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Sample records for encephalomyelitis equine

  1. Morphogenesis of Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bykovsky, A. F.; Yershov, F. I.; Zhdanov, V. M.

    1969-01-01

    Morphogenesis of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus was studied by means of electron microscopy. Virus-specific structures (factories, viroplasts) were found at early stages of infection; these structures were composed of fibrillar and cylindrical formations, aggregates of ribosomes, and viral nucleoids. The latter emerged from fibrillar and cylindrical structures. Aggregates of viral nucleoids were found in the cytoplasm and occasionally in the nuclei of virus-infected cells. Viral envelopes and mature virions were formed on the cell membranes and on the membranes of intracellular vacuoles. Anomalous forms of virions (both polygenomic and oligogenomic) were observed. Images PMID:5823233

  2. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J S; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T P; Benson, C L

    1996-04-01

    An immunohistochemical (IHC) assay was developed for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. All cases of EEE diagnosed at the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory from 1991 through 1994 were evaluated. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic examination of the brain and confirmatory virus, isolation. Sections of cerebrum from 26 equids and 5 birds were assessed by IHC. Histologically normal brain tissues from 2 horses and 1 pheasant and brain tissues from 2 cases of equine neurologic disease with diagnoses other than EEE served as negative controls. The IHC assay was based on standard streptavidin-biotin technology, using a commercially available kit and a monospecific polyclonal primary antibody preparation derived from murine ascitic fluid. Nineteen of 20 equids and all 5 birds positive by histopathology and virus isolation were positive for EEE virus antigen by IHC. Three equids with histologic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of EEE but negative by virus isolation also were negative for virus antigen by IHC. In 3 other equids, histopathology and IHC were positive for EEE, but virus isolation was not attempted because of contamination of the brain specimen. The IHC assay of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissues for EEE virus antigen is a rapid, effective test for confirming a histopathologic diagnosis of EEE, and assay results correlate well with virus isolation results.

  3. Immunohistochemical diagnosis of eastern equine encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Patterson, J S; Maes, R K; Mullaney, T P; Benson, C L

    1996-04-01

    An immunohistochemical (IHC) assay was developed for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus antigen in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues. All cases of EEE diagnosed at the Michigan State University Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory from 1991 through 1994 were evaluated. The diagnosis was based on histopathologic examination of the brain and confirmatory virus, isolation. Sections of cerebrum from 26 equids and 5 birds were assessed by IHC. Histologically normal brain tissues from 2 horses and 1 pheasant and brain tissues from 2 cases of equine neurologic disease with diagnoses other than EEE served as negative controls. The IHC assay was based on standard streptavidin-biotin technology, using a commercially available kit and a monospecific polyclonal primary antibody preparation derived from murine ascitic fluid. Nineteen of 20 equids and all 5 birds positive by histopathology and virus isolation were positive for EEE virus antigen by IHC. Three equids with histologic lesions compatible with a diagnosis of EEE but negative by virus isolation also were negative for virus antigen by IHC. In 3 other equids, histopathology and IHC were positive for EEE, but virus isolation was not attempted because of contamination of the brain specimen. The IHC assay of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded brain tissues for EEE virus antigen is a rapid, effective test for confirming a histopathologic diagnosis of EEE, and assay results correlate well with virus isolation results. PMID:8744735

  4. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  6. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  7. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  8. 21 CFR 866.3240 - Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Equine encephalomyelitis virus serological reagents. 866.3240 Section 866.3240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological...

  9. Equine Viral Encephalomyelitis in Canada: A Review of Known and Potential Causes

    PubMed Central

    Keane, Delwyn P.; Little, Peter B.

    1987-01-01

    Rabies, equine herpesvirus type I, and eastern and western encephalomyelitis viruses, known causes of equine neurological disease, are reviewed with emphasis on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical signs, and diagnosis. Several arboviruses known to be active in Canada and capable of producing neurological disease in humans (Powassan, St. Louis encephalitis, snowshoe hare, and Jamestown Canyon viruses) are discussed as potential causes of encephalomyelitis in horses. PMID:17422841

  10. [The vaccines based on the replicon of the venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus against viral hemorrhagic fevers].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Plekhanova, T M; Sidorova, O N; Borisevich, S V; Makhlay, A A

    2015-01-01

    The status of the various recombinant DNA and RNA-derived candidate vaccines, as well as the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) replicon vaccine system against extremely hazardous viral hemorrhagic fevers, were reviewed. The VEEV-based replication-incompetent vectors offer attractive features in terms of safety, high expression levels of the heterologous viral antigen, tropism to dendritic cells, robust immune responses, protection efficacy, low potential for pre-existing anti-vector immunity and possibility of engineering multivalent vaccines were tested. These features of the VEEV replicon system hold much promise for the development of new generation vaccine candidates against viral hemorrhagic fevers.

  11. INDUCED RESISTANCE OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM TO EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION WITH EQUINE ENCEPHALOMYELITIS VIRUS

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Isabel M.; Schlesinger, R. Walter; Olitsky, Peter K.

    1942-01-01

    1. Neutralizing antibody to equine encephalomyelitis virus was found in the spinal fluid of rabbits sufficiently vaccinated with active or formalin-inactivated virus. Antibody was specific for the Western or for the Eastern virus. 2. Neutralizing capacity of spinal fluid was equivalent to that of a 1/300 dilution of serum of the same animal, and was of the same order of magnitude as that of perfused brain of a vaccinated animal. 3. Vaccinated rabbits which showed antibody in the spinal fluid resisted intracerebral or intracisternal injection of active virus. This immunity was specific, i.e., there was no cross-reaction between the Eastern and Western virus after vaccination with formalin-inactivated virus. On the other hand, lack of antibody in the spinal fluid, even when antibody was demonstrable in the undiluted serum, was associated with lack of cerebral resistance. PMID:19871243

  12. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus.

  13. Effect of dose on house finch infection with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Reisen, William K; Chiles, Robert; Martinez, Vincent; Fang, Ying; Green, Emily; Clark, Sharon

    2004-09-01

    House finches, Carpodacus mexicanus, were experimentally infected with high and standard doses of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEEV) or St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) to determine whether high doses would produce an elevated viremia response and a high frequency of chronic infections. Finches inoculated with approximately100,000 plaque forming units (PFU) of WEEV or SLEV produced viremia and antibody responses similar to those in finches inoculated with approximately 100 PFU of WEEV or 1000 PFU of SLEV, the approximate quantities of virus expectorated by blood-feeding Culex tarsalis Coquillett. Infected finches were held through winter and then necropsied. Only one finch inoculated with the high dose of SLEV developed a chronic infection. Our data indicated that elevated infectious doses of virus may not increase the viremia level or the frequency of chronic infection in house finches.

  14. A prospective field evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay: Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus antigen in pools of Culiseta melanura

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, T.W.; Olson, J.G.; Lewis, T.E.; Carpenter, J.W.; Lorenz, L.H.; Lembeck, L.A.; Joseph, S.R.; Pagac, B.B.

    1987-01-01

    A prospective field study was conducted to determine the sensitivity and specificity of an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) compared to virus isolation in cell culture for the detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) virus in naturally infected mosquitoes. A total of 10,811 adult female Culiseta melanura were collected in light traps during 1985 from four locations in Maryland. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus was isolated from 5 of 495 mosquito pools in African green monkey kidney and baby hamster kidney cell cultures. All five virus-infected pools were detected by the EIA, and all 490 uninfected pools were correctly scored as not containing virus. The EIA did not produce false positive or false negative results. Results support the assertion of previous researchers that the antigen detection EIA is a rapid, sensitive, specific, and simple alternative to traditional bioassays for the detection of EEE virus in mosquitoes.

  15. Inactivated eastern equine encephalomyelitis vaccine propagated in rolling-bottle cultures of chick embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Cole, F E

    1971-11-01

    A method was developed for the production of Eastern equine encephalomyelitis vaccine from virus grown in rolling-bottle cultures (840 cm(2) growth area) of chick embryo cells. The PE-6 strain of virus was propagated in chick embryo cell roller cultures maintained on serum-free medium 199 containing 0.25% human serum albumin and antibiotics (MM). A multiplicity of inoculum of 0.005 yielded acceptable titers of virus at a convenient harvest time of 18 to 24 hr and reduced the carry-over of extraneous material from the virus seed. Growth studies in which 100, 200, or 300 ml of MM was used showed that use of 300 ml of MM offered two advantages: (i) cytopathic effects were less at the 18- to 24-hr harvest time, thereby decreasing cellular material in the final product, and (ii) total virus yield was not substantially reduced, thus permitting large-scale production of virus for further processing. Studies on formalin inactivation at 37 C indicated that the virus was inactivated by 0.05% formalin within 12 to 16 hr and with 0.1% formalin within 6 to 8 hr. Antigen extinction tests in hamsters revealed excellent potency (e.g., median-effective-dose values of 0.069 to 0.012 ml) for both fluid and freeze-dried products. The advantages of the roller-bottle technique in vaccine production are discussed.

  16. Intranasal exposure of the Richardson's ground squirrel to Western equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Leung, M K; McLintock, J; Iversen, J

    1978-01-01

    Adult Richardson's ground squirrels were infected with western equine encephalomyelitis virus by intranasal instillation. Mortality followed the instillation of a minimum threshold of 4.7 logs of virus while infection was produced by a dosage of 2.3 logs. The incubation period was from four to seven days, being preceded by a viremic phase. Signs were depression, ataxia and paralysis of the limbs. Highest titres of virus were recovered from the brain and histopathological changes involving the central nervous system included meningitis, vasculitis, perivascular cuffing, gliosis, neuronophagia and neuronal degeneration. The virus was also found in a variety of extraneural tissues. Lesions in extraneural tissues included necrosis of brown fat and an apparent increase in number of Kupffer's cells in the liver. The lymphoid tissue was involved indicating a possible source for viremia. The duration and magnitude of viremia were ample enough to provide virus source for arthropods. The potential for transmission of the virus independent of arthropods was discussed in view of the pathogenesis demonstrated in the experimental infections. PMID:667706

  17. Detection of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus RNA in North American snakes.

    PubMed

    Bingham, Andrea M; Graham, Sean P; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D; White, Gregory S; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R

    2012-12-01

    The role of non-avian vertebrates in the ecology of eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus (EEEV) is unresolved, but mounting evidence supports a potential role for snakes in the EEEV transmission cycle, especially as over-wintering hosts. To determine rates of exposure and infection, we examined serum samples from wild snakes at a focus of EEEV in Alabama for viral RNA using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Two species of vipers, the copperhead (Agkistrodon contortrix) and the cottonmouth (Agkistrodon piscivorus), were found to be positive for EEEV RNA using this assay. Prevalence of EEEV RNA was more frequent in seropositive snakes than seronegative snakes. Positivity for the quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction in cottonmouths peaked in April and September. Body size and sex ratios were not significantly different between infected and uninfected snakes. These results support the hypothesis that snakes are involved in the ecology of EEEV in North America, possibly as over-wintering hosts for the virus. PMID:23033405

  18. Biological characteristics of an enzootic subtype of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, T I; Avilés, G; Sabattini, M S

    1997-02-01

    In order to expand our knowledge on the biological characteristics of an enzootic South American subtype of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus, strain AG80-646, we inoculated guinea pigs, rabbits, newborn chickens and Vero and chick embryo cell cultures with this and other WEE and Wee-related viruses. AG80-646 was found apathogenic for guinea pigs even when inoculated intracranially (i.e.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.), and the animals did not develop viraemia. AG80-646 killed rabbits and the animals developed high viraemia (peak titer was 7.0 log PFU/0.1 ml). These data and previous serological evidence led us to look for a mammal as a natural host. AG80-646 was found lethal for newborn chickens inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) (peak viraemia titer was 6.6 log PFU/0.1 ml). AG80-646 produced plaques (diameter 0.8-1.0 mm) in Vero and chick embryo cells 3-4 days post infection (p.i.) A comparison of AG80-646 with other WEE complex virus strains led to the following observations: (1) The lethality for guinea pigs was high for the two epizootic Argentinian strains, Cba 87 and Cba CIV 180, zero for the two enzootic strains, AG80-646 and BeAr 10315 (virus Aura), and intermediate for the Russian strain Y62-33 (low by i.c. route and zero by i.p. route); (2) AG80-646 was more virulent for rabbits inoculated i.p. than the three epizootic strains Cba 87, Cba CIV 180 and McMillan; (3) AG80-646 was less virulent for new-born chickens than the Argentinian epizootic strain Cba CIV 180; (4) The viraemia level correlated always with the strain virulence in each animal host. This study provides tools for the differentiation of WEE complex viruses and strains in the future ecological work on WEE in South America. PMID:9199709

  19. Patterns of avian seroprevalence to western equine encephalomyelitis and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lundstrom, J O; Scott, T W; Eldridge, B F; Chiles, R E; Cusack, R; Martinez, V M; Lothrop, H D; Gutierrez, D; Wright, S E; Boyce, K; Hill, B R

    2000-07-01

    Temporal and spatial changes in the enzootic activity of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses were monitored at representative wetland study sites in the Coachella, San Joaquin, and Sacramento valleys of California from 1996 to 1998 using three methods: (1) virus isolation from pools of 50 host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett females, (2) seroconversions in flocks of 10 sentinel chickens, and (3) seroprevalence in wild birds collected by mist nets and grain baited traps. Overall, 74 WEE and one SLE isolates were obtained from 222,455 Cx. tarsalis females tested in 4,988 pools. In addition, 133 and 40 seroconversions were detected in 28 chicken flocks, and 143 and 27 of 20,192 sera tested from 149 species of wild birds were positive for antibodies to WEE and SLE, respectively. WEE was active in all three valleys, whereas SLE only was detected in Coachella Valley. Seroconversions in sentinel chickens provided the most sensitive indication of enzootic activity and were correlated with seroprevalence rates in wild birds. Avian seroprevalence rates did not provide an early warning of pending enzootic activity in chickens, because positive sera from after hatching year birds collected during spring most probably were the result of infections acquired during the previous season. Few seroconversions were detected among banded recaptured birds collected during spring and early summer. Age and resident status, but not sex, were significant risk factors for wild bird infection, with the highest seroprevalence rates among after hatching year individuals of permanent resident species. Migrants (with the exception of mourning doves) and winter resident species rarely were positive. House finches, house sparrows, Gambel's quail, California quail, common ground doves, and mourning doves were most frequently positive for antibodies. The initial detection of enzootic activity each summer coincided closely with the appearance of hatching

  20. Biological characteristics of an enzootic subtype of western equine encephalomyelitis virus from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, T I; Avilés, G; Sabattini, M S

    1997-02-01

    In order to expand our knowledge on the biological characteristics of an enzootic South American subtype of western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus, strain AG80-646, we inoculated guinea pigs, rabbits, newborn chickens and Vero and chick embryo cell cultures with this and other WEE and Wee-related viruses. AG80-646 was found apathogenic for guinea pigs even when inoculated intracranially (i.e.) or intraperitoneally (i.p.), and the animals did not develop viraemia. AG80-646 killed rabbits and the animals developed high viraemia (peak titer was 7.0 log PFU/0.1 ml). These data and previous serological evidence led us to look for a mammal as a natural host. AG80-646 was found lethal for newborn chickens inoculated subcutaneously (s.c.) (peak viraemia titer was 6.6 log PFU/0.1 ml). AG80-646 produced plaques (diameter 0.8-1.0 mm) in Vero and chick embryo cells 3-4 days post infection (p.i.) A comparison of AG80-646 with other WEE complex virus strains led to the following observations: (1) The lethality for guinea pigs was high for the two epizootic Argentinian strains, Cba 87 and Cba CIV 180, zero for the two enzootic strains, AG80-646 and BeAr 10315 (virus Aura), and intermediate for the Russian strain Y62-33 (low by i.c. route and zero by i.p. route); (2) AG80-646 was more virulent for rabbits inoculated i.p. than the three epizootic strains Cba 87, Cba CIV 180 and McMillan; (3) AG80-646 was less virulent for new-born chickens than the Argentinian epizootic strain Cba CIV 180; (4) The viraemia level correlated always with the strain virulence in each animal host. This study provides tools for the differentiation of WEE complex viruses and strains in the future ecological work on WEE in South America.

  1. Ecology of Aedes dorsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in relation to western equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Coachella Valley of California.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Lothrop, H D; Chiles, R E

    1998-07-01

    The ecology of western equine encephalomyelitis virus (WEE) was studies during 1994-1996 along a portion of the north shore of the Salton Sea in Coachella Valley, California, known to support a focal Aedes dorsalis (Meigen) population. WEE was detected during 1995 by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens concurrently at sites within and outside of the area supporting Ae. dorsalis. WEE was not detected during 1994 or 1996; neither was WEE detected by seroconversion of sentinel rabbits nor by isolation from host-seeking females of either the primary vector, Culex tarsalis Coquillett (42,083 females tested in 913 pools), or Ae. dorsalis (10,804 females tested in 245 pools and 1,940 adults reared from field-collected immatures tested in 72 pools). Collectively, the results of this and previous investigations indicate that Ae. dorsalis may not be essential for the maintenance or amplification of WEE virus in southeastern California. PMID:9701945

  2. A humanized murine monoclonal antibody protects mice either before or after challenge with virulent Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Ann R; Frederickson, Shana; Hinkel, Christopher; Bowdish, Katherine S; Roehrig, John T

    2006-09-01

    A humanized monoclonal antibody (mAb) has been developed and its potential to protect from or cure a Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus (VEEV) infection was evaluated. The VEEV-neutralizing, protective murine mAb 3B4C-4 was humanized using combinatorial antibody libraries and phage-display technology. Humanized VEEV-binding Fabs were evaluated for virus-neutralizing capacity, then selected Fabs were converted to whole immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, and stable cell lines were generated. The humanized mAb Hy4-26C, designated Hy4 IgG, had virus-neutralizing capacity similar to that of 3B4C-4. Passive antibody protection studies with purified Hy4 IgG were performed in adult Swiss Webster mice. As little as 100 ng Hy4 IgG protected 90 % of mice challenged with 100 intraperitoneal (i.p.) mean morbidity (MD(50)) doses of virulent VEEV (Trinidad donkey) 24 h after antibody transfer; also, 500 mug Hy4 IgG protected 80 % of mice inoculated with 100 intranasal MD(50) doses of VEEV. Moreover, 10 mug passive Hy4 IgG protected 70 % of mice from a VEEV challenge dose as great as 10(7) i.p. MD(50). Hy4 IgG also protected mice from challenge with another epizootic VEEV variety, 1C (P676). Importantly, therapeutic administration of the humanized mAb to mice already infected with VEEV cured 90 % of mice treated with Hy4 IgG within 1 h of VEEV inoculation and 75 % of mice treated 24 h after virus infection. PMID:16894184

  3. Genetic analysis of South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses isolated from mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Kondig, John P; Turell, Michael J; Lee, John S; O'Guinn, Monica L; Wasieloski, Leonard P

    2007-03-01

    Identifying viral isolates from field-collected mosquitoes can be difficult and time-consuming, particularly in regions of the world where numerous closely related viruses are co-circulating (e.g., the Amazon Basin region of Peru). The use of molecular techniques may provide rapid and efficient methods for identifying these viruses in the laboratory. Therefore, we determined the complete nucleotide sequence of two South American eastern equine encephalomyelitis viruses (EEEVs): one member from the Peru-Brazil (Lineage II) clade and one member from the Argentina-Panama (Lineage III) clade. In addition, we determined the nucleotide sequence for the nonstructural P3 protein (nsP3) and envelope 2 (E2) protein genes of 36 additional isolates of EEEV from mosquitoes captured in Peru between 1996 and 2001. The 38 isolates were evenly distributed between lineages II and III virus groupings. However, analysis of the nsP3 gene for lineage III strongly suggested that the 19 isolates from this lineage could be divided into two sub-clades, designated as lineages III and IIIA. Compared with North American EEEV (lineage I, GA97 strain), we found that the length of the nsP3 gene was shorter in the strains isolated from South America. A total of 60 nucleotides was deleted in lineage II, 69 in lineage III, and 72 in lineage IIIA. On the basis of the sequences we determined for South American EEEVs and those for other viruses detected in the same area, we developed a series of primers for characterizing these viruses.

  4. Rural cases of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis and the normalized difference vegetation index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, M.P.; Ramsay, B.H.; Gallo, K.

    2005-01-01

    Data from an outbreak (August to October, 2002) of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis in a population of horses located in northern Indiana was scanned for clusters in time and space. One significant (p = 0.04) cluster of case premises was detected, occurring between September 4 and 10 in the south-west part of the study area (85.70??N, 45.50??W). It included 10 case premises (3.67 case premises expected) within a radius of 2264 m. Image data were acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from visible and near-infrared data of daily observations, which were composited to produce a weekly-1km2 resolution raster image product. During the epidemic, a significant (p<0.01) decrease (0.025 per week) in estimated NDVI was observed at all case and control premise sites. The median estimated NDVI (0.659) for case premises within the cluster identified was significantly (p<0.01) greater than the median estimated NDVI for other case (0.571) and control (0.596) premises during the same period. The difference in median estimated NDVI for case premises within this cluster, compared to cases not included in this cluster, was greatest (5.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at 1 and 5 weeks preceding occurrence of the cluster. The NDVI may be useful for identifying foci of WNV transmission. ?? Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

  5. Rural cases of equine West Nile virus encephalomyelitis and the normalized difference vegetation index.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Ramsay, Bruce H; Gallo, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Data from an outbreak (August to October, 2002) of West Nile virus (WNV) encephalomyelitis in a population of horses located in northern Indiana was scanned for clusters in time and space. One significant (p = 0.04) cluster of case premises was detected, occurring between September 4 and 10 in the south-west part of the study area (85.70 degrees N, 45.50 degrees W). It included 10 case premises (3.67 case premises expected) within a radius of 2264 m. Image data were acquired by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor onboard a National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration polar-orbiting satellite. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was calculated from visible and near-infrared data of daily observations, which were composited to produce a weekly-1km(2) resolution raster image product. During the epidemic, a significant (p < 0.01) decrease (0.025 per week) in estimated NDVI was observed at all case and control premise sites. The median estimated NDVI (0.659) for case premises within the cluster identified was significantly (p < 0.01) greater than the median estimated NDVI for other case (0.571) and control (0.596) premises during the same period. The difference in median estimated NDVI for case premises within this cluster, compared to cases not included in this cluster, was greatest (5.3% and 5.1%, respectively) at 1 and 5 weeks preceding occurrence of the cluster. The NDVI may be useful for identifying foci of WNV transmission.

  6. Risk of Exposure to Eastern Equine Encephalomyelitis Virus Increases with the Density of Northern Cardinals

    PubMed Central

    Estep, Laura K.; McClure, Christopher J. W.; Vander Kelen, Patrick; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan D.; Sickerman, Stephen; Hernandez, José; Jinright, Joseph; Hunt, Brenda; Lusk, John; Hoover, Victor; Armstrong, Keith; Stark, Lillian M.; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    For a variety of infectious diseases, the richness of the community of potential host species has emerged as an important factor in pathogen transmission, whereby a higher richness of host species is associated with a lowered disease risk. The proposed mechanism driving this pattern is an increased likelihood in species-rich communities that infectious individuals will encounter dead-end hosts. Mosquito-borne pathogen systems potentially are exceptions to such “dilution effects” because mosquitoes vary their rates of use of vertebrate host species as bloodmeal sources relative to host availabilities. Such preferences may violate basic assumptions underlying the hypothesis of a dilution effect in pathogen systems. Here, we describe development of a model to predict exposure risk of sentinel chickens to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) in Walton County, Florida between 2009 and 2010 using avian species richness as well as densities of individual host species potentially important to EEEV transmission as candidate predictor variables. We found the highest support for the model that included the density of northern cardinals, a highly preferred host of mosquito vectors of EEEV, as a predictor variable. The highest-ranking model also included Culiseta melanura abundance as a predictor variable. These results suggest that mosquito preferences for vertebrate hosts influence pathogen transmission. PMID:23469095

  7. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis virus infection in six captive southern cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius).

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Amanda; Citino, Scott; Rooker, Leah; Zelazo-Kessler, Alexandra; Lim, Ailam; Myers, Carl; Bolin, Steven R; Trainor, Karen

    2016-08-01

    CASE DESCRIPTION Within a 2-week period, 4 southern cassowaries (Casuarius casuarius) at an exhibit at a Virginia zoo died acutely subsequent to eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) infection. This prompted a search for other EEEV outbreaks in cassowaries, which resulted in the identification of 2 additional cassowaries that died of EEEV infection at a conservation center in Florida. CLINICAL FINDINGS Both juvenile and adult birds were affected. Three of the 6 birds died acutely with no premonitory signs. Clinical disease in the other 3 birds was characterized by lethargy and ataxia. Clinicopathologic findings typically included leukocytosis, hyperuricemia, abnormally high liver enzyme activities, and hyper-β globulinemia, which was indicative of acute inflammation. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME The 3 birds with clinical disease died despite supportive treatment. Gross abnormalities commonly observed during necropsy included coelomitis and evidence of diarrhea. Frequently observed histologic abnormalities were encephalitis, vasculitis, hepatitis, nephritis, and splenitis. The diagnosis of EEEV infection was confirmed by detection of serum anti-EEEV antibodies or detection of viral RNA in brain tissue by use of a reverse-transcriptase PCR assay. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Findings suggested that EEEV can cause high morbidity and mortality rates in southern cassowaries. Clinical disease might be reduced or prevented by vaccination, isolation of ill birds, and mosquito control strategies. PMID:27439350

  8. Landscape ecology of arboviruses in southern California: patterns in the epizootic dissemination of western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses in Coachella Valley, 1991-1992.

    PubMed

    Reisen, W K; Hardy, J L; Lothrop, H D

    1995-05-01

    Temporal and spatial patterns in the initiation and dissemination of western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis virus activity in Coachella Valley during 1991 and 1992 were detected by testing pools of host-seeking Culex tarsalis Coquillett for virus infection and sentinel chickens for seroconversions. Both viruses repeatedly were detected first at a salt marsh adjacent to the Salton Sea in the southeastern corner of the study area and then disseminated to the northwest to freshwater marsh, agricultural, and residential habitats. Virus dissemination was relatively slow (< 1 km/d) and may have been accomplished by dispersive host-seeking mosquitoes. Repeated early-season recovery of virus activity indicated that both viruses may persist interseasonally in salt marsh habitat. PMID:7616516

  9. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2015-05-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer-probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk. PMID:26334826

  10. Multiplex qRT-PCR for the Detection of Western Equine Encephalomyelitis, St. Louis Encephalitis, and West Nile Viral RNA in Mosquito Pools (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Brault, Aaron C; Fang, Ying; Reisen, William K

    2015-05-01

    Following the introduction of West Nile virus into California during the summer of 2003, public health and vector control programs expanded surveillance efforts and were in need of diagnostics capable of rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of arbovirus infections of mosquitoes to inform decision support for intervention. Development of a multiplex TaqMan or real-time semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay in which three virus specific primer-probe sets were used in the same reaction is described herein for the detection of western equine encephalomyelitis, St. Louis encephalitis and West Nile viral RNA. Laboratory validation and field data from 10 transmission seasons are reported. The comparative sensitivity and specificity of this multiplex assay to singleplex RT-PCR as well as an antigen detection (rapid analyte measurement platform) and standard plaque assays indicate this assay to be rapid and useful in providing mosquito infection data to estimate outbreak risk.

  11. Distribution of eastern equine encephalomyelitis viral protein and nucleic acid within central nervous tissue lesions in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Kiupel, M; Fitzgerald, S D; Pennick, K E; Cooley, T M; O'Brien, D J; Bolin, S R; Maes, R K; Del Piero, F

    2013-11-01

    An outbreak of eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE) occurred in Michigan free-ranging white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) during late summer and fall of 2005. Brain tissue from 7 deer with EEE, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, was studied. Detailed microscopic examination, indirect immunohistochemistry (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) were used to characterize the lesions and distribution of the EEE virus within the brain. The main lesion in all 7 deer was a polioencephalomyelitis with leptomeningitis, which was more prominent within the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, and brainstem. In 3 deer, multifocal microhemorrhages surrounded smaller vessels with or without perivascular cuffing, although vasculitis was not observed. Neuronal necrosis, associated with perineuronal satellitosis and neutrophilic neuronophagia, was most prominent in the thalamus and the brainstem. Positive IHC labeling was mainly observed in the perikaryon, axons, and dendrites of necrotic and intact neurons and, to a much lesser degree, in glial cells, a few neutrophils in the thalamus and the brainstem, and occasionally the cerebral cortex of the 7 deer. There was minimal IHC-based labeling in the cerebellum and hippocampus. ISH labeling was exclusively observed in the cytoplasm of neurons, with a distribution similar to IHC-positive neurons. Neurons positive by IHC and ISH were most prominent in the thalamus and brainstem. The neuropathology of EEE in deer is compared with other species. Based on our findings, EEE has to be considered a differential diagnosis for neurologic disease and meningoencephalitis in white-tailed deer.

  12. Vector competence of Peruvian mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for a subtype IIIC virus in the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex isolated from mosquitoes captured in Peru.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; Dohm, D J; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; O'Guinn, M L

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated mosquitoes collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, for their susceptibility to a subtype IIIC strain of the Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis complex. This virus had been previously isolated from a pool of mixed Culex vomerifer and Cx. gnomatos captured near Iquitos, Peru, in 1997. After feeding on hamsters with viremias of about 10(8) plaque-forming units of virus per ml, Cx. gnomatos was the most efficient vector. Other species, such as Ochlerotatus fulvus and Psorophora cingulata, although highly susceptible to infection, were not efficient laboratory vectors of this virus due to a significant salivary gland barrier. The Cx. (Culex) species, consisting mostly of Cx. (Cux.) coronator, were nearly refractory to subtype IIIC virus and exhibited both midgut infection as well as salivary gland barriers. Additional studies on biting behavior, mosquito population densities, and vertebrate reservoir hosts of subtype IIIC virus are needed to determine the role that these species play in the maintenance and spread of this virus in the Amazon Basin region.

  13. Vector competence of Mexican and Honduran mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) for enzootic (IE) and epizootic (IC) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Navarro, Roberto; Romero, Guadeloupe; Estrada-Franco, José G

    2003-05-01

    Experimental studies evaluated the vector competence of Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Wiedemann), Culex cancer Theobald, Culex pseudes (Dyar and Knab), Culex taeniopus Dyar and Knab, and a Culex (Culex) species, probably Culex quinquefasciatus Say, and Culex nigripalpus Theobald from Chiapas, Mexico, and Tocoa, Honduras, for epizootic (IC) and enzootic (IE) strains of Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) virus. Culex pseudes was highly susceptible to infection with both the IC and IE strains of VEE (infection rates >78%). Patterns of susceptibility to VEE were similar for Oc. taeniorhynchus collected in Mexico and Honduras. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus was highly susceptible to the epizootic IC strains (infection rates > or = 95%, n = 190), this species was less susceptible to the enzootic IE strain (infection rates < or = 35%, n = 233). The Culex (Culex) species were refractory to both subtypes of VEE, and none of 166 contained evidence of a disseminated infection. Virus-exposed Cx. pseudes that refed on susceptible hamsters readily transmitted virus, confirming that this species was an efficient vector of VEE. Although Oc. taeniorhynchus that fed on hamsters infected with the epizootic IC strain transmitted VEE efficiently, only one of six of those with a disseminated infection with the enzootic IE virus that fed on hamsters transmitted virus by bite. These data indicate that Cx. pseudes is an efficient laboratory vector of both epizootic and enzootic strains of VEE and that Oc. taeniorhynchus could be an important vector of epizootic subtypes of VEE.

  14. Temporal variations in the susceptibility of a semi-isolated population of Culex tarsalis to peroral infection with western equine encephalomyelitis and St. Louis encephalitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Hardy, J L; Meyer, R P; Presser, S B; Milby, M M

    1990-05-01

    A semi-isolated population of Culex tarsalis in Kern County, CA was found to vary significantly in its seasonal and yearly susceptibility to peroral infection with western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) viruses during the breeding seasons of 1975-1981. Female cohorts of the population were significantly more resistant to WEE virus from 1975 through 1977 than from 1978 through 1981. On the average, females were 40 times more susceptible to WEE virus during May than during August. Increases in resistance correlated significantly with the number of days accrued from April through June, when daily ambient air temperatures equaled or exceeded 26.7 degrees C or 32.2 degrees C, respectively. Analyses of data on WEE viral susceptibility, temperature, and rainfall for the 7 year period suggested that Cx. tarsalis should be most susceptible to infection in years with wet winter-early spring periods followed by cool springs. However, inconsistencies in the expression of WEE viral susceptibility during mid- to late summer of some years indicated that other unidentified extrinsic factors, in addition to temperature and rainfall, may induce changes during preimaginal development that affect the peroral susceptibility of adult females. Seasonal and yearly changes in the susceptibility of the Cx. tarsalis population to per os infection with SLE virus did not necessarily occur at the same time as those observed with WEE virus and did not appear to correlate with changes in ambient air temperature. Thus, extrinsic factors that affect the expression of viral susceptibility of Cx. tarsalis, and perhaps the genetic basis of viral susceptibility, apparently differ for WEE and SLE viruses. PMID:2160200

  15. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia.

  16. Kunjin flaviviral encephalomyelitis in an Arabian gelding in New South Wales, Australia.

    PubMed

    Tee, S Y; Horadagoda, N; Mogg, T D

    2012-08-01

    Flaviviruses, including Kunjin virus, are arboviruses that cause encephalomyelitis in humans and horses. This case report describes an Arabian gelding exhibiting neurological signs of flavivirus encephalomyelitis, the diagnostic investigation and confirmation of an unreported case of Kunjin virus equine encephalomyelitis in Australia. PMID:22827627

  17. Mumps encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Tan, K K; Manickam, W D; Cardosa, M J

    1992-10-01

    A 7-year-old Indian girl developed complete paralysis of her lower limbs and acute urinary retention 10 days after suffering from mumps. Encephalomyelitis due to mumps was not suspected initially since it is a rare complication of mumps, although relatively well-documented. However, the preceding history of parotitis and the presence of mumps-specific IgM in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis. The initially severe acute neurological deficits resolved completely three months after onset of her illness. Serological investigations were helpful in diagnosing neurological complications of mumps in this case, and especially where there is no preceding parotitis.

  18. Equine Piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is an infectious, tick-borne disease caused by the hemoprotozoan parasites Theileria (previously Babesia) equi and Babesia caballi. Piroplasmosis affects all wild and domestic equid species and causes signs related to intravascular hemolysis and associated systemic illness. Infe...

  19. [EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF OUTBREAKS OF DISEASES CAUSED BY AMERICAN EQUINE ENCEPHALITIS CAUSATIVE AGENTS IN ENDEMIC REGIONS].

    PubMed

    Petrov, A A; Lebedev, V N; Kulish, V S; Pyshnaya, N S; Stovba, L F; Borisevich, S V

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic analysis of epidemic outbreaks caused by American equine encephalitis causative agents is carried out in the review. Eastern equine encephalomyelitis (EEE), Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) and Venezuela equine encephalomyelitis (VEE) viruses are etiologic agents of dangerous transmissive diseases that are usually accompanied by fever and neurologic symptoms. Among the New World alphaviruses, VEE virus has the most potential danger for humans and domestic animals. Currently, enzootic strains of VEE play an increasing role as etiologic agents of human diseases. Most of the VEE cases in humans in endemic regions during inter-epidemic period are caused by infection with VEE subtype ID virus. A possibility of emergence of novel epidemic outbreaks of VEE is determined by mutations of ID subtype strains into IC subtype, and those currently pose a potential threat as an etiologic agent of the disease. Despite low morbidity, EEE and WEE are a problem for healthcare due to a relatively high frequency of lethal outcomes of the disease. PMID:26829861

  20. Equine Arteritis Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    03. Nidovirales : 03.004. Arteriviridae : 03.004.0. {03.004.0. unknown} : 03.004.0.01. Arterivirus : 03.004.0.01.001. Equine arteritis virus will be published online. The article details the phenotypic and genotypic makeup of equine arteritis virus (EAV), and summarizes its biological properties....

  1. Avian Encephalomyelitis in Layer Pullets Associated with Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Sentíes-Cué, C Gabriel; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Reimers, Nancy; Bickford, Arthur A; Charlton, Bruce R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis (AE) was diagnosed in three flocks of leghorn layer pullets following AE vaccination. Ages of the birds were 11, 12, and 14 wk. The submissions came from three different companies located in two geographic areas of the Central Valley of California. The clinical signs included birds down on their legs, unilateral recumbency or sitting on their hocks, lethargy, reluctance to move, dehydration, unevenness in size, low weight, tremors of the head in a few birds, and mildly to moderately elevated mortality. The flocks had been vaccinated against fowl pox and AE with a combined product in the wing-web 2 wk prior to the onset of AE clinical signs. Histopathologic examination revealed lesions consistent with AE, including lymphocytic perivascular infiltration and neuronal central chromatolysis in the brain and spinal cord, as well as gliosis in the cerebellar molecular layer. The AE virus was detected by reverse-transcriptase PCR in the brain homogenate from three cases and peripheral nerves in one case. Additionally, the AE virus was isolated in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) embryonated eggs from brain tissue pool samples. Other avian viral infections capable of causing encephalitis, including avian paramyxoviruses, avian influenza virus (AIV), West Nile virus (WNV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), were ruled out by attempting virus isolation and molecular procedures. PMID:27309297

  2. Equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, Udeni B R

    2014-12-01

    Equine arteritis virus (EAV), the causative agent of equine viral arteritis (EVA), is a respiratory and reproductive disease that occurs throughout the world. EAV infection is highly species-specific and exclusively limited to members of the family Equidae, which includes horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras. EVA is an economically important disease and outbreaks could cause significant losses to the equine industry. The primary objective of this article is to summarize current understanding of EVA, specifically the disease, pathogenesis, epidemiology, host immune response, vaccination and treatment strategies, prevention and control measures, and future directions.

  3. Eastern Equine Encephalitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Image of Culiseta melanura mosquito, photo taken by Jason Williams, reproduced by permission from the Virginia Mosquito Control Association. Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is ...

  4. Applied equine genetics

    PubMed Central

    FINNO, C. J.; BANNASCH, D. L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Genome sequencing of the domestic horse and subsequent advancements in the field of equine genomics have led to an explosion in the development of tools for mapping traits and diseases and evaluating gene expression. The objective of this review is to discuss the current progress in the field of equine genomics, with specific emphasis on assembly and analysis of the reference sequence and subsequent sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare; the genomic tools currently available to researchers and their implications in genomic investigations in the horse; the genomics of Mendelian and non-Mendelian traits; the genomics of performance traits and considerations regarding genetic testing in the horse. The whole-genome sequencing of a Quarter Horse mare has provided additional variants within the equine genome that extend past single nucleotide polymorphisms to include insertions/deletions and copy number variants. Equine single nucleotide polymorphism arrays have allowed for the investigation of both simple and complex genetic traits while DNA microarrays have provided a tool for examining gene expression across various tissues and with certain disease conditions. Recently, next-generation sequencing has become more affordable and both whole-genome DNA sequencing and transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing are methodologies that are being applied to equine genomic research. Research in the field of equine genomics continues to expand rapidly as the cost of genotyping and sequencing decreases, resulting in a need for quality bioinformatics software and expertise to appropriately handle both the size and complexity of these data. PMID:24802051

  5. Equine cricoid cartilage densitometry.

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, E; Poteet, B; Cohen, N

    1993-01-01

    The density of the cricoid cartilage from 29 equine larynges collected from an abattoir was determined by dual photon absorptiometry (DPA). Densities of the right and left cricoid cartilages were highly correlated. No correlation was found between age of the horse and the density of the cricoid cartilage. PMID:8269372

  6. Review of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis is caused by one of two erythrocytic parasites Babesia caballi or Theileria equi. Although the genus of the latter remains controversial the most recent designation, Theileria is utilized in this review. Shared pathogenesis includes tick-borne transmission and erythrolysis leadi...

  7. Equine Disease Surveillance: Quarterly Summary.

    PubMed

    2016-01-23

    West Nile virus in Europe and the USA. Evidence that the spread of vesicular stomatitis in the USA is beginning to slow. Summary of UK surveillance testing, July to September 2015 These are among matters discussed in the most recent quarterly equine disease surveillance report, prepared by Defra, the Animal Health Trust and the British Equine Veterinary Association. PMID:26795859

  8. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  9. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  10. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  11. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  12. 9 CFR 113.208 - Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.208 Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Killed Virus. Avian Encephalomyelitis Vaccine (Killed Virus) shall be prepared from virus-bearing tissues or fluids obtained...

  13. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  14. 9 CFR 113.308 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan... REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.308 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Venezuelan. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine... established as pure, safe, and immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production....

  15. An equine pain face

    PubMed Central

    Gleerup, Karina B; Forkman, Björn; Lindegaard, Casper; Andersen, Pia H

    2015-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the existence of an equine pain face and to describe this in detail. Study design Semi-randomized, controlled, crossover trial. Animals Six adult horses. Methods Pain was induced with two noxious stimuli, a tourniquet on the antebrachium and topical application of capsaicin. All horses participated in two control trials and received both noxious stimuli twice, once with and once without an observer present. During all sessions their pain state was scored. The horses were filmed and the close-up video recordings of the faces were analysed for alterations in behaviour and facial expressions. Still images from the trials were evaluated for the presence of each of the specific pain face features identified from the video analysis. Results Both noxious challenges were effective in producing a pain response resulting in significantly increased pain scores. Alterations in facial expressions were observed in all horses during all noxious stimulations. The number of pain face features present on the still images from the noxious challenges were significantly higher than for the control trial (p = 0.0001). Facial expressions representative for control and pain trials were condensed into explanatory illustrations. During pain sessions with an observer present, the horses increased their contact-seeking behavior. Conclusions and clinical relevance An equine pain face comprising ‘low’ and/or ‘asymmetrical’ ears, an angled appearance of the eyes, a withdrawn and/or tense stare, mediolaterally dilated nostrils and tension of the lips, chin and certain facial muscles can be recognized in horses during induced acute pain. This description of an equine pain face may be useful for improving tools for pain recognition in horses with mild to moderate pain. PMID:25082060

  16. A Rare Sequela of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kodadhala, Vijay; Kurukumbi, Mohankumar; Jayam-Trouth, Annapurni

    2014-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease, typically occurring in children following a febrile infection or a vaccination. Primary and secondary immune responses contribute to inflammation and subsequent demyelination, but the exact pathogenesis is still unknown. Diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is strongly suggested by temporal relationship between an infection or an immunization and the onset of neurological symptoms. Biopsy is definitive. In general, the disease is self-limiting and the prognostic outcome is favorable with anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agents. Locked-in syndrome describes patients who are awake and conscious but have no means of producing limb, speech, or facial movements. Locked-in syndrome is a rare complication of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We present a case of incomplete locked-in syndrome occurring in a 34-year-old male secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Our case is unique, as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occurred in a 34-year-old which was poorly responsive to immunosuppression resulting in severe disability. PMID:24977089

  17. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  18. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  19. Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Symptoms and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Jasona, Leonard A.; Zinn, Marcie L.; Zinn, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide with an estimated one million cases in the United States. Hurdles to establishing consensus to achieve accurate evaluation of patients with ME continue, fueled by poor agreement about case definitions, slow progress in development of standardized diagnostic approaches, and issues surrounding research priorities. Because there are other medical problems, such as early MS and Parkinson’s Disease, which have some similar clinical presentations, it is critical to accurately diagnose ME to make a differential diagnosis. In this article, we explore and summarize advances in the physiological and neurological approaches to understanding, diagnosing, and treating ME. We identify key areas and approaches to elucidate the core and secondary symptom clusters in ME so as to provide some practical suggestions in evaluation of ME for clinicians and researchers. This review, therefore, represents a synthesis of key discussions in the literature, and has important implications for a better understanding of ME, its biological markers, and diagnostic criteria. There is a clear need for more longitudinal studies in this area with larger data sets, which correct for multiple testing. PMID:26411464

  20. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming.

  1. Psychosocial Equine Program for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferruolo, David M

    2016-01-01

    Nearly half of all combat veterans suffer from serious psychological disorders and reintegration issues. Veterans shy away from typical talk therapy and are seeking alternative treatments. Equine-facilitated mental health therapy has shown promise in treating veterans with depressive and anxiety disorders and reintegration issues. This article reports on an institutional review board-approved pilot program designed to address the mental health needs of veterans. Furthermore, this article discusses future directions for evolving development of equine treatment programming. PMID:26897999

  2. Equine glanders in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Arun, S; Neubauer, H; Gürel, A; Ayyildiz, G; Kusçu, B; Yesildere, T; Meyer, H; Hermanns, W

    1999-03-01

    In the course of an epidemiological study of glanders on a number of Turkish islands in the Sea of Marmara, 1128 horses were examined by using the intracutaneous mallein test. Thirty-five (3-1 per cent) developed an increase in rectal temperature and a swelling at the point of injection. Ten of these horses were killed and glanders was confirmed in five cases by the presence of lesions and by the immunohistological demonstration of the causative agent, Burkholderia mallei. Clinical and pathological findings indicated that in all cases the infection was restricted to the mucous membrane of the nasal cavity with its parasinus, the nostrils and the upper lips. It was confirmed that equine glanders is endemic in Turkey.

  3. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself.

  4. Equine respiratory pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Foreman, J H

    1999-12-01

    Differentiation of diseases of the equine respiratory tract is based on history, clinical signs, auscultation, endoscopy, imaging, and sampling of airway exudate. Upper respiratory therapies include surgical correction of airway obstructions; flushing of localized abscesses (strangles), guttural pouch disease, or sinusitis; and oral or parenteral antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapy if deemed necessary. Pneumonia usually is treated with antimicrobials, anti-inflammatories, and bronchodilators. Pleural drainage is indicated if significant pleural effusion is present. The most commonly used therapies for early inflammatory and chronic allergic obstructive conditions include bronchodilators and anti-inflammatories. Acute respiratory distress, particularly acute pulmonary edema, is treated with diuretics (usually furosemide), intranasal oxygen, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, and alleviation of the underlying cause. Furosemide also had been used in North America as a race-day preventative for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), but recent data have shown that furosemide may be a performance-enhancing agent itself. PMID:10589473

  5. Equine conjunctival pseudotumors.

    PubMed

    Moore, C.P.; Grevan, V.L.; Champagne, E.S.; Collins, B.K.; Collier, L.L.

    2000-01-01

    Five horses presented with unilateral pink, smooth, nonulcerated conjunctival masses with histologic features characteristic of inflammatory pseudotumors, i.e. proliferative inflammatory lesions clinically resembling true neoplasia. Although causes for the inflammatory lesions were not determined, based on the presence histologically of mononuclear (predominantly lymphocytic) inflammatory cell infiltrates and the absence of infectious agents, parasites or foreign bodies, an immune-mediated pathogenesis was suspected. Affected horses ranged from 5 to 8 years of age with no apparent breed or sex predilection. Conjunctival lesions were nodular in two cases and relatively flat and more diffuse in three cases. Third eyelid lesions were present in three cases and two affected eyes had corneal involvement. Based on findings from these five cases, the prognosis for equine conjunctival pseudotumors appears to be good when lesions are treated by partial or complete surgical excision, local administration of anti-inflammatory agents, or a combination of surgery and anti-inflammatory therapy.

  6. Equine Assisted Psychotherapy: The Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's Model Overview of Equine-Based Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Notgrass, Clayton G.; Pettinelli, J. Douglas

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the Equine Assisted Growth and Learning Association's (EAGALA) experiential model called "Equine Assisted Psychotherapy" (EAP). EAGALA's model is based on the Association for Experiential Education's (AEE) tenets and is focused on the learner's experience with horses. Drawing on the historical use of equines in the…

  7. The equine intestinal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio C; Weese, J Scott

    2012-06-01

    The equine intestinal tract contains a complex microbial population (microbiota) that plays an important role in health and disease. Despite the undeniable importance of a 'normal' microbiota, understanding of the composition and function of this population is currently limited. As methods to characterize the microbiota and its genetic makeup (the microbiome) have evolved, the composition and complexity of this population are starting to be revealed. As is befitting a hindgut fermenter, members of the Firmicutes phylum appear to predominate, yet there are significant populations of numerous other phyla. The microbiome appears to be profoundly altered in certain disease states, and better understanding of these alterations may offer hope for novel preventive and therapeutic measures. The development and increasing availability of next generation sequencing and bioinformatics methods offer a revolution in microbiome evaluation and it is likely that significant advances will be made in the near future. Yet, proper use of these methods requires further study of basic aspects such as optimal testing protocols, the relationship of the fecal microbiome to more proximal locations where disease occurs, normal intra- and inter-horse variation, seasonal variation, and similar factors. PMID:22626511

  8. A Review of Equine Laparoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Hendrickson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery in the human was first identified in mid 900's. The procedure as is more commonly practiced now was first reported in 1912. There have been many advances and new techniques developed in the past 100 years. Equine laparoscopy, was first reported in the 1970's, and similarly has undergone much transformation in the last 40 years. It is now considered the standard of care in many surgical techniques such as cryptorchidectomy, ovariectomy, nephrosplenic space ablation, standing abdominal exploratory, and many other reproductive surgeries. This manuscript describes the history of minimally invasive surgery, and highlights many of the techniques that are currently performed in equine surgery. Special attention is given to instrumentation, ligating techniques, and the surgical principles of equine minimally invasive surgery. PMID:23762585

  9. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  10. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M; van de Sande, M I; De Meirleir, K L; Klimas, N G; Broderick, G; Mitchell, T; Staines, D; Powles, A C P; Speight, N; Vallings, R; Bateman, L; Baumgarten-Austrheim, B; Bell, D S; Carlo-Stella, N; Chia, J; Darragh, A; Jo, D; Lewis, D; Light, A R; Marshall-Gradisbik, S; Mena, I; Mikovits, J A; Miwa, K; Murovska, M; Pall, M L; Stevens, S

    2011-01-01

    , Japan; A. Kirchenstein Institute of Microbiology and Virology, Riga Stradins University, Riga, Latvia; Department of Biochemistry & Basic Medical Sciences, Washington State University, Portland, OR; Department of Sports Sciences, University of the Pacific, Stockton, CA USA). Myalgic encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria (Review). J Intern Med 2011; 270: 327–338. The label ‘chronic fatigue syndrome’ (CFS) has persisted for many years because of the lack of knowledge of the aetiological agents and the disease process. In view of more recent research and clinical experience that strongly point to widespread inflammation and multisystemic neuropathology, it is more appropriate and correct to use the term ‘myalgic encephalomyelitis’ (ME) because it indicates an underlying pathophysiology. It is also consistent with the neurological classification of ME in the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD G93.3). Consequently, an International Consensus Panel consisting of clinicians, researchers, teaching faculty and an independent patient advocate was formed with the purpose of developing criteria based on current knowledge. Thirteen countries and a wide range of specialties were represented. Collectively, members have approximately 400 years of both clinical and teaching experience, authored hundreds of peer-reviewed publications, diagnosed or treated approximately 50 000 patients with ME, and several members coauthored previous criteria. The expertise and experience of the panel members as well as PubMed and other medical sources were utilized in a progression of suggestions/drafts/reviews/revisions. The authors, free of any sponsoring organization, achieved 100% consensus through a Delphi-type process. The scope of this paper is limited to criteria of ME and their application. Accordingly, the criteria reflect the complex symptomatology. Operational notes enhance clarity and specificity by providing guidance in the

  11. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine piroplasmosis (EP) is a disease of equidae including horses, donkeys, mules and zebras caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick-vectors and although they have inherent differences, they ...

  12. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

    PubMed

    Wei, T Y; Baumann, R J

    1999-07-01

    Although acute disseminated encephalomyelitis has been observed after a variety of viral infections and an occasional bacterial infection, it has not been reported in association with rickettsial infections. Reported is a 7-year-old male with magnetic resonance images and clinical manifestations suggestive of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis after a tick bite and serologically proven Rocky Mountain spotted fever. PMID:10428440

  13. Myalgic encephalomyelitis--a persistent enteroviral infection?

    PubMed Central

    Dowsett, E. G.; Ramsay, A. M.; McCartney, R. A.; Bell, E. J.

    1990-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis is a common disability but frequently misinterpreted. Amongst 6,000 patients referred for general microbiological diagnosis between 1975 and 1987, 420 cases were recognized. Coxsackie B neutralization tests, in 205 of these, demonstrated significant titres in 103/205 (50%), while of 124 additionally investigated for enteroviral IgM, 38/124 (31%) were positive. This illness is distinguished from a variety of other post-viral states by an unique clinical and epidemiological pattern characteristic of enteroviral infection. Prompt recognition and advice to avoid over-exertion is mandatory. Routine diagnosis, specific therapy and prevention, await further technical advances. PMID:2170962

  14. Vector ecology of equine piroplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Scoles, Glen A; Ueti, Massaro W

    2015-01-01

    Equine piroplasmosis is a disease of Equidae, including horses, donkeys, mules, and zebras, caused by either of two protozoan parasites, Theileria equi or Babesia caballi. These parasites are biologically transmitted between hosts via tick vectors, and although they have inherent differences they are categorized together because they cause similar pathology and have similar morphologies, life cycles, and vector relationships. To complete their life cycle, these parasites must undergo a complex series of developmental events, including sexual-stage development in their tick vectors. Consequently, ticks are the definitive hosts as well as vectors for these parasites, and the vector relationship is restricted to a few competent tick species. Because the vector relationship is critical to the epidemiology of these parasites, we highlight current knowledge of the vector ecology of these tick-borne equine pathogens, emphasizing tick transmissibility and potential control strategies to prevent their spread.

  15. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  16. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, M.D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis. No Drawings

  17. Equine Management and Production. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This package contains the instructor's manual, instructor's resource package, and student workbook for a 1-year introductory course in equine management and production. The course emphasizes the skills needed to manage small one- or two-horse facilities and to enter postsecondary equine education programs. The instructor's manual presents basic…

  18. Platelet aggregating material from equine arterial tissue

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Morris D.

    1983-02-22

    Novel hemostatic agent comprises equine arterial fibrillar collagen in a carrier. The agent is useful for the aggregation of platelets for clinical diagnostic tests and for the clotting of blood, such as for controlling bleeding in warm blooded species. The fibrillar collagen is obtained by extracting homogenized equine arterial tissue with aqueous solutions followed by extensive dialysis.

  19. Contrasting Case Definitions for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Brown, Abigail; Clyne, Erin; Bartgis, Lindsey; Evans, Meredyth; Brown, Molly

    2013-01-01

    This article uses data from patients recruited using the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to contrast those meeting criteria for the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) Canadian case definition with those that did not meet these criteria. The study also contrasts those meeting criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) based on criteria from Ramsay and other theorists with those that did not meet the ME criteria. The ME/CFS case definition criteria identified a subset of patients with more functional impairments and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the subset not meeting these criteria. The ME subset had more functional impairments, and more severe physical and cognitive symptoms than the subset not meeting ME criteria. When applied to a population meeting the 1994 CFS case definition, both ME/CFS and ME criteria appear to select a more severe subset of patients. PMID:22158691

  20. Contrasting case definitions for chronic fatigue syndrome, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Brown, Abigail; Clyne, Erin; Bartgis, Lindsey; Evans, Meredyth; Brown, Molly

    2012-09-01

    This article uses data from patients recruited using the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to contrast those meeting criteria for the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) Canadian case definition with those that did not meet these criteria. The study also contrasts those meeting criteria for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) based on criteria from Ramsay and other theorists with those that did not meet the ME criteria. The ME/CFS case definition criteria identified a subset of patients with more functional impairments and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the subset not meeting these criteria. The ME subset had more functional impairments, and more severe physical and cognitive symptoms than the subset not meeting ME criteria. When applied to a population meeting the 1994 CFS case definition, both ME/CFS and ME criteria appear to select a more severe subset of patients.

  1. Madariaga Virus Infection Associated with a Case of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Luciani, Kathia; Abadía, Iván; Martínez-Torres, Alex O.; Cisneros, Julio; Guerra, Ilka; García, Mariana; Estripeaut, Dora; Carrera, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    We present the first report of a pediatric case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with Madariaga virus infection (MADV, Alphavirus, Togaviridae; formerly known as South American variants of eastern equine encephalitis virus [EEEV]) in a patient of the 2010 alphaviral epidemic reported in Panama. The patient was admitted to the Hospital del Niño in Panama City with suspected meningitis, exhibited with decreased alertness and disorientation in space and time, hemiparesis, and left Babinski sign. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit and treated with aciclovir and methylprednisolone. The magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain revealed multiple hyperintense lesions at T2-weighted images (T2) and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) on the cortical–subcortical level. Sera samples obtained on days 6 and 12 were immunoglobulin M (IgM) positive for MADV. The findings on the clinical and cerebrospinal analyses, rapid symptom progression as well as neuroimaging, and serologic studies support our diagnosis. Our results suggest that MADV should be included in the etiologic differential diagnosis of ADEM in endemic countries. PMID:25870420

  2. Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Tapabrata

    2003-09-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome or myalgic encephalomyelitis in children and adolescents is still poorly understood. The provisional diagnostic criteria and the concept are depicted here. The treatment modalities and prognosis for the disease are yet inconsistent. PMID:15168991

  3. Neuroborreliosis presenting as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ruben; Lisboa, Lurdes; Neves, João; García López, Milagros; Santos, Elsa; Ribeiro, Augusto

    2012-12-01

    We report a case of a 5-year-old boy with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis as the initial presentation of neuroborreliosis. Parents report an upper-airway infection a few days before the development of acute encephalopathy, mild facial palsy, and seizures. The patient needed mechanical ventilation for 10 days, and after extubation, he presented hypotonia, ataxia, dysarthria, as well as weak gag and cough reflexes. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed hyperintense lesions on T2- and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequences on the right subcortical occipital and parietal region, left posterior arm of the internal capsule, and in the medulla oblongata. Borrelia burgdorferi was identified in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction and in the plasma by Western blotting. He was treated with ceftriaxone, methylprednisolone, and human immunoglobulin. Recovery was partial. PMID:23222106

  4. Equine diseases caused by known genetic mutations.

    PubMed

    Finno, Carrie J; Spier, Sharon J; Valberg, Stephanie J

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of equine genome maps by the equine genome community and the complete sequencing of the horse genome performed at the Broad Institute have accelerated the pace of genetic discovery. This review focuses on genetic diseases in the horse for which a mutation is currently known, including hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, severe combined immunodeficiency, overo lethal white syndrome, junctional epidermolysis bullosa, glycogen branching enzyme deficiency, malignant hyperthermia, hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia, and polysaccharide storage myopathy. Emphasis is placed on the prevalence, clinical signs, etiology, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis for each disease.

  5. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  6. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  7. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  8. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  9. 9 CFR 113.207 - Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern... PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.207 Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan, Killed Virus. Encephalomyelitis Vaccine, Eastern, Western,...

  10. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Franco, José G; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Freier, Jerome E; Cordova, Dionicio; Clements, Tamara; Moncayo, Abelardo; Kang, Wenli; Gomez-Hernandez, Carlos; Rodriguez-Dominguez, Gabriela; Ludwig, George V; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-12-01

    Equine epizootics of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) occurred in the southern Mexican states of Chiapas in 1993 and Oaxaca in 1996. To assess the impact of continuing circulation of VEE virus (VEEV) on human and animal populations, serologic and viral isolation studies were conducted in 2000 to 2001 in Chiapas State. Human serosurveys and risk analyses indicated that long-term endemic transmission of VEEV occurred among villages with seroprevalence levels of 18% to 75% and that medical personnel had a high risk for VEEV exposure. Seroprevalence in wild animals suggested cotton rats as possible reservoir hosts in the region. Virus isolations from sentinel animals and genetic characterizations of these strains indicated continuing circulation of a subtype IE genotype, which was isolated from equines during the recent VEE outbreaks. These data indicate long-term enzootic and endemic VEEV circulation in the region and continued risk for disease in equines and humans. PMID:15663847

  11. [Equine infectious anemia--a review].

    PubMed

    Haas, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    This article combines essential facts of equine infectious anemia. Beside etiology and epidemiology, emphasis is put on the clinical course and laboratory diagnosis. Finally, control measures and prophylactic issues are discussed.

  12. Definitions and aetiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis: how the Canadian consensus clinical definition of myalgic encephalomyelitis works

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, B M

    2007-01-01

    A perspective on the various definitions of myalgic encephalomyelitis and the process of discovering its aetiology is presented. The importance of clinical guidelines is emphasised to encourage clinicians to provide clear descriptions of their individual patients required for proper clinical activity; diagnosis, estimation of severity of effect, prognosis, treatment and rehabilitation. This individual knowledge is informed by general and (hopefully) publicly confirmed knowledge resulting from scientific research during the second‐person interaction which lies at the core of the clinical encounter. Both types of knowledge are essential. PMID:16935963

  13. Polyprotein processing of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R P; Kong, W P; Semler, B L

    1989-01-01

    To investigate polyprotein processing of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses, we analyzed in vitro translation reactions programmed by in vitro-derived transcripts from an infectious full-length cDNA clone of the DA strain of Theiler's virus. To help identify the proteinases that carried out the processing, we modified the DA cDNA clone transcription template by linearization with different restriction endonucleases that generate templates of different lengths or by constructing linker insertion or deletion mutations or both in putative proteinase-coding regions. Protein 3C carried out most of the cleavages of the polyprotein, as is true for the other picornaviruses that have been studied. A second proteinase also appeared active at the LP12A-2B junction. A protein of slightly faster mobility than the leader protein was seen with translation of transcripts derived from DA cDNA but not GDVII cDNA. This protein may be synthesized from an alternative initiation site in the DA leader-coding region out of phase with the polyprotein reading frame. Our findings are relevant to ongoing investigations of the abnormal virus expression seen in DA virus late demyelinating disease, since polyprotein processing is critical in regulating picornaviral gene expression. Images PMID:2555559

  14. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  15. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  16. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  17. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  18. 9 CFR 317.9 - Labeling of equine products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Labeling of equine products. 317.9... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS General § 317.9 Labeling of equine products. The immediate containers of any equine products shall be labeled to show the kinds of...

  19. Training Law Enforcement Officials on Responding to Equine Calls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kathleen P.; Stauffer, Gary; Stauffer, Monte; Anderson, Doug; Biodrowski, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of equine abuse/neglect cases is an ongoing issue. However, officials responding to equine cases are rarely experienced in handling horses. Therefore, workshops teaching basic horse husbandry were offered to better equip and prepare officials to respond to equine cases. Trainings consisted of both classroom and hands-on sessions.…

  20. The susceptibility of the hamster to mouse encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    DEAN, D J; DALLDORF, G

    1948-12-01

    The OT strain of mouse encephalomyelitis virus induces an inapparent infection in suckling hamsters associated with lesions of the central nervous system and skeletal muscles. The virus increases in pathogenicity after alternating mouse-hamster transfers and then induces both paralysis and encephalitis. Pathogenicity is lost through serial hamster passages but is restored by a single mouse transfer.

  1. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty. PMID:19945637

  2. Customer service in equine veterinary medicine.

    PubMed

    Blach, Edward L

    2009-12-01

    This article explores customer service in equine veterinary medicine. It begins with a discussion about the differences between customers and clients in veterinary medicine. An overview of the nature of the veterinary-client-patient relationship and its effects on the veterinarian's services sheds light on how to evaluate your customer service. The author reviews a study performed in 2007 that evaluated 24 attributes of customer service and their importance to clients of equine veterinarians in their decision to select a specific veterinarian or hospital. The article concludes with an overview of how to evaluate your customer service in an effort to optimize your service to achieve customer loyalty.

  3. The structure and regulation of the Irish equine industries: Links to considerations of equine welfare

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    The equine industries in Ireland are vibrant and growing. They are broadly classified into two sectors: Thoroughbred racing, and sports and leisure. This paper describes these sectors in terms of governance, education and training in equine welfare, and available data concerning horse numbers, identification, traceability and disposal. Animal welfare, and specifically equine welfare, has received increasing attention internationally. There is general acceptance of concepts such as animal needs and persons' responsibilities toward animals in their care, as expressed in the 'Five Freedoms'. As yet, little has been published on standards of equine welfare pertaining to Ireland, or on measures to address welfare issues here. This paper highlights the central role of horse identification and legal registration of ownership to safeguard the health and welfare of horses. PMID:21851704

  4. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Induces Apoptosis through the Unfolded Protein Response Activation of EGR1

    PubMed Central

    Baer, Alan; Lundberg, Lindsay; Swales, Danielle; Waybright, Nicole; Pinkham, Chelsea; Dinman, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a previously weaponized arthropod-borne virus responsible for causing acute and fatal encephalitis in animal and human hosts. The increased circulation and spread in the Americas of VEEV and other encephalitic arboviruses, such as eastern equine encephalitis virus and West Nile virus, underscore the need for research aimed at characterizing the pathogenesis of viral encephalomyelitis for the development of novel medical countermeasures. The host-pathogen dynamics of VEEV Trinidad donkey-infected human astrocytoma U87MG cells were determined by carrying out RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of poly(A) and mRNAs. To identify the critical alterations that take place in the host transcriptome following VEEV infection, samples were collected at 4, 8, and 16 h postinfection and RNA-Seq data were acquired using an Ion Torrent PGM platform. Differential expression of interferon response, stress response factors, and components of the unfolded protein response (UPR) was observed. The protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the UPR was activated, as the expression of both activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and CHOP (DDIT3), critical regulators of the pathway, was altered after infection. Expression of the transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) was induced in a PERK-dependent manner. EGR1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) demonstrated lower susceptibility to VEEV-induced cell death than isogenic wild-type MEFs, indicating that EGR1 modulates proapoptotic pathways following VEEV infection. The influence of EGR1 is of great importance, as neuronal damage can lead to long-term sequelae in individuals who have survived VEEV infection. IMPORTANCE Alphaviruses represent a group of clinically relevant viruses transmitted by mosquitoes to humans. In severe cases, viral spread targets neuronal tissue, resulting in significant and life-threatening inflammation dependent on a combination

  5. Focus on equine practice at student symposium.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Jordan

    2016-03-12

    Veterinary students with a particular interest in equine medicine and surgery gathered at Nottingham vet school recently to further their knowledge and skills in these areas. Jordan Sinclair, editor of the Journal of the Association of Veterinary Students, reports. PMID:26966303

  6. Equine Management and Production. Vocational Agriculture Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, James A.

    This basic core of instruction for equine management and production is designed to assist instructors in preparing students for successful employment or management of a one- or two-horse operation. Contents include seven instructional areas totaling seventeen units of instruction: (1) Orientation (basic horse production; handling and grooming;…

  7. Evidence-based equine upper respiratory surgery.

    PubMed

    Beard, Warren L; Waxman, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the veterinary literature for various surgical procedures of the equine upper respiratory tract in an effort to evaluate the evidence supporting various therapies. This article focuses on the therapeutic benefit from more widely occurring conditions, such as laryngeal hemiplegia, dorsal displacement of the soft palate, arytenoid chondritis, and epiglottic entrapment.

  8. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Treated With Intravenous Immunoglobulins

    PubMed Central

    Mukerji, Shibani S.; Lam, Alice D.

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 68-year-old man from southeastern Massachusetts presenting with encephalitis due to eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus. Despite the high morbidity and mortality rate of EEE, the patient made a near complete recovery in the setting of receiving early intravenous immunoglobulins. PMID:26740855

  9. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices.

  10. Are Myalgic Encephalomyelitis and chronic fatigue syndrome different illnesses? A preliminary analysis.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Evans, Meredyth; Newton, Julia L

    2016-01-01

    Considerable discussion has transpired regarding whether chronic fatigue syndrome is a distinct illness from Myalgic Encephalomyelitis. A prior study contrasted the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria with the Fukuda and colleagues' chronic fatigue syndrome criteria and found that the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria identified a subset of patients with greater functional impairment and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than the larger group who met Fukuda and colleagues' criteria. The current study analyzed two discrete data sets and found that the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis International Consensus Criteria identified more impaired individuals with more severe symptomatology.

  11. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomins in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Garg, Rajat; Kumar, Saroj; Banerjee, P S; Ram, Hira; Prasad, A

    2016-03-15

    Benzimidazole resistance is a major hindrance to the control of equine cyathostominosis throughout the world. There is a paucity of knowledge on the level of benzimidazole resistance in small strongyles of horses in India. In the present study, allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR) that detects F200Y mutation of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene and faecal egg count reduction test (FECRT) were used for detecting benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomin populations in different agro-climatic zones of Uttar Pradesh, India. Results of the FECRT revealed prevalence of benzimidazole resistance in cyathostomins in an intensively managed equine farm in the mid-western plain (FECR=27.5%, LCI=0) and in working horses (extensively managed) at three locations in central plains of Uttar Pradesh (FECR=75.7-83.6%, LCI=29-57%). Post-treatment larval cultures revealed the presence of exclusively cyathostomin larvae. Genotyping of cyathostomin larvae by AS-PCR revealed that the frequency of homozygous resistant (rr) individuals and the resistant allele frequency was significantly higher (p<0.001) in the intensively managed farm in the mid-western plain and in working horses at two locations in central plains of the state. The resistant allele (r) frequency in cyathostomins was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Vindhyan and Tarai and Bhabar zones of Uttar Pradesh. The prevalence of benzimidazole resistant allele (r) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in cyathostomins of intensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.35) as compared to extensively managed horses (allelic frequency-0.22). The widespread prevalence of benzimidazole resistant alleles in equine cyathostomins in Uttar Pradesh, India, necessitates immediate replacement of the drugs of benzimidazole group with other unrelated effective anthelmintics for management and control of equine cyathostomins.

  12. Encephalomyelitis by Toxoplasma gondii in a captive fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox).

    PubMed

    Corpa, J M; García-Quirós, A; Casares, M; Gerique, A C; Carbonell, M D; Gómez-Muñoz, M T; Uzal, F A; Ortega, J

    2013-03-31

    Encephalomyelitis due to Toxoplasma gondii was diagnosed in a fossa (Cryptoprocta ferox). The animal had ataxia, atrophy of hind limb muscles and progressive wasting before dying 12 months after the onset of clinical signs. Toxoplasmosis was suspected antemortem based on clinical signs and the detection of T. gondii DNA by PCR on EDTA-blood from live animal. Necropsy revealed necrotizing gastritis and severe emaciation. The main histological lesions included non-suppurative encephalomyelitis, with dilation of myelin sheaths and swollen axons in the spinal cord, and multifocal gliosis in the brain with intralesional protozoan cysts that stained positive for T. gondii immunohistochemistry. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of toxoplasmosis in a fossa, and a new host record.

  13. Mitigation of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis by cathepsin D inhibition.

    PubMed

    Boehme, D H; Marks, N

    1979-01-01

    Intraperitoneal treatment with the enzyme inhibitor, pepstatin, of BSVS mice, guinea pigs and Lewis rats which were sensitized with guinea pig spinal cord and pertussis vaccine resulted in complete or partial suppression of paralysis dependent on the species studied and alterations of histological signs of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). The effect was dose-dependent but had no relationship to the age of the experimental animal at the time of the experiment.

  14. Equine immunoglobulins and organization of immunoglobulin genes.

    PubMed

    Walther, Stefanie; Rusitzka, Tamara V; Diesterbeck, Ulrike S; Czerny, Claus-Peter

    2015-12-01

    Our understanding of how equine immunoglobulin genes are organized has increased significantly in recent years. For equine heavy chains, 52 IGHV, 40 IGHD, 8 IGHJ and 11 IGHC are present. Seven of these IGHCs are gamma chain genes. Sequence diversity is increasing between fetal, neonatal, foal and adult age. The kappa light chain contains 60 IGKV, 5 IGKJ and 1 IGKC, whereas there are 144 IGLV, 7 IGLJ, and 7 IGLC for the lambda light chain, which is expressed predominantly in horses. Significant transcriptional differences for IGLV and IGLC are identified in different breeds. Allotypic and allelic variants are observed for IGLC1, IGLC5, and IGLC6/7, and two IGLV pseudogenes are also transcribed. During age development, a decrease in IGLVs is noted, although nucleotide diversity and significant differences in gene usage increased. The following paper suggests a standardization of the existing nomenclature of immunoglobulin genes.

  15. International Equine Ophthalmology Consortium (IEOC) Symposium.

    PubMed

    Gilger, B C; Brooks, D E

    2009-07-01

    This first IEOC symposium met its goals of gathering a group of leading equine ophthalmology clinicians and researchers to identify the challenges of the field. To facilitate collaboration, notes from round-table discussions, including the ideas and plans that were discussed are being complied and will be distributed to the attendees. Development of an IEOC membership organisation and website was discussed and supported by the group in an effort further to advance the science of equine ophthalmology. To present results from the collaborations made at this first IEOC meeting, an IEOC mini-symposium will be held at the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists Annual Meeting in Chicago Illinois, on 6th November 2009. The second annual IEOC symposium will be held in Vienna, Austria on 4th and 5th June 2010.

  16. Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Masini, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an approach in which horses are an integral part of the therapeutic process. This article provides an overview of EAP, including a brief historical perspective, key definitions, and review of pertinent literature. Benefits of the approach are presented, from the standpoint of field observations, client self-reports, and formal research articles. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this article is intended to help non-EAP practitioners become more familiar with the approach. PMID:20873699

  17. Equine-assisted psychotherapy in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Masini, Angela

    2010-10-01

    Equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) is an approach in which horses are an integral part of the therapeutic process. This article provides an overview of EAP, including a brief historical perspective, key definitions, and review of pertinent literature. Benefits of the approach are presented, from the standpoint of field observations, client self-reports, and formal research articles. Rather than offer a comprehensive literature review, this article is intended to help non-EAP practitioners become more familiar with the approach.

  18. [Equine-assisted therapy in child psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Ansorge, Jessie; Sudres, Jean-Luc

    2011-01-01

    The use of a horse or pony as a therapeutic tool is often presented in the media as a recent phenomenon. A survey of 103 institutions shows that it is in fact an approach well rooted in child and adolescent psychiatry. However, professionals who use equine-assisted therapy are calling for an assessment to be carried out enabling them to hone their practices. PMID:22165335

  19. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Claerhoudt, S; Bergman, E H J; Saunders, J H

    2014-10-01

    This study describes a detailed computed tomographic reference of the normal equine foot. Ten forefeet of five adult cadavers, without evidence of orthopaedic disease, were used. Computed tomography (CT) was performed on all feet. Two-millimetre thick transverse slices were obtained, and sagittal and dorsal planes were reformatted. The CT images were matched with the corresponding anatomic slices. The phalanges and the distal sesamoid bone showed excellent detail. The extensor and flexor tendons (including their attachments) could be clearly evaluated. The collateral (sesamoidean) ligaments could be readily located, but were difficult to delineate at their proximal attachment. The distal digital annular ligament could only be distinguished from the deep digital flexor tendon proximal to the distal sesamoid bone, and its proximal attachment could be identified, but not its distal insertion. Small ligaments (impar ligament, chondrosesamoidean, chondrocoronal and chondrocompedal ligaments, axial and abaxial palmar ligaments of the proximal inter-phalangeal joint) were seen with difficulty and not at all slices. The joint capsules could not be delineated from the surrounding soft tissue structures. The lateral and medial proprius palmar digital artery and vein could be visualized occasionally on some slices. The ungular cartilages, corium and hoof wall layering were seen. The nerves, the articular and fibrocartilage of the distal sesamoid bone and the chondroungular ligament could not be assessed. Computed tomography of the equine foot can be of great value when results of radiography and ultrasonography are inconclusive. Images obtained in this study may serve as reference for CT of the equine foot.

  20. Optimising vaccination strategies in equine influenza.

    PubMed

    Park, A W; Wood, J L N; Newton, J R; Daly, J; Mumford, J A; Grenfell, B T

    2003-06-20

    A stochastic model of equine influenza (EI) is constructed to assess the risk of an outbreak in a Thoroughbred population at a typical flat race training yard. The model is parameterised using data from equine challenge experiments conducted by the Animal Health Trust (relating to the latent and infectious period of animals) and also published data on previous epidemics (to estimate the transmission rate for equine influenza). Using 89 ponies, an empirical relationship between pre-challenge antibody and the probability of becoming infectious is established using logistic regression. Changes in antibody level over time are quantified using published and unpublished studies comprising 618 ponies and horses. A plausible Thoroughbred population is examined over the course of a year and the model is used to assess the risk of an outbreak of EI in the yard under the current minimum vaccination policy in the UK. The model is adapted to consider an alternative vaccination programme where the frequency of vaccination in older horses (2-year-olds and upwards) is increased. Model results show that this practical alternative would offer a significant increase in protection. Spread of infection between yards is also considered to ascertain the risk of secondary outbreaks.

  1. Novel vaccination approaches against equine alphavirus encephalitides.

    PubMed

    Carossino, Mariano; Thiry, Etienne; de la Grandière, Ana; Barrandeguy, Maria E

    2014-01-01

    The current production of inactivated vaccines for the prevention of equine alphavirus encephalitides caused by Eastern, Western and Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis viruses (EEEV, WEEV, VEEV) involves the manipulation of large quantities of infectious viral particles under biosafety level 3 containment laboratories with the potential risk of transmission to the operators. Moreover, these vaccines are not capable of inducing a long-lasting immunity. Modified live vaccines, which were also attempted, maintain residual virulence and neurotropism, causing disease in both horses and humans. Therefore, the production of an efficacious second generation vaccine which could be used in the prevention of alphavirus infection without the need to manipulate infectious viral particles under high biocontainment conditions could be of great benefit for the worldwide horse industry. Furthermore, equine alphaviruses are considered as biological threat agents. Subunit, chimeric, gene-deleted live mutants, DNA and adenovirus-vectored alphavirus vaccines have been evaluated; such approaches are reviewed in this work. Climate changes, together with modifications in bird and vector ecology, are leading to the arise of emerging pathogens in new geographical locations, and these zoonotic New World arboviruses are gaining concern. Novel vaccine development does show a promising future for prevention of these infections in both horses and humans. PMID:24295803

  2. Online Leader Training Course: Nebraska Equine Extension Leader Certification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cottle, Lena; D'Angelo, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    The Nebraska Equine Advancement Level Leader Certification Program is an online learning tool that clarifies principles of the Nebraska 4-H Equine Advancement Programs. Through an online Moodle course through eXtension.org, 4-H leaders and Extension educators are able to fulfill the certification requirement from any location before allowing youth…

  3. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries.

  4. Effects of Equine Assisted Activities on Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanning, Beth A.; Baier, Margaret E. Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D.

    2014-01-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of…

  5. Equine-Assisted Therapies: Complementary Medicine or Not?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratcliffe, Katherine T.; Sanekane, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Equine-assisted therapies are interventions that use the unique qualities of a horse to assist persons with disabilities to improve their gross motor, language, social, and self-help skills. Programs offering these services are varied and operate on all major continents across the world. The effectiveness of equine-assisted therapies is generally…

  6. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  9. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  10. 9 CFR 316.12 - Marking of equine carcasses and parts thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Marking of equine carcasses and parts... equine carcasses and parts thereof. (a) All inspected and passed equine carcasses and parts thereof... marking products in this part. (b) All equine carcasses and meat and other parts thereof shall be...

  11. Development and characterization of a homologous radioimmunoassay for equine prolactin

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, J.F.; Chang, Y.S.; Papkoff, H.; Li, C.H.

    1984-04-01

    A specific and sensitive homologous radioimmunoassay has been developed for equine prolactin, suitable for measuring prolactin concentrations in serum of horses. The sensitivity of the assay ranged from 0.4 to 0.6 ng/ml and the intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation averaged 6.9 and 15.4%, respectively, for five doses of hormone. Cross-reactivity with other mammalian and nonmammalian prolactins and growth hormones was less than 20 and 0.3%, respectively. Cross-reactivity with equine growth hormone was less than 0.07%. Equine serum and pituitary extracts showed parallel dilution-response curves with equine prolactin. The percentage recovery of exogenous equine prolactin in serum was 89%. Preliminary analysis of several physiological samples (stallions, pregnant, and nonpregnant mares) yielded values from 0.6 to 12.0 ng/ml.

  12. Multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with atypical rubella virus infection.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, Koji; Asahara, Hideaki; Uehara, Taira; Miyoshi, Katsue; Suzuki, Satoshi O; Iwaki, Toru; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2015-02-01

    We report the first case of an occurrence of multiphasic acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) associated with atypical rubella virus infection with no rash and long-term increased titers of serum anti-rubella IgM in a 17-year-old male who had no history of rubella vaccination. He suffered from at least six clinical exacerbations with disseminated hyperintense lesions on FLAIR MR images during the course of 18 months. Repeated methylprednisolone pulse therapy and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy resolved the exacerbations. In patients with multiphasic ADEM of unknown etiology, clinicians should also consider the possibility of preceding infection with rubella virus.

  13. Immunopathology of Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis is similar to multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Blair, Tiffany C; Manoharan, Minsha; Rawlings-Rhea, Stephanie D; Tagge, Ian; Kohama, Steven G; Hollister-Smith, Julie; Ferguson, Betsy; Woltjer, Randall L; Frederick, Meredith C; Pollaro, James; Rooney, William D; Sherman, Larry S; Bourdette, Dennis N; Wong, Scott W

    2016-02-15

    Japanese macaque encephalomyelitis (JME) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that occurs spontaneously in a colony of Japanese macaques (JM) at the Oregon National Primate Research Center. Animals with JME display clinical signs resembling multiple sclerosis (MS), and magnetic resonance imaging reveals multiple T2-weighted hyperintensities and gadolinium-enhancing lesions in the central nervous system (CNS). Here we undertook studies to determine if JME possesses features of an immune-mediated disease in the CNS. Comparable to MS, the CNS of animals with JME contain active lesions positive for IL-17, CD4+ T cells with Th1 and Th17 phenotypes, CD8+ T cells, and positive CSF findings.

  14. Vaccination against Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis with T Cell Receptor Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Mark D.; Winters, Steven T.; Olee, Tsaiwei; Powell, Henry C.; Carlo, Dennis J.; Brostoff, Steven W.

    1989-11-01

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system mediated by CD4+ T cells reactive with myelin basic protein (MBP). Rats were rendered resistant to the induction of EAE by vaccination with synthetic peptides corresponding to idiotypic determinants of the β chain VDJ region and Jα regions of the T cell receptor (TCR) that are conserved among encephalitogenic T cells. These findings demonstrate the utility of TCR peptide vaccination for modulating the activity of autoreactive T cells and represent a general therapeutic approach for T cell--mediated pathogenesis.

  15. Topical distribution of acyclovir in normal equine skin and equine sarcoids: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Haspeslagh, M; Taevernier, L; Maes, A A; Vlaminck, L E M; De Spiegeleer, B; Croubels, S M; Martens, A M

    2016-06-01

    Topical acyclovir application is an owner-friendly treatment for occult equine sarcoids, without the caustic side-effects other topical treatments have. Variable clinical success rates have been described, but it is not known to what rate and extent acyclovir penetrates in and through equine skin from a topical formulation. In the current study, an in vitro Franz diffusion model was used to determine the permeation parameters for a generic 5% acyclovir cetomacrogol cream for both healthy and sarcoid equine skin. The distribution of acyclovir between different layers of both skin types was also evaluated. While acyclovir penetrated through both skin types, significantly less acyclovir permeated to the deep dermis of sarcoid skin (197.62ng/mm(3)) compared to normal skin (459.41ng/mm(3)). Within sarcoid skin samples, significantly higher acyclovir concentrations were found in the epidermis (983.59ng/mm(3)) compared to the superficial dermis (450.02ng/mm(3)) and the deep dermis. At each sample point, significantly more acyclovir permeated to the receptor fluid through normal skin compared to sarcoid skin, which is reflected in the significantly higher permeation parameters of normal skin. Normal skin was found to be more permissive for acyclovir, but even in sarcoid skin, enough acyclovir reached the deep dermis to treat a Herpes simplex virus infection. In the case of equine sarcoids, the treatment is aimed at the Bovine papillomavirus and no information is available on the susceptibility of the DNA polymerase of this virus for acyclovir. Therefore, further research is needed to determine the efficacy of acyclovir to treat equine sarcoids. PMID:27234546

  16. Mitoprotective dietary approaches for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: Caloric restriction, fasting, and ketogenic diets.

    PubMed

    Craig, Courtney

    2015-11-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome is an idiopathic illness characterized by debilitating fatigue and neuro-immune abnormalities. A growing body of evidence proposes mitochondrial dysfunction as a central perpetrator of the illness due to activation of immune-inflammatory pathways that burden the mitochondria. Under a model of mitochondrial dysfunction, this paper explores dietary strategies that are mitoprotective. Studied for decades, the cellular mechanisms of ketogenic diets, fasting, and caloric restriction now reveal mitochondria-specific mechanisms which could play a role in symptom reduction in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. Future research should examine the physiological effects of these dietary strategies in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

  17. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions. PMID:19945636

  18. Adverse effects of equine rabies immune gobulin.

    PubMed

    Wilde, H; Chomchey, P; Prakongsri, S; Puyaratabandhu, P; Chutivongse, S

    1989-02-01

    Following a recently published prospective study of 485 recipients of equine rabies immune globulin (ERIG) manufactured by Pasteur Vaccins (Paris), this paper reports a study of 323 postexposure rabies patients receiving ERIG manufactured by the Swiss Vaccine and Serum Institute (Berna). It is concluded that there may be significant differences in adverse reaction rates, reflecting differing manufacturing or purification processes and protein content. Further studies of different ERIG products and of different lots of the same product are needed while ERIG remains an essential component of postexposure rabies treatment in developing countries.

  19. Current economic trends in equine practice.

    PubMed

    Clark, Andrew R

    2009-12-01

    Current economic trends in equine practice are trends of weakness. Most practices, after a decade of double-digit growth, have migrated to survival mode within a few months. Understanding that all regions and disciplines are affected differently, using the Porter five forces model, we can identify changes that must be made in our business models first to survive and then to position ourselves to prosper when the recession ends. If we are to avoid long-term damage to our practices, we must use cost control and work efficiency in addition to price concessions.

  20. Kinesio Taping Fundamentals for the Equine Athlete.

    PubMed

    Molle, Sybille

    2016-04-01

    The Kinesio taping method was developed in Japan for use in humans in 1979. The use of complementary therapies is becoming common in equine athletes and the discovery of Kinesio taping potential brought it into the animal world. Kinesio taping can be used to treat a wide range of clinical conditions, from tendon injuries to neurologic disorders and from muscle contractures to postural insufficiencies. Its use in veterinary medicine is promising, but relies heavily on evidence-based clinical reports. Further scientific research is needed to fully understand the real effectiveness of application. PMID:26898963

  1. Equine rehabilitation therapy for joint disease.

    PubMed

    Porter, Mimi

    2005-12-01

    The principles of physical rehabilitation therapy can be applied to the horse to provide a reduction in discomfort and dysfunction associated with the various forms of joint disease. Physical agents,such as ice, heat, electricity, sound, light, magnetic fields, compression, and movement, can be used by the rehabilitation therapist to attempt to control pain, reduce swelling, and restore optimal movement and function in the affected joint. The equine therapist's attention is focused not only on the affected joint but on the body as a whole to manage secondary or compensatory problems.

  2. Varicella-zoster virus encephalomyelitis with a prominent demyelinating component.

    PubMed

    Berth, Sarah; Carbunar, Olimpia; Yang, Ning Sarah; Fