replicon particles of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VRP) is being developed. The cowpox virus genes encoding structural proteins corresponding to vaccinia virus proteins A33, B5, and A27 were each expressed from VRP. High serum IgG titers against these proteins were generated in BALB/c mice vaccinated with each of these VRP. VRP induced both IgG1 and IgG2a with a strong predominance of IgG2a production. The response is long-lasting, as evidenced by the retention of high anti-B5 serum IgG titers through at least 50 weeks after priming immunization. Mice vaccinated with B5-, A33- or A27-VRP individually or together survived intranasal challenge with cowpox virus, with the multivalent vaccine formulation providing more effective protection from weight loss and clinical signs of illness than the monovalent vaccines. These results demonstrate that VRP may provide an effective alternative to vaccinia virus vaccines against poxvirus infection.
The influenza H1N1 pandemic of 1918 was one of the worst medical disasters in human history. Recent studies have demonstrated that the hemagglutinin (HA) protein of the 1918 virus and 2009 H1N1 pandemic virus, the latter now a component of the seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV),...
Electron Beam (eBeam) ionization technology has a variety of applications in modern society. The underlying hypothesis was that electron beam (eBeam) inactivated Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) cells can serve as a vaccine to control Salmonella colonization and Salmonella shedding in c...
Mucosal and systemic immunity were observed in broilers vaccinated with mannosylated chitosan adjuvated (MCA) inactivated A/Turkey/Virginia/158512/2002 (H7N2) and administered with and without recombinant Bacillus subtilis to elicit heterologous influenza strain protection. Previously, mucosal immu...
Ann, Julie; Samant, Mukesh; Rheaume, Chantal; Dumas, Carole; Beaulieu, Edith; Morasse, Audrey; Mallett, Corey; Hamelin, Marie-Eve; Papadopoulou, Barbara; Boivin, Guy
Influenza viruses are major respiratory pathogens and the development of improved vaccines to prevent these infections is of high priority. Here, we evaluated split inactivated A(H3N2) vaccines (A/Uruguay/716/2007) combined or not with adjuvants (AS03, AS25 and Protollin) and administered by three different routes, intramuscular (i.m.), intranasal (i.n.) or intradermal (i.d.), both in BALB/c mice and in ferrets. Ferrets were challenged with the homologous strain A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) or the heterologous strain A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) 4 weeks after the second immunization with A/Uruguay/716/2007 vaccines. Temperature, weight loss and clinical signs were monitored on a daily basis and nasal washes were performed to evaluate viral titers in the upper respiratory tract. All adjuvanted vaccines induced stronger humoral immune responses than unadjuvanted ones in both mice and ferrets. In mice, the AS03- and AS25-adjuvanted i.m. vaccines generated a mixed Th1-Th2 response at 6 and 19 weeks after the last immunization as shown by the production of IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies as well as the production of IL-2, IL-4 and IFN-γ by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. HAI and MN titers were also higher in those groups when compared to the i.n. Protollin-adjuvanted and unadjuvanted groups. The Protollin-adjuvanted i.n. vaccine induced a more Th1 oriented response with a significant production of IgA in bronchoalveolar lavages. In ferrets, the AS03- and AS25-adjuvanted i.m. vaccines also induced higher HAI and MN titers compared to the other groups. These vaccines also significantly decreased viral titers after challenge with both the homologous A/Uruguay/716/2007 (H3N2) and the heterologous A/Perth/16/2009 (H3N2) strains. In conclusion, adjuvanted influenza vaccines elicited stronger humoral response in mice and conferred greater protection in naive ferrets than unadjuvanted ones. Interestingly, the AS25 adjuvant system containing monophosphoryl-lipid-A appears particularly promising for
Vaccine 23 (2005) 4315–4321 Prevention of disease in ferrets fed an inactivated whole cell Campylobacter jejuni vaccine Donald H. Burr a, David...prepared from Campylobacter jejuni to protect against disease. C 10 ( m u h a d d w o w s t c t a s t P K P A 1 0 d . jejuni strain 81–176 was grown in BHI...determined by ELISA showed little increase following the CWC four dose vaccination regimen, compared o animals given one dose of the live organism. On
Kon, Theone C; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months.
Kon, Theone C.; Onu, Adrian; Berbecila, Laurentiu; Lupulescu, Emilia; Ghiorgisor, Alina; Kersten, Gideon F.; Cui, Yi-Qing; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Van der Pol, Leo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of different inactivation and splitting procedures on influenza vaccine product composition, stability and recovery to support transfer of process technology. Four split and two whole inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine bulks were produced and compared with respect to release criteria, stability of the bulk and haemagglutinin recovery. One clarified harvest of influenza H3N2 A/Uruguay virus prepared on 25.000 fertilized eggs was divided equally over six downstream processes. The main unit operation for purification was sucrose gradient zonal ultracentrifugation. The inactivation of the virus was performed with either formaldehyde in phosphate buffer or with beta-propiolactone in citrate buffer. For splitting of the viral products in presence of Tween®, either Triton™ X-100 or di-ethyl-ether was used. Removal of ether was established by centrifugation and evaporation, whereas removal of Triton-X100 was performed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography. All products were sterile filtered and subjected to a 5 months real time stability study. In all processes, major product losses were measured after sterile filtration; with larger losses for split virus than for WIV. The beta-propiolactone inactivation on average resulted in higher recoveries compared to processes using formaldehyde inactivation. Especially ether split formaldehyde product showed low recovery and least stability over a period of five months. PMID:26959983
GAMOH, Koichiro; NAKAMURA, Shigeyuki
Japan established a vaccine selection system, in which a committee evaluates veterinary influenza vaccines to determine if the vaccine should be updated. In 2013, it was concluded that the present equine influenza vaccine strains did not have to be updated, but clade 2 (Fc2) viruses of the Florida sublineage should be included. We collected three Fc2 viruses as candidates and conducted comparative tests. Results indicated that A/equine/Carlow/2011 (H3N8) is not suitable, because of its unstable antigenic characteristics. A comparison between A/equine/Richmond/1/2007 (H3N8) (Richmond/07) and A/equine/Yokohama/aq13/2010 (H3N8) (Yokohama/10) in eggs showed that they shared equal growth properties. Immunogenicity test in mice showed that Yokohama/10 induced higher HI antibody titers than Richmond/07. Therefore, we concluded that Yokohama/10 was the most suitable strain. PMID:28163276
Edens, Chris; Dybdahl-Sissoko, Naomi C; Weldon, William C; Oberste, M Steven; Prausnitz, Mark R
The phased replacement of oral polio vaccine (OPV) with inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) is expected to significantly complicate mass vaccination campaigns, which are an important component of the global polio eradication endgame strategy. To simplify mass vaccination with IPV, we developed microneedle patches that are easy to administer, have a small package size, generate no sharps waste and are inexpensive to manufacture. When administered to rhesus macaques, neutralizing antibody titers were equivalent among monkeys vaccinated using microneedle patches and conventional intramuscular injection for IPV types 1 and 2. Serologic response to IPV type 3 vaccination was weaker after microneedle patch vaccination compared to intramuscular injection; however, we suspect the administered type 3 dose was lower due to a flawed pre-production IPV type 3 analytical method. IPV vaccination using microneedle patches was well tolerated by the monkeys. We conclude that IPV vaccination using a microneedle patch is immunogenic in rhesus macaques and may offer a simpler method of IPV vaccination of people to facilitate polio eradication.
Matos, Ana Carolina Diniz; Guedes, Maria Isabel Maldonado Coelho; Rehfeld, Izabelle Silva; Costa, Erica Azevedo; Costa, Aristoteles Gomes; Silva, Natalia Lopes da; Lage, Andrey Pereira; Lobato, Zélia Inês Portela
Bovine vaccinia (BV), caused by Vaccinia virus (VACV), is a zoonosis characterized by exanthematous lesions on the teats of dairy cows and the milkers' hands. Since 1999, due to the occurrence of many BV outbreaks in dairy farms across all Brazilian regions, there is a need to improve the control and prevention measures of the disease. Vaccination is one of the major tools to prevent viral diseases, and it could be an alternative for BV prevention. The main objective of this study was the development of vaccine formulations against BV using the inactivated VACV strain GP2 as antigen combined with different adjuvants. Potency tests were performed in mice, which were vaccinated with two doses at a 21-day interval, and then challenged with the vaccine homologous virus. VACV strain GP2 inactivated by beta-propiolactone (BPL) in association with adjuvants was effective in inducing a humoral immune response against VACV, as measured by neutralizing antibody (NA) titers, and was variable depending on the adjuvant used in each vaccine formulation. The vaccine formulation containing aluminum hydroxide (AH) associated with saponin as adjuvant induced the production of high NA titers in all vaccinated mice, giving 100% protection in Balb/c murine model after challenge with homologous virus. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Haaheim, Lars Reinhardt
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen, which exerts a huge human and economic toll on society. Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease, however, the vaccine strains must be annually updated due to the continuous antigenic changes in the virus. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been used for over 50 years and have an excellent safety record. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended for all individuals with serious medical conditions, like COPD, and protects the vaccinee against influenza illness and also against hospitalization and death. In COPD patients, influenza infection can lead to exacerbations resulting in reduced quality of life, hospitalization and death in the most severe cases. Although there is only limited literature on the use of influenza vaccination solely in COPD patients, there is clearly enough evidence to recommend annual vaccination in this group. This review will focus on influenza virus and prophylaxis with inactivated influenza vaccines in COPD patients and other "at risk" groups to reduce morbidity, save lives, and reduce health care costs.
Avian influenza (AI) vaccines have emerged to be a viable emergency tool for use in a comprehensive strategy for dealing with high pathogenicity (HP) AI in developed countries. However, the available doses of inactivated AI vaccine are limited to national vaccine banks and inventory stocks of some ...
Pittman, Phillip R; Liu, Ching-Tong; Cannon, Timothy L; Mangiafico, Joseph A; Gibbs, Paul H
We compared the effect of order of administration of investigational alphavirus vaccines on neutralizing antibody response. Volunteers who received the inactivated eastern and western equine encephalitis (EEE and WEE) vaccines before live attenuated Venezuelan (VEE) vaccine had significantly lower rates of antibody response than those receiving VEE vaccine before EEE and WEE vaccines (66.7% vs. 80.6%; p=0.026). The odds of having a VEE antibody non-response among those initially receiving EEE and WEE vaccines, adjusted for gender, were significant (odds ratio [OR]=2.20; 95% CI=1.2-4.1 [p=0.0145]) as were the odds of non-response among females adjusted for group (OR=1.81; 95% CI=1.2-2.7 [p=0.0037]). Antibody interference and gender effect have major implications for vaccine strategy among those receiving multiple alphavirus vaccines and those developing next generation vaccines for these threats.
Zhang, Zhilun; Zhu, Xiangjun; Hu, Yuansheng; Liang, Miao; Sun, Jin; Song, Yufei; Yang, Qi; Ji, Haiquan; Zeng, Gang; Song, Lifei; Chen, Jiangting
In China, both inactivated hepatitis A (HA) vaccine and live attenuated HA vaccine are available. We conducted a trial to evaluate 5-year immune persistence induced by one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccines in children. Subjects with no HA vaccination history had randomly received one dose of inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age. Anti-HAV antibody concentrations were measured before vaccination and at the first, second, and fifth year after vaccination. Suspected cases of hepatitis A were monitored during the study period. A total of 332 subjects were enrolled and 182 provided evaluable serum samples at all planned time points. seropositive rate at 5 y was 85.9% in the inactivated HA vaccine group and 90.7% in the live attenuated HA vaccine group. GMCs were 76.3% mIU/ml (95% CI: 61.7 - 94.4) and 66.8mIU/ml (95% CI: 57.8 - 77.3), respectively. No significant difference in antibody persistence between 2 groups was found. No clinical hepatitis A case was reported. A single dose of an inactivated or live attenuated HA vaccine at 18-60 months of age resulted in high HAV seropositive rate and anti-HAV antibody concentrations that lasted for at least 5 y.
Babb, Rachelle; Chen, Austen; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Hirst, Timothy R; Kara, Ervin E; McColl, Shaun R; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Paton, James C
Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza are the world's foremost bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens. We have previously described a γ-irradiated influenza A virus (γ-FLU) vaccine that provides cross-protective immunity against heterosubtypic infections. More recently, we reported a novel non-adjuvanted γ-irradiated S pneumoniae (γ-PN) vaccine that elicits serotype-independent protection. Considering the clinical synergism of both pathogens, combination of a serotype-independent pneumococcal vaccine with a broad-spectrum influenza vaccine to protect against both infections would have a considerable clinical impact. In the present study, we co-immunized C57BL/6 mice intranasally (IN) with a mixture of γ-PN (whole inactivated cells) and γ-FLU (whole inactivated virions) and examined protective efficacy. Co-immunization enhanced γ-PN vaccine efficacy against virulent pneumococcal challenge, which was dependent on CD4(+) T-cell responses. In contrast, vaccination with γ-PN alone, co-immunization enhanced pneumococcal-specific effector T-helper 17 cell (Th17) and Th1 memory cell, promoted development of CD4(+) tissue-resident memory (TRM) cells and enhanced Pneumococcus-specific antibody responses. Furthermore, co-immunization elicited significant protection against lethal influenza challenge, as well as against co-infection with both influenza and S pneumoniae. This is the first report showing the synergistic effect of combining whole cell and whole virion vaccines to both S pneumoniae and influenza as a single vaccine to protect against individual and co-infection, without compromising pathogen-specific immunity. © 2016 The Author(s). published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.
Konishi, Eiji; Kitai, Yoko; Tabei, Yukiko; Nishimura, Koichi; Harada, Seiya
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious disease in Asia, but it can be prevented by vaccination. To evaluate the necessity for vaccination in areas with reduced numbers of vector mosquitoes, as well as patients, it is critical to understand the frequency of natural virus exposure. An antibody survey was recently conducted to estimate current natural infection rates in Japan, where the vaccination rate has dropped in recent years. Serum samples were collected in 2004-2008 from inhabitants of Kumamoto Prefecture in west Japan, and in 2004-2006 from the Tokyo Metropolitan area of east Japan. Average annual infection rates estimated from the prevalence of antibodies to the nonstructural 1 protein (NS1) of JE virus was 1.8% in Kumamoto and 1.3% in Tokyo. When estimated from percentages of populations with detectable neutralizing antibodies but with no vaccination history, the average annual infection rate was 2.6% in both survey areas. Thus, JE virus remains present and active in nature in Japan. Therefore, continuing a vaccination program is indispensable to prevent JE infection in humans. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sasaki, Sanae; Holmes, Tyson H.; Albrecht, Randy A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Dekker, Cornelia L.; He, Xiao-Song; Greenberg, Harry B.
Background. The immunological bases for the efficacies of the 2 currently licensed influenza vaccines, live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) and inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to identify specific B-cell responses correlated with the known efficacies of these 2 vaccines. Methods. We compared the B-cell and antibody responses after immunization with 2010/2011 IIV or LAIV in young adults, focusing on peripheral plasmablasts 6–8 days after vaccination. Results. The quantities of vaccine-specific plasmablasts and plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) in IIV recipients were significantly higher than those in LAIV recipients. No significant difference was detected in the avidity of vaccine-specific PPAbs between the 2 vaccine groups. Proportionally, LAIV induced a greater vaccine-specific immunoglobulin A plasmablast response, as well as a greater plasmablast response to the conserved influenza nuclear protein, than IIV. The cross-reactive plasmablast response to heterovariant strains, as indicated by the relative levels of cross-reactive plasmablasts and the cross-reactive PPAb binding reactivity, was also greater in the LAIV group. Conclusions. Distinct quantitative and qualitative patterns of plasmablast responses were induced by LAIV and IIV in young adults; a proportionally greater cross-reactive response was induced by LAIV. PMID:24676204
Breard, Emmanuel; Belbis, Guillaume; Viarouge, Cyril; Nomikou, Kyriaki; Haegeman, Andy; De Clercq, Kris; Hudelet, Pascal; Hamers, Claude; Moreau, Francis; Lilin, Thomas; Durand, Benoit; Mertens, Peter; Vitour, Damien; Sailleau, Corinne; Zientara, Stéphan
Eradication of bluetongue virus is possible, as has been shown in several European countries. New serotypes have emerged, however, for which there are no specific commercial vaccines. This study addressed whether heterologous vaccines would help protect against 2 serotypes. Thirty-seven sheep were randomly allocated to 7 groups of 5 or 6 animals. Four groups were vaccinated with commercial vaccines against BTV strains 2, 4, and 9. A fifth positive control group was given a vaccine against BTV-8. The other 2 groups were unvaccinated controls. Sheep were then challenged by subcutaneous injection of either BTV-16 (2 groups) or BTV-8 (5 groups). Taken together, 24/25 sheep from the 4 experimental groups developed detectable antibodies against the vaccinated viruses. Furthermore, sheep that received heterologous vaccines showed significantly reduced viraemia and clinical scores for BTV-16 when compared to unvaccinated controls. Reductions in clinical signs and viraemia among heterologously vaccinated sheep were not as common after challenge with BTV-8. This study shows that heterologous protection can occur, but that it is difficult to predict if partial or complete protection will be achieved following inactivated-BTV vaccination. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estivariz, Concepcion F; Snider, Cynthia J; Anand, Abhijeet; Hampton, Lee M; Bari, Tajul I; Billah, Mallick M; Chai, Shua J; Wassilak, Steven G; Heffelfinger, James D; Zaman, K
We assessed programmatic adaptations and infants' uptake of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) after its introduction into the routine immunization schedule in Bangladesh. Using convenience and probability sampling, we selected 23 health facilities, 36 vaccinators, and 336 caregivers, within 5 districts and 3 city corporations. We collected data during August-October 2015 by conducting interviews, reviewing vaccination records, and observing activities. Knowledge about IPV was high among vaccinators (94%). No problems with IPV storage, transport, or waste disposal were detected, but shortages were reported in 20 health facilities (87%). Wastage per 5-dose vaccine vial was above the recommended 30% in 20 health facilities (87%); all were related to providing <5 doses per open vial. Among eligible infants, 87% and 86% received the third dose of pentavalent and oral poliovirus vaccine, respectively, but only 65% received IPV at the same visit. Among 73 infants not vaccinated with IPV, 58% of caregivers reported that vaccine was unavailable. Bangladesh successfully introduced IPV, but shortages related to insufficient global supply and high vaccine wastage in small outreach immunization sessions might reduce its impact on population immunity. Minimizing wastage and use of a 2-dose fractional-IPV schedule could extend IPV immunization to more children.
Karlsen, Marius; Tingbø, Terje; Solbakk, Inge-Tom; Evensen, Øystein; Furevik, Anette; Aas-Eng, Anne
Pancreas disease (PD) in salmonid fish is caused by an infection with Salmonid alphavirus (SAV) and remains as one of the major health problems in the European fish farming industry. Sequence studies have revealed a genetic diversity among viral strains. A subtype of SAV (SAV3) is causing an epizootic in farmed salmonids in Norway. Here we evaluate efficacy and safety of an inactivated virus vaccine based on ALV405, a strain of SAV3 that was isolated from Norwegian salmon. The vaccine provided an average relative percent survival (RPS) of 98.5 in an intraperitoneal challenge model, and induced nearly total protection against PD in a cohabitant challenge model. It provided significant protection against SAV-induced mortality also in a field trial under industrial conditions. Local reactions seen as melanization and adhesions in the visceral cavity were less severe than those induced by two commercial vaccines. Finally, we demonstrated that the protection is not impaired when the ALV405 antigen is combined with other viral or bacterial antigens in a polyvalent vaccine. The results confirm that efficient and safe protection against SAV infection and development of PD is possible using an inactivated virus vaccine, both alone and as a component in a polyvalent vaccine.
Huter, V; Hensel, A; Brand, E; Lubitz, W
Pigs immunized with Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae ghosts or a formalin-inactivated bacterin were found to be protected against clinical disease in both vaccination groups, whereas colonization of the lungs with A. pleuropneumoniae was only prevented in ghost-vaccinated pigs. Bacterial ghosts are empty cell envelopes created by the expression of a cloned bacteriophage lysis gene and, unlike formalin-inactivated bacteria, suffer no denaturing steps during their production. This quality may lead to a superior presentation of surface antigens to the immune system. Analysis by SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting of the two vaccine preparations revealed different contents of antigenic proteins. In order to better understand the immunogenic properties of A. pleuropneumoniae ghosts and formalin-inactivated bacteria, we compared the serum antibody response induced in both treatment groups. Immune sera were tested on whole cell antigen or purified virulence factors including outer membrane protein preparations (OMPs), outer membrane lipoprotein OmlA1, transferrin binding proteins (TfbA1, TfbA7 and TfbB) and Apx toxins (ApxI, II and III). SDS-PAGE and immunoblots revealed no specific antibody response against the single virulence factors tested in any vaccinated animal. The two vaccination groups showed different recognition patterns of whole cell antigen and OMP-enriched preparations. A 100 kDa protein was recognized significantly stronger by ghost-vaccinated pigs than convalescent pigs. This unique antibody population induced by ghosts could play a determining role in the prevention of lung colonization. The same 100 kDa antigen was recognized by ghost-sera in homologous as well as heterologous serotype A. pleuropneumoniae protein preparations. Indications for a crossprotective potential in the ghost vaccine were supported by studies on rabbit hyperimmune sera.
Domingues, Carla Magda Allan S; de Fátima Pereira, Sirlene; Cunha Marreiros, Ana Carolina; Menezes, Nair; Flannery, Brendan
In August 2012, the Brazilian Ministry of Health introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) as part of sequential polio vaccination schedule for all infants beginning their primary vaccination series. The revised childhood immunization schedule included 2 doses of IPV at 2 and 4 months of age followed by 2 doses of oral polio vaccine (OPV) at 6 and 15 months of age. One annual national polio immunization day was maintained to provide OPV to all children aged 6 to 59 months. The decision to introduce IPV was based on preventing rare cases of vaccine-associated paralytic polio, financially sustaining IPV introduction, ensuring equitable access to IPV, and preparing for future OPV cessation following global eradication. Introducing IPV during a national multivaccination campaign led to rapid uptake, despite challenges with local vaccine supply due to high wastage rates. Continuous monitoring is required to achieve high coverage with the sequential polio vaccine schedule. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.
Di Emidio, B; Nicolussi, P; Patta, C; Ronchi, G F; Monaco, F; Savini, G; Ciarelli, A; Caporale, V
An inactivated vaccine was produced from an Italian field isolate of bluetongue virus serotype 2 (BTV-2) with a titre of 10(7.8)TCID50/ml. The virus was purified through a molecular cut cassette membrane, inactivated with beta-propriolactone and emulsified with ISA 206 (Seppic) adjuvant. The vaccine was then tested for sterility, toxicity and safety in laboratory and target animals according to European Pharmacopoeia standards. Immunogenicity was assessed by inoculating subcutaneously 10 sheep and 10 goats each with 2 ml of the vaccine and 10 bovines each with 5 ml of the vaccine. A booster dose was inoculated after 14 days and no side-effects were reported following vaccination. Fourteen days after the booster dose, all vaccinated animals developed virus neutralising (VN) bluetongue (BT) antibody titres that on day 60 post vaccination ranged between 1/20 and 1/1 280. After one year, goats still had high VN antibody titres. Sheep were challenged 138 days after vaccination by subcutaneously inoculating 1 ml of 10(5.6)TCID50/ml of an Italian field isolate of BTV serotype 2; four unvaccinated animals were also inoculated and used as controls. Starting from day 6 post challenge, control animals developed a fever, with temperature ranging from 39.9 degrees C to 40.6 degrees C and lasting 48 h on average. BTV-2 was also isolated from the blood of control animals between days 4 and 20 post challenge. Conversely, neither fever nor viraemia were detected in the vaccinated animals that were challenged. A new trial with a larger number of animals, including all target species, has been planned and is in progress.
Gil, Cristina; Climent, Núria; García, Felipe; Hurtado, Carmen; Nieto-Márquez, Sara; León, Agathe; García, M Teresa; Rovira, Cristina; Miralles, Laia; Dalmau, Judith; Pumarola, Tomás; Almela, Manel; Martinez-Picado, Javier; Lifson, Jeffrey D; Zamora, Laura; Miró, José M; Brander, Christian; Clotet, Bonaventura; Gallart, Teresa; Gatell, José M
This study provides a detailed description and characterization of the preparation of individualized lots of autologous heat inactivated HIV-1 virions used as immunogen in a clinical trial designed to test an autologous dendritic-cell-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine (Clinical Trial DCV-2, NCT00402142). For each participant, ex vivo isolation and expansion of primary virus were performed by co-culturing CD4-enriched PBMCs from the HIV-1-infected patient with PBMC from HIV-seronegative unrelated healthy volunteer donors. The viral supernatants were heat-inactivated and concentrated to obtain 1 mL of autologous immunogen, which was used to load autologous dendritic cells of each patient. High sequence homology was found between the inactivated virus immunogen and the HIV-1 circulating in plasma at the time of HIV-1 isolation. Immunogens contained up to 10⁹ HIV-1 RNA copies/mL showed considerably reduced infectivity after heat inactivation (median of 5.6 log₁₀), and were free of specified adventitious agents. The production of individualized lots of immunogen based on autologous inactivated HIV-1 virus fulfilling clinical-grade good manufacturing practice proved to be feasible, consistent with predetermined specifications, and safe for use in a clinical trial designed to test autologous dendritic cell-based therapeutic HIV-1 vaccine.
Kelly, H; Carcione, D; Dowse, G; Effler, P
Australian and New Zealand health authorities identified seasonal trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines manufactured by CSL Biotherapies as the probable cause of increased febrile convulsions in children under five within 24 hours of vaccination and recommended against their use in this age group. We quantified the benefit-risk profile of the CSL vaccines using the number needed to vaccinate and suggest they might have caused two to three hospital admissions due to febrile convulsions for every hospital admission due to influenza prevented.
Ikegami, Tetsuro; Makino, Shinji
Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), which belongs to the genus Phlebovirus, family Bunyaviridae, is a negative-stranded RNA virus carrying a tripartite RNA genome. RVFV is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes large outbreaks among ruminants and humans in Africa and the Arabian Peninsula. Human patients develop an acute febrile illness, followed by a fatal hemorrhagic fever, encephalitis or ocular diseases, whereas ruminants experience abortions during outbreak. Effective vaccination of both humans and ruminants is the best approach to control Rift Valley fever. This article summarizes the development of inactivated RVFV vaccine, live attenuated vaccine, and other new generation vaccines. PMID:19837291
Rios, Adan; Pottet, Ethan C; Siwak, Edward B; Anderson, Dallas W; Yao, Qizhi C
There is evidence that the transmission and acute phase of HIV infection triggers an immune response capable of controlling HIV subverted by the process of virus integration, essential to the replicative cycle of retroviruses. We review here two aspects that deserve consideration in light of recent developments concerning HIV transmission and vaccine development: vaccines directed against transmitted/founder viruses, and a reconsideration of inactivation as a viable means to obtain a preventive HIV vaccine. Since 80% of sexually transmitted HIV infections are caused by a single transmitted/founder variant, it is appropriate to target transmitted/founder viruses for vaccine development. Transmitted/founder virus transmission is subject to strong natural selection based on conserved signatures present in all forms of transmitted/founder HIV viruses. This provides an opportunity to pursue inactivation methods of vaccine development that allow antigenic preservation of HIV transmitted/founder viruses. The presentation to the immune system of an inactivated but antigenically preserved transmitted/founder virus should allow the development of an effective immune response against transmitted/founder viruses. This could be the base for an inactivated transmitted/founder virus HIV vaccine. We have devised a method of inactivation of HIV reverse transcriptase through the use of a novel photo-labeling procedure based on the use of photo-labeled analogs of antiretroviral compounds with specific affinity for HIV reverse transcriptase. We believe this method fulfills the required conditions for an effective preventive vaccine development: inactivation and antigenic preservation.
Chaussee, Michael S.; Sandbulte, Heather R.; Schuneman, Margaret J.; DePaula, Frank P.; Addengast, Leslie A.; Schlenker, Evelyn H.; Huber, Victor C.
Mortality associated with influenza virus super-infections is frequently due to secondary bacterial complications. To date, super-infections with Streptococcus pyogenes have been studied less extensively than those associated with S. pneumoniae. This is significant because a vaccine for S. pyogenes is not clinically available, leaving vaccination against influenza virus as our only means for preventing these super-infections. In this study, we directly compared immunity induced by two types of influenza vaccine, either inactivated influenza virus (IIV) or live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV), for the ability to prevent super-infections. Our data demonstrate that both IIV and LAIV vaccines induce similar levels of serum antibodies, and that LAIV alone induces IgA expression at mucosal surfaces. Upon super-infection, both vaccines have the ability to limit the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the lung, including IFN-γ which has been shown to contribute to mortality in previous models of super-infection. Limiting expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines within the lungs subsequently limits recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils to pulmonary surfaces, and ultimately protects both IIV- and LAIV-vaccinated mice from mortality. Despite their overall survival, both IIV- and LAIV-vaccinated mice demonstrated levels of bacteria within the lung tissue to levels that are similar to those seen in unvaccinated mice. Thus, influenza virus:bacteria super-infections can be limited by vaccine-induced immunity against influenza virus, but the ability to prevent morbidity is not complete. PMID:21440037
Yang, Yan; Liang, Nengxiu; Tan, Yi; Xie, Zhichun
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most severe kinds of viral encephalitis and is prevalent in Asia and the Western Pacific. In China, JE was first reported in the 1940s and became the main cause of viral encephalitis, including in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. In 1951, JE was included in the Chinese mandatory disease reporting system. In the pre-vaccine era of the 1960s and 1970s, the incidence of JE continued to rise without any vaccine supply. Since JE vaccines became available in the late 1970s (MBD) and 1989 (LAV-SA-14-14-2), and as JE vaccine became freely available to patients beginning in 2008, the incidence of JE has declined significantly. Despite these gains, outbreaks continue to occur among children in rural and suburban areas. Strengthening vaccine delivery models and improving swine vaccine production are important in order to sustain continuous declines in the incidence of JE in Guangxi. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Skinner, G R; Davies, J
A vaccine designated F.EHV1(S(-))BHK, which was prepared by formaldehyde treatment of equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1)-infected baby hamster kidney cells, stimulated neutralising antibodies in hamsters and rabbits and protected new-born hamsters against a lethal challenge with EHV1 by vaccination of their pregnant mothers. The preparative method was then modified to eliminate virus particles and intraparticulate DNA, producing a vaccine designated Bg.F.EHV1(S(-))BHK. this modification stimulated neutralising antibodies with evidence of in vivo inactivation of the virus above non-specific levels in a mouse model. There were no adverse effects from these vaccines in rodent or rabbit species.
Mee, Edward T.; Minor, Philip D.; Martin, Javier
Background Definitive identification of poliovirus strains in vaccines is essential for quality control, particularly where multiple wild-type and Sabin strains are produced in the same facility. Sequence-based identification provides the ultimate in identity testing and would offer several advantages over serological methods. Methods We employed random RT-PCR and high throughput sequencing to recover full-length genome sequences from monovalent and trivalent poliovirus vaccine products at various stages of the manufacturing process. Results All expected strains were detected in previously characterised products and the method permitted identification of strains comprising as little as 0.1% of sequence reads. Highly similar Mahoney and Sabin 1 strains were readily discriminated on the basis of specific variant positions. Analysis of a product known to contain incorrect strains demonstrated that the method correctly identified the contaminants. Conclusion Random RT-PCR and shotgun sequencing provided high resolution identification of vaccine components. In addition to the recovery of full-length genome sequences, the method could also be easily adapted to the characterisation of minor variant frequencies and distinction of closely related products on the basis of distinguishing consensus and low frequency polymorphisms. PMID:26049003
Mee, Edward T; Minor, Philip D; Martin, Javier
Definitive identification of poliovirus strains in vaccines is essential for quality control, particularly where multiple wild-type and Sabin strains are produced in the same facility. Sequence-based identification provides the ultimate in identity testing and would offer several advantages over serological methods. We employed random RT-PCR and high throughput sequencing to recover full-length genome sequences from monovalent and trivalent poliovirus vaccine products at various stages of the manufacturing process. All expected strains were detected in previously characterised products and the method permitted identification of strains comprising as little as 0.1% of sequence reads. Highly similar Mahoney and Sabin 1 strains were readily discriminated on the basis of specific variant positions. Analysis of a product known to contain incorrect strains demonstrated that the method correctly identified the contaminants. Random RT-PCR and shotgun sequencing provided high resolution identification of vaccine components. In addition to the recovery of full-length genome sequences, the method could also be easily adapted to the characterisation of minor variant frequencies and distinction of closely related products on the basis of distinguishing consensus and low frequency polymorphisms. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Fafangel, Mario; Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Klavs, Irena; Grgič Vitek, Marta; Učakar, Veronika; Muehlen, Marion; Vudrag, Marko; Kraigher, Alenka
With an annual incidence between 8 and 15 per 100,000 population in the period from 2009 to 2013, Slovenia has one of the highest notified incidences of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe. TBE vaccination coverage remains at about 7.3%. To inform vaccination policy, we used surveillance data from 2009 to 2013 to calculate the overall and age- and sex-specific mean annual TBE incidence. We estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), using the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe approach from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The mean annual incidence was 11.6 per 100,000 population, peaking in older age groups (50-74 years: 18.5/100,000) while relatively lower among children (5-14 years: 10.2/100,000). We estimated an overall 10.95 DALYs per 100,000 population per year (95% UI: 10.25-11.65). In contrast to the TBE incidence, the disease burden in children aged 5-14 years was higher than in adults aged 50-74 years: 17.31 (95% UI: 14.58-20.08) and 11.58 (95% UI: 10.25-12.91) DALYs per 100,000 stratum-specific population, respectively. In a limited resource setting where prioritisation of TBE vaccination strategies is required, vaccination programmes targeting children may have a higher impact on disease burden. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.
Fafangel, Mario; Cassini, Alessandro; Colzani, Edoardo; Klavs, Irena; Grgič Vitek, Marta; Učakar, Veronika; Muehlen, Marion; Vudrag, Marko; Kraigher, Alenka
With an annual incidence between 8 and 15 per 100,000 population in the period from 2009 to 2013, Slovenia has one of the highest notified incidences of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in Europe. TBE vaccination coverage remains at about 7.3%. To inform vaccination policy, we used surveillance data from 2009 to 2013 to calculate the overall and age- and sex-specific mean annual TBE incidence. We estimated disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) with 95% uncertainty intervals (UI), using the Burden of Communicable Diseases in Europe approach from the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The mean annual incidence was 11.6 per 100,000 population, peaking in older age groups (50–74 years: 18.5/100,000) while relatively lower among children (5–14 years: 10.2/100,000). We estimated an overall 10.95 DALYs per 100,000 population per year (95% UI: 10.25-11.65). In contrast to the TBE incidence, the disease burden in children aged 5–14 years was higher than in adults aged 50–74 years: 17.31 (95% UI: 14.58–20.08) and 11.58 (95% UI: 10.25–12.91) DALYs per 100,000 stratum-specific population, respectively. In a limited resource setting where prioritisation of TBE vaccination strategies is required, vaccination programmes targeting children may have a higher impact on disease burden. PMID:28449731
Hoover, E A; Perigo, N A; Quackenbush, S L; Mathiason-DuBard, C K; Overbaugh, J M; Kloetzer, W S; Elder, J H; Mullins, J I
The protective immunity induced by 3 experimental FeLV vaccines were evaluated: Prototype inactivated FeLV vaccine developed from a molecularly cloned FeLV isolate (FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A); a mixture of immunodominant synthetic peptides corresponding to regions of the FeLV-Gardner-Arnstein-B (FeLV-GA-B) envelope proteins; and an adjuvant-disrupted but non-activated virus prepared from a non-cloned FeLV field isolate comprised of subgroup A and B viruses (FeLV-05821-AB). Included as controls were parallel groups of cats inoculated with adjuvants alone or with an established commercial FeLV vaccine. After each inoculation and after virulent virus challenge exposure, sera from all cats were assayed for ELISA-reactive antibody against purified FeLV, FeLV neutralizing (VN) antibody, and FeLV antigenemia/viremia--viral p27 antigen in serum and within circulating leukocytes. Immunity was challenged by oral/nasal exposure of vaccinated and control cats with FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A or FeLV-05821-AB, an infective, noncloned, tissue-origin, FeLV field isolate containing subgroup-A and -B viruses. Vaccine-induced immunity was assessed by comparing the postchallenge-exposure incidence of persistent viremia and the pre- and postchallenge exposure titers of VN and ELISA antibody in cats of the control and vaccine groups. The percentage of cats, that resisted development of persistent viremia after FeLV challenge exposure and the preventable fraction (PF) for the vaccine groups (which adjusts for the severity of the challenge and the degree of innate resistance in the controls) were as follows: adjuvant controls, 26%; FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A inactivated virus vaccine, 95% (PF = 93.2%); FeLV-GA-B peptide vaccine, 5% (-28.4%); FeLV-05821-AB noninactivated vaccine, 67% (55.4%); and commercial FeLV vaccine, 35% (12.2%). The prechallenge exposure mean VN antibody titer for each group was: less than 1:8 in the adjuvant controls; 1:43 in the FeLV-FAIDS-61E-A-vaccinated cats; less than 1:8 in the peptide-vaccinated
Sobey, K G; Rosatte, R; Bachmann, P; Buchanan, T; Bruce, L; Donovan, D; Brown, L; Davies, J C; Fehlner-Gardiner, C; Wandeler, A
Since raccoon rabies first appeared in Ontario in 1999, >90,000 raccoons (Procyon lotor) have received IMRAB3 inactivated rabies vaccine via intramuscular (IM) injection and were released at the point of capture as part of a multiyear rabies control program, trap-vaccinate-release (TVR). Of the 132 confirmed cases infected with raccoon-variant rabies virus in Ontario between 1999 and 2005, two were from that vaccinated group, as indicated by the presence of identifying ear tags. During ongoing rabies control programs in 2003, sera were collected from 172 wild raccoons that had received IMRAB3 and tested for rabies-virus antibodies. Raccoons had one of three histories: 1) vaccinated in the current year only (to examine the response to primary vaccination), 2) vaccinated in the previous year only (to determine the duration of the primary antibody response), and 3) vaccinated in the previous year and current year (to examine antibody response to booster vaccination). Seroconversion in primary vaccinates could be detected as early as 1 wk postvaccination when sera were measured with the use of a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (C-ELISA) with a cutoff value established to correspond to a neutralizing titer of 0.5 IU/ml. During weeks three and four postvaccination, 94% of sampled raccoons had detectable antibodies to rabies virus and 31% were still antibody positive the following year. Differences in the kinetics of the immune response were found in raccoons sampled from the two different TVR areas of the province. A strong anamnestic response was detected after booster vaccinations. IMRAB3 by IM injection was found to be an efficacious vaccine for rabies control in raccoons.
Jones, Gareth J; Steinbach, Sabine; Sevilla, Iker A; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramon; Vordermeier, H Martin
In this study we investigated whether oral uptake of a heat inactivated M. bovis wildlife vaccine by domestic cattle induced systemic immune responses that compromised the use of tuberculin or defined antigens in diagnostic tests for bovine TB. Positive skin test and blood-based IFN-γ release assay (IGRA) results were observed in all calves vaccinated via the parenteral route (i.e. intramuscular). In contrast, no positive responses to tuberculin or defined antigens were observed in either the skin test or IGRA test when performed in calves vaccinated via the oral route. In conclusion, our results suggest that the heat inactivated M. bovis vaccine could be used to vaccinate wildlife in a baited form in conjunction with the following in cattle: (i) continuation of existing tuberculin skin testing or novel skin test formats based on defined antigens; and (ii) the use of IGRA tests utilizing tuberculin or defined antigens. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Scotney, Soleine; Snidal, Sarah; Saidu, Yauba; Ojumu, Abiola; Ngatia, Antony; Bagana, Murtala; Mutuku, Faith; Sobngwi, Joelle; Efe-Aluta, Oniovo; Roper, Julia; LeTallec, Yann; Kang'ethe, Alice
Introducing a new vaccine is a large-scale endeavor that can face many challenges, resulting in introduction delays and inefficiencies. The development of national task teams and tools, such as prelaunch trackers, for the introduction of new vaccines (hereafter, "new vaccine introductions" [NVIs]) can help countries implement robust project management systems, front-load critical preparatory activities, and ensure continuous communication around vaccine supply and financing. In addition, implementing postlaunch assessments to take rapid corrective action accelerates the uptake of the new vaccines. NVIs can provide an opportunity to strengthen routine immunization, through strengthening program management systems or by reinforcing local immunization managers' abilities, among others. This article highlights key lessons learned during the introduction of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in 3 countries that would make future NVIs more successful. The article concludes by considering how the Immunization Systems Management Group of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative has been useful to the NVI process and how such global structures could be further enhanced. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Keller-Stanislawski, Brigitte; Englund, Janet A; Kang, Gagandeep; Mangtani, Punam; Neuzil, Kathleen; Nohynek, Hanna; Pless, Robert; Lambach, Philipp; Zuber, Patrick
Vaccine-preventable infectious diseases are responsible for significant maternal, neonatal, and young infant morbidity and mortality. While there is emerging scientific evidence, as well as theoretical considerations, indicating that certain vaccines are safe for pregnant women and fetuses, policy formulation is challenging because of perceived potential risks to the fetus. This report presents an overview of available evidence on pregnant women vaccination safety monitoring in pregnant women, from both published literature and ongoing surveillance programs. Safety data were reviewed for vaccines against diseases which increase morbidity in pregnant women, their fetus or infant as well as vaccines which are used in mass vaccination campaigns against diseases. They include inactivated seasonal and pandemic influenza, mono- and combined meningococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines, tetanus toxoid and acellular pertussis combination vaccines, as well as monovalent or combined rubella, oral poliomyelitis virus and yellow fever vaccines. No evidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has been identified from immunization of pregnant women with these vaccines.
Erwin-Cohen, Rebecca A.; Porter, Aimee I.; Pittman, Phillip R.; Rossi, Cynthia A.; DaSilva, Luis
ABSTRACT Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is an important human and animal alphavirus pathogen transmitted by mosquitoes. The virus is endemic in Central and South America, but has also caused equine outbreaks in southwestern areas of the United States. In an effort to better understand the molecular mechanisms of the development of immunity to this important pathogen, we performed transcriptional analysis from whole, unfractionated human blood of patients who had been immunized with the live-attenuated vaccine strain of VEEV, TC-83. We compared changes in the transcriptome between naïve individuals who were mock vaccinated with saline to responses of individuals who received TC-83. Significant transcriptional changes were noted at days 2, 7, and 14 following vaccination. The top canonical pathways revealed at early and intermediate time points (days 2 and 7) included the involvement of the classic interferon response, interferon-response factors, activation of pattern recognition receptors, and engagement of the inflammasome. By day 14, the top canonical pathways included oxidative phosphorylation, the protein ubiquitination pathway, natural killer cell signaling, and B-cell development. Biomarkers were identified that differentiate between vaccinees and control subjects, at early, intermediate, and late stages of the development of immunity as well as markers which were common to all 3 stages following vaccination but distinct from the sham-vaccinated control subjects. The study represents a novel examination of molecular processes that lead to the development of immunity against VEEV in humans and which may be of value as diagnostic targets, to enhance modern vaccine design, or molecular correlates of protection. PMID:27870591
Van Gessel, Yvonne; Klade, Christoph S; Putnak, Robert; Formica, Alessandra; Krasaesub, Somporn; Spruth, Martin; Cena, Bruno; Tungtaeng, Anchalee; Gettayacamin, Montip; Dewasthaly, Shailesh
Immune sera from volunteers vaccinated in a blinded Phase 3 clinical trial with JE-VAX(®) and a new Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine (IC51 or IXIARO), were tested for the ability to protect mice against lethal JEV challenge. Sera from IXIARO vaccinated subjects were pooled into four batches based on neutralizing antibody measured by plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT(50) titer): high (∼200), medium (∼40-50), low (∼20) and negative (<10). Pooled sera from JE-VAX(®) vaccinated subjects (PRNT(50) titer∼55) and pooled JEV antibody negative pre-vaccination sera were used as controls. Groups of ten 6- to 7-week-old female ICR mice were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 ml of each serum pool diluted 1:2 or 1:10, challenged approximately 18 h later with a lethal dose of either JEV strain SA14 (genotype III) or strain KE-093 (genotype I) and observed for 21 days. All mice in the non-immune serum groups developed clinical signs consistent with JEV infection or died, whereas high titer sera from both IXIARO and JE-VAX(®) sera protected 90-100% of the animals. Statistical tests showed similar protection against both JEV strains SA14 and KE-093 and protection correlated with the anti-JEV antibody titer of IXIARO sera as measured by PRNT(50). Ex vivo neutralizing antibody titers showed that almost all mice with a titer of 10 or greater were fully protected. In a separate study, analysis of geometric mean titers (GMTs) of the groups of mice vaccinated with different doses of IXIARO and challenged with JEV SA14 provided additional evidence that titers≥10 were protective.
Firouzamandi, Masoumeh; Moeini, Hassan; Hosseini, Davood; Bejo, Mohd Hair; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Mehrbod, Parvaneh; Ideris, Aini
The present study describes the development of DNA vaccines using the hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) and fusion (F) genes from AF2240 Newcastle disease virus strain, namely pIRES/HN, pIRES/F and pIRES-F/HN. Transient expression analysis of the constructs in Vero cells revealed the successful expression of gene inserts in vitro. Moreover, in vivo experiments showed that single vaccination with the constructed plasmid DNA (pDNA) followed by a boost with inactivated vaccine induced a significant difference in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody levels (p < 0.05) elicited by either pIRES/F, pIRES/F+ pIRES/HN or pIRES-F/HN at one week after the booster in specific pathogen free chickens when compared with the inactivated vaccine alone. Taken together, these results indicated that recombinant pDNA could be used to increase the efficacy of the inactivated vaccine immunization procedure.
Background Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most important cause of epidemic encephalitis in most Asian regions. There is no specific treatment available for Japanese encephalitis, and vaccination is the only effective way to prevent JEV infection in humans and domestic animals. The purpose of this study is to establish a new mammalian cell line stably and efficiently expressing virus-like particle of JEV for potential use of JEV subunit vaccine. Results We generated a new cell clone (BJ-ME cells) that stably produces a secreted form of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) virus-like particle (VLP). The BJ-ME cells were engineered by transfecting BHK-21 cells with a code-optimized cDNA encoding JEV prM and E protein expression plasmid. Cell line BJ-ME can stably produces a secreted form of Japanese encephalitis virus virus-like particle (JEV-VLP) which contains the JEV envelope glycoprotein (E) and membrane protein (M). The amount of JEV-VLP antigen released into the culture fluid of BJ-ME cells was as high as 15–20 μg/ml. JEV-VLP production was stable after multiple cell passages and 100% cell expression was maintained without detectable cell fusion or apoptosis. Cell culture fluid containing the JEV-VLP antigen could be harvested five to seven times continuously at intervals of 4–6 days while maintaining the culture. Mice immunized with the JEV-VLP antigen with or without adjuvant developed high titers of neutralizing antibodies and 100% protection against lethal JEV challenge. Conclusion These results suggest that the recombinant JEV-VLP antigen produced by the BJ-ME cell line is an effective, safe and affordable subunit Japanese encephalitis vaccine candidate, especially for domestic animals such as pig and horse. PMID:25011456
Choi, Hyo-Jick; Ebersbacher, Charles F.; Kim, Min-Chul; Kang, Sang-Moo; Montemagno, Carlo D.
Oral immunization using whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine promises an efficient vaccination strategy. While oral vaccination was hampered by harsh gastric environment, a systematic understanding about vaccine destabilization mechanisms was not performed. Here, we investigated the separate and combined effects of temperature, retention time, pH, and osmotic stress on the stability of influenza vaccine by monitoring the time-dependent morphological change using stopped-flow light scattering. When exposed to osmotic stress, clustering of vaccine particles was enhanced in an acidic medium (pH 2.0) at ≥25°C. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that hyper-osmotic stress at pH 2.0 and 37°C caused a considerable increase in conformational change of antigenic proteins compared to that in acidic iso-osmotic medium. A structural integrity of membrane was destroyed upon exposure to hyper-osmotic stress, leading to irreversible morphological change, as observed by undulation in stopped-flow light scattering intensity and transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with these analyses, hemagglutination activity decreased more significantly with an increasing magnitude of hyper-osmotic stress than in the presence of the hypo- and iso-osmotic stresses. This study shows that the magnitude and direction of the osmotic gradient has a substantial impact on the stability of orally administrated influenza vaccine. PMID:23776657
Bordin, Angela I; Pillai, Suresh D; Brake, Courtney; Bagley, Kaytee B; Bourquin, Jessica R; Coleman, Michelle; Oliveira, Fabiano N; Mwangi, Waithaka; McMurray, David N; Love, Charles C; Felippe, Maria Julia B; Cohen, Noah D
Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals that causes severe pneumonia. To date, there is no licensed vaccine effective against R. equi pneumonia of foals. The objectives of our study were to develop an electron beam (eBeam) inactivated vaccine against R. equi and evaluate its immunogenicity. A dose of eBeam irradiation that inactivated replication of R. equi while maintaining outer cell wall integrity was identified. Enteral administration of eBeam inactivated R. equi increased interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi and generated naso-pharyngeal R. equi-specific IgA in newborn foals. Our results indicate that eBeam irradiated R. equi administered enterally produce cell-mediated and upper respiratory mucosal immune responses, in the face of passively transferred maternal antibodies, similar to those produced in response to enteral administration of live organisms (a strategy which previously has been documented to protect foals against intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi). No evidence of adverse effects was noted among vaccinated foals.
Bordin, Angela I.; Pillai, Suresh D.; Brake, Courtney; Bagley, Kaytee B.; Bourquin, Jessica R.; Coleman, Michelle; Oliveira, Fabiano N.; Mwangi, Waithaka; McMurray, David N.; Love, Charles C.; Felippe, Maria Julia B.; Cohen, Noah D.
Rhodococcus equi is an important pathogen of foals that causes severe pneumonia. To date, there is no licensed vaccine effective against R. equi pneumonia of foals. The objectives of our study were to develop an electron beam (eBeam) inactivated vaccine against R. equi and evaluate its immunogenicity. A dose of eBeam irradiation that inactivated replication of R. equi while maintaining outer cell wall integrity was identified. Enteral administration of eBeam inactivated R. equi increased interferon-γ production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to stimulation with virulent R. equi and generated naso-pharyngeal R. equi-specific IgA in newborn foals. Our results indicate that eBeam irradiated R. equi administered enterally produce cell-mediated and upper respiratory mucosal immune responses, in the face of passively transferred maternal antibodies, similar to those produced in response to enteral administration of live organisms (a strategy which previously has been documented to protect foals against intrabronchial infection with virulent R. equi). No evidence of adverse effects was noted among vaccinated foals. PMID:25153708
Altuzarra, Raúl; Vidal, Enric; Moll, Xavier; Espada, Yvonne; Sevilla, Iker A.; Domingo, Mariano; Garrido, Joseba M.; Juste, Ramón A.; Prieto, Miguel; Pérez de Val, Bernat
Background/Aims Animal tuberculosis (TB) is a complex animal health problem that causes disruption to trade and significant economic losses. TB involves a multi-host system where sheep, traditionally considered a rare host of this infection, have been recently included. The aims of this study were to develop an experimental TB infection model in sheep with a Mycobacterium caprae field strain isolated from a tuberculous diseased ewe, and to use this to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two vaccines against TB in sheep, the live-attenuated M. bovis BCG vaccine (Danish strain) and a heat-inactivated M. bovis (HIMB) vaccine. Methods Eighteen 2 month-old lambs were experimentally challenged with M. caprae by the endotracheal route (1.5 × 103 CFU). They were separated per treatment group into parenterally vaccinated with a live BCG Danish strain vaccine (n = 6), orally vaccinated with a suspension of HIMB (n = 6) and unvaccinated controls (n = 6). Clinical, immunological, pathological and bacteriological parameters of infection were measured. Results All lambs were successfully infected and developed gross TB lesions in the respiratory system. The BCG vaccine conferred considerable protection against experimental TB in lambs, as measured by a reduction of the gross lesion volumes and bacterial load. However, HIMB vaccinated animals did not show protection. Conclusions This study proposes a reliable new experimental model for a better understanding of tuberculosis in sheep. BCG vaccination offers an effective prospect for controlling the disease. Moreover alternative doses and/or routes of administration should be considered to evaluate the efficacy of the HIMB vaccine candidate. PMID:28678885
Balseiro, Ana; Altuzarra, Raúl; Vidal, Enric; Moll, Xavier; Espada, Yvonne; Sevilla, Iker A; Domingo, Mariano; Garrido, Joseba M; Juste, Ramón A; Prieto, Miguel; Pérez de Val, Bernat
Animal tuberculosis (TB) is a complex animal health problem that causes disruption to trade and significant economic losses. TB involves a multi-host system where sheep, traditionally considered a rare host of this infection, have been recently included. The aims of this study were to develop an experimental TB infection model in sheep with a Mycobacterium caprae field strain isolated from a tuberculous diseased ewe, and to use this to evaluate the safety and efficacy of two vaccines against TB in sheep, the live-attenuated M. bovis BCG vaccine (Danish strain) and a heat-inactivated M. bovis (HIMB) vaccine. Eighteen 2 month-old lambs were experimentally challenged with M. caprae by the endotracheal route (1.5 × 103 CFU). They were separated per treatment group into parenterally vaccinated with a live BCG Danish strain vaccine (n = 6), orally vaccinated with a suspension of HIMB (n = 6) and unvaccinated controls (n = 6). Clinical, immunological, pathological and bacteriological parameters of infection were measured. All lambs were successfully infected and developed gross TB lesions in the respiratory system. The BCG vaccine conferred considerable protection against experimental TB in lambs, as measured by a reduction of the gross lesion volumes and bacterial load. However, HIMB vaccinated animals did not show protection. This study proposes a reliable new experimental model for a better understanding of tuberculosis in sheep. BCG vaccination offers an effective prospect for controlling the disease. Moreover alternative doses and/or routes of administration should be considered to evaluate the efficacy of the HIMB vaccine candidate.
Hause, Ben M; Huntimer, Lucas; Falkenberg, Shollie; Henningson, Jamie; Lechtenberg, Kelly; Halbur, Tom
Originally isolated from swine, the proposed influenza D virus has since been shown to be common in cattle. Inoculation of IDV to naïve calves resulted in mild respiratory disease histologically characterized by tracheitis. As several studies have associated the presence of IDV with acute bovine respiratory disease (BRD), we sought to investigate the efficacy of an inactivated IDV vaccine. Vaccinated calves seroconverted with hemagglutination inhibition titers 137-169 following two doses. Non-vaccinated calves challenged with a homologous virus exhibited signs of mild respiratory disease from days four to ten post challenge which was significantly different than negative controls at days five and nine post challenge. Peak viral shedding of approximately 5 TCID50/mL was measured in nasal and tracheal swabs and bronchoalveolar lavage fluids four to six days post challenge. Viral titers were significantly (P<0.05) decreased 1.4 TCID50/mL, 3.6 TCID50/mL and 5.0 TCID50/mL, respectively, in the aforementioned samples collected from vaccinated animals compared to non-vaccinated controls at peak shedding. Viral antigen was detected in the respiratory epithelium of the nasal turbinates and trachea by immunohistochemistry from all unvaccinated calves but in significantly fewer vaccinates. Inflammation characterized by neutrophils was observed in the nasal turbinate and trachea but not appreciably in lungs. Together these results support an etiologic role for IDV in BRD and demonstrate that partial protection is afforded by an inactivated vaccine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
de Freitas Neto, Oliveiro Caetano; Mesquita, Aline Lopes; de Paiva, Jaqueline Boldrin; Zotesso, Fábio; Berchieri Júnior, Angelo
Salmonella Enteritidis is one of the agents that is responsible for outbreaks of human foodborne salmonellosis caused by Salmonella Enteritidis and is generally associated with the consumption of poultry products. Inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis cell vaccine is one of the available methods to control Salmonella Enteritidis in breeders and laying hens, however results in terms of efficacy vary. This vaccine has never been tested in Brazil, therefore, the present work was carried out to assess three commercial inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines allowed in Brazil. Four hundred white light variety commercial laying hens were obtained at one-day-of age. At eight weeks old, the birds were divided into four groups with one hundred animals each. Birds from three groups (V1, V2 and V3) received different intramuscular vaccines, followed by a booster dose at 16 weeks of age. Birds from another group (CG) were not vaccinated. When the laying hens were 20, 25 and 31 weeks old, 13 from each group were transferred to another room and were challenged by inoculating 2 mL neat culture of Salmonella Enteritidis. On the second day after each challenge, the caecal contents, spleen, liver and ovary of three birds from each group were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. Twice a week a cloacal swab of each bird was taken and all eggs laid were examined for the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis. After four consecutive negative cloacal swabs in all the groups, the birds were sacrificed so as to examine the liver, caecal contents and ovaries. Overall, the inactivated vaccine used in group V3 reduced Salmonella Enteritidis in the feces and eggs. A very small amount of Salmonella was found in the spleen, liver, ovary and caeca of the birds in the four groups during the whole experiment. In general, inactivated Salmonella Enteritidis vaccines was able to decrease the presence of Salmonella Enteritidis in the birds and in the eggs as well. Nevertheless, they must
Sedeh, Farahnaz Motamedi; Khorasani, Akbar; Shafaee, Kamal; Fatolahi, Hadi; Arbabi, Kourosh
FMD is one of the most economically damaging diseases that affect livestock animals. In this study FMD Virus type A87/IRN was multiplied on BHK21 cells. The virus was titrated by TCID50 method, it was 10(7.5)/ml. The FMD virus samples were inactivated by gamma ray from 60Co source at -20°C. Safety test was done by IBRS2 monolayer cell culture method, also antigenicity of irradiated and un-irradiated virus samples were studied by Complement Fixation Test. The Dose/Survival curve for irradiated FMD Virus was drawn, the optimum dose range for inactivation of FMDV type A87/IRN and unaltered antigenicity was obtained 40-44 kGy. The inactivated virus samples by irradiation and ethyleneimine (EI) were formulated respectively as vaccine with Al(OH)3 gel and other substances. The vaccines were inoculated to Guinea pigs and the results of Serum Neutralization Test for the normal vaccine and radio-vaccine showed protective titer after 8 months. The potency test of the inactivated vaccines was done, PD50 Value of the vaccines were calculated 7.06 and 5.6 for inactivated vaccine by EI and gamma irradiation respectively.
Erra, Elina O.; Askling, Helena Hervius; Rombo, Lars; Riutta, Jukka; Vene, Sirkka; Yoksan, Sutee; Lindquist, Lars; Pakkanen, Sari H.; Huhtamo, Eili; Vapalahti, Olli; Kantele, Anu
Background. A significant part of the world population lives in areas with endemic Japanese encephalitis (JE). For travelers from nonendemic countries, Vero cell–derived vaccine (JE-VC; Ixiaro) has replaced traditional mouse brain–derived vaccines (JE-MB) associated with safety concerns. The 2 vaccines are derived from different viral strains: JE-VC from the SA14-14-2 strain and JE-MB from the Nakayama strain. No data exist regarding whether JE-VC can be used to boost immunity after a primary series of JE-MB; therefore, a primary series of JE-VC has been recommended to all travelers regardless of previous vaccination history. Methods. One hundred twenty travelers were divided into 4 groups: Volunteers with no prior JE vaccination received primary immunization with (group 1) JE-MB or (group 2) JE-VC, and those primed with JE-MB received a single booster dose of (group 3) JE-MB or (group 4) JE-VC. Immune responses were tested before and 4–8 weeks after vaccination using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) against both vaccine strains. Results. In vaccine-naive travelers, the vaccination response rate for test strains Nakayama and SA14-14-2 was 100% and 87% after primary vaccination with JE-MB and 87% and 94% after JE-VC, respectively. Antibody levels depended on the target virus, with higher titers against homologous than heterologous PRNT50 target strain (P < .001). In travelers primed with JE-MB, vaccination response rates were 91% and 91%, and 98% and 95% after a booster dose of JE-MB or JE-VC, respectively. Subgroup analysis revealed that a higher proportion of primed (98%/95%) than nonprimed (39%/42%) volunteers responded to a single dose of JE-VC (P < .001). Conclusions. A single dose of JE-VC effectively boosted immunity in JE-MB–primed travelers. Current recommendations should be reevaluated. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT01386827. PMID:22696017
Gatchalian, Salvacion; Yao, Yafu; Zhou, Benli; Zhang, Lei; Yoksan, Sutee; Kelly, Kim; Neuzil, Kathleen M; Yaïch, Mansour; Jacobson, Julie
Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus is a major cause of disease, disability, and death in Asia. An effective, live, attenuated JE vaccine (LJEV) is available; however, its use in routine immunization schedules is hampered by lack of data on concomitant administration with measles vaccine (MV). This study evaluated the immunogenicity and reactogenicity of LJEV and MV when administered at the same or separate study visits in infants younger than 1 year of age. Three groups of healthy infants were randomized to receive LJEV at age of 8 months and MV at 9 months (Group 1; n=100); MV and LJEV together at 9 months (Group 2; n=236); or MV and LJEV at 9 and 10 months, respectively (Group 3; n=235). Blood was obtained 4 weeks after each vaccine administration to determine antibody levels for measles and JE. Reactogenicity was assessed by parental diaries and clinic visits. Four weeks after immunization, measles seroprotection rates (defined as > or =340 mIU/ml) were high and comparable in all three groups and specifically, rates in the combined MV-LJEV (Group 2) were not statistically inferior to those in Group 3 receiving MV separately (96% versus 100%, respectively). Likewise, the LJEV seroprotection rates were high and similar between the three groups. The reactogenicity profiles of the three vaccine schedules were also analogous. LJEV and MV administered together are well tolerated and immunogenic in infants younger than 1 year. These results should facilitate incorporation of LJEV into routine immunization schedules with MV.
Saga, Ryohei; Fujimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Mami; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Nakamura, Noriko; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Konishi, Eiji; Kato, Takanobu; Kohara, Michinori; Takeyama, Haruko; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Ryosuke
Directly acting antivirals recently have become available for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but there is no prophylactic vaccine for HCV. In the present study, we took advantage of the properties of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) to develop antigens for use in a HCV vaccine. Notably, the surface-exposed JEV envelope protein is tolerant of inserted foreign epitopes, permitting display of novel antigens. We identified 3 positions that permitted insertion of the HCV E2 neutralization epitope recognized by HCV1 antibody. JEV subviral particles (SVP) containing HCV-neutralization epitope (SVP-E2) were purified from culture supernatant by gel chromatography. Sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 inhibited infection by JEV and by trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp) derived from multi-genotypic viruses, whereas sera from mice immunized with synthetic E2 peptides did not show any neutralizing activity. Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 neutralized HCVtcp with N415K escape mutation in E2. As with the SVP-E2 epitope-displaying particles, JEV SVPs with HCV E1 epitope also elicited neutralizing antibodies against HCV. Thus, this novel platform harboring foreign epitopes on the surface of the particle may facilitate the development of a bivalent vaccine against JEV and other pathogens.
Saga, Ryohei; Fujimoto, Akira; Watanabe, Noriyuki; Matsuda, Mami; Hasegawa, Makoto; Watashi, Koichi; Aizaki, Hideki; Nakamura, Noriko; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Konishi, Eiji; Kato, Takanobu; Kohara, Michinori; Takeyama, Haruko; Wakita, Takaji; Suzuki, Ryosuke
Directly acting antivirals recently have become available for the treatment of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, but there is no prophylactic vaccine for HCV. In the present study, we took advantage of the properties of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) to develop antigens for use in a HCV vaccine. Notably, the surface-exposed JEV envelope protein is tolerant of inserted foreign epitopes, permitting display of novel antigens. We identified 3 positions that permitted insertion of the HCV E2 neutralization epitope recognized by HCV1 antibody. JEV subviral particles (SVP) containing HCV-neutralization epitope (SVP-E2) were purified from culture supernatant by gel chromatography. Sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 inhibited infection by JEV and by trans-complemented HCV particles (HCVtcp) derived from multi-genotypic viruses, whereas sera from mice immunized with synthetic E2 peptides did not show any neutralizing activity. Furthermore, sera from mice immunized with SVP-E2 neutralized HCVtcp with N415K escape mutation in E2. As with the SVP-E2 epitope-displaying particles, JEV SVPs with HCV E1 epitope also elicited neutralizing antibodies against HCV. Thus, this novel platform harboring foreign epitopes on the surface of the particle may facilitate the development of a bivalent vaccine against JEV and other pathogens. PMID:27345289
Soonawala, Darius; Verdijk, Pauline; Wijmenga-Monsuur, Alienke J; Boog, Claire J; Koedam, Patrick; Visser, Leo G; Rots, Nynke Y
For global eradication of poliomyelitis, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) needs to become available in all countries. Using fractional-doses (reduced-doses) may impact affordability and optimize the utilization of the production capacity. Intradermal administration has the potential to lower the dose without reducing immunogenicity. A needle-free jet injector may be a reliable way to administer vaccines intradermally. The primary objective of this randomized controlled trial was to compare the immunogenicity and tolerability of fractional-dose intradermal IPV (Netherlands Vaccine Institute, NVI) booster vaccination administered with a jet injector (PharmaJet) to full-dose and fractional-dose intramuscular vaccination with a needle and syringe. Immunogenicity was assessed by comparing the differences in the post-vaccination log2 geometric mean concentrations of neutralizing antibodies (GMC) between the study groups. A total of 125 Dutch adult volunteers with a well-documented vaccination history were randomized to one of four groups: full-dose intramuscular needle (IM-NS-0.5), full-dose intramuscular jet injector (IM-JI-0.5), 1/5th dose intramuscular needle (IM-NS-0.1), 1/5th dose intradermal jet injector (ID-JI-0.1). Vaccination with the JI was less painful (87% no pain) than vaccination with a NS (60% no pain), but caused more transient erythema (JI 85%, NS 24%) and swelling (JI 50%, NS 5%). Intradermal vaccination caused less vaccination site soreness (ID 16%, IM 52%). At baseline all subjects had seroprotective antibody concentrations. After 28 days, GMC were slightly lower in the ID-JI-0.1 group than in the reference group (IM-NS-0.5). The differences were not statistically significant, but the stringent non-inferiority criterion (i.e. a difference of 1 serum dilution in the microneutralization assay) was not met. After one year, differences in GMC were no longer apparent. In contrast, intramuscular vaccination with a fractional dose administered with a
Turmelle, Amy S; Allen, Louise C; Schmidt-French, Barbara A; Jackson, Felix R; Kunz, Thomas H; McCracken, Gary F; Rupprecht, Charles E
A captive colony of Brazilian free-tailed bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) was vaccinated with a commercial monovalent inactivated rabies virus (RABV) vaccine (RABVAC 1). Baseline rabies virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) and the response to vaccination were measured in 50 bats. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 64% (27/42) of bats that had been vaccinated 1 yr prior, but only 19% (8/42) had levels considered adequate. Rabies VNA was detected in the plasma of 63% (5/8) of bats with no record of previous vaccination, suggesting natural RABV exposure before captivity. All bats demonstrated a VNA response by 10 days postvaccination, and baseline titer significantly predicted humoral response to vaccination. No adverse reactions to vaccination or clinical signs of RABV infection were observed in the bats during a 6-mo observation period. Annual vaccination may maintain immunity against RABV infection in captive colonies of bats. Bat, rabies virus, Tadarida brasiliensis, vaccination, virus neutralizing antibodies.
Bosch, J C; De Jong, M C; Franken, P; Frankena, K; Hage, J J; Kaashoek, M J; Maris-Veldhuis, M A; Noordhuizen, J P; Van der Poel, W H; Verhoeff, J; Weerdmeester, K; Zimmer, G M; Van Oirschot, J T
An inactivated glycoprotein E-negative vaccine and an experimental glycoprotein D-subunit vaccine against bovine herpesvirus 1 (V1) were examined for their effectiveness in a randomized, double-bline, placebo-controlled field trial comprising 130 dairy farms. The use of these marker vaccines enabled us to monitor the incidence of infections in vaccinated populations. The aims of this trial were to evaluate whether these vaccines: (1) reduce the proportion of outbreaks in dairy herds; and (2) reduced virus transmission within dairy herds and to what extent. Vaccination with either of the two vaccines significantly reduced the proportion of herds wherein an outbreak occurred as well as the virus transmission within herds, as compared to placebo-treated herds. The estimated number of secondary cases caused by one infectious animal, expressed as the reproduction ratio R, was for both vaccines significantly > 1. This indicates that when BHV1 is introduced into vaccinated herds, major outbreaks may still occur.
Gao, Fan; Mao, Qun-Ying; Wang, Yi-Ping; Chen, Pan; Liang, Zheng-Lun
A reference standard calibrated in the International Units is needed for the quality control of hepatitis A vaccine. Thus, National Institutes for Food and Drug Control launched a project to establish a non-adsorbed inactivated hepatitis A vaccine reference as the working standard calibrated against the 1st International Standard (IS). Two national standard candidates (NSCs) were obtained from two manufacturers, and designated as NSC A (lyophilized form) and NSC B (liquid form). Six laboratories participated in the collaborative study and were asked to use their in-house validated enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods to detect hepatitis A vaccine antigen content. Although both exhibited good parallelism and linear relationship with IS, NSC B showed a better agreement among laboratories than NSC A. And based on suitability of the candidates, NSC B was selected. The accelerated degradation study showed that NSC B was stable at the storage temperature (≤-70 °C). Therefore NSC B was approved as the first Chinese national antigen standard for inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, with an assigned antigen content of 70 IU/ml.
Shirato, Haruko; Someya, Yuichi; Ochiai, Masaki; Horiuchi, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Motohide; Takeda, Naokazu; Wakabayashi, Kengo; Ouchi, Yasumitsu; Ota, Yoshihiro; Tano, Yoshio; Abe, Shinobu; Yamazaki, Shudo; Wakita, Takaji
As one aspect of its campaign to eradicate poliomyelitis, the World Health Organization (WHO) has encouraged development of the inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) derived from the Sabin strains (sIPV) as an option for an affordable polio vaccine, especially in low-income countries. The Japan Poliomyelitis Research Institute (JPRI) inactivated three serotypes of the Sabin strains and made sIPV preparations, including serotypes 1, 2 and 3 D-antigens in the ratio of 3:100:100. The National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Japan, assessed the immunogenic stability of these sIPV preparations in a rat potency test, according to an evaluation method recommended by the WHO. The immunogenicity of the three serotypes was maintained for at least 4 years when properly stored under -70°C. Based on these data, the sIPV preparations made by JPRI have been approved as national reference vaccines by the Japanese national control authority and used for the quality control of the tetracomponent sIPV-containing diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis combination vaccines that were licensed for a routine polio immunization in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gowane, G R; Sharma, A K; Sankar, M; Narayanan, K; Bisht, Punam; Subramaniam, S; Pattnaik, B
Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is an economically important disease and a whole-virus inactivated trivalent virus vaccine is the mainstay for controlling the disease in India. The protective humoral immune response to FMD vaccination is a complex, but, tightly regulated process mediated by the interplay of interleukins (IL). Based on the specific role of IL6 and 21 in adaptive immune response, we hypothesized that inactivated trivalent FMD vaccine would stimulate IL6 and 21 expression in the circulating lymphocytes. The expressions of IL6 and 21 were assayed on 0, 28, 60, 90, and 120 d post-vaccination (DPV) by quantitative PCR (qPCR) with simultaneous assessment of FMDV antibody titer by liquid phase blocking ELISA. The results revealed that the peak expression of IL6 and 21 was on DPV 28 which correlated well with the FMDV antibody titer and plummeted to the prevaccination titer level by 60 DPV. As IL21 is the final effector of antibody production as compared to IL6, we investigated the expression of IL21 in calves that had protective titer (>1.8) with the unprotected group (<1.8). Expression of IL21 on 28 DPV was numerically higher in the protected than that of the unprotected group of calves.
In the United States there are currently two influenza vaccine platforms approved for use in humans - conventional inactivated virus and live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV). One of the major challenges for influenza vaccination is designing a platform that provides cross-protection across strains...
Ou-yang, Zhengliang; Wang, Peiran; Huang, Xiaohong; Cai, Jia; Huang, Youhua; Wei, Shina; Ji, Huasong; Wei, Jingguang; Zhou, Yongcan; Qin, Qiwei
Vaccination is one of the best methods against viral diseases. In this study, experimental inactivated Singapore grouper iridovirus (SGIV) vaccines were prepared, and immunogenicity and protection against virus infection of the vaccines were investigated in orange-spotted grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Two kinds of vaccines, including β-propiolactone (BPL) inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 h and formalin inactivated virus at 4°C for 12 d, was highly protective against the challenge at 30-day post-vaccination and produced relative percent of survival rates of 91.7% and 100%, respectively. These effective vaccinations induced potent innate immune responses mediated by pro-inflammatory cytokines and type I interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs). It is noteworthy that ISGs, such as Mx and ISG15, were up-regulated only in the effective vaccine groups, which suggested that type I IFN system may be the functional basis of early anti-viral immunity. Moreover, effective vaccination also significantly up-regulated of the expression of MHC class I gene and produced substantial amount of specific serum antibody at 4 weeks post-vaccination. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrated that effective vaccination in grouper induced an early, nonspecific antiviral immunity, and later, a specific immune response involving both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
Garrido, Joseba M.; Aranaz, Alicia; Sevilla, Iker; Villar, Margarita; Boadella, Mariana; Galindo, Ruth C.; Pérez de la Lastra, José M.; Moreno-Cid, Juan A.; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G.; Alberdi, Pilar; Santos, Gracia; Ballesteros, Cristina; Lyashchenko, Konstantin P.; Minguijón, Esmeralda; Romero, Beatriz; de Juan, Lucía; Domínguez, Lucas; Juste, Ramón; Gortazar, Christian
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a pandemic affecting billions of people worldwide, thus stressing the need for new vaccines. Defining the correlates of vaccine protection is essential to achieve this goal. In this study, we used the wild boar model for mycobacterial infection and TB to characterize the protective mechanisms elicited by a new heat inactivated Mycobacterium bovis vaccine (IV). Oral vaccination with the IV resulted in significantly lower culture and lesion scores, particularly in the thorax, suggesting that the IV might provide a novel vaccine for TB control with special impact on the prevention of pulmonary disease, which is one of the limitations of current vaccines. Oral vaccination with the IV induced an adaptive antibody response and activation of the innate immune response including the complement component C3 and inflammasome. Mycobacterial DNA/RNA was not involved in inflammasome activation but increased C3 production by a still unknown mechanism. The results also suggested a protective mechanism mediated by the activation of IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells by MHC I antigen presenting dendritic cells (DCs) in response to vaccination with the IV, without a clear role for Th1 CD4+ T cells. These results support a role for DCs in triggering the immune response to the IV through a mechanism similar to the phagocyte response to PAMPs with a central role for C3 in protection against mycobacterial infection. Higher C3 levels may allow increased opsonophagocytosis and effective bacterial clearance, while interfering with CR3-mediated opsonic and nonopsonic phagocytosis of mycobacteria, a process that could be enhanced by specific antibodies against mycobacterial proteins induced by vaccination with the IV. These results suggest that the IV acts through novel mechanisms to protect against TB in wild boar. PMID:24842853
Gupta, Neeru; Chatterjee, Kunal; Karmakar, Somenath; Jain, S K; Venkatesh, S; Lal, Shiv
To confirm the existence of the outbreak of suspected Japanese encephalitis, identify the source, to understand the circumstances due to which the outbreak was taking place and to suggest measures for its control. The team visited Bellary from 4th to 10th Sept, 2004. The team interviewed the key persons and analyzed the records at District Surveillance Unit and Entomological Surveillance Unit and case records of suspected JE cases admitted in Encephalitis ward in Vijay Nagar Institute of Medical Sciences (VIMS). Eco-entomological survey was done in houses and surroundings of 3 randomly selected cases of Encephalitis in rural and urban areas of District Bellary. Their family members and neighbors were also asked for the awareness and presence of disease. Data was analyzed for epidemiological and clinical profiles. The suspected JE cases were being reported from end of June 2004. The cases were sporadic and out of 34 cases reported to VIMS (till 10th of September), 32 were from Bellary district and 2 were from adjoining Andhra Pradesh. Among these 32, 22 were from Bellary Taluk, which in turn were mainly concentrated (10 were reported) in urban Bellary. The case fatality rate was zero as no death was reported. Entomological surveillance (done by District Surveillance Unit) revealed a high outdoor presence of Culex tritaeniorhynchus as well as an indoor rising density of this mosquito from 2 per man hour catch in January to 22 in the month of August in the affected villages. On the contrary, the investigations on 7th and 8th September revealed high densities of An.subpictus and An. peditaenatus and nil of Culex species in the urban areas. Amplifier host of pigs and water birds were occasionally sighted in the area. A good community awareness of encephalitis, a prompt referral system and a good supportive treatment for the patients and a good surveillance system and response were observed. Very close proximity with amplifying hosts of pigs was avoided by the community
Thompson, Kimberly M; Duintjer Tebbens, Radboud J
Achieving the goal of a world free of poliomyelitis still requires significant effort. Although polio immunization represents a mature area, the polio endgame will require new tools and strategies, particularly as national and global health leaders coordinate the cessation of all three serotypes of oral poliovirus vaccine and increasingly adopt inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV). Poliovirus epidemiology and the global options for managing polioviruses continue to evolve, along with our understanding and appreciation of the resources needed and the risks that require management. Based on insights from modeling, we offer some perspective on the current status of plans and opportunities to achieve and maintain a world free of wild polioviruses and to successfully implement oral poliovirus vaccine cessation. IPV costs and potential wastage will represent an important consideration for national policy makers. Innovations may reduce future IPV costs, but the world urgently needs lower-cost IPV options.
Chumakov, Konstantin; Ehrenfeld, Ellie
Twenty years of global polio eradication efforts may soon eliminate wild-type poliovirus transmission. However, new information about poliovirus learned during this campaign, as well as the political realities of a modern world demand that universal immunity against poliomyelitis be maintained even after wild poliovirus is eradicated. Although two excellent vaccines have proven highly effective in the past, neither the live nor current inactivated products are optimal for use in the post-eradication setting. Therefore, concerted efforts are urgently needed to develop a new generation of vaccine that is risk-free and affordable and can be produced on a global scale. Here we discuss the desired properties and ways to create a new polio vaccine. PMID:18990066
Parker, Edward PK; Molodecky, Natalie A; Pons-Salort, Margarita; O’Reilly, Kathleen M; Grassly, Nicholas C
The polio eradication endgame aims to bring transmission of all polioviruses to a halt. To achieve this aim, it is essential to block viral replication in individuals via induction of a robust mucosal immune response. Although it has long been recognized that inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) is incapable of inducing a strong mucosal response on its own, it has recently become clear that IPV may boost immunity in the intestinal mucosa among individuals previously immunized with oral poliovirus vaccine. Indeed, mucosal protection appears to be stronger following a booster dose of IPV than oral poliovirus vaccine, especially in older children. Here, we review the available evidence regarding the impact of IPV on mucosal immunity, and consider the implications of this evidence for the polio eradication endgame. We conclude that the implementation of IPV in both routine and supplementary immunization activities has the potential to play a key role in halting poliovirus transmission, and thereby hasten the eradication of polio. PMID:26159938
Beran, Jiří; Xie, Fang; Zent, Olaf
Long-term vaccination programs are recommended for individuals living in regions endemic for tick-borne encephalitis (TBE). Current recommendations suggest a first booster vaccine be administered 3 years after a conventional regimen or 12-18 months after a rapid regimen. However, the research supporting subsequent booster intervals is limited. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate the long-term persistence of TBE antibodies in adults and adolescents after a first booster dose with Encepur(®). A total of 323 subjects aged 15 years and over, who had received one of four different primary TBE vaccination series in a parent study, participated in this follow-up Phase IV trial. Immunogenicity and safety were assessed for up to five years after a first booster dose, which was administered three years after completion of the primary series. One subset of subjects was excluded from the booster vaccination since they had already received their booster prior to enrollment. For comparison, immune responses were still recorded for these subjects on Day 0 and on an annual basis until Year 5, but safety information was not collected. Following a booster vaccination, high antibody titers were recorded in all groups throughout the study. Neutralization test (NT) titers of ≥ 10 were noted in at least 94% of subjects at every time point post-booster (on Day 21 and through Years 1-5). These results demonstrated that a first booster vaccination following any primary immunization schedule results in high and long-lasting (>5 years) immune responses. These data lend support to the current belief that subsequent TBE booster intervals could be extended from the current recommendation. NCT00387634. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zheng, Hui; Chen, Yuansheng; Wang, Fuzhen; Gong, Xiaohong; Wu, Zhenhua; Miao, Ning; Zhang, Xiaoshu; Li, Hui; Chen, Chao; Hou, Xiang; Cui, Fuqiang; Wang, Huaqing
While three types of hepatitis A vaccines are available in China, little data are available to compare them in terms of early antibody response. We conducted a trial to compare antibody response at 7, 14 and 28 days. We randomized primary school children in Gansu and Jilin provinces into four groups to receive either (1) Chinese live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine (H2 strain), (2) domestic inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Healive(®)), (3) imported inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Havrix(®)) or (4) hepatitis B vaccine (Control group). We compared groups at 7, 14 and 28 days in terms of proportion of sero-conversions (≥10 mUI/ml), and Geometric Mean Concentration (GMC) of antibodies measured with a Microparticle Enzyme Immunoassay (MEIA). We compared rates of self-reported adverse events following immunization (AEFI) in the first three days. 204 children received the H2 vaccine, 208 received Healive(®), 214 received Havrix(®), and 215 received hepatitis B vaccine (no differences across groups in terms of age, sex, weight and height). At seven days, sero-conversion proportions were 25%, 35%, 27% and 2% (p<0.0001) with GMC of 6 mIU/ml, 8 mIU/ml, 6 mIU/ml and 3 mIU/ml, respectively for the four groups. At 28 days, sero-conversion proportions were 98%, 100%, 93% and 3% (p<0.0001) with GMC of 47 mIU/ml, 71 mIU/ml, 67 mIU/ml and 3 mIU/ml, respectively. AEFI were benign and did not differ across groups (p=0.94). While our study was not able to identify differences between Havrix(®), Healive(®) and H2 vaccine in terms of sero-conversion proportion and GMC between seven and 28 days, further studies should evaluate non-inferiority or equivalence of the Chinese vaccines, particularly with respect to the GMC concentration for the H2 vaccine since it could affect long-term protection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Tang, Lijie; Kang, Haiyan; Duan, Kexin; Guo, Mengting; Lian, Gaihong; Wu, Yang; Li, Yijing; Gao, Shuai; Jiang, Yanping; Yin, Jiyuan; Liu, Min
Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) infects salmonid fish, resulting in high mortality and serious economic losses to salmonid aquaculture. Therefore, an effective IHNV vaccine is urgently needed. To select an inactivation agent for the preparation of an effective IHNV vaccine, rainbow trout were immunized with mineral oil emulsions of IHNV vaccines inactivated by formaldehyde, binary ethylenimine (BEI), or β-propiolactone (BPL). The fish were challenged 8 weeks after vaccination, and their IgM antibody response and relative percent survival (RPS) were evaluated. The results show that formaldehyde, BEI, and BPL abolished IHNV HLJ-09 infectivity within 24, 48, and 24 h at final concentrations of 0.2%, 0.02%, and 0.01%, respectively. The mean levels of specific IgM, both in serum and mucus (collected from the skin surface and gills), for the three immunized groups (from high to low) ranked as follows: the BPL group, BEI group, and formaldehyde group. From weeks 5 to 9, the mean log2 serum titers of IgM in the BPL group were significantly higher compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05) during the 9 weeks of observation after vaccination (immunized at weeks 0 and6). Mucus OD490 values of the BPL group were significantly higher compared with those of the other groups (p < 0.05) when reaching their peak at weeks 5 and 8, but the difference between the formaldehyde and BEI groups was not significant (p > 0.05). The BPL-inactivated whole-virus vaccine had the greatest protective effect on the rainbow trout after challenge by an intraperitoneal injection of live IHNV, with an RPS rate of 91.67%, which was significantly higher compared with the BEI (83.33%) and formaldehyde (79.17%) groups. These results indicate that the BPL-inactivated IHNV oil-adjuvant vaccine was more effective than the formaldehyde- or BEI-inactivated vaccines. The results of this study provide an important foundation for further studies on inactivated IHNV vaccines.
Kittikraisak, Wanitchaya; Chittaganpitch, Malinee; Gregory, Christopher J; Laosiritaworn, Yongjua; Thantithaveewat, Thanawadee; Dawood, Fatimah S; Lindblade, Kim A
Each year, an influenza B strain representing only one influenza B lineage is included in the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV3); a mismatch between the selected lineage and circulating viruses can result in suboptimal vaccine effectiveness. We modeled the added potential public health impact of a quadrivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV4) that includes strains from both influenza B lineages compared to IIV3 on influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in Thailand. Using data on the incidence of influenza-associated hospitalizations and deaths, vaccine effectiveness, and vaccine coverage from the 2007-2012 influenza seasons in Thailand, we estimated rates of influenza-associated outcomes that might be averted using IIV4 instead of IIV3. We then applied these rates to national population estimates to calculate averted illnesses, hospitalizations, and deaths for each season. We assumed that the influenza B lineage included in IIV3 would provide a relative vaccine effectiveness of 75% against the other B lineage. Compared to use of IIV3, use of IIV4 might have led to an additional reduction ranging from 0·4 to 14·3 influenza-associated illnesses per 100 000 population/year, <0·1 to 0·5 hospitalizations per 100 000/year, and <0·1 to 0·4 deaths per 1000/year. Based on extrapolation to national population estimates, replacement of IIV3 with IIV4 might have averted an additional 267-9784 influenza-associated illnesses, 9-320 hospitalizations, and 0-3 deaths. Compared to use of IIV3, IIV4 has the potential to further reduce the burden of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality in Thailand. © 2015 The Authors. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Theeten, Heidi; Rümke, Hans; Hoppener, Floris J P; Vilatimó, Ramón; Narejos, Silvia; Van Damme, Pierre; Hoet, Bernard
To evaluate immunogenicity and reactogenicity of primary vaccination with reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) or dTpa-inactivated poliovirus (dTpa-IPV) vaccine compared to diphtheria-tetanus-toxoid vaccines (Td) in adults > or = 40 years of age without diphtheria or tetanus vaccination for 20 years or with an unknown vaccination history. Double-blind, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Primary vaccination with either three doses of dTpa, one dose of dTpa-IPV followed by two doses of Td, or three doses of Td vaccine (control) administered in a 0-1-6-month schedule. Blood samples were collected before commencement and 1 month after each dose. Local and general symptoms were solicited for 15 days after each dose. A total of 460 adults were enrolled, of whom over 48% did not have protective antibody concentrations against diphtheria and tetanus. One month after dose 3 > 99% had seroprotective anti-diphtheria and tetanus antibodies. Three doses were required to maximize anti-diphtheria seroprotection rates. A vaccine response to pertussis antigens was observed in > 92% of dTpa and dTpa-IPV recipients after dose 1. One month after dTpa-IPV, > 98.4% had seroprotective anti-polio titres. No statistically significant differences in local or general symptoms between groups were observed. dTpa and dTpa-IPV can provide primary vaccination of adults. Combinations of dTpa or dTpa-IPV can be used to replace Td and provide booster vaccination against pertussis and polio simultaneously with diphtheria and tetanus, even in situations where the primary vaccination history is unknown.
Shao, Jie; Gao, Fan; Lin, Hui-Juan; Mao, Qun-Ying; Chen, Pan; Wu, Xing; Yao, Xin; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zheng-Lun
To reduce potential oncogenic long genomic DNA in vaccines, nuclease treatment has been applied in the purification processes. However, this action increased the residue of short-fragment DNA and its effect on vaccine potency was still elusive. In this study, we found residual sf-DNA in an inactivated EV71 vaccine could enhance humoral immune response in mice. Ag stimulation in vitro and vaccine injection in vivo revealed that TLR9 transcription level was elevated, indicating that sf-DNA could activate TLR9. These new findings will help us to understand the molecular mechanism induced by vero-cell culture-derived vaccines. PMID:27082865
Shao, Jie; Gao, Fan; Lin, Hui-Juan; Mao, Qun-Ying; Chen, Pan; Wu, Xing; Yao, Xin; Kong, Wei; Liang, Zheng-Lun
To reduce potential oncogenic long genomic DNA in vaccines, nuclease treatment has been applied in the purification processes. However, this action increased the residue of short-fragment DNA and its effect on vaccine potency was still elusive. In this study, we found residual sf-DNA in an inactivated EV71 vaccine could enhance humoral immune response in mice. Ag stimulation in vitro and vaccine injection in vivo revealed that TLR9 transcription level was elevated, indicating that sf-DNA could activate TLR9. These new findings will help us to understand the molecular mechanism induced by vero-cell culture-derived vaccines.
Cosseddu, G M; Polci, A; Pinoni, C; Capobianco Dondona, A; Iapaolo, F; Orsini, G; Izzo, F; Bortone, G; Ronchi, F G; Di Ventura, M; El Harrak, M; Monaco, F
Four goats were inoculated with an inactivated peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) vaccine. Three unvaccinated goats were kept as controls. After 36 days, the four goats were revaccinated. The immune response was monitored by virus neutralization test showing that two doses of the vaccine were able to stimulate strong immune response in all the vaccinated animals. The vaccinated goat and the controls were challenged with virulent PPRV intranasally. After PPRV challenge, the three control goats showed fever, viremia and virus excretion through mucosal surfaces, whereas the vaccinated goats were fully protected against PPRV infection and replication. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Becker, Debbie L.; Chit, Ayman; DiazGranados, Carlos A.; Maschio, Michael; Yau, Eddy; Drummond, Michael
ABSTRACT Seasonal influenza infects approximately 10–20% of Canadians each year, causing an estimated 12,200 hospitalizations and 3,500 deaths annually, mostly occurring in adults ≥65 years old (seniors). A 32,000-participant, randomized controlled clinical trial (FIM12; Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01427309) showed that high-dose inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV-HD) is superior to standard-dose vaccine (SD) in preventing laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in seniors. In this study, we performed a cost-utility analysis (CUA) of IIV-HD versus SD in FIM12 participants from a Canadian perspective. Healthcare resource utilization data collected in FIM12 included: medications, non-routine/urgent care and emergency room visits, and hospitalizations. Unit costs were applied using standard Canadian cost sources to estimate the mean direct medical and societal costs associated with each vaccine (2014 CAD). Clinical illness data from the trial were mapped to quality-of-life data from the literature to estimate differences in effectiveness between vaccines. Time horizon was one influenza season, however, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) lost due to death during the study were captured over a lifetime. A probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) was also performed. Average per-participant medical costs were $47 lower and societal costs $60 lower in the IIV-HD arm. Hospitalizations contributed 91% of the total cost and were less frequent in the IIV-HD arm. IIV-HD provided a gain in QALYs and, due to cost savings, dominated SD in the CUA. The PSA indicated that IIV-HD is 89% likely to be cost saving. In Canada, IIV-HD is expected to be a less costly and more effective alternative to SD, driven by a reduction in hospitalizations. PMID:27669017
and termination are indicated by triangles and diamonds , respectively. Adapted from Rice and Frolov 1996. 9 10 Figure 1.3: Schematic...2001 to 2005 and were associated with increased incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome in conjunction with encephalitis (5-7, 80). Higher...Temporal association of cellular immune responses with the initial control of viremia in primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 syndrome
Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Soto-Priante, Ernesto; Sarfati-Mizrahi, David; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Flores-Castro, Ricardo; Loza-Rubio, Elizabeth; Gay-Gutiérrez, Manuel
Specific-pathogen-free chickens immunized at 14 days of age with either an inactivated recombinant Newcastle disease virus-LaSota/avian influenza H5 (K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5) vaccine or a killed Newcastle disease/avian influenza whole-virus vaccine (K-ND/AI) were protected from disease when challenged with either A/chicken/Queretaro/14588-19/95 (H5N2), a high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) strain isolated in Mexico in 1995, or with a Mexican velogenic viscerotropic Newcastle disease virus (VVNDV) strain 21 days postvaccination. All nonvaccinated chickens challenged with HPAIV or VVNDV succumbed to disease, while those vaccinated with K-rNDV-LS/AI-H5 or K-ND/AI were protected from severe clinical signs and death. Both vaccines induced hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) antibody responses against NDV and AIV. Antibodies against AIV nucleoprotein were not detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in birds vaccinated with the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine. These chickens became positive for AIV antibodies by ELISA only after challenge with HPAIV. The data clearly indicate that the inactivated rNDV-LS/AI-H5 vaccine confers protection comparable to that of the conventional killed whole-virus vaccine against both NDV and AIV, while still allowing differentiation of infected from vaccinated animals by HI and ELISA tests.
Shen, Yue-Gen; Gu, Xie-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hong
AIM: To evaluate the protective effect of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine (Healive®) against hepatitis A outbreak in an emergency vaccination campaign. METHODS: During an outbreak of hepatitis A in Honghe Town, Xiuzhou District, Jiaxing City, Zhejiang Province, two nonrandomized controlled trials were conducted in September 2006. The first trial was to vaccinate 108 anti-HAV negative individuals with close contacts of the patients from September with 1 dose of an inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, Healive®. The control group comprised of 115 individuals with close contacts of the patients before September. The second trial was to vaccinate 3365 primary and secondary school students who volunteered to receive a dose of Healive® and 2572 students who did not receive Healive® serving as its controls. An epidemiological survey was conducted to evaluate the protective efficacy of the vaccine. RESULTS: A total of 136 hepatitis A cases were reported during an outbreak that started in June, peaked in August and September, and ended after December of 2006. After a massive vaccination of school children in September, the number of cases declined significantly. No hepatitis A was detected in the 108 vaccinated individuals with close contacts of patients, whereas 4 cases of hepatitis A were found in the controls. The infection rate of hepatitis A was not significantly different in the individuals with close contacts of patients whether or not they received the vaccine (P = 0.122). No hepatitis A was detected in the 3365 students who received the vaccine, four cases of hepatitis A were found in the controls. The infection rate of students with or without vaccination was significantly different in the students who received the vaccine (0/3365 vs 4/2572, P = 0.035). The protective efficacy of the vaccine was 100%. CONCLUSION: Inactivated hepatitis A vaccine demonstrates a good protective effect against an outbreak of hepatitis A. PMID:18461664
Chaussee, Michael S; Sandbulte, Heather R; Schuneman, Margaret J; Depaula, Frank P; Addengast, Leslie A; Schlenker, Evelyn H; Huber, Victor C
Mortality associated with influenza virus super-infections is frequently due to secondary bacterial complications. To date, super-infections with Streptococcus pyogenes have been studied less extensively than those associated with Streptococcus pneumoniae. This is significant because a vaccine for S. pyogenes is not clinically available, leaving vaccination against influenza virus as our only means for preventing these super-infections. In this study, we directly compared immunity induced by two types of influenza vaccine, either inactivated influenza virus (IIV) or live, attenuated influenza virus (LAIV), for the ability to prevent super-infections. Our data demonstrate that both IIV and LAIV vaccines induce similar levels of serum antibodies, and that LAIV alone induces IgA expression at mucosal surfaces. Upon super-infection, both vaccines have the ability to limit the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines within the lung, including IFN-γ which has been shown to contribute to mortality in previous models of super-infection. Limiting expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines within the lungs subsequently limits recruitment of macrophages and neutrophils to pulmonary surfaces, and ultimately protects both IIV- and LAIV-vaccinated mice from mortality. Despite their overall survival, both IIV- and LAIV-vaccinated mice demonstrated levels of bacteria within the lung tissue that are similar to those seen in unvaccinated mice. Thus, influenza virus:bacteria super-infections can be limited by vaccine-induced immunity against influenza virus, but the ability to prevent morbidity is not complete. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mao, Qunying; Dong, Chenghong; Li, Xiuling; Gao, Qiang; Guo, Zengbing; Yao, Xin; Wang, Yiping; Gao, Fan; Li, Fengxiang; Xu, Miao; Yin, Weidong; Li, Qihan; Shen, Xinliang; Liang, Zhenglun; Wang, Junzhi
Background Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is the major causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Three inactivated EV71 whole-virus vaccines of different strains developed by different manufacturers in mainland China have recently entered clinical trials. Although several studies on these vaccines have been published, a study directly comparing the immunogenicity and protective effects among them has not been carried out, which makes evaluating their relative effectiveness difficult. Thus, properly comparing newly developed vaccines has become a priority, especially in China. Methods and Findings This comparative immunogenicity study was carried out on vaccine strains (both live and inactivated), final container products (FCPs) without adjuvant, and corresponding FCPs containing adjuvant (FCP-As) produced by three manufacturers. These vaccines were evaluated by neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses induced by the same or different dosages at one or multiple time points post-immunization. The protective efficacy of the three vaccines was also determined in one-day-old ICR mice born to immunized female mice. Survival rates were observed in these suckling mice after challenge with 20 LD50 of EV71/048M3C2. Three FCP-As, in a dose of 200 U, generated nearly 100% NAb positivity rates and similar geometric mean titers (GMTs), especially at 14–21 days post-inoculation. However, the dynamic NAb responses were different among three vaccine strains or three FCPs. The FCP-As at the lowest dose used in clinical trials (162 U) showed good protective effects in suckling mice against lethal challenge (90–100% survival), while the ED50 of NAb responses and protective effects varied among three FCP-As. Conclusions These studies establish a standard method for measuring the immunogenicity of EV71 vaccines in mice. The data generated from our mouse model study indicated a clear dose-response relationship, which is important for vaccine quality control and assessment
Yang, Huiqiang; Li, Zhushi; Lin, Hua; Wang, Wei; Yang, Jian; Liu, Lina; Zeng, Xianwu; Wu, Yonglin; Yu, Yongxin; Li, Yuhua
To develop a potential dengue vaccine candidate, a full-length cDNA clone of a novel chimeric virus was constructed using recombinant DNA technology, with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) vaccine strain SA14-14-2 as the backbone, with its premembrane (prM) and envelope (E) genes substituted by their counterparts from dengue virus type 1 (DENV1). The chimeric virus (JEV/DENV1) was successfully recovered from primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells by transfection with the in vitro transcription products of JEV/DENV1 cDNA and was identified by complete genome sequencing and immunofluorescent staining. No neuroinvasiveness of this chimeric virus was observed in mice inoculated by the subcutaneous route (s.c.) or by the intraperitoneal route (i.p.), while some neurovirulence was displayed in mice that were inoculated directly by the intracerebral route (i.c.). The chimeric virus was able to stimulate high-titer production of antibodies against DENV1 and provided protection against lethal challenge with neuroadapted dengue virus in mice. These results suggest that the chimeric virus is a promising dengue vaccine candidate.
Hwang, Hye Suk; Lee, Young-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hye; Ko, Eun-Ju; Lee, Youri; Kwon, Young-Man; Kang, Sang-Moo
Formalin inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccination caused vaccine-enhanced respiratory disease (ERD) upon exposure to RSV in children. Virus-like particles presenting RSV F fusion protein (F VLP) are known to increase T helper type-1 (Th1) immune responses and avoid ERD in animal models. We hypothesized that F VLP would prime immune responses preventing ERD upon subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV. Here, we demonstrated that heterologous F VLP priming and FI-RSV boosting of mice prevented FI-RSV vaccine-enhanced lung inflammation and eosinophilia upon RSV challenge. F VLP priming redirected pulmonary T cells toward effector CD8 T cells producing Th1 cytokines and significantly suppressed pulmonary Th2 cytokines. This study suggests that RSV F VLP priming would modulate and shift immune responses to subsequent exposure to ERD-prone FI-RSV vaccine and RSV infection, suppressing Th2 immune-mediated pulmonary histopathology and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Domachowske, Joseph B; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Bautista, Milagros; Feng, Yang; Claeys, Carine; Peeters, Mathieu; Innis, Bruce L; Jain, Varsha
Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3-17 years. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988). Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines.
Domachowske, Joseph B.; Pankow-Culot, Heidemarie; Bautista, Milagros; Feng, Yang; Claeys, Carine; Peeters, Mathieu; Innis, Bruce L.; Jain, Varsha
Background. Two antigenically distinct influenza B lineages have cocirculated since 2001, yet trivalent influenza vaccines (TIVs) contain 1 influenza B antigen, meaning lineage mismatch with the vaccine is frequent. We assessed a candidate inactivated quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) containing both B lineages vs TIV in healthy children aged 3–17 years. Methods. Children were randomized 1:1:1 to receive QIV or 1 of 2 TIVs (either B/Victoria or B/Yamagata lineage; N = 2738). Hemagglutination-inhibition assays were performed 28 days after 1 or 2 doses in primed and unprimed children, respectively. Immunological noninferiority of QIV vs TIV against shared strains, and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was based on geometric mean titers (GMTs) and seroconversion rates. Reactogenicity and safety were also assessed (Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01196988). Results. Noninferiority against shared strains and superiority against alternate-lineage B strains was demonstrated for QIV vs TIV. QIV was highly immunogenic; seroconversion rates were 91.4%, 72.3%, 70.0%, and 72.5% against A/H1N1, A/H3N2, B/Victoria, and B/Yamagata, respectively. Reactogenicity and safety of QIV was consistent with TIV. Conclusions. QIV vs TIV showed superior immunogenicity for the additional B strain without interfering with immune responses to shared strains. QIV may offer improved protection against influenza B in children compared with current trivalent vaccines. PMID:23470848
Povey, R. C.; Carman, P. S.; Ewert, E.
Dogs were successfully isolated for a period of either 52 or 64 weeks following vaccination with an inactivated, adjuvanted canine parvovirus-2 vaccine. Antibody persisted in all ten vaccinated dogs, although in one case by 52 weeks postvaccination only virus neutralizing antibody, and not hemagglutination-inhibiting antibody, could be detected. Sentinel unvaccinated dogs housed alongside the vaccinated dogs throughout the study remained free of canine parvovirus-2 antibody until challenged. Upon oral challenge with canine parvovirus-2 infected material all unvaccinated dogs developed one or more signs of canine parvovirus-2 disease, shed virus and developed antibody. None of the vaccinated dogs became overtly sick. Of the five vaccinated dogs challenged 52 weeks after vaccination, three shed virus and one showed a significant rise in antibody. At 64 weeks after vaccination only one of the five challenged dogs shed virus and showed a boost in antibody titer. PMID:17422291
Du, Dongying; Zhang, Pantao; Li, Xiangdong; Tian, Hui; Cheng, Yi; Sheng, Dongbei; Han, Xueying; Shan, Yihong; Li, Xuefeng; Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Haiyang; Xue, Jingjing; Liu, Wujie; Tian, Kegong
Inclusion body hepatitis and hepatitis-hydropericardium syndrome caused by high-pathogenic fowl adenovirus serotype 4 has recently plagued Chinese poultry industry and caused huge economic losses since 2013. So far, there is no commercial vaccine available to control this disease. In this study, we reported the development of both embryo-adapted and cell-culture derived inactivated FAdV-4 vaccines and evaluated their efficacies in chicken. Compared to embryo-adapted vaccine, cell-culture derived vaccine induced significantly earlier and higher serological response measured by AGP and ELISA. After virus challenge, chicken immunized with cell-culture derived vaccine did not showed any gross and histopathological lesions, whereas inclusion body hepatitis was observed in the liver of chicken vaccinated with embryo-adapted vaccine. No mortality was observed in both the vaccinated groups. The above results suggested that cell-culture derived FAdV-4 inactivated vaccine could be a better vaccine candidate than embryo-adapted vaccine to control FADV-4 infections in China.
Chartier, Christophe; Mercier, Pascale; Pellet, Marie-Pierre; Vialard, Jaquemine
The effect of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine on the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) in goats was investigated in a herd with a history of clinical paratuberculosis but which was free of TB. Cohorts of animals in 2006, 2008 and 2009, were vaccinated once at 1 month of age, and 50% of the 2006 cohort served as unvaccinated controls. The goats were aged 8 months, 20 months and 3.5 years old at the time of the survey. All animals were assessed using a single intradermal injection of bovine tuberculin purified protein derivative (PPD) (SID test), or using both bovine and avian PPD (CID test). An interferon (IFN)-γ assay using both bovine and avian PPD was carried out on the 2006 cohort and was interpreted according to three different 'cut-off' points. No unvaccinated (control) animals tested positive to any of the assays, confirming that the herd was TB-free. The SID test had a low specificity in vaccinated animals at 8 and 20 months of age, whereas the CID test demonstrated 100% specificity in animals ≥20 months-old. The specificity of IFN-γ assay was less than maximal for vaccinated animals 3.5 years old as small numbers of false positives were detected, although this depended on the chosen cut-off point. The study findings demonstrate that the use of an inactivated paratuberculosis vaccine in goats <1 month-old in a TB-free herd does not result in false positives to a CID test for TB when performed in animals ≥20 months-old. Copyright Â© 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Kay, Alexander W.; Bayless, Nicholas L.; Fukuyama, Julia; Aziz, Natali; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Mackey, Sally; Swan, Gary E.; Davis, Mark M.; Blish, Catherine A.
Background. Inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) is recommended during pregnancy to prevent influenza infection and its complications in pregnant women and their infants. However, the extent to which pregnancy modifies the antibody response to vaccination remains unclear, and prior studies have focused primarily on hemagglutinin inhibition (HI) titers. A more comprehensive understanding of how pregnancy modifies the humoral immune response to influenza vaccination will aid in maximizing vaccine efficacy. Methods. Healthy pregnant women and control women were studied prior to, 7 days after, and 28 days after vaccination with IIV. HI titers, microneutralization (MN) titers, and the frequency of circulating plasmablasts were evaluated in pregnant versus control women. Results. Pregnant women and control women mount similarly robust serologic immune responses to IIV, with no significant differences for any influenza strain in postvaccination geometric mean HI or MN titers. HI and MN titers correlate, though MN titers demonstrate more robust changes pre- versus postvaccination. The induction of circulating plasmablasts is increased in pregnant women versus controls (median fold-change 2.60 vs 1.49 [interquartile range, 0.94–7.53 vs 0.63–2.67]; P = .03). Conclusions. Pregnant women do not have impaired humoral immune responses to IIV and may have increased circulating plasmablast production compared to control women. PMID:25740957
Gethmann, J; Hüttner, K; Heyne, H; Probst, C; Ziller, M; Beer, M; Hoffmann, B; Mettenleiter, T C; Conraths, F J
After massive epidemics of bluetongue disease in 2006 and 2007, Germany has started a compulsory vaccination program against bluetongue virus serotype 8 (BTV-8). Since the available vaccines had not yet been registered and only limited data were available on their performance, a safety study was conducted with three different inactivated monovalent vaccines under consideration for use in Germany. A total of 1007 sheep and 893 cattle were vaccinated and subsequently compared with 638 control animals (324 sheep and 314 cattle). During the study, all animals remained in good health condition. After the initial immunisation, only local swellings were observed in a small number of animals. Following revaccination, several sheep developed more distinct local reactions and a temporary rise in body temperature. Severe systemic reactions were not detected in any of the study groups. Among cattle, neither fever, nor a decrease in milk production and only temporary low-grade local reactions were observed. Overall, our results demonstrate a high level of safety of all vaccines tested.
Frolov, Vladimir G.; Seid, Robert C.; Odutayo, Olabisi; Al‐Khalili, Mohammad; Yu, Jianmei; Frolova, Olga Y.; Vu, Hong; Butler, Barbara A.; Look, Jee Loon; Ellingsworth, Larry R.; Glenn, Gregory M.
A patch containing a trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) was prepared in a dried, stabilized formulation for transcutaneous delivery. When used in a guinea pig immunogenicity model, the dry patch was as effective as a wet TIV patch in inducing serum anti‐influenza IgG antibodies. When the dry TIV patch was administered with LT as an adjuvant, a robust immune response was obtained that was comparable with or better than an injected TIV vaccine. When stored sealed in a nitrogen‐purged foil, the dry TIV patch was stable for 12 months, as measured by HA content, under both refrigerated and room temperature conditions. Moreover, the immunological potency of the vaccine product was not affected by long‐term storage. The dry TIV patch was also thermostable against three cycles of alternating low‐to‐high temperatures of −20/25 and −20/40°C, and under short‐term temperature stress conditions. These studies indicate that the dry TIV patch product can tolerate unexpected environmental stresses that may be encountered during shipping and distribution. Because of its effectiveness in vaccine delivery and its superior thermostable characteristics, the dry TIV patch represents a major advance for needle‐free influenza vaccination. PMID:19453472
Cashman, Patrick; Moberley, Sarah; Dalton, Craig; Stephenson, Jody; Elvidge, Elissa; Butler, Michelle; Durrheim, David N
Vaxtracker is a web based survey for active post marketing surveillance of Adverse Events Following Immunisation. It is designed to efficiently monitor vaccine safety of new vaccines by early signal detection of serious adverse events. The Vaxtracker system automates contact with the parents or carers of immunised children by email and/or sms message to their smart phone. A hyperlink on the email and text messages links to a web based survey exploring adverse events following the immunisation. The Vaxtracker concept was developed during 2011 (n=21), and piloted during the 2012 (n=200) and 2013 (n=477) influenza seasons for children receiving inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in the Hunter New England Local Health District, New South Wales, Australia. Survey results were reviewed by surveillance staff to detect any safety signals and compare adverse event frequencies among the different influenza vaccines administered. In 2012, 57% (n=113) of the 200 participants responded to the online survey and 61% (290/477) in 2013. Vaxtracker appears to be an effective method for actively monitoring adverse events following influenza vaccination in children. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Murugappan, Senthil; Frijlink, Henderik W; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Hinrichs, Wouter L J
Vaccination is the primary intervention to contain influenza virus spread during seasonal and pandemic outbreaks. Pulmonary vaccination is gaining increasing attention for its ability to induce both local mucosal and systemic immune responses without the need for invasive injections. However, pulmonary administration of whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine induces a Th2 dominant systemic immune response while a more balanced Th1/Th2 vaccine response may be preferred and only induces modest nasal immunity. This study evaluated immunity elicited by pulmonary versus intramuscular (i.m.) delivery of WIV, and tested whether the immune response could be improved by co-administration of delta (δ)-inulin, a novel carbohydrate-based particulate adjuvant. After pulmonary administration both unadjuvanted and δ-inulin adjuvanted WIV induced a potent systemic immune response, inducing higher serum anti-influenza IgG titers and nasal IgA titers than i.m. administration. Moreover, the addition of δ-inulin induced a more balanced Th1/Th2 response and induced higher nasal IgA titers versus pulmonary WIV alone. Pulmonary WIV alone or with δ-inulin induced hemagglutination inhibition (HI) titers>40, titers which are considered protective against influenza virus. In conclusion, in this study we have shown that δ-inulin adjuvanted WIV induces a better immune response after pulmonary administration than vaccine alone.
Rioux, Gervais; Mathieu, Claudia; Russell, Alexis; Bolduc, Marilène; Laliberté-Gagné, Marie-Eve; Savard, Pierre; Leclerc, Denis
Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination.
Background Trivalent inactivated flu vaccines (TIV) are currently the best means to prevent influenza infections. However, the protection provided by TIV is partial (about 50%) and it is needed to improve the efficacy of protection. Since the respiratory tract is the main site of influenza replications, a vaccine that triggers mucosal immunity in this region can potentially improve protection against this disease. Recently, PapMV nanoparticles used as an adjuvant in a formulation with TIV administered by the subcutaneous route have shown improving the immune response directed to the TIV and protection against an influenza challenge. Findings In the present study, we showed that intranasal instillation with a formulation containing TIV and PapMV nanoparticles significantly increase the amount of IgG, IgG2a and IgA in lungs of vaccinated mice as compared to mice that received TIV only. Instillation with the adjuvanted formulation leads to a more robust protection against an influenza infection with a strain that is lethal to mice vaccinated with the TIV. Conclusions We demonstrate for the first time that PapMV nanoparticles are an effective and potent mucosal adjuvant for vaccination. PMID:24885884
Yogeeswaran, Aiyakani; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Punitha, Stanislas Mary Josephine; Babu, Mariavincent Michael; Selvaraj, Thangaswamy; Kumaran, Thangamani; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu
To improve the immune response in tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon against WSSV infection, juveniles (350 ± 10 mg) were vaccinated with formalin-inactivated WSSV and fed with herbal immunostimulants. The methanolic extracts of herbal immunostimulants such as Acalypha indica, Cynodon dactylon, Picrorrhiza kurrooa, Withania somnifera and Zingiber officinalis were incorporated in formulated diets at different concentrations; 250 (ED(1)), 500 (ED(2)), 1000 (ED(3)) and 2000 (ED(4)) mg kg(-1) of feed and fed for 60 days after vaccination. After 30 and 60 days intervals of feeding, the shrimps were challenged with WSSV, which were isolated and propagated from the infected crustaceans. The shrimps fed with control diets (C(1)) succumbed to death within 5 days after WSSV challenge, when no vaccination and immunostimulations were given. The other control groups (C(2) and C(3)) had slight improvements in all parameters including survival. The percentage survival was significantly (P < 0.05) increased to 30, 50 and 60% in the ED(2), ED(3) and ED(4) diets respectively after 60 days challenging. The better haematological, biochemical and immunological parameters were also found in the herbal extracts supplemented diets fed vaccinated shrimps. The present study revealed that the combined effect of immunostimulation and vaccination helped to boost the immune system against WSSV infection and hence this application can be adopted for shrimp culture.
Osadebe, Lynda U; MacNeil, Adam; Elmousaad, Hashim; Davis, Lora; Idris, Jibrin M; Haladu, Suleiman A; Adeoye, Olorunsogo B; Nguku, Patrick; Aliu-Mamudu, Uneratu; Hassan, Elizabeth; Vertefeuille, John; Bloland, Peter
Kano State, Nigeria, introduced inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) into its routine immunization (RI) schedule in March 2015 and was the pilot site for an RI data module for the National Health Management Information System (NHMIS). We determined factors impacting IPV introduction and the value of the RI module on monitoring new vaccine introduction. Two assessment approaches were used: (1) analysis of IPV vaccinations reported in NHMIS, and (2) survey of 20 local government areas (LGAs) and 60 associated health facilities (HF). By April 2015, 66% of LGAs had at least 20% of HFs administering IPV, by June all LGAs had HFs administering IPV and by July, 91% of the HFs in Kano reported administering IPV. Among surveyed staff, most rated training and implementation as successful. Among HFs, 97% had updated RI reporting tools, although only 50% had updated microplans. Challenges among HFs included: IPV shortages (20%), hesitancy to administer 2 injectable vaccines (28%), lack of knowledge on multi-dose vial policy (30%) and age of IPV administration (8%). The introduction of IPV was largely successful in Kano and the RI module was effective in monitoring progress, although certain gaps were noted, which should be used to inform plans for future vaccine introductions.
Blome, Sandra; Gabriel, Claudia; Beer, Martin
African swine fever (ASF) is among the most devastating viral diseases of pigs. In recent years, the disease has spread alarmingly. Despite intensive research activities, promising vaccine candidates are still lacking. For this reason, a study was undertaken to re-assess inactivated ASFV preparations with state-of-the-art adjuvants. Inactivated preparations of ASF virus (ASFV) "Armenia08" were adjuvanted with either Polygen™ or Emulsigen(®)-D, respectively, and used to immunize six weaner pigs two times with a three-week interval. Six weeks after the first immunization, animals were challenged with the homologues highly virulent ASFV. Although ASFV-specific antibodies were detectable in all but one vaccinated animal prior to challenge, no protective effect of immunization was observed. All animals developed acute-lethal ASF and had to be euthanized within eleven days post challenge. A slightly accelerated clinical course in vaccinees could even indicate an antibody dependent enhancement, which could also influence efficacy of other vaccine approaches.
Fernández, Sonsire; Año, Gemma; Castaño, Jorge; Pino, Yadira; Uribarri, Evangelina; Riverón, Luis A; Cedré, Bárbara; Valmaseda, Tania; Falero, Gustavo; Pérez, José L; Infante, Juan F; García, Luis G; Solís, Rosa L; Sierra, Gustavo; Talavera, Arturo
A vaccine candidate against cholera was developed in the form of oral tablets to avoid difficulties during application exhibited by current whole cell inactivated cholera vaccines. In this study, enteric-coated tablets were used to improve the protection of the active compound from gastric acidity. Tablets containing heat-killed whole cells of Vibrio cholerae strain C7258 as the active pharmaceutical compound was enteric-coated with the polymer Kollicoat(®) MAE-100P, which protected them efficiently from acidity when a disintegration test was carried out. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) anti-lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inhibition test and Western blot assay revealed the presence of V. cholerae antigens as LPS, mannose-sensitive haemagglutinin (MSHA) and outer membrane protein U (Omp U) in enteric-coated tablets. Immunogenicity studies (ELISA and vibriocidal test) carried out by intraduodenal administration in rabbits showed that the coating process of tablets did not affect the immunogenicity of V. cholerae-inactivated cells. In addition, no differences were observed in the immune response elicited by enteric-coated or uncoated tablets, particularly because the animal model and immunization route used did not allow discriminating between acid resistances of both tablets formulations in vivo. Clinical studies with volunteers will be required to elucidate this aspect, but the results suggest the possibility of using enteric-coated tablets as a final pharmaceutical product for a cholera vaccine.
Gromowski, Gregory D; Firestone, Cai-Yen; Whitehead, Stephen S
The safety and efficacy of the live-attenuated Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) SA14-14-2 vaccine are attributed to mutations that accumulated in the viral genome during its derivation. However, little is known about the contribution that is made by most of these mutations to virulence attenuation and vaccine immunogenicity. Here, we generated recombinant JEV (rJEV) strains containing JEV SA14-14-2 vaccine-specific mutations that are located in the untranslated regions (UTRs) and seven protein genes or are introduced from PCR-amplified regions of the JEV SA14-14-2 genome. The resulting mutant viruses were evaluated in tissue culture and in mice. The authentic JEV SA14-14-2 (E) protein, with amino acid substitutions L107F, E138K, I176V, T177A, E244G, Q264H, K279M, A315V, S366A, and K439R relative to the wild-type rJEV clone, was essential and sufficient for complete attenuation of neurovirulence. Individually, the nucleotide substitution T39A in the 5' UTR (5'-UTR-T39A), the capsid (C) protein amino acid substitution L66S (C-L66S), and the complete NS1/2A genome region containing 10 mutations each significantly reduced virus neuroinvasion but not neurovirulence. The levels of peripheral virulence attenuation imposed by the 5'-UTR-T39A and C-L66S mutations, individually, were somewhat mitigated in combination with other vaccine strain-specific mutations, which might be compensatory, and together did not affect immunogenicity. However, a marked reduction in immunogenicity was observed with the addition of the NS1/2A and NS5 vaccine virus genome regions. These results suggest that a second-generation recombinant vaccine can be rationally engineered to maximize levels of immunogenicity without compromising safety. The live-attenuated JEV SA14-14-2 vaccine has been vital for controlling the incidence of disease caused by JEV, particularly in rural areas of Asia where it is endemic. The vaccine was developed >25 years ago by passaging wild-type JEV strain SA14 in tissue
Venter, Marietjie; van Vuren, Petrus Janse; Mentoor, Juliet; Paweska, Janusz; Williams, June
Lineage 2 West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic to southern Africa and Madagascar, and has recently been associated with encephalitis outbreaks in humans and horses in South Africa, central Europe, Italy and Greece. Commercial vaccines have mostly been evaluated against WNV lineage 1 strains and their efficacy against lineage 2 strains rarely reported. To evaluate protection of Duvaxyn WNV vaccine against lineage 2 strains associated with encephalitis in South Africa, mice were vaccinated twice intramuscularly three weeks apart, and challenged four weeks later with highly neuroinvasive lineage 1 strain NY385/99 or lineage 2 strain SPU93/01. Neutralising antibody titres were measured at the time of challenge and three weeks later. Immunohistochemistry and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were conducted on brains of mice that succumbed during the trial, on controls and on vaccinated mice that survived. Serum neutralising antibodies in vaccinated mice were detected but low three weeks after primovaccination. Three weeks post-challenge, vaccinated mice had significantly higher serum neutralising antibody titres against both lineages than unvaccinated controls. After challenge, all vaccinated mice remained healthy but all unvaccinated mice demonstrated severe neurological signs with 75% mortality rate. WNV was not detected in brains of vaccinated mice whereas virus replicated in most unvaccinated mice challenged with either lineage. Gross and microscopic lesions were found only in unvaccinated mice challenged with both lineages. Duvaxyn WNV vaccine provided complete protection against challenge with lineage 2 WNV and stimulated significant cross protective neutralising antibodies in mice against lineage 2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moor, Kathrin; Wotzka, Sandra Y.; Toska, Albulena; Diard, Médéric; Hapfelmeier, Siegfried; Slack, Emma
Our mucosal surfaces are the main sites of non-vector-borne pathogen entry, as well as the main interface with our commensal microbiota. We are still only beginning to understand how mucosal adaptive immunity interacts with commensal and pathogenic microbes to influence factors such as infectivity, phenotypic diversity, and within-host evolution. This is in part due to difficulties in generating specific mucosal adaptive immune responses without disrupting the mucosal microbial ecosystem itself. Here, we present a very simple tool to generate inactivated mucosal vaccines from a broad range of culturable bacteria. Oral gavage of 1010 peracetic acid-inactivated bacteria induces high-titer-specific intestinal IgA in the absence of any measurable inflammation or species invasion. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that this technique is sufficient to provide fully protective immunity in the murine model of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonellosis, even in the face of severe innate immune deficiency. PMID:26904024
Suzuki, Michio; Torii, Yuka; Kawada, Jun-ichi; Kimura, Hiroshi; Kamei, Hideya; Onishi, Yasuharu; Kaneko, Kenitiro; Ando, Hisami; Kiuchi, Tetsuya; Ito, Yoshinori
Immunological responses to influenza vaccination administered to liver transplantation recipients are not fully elucidated. To compare inactivated influenza vaccine's immunogenicity between adult and pediatric recipients, 16 adult and 15 pediatric living donor liver transplantation recipients in the 2010-11 influenza season, and 53 adult and 21 pediatric recipients in the 2011-12 season, were investigated. Seroprotection rates (hemagglutinin-inhibition [HI] antibody titer 1:40) were 50-94% to all three antigens among adults and 27-80% among children in both seasons. Seroconversion rates (fourfold or more HI antibody rise) were 32-56% among adults and 13-67% among children in both seasons. No significant differences were observed between the two groups. In addition, 20/53 adult and 13/21 pediatric recipients received a vaccine containing identical antigens in both of these seasons. Geometric mean titer fold increases of all three antigens in adult recipients were significantly lower than those in recipients who had not received a preceding vaccination. In contrast, in pediatric recipients, there were no significant differences between the groups who had and had not received preceding vaccinations. The number of patients with rejection did not differ significantly between the two groups (0/53 vs. 1/21) in the 2011-12 season. The incidence of influenza after vaccination was significantly different between adult and pediatric recipients (0/16 vs. 5/15 in 2010-11 and 0/53 vs. 3/21 in 2011-12, respectively). Overall, there were no significant differences in antibody responses between adult and pediatric groups. Influenza infection was more frequent in pediatric recipients. Long-term response to preceding vaccinations appeared to be insufficient in both groups.
Gonçalves, Viviane M; Dias, Waldely O; Campos, Ivana B; Liberman, Celia; Sbrogio-Almeida, Maria E; Silva, Eliane P; Cardoso, Celso P; Alderson, Mark; Robertson, George; Maisonneuve, Jean-François; Tate, Andrea; Anderson, Porter; Malley, Richard; Fratelli, Fernando; Leite, Luciana C C
Pneumococcal infections impose a large burden of disease on the human population, mainly in developing countries, and the current pneumococcal vaccines offer serotype-specific protection, but do not cover all pathogenic strains, leaving populations vulnerable to disease caused by non-vaccine serotypes. The pneumococcal whole cell vaccine is a low-cost strategy based on non-capsular antigens common to all strains, inducing serotype-independent immunity. Therefore, we developed the process for the cGMP production of this cellular vaccine. Initially, three engineering runs and two cGMP runs were performed in 60-L bioreactors, demonstrating the consistency of the production process, as evaluated by the growth curves, glucose consumption and metabolite formation (lactate and acetate). Cell recovery by tangential filtration was 92 ± 13 %. We optimized the conditions for beta-propiolactone (BPL) inactivation of the bacterial suspensions, establishing a maximum cell density of OD600 between 27 and 30, with a BPL concentration of 1:4000 (v/v) at 150 rpm and 4 °C for 30 h. BPL was hydrolyzed by heating for 2h at 37 °C. The criteria and methods for quality control were defined using the engineering runs and the cGMP Lots passed all specifications. cGMP vaccine Lots displayed high potency, inducing between 80 and 90% survival in immunized mice when challenged with virulent pneumococci. Sera from mice immunized with the cGMP Lots recognized several pneumococcal proteins in the extract of encapsulated strains by Western blot. The cGMP whole cell antigen bulk and whole cell vaccine product lots were shown to be stable for up to 12 and 18 months, respectively, based upon survival assays following i.p. challenge. Our results show the consistency and stability of the cGMP whole cell pneumococcal vaccine lots and demonstrate the feasibility of production in a developing country setting.
Zverev, V V; Korovkin, S A; Mironov, A N; Mel'nikov, S Ia; Mikhaĭlova, N A; Kostinov, M P; Dyldina, N V; Zhirova, S N
Phase I clinical trial of inactivated virosomal split influenza vaccine "Grifor" was conducted in the Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera as accredited base for such trials. Forty healthy volunteers (males and females) aged 18 - 50 years consented to participate in the trial. Reactogenicity, safety, and immunogenicity of new Russian influenza vaccine were assessed. Analysis of obtained results showed that there was evidence of safety and low reactogenicity of the vaccine as well as of its high immunogenic characteristics, which satisfied both the EMEA's Committee for Proprietal Medicinal Products criteria and requirements of Federal Service for Surveillance for Protection of Consumers Rights and Human Welfare (MU 18.104.22.1688-03) for inactivated influenza vaccines.
Wu, Jun-Yu; Liu, Yan; Chen, Jiang-Ting; Xia, Ming; Zhang, Xiao-Mei
In 2002, the first Chinese domestic preservative-free inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, Healive®, was introduced in China. It is highly immunogenic, and provides lasting protection in healthy individuals and generates protective levels of antibodies in other at-risk individuals. Over 10 years since its first licensure, postmarketing surveillance data have confirmed the outstanding safety profile of the vaccine. Comparative clinical trials indicated that Healive® induce equal or similar immunogenicity with other currently available inactivated hepatitis A vaccines and are interchangeable for the course of HAV immunization in Chinese children. The vaccine is effective in curbing outbreaks of hepatitis A due to rapid seroconversion and the long incubation period of the disease. Additional issues surrounding the use of the vaccine are also reviewed. PMID:23032165
McGinley, Marisa; Morales-Vidal, Sarkis; Ruland, Sean
Autoimmune encephalitis is associated with a wide variety of antibodies and clinical presentations. Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies are a cause of autoimmune non-paraneoplastic encephalitis characterized by memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. We present a case of VGKC encephalitis likely preceding an ischemic stroke. Reports of autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke are rare. Several hypotheses linking these two disease processes are proposed. PMID:27242653
To evaluate the relationship between humoral antibodies from homologous and heterologous vaccines and egg production, twenty-two week-old commercial layers previously vaccinated with four live B1 vaccines were boosted with two different inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccines, a virulent ...
Stockwell, Melissa S; Broder, Karen R; Lewis, Paige; Jakob, Kathleen; Iqbal, Shahed; Fernandez, Nadira; Sharma, Devindra; Barrett, Angela; LaRussa, Philip
Some studies have found a higher frequency of fever with trivalent live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) than with inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), but quadrivalent LAIV has not been assessed. Understanding fever is important for safety reviews and for parents and providers. In addition, there have been only a limited number of studies in which text messaging was used for vaccine adverse-event (AE) surveillance. We conducted a prospective observational study in 3 community clinics in New York City to assess post-influenza vaccination fever in 24- to 59-month-olds during the 2013-2014 season. Enrolled families of children who received quadrivalent LAIV (LAIV4) or IIV (trivalent IIV3 or quadrivalent IIV4) replied to text messages that assessed their temperature on vaccination night and the next 10 nights (days 0 to 10); missing data were collected via telephone and a diary. We compared frequencies of fever (temperature ≥ 100.4°F) according to vaccine group on days 0 to 2 and 3 to 10 by using χ2 and multivariate log-binomial regression adjusted for age, previous influenza vaccination, and vaccine coadministration. We also assessed outcomes using all sources versus only text messages. Most (84.1% [n = 540]) eligible parents enrolled. Fever frequencies on days 0 to 2 did not differ between LAIV4 and any IIV (3.8% vs 5.7%, respectively; adjusted relative risk [aRR] [95% confidence interval], 0.60 [0.25-1.46]), between LAIV4 and IIV4 (4.2% vs 7.1%, respectively; aRR, 0.58 [0.19-1.72]), or between IIV4 and IIV3 (7.1% vs 6.0%, respectively; aRR, 1.02 [0.30-3.46]). The findings were similar when all data sources versus text-message data alone were used. There were no significant differences on days 3 to 10. Postvaccination fever frequencies were low overall and did not differ according to influenza vaccine type during the 2013-2014 influenza season. The similarity of results when data were limited to text messages lends support to its use for surveillance of
Shedding of Live Vaccine Virus, Comparative Safety, and Influenza-Specific Antibody Responses after Administration of Live Attenuated and Inactivated Trivalent Influenza Vaccines to HIV-Infected Children
Levin, Myron J.; Song, Lin-Ye; Fenton, Terrence; Nachman, Sharon; Patterson, Julie; Walker, Robert; Kemble, George; Allende, Maria; Hultquist, Micki; Yi, Tingting; Nowak, Barbara; Weinberg, Adriana
HIV-infected children (n = 243), ≥5 to <18 years old, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, were stratified by immunologic status and randomly assigned to receive intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or intramuscular trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The safety profile after LAIV or TIV closely resembled the previously reported tolerability to these vaccines in children without HIV infection. Post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses and shedding of LAIV virus were also similar, regardless of immunological stratum, to antibody responses and shedding previously reported for children without HIV infection. LAIV should be further evaluated for a role in immunizing HIV-infected children. PMID:18597900
Thomassen, Yvonne E.; van ’t Oever, Aart G.; van Oijen, Monique G. C. T.; Wijffels, René H.; van der Pol, Leo A.; Bakker, Wilfried A. M.
Worldwide efforts to eradicate polio caused a tipping point in polio vaccination strategies. A switch from the oral polio vaccine, which can cause circulating and virulent vaccine derived polioviruses, to inactivated polio vaccines (IPV) is scheduled. Moreover, a manufacturing process, using attenuated virus strains instead of wild-type polioviruses, is demanded to enhance worldwide production of IPV, especially in low- and middle income countries. Therefore, development of an IPV from attenuated (Sabin) poliovirus strains (sIPV) was pursued. Starting from the current IPV production process based on wild type Salk strains, adaptations, such as lower virus cultivation temperature, were implemented. sIPV was produced at industrial scale followed by formulation of both plain and aluminium adjuvanted sIPV. The final products met the quality criteria, were immunogenic in rats, showed no toxicity in rabbits and could be released for testing in the clinic. Concluding, sIPV was developed to manufacturing scale. The technology can be transferred worldwide to support post polio-eradication biosafety goals. PMID:24349497
O'Konek, Jessica J; Makidon, Paul E; Landers, Jeffrey J; Cao, Zhengyi; Malinczak, Carrie-Anne; Pannu, Jessie; Sun, Jennifer; Bitko, Vira; Ciotti, Susan; Hamouda, Tarek; Wojcinski, Zbigniew W; Lukacs, Nicholas W; Fattom, Ali; Baker, James R
Respiratory Syncytial Virus is a leading cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants, the elderly and individuals with compromised immune systems. Despite decades of research, there is currently no available vaccine for RSV. Our group has previously demonstrated that intranasal immunization of mice with RSV inactivated by and adjuvanted with W805EC nanoemulsion elicits robust humoral and cellular immune responses, resulting in protection against RSV infection. This protection was achieved without the induction of airway hyper-reactivity or a Th2-skewed immune response. The cotton rat Sigmodon hispidus has been used for years as an excellent small animal model of RSV disease. Thus, we extended these rodent studies to the more permissive cotton rat model. Intranasal immunization of the nanoemulsion-adjuvanted RSV vaccines induced high antibody titers and a robust Th1-skewed cellular response. Importantly, vaccination provided sterilizing cross-protective immunity against a heterologous RSV challenge and did not induce marked or severe histological effects or eosinophilia in the lung after viral challenge. Overall, these data demonstrate that nanoemulsion-formulated whole RSV vaccines are both safe and effective for immunization in multiple animal models.
Moulin, Véronique; Noordegraaf, Cor Vonk; Makoschey, Birgit; van der Sluijs, Mirjam; Veronesi, Eva; Darpel, Karin; Mertens, Peter P C; de Smit, Hans
The ability to reduce clinical signs, induce neutralizing antibodies, and perhaps most importantly, to prevent or reduce viraemia (and therefore virus-transmission), represent primary criteria for assessment of bluetongue virus (BTV) vaccine efficacy. Identification of BTV challenge-strains that reliably induce viraemia and clinical signs comparable to those in naturally infected animals, is therefore important for vaccine evaluation. Texel cross-breed and Dorset Poll sheep vaccinated with inactivated BTV-8 vaccine ('Bovilis(®) BTV8' from MSD Animal Health), were challenged with low-passage BTV-8 (Northern European strain) grown in either insect (Culicoides) or mammalian cell-cultures. The severity of clinical signs was recorded (using a modified numerical scoring-system, which is described) along with viraemia and serum neutralizing (SN) antibody levels. Low level SN-antibodies were detected at the time of challenge (three weeks after vaccination). All unvaccinated control animals became infected after challenge, developing high SN-antibody titres by 21 days post challenge (dpc). Vaccinees showed faster increases in SN-antibody titres ('booster' response), with significantly higher titres at 6 dpc than unvaccinated controls. Although only limited clinical-signs could be attributed to BTV in younger animals infected with the mammalian-cell-culture derived virus, both BTV-8 challenge preparations induced severe clinical signs comparable to 'bluetongue' observed during natural outbreaks in older unvaccinated animals. Challenge with BTV-8 grown in Culicoides cell-cultures seemed to induce greater severity of clinical-scores and 'post-mortem lesions' than the mammalian-derived BTV-8 strain. Vaccination reduced clinical signs, fever, and viraemia equally well after challenge with either virus preparation. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Avila Aguero, María Luisa; Soriano-Fallas, Alejandra; Umaña-Sauma, María de los Angeles; Ulloa-Gutierrez, Rolando; Arnoux, Sabine
We conducted this open study to evaluate the immunogenicity and safety of the inactivated influenza vaccine, Imovax Gripe in 154 children between 6 and 36 months of age at high risk of influenza-related complications, and in a reference group of 64 healthy children. The study was conducted over two flu seasons, in which the vaccine contained the same A strains but different B strains. The results for the A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 strains from the two flu seasons were pooled, but those for the B strains were not. Anti-hemagglutinin (HA) antibody titers were determined before, and one month after each vaccination, and safety was evaluated based on diary card reporting any adverse event observed, either included or not in the list of "solicited events". Within each group of vaccines, the seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, and ratio of post- to prevaccination geometric mean titers (GMTR) for the A/H3N2 and the A/H1N1 strains fulfilled all requirements of the criteria of the European Union Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products (CPMP). The immune responses in high-risk and in healthy children were similar, and consistent with those observed in previous studies conducted in healthy children. The vaccine was equally well tolerated by all study groups. Reactogenicity was low and similar in both high-risk and healthy children. Overall from 9.5% to 15.4% of at-risk children and 12% of healthy children reported a solicited local reaction; 23.0 to 28.8% of high-risk and 25.3% of healthy children reported a solicited systemic reaction. The study results provide support for vaccination of children at high-risk of influenza related complications.
Johnston, Jessica A; Tincher, Lindsey B; Lowe, Denise K
To review the literature regarding booster or higher doses of influenza antigen for increasing immunogenicity of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) in HIV-infected patients. MEDLINE (1966 to September 2013) was searched using the terms immunize, influenza, vaccine, and HIV or AIDS in combination with two-dose, booster-dose, increased antigen, or high-dose. One trial of booster dosing with standard doses (SDs) of IIV, trivalent (IIV3); 2 trials of booster dosing with intermediate doses (ID) of H1N1 IIV or IIV3; and 1 trial of high-dose (HD) IIV3 were identified. Trials administering 2-dose, booster-dose, or increased antigen of influenza vaccine to patients with HIV were reviewed. Because adjuvanted IIV is not available and IIV, quadrivalent was recently approved in the United States, studies evaluating these vaccines were excluded. HIV-infected individuals are at high risk for influenza-related complications; however, vaccination with SD IIV may not confer optimal protection. It has been postulated that booster or higher doses of influenza antigen may lead to increased immunogenicity. When ID and SD or ID with boosters were evaluated in HIV-infected patients, significant increases in surrogate markers for influenza protection were not achieved. However, HD IIV3 did result in significant increases in seroprotective antibody levels, though 'clinical' influenza was not evaluated. Currently, evidence is insufficient to reach conclusions about the efficacy of booster dosing, ID, or HD influenza vaccine in HIV-infected patients. Trials evaluating booster or higher-antigen doses of IIV for 'clinical' influenza are necessary before routinely recommending for HIV-infected patients.
Resik, Sonia; Tejeda, Alina; Fonseca, Magile; Sein, Carolyn; Hung, Lai Heng; Martinez, Yenisleidys; Diaz, Manuel; Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sutter, Roland W.
Introduction We conducted a follow-on study to a phase I randomized, controlled trial conducted in Cuba, 2012, to assess the persistence of poliovirus antibodies at 21–22 months following booster dose of Sabin-IPV compared to Salk-IPV in adults who had received multiple doses of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) during childhood. Methods In 2012, 60 healthy adult males aged 19–23 were randomized to receive one booster dose, of either Sabin-inactivated poliovirus vaccine (Sabin-IPV), adjuvanted Sabin-IPV (aSabin-IPV), or conventional Salk-IPV. In the original study, blood was collected at days 0 (before) and 28 (after vaccination), respectively. In this study, an additional blood sample was collected 21–22 months after vaccination, and tested for neutralizing antibodies to Sabin poliovirus types 1, 2 and 3. Results We collected sera from 59/60 (98.3%) subjects; 59/59 (100%) remained seropositive to all poliovirus types, 21–22 months after vaccination. The decay curves were very similar among the study groups. Between day 28 and 21–22 months, there was a reduction of ⩾87.4% in median antibody levels for all poliovirus types in all study groups, with no significant differences between the study groups. Conclusion The decay of poliovirus antibodies over a 21–22-month period was similar regardless of the type of booster vaccine used, suggesting the scientific data of Salk IPV long-term persistence and decay may be broadly applicable to Sabin IPV. PMID:27066157
Esposito, Susanna; Giavoli, Claudia; Trombetta, Claudia; Bianchini, Sonia; Montinaro, Valentina; Spada, Anna; Montomoli, Emanuele; Principi, Nicola
Obesity may be a risk factor for increased hospitalization and deaths from infections due to respiratory pathogens. Additionally, obese patients appear to have impaired immunity after some vaccinations. To evaluate the immunogenicity, safety and tolerability of an inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) in overweight and obese children, 28 overweight/obese pediatric patients and 23 healthy normal weight controls aged 3-14 years received a dose of TIV. Four weeks after vaccine administration, significantly higher seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 strain were observed among overweight/obese children compared with normal weight controls (p<0.05). Four months after vaccination, similar or slightly higher seroconversion and seroprotection rates against the A/H1N1 and A/H3N2 strains were detected in overweight/obese than in normal weight children, whereas significantly higher rates of seroconversion and seroprotection against the B strain were found in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls (p<0.05 for seroconversion and seroprotection). Geometric mean titers (GMTs) and fold increase against B strains were significantly higher in overweight/obese patients than in normal weight controls 4 months after vaccine administration (p<0.01 for GMT values and p<0.05 for fold increase). The frequency of local and systemic reactions was similar between the groups, and there were no serious adverse events. The results of this study indicate that in overweight and obese children, antibody response to TIV administration is similar or slightly higher than that evidenced in normal weight subjects of similar age and this situation persists for at least 4 months after vaccine administration in the presence of a favorable safety profile.
Wood, John M; Robertson, James S
Over the past eight years, cases of human infection with highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses have raised international concern that we could be on the brink of a global influenza pandemic. Many of these human infections have proved fatal and if the viruses had been able to transmit efficiently from person to person, the effects would have been devastating. How can we arm ourselves against this pandemic threat when these viruses are too dangerous to use in conventional vaccine production? Recent technological developments (reverse genetics) have allowed us to manipulate the influenza virus genome so that we can construct safe, high-yielding vaccine strains. However, the transition of reverse-genetic technologies from the research laboratory to the manufacturing environment has presented new challenges for vaccine manufacturers as well as veterinary and public health authorities.
Chen, Lan; Ewing, Dan; Subramanian, Hemavathy; Block, Karla; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kimberly D; Sedegah, Martha; Hayes, Curtis; Porter, Kevin; Raviprakash, Kanakatte
A candidate vaccine (D1ME-VRP) expressing dengue virus type 1 premembrane and envelope proteins in a Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) virus replicon particle (VRP) system was constructed and tested in conjunction with a plasmid DNA vaccine (D1ME-DNA) expressing identical dengue virus sequences. Cynomolgus macaques were vaccinated with three doses of DNA (DDD), three doses of VRP (VVV group), or a heterologous DNA prime-VRP boost regimen (DDV) using two doses of DNA vaccine and a third dose of VRP vaccine. Four weeks after the final immunization, the DDV group produced the highest dengue virus type 1-specific immunoglobulin G antibody responses and virus-neutralizing antibody titers. Moderate T-cell responses were demonstrated only in DDD- and DDV-vaccinated animals. When vaccinated animals were challenged with live virus, all vaccination regimens showed significant protection from viremia. DDV-immunized animals were completely protected from viremia (mean time of viremia = 0 days), whereas DDD- and VVV-vaccinated animals had mean times of viremia of 0.66 and 0.75 day, respectively, compared to 6.33 days for the control group of animals.
Lécu, Alexis; De Langhe, Christophe; Petit, Thierry; Bernard, Frédéric; Swam, Hanny
Due to the spread of the H5N1 highly pathogenic strain of avian influenza virus across Europe, a preventive vaccination occurred in early 2006 among 135 French zoologic institutions. Approximately 25,000 birds were vaccinated with a H5N2 inactivated vaccine. Among them, 4,369 birds were monitored by members of Association Francophone des Vétérinaires de Parc Zoologique regarding safety issues of the vaccination protocol. A total of 1,686 blood samples were collected before the first injection (n = 255), at the time of booster (n = 463), 60 day after the booster (n = 514), and 180 day (n = 229) and 330 day (n = 217) after the initial injection. Thus, sera of 126 species representing 15 different avian orders were tested using the hemagglutinin inhibition assay to evaluate seroconversion and the long-term serologic profile of selected anti-H5 antibody. Safety was considered satisfactory in all orders, and there were no deleterious effects on large-volume injection/body weight ratio. After the second injection, 71% of the birds developed a titer > or =32, with a mean titer of 558. Titers then decreased in all birds, with 42% of the remaining birds having a titer > or =32 at day 180 and only 26% at day 330. Results demonstrated that a booster 42 days after initial vaccination was mandatory to raise the titer above 32, considered to be the protective level in poultry, and to increase the number of seroconverted birds. Differences in the serologic responses among the orders and species of birds were detected and could be linked with the variation of vaccine dose injected per body weight or with species-specific immune response. The protocol for additional campaigns will be adjusted for some bird orders through the increase of injected dose or a half yearly booster to sustain better titers over the year. Vaccination is a useful tool, together with biosecurity, that should always be used as a primary method of preventing and controlling avian influenza outbreaks.
Sener, M; Gürsel, G; Türktaş, H
Even though annual influenza vaccinations are recommended by many authorities, some doctors may be reluctant to vaccinate asthmatic patients because of the risk of inducing bronchial reactivity and exacerbating the asthma. In this study we investigated the effect of inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine on airway reactivity symptom scores and peak expiratory flow (PEF) variability in 24 patients with mild stable asthma. Baseline spirometry and methacholine challenge tests were performed on all patients. Patients were then asked to record their peak expiratory flow every morning and evening, complete daily symptom score charts (morning tightness, daytime asthma, cough, and night asthma), and note bronchodilator usage for 1 week. After baseline measurements, the patients were allocated to inactivated vaccine and placebo in a random and single-blind manner. The lung function measurements and methacholine challenge tests were repeated 1 week after vaccination and placebo administration at the same time of day. PD20 (mg/mL) methacholine doses were 3.06+/-3.0 mg/mL before vaccination, 2.96+/-3.2 mg/mL after vaccination, and 2.76+/-2.91 mg/mL after placebo administration. There were no significant changes in PD20 methacholine after influenza vaccination (p>0.05). There were also no significant changes in symptom scores, bronchodilator usage, and PEFR after vaccination (p>0.05). None of the patients experienced significant local or systemic side effects after vaccination. Immunization with inactivated influenza vaccine does not induce clinical exacerbations of asthma or airway hyperreactivity in patients with mild asthma.
Shoemaker, Craig A; Lafrentz, Benjamin R; Klesius, Phillip H
Vibrio vulnificus causes disease in economically important aquaculture raised fish and is an opportunistic human pathogen. This study reports on the isolation of V. vulnificus from diseased hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus) cultured in a North American water reuse facility. Our objectives were to characterize the isolate using biochemical and molecular methods, develop a disease challenge model, and determine the ability of a formalin inactivated whole-cell vaccine to protect against V. vulnificus. The V. vulnificus isolate recovered was biotype 1, 16S rRNA type B, vcg type C, and vvhA type 2 and caused disease in tilapia held in static salt water (1.5 g/l sea salt). Fish vaccinated with the formalin inactivated whole-cell vaccine responded to vaccination with titers from vaccinated fish ranging from 32 to 64 and titers from non-vaccinated fish ranging from 4 to 8. In two trials, vaccinated tilapia exhibited relative percent survival (RPS) of 73 and 60% following homologous isolate challenge. In two additional trials, vaccinated tilapia exhibited RPS values of up to 88% following challenge with a heterologous isolate; the use of a mineral oil adjuvant enhanced protection. This vaccine may provide an effective means of preventing infections caused by biochemically and genetically diverse V. vulnificus.
Cole, F E
A method was developed for the production of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis vaccine from virus grown in rolling-bottle cultures (840 cm(2) growth area) of chick embryo cells. The PE-6 strain of virus was propagated in chick embryo cell roller cultures maintained on serum-free medium 199 containing 0.25% human serum albumin and antibiotics (MM). A multiplicity of inoculum of 0.005 yielded acceptable titers of virus at a convenient harvest time of 18 to 24 hr and reduced the carry-over of extraneous material from the virus seed. Growth studies in which 100, 200, or 300 ml of MM was used showed that use of 300 ml of MM offered two advantages: (i) cytopathic effects were less at the 18- to 24-hr harvest time, thereby decreasing cellular material in the final product, and (ii) total virus yield was not substantially reduced, thus permitting large-scale production of virus for further processing. Studies on formalin inactivation at 37 C indicated that the virus was inactivated by 0.05% formalin within 12 to 16 hr and with 0.1% formalin within 6 to 8 hr. Antigen extinction tests in hamsters revealed excellent potency (e.g., median-effective-dose values of 0.069 to 0.012 ml) for both fluid and freeze-dried products. The advantages of the roller-bottle technique in vaccine production are discussed.
Heldens, J G; Kersten, A J; Weststrate, M W; van den Hoven, R
An adjuvanted vaccine containing inactivated equine influenza, herpesvirus antigens, and tetanus toxoid was administered to young seronegative foals of 8 months of age by deep intramuscular injection in the neck (Group A). The first two vaccinations were given 4 weeks apart. The third was administered 6 months later. Another group of foals (Group B) was vaccinated according to the same scheme at the same time with monovalent equine herpes virus (EHV) vaccine (EHV1.4) vaccine. Antibody responses to the equine influenza (single radial haemolysis; SRH) and tetanus (ToBi ELISA) components of the vaccines were examined from first vaccination until 1 year after the third vaccination. The influenza components of the combination vaccine induced high antibody titres at two weeks after the second vaccination whereafter titres declined until the time of the third vaccination. After the third vaccination, the titres rose rapidly again to remain high for at least 1 year. Antibody titres against tetanus peaked only after the third vaccination but remained high enough to offer protective immunity for at least 1 year. Foals vaccinated with monovalent EHV1.4 remained seronegative for influenza and tetanus throughout the study. Four and a half months after the third vaccination of groups A and B, a third group of animals was vaccinated twice with monovalent EHV1.4 vaccine 4 weeks apart (Group C). Two weeks after the administration of the second dose in the later group, all groups (A, B, C and an unvaccinated control group D) were challenged with EHV-4. Vaccinated foals (Group A, B, C) showed a clear reduction of clinical symptoms and virus excretion after EHV-4 challenge compared with the unvaccinated control foals. No difference could be demonstrated among the vaccinated groups, suggesting that the combination vaccine protects as well as the monovalent vaccine. In EHV1.4-vaccinated foals both antigenic fractions induced clear protection up to 6 months after vaccination (9). It can
Plosker, Greg L
The influenza A subtype H5N1 virus is a likely causative agent for the next human influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza vaccine production can begin only after a novel pandemic virus emerges. Cell-based vaccine production has advantages over conventional egg-based methods, allowing more rapid large-scale vaccine production. A reliable Vero cell culture system is available for pandemic and prepandemic influenza vaccine production. Prepandemic influenza vaccines are an important component of influenza pandemic preparedness plans, as their targeted use in the pandemic alert period or early in a pandemic is likely to mitigate the consequences of an influenza outbreak. Vepacel® is a prepandemic influenza vaccine (whole virion, Vero cell-derived, inactivated) containing antigen of H5N1 strain A/Vietnam/1203/2004 and is approved for use in the EU. Clinical immunogenicity studies with the vaccine have demonstrated good rates of functional neutralizing antibody responses against the vaccine strain (A/Vietnam/1203/2004), meeting established immunogenicity criteria for seasonal influenza vaccines, and cross-reactivity against H5N1 strains from other clades. In phase I/II and III studies, a heterologous (A/Indonesia/05/2005) booster vaccine administered to healthy adult and elderly volunteers 6-24 months after the two-dose priming vaccine (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) regimen induced good immunogenic responses against both H5N1 strains, demonstrating strong immunological memory. Broadly similar, albeit less robust, responses were observed in two special risk cohorts of immunocompromised and chronically ill patients. In general, adverse events observed in clinical immunogenicity studies with H5N1 vaccine (A/Vietnam/1203/2004) were similar to those reported with non-adjuvanted, inactivated, seasonal influenza vaccines.
Budimir, Natalija; Huckriede, Anke; Meijerhof, Tjarko; Boon, Louis; Gostick, Emma; Price, David A; Wilschut, Jan; de Haan, Aalzen
The inability of seasonal influenza vaccines to effectively protect against infection with antigenically drifted viruses or newly emerging pandemic viruses underlines the need for development of cross-reactive influenza vaccines that induce immunity against a variety of virus subtypes. Therefore, potential cross-protective vaccines, e.g., whole inactivated virus (WIV) vaccine, that can target conserved internal antigens such as the nucleoprotein (NP) and/or matrix protein (M1) need to be explored. In the current study we show that a WIV vaccine, through induction of cross-protective cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs), protects mice from heterosubtypic infection. This protection was abrogated after depletion of CD8+ cells in vaccinated mice, indicating that CTLs were the primary mediators of protection. Previously, we have shown that different procedures used for virus inactivation influence optimal activation of CTLs by WIV, most likely by affecting the membrane fusion properties of the virus. Specifically, inactivation with formalin (FA) severely compromises fusion activity of the virus, while inactivation with β-propiolactone (BPL) preserves fusion activity. Here, we demonstrate that vaccination of mice with BPL-inactivated H5N1 WIV vaccine induces solid protection from lethal heterosubtypic H1N1 challenge. By contrast, vaccination with FA-inactivated WIV, while preventing death after lethal challenge, failed to protect against development of disease and severe body weight loss. Vaccination with BPL-inactivated WIV, compared to FA-inactivated WIV, induced higher levels of specific CD8+ T cells in blood, spleen and lungs, and a higher production of granzyme B in the lungs upon H1N1 virus challenge. The results underline the potential use of WIV as a cross-protective influenza vaccine candidate. However, careful choice of the virus inactivation procedure is important to retain membrane fusion activity and full immunogenicity of the vaccine.
Kamal, Ram P; Blanchfield, Kristy; Belser, Jessica A; Music, Nedzad; Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Holiday, Crystal; Burroughs, Ashley; Sun, Xiangjie; Maines, Taronna R; Levine, Min Z; York, Ian A
Avian influenza viruses of the H7 hemagglutinin (HA) subtype present a significant public health threat, as evidenced by the ongoing outbreak of human A(H7N9) infections in China. When evaluated by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) and microneutralization (MN) assays, H7 viruses and vaccines are found to induce lower level of neutralizing antibodies (nAb) than do their seasonal counterparts, making it difficult to develop and evaluate prepandemic vaccines. We have previously shown that purified recombinant H7 HA appear to be poorly immunogenic in that they induce low levels of HI and MN antibodies. In this study, we immunized mice with whole inactivated reverse genetics reassortant (RG) viruses expressing HA and neuraminidase (NA) from 3 different H7 viruses [A/Shanghai/2/2013(H7N9), A/Netherlands/219/2003(H7N7), and A/New York/107/2003(H7N2)] or with human A(H1N1)pdm09 (A/California/07/2009-like) or A(H3N2) (A/Perth16/2009) viruses. Mice produced equivalent titers of antibodies to all viruses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). However, the antibody titers induced by H7 viruses were significantly lower when measured by HI and MN assays. Despite inducing very low levels of nAb, H7 vaccines conferred complete protection against homologous virus challenge in mice, and the serum antibodies directed against the HA head region were capable of mediating protection. The apparently low immunogenicity associated with H7 viruses and vaccines may be at least partly related to measuring antibody titers with the traditional HI and MN assays, which may not provide a true measure of protective immunity associated with H7 immunization. This study underscores the need for development of additional correlates of protection for prepandemic vaccines.IMPORTANCE H7 avian influenza viruses present a serious risk to human health. Preparedness efforts include development of prepandemic vaccines. For seasonal influenza viruses, protection is correlated with antibody
Zurbriggen, Sebastian; Tobler, Kurt; Abril, Carlos; Diedrich, Sabine; Ackermann, Mathias; Pallansch, Mark A; Metzler, Alfred
From 2001 to 2004, Switzerland switched from routine vaccination with oral polio vaccine (OPV) to inactivated polio vaccine (IPV), using both vaccines in the intervening period. Since IPV is less effective at inducing mucosal immunity than OPV, this change might allow imported poliovirus to circulate undetected more easily in an increasingly IPV-immunized population. Environmental monitoring is a recognized tool for identifying polioviruses in a community. To look for evidence of poliovirus circulation following cessation of OPV use, two sewage treatment plants located in the Zurich area were sampled from 2004 to 2006. Following virus isolation using either RD or L20B cells, enteroviruses and polioviruses were identified by reverse transcription-PCR. A total of 20 out of 174 wastewater samples were positive for 62 Sabin-like isolates. One isolate from each poliovirus-positive sample was analyzed in more detail. Sequencing the complete viral protein 1 (VP1) capsid coding region, as well as intratypic differentiation (ITD), identified 3 Sabin type 1, 13 Sabin type 2, and 4 Sabin type 3 strains. One serotype 1 strain showed a discordant result in the ITD. Three-quarters of the strains showed mutations within the 5' untranslated region and VP1, known to be associated with reversion to virulence. Moreover, three strains showed heterotypic recombination (S2/S1 and S3/S2/S3). The low number of synonymous mutations and the partial temperature sensitivity are not consistent with extended circulation of these Sabin virus strains. Nevertheless, the continuous introduction of polioviruses into the community emphasizes the necessity for uninterrupted child vaccination to maintain high herd immunity.
Williams, M S
Single-radial-immunodiffusion (SRID) assays have been used to determine the potency of all human inactivated influenza virus vaccines licensed by the Food and Drug Administration for use in the United States since 1978. SRID replaced less reliable tests which were based on the aggregation of erythrocytes by the hemagglutinins of influenza viruses. Similar SRID assays have been used experimentally to determine the potency of inactivated polio and rabies vaccines. In each case, the assays are based on the diffusion of viral antigen into an agarose gel containing specific antibodies to the antigen being measured. For influenza and rabies, disruption of the virions with a detergent is necessary to permit the diffusion of the appropriate antigens, where as with polio, intact virions are allowed to diffuse. The interaction between antigen and antibody produces a zone of precipitation whose size is directly proportional to the amount of antigen applied. A potency value for unknowns is obtained by comparing the sizes of zones produced by unknown preparations to the sizes of zones obtained with a calibrated reference of known antigen content. Once the specific reference antigens and antibodies are prepared and the test standardized, it is a remarkably simple technique which unlike agglutination assays is very reproducible, relatively unaffected by minor variations in test conditions and is far less time consuming and cumbersome than in vivo assays for potency such as those done by inoculating mice or monkeys. More importantly, clinical studies demonstrate that standardization of influenza vaccines by SRID provides a better correlate of human immunogenicity than previous methods.
Kunze, Ursula; Böhm, Gabriela
TBE is a public health problem well under control in Austria because of a mass vaccination programme. There have been 50-100 registered cases per year for many years, the vaccination rate of the population is currently 85 %. Special attention has to be given to the "older" generation 40 plus as this is the segment of the population where the majority of cases are observed annually. In comparison of the counties, Tyrol and Upper Austria finished first and second after a long time when Styria and Carynthia had observed most of the cases. For TBE applies the same as for Tetanus, namely the principle of disease control or disease elimination: The virus cannot be eliminated and vaccination provides individual protection. The both available TBE vaccines have proven to be very effective with an effectivity of 96-99 %, also when given irregular vaccinations the protection rate is still very high (>90 %). More than 4000 prevented cases between 2000 and 2011 prove this impressively.
Lu, Jihu; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Xuehua; Feng, Lei; Dong, Bin; Chu, Xuan; Liu, Xiufan; Peng, Daxin; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Huailiang; Hou, Jibo; Tang, Yinghua
Combination of CVCVA5 adjuvant and commercial avian influenza (AI) vaccine has been previously demonstrated to provide good protection against different AI viruses in chickens. In this study, we further investigated the protective immunity of CVCVA5-adjuvanted oil-emulsion inactivated AI vaccine in chickens, ducks and geese. Compared to the commercial H5 inactivated vaccine, the H5-CVCVA5 vaccine induced significantly higher titers of hemaglutinin inhibitory antibodies in three lines of broiler chickens and ducks, elongated the antibody persistence periods in geese, elevated the levels of cross serum neutralization antibody against different clade and subclade H5 AI viruses in chicken embryos. High levels of mucosal antibody were detected in chickens injected with the H5 or H9-CVCA5 vaccine. Furthermore, cellular immune response was markedly improved in terms of increasing the serum levels of cytokine interferon-γ and interleukine 4, promoting proliferation of splenocytes and upregulating cytotoxicity activity in both H5- and H9-CVCVA5 vaccinated chickens. Together, these results provide evidence that AI vaccines supplemented with CVCVA5 adjuvant is a promising approach for overcoming the limitation of vaccine strain specificity of protection.
Hwang, Kao-Pin; Hsu, Yu-Lung; Hsieh, Tsung-Hsueh; Lin, Hsiao-Chuan; Yen, Ting-Yu; Wei, Hsiu-Mei; Lin, Hung-Chih; Chen, An-Chyi; Chow, Julie Chi; Huang, Li-Min
This prospective study aimed to investigate the immune responses and safety of an influenza vaccine in vaccine-naïve infants aged 6-12 months, and was conducted from November 2010 to May 2011. Fifty-nine infants aged 6-12 months received two doses of trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine 4 weeks apart. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were measured 4 weeks after the two doses of study vaccine. Based on the assumption that a hemagglutination inhibition titer of 1:40 or greater against the antigen would be protective in adults, two doses of the study vaccine generated a protective immune response of 63.2% against influenza A(H1N1), 82.5% against influenza A(H3N2) and 38.6% against influenza B viruses in infants aged 6-12 months. The geometric mean fold rises against influenza type A and B viruses also met the European Medicines Agency criteria for flu vaccines. The solicited events within 7 days after vaccination were mild in intensity. No deaths or adverse events such as optic neuritis, cranial neuropathy, and brachial neuropathy or Guillain-Barre syndrome were reported. Two doses of inactivated influenza vaccine were well tolerated and induced a protective immune response against influenza in infants aged 6-12 months.
Bae, E Young; Choi, Ui Yoon; Kwon, Hyo Jin; Jeong, Dae Chul; Rhim, Jung Woo; Ma, Sang Hyuk; Lee, Kyung Il; Kang, Jin Han
Influenza virus vaccination is recommended for children, but so far, active vaccination has not been achieved because most parents lack knowledge of vaccine safety and many doctors are reluctant to administer vaccine due to concerns that steroids might alter immunogenicity. The aim of this study was to compare the immunogenicity and safety of inactivated trivalent split influenza virus vaccine between children with recurrent wheezing and healthy children of the same age group. Sixty-eight healthy children and 62 children with recurrent wheezing took part in this study. Seroconversion rates, seroprotection rates, geometric mean titers (GMTs), and geometric mean titer ratios (GMTRs) were measured by a hemagglutination inhibition assay for the assessment of immunogenicity. Solicited and unsolicited local and systemic adverse events were measured for the assessment of safety. Regarding immunogenicity, the seroconversion and seroprotection rates showed no difference overall between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. Also, no difference was observed between steroid-treated and nontreated groups with recurrent wheezing. Generally, the GMTs after vaccination were higher in the one-dose vaccination groups for healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing, but the GMTRs revealed different results according to strain in the two groups. Regarding safety, solicited local and systemic adverse events showed no differences between healthy children and children with recurrent wheezing. This study demonstrates that inactivated split influenza virus vaccine is able to induce protective immune responses in healthy children, as observed in previous studies, as well as in children with recurrent wheezing who require frequent steroid treatment.
Suntarattiwong, Piyarat; Ditsungnoen, Darunee; Pallas, Sarah E.; Abimbola, Taiwo O.; Klungthong, Chonticha; Fernandez, Stefan; Srisarang, Suchada; Chotpitayasunondh, Tawee; Dawood, Fatimah S.; Olsen, Sonja J.; Lindblade, Kim A.
Background Vaccination is the best measure to prevent influenza. We conducted a cost-effectiveness evaluation of trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination, compared to no vaccination, in children ≤60 months of age participating in a prospective cohort study in Bangkok, Thailand. Methods A static decision tree model was constructed to simulate the population of children in the cohort. Proportions of children with laboratory-confirmed influenza were derived from children followed weekly. The societal perspective and one-year analytic horizon were used for each influenza season; the model was repeated for three influenza seasons (2012–2014). Direct and indirect costs associated with influenza illness were collected and summed. Cost of the trivalent inactivated seasonal influenza vaccine (IIV3) including promotion, administration, and supervision cost was added for children who were vaccinated. Quality-adjusted life years (QALY), derived from literature, were used to quantify health outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated as the difference in the expected total costs between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups divided by the difference in QALYs for both groups. Results Compared to no vaccination, IIV3 vaccination among children ≤60 months in our cohort was not cost-effective in the introductory year (2012 season; 24,450 USD/QALY gained), highly cost-effective in the 2013 season (554 USD/QALY gained), and cost-effective in the 2014 season (16,200 USD/QALY gained). Conclusion The cost-effectiveness of IIV3 vaccination among children participating in the cohort study varied by influenza season, with vaccine cost and proportion of high-risk children demonstrating the greatest influence in sensitivity analyses. Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population. PMID:28837594
Saha, Amit; Chowdhury, Mohiul I; Nazim, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Murshid; Ahmed, Tanvir; Hossain, Mohammad Bakhtiar; Hore, Samar Kumar; Sultana, Gazi Nurun Nahar; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi
Immune responses to the inactivated oral whole cell cholera toxin B (CTB) subunit cholera vaccine, Dukoral(®), as well as three childhood vaccines in the national immunization system were compared in children living in high and low arsenic contaminated areas in Bangladesh. In addition, serum complement factors C3 and C4 levels were evaluated among children in the two areas. VACCINATIONS: Toddlers (2-5 years) were orally immunized with two doses of Dukoral 14 days apart. Study participants had also received diphtheria, tetanus and measles vaccines according to the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in Bangladesh. The mean level of arsenic in the urine specimens in the children of the high arsenic area (HAA, Shahrasti, Chandpur) was 291.8μg/L while the level was 6.60μg/L in the low arsenic area (LAA, Mirpur, Dhaka). Cholera specific vibriocidal antibody responses were significantly increased in the HAA (87%, P<0.001) and the LAA (75%, P<0.001) children after vaccination with Dukoral, but no differences were found between the two groups. Levels of CTB specific IgA and IgG antibodies were comparable between the two groups, whereas LPS specific IgA and IgG were higher in the LAA group, although response rates were comparable. Diphtheria and tetanus vaccine specific IgG responses were significantly higher in the HAA compared to the LAA group (P<0.001, P=0.048 respectively), whereas there were no differences in the measles specific IgG responses between the groups. Complement C3 and C4 levels in sera were higher in participants from the HAA than the LAA groups (P<0.001, P=0.049 respectively). The study demonstrates that the oral cholera vaccine as well as the EPI vaccines studied are immunogenic in children in high and low arsenic areas in Bangladesh. The results are encouraging for the potential use of cholera vaccines as well as the EPI vaccines in arsenic endemic areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shirreff, George; Wadood, Mufti Zubair; Vaz, Rui Gama; Sutter, Roland W.
In 2014, inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) campaigns were implemented in Nigeria and Pakistan after clinical trials showed that IPV boosts intestinal immunity in children previously given oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). We estimated the effect of these campaigns by using surveillance data collected during January 2014–April 2016. In Nigeria, campaigns with IPV and trivalent OPV (tOPV) substantially reduced the incidence of poliomyelitis caused by circulating serotype-2 vaccine–derived poliovirus (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.17 for 90 days after vs. 90 days before campaigns, 95% CI 0.04–0.78) and the prevalence of virus in environmental samples (prevalence ratio [PR] 0.16, 95% CI 0.02–1.33). Campaigns with tOPV alone resulted in similar reductions (IRR 0.59, 95% CI 0.18–1.97; PR 0.45, 95% CI 0.21–0.95). In Pakistan, the effect of IPV+tOPV campaigns on wild-type poliovirus was not significant. Results suggest that administration of IPV alongside OPV can decrease poliovirus transmission if high vaccine coverage is achieved. PMID:27861118
Blankenhorn, Anne-Line; Cernuschi, Tania; Zaffran, Michel J
In May 2012, the World Health Assembly declared the completion of poliovirus eradication a programmatic emergency for global public health and called for a comprehensive polio endgame strategy. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 was developed in response to this call and demands that all countries using Oral Polio Vaccine (OPV) only introduce at least 1 dose of Inactivated Polio Vaccine (IPV) into routine immunization schedules by the end of 2015. In November 2013, the Board of Gavi (the Vaccine Alliance) approved the provision of support for IPV introduction in the 72 Gavi-eligible countries. Following analytical work and stakeholder consultations, the IPV Immunization Systems Management Group (IMG) presented a proposal to provide exceptional financial support for IPV introduction to additional OPV-only using countries not eligible for Gavi support and that would otherwise not be able to mobilize the necessary financial resources within the Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan timelines. In June 2014, the Polio Oversight Board (POB) agreed to make available a maximum envelope of US $45 million toward supporting countries not eligible for Gavi funding. This article describes the design of the funding mechanism that was developed, its implementation and the lessons learned through this process. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.
Haitao, Ren; Huiqin, Liu; Tao, Qu; Xunzhe, Yang; Xiaoqiu, Shao; Wei, Li; Jiewen, Zhang; Liying, Cui; Hongzhi, Guan
The autoimmune encephalitis can develop with or without an underlying tumor. For tumor-negative autoimmune encephalitis, the causes are still largely unknown. Here we presented three patients with autoimmune encephalitis accompanied with vitiligo. Among them, two patients suffered from anti-leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) encephalitis and one patient suffered from anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy. All of them received intravenous immunoglobulin and steroids as immunotherapy. The two patients with anti-LGI1 encephalitis recovered and got a good prognosis. For the patient with anti-IgLON5 encephalopathy, he only got a moderate and transient improvement. Based on the above, we speculate that vitiligo may be a clue to an autoimmune cause for encephalitis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Leeb, Alan; Carcione, Dale; Richmond, Peter C; Jacoby, Peter; Effler, Paul V
To assess the reactogenicity of two 2010 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) formulations among adults, including the formulation associated with febrile convulsions among children in Australia. We retrospectively interviewed persons aged ≥18 years who received TIV between 11 March and 24 April 2010 at a large general practice in Perth. All 160 persons who received Influvac® (Solvay) and a random sample of 190 of 451 persons who received Fluvax® (CSL Biotherapies) were included in the assessment; 127 (79%) recipients of Influvac® and 156 (82%) of the Fluvax® recipients completed the interview. Patient demographics, the presence of underlying medical conditions, prior influenza vaccination history, self-reported onset of local and/or systemic symptoms within 72 h following receipt of 2010 TIV, and use of anti-fever/pain medication following TIV vaccination were examined. The mean age of the vaccinees was 54 years for both the Fluvax® and Influvac® brand cohorts and there was no significant difference between the cohorts with regard to gender or the presence of underlying medical conditions. In bivariate analyses, reported swelling (18% vs 7%, p=0.009), muscle pain (12% vs 3%, p=0.014) and use of anti-fever/pain medication after TIV vaccination (12% vs 2%, p=0.008) were each significantly more common for patients who received Fluvax® compared to those who received Influvac®. In multivariate analyses simultaneously controlling for age, gender, receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine prior to 2010 and receipt of 2009 H1N1 pandemic vaccine, vaccination with Fluvax® TIV was a significant independent predictor of muscle pain and/or swelling (OR=3.3, 95% CI 1.5-7.4 p=0.004). No significant differences in the proportion of patients reporting systemic reactions were observed. In this setting, 2010 Fluvax® was associated with a greater likelihood of local reactions among adults, compared to 2010 Influvac® TIV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
Elaish, Mohamed; Ali, Ahmed; Xia, Ming; Ibrahim, Mahmoud; Jang, Hyesun; Hiremath, Jagadish; Dhakal, Santosh; Helmy, Yosra A.; Jiang, Xi; Renukaradhya, Gourapura J.; Lee, Chang-Won
The current inactivated influenza vaccines provide satisfactory protection against homologous viruses but limited cross-protection against antigenically divergent strains. Consequently, there is a need to develop more broadly protective vaccines. The highly conserved extracellular domain of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) has shown promising results as one of the components of a universal influenza vaccine in different animal models. As an approach to overcome the limited, strain specific, protective efficacy of inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV), a combination of recombinant M2e expressed on the surface of norovirus P particle (M2eP) and IIV was tested in chickens. Co-immunization of birds with both vaccines did not affect the production of M2e-specific IgG antibodies compared to the group vaccinated with M2eP alone. However, the co-immunized birds developed significantly higher pre-challenge hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers against the homologous IIV antigen and heterologous challenge virus. These combined vaccine groups also had cross reactive antibody responses against different viruses (H5, H6, and H7 subtypes) compared to the IIV alone vaccinated group. Upon intranasal challenge with homologous and heterologous viruses, the combined vaccine groups showed greater reduction in viral shedding in tracheal swabs compared to those groups receiving IIV alone. Moreover, M2eP antisera from vaccinated birds were able to bind to the native M2 expressed on the surface of whole virus particles and infected cells, and inhibit virus replication in vitro. Our results support the potential benefit of supplementing IIV with M2eP, to expand the vaccine cross protective efficacy. PMID:28151964
Trent, Dennis W; Minor, Philip; Jivapaisarnpong, Teeranart; Shin, Jinho
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is one of the most important viral encephalitides in Asia. Two live-attenuated vaccines have been developed and licensed for use in countries in the region. Given the advancement of immunization of humans with increasing use of live-attenuated vaccines to prevent JE, there is increased interest to define quality standards for their manufacture, testing, nonclinical studies, and clinical studies to assess their efficacy and safety in humans. To this end, WHO convened a meeting with a group of international experts in February 2012 to develop guidelines for evaluating the quality, safety and efficacy of live-attenuated JE virus vaccines for prevention of human disease. This report summarizes collective views of the participants on scientific and technical issues that need to be considered in the guidelines.
Feldstein, Leora R; Matrajt, Laura; Elizabeth Halloran, M; Keitel, Wendy A; Longini, Ira M
Influenza A virus subtype H5N1 has been a public health concern for almost 20years due to its potential ability to become transmissible among humans. Phase I and II clinical trials have assessed safety, reactogenicity and immunogenicity of inactivated influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccines. A shortage of vaccine is likely to occur during the first months of a pandemic. Hence, determining whether to give one dose to more people or two doses to fewer people to best protect the population is essential. We use hemagglutination-inhibition antibody titers as an immune correlate for avian influenza vaccines. Using an established relationship to obtain a theoretical vaccine efficacy from immunogenicity data from thirteen arms of six phase I and phase II clinical trials of inactivated influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccines, we assessed: (1) the proportion of theoretical vaccine efficacy achieved after a single dose (defined as primary response level), and (2) whether theoretical efficacy increases after a second dose, with and without adjuvant. Participants receiving vaccine with AS03 adjuvant had higher primary response levels (range: 0.48-0.57) compared to participants receiving vaccine with MF59 adjuvant (range: 0.32-0.47), with no observed trends in primary response levels by antigen dosage. After the first and second doses, vaccine with AS03 at dosage levels 3.75, 7.5 and 15mcg had the highest estimated theoretical vaccine efficacy: Dose (1) 45% (95% CI: 36-57%), 53% (95% CI: 42-63%) and 55% (95% CI: 44-64%), respectively and Dose (2) 93% (95% CI: 89-96%), 97% (95% CI: 95-98%) and 97% (95% CI: 96-100%), respectively. On average, the estimated theoretical vaccine efficacy of lower dose adjuvanted vaccines (AS03 and MF59) was 17% higher than that of higher dose unadjuvanted vaccines, suggesting that including an adjuvant is dose-sparing. These data indicate adjuvanted inactivated influenza A/H5N1 virus vaccine produces high theoretical efficacy after two doses to protect individuals
Dagan, R; Greenberg, D; Goldenbertg-Gehtman, P; Vidor, E; Briantais, P; Pinsk, V; Athias, O; Dumas, R
The safety and immunogenicity of a new formulation of the inactivated hepatitis A vaccine, Avaxim, was evaluated in 189 children, aged 18 months to 15 years in a monocentric, open trial. Two vaccinations were given six months apart. Enrollment was balanced within three age groups: 18 months to 3 years, 4-8 years and 9-15 years. Antibody titers were measured blindly by an independent laboratory using a modified radioimmunoassay. Two weeks after the first dose, seroconversion was achieved by 94.6, 94.3 and 96.4% of initially HAV-seronegative subjects (antibody titre <20 mIU/ml) in each age group (youngest to oldest, respectively), with corresponding geometric mean titre concentrations (GMC) of 72.2, 54.3 and 47.1 mIU/ml. Just before the booster dose, the seroconversion rate was 100% in all groups, and the corresponding GMC values were 163, 169 and 111 mIU/ml. All groups included, a 22.6-fold rise in GMC from prebooster levels was observed four weeks after the booster dose. An explanatory analysis suggested a tendency for higher antibody levels in younger children at all vaccination time points. Local reactions were noted in 18.2% of the vaccinees after the first dose and in 8.5% after the booster dose. The rates of systemic reactions were 23.8% after the first dose and 11.4% after the booster dose. Overall, this trial demonstrated the good safety and immunogenicity profile of this vaccine in children aged 18 months to 15 years of age.
Thomas, Milton; Wang, Zhao; Sreenivasan, Chithra C; Hause, Ben M; Gourapura J Renukaradhya; Li, Feng; Francis, David H; Kaushik, Radhey S; Khatri, Mahesh
Swine influenza is widely prevalent in swine herds in North America and Europe causing enormous economic losses and a public health threat. Pigs can be infected by both avian and mammalian influenza viruses and are sources of generation of reassortant influenza viruses capable of causing pandemics in humans. Current commercial vaccines provide satisfactory immunity against homologous viruses; however, protection against heterologous viruses is not adequate. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of an intranasal Poly I:C adjuvanted UV inactivated bivalent swine influenza vaccine consisting of Swine/OH/24366/07 H1N1 and Swine/CO/99 H3N2, referred as PAV, in maternal antibody positive pigs against an antigenic variant and a heterologous swine influenza virus challenge. Groups of three-week-old commercial-grade pigs were immunized intranasally with PAV or a commercial vaccine (CV) twice at 2 weeks intervals. Three weeks after the second immunization, pigs were challenged with the antigenic variant Swine/MN/08 H1N1 (MN08) and the heterologous Swine/NC/10 H1N2 (NC10) influenza virus. Antibodies in serum and respiratory tract, lung lesions, virus shedding in nasal secretions and virus load in lungs were assessed. Intranasal administration of PAV induced challenge viruses specific-hemagglutination inhibition- and IgG antibodies in the serum and IgA and IgG antibodies in the respiratory tract. Importantly, intranasal administration of PAV provided protection against the antigenic variant MN08 and the heterologous NC10 swine influenza viruses as evidenced by significant reductions in lung virus load, gross lung lesions and significantly reduced shedding of challenge viruses in nasal secretions. These results indicate that Poly I:C or its homologues may be effective as vaccine adjuvants capable of generating cross-protective immunity against antigenic variants/heterologous swine influenza viruses in pigs.
Servat, Alexandre; Kempff, Sébastien; Brogat, Valère; Litaize, Estelle; Schereffer, Jean-Luc; Cliquet, Florence
The mouse challenge test still remains the reference method for the potency determination of human and animal inactivated rabies vaccines, and it is still widely used throughout the world. This test suffers from many disadvantages - it is expensive and time consuming, uses a large number of mice, causes significant animal distress, and suffers from high variability. Recently, the European Pharmacopoeia has recognised the use of a serological potency assay (SPA) as an alternative method to the challenge test. This new test is based on the determination of rabies neutralising antibody titres in vaccinated mice, by using the modified Rapid Fluorescent Focus Inhibition Test (mRFFIT). With the objective of adopting this new method for the batch release of inactivated rabies vaccines, we evaluated its performance on a large collection of rabies vaccines currently assessed in our laboratory. The Fluorescent Antibody Virus Neutralisation test (FAVNt) was used in parallel with the mRFFIT, and the results were compared to the mouse challenge test. Our results demonstrate that the SPA is capable of estimating the potency of vaccines formulated with a potency margin well above the minimum of 1IU/dose. For low potency vaccines, this new method demonstrated some limitations, due to the recurrent invalidation of the assay. We have also demonstrated the superior sensitivity of the FAVNt when compared to the mRFFIT, and the importance of minimising the risk of detecting non-responders in vaccinated mice. 2015 FRAME.
Morita, K; Nabeshima, T; Buerano, C C
Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an inflammation of the central nervous system in humans and animals, specifically horses and cattle. The disease, which can sometimes be fatal, is caused by the flavivirus Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), of which there are five genotypes (genotypes 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5). The transmission cycle of the virus involves pigs and wild birds as virus amplifiers and mosquitoes as vectors for transferring the virus between amplifying hosts and to dead- end hosts, i.e. humans, horses and cattle. In horses and cattle the disease is usually asymptomatic, but when clinical signs do occur they include fever, decreased appetite, frothing at the mouth, rigidity of the legs and recumbency, and neurological signs, such as convulsive fits, circling, marked depression and disordered consciousness. In pigs, it can cause abortion and stillbirths. At present, the virus is detected in a wide area covering eastern and southern Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Papua New Guinea and Pakistan. JEV RNA has also been detected in Italy, first in dead birds in 1997 and 2000 and then in mosquitoes in 2010. Genotype shift, i.e. a change of genotype from genotype 3 to genotype 1, has occurred in some countries, namely Japan, South Korea, Chinese Taipei and Vietnam. Laboratory methods are available for confirming the causative agent of the disease. There are control measures to prevent or minimise infection and, among them, vaccination is one of the most important and one which should be adopted in endemic and epidemic areas.
Hovden, Arnt-Ove; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Haaheim, Lars Reinhardt
Influenza is a major respiratory pathogen, which exerts a huge human and economic toll on society. Influenza is a vaccine preventable disease, however, the vaccine strains must be annually updated due to the continuous antigenic changes in the virus. Inactivated influenza vaccines have been used for over 50 years and have an excellent safety record. Annual vaccination is therefore recommended for all individuals with serious medical conditions, like COPD, and protects the vaccinee against influenza illness and also against hospitalization and death. In COPD patients, influenza infection can lead to exacerbations resulting in reduced quality of life, hospitalization and death in the most severe cases. Although there is only limited literature on the use of influenza vaccination solely in COPD patients, there is clearly enough evidence to recommend annual vaccination in this group. This review will focus on influenza virus and prophylaxis with inactivated influenza vaccines in COPD patients and other “at risk” groups to reduce morbidity, save lives, and reduce health care costs. PMID:18229561
Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael
A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to <18 years of age. Subjects were stratified as follows: Cohort A (≥6 months to <3 years); Cohort B (≥3 years to <9 years); and Cohort C (≥9 years to <18 years). The subject's age and influenza vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts.
necrosis. We have evaluated the efficacy of a recombinant vaccinia/VEE virus vaccine (TC-5A) to protect horses against challenge with equine virulent...of horse vaccinees with equine virulent VEE virus 71-180 and vaccinia viruses ........ 27 7. ELISA cross-reactivity of sera from immunized equines ...antibodies in equines after immuniza- tion with TC-83, TC-5A and wild-type vaccinia viruses . .40 5. Body temperature of horses immunized with TC-5A (A
Gritsun, T S; Lashkevich, V A; Gould, E A
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in Europe and many parts of Asia. The etiological agent Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), is a member of the virus genus Flavivirus, of the family Flaviviridae. TBEV is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in Russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of Europe annually. Related viruses within the same group, Louping ill virus (LIV), Langat virus (LGTV) and Powassan virus (POWV), also cause human encephalitis but rarely on an epidemic scale. Three other viruses within the same group, Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (OHFV), Kyasanur Forest disease virus (KFDV) and Alkhurma virus (ALKV), are closely related to the TBEV complex viruses and tend to cause fatal hemorrhagic fevers rather than encephalitis. This review describes the clinical manifestations associated with TBEV infections, the main molecular-biological properties of these viruses, and the different factors that define the incidence and severity of disease. The role of ticks and their local hosts in the emergence of new virus variants with different pathogenic characteristics is also discussed. This review also contains a brief history of vaccination against TBE including trials with live attenuated vaccine and modern tendencies in developing of vaccine virus strains.
Dong, S Z; Zhu, W B
Global polio eradication has entered its final phase, but still faces enormous challenges. The Polio Eradication and Endgame Strategic Plan (2013-2018) set the target for making the world polio-free by 2018. Meanwhile, the World Heath Organization Global Action Plan (GAP Ⅲ) recommended that polioviruses be stored under strict conditions after eradication of the wild poliovirus. At least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) would be required for each newborn baby in the world to ensure successful completion of the final strategy and GAP Ⅲ. The Sabin IPV has a high production safety and low production cost, compared with the wild-virus IPV and, therefore, can play an important role in the final stage of global polio eradication.
Yuk, Seong-Su; To, Eredene-Ochir; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-Tack; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Song, Chang-Seon
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain. In the case of the inactivated H5N9 vaccine, a single dose of vaccine was inadequate to induce proper antibody titer when administered to day-old ducks, which necessitates boost vaccination. Administration of the oil-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine administration in day-old and 2-week-old ducks resulted in a lower body weight at the time of slaughtering, compared to that of gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine. However, gel-adjuvanted H5N9 vaccine failed to induce proper immune response to an extent recommend by OIE-World Organization for Animal Health. In the case of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine, a moderate or low dose of vaccine was appropriate for day-old ducks receiving the gel prime-oil boost vaccination. Single vaccination with oil adjuvants affects the mean body weight of 7-week-old ducks, suggesting that the gel adjuvant is more suitable for meat production. We expect that the use of adjuvants in a prime-boost regimen and at antigen doses set in this study will be helpful to maximize body weight in the case of domestic duck production at the actual farm site. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.
Martin, J; Daas, A; Milne, C
Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccines are an important part of the World Health Organization (WHO) control strategy to eradicate poliomyelitis. Requirements for the quality control of poliomyelitis vaccines (inactivated) include the use of an in vitro D antigen quantification assay for potency determination on the final lot as outlined in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) monograph 0214. Performance of this assay requires a reference preparation calibrated in International Units (IU). A Ph. Eur. biological reference preparation (BRP) for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) calibrated in IU has been established for this purpose. Due to the dwindling stocks of batch 2 of the BRP a collaborative study was run as part of the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM) Biological Standardisation Programme to establish BRP batch 3 (BRP3). Twelve laboratories including Official Medicines Control Laboratories (OMCLs) and manufacturers participated. The candidate BRP3 (cBRP3) was from the same source and had the same characteristics as BRP batch 2 (BRP2). During the study the candidate was calibrated against the 3(rd) International Standard for inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine using in-house D antigen ELISA assays in line with the Ph. Eur. monograph 0214. The candidate was also compared to BRP2 to evaluate the continuity. Based on the results of the study, values of 320 DU/mL, 78 DU/mL and 288 DU/mL (D antigen units/mL) (IU) for poliovirus type 1, 2 and 3 respectively were assigned to the candidate. In June 2016, the Ph. Eur. Commission adopted the material as Ph. Eur. BRP for poliomyelitis vaccine (inactivated) batch 3.
Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur in pigs given whole-inactivated virus (WIV) influenza vaccine upon infection with an antigenically divergent virus. VAERD was first characterized with H1 viruses, and later described in pigs vaccinated with H3N2 WIV and challenged wit...
Vaccine-associated enhanced respiratory disease (VAERD) can occur in pigs immunized with whole-inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine and subsequently infected with an antigenically divergent virus of the same HA subtype. Live-attenuated influenza virus (LAIV) vaccines administered intranasally h...
Sharma, Hitt; Dhere, Rajeev; Parekh, Sameer; Shewale, Sunil
To evaluate the incidence of adverse events following administration of an Inactivated poliomyelitis vaccine (IPV) manufactured by Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune, India. A single 0.5 ml dose of the IPV was administered intramuscularly to children attending private clinics or out-patient department of hospitals for routine immunization across different cities in India. They were observed over a period of 30 days for local or systemic adverse events and rare case of anaphylaxis, if any. A total of 2210 children were enrolled of which 2120 children received the vaccine within primary immunization series and 90 children received booster dose. The common adverse events reported were pain, erythema, swelling and fever. No serious adverse event was reported during the study period. Poliomyelitis vaccine (Inactivated) manufactured by Serum Institute of India Pvt. Ltd., Pune can be safely administered to children following the Expanded Programme on Immunization or World Health Organization recommended immunization schedule.
Xu, Cheng; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein
Salmonid alphavirus 3 (SAV-3) is an emerging pathogen in Norwegian salmon farming and causes severe annual losses. We studied the immunogenicity and protective ability of subunit and DNA vaccines based on E1 and E2 spike proteins of salmonid alphavirus subtype 3 (SAV-3), and compared these to an experimental inactivated, whole virus (IWV) vaccine in Atlantic salmon. The antigens were delivered as water-in-oil emulsions for the subunit and inactivated vaccines and non-formulated for the DNA vaccines. The IWV and the E2 subunit prime-boost groups had circulating neutralizing antibodies at challenge, correlating with high protection against lethal challenge and 3-log(10) reduction of virus titer in heart for the IWV group. Prime-boost with E1 subunit vaccine also conferred significant protection against mortality, but did not correlate with neutralizing antibody levels. Protection against pathology in internal organs was only seen for the IWV group. Prime-boost with E1 and E2 DNA vaccines showed marginal protection in terms of reduction of viral replication in target organs and protection against mortality was not different from controls. The IWV group showed significant upregulation of IFNγ and IL2 mRNA expression at 4 weeks post challenge possibly indicating that other mechanisms in addition to antibody responses play a role in mediating protection against infection. This is the first report comparing the immunogenicity and protection against mortality for IWV vaccines and spike protein subunit and DNA vaccines against salmonid alphavirus infection in Atlantic salmon. The IWV vaccine has superior immunogenicity over sub-unit and DNA vaccines.
Khalili, Iraj; Ghadimipour, Rahim; Sadigh Eteghad, Saeed; Fathi Najafi, Mohsen; Ebrahimi, Mohammad Majid; Godsian, Naser; Sefidi Heris, Yousef; Khalili, Mohammad Taghi
Background: Influenza A is a virus that affects a wide range of animals and also human beings. Avian influenza virus (AIV) subtype H9N2 has the potential to create influenza pandemic and vaccination is a common solution for this problem. The vaccine, used for rapid intervention, should be safe to use and highly effective, after a single administration. Chitosan nanoparticles (CNP) have already been recommended as a new adjuvant for inactivated AIV H9N2 vaccine immunization. Objectives: This study aimed at the evaluation and better understanding of optimum concentration of CNP preparations and also, assessment of loading capacity of AIV into CNP, as an adjuvant in specific pathogen-free (SPF) chickens. Materials and Methods: For measurement of vaccine-antibody response, different types of CNP were injected intramuscularly, in a single dose, to 21-day-old specific pathogen-free chickens. Chickens were monitored for the efficacy of the nanoparticles and, also, their immune response, during a follow up of 7 weeks, by using hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) test. The CNP were prepared according to modified ionic gelation method and inactivated antigen was loaded in four hemagglutinin units (HAU) concentrations. Loading capacity of nanoparticles was determined by hemagglutination (HA) method. Inactivated A/H9N2 AIV was mixed with chitosan of low molecular weight. Results: The CNP did not cause any mortality or side effects, when chickens were administered the prepared vaccine. The results strongly showed that this novel vaccine significantly enhances the immunogenicity of inactivated AIV, comparing with ISA70 (SEPPIC, Puteaux, France) adjuvant that is used routinely in the Razi Serum and Vaccine Research and Production Institute, Karaj, Iran, to reduce ISA70’s side effects. Conclusions: The AIV loaded into CNP vaccines induce appropriate antibody titers, after a single immunization, while requiring a low dose of antigen. The CNP also represent an interesting new
Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) is a systemic infectious disease with nonspecific symptoms and/or severe neurological disorders such as meningitis, encephalitis and myelitis. The disease is caused by TBE virus, an enveloped RNA virus belonging to the family of flaviviruses. Three subtypes are currently present in different parts of Europe and Asia. The TBE virus is transmitted to humans primarily by the tick bite of Ixodes species such as I. ricinus, but also by the ingestion of contaminated raw milk and raw milk products. In Germany, more than 75% of all TBE cases occur in Bavaria and Baden-Württemberg (southern Germany). Depending on the region, 1 to 4% of adult I. ricinus ticks in southern Germany are infected with the central European TBE virus variant. Treatment of TBE is symptomatic and supportive, a specific antiviral therapy does not exist. TBE cases acquired in central European countries have usually a good prognosis. Mortality rates above 2% have been documented in cases of tick-borne encephalitis in the elderly. In endemic areas, active immunization with inactivated TBE virus vaccines provides the most secure protection against TBE. In addition, exposure prophylaxis (protection against tick bites) plays a crucial role for TBE prevention.
Calvert, Amanda E; Dixon, Kandice L; Delorey, Mark J; Blair, Carol D; Roehrig, John T
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is the most common cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, and it is increasingly a global public health concern due to its recent geographic expansion. While commercial vaccines are available and used in some endemic countries, JEV continues to be a public health problem, with 50,000 cases reported annually. Research with virulent JEV in mouse models to develop new methods of prevention and treatment is restricted to BSL-3 containment facilities, confining these studies to investigators with access to these facilities. We have developed an adult small animal peripheral challenge model using interferon-deficient AG129 mice and the JEV live-attenuated vaccine SA14-14-2, thus requiring only BSL-2 containment. A low dose of virus (10PFU/0.1ml) induced 100% morbidity in infected mice. Increased body temperatures measured by implantable temperature transponders correlated with an increase in infectious virus and viral RNA in serum, spleen and brain as well as an increase in pro-inflammatory markers measured by a 58-biomarker multi-analyte profile (MAP) constructed during the course of infection. In the future, the MAP measurements can be used as a baseline for comparison in order to better assess the inhibition of disease progression by other prophylactic and therapeutic agents. The use of the AG129/JEV SA14-14-2 animal model makes vaccine and therapeutic studies feasible for laboratories with limited biocontainment facilities.
He, Xiao-Song; Holmes, Tyson H.; Sanyal, Mrinmoy; Albrecht, Randy A.; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; Greenberg, Harry B.
Background. The human B-cell response to natural influenza virus infection has not been extensively investigated at the polyclonal level. Methods. The overall B-cell response of patients acutely infected with the 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus (A[H1N1]pdm09) was analyzed by determining the reactivity of plasmablast-derived polyclonal antibodies (PPAbs) to influenza proteins. Recipients of inactivated influenza vaccine containing the same A(H1N1)pdm09 strain were studied for comparison. Results. During acute infection, robust plasmablast responses to the infecting virus were detected, characterized by a greater PPAb reactivity to the conserved influenza virus nuclear protein and to heterovariant and heterosubtypic hemagglutinins, in comparison to responses to the inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine. In A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccinees, the presence of baseline serum neutralizing antibodies against A(H1N1)pdm09, suggesting previous exposure to natural A(H1N1)pdm09 infection, did not affect the plasmablast response to vaccination, whereas repeated immunization with inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine resulted in significantly reduced vaccine-specific and cross-reactive PPAb responses. Conclusions. Natural A(H1N1)pdm09 infection and inactivated A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccination result in very distinct patterns of B-cell activation and priming. These differences are likely to be associated with differences in protective immunity, especially cross-protection against heterovariant and heterosubtypic influenza virus strains. PMID:25336731
Sato, Y; Shiosaki, K; Goto, Y; Sonoda, K; Kino, Y
Antibody responses of Macaca fascicularis against a new tetravalent vaccine composed of diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, acellular pertussis antigens, and inactivated poliovirus derived from Sabin strains (sIPV) was investigated to predict an optimal dose of sIPV in a new tetravalent vaccine (DTaP-sIPV) prior to conducting a dose-defined clinical study. Monkeys were inoculated with DTaP-sIPVs containing three different antigen units of sIPVs: Vaccine A (types 1:2:3 = 3:100:100 DU), Vaccine B (types 1:2:3 = 1.5:50:50 DU), and Vaccine C (types 1:2:3 = 0.75:25:25 DU). There was no difference in the average titers of neutralizing antibody against the attenuated or virulent polioviruses between Vaccines A and B. The average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine C tended to be lower than those of Vaccines A and B. The sIPV antigens did not affect the anti-diphtheria or anti-tetanus antibody titers of DTaP-sIPV. Furthermore, the average neutralizing antibody titers of Vaccine A against the attenuated and virulent polioviruses were comparable between M. fascicularis and humans. These results suggest that M. fascicularis may be a useful animal model for predicting the antibody responses to sIPVs in humans, and that it may be likely to reduce the amount of sIPVs contained in DTaP-sIPVs, even for humans.
Garcia, A; Johnson, H; Srivastava, D K; Jayawardene, D A; Wehr, D R; Webster, R G
The control and eventual eradication of H5N2 influenza virus from domestic poultry in Mexico is dependent on the use of avian influenza (AI) vaccine strategies. This study was performed to determine the amount of hemagglutinin (HA) antigen required to control the signs of disease from a highly pathogenic H5N2 influenza virus (A/Chicken/ Queretaro/19/95) and the amount of antigen required to prevent shedding of virus from vaccinated birds. Six commercial inactivated water in oil H5N2 vaccines available in Mexico were compared with standardized vaccines to assess their efficacy. The amount of HA required to prevent the signs of disease from A/Chicken/Queretaro/19/95 influenza virus was approximately 0.4 microgram per dose. Each of the six commercially available vaccines prevented disease signs, and half of the vaccines significantly reduced viral shedding from vaccinated birds. There is a need for standardization of AI virus vaccine, and the antigen content should be increased in some of the commercially available AI vaccines in Mexico.
Xu, Mei Ling; Kim, Hyoung Jin; Choi, Yoo Ri; Kim, Hong-Jin
Vaccination is the main strategy for preventing influenza infection. However, vaccine efficacy is influenced by several factors, including age and health status. The efficacy of the influenza vaccine is much lower (17% to 53%) in individuals over 65 yr of age compared with young adults (70% to 90%). Therefore, increasing vaccine efficacy remains a challenge for the influenza vaccine field. In this study, we investigated the impact of supplementing vaccination with the dietary intake of Korean red ginseng (RG) extract and RG saponin. Mice were immunized two times intranasally with inactivated influenza A (H1N1) virus. Mice received RG extract or RG saponin orally for 14 d prior to the primary immunization. After the primary immunization, mice continued to receive RG extract or RG saponin until the secondary immunization. Mice vaccinated in combination with dietary intake of RG extract and RG saponin showed elevated serum anti-influenza A virus IgG titers and improved survival rates in lethal influenza A virus infection: 56% and 63% of mice receiving RG extract or RG saponin survived, respectively, while 38% of mice that only received the vaccine survived. Moreover, mice receiving RG extract supplementation recovered their body weight more quickly than those not receiving RG extract supplementation. We propose that the dietary intake of RG extract and RG saponin enhances the vaccine-induced immune response and aids in providing protection against influenza virus infection. PMID:23717142
Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Munang’andu, Hetron Mweemba
The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA) and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter <500 nm, encapsulation efficiency 60.6%, zeta potential +19.05 mV, and there was an in vitro release of 49% of encapsulated antigen within 48 h post incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Empty NPs and a non-formulated, inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine were used as controls. Post-vaccination antibody levels were significantly (p = 0.0458) higher in the NP-rOmpA vaccinated fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430) than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735), which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP) of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA) than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989) in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish.
Dubey, Saurabh; Avadhani, Kiran; Mutalik, Srinivas; Sivadasan, Sangeetha Madambithara; Maiti, Biswajit; Girisha, Shivani Kallappa; Venugopal, Moleyur Nagarajappa; Mutoloki, Stephen; Evensen, Øystein; Karunasagar, Indrani; Mweemba Munang′andu, Hetron
The use of oral vaccination in finfish has lagged behind injectable vaccines for a long time as oral vaccines fall short of injection vaccines in conferring protective immunity. Biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) have shown potential to serve as antigen delivery systems for oral vaccines. In this study the recombinant outer membrane protein A (rOmpA) of Edwardsiella tarda was encapsulated in chitosan NPs (NP-rOmpA) and used for oral vaccination of Labeo fimbriatus. The rOmpA purity was 85%, nanodiameter <500 nm, encapsulation efficiency 60.6%, zeta potential +19.05 mV, and there was an in vitro release of 49% of encapsulated antigen within 48 h post incubation in phosphate-buffered saline. Empty NPs and a non-formulated, inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine were used as controls. Post-vaccination antibody levels were significantly (p = 0.0458) higher in the NP-rOmpA vaccinated fish (Mean OD450 = 2.430) than in fish vaccinated with inactivated whole cell E. tarda (IWC-ET) vaccine (Mean OD450 = 1.735), which corresponded with post-challenge survival proportions (PCSP) of 73.3% and 48.28% for the NP-rOmpA and IWC-ET groups, respectively. Serum samples from NP-rOmpA-vaccinated fish had a higher inhibition rate for E. tarda growth on tryptic soy agar (TSA) than the IWC-ET group. There was no significant difference (p = 0.989) in PCSPs between fish vaccinated with empty NPs and the unvaccinated control fish, while serum from both groups showed no detectable antibodies against E. tarda. Overall, these data show that the NP-rOmpA vaccine produced higher antibody levels and had superior protection over the IWC-ET vaccine, showing that encapsulating OmpA in chitosan NPs confer improved protection against E. tarda mortality in L. fimbriatus. There is a need to elucidate the possible adjuvant effects of chitosan NPs and the immunological mechanisms of protective immunity induced by OMPs administered orally to fish. PMID:27827990
Turell, Michael J; Parker, Michael D
In an attempt to improve the current live, attenuated vaccine (TC-83) for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), specific mutations associated with attenuation of VEEV in rodent models were inserted into a full-length cDNA clone of the Trinidad donkey strain of VEEV by site-directed mutagenesis. Because some viruses have been reported to be more pathogenic when introduced by mosquito bite than the same virus introduced by needle inoculation, there were concerns that the presence of mosquito saliva, or changes in the virus caused by replication in a mosquito, might allow the virus to overcome the protective effects of prior vaccination with V3526. Therefore, we determined if hamsters vaccinated with V3526 were protected from challenge with the virulent Trinidad donkey strain of VEEV. All non-vaccinated hamsters died after intraperitoneal challenge or after being fed on by VEEV-inoculated Aedes taeniorhynchus. In contrast, hamsters vaccinated with V3526 were resistant to intraperitoneal challenge and infection by VEEV-infected Ae. taeniorhynchus. Therefore, the V3526 candidate vaccine elicits protection against VEEV infection by mosquito bite.
Bovier, P A; Bock, J; Loutan, L; Farinelli, T; Glueck, R; Herzog, C
The aim of this study was to predict the long-term protection induced after immunisation with inactivated, aluminium-free virosome hepatitis A vaccine. The study population consisted of adult volunteers enrolled in four different clinical trials. Lower 95% confidence interval limits and seroconversion rate were calculated by using a linear mixed model to estimate the persistence of serum antibodies over time. To assess the robustness of the mathematical model, several sensitivity analyses were performed with more conservative protective threshold (20 mIU/ml vs. 10 mIU/ml), higher yearly decline rate, and exclusion of volunteers who had increasing titres over time. Based on 190 volunteers with at least two valid assessments of titres from year 3 onward, the median duration of protection was 55.5 years, with a lower limit of the 95% CI of 48.7 years. Duration below 25.3 years was predicted for only 5% of the subjects. Women tended to have higher titres to start with, but their rate of decline was higher, resulting in similar duration of protection overall. The use of a more conservative threshold, higher yearly decline rate, and exclusion of volunteers with increasing titres over time did not affect these results. According to this model, 95% of the volunteers should have anti-HAV titres above the minimum protective threshold for 20 years or more following immunisation with two doses of this aluminium-free vaccine.
López, Yulieé; Infante, Juan Francisco; Sifontes, Sergio; Díaz, Daiyana; Pérez, Viviana; Año, Gemma; Hernández, Tamara; Fernández, Sonsire; Castaño, Jorge Luis; Cedré, Bárbara; Oliva, Reynaldo; García, Luis; Solís, Rosa L; Talavera, Arturo
Here we further investigate the pharmacological and toxicological properties of a cholera vaccine based on inactivated whole cells presented in either enteric coated (COA) or uncoated (U/C) tablet formulation from Vibrio cholerae C7258 strain. Tablets were dispersed in 2mL drinking water and administered orally to Sprague Dawley rats distributed in five groups (I COA7, II U/C7 immunized at 0, 7, 69days and III COA14, IV U/C14 immunized at 0, 14, 69days and V control group). Serum vibriocidal antibody response was measured after the administration of two doses with an interval of 7-14days. To further investigate the toxicological aspects a third dose was applied 10 weeks after the initial one. Animals were observed daily and water and food consumption was measured every other day. Periodic blood extractions were performed for hematology, biochemistry, and the titer of serum vibriocidal antibodies was determined. Anatomopathological analysis was performed at days 3 or 14 after the third dose. Results from clinical observations, as well as from water and food consumption and body weigh indicated no toxicity of the vaccine product. Meanwhile, no biological differences were found among different groups in hematological, hemo-chemistry, and anatomopathological studies. Moreover, enteric coated and uncoated tablets against human cholera were found to induce an immune response in rats. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Co-administration of live measles and yellow fever vaccines and inactivated pentavalent vaccines is associated with increased mortality compared with measles and yellow fever vaccines only. An observational study from Guinea-Bissau.
Fisker, Ane Bærent; Ravn, Henrik; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Østergaard, Marie Drivsholm; Bale, Carlito; Benn, Christine Stabell; Aaby, Peter
Studies from low-income countries indicate that co-administration of inactivated diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP) vaccine and live attenuated measles vaccine (MV) is associated with increased mortality compared with receiving MV only. Pentavalent (DTP-H. Influenza type B-Hepatitis B) vaccine is replacing DTP in many low-income countries and yellow fever vaccine (YF) has been introduced to be given together with MV. Pentavalent and YF vaccines were introduced in Guinea-Bissau in 2008. We investigated whether co-administration of pentavalent vaccine with MV and yellow fever vaccine has similar negative effects. In 2007-2011, we conducted a randomised placebo-controlled trial of vitamin A at routine vaccination contacts among children aged 6-23 months in urban and rural Guinea-Bissau. In the present study, we included 2331 children randomised to placebo who received live vaccines only (MV or MV+YF) or a combination of live and inactivated vaccines (MV+DTP or MV+YF+pentavalent). Mortality was compared in Cox proportional hazards models stratified for urban/rural enrolment adjusted for age and unevenly distributed baseline factors. While DTP was still used 685 children received MV only and 358 MV+DTP; following the change in programme, 940 received MV+YF only and 348 MV+YF+pentavalent. During 6 months of follow-up, the adjusted mortality rate ratio (MRR) for co-administered live and inactivated vaccines compared with live vaccines only was 3.24 (1.20-8.73). For MV+YF+pentavalent compared with MV+YF only, the adjusted MRR was 7.73 (1.79-33.4). In line with previous studies of DTP, the present results indicate that pentavalent vaccine co-administered with MV and YF is associated with increased mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Chernikova, M I; Kashirina, O S; Vasiliev, Yu M
Direct immunogenicity comparison of adjuvants from various sources and with different mechanisms of action for inactivated influenza vaccines. Groups of mice were immunized intramuscularly twice with an inactivated whole-virion influenza vaccine based on A/California/07/2009 X-179A (H1N1) strain. The following adjuvants were added to the vaccine (10 in total): aluminium hydroxide, oligonucleotide CpG, complete Freund's adjuvant, poly(lactide-coglycolide) microparticles, monophosphoryl lipid A and polyoxidonium, as well as 2 adjuvants based on characterized chitosan substances with different physical/chemical properties and 2 experimental complex formulations (a multi-component adjuvant and an oil-in-water emulsion based on squalene and tocopherol). Immuogenicity was determined by HAI and MN (MDCK) sera antibodies. Different adjuvants increased immunogenicity of the vaccine against the homologous strain in varying patterns. Experimental complex formulations were the most immunogenic (antibody titer increase reached 48 - 96 times compared with unadjuvanted vaccines). Chitosan based adjuvants showed high immunogenicity. Not all the adjuvants significantly increased immunogenicity, and in some cases even an immunogenicity decrease was noted with the addition of certain adjuvants. Research and development of chitosan based adjuvants with characterization and standardization issues addressed, as well as complex adjuvants, both multi-component and emulsion based, are the most promising approaches that could lead to next generation vaccines against influenza and other human and animal infectious diseases.
Naggar, Heba M. El; Madkour, Mohamed Sayed; Hussein, Hussein Ali
Aim: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity. Materials and Methods: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response was measured as well as challenge trial was carried out. In addition, ISA71 water in oil was also evaluated. Results: Our results showed that the use of spray route as vaccination delivery method of polymer and nanoparticles Montanide™ adjuvants revealed that it enhanced the cell mediated immune response as indicated by phagocytic activity, gamma interferon and interleukin 6 responses and induced protection against challenge with Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) viruses. Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the potentiality of polymer compared to nanoparticles adjuvantes when used via spray route. Mass application of such vaccines will add value to improve the vaccination strategies against ND virus and Avian influenza viruses. PMID:28344402
Qi An, Wen; Guo Su, Zhi; Wen Pan, Ruo; Ping Yang, Bao; Chao Zhang, Yong; Shi, Liang; Li, Qing
We evaluated the effect of a β-propiolactone (BPL)-inactivated coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) vaccine, using three immunogenicity evaluation and two animal challenge systems. A CA16 virus strain, named 419, was used as the production strain. Another CA16 strain, named 1131, was isolated and used as the challenge strain in intracerebral inoculation of neonatal mice for the calculation of median lethal dose (LD50). In the passive and maternal antibody-protection challenge systems, all results indicated that the vaccine could protect mouse pups from lethal challenge with the CA16 virus. In the immunogenicity systems, three types of animal (mouse, rat, and cynomolgus monkey), were immunized with the 419/CA16 vaccine. The dose–effect relationship and the antibody-generation routine were described. The CA16 vaccine induced a more potent serum antibody effect in rat than in mouse. The serum antibody titer was detectable more than 63 days after the initial vaccination. We also identified tools to evaluate the effect of the BPL-inactivated CA16 vaccine. PMID:24401488
Okayasu, Hiromasa; Sein, Carolyn; Hamidi, Ahd; Bakker, Wilfried A M; Sutter, Roland W
The Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI) has seen significant progress since it began in 1988, largely due to the worldwide use of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV). In order to achieve polio eradication the global cessation of OPV is necessary because OPV contains live attenuated poliovirus, which in rare circumstances could re-gain wild poliovirus (WPV) characteristics with potential to establish transmission. The GPEI endgame strategy for the period 2013-2018 recommends the globally synchronised sequential cessation of the Sabin strains contained in the OPV, starting with type 2 Sabin. The withdrawal of Sabin type 2 took place in April 2016, with the introduction of at least one dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) as a risk mitigation strategy. The introduction of IPV into 126 countries since 2013 has required a rapid scale-up of IPV production by the two manufacturers supplying the global public sector market. This scale-up has been fraught with challenges, resulting in reductions of 40-50% of initial supply commitments. Consequently, 22 countries will not be supplied until 2018, and another 23 countries will experience serious stock-outs. In the last decade repeated calls-for-action were made to the global community to invigorate their vision and investment in developing "new poliovirus vaccines" including the development of IPV from less-virulent strains, such as Sabin-IPV (S-IPV). The conventional Salk-IPV production is limited to high-income industrialized-country manufacturers due to the containment requirements (i.e., high sanitation, low force-of-poliovirus-infection, and high population immunity). The use of Sabin strains in the production of S-IPV carries a lower biosafety risk, and was determined to be suitable for production in developing countries, expanding the manufacturing base and making IPV more affordable and accessible in the long term. Significant progress in the S-IPV has been made since 2006. S-IPV is now licensed as S-IPV in
Laguio-Vila, Maryrose R.; Thompson, Mark G.; Reynolds, Sue; Spencer, Sarah M.; Gaglani, Manjusha; Naleway, Allison; Ball, Sarah; Bozeman, Sam; Baker, Steven; Martínez-Sobrido, Luis; Levine, Min; Katz, Jackie; Fry, Alicia M.; Treanor, John J.
Background. Most inactivated influenza vaccines contain purified and standardized hemagglutinin (HA) and residual neuraminidase (NA) antigens. Vaccine-associated HA antibody responses (hemagglutination inhibition [HAI]) are well described, but less is known about the immune response to the NA. Methods. Serum of 1349 healthcare personnel (HCP) electing or declining the 2010–2011 trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine ([IIV3], containing A/California/7/2009 p(H1N1), A/Perth/16/2009 [H3N2], B/Brisbane/60/2008 strains) were tested for NA-inhibiting (NAI) antibody by a modified lectin-based assay using pseudotyped N1 and N2 influenza A viruses with an irrelevant (H5) HA. Neuraminidase-inhibiting and HAI antibody titers were evaluated approximately 30 days after vaccination and end-of-season for those with polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-confirmed influenza infection. Results. In 916 HCP (68%) receiving IIV3, a 2-fold increase in N1 and N2 NAI antibody occurred in 63.7% and 47.3%, respectively. Smaller responses occurred in HCP age >50 years and those without prior 2009–2010 IIV3 nor monovalent A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza vaccinations. Forty-four PCR-confirmed influenza infections were observed, primarily affecting those with lower pre-exposure HAI and NAI antibodies. Higher pre-NAI titers correlated with shorter duration of illness for A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infections. Conclusions. Trivalent-inactivated influenza vaccine is modestly immunogenic for N1 and N2 antigens in HCP. Vaccines eliciting robust NA immune responses may improve efficacy and reduce influenza-associated morbidity. PMID:25884004
Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeoung; Jung, Sung-Hee; Park, Myoung Ae; Kim, Dong-Wook; Cho, Wang Sik; Park, Jeong Woo; Son, Maeng-Hyun
Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is a highly contagious disease of cultured flounder caused by VHS virus (VHSV). To develop effective VHSV vaccines, it is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the host's protective response against VHSV. The purpose of this study is to clarify which genes are involved in the protective response of olive flounder after VHSV vaccination. We first injected olive flounder intraperitoneally with 10(7) TCID50 heat-inactivated VHSV vaccine and evaluated the vaccine efficacy at 20 °C. Fish vaccinated with heat-inactivated VHSV were significantly protected compared to non-vaccinated fish, with a relative percentage survival of 83%. To analyze the vaccination-induced changes in the expression profiles of genes, kidneys were collected from control and vaccinated fish at days 1, 3, and 7 after vaccination and global gene expression profiling was carried out by RNA sequencing. The analysis revealed that 15,001 genes were differentially expressed by at least 2-fold between vaccinated fish and non-vaccinated controls. Of these, 58 genes clustered into the acute phase response, Toll-like receptor, interferon-inducible/regulatory proteins, and apoptosis pathways. These data provided insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective immune response of olive flounder against heat-inactivated VHSV vaccine and might aid future studies to develop a highly immunogenic vaccine against VHSV in flounder.
Huang, F; Ahmad, W; Duan, M; Liu, Z; Guan, Z; Zhang, M; Qiao, B; Li, Y; Song, Y; Song, Y; Chen, Y; Amjad Ali, M
Rabies remains an enigmatic and widely discussed global infectious disease and causes an increasing number of deaths. The currently used highly effective prophylactic and post exposure (p.e.) vaccination depends solely upon inexpensive, effective and safe vaccines to counteract the spread of the disease. In this study, the potential of an attenuated Chinese rabies vaccine (SRV9) strain in prophylactic and p.e. vaccination against the street strain of rabies virus (RV) was evaluated in mice. Prophylactic vaccination consisting of one intramuscular (i.m.) dose of SRV9 protected 100% of mice from intracerebral (i.c.) challenge with a lethal dose of the street virus. The latter was detected in the brain of mice at day 6 post challenge by RT-PCR. Post exposure vaccination was performed at days 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 post infection (p.i.) with either SRV9 or inactivated rabies vaccine. The survival rates after i.m. inoculation of SRV9 at the indicated days were 70%, 50%, 30%, 20%, 10%, and 0%, respectively; the corresponding survival rates for the inactivated rabies vaccine were 30%, 20%, 10%, 0%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. However, 100%, 90%, 70%, 50%, 20%, 10%, and 10% of mice survived after i.c. inoculation of SRV9 at the indicated days. The increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier and the infiltration of CD19+ B cells into the central nervous system after i.c. inoculation of SRV9 are regarded as prerequisites for the clearance of the street virus. The obtained data suggest that SRV9 is a promising candidate for prophylactic and p.e. vaccination against rabies infection and that it exhibits a potential for the control of rabies in China.
Liu, Xue-en; Chen, Hai-ying; Liao, Zheng; Zhou, Yisheng; Wen, Hairong; Peng, Shihui; Liu, Yan; Li, Rui; Li, Jie; Zhuang, Hui
A randomized clinical trial of hepatitis A vaccines (1 or 2 doses of inactivated vaccine [Healive] or 1 dose of live attenuated vaccine [Biovac]) was conducted among adults to evaluate seroprotection rates and geometric mean concentrations of antibody against hepatitis A virus for 36 months. High rates of seroprotection persisted for at least 36 months among adults who received 1 or 2 doses of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine but not among adults who received 1 dose of live attenuated hepatitis A vaccine. The long-term serial monitoring of immunogenicity induced by 1 dose of inactivated hepatitis A vaccine is needed to determine an effective alternative to a 2-dose schedule. NCT01865968. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Swayne, David E; Eggert, Dawn; Beck, Joan R
The negative impact of high pathogenicity avian influenza virus (HPAIV) infection on egg production and deposition of virus in eggs, as well as any protective effect of vaccination, is unknown. Individually housed non-vaccinated, sham-vaccinated and inactivated H5N9 vaccinated Once or Twice adult White leghorn hens were challenged intranasally/intratracheally 3-weeks post-vaccination with H5N2 HPAIV. The non-/sham-vaccinated layers experienced 100% mortality (0% survivability) within 3-4 days post-challenge (DPC), and major changes to reproductive parameters including precipitous drops in egg production (79-0% in <5 days), production of soft and thin-shelled eggs, and deposition of virus in albumin and yolk, and on the egg shell surface of 53% of eggs. By comparison, the three H5-vaccinated groups had 83%, 100% and 100% survivability after challenge; the two H5-vaccinated Once hens that died had low pre-challenge HI titers (GMT=16). H5-vaccinated Once or Twice groups maintained egg production after challenge (63%), but there was a mild and significant reduction in egg production as compared to pre-challenge egg production (79%). H5-vaccinated groups had reduced number of virus contaminated eggs (28%), and in most groups, reduced quantity of virus in contaminated eggs compared to non-/sham-vaccinated groups. No HPAIV-positive eggs were laid on or after 5 DPC. In conclusion, HPAIV infection had major negative impact on egg production and other reproductive parameters. H5-vaccination Once or Twice prevented declines in egg production after HPAIV challenge, reduced number of virus-infected eggs, and typically reduced the titer of virus in internal contents and on eggshell surface. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Maves, Ryan C; Oré, Roger M Castillo; Porter, Kevin R; Kochel, Tadeusz J
Psoralens are photoreactive compounds that cross-link pyrimidines after exposure to UVA radiation. In this experiment, we tested the protective efficacy of a psoralen-inactivated dengue vaccine candidate in non-human primates. Two groups of 7 Aotus nancymaae monkeys received either 10ng per dose of inactivated DENV1 plus alum adjuvant or alum alone (controls). Doses were injected intradermally on days 0, 14, and 28. Monkeys then received a challenge inoculation of 1.1 × 10(4)PFUs of WestPac 74 DENV-1 on day 132. At 62 days, only 1/7 vaccinated monkeys had detectable IgM, but IgG and neutralizing antibody remained detectable in 7/7. No IgM, IgG, or neutralizing antibody was detectable in control monkeys. DENV-1 viremia was detected after challenge in 3/7 vaccinated monkeys and 5/6 control monkeys (with one removed due to pregnancy) (p=0.27), but days of viremia were reduced from 3.67 days/animal among controls to 0.71 days/animal among vaccinated monkeys (p=0.051). Psoralen-inactivated DENV1 is immunogenic in Aotus nancymaae with a trend towards a reduction in days of viremia following experimental challenge.
Frey, Sharon; Vesikari, Timo; Szymczakiewicz-Multanowska, Agnieszka; Lattanzi, Maria; Izu, Allen; Groth, Nicola; Holmes, Sandra
More efficient methods are needed to manufacture influenza vaccines. This trial compared the efficacy of cell culture-derived influenza vaccine (CCIV) and egg-derived trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) with placebo against laboratory-confirmed influenza illness in healthy adults in the United States, Finland, and Poland during the 2007-2008 influenza season. A total of 11,404 study participants aged 18-49 years were randomized equally to receive CCIV (Optaflu; n = 3828), TIV (Agrippal; n = 3676), or placebo (n = 3900). Each participant was observed during a 6-month study surveillance period. Nasal and throat swabs for virus isolation and characterization were collected from all patients with influenza-like illness. Vaccine immunogenicity was evaluated in a subset of 1045 participants. Efficacy of CCIV and TIV against vaccine-like (83.8% [1-sided 97.5% confidence interval [CI] lower limit, 61.0%] and 78.4% [1-sided 97.5% CI lower limit, 52.1%], respectively) and all circulating influenza virus strains (69.5% [1-sided 97.5% CI lower limit, 55.0%] and 63.0% [1-sided 97.5% lower limit, 46.7%], respectively) exceeded the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research efficacy criteria. Immunogenicity of both vaccines exceeded the Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research licensing criteria. Both vaccines were well tolerated, with similar safety profiles. Most solicited reactions were mild to moderate in severity and transient. No vaccination-related serious adverse events were reported; no withdrawals resulted from vaccine-related adverse events. Both CCIV and TIV were effective in preventing influenza caused by vaccine-like and by all circulating influenza virus strains, were well tolerated, and had good safety profiles. Both vaccines can be considered for annual influenza vaccination campaigns. NCT00630331.
Huang, Hsing-Yen; Chen, Yan-Chun; Wang, Pei-Chi; Tsai, Ming-An; Yeh, Shih-Chun; Liang, Hong-Jen; Chen, Shih-Chu
Vaccination is the most effective means of preventing infectious diseases; however, few vaccines are effective against Streptococcus iniae (S. iniae) in grouper. This work presents an efficacious and safe vaccine against S. iniae infections in the grouper Epinephelus coioides. The vaccine candidate was the S. iniae GSI-310 strain. The vaccination was administered by intraperitoneal injection, and consisted of formalin-inactivated antigens combined with an AS-F or ISA763A adjuvant. Peripheral blood samples were collected for RT-qPCR and phagocytosis and agglutination assays. Our results indicated that immunoglobulin M (igm) was maximally expressed in the two vaccinated groups at 3 months post-secondary vaccination (PSV). A significant upregulation of mRNA expression for interleukin-1β (il-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α) was also observed in fish treated with antigens combined with ISA763A, which peaked at 3 months PSV. In fish treated with antigens combined with AS-F, il-1β and tnf-α expression peaked at 14 days post-primary vaccination (PPV). Phagocytic activity and index increased significantly in the two vaccinated groups. Furthermore, fish in the two vaccinated groups exhibited significantly elevated agglutination titers compared to fish in the control group, in which almost no agglutination reaction was detected. In the efficacy test, the vaccinated and control groupers were treated with S. iniae at 1, 3, and 6 months PSV. The relative percentage survival (RPS) values of antigens with AS-F and antigens with ISA763A were both 100% at 1 and 3 months PSV; at 6 months PSV, the RPS values for these groups were 100% and 97.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the level of protection observed in the field trial closely resembled that achieved on a laboratory scale. Therefore, the proposed vaccine mixed with AS-F or ISA763A improved immune responses and provided safe and long-lasting protection in farmed groupers.
Beyer, W E P; Nauta, J J P; Palache, A M; Giezeman, K M; Osterhaus, A D M E
Several inactivated influenza vaccine formulations for systemic administration in man are currently available for annual (seasonal) immunization: split virus and subunit (either plain-aqueous, or virosomal, or adjuvanted by MF59). From a literature search covering the period 1978-2009, 33 articles could be identified, which described randomized clinical trials comparing at least two of the four vaccine formulations with respect to serum hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody response, local and systemic vaccine reactions and serious adverse events after vaccination, and employing seasonal vaccine components and doses. In total, 9121 vaccinees of all ages, either healthy or with underlying diseases, were involved. Most vaccinees were primed or had been vaccinated in previous years. For immunogenicity, homologous post-vaccination geometric mean HI titers (GMTs) were analyzed by a random effects model for continuous data. Unreported standard deviations (SD) were addressed by imputing assumed SD-values. Age and health state of the vaccinees appeared to have little influence on the outcome. The immunogenicity of split, aqueous and virosomal subunit formulations were similar, with geometric mean ratio values (GMR, quotient of paired GMT-values) varying around one (0.93-1.24). The MF59-adjuvanted subunit vaccine induced, on average, larger antibody titers than the non-adjuvanted vaccine formulations, but the absolute increase was small (GMR-values varying between 1.25 and 1.40). Vaccine reactions were analyzed using a random effects model for binary data. Local and systemic reactogenicity was similar among non-adjuvanted formulations. The adjuvanted subunit formulation was more frequently associated with local reactions than the non-adjuvanted formulations (rate ratio: 2.12, significant). Systemic reactions were similar among all vaccine formulations. The original articles emphasized the mild and transient character of the vaccine reactions and the absence of serious
meningococcal (n = 2), and meningococcal and tetanus , diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (n = 1). c Other vaccines received included anthrax (n = 9...Other vaccines received included meningococcal (n = 2 subjects), typhoid (n = 1), and tetanus , diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (n = 1). f One
Iro, Mildred A; Sadarangani, Manish; Goldacre, Raphael; Nickless, Alecia; Pollard, Andrew J; Goldacre, Michael J
Encephalitis is a serious neurological disorder, yet data on admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are scarce. We aimed to estimate admission rates for childhood encephalitis in England over 33 years (1979-2011), to describe trends in admission rates, and to observe how these rates have varied with the introduction of vaccines and improved diagnostics. We did a retrospective analysis of hospital admission statistics for encephalitis for individuals aged 0-19 years using national data from the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry (HIPE, 1979-85) and Hospital Episode Statistics (HES, 1990-2011). We analysed annual age-specific and age-standardised admission rates in single calendar years and admission rate trends for specified aetiologies in relation to introduction of PCR testing and measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination. We compared admission rates between the two International Classification of Diseases (ICD) periods, ICD9 (1979-94) and ICD10 (1995-2011). We found 16 571 encephalitis hospital admissions in the period 1979-2011, with a mean hospital admission rate of 5·97 per 100 000 per year (95% CI 5·52-6·41). Hospital admission rates declined from 1979 to 1994 (ICD9; annual percentage change [APC] -3·30%; 95% CI -2·88 to -3·66; p<0·0001) and increased between 1995 and 2011 (ICD10; APC 3·30%; 2·75-3·85; p<0·0001). Admissions for measles decreased by 97% (from 0·32 to 0·009) and admissions for mumps encephalitis decreased by 98% (from 0·60 to 0·01) after the introduction of the two-dose MMR vaccine. Hospital admission rates for encephalitis of unknown aetiology have increased by 37% since the introduction of PCR testing. Hospital admission rates for all-cause childhood encephalitis in England are increasing. Admissions for measles and mumps encephalitis have decreased substantially. The numbers of encephalitis admissions without a specific diagnosis are increasing despite availability of PCR testing, indicating the need for
... diseases transmitted by mosquitoes Chikungunya virus Dengue Eastern Equine Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis Malaria La Crosse Encephalitis Western Equine Encephalitis West Nile virus Yellow Fever Saint Louis ...
Guo, Rongxian; Geng, Shizhong; Jiao, Hongmei; Pan, Zhiming; Chen, Xiang; Jiao, Xinan
Salmonella Gallinarum biovar Pullorum is the causative agent of pullorum disease in poultry, an acute systemic disease that results in a high mortality rate in young chickens. Vaccines have been considered in many developing countries where levels of infection are high and eradication is not a realistic option. An attenuated strain combined with protein E-mediated cell lysis was used to generate a safety enhanced Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine. Immune responses and protection induced by ghost vaccine in chickens were investigated following a prime-boost immunization administered via intramuscular and oral routes. Chickens from vaccinated groups showed significant increases in antigen-specific IgG, especially after booster immunization. Lymphocyte proliferation responses were also significantly increased in all immunized groups at 2-weeks post-final vaccination. The Salmonella Pullorum ghost vaccine provided satisfactory protection against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection, as shown by the robust stimulation of both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses as well as the reduction in the number of bacterial recovered post-challenge. Moreover, the immune effects and survival rates indicated intramuscular injection is more efficient than oral vaccination. In conclusion, our results suggest that Salmonella Pullorum ghosts may be used as a safe and effective novel inactivated vaccine candidate to protect against virulent Salmonella Pullorum infection.
Lone, Nazir I; Kavanagh, Kimberley; Robertson, Chris; McMenamin, Jim; von Wissmann, Beatrix; Vasileiou, Eleftheria; Butler, Chris; Ritchie, Lewis D; Gunson, Rory; Schwarze, Jürgen; Sheikh, Aziz
Introduction Seasonal (inactivated) influenza vaccination is recommended for all individuals aged 65+ and in individuals under 65 who are at an increased risk of complications of influenza infection, for example, people with asthma. Live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was recommended for children as they are thought to be responsible for much of the transmission of influenza to the populations at risk of serious complications from influenza. A phased roll-out of the LAIV pilot programme began in 2013/2014. There is limited evidence for vaccine effectiveness (VE) in the populations targeted for influenza vaccination. The aim of this study is to examine the safety and effectiveness of the live attenuated seasonal influenza vaccine programme in children and the inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination programme among different age and at-risk groups of people. Methods and analysis Test negative and cohort study designs will be used to estimate VE. A primary care database covering 1.25 million people in Scotland for the period 2000/2001 to 2015/2016 will be linked to the Scottish Immunisation Recall Service (SIRS), Health Protection Scotland virology database, admissions to Scottish hospitals and the Scottish death register. Vaccination status (including LAIV uptake) will be determined from the primary care and SIRS database. The primary outcome will be influenza-positive real-time PCR tests carried out in sentinel general practices and other healthcare settings. Secondary outcomes include influenza-like illness and asthma-related general practice consultations, hospitalisations and death. An instrumental variable analysis will be carried out to account for confounding. Self-controlled study designs will be used to estimate the risk of adverse events associated with influenza vaccination. Ethics and dissemination We obtained approval from the National Research Ethics Service Committee, West Midlands—Edgbaston. The study findings will be presented at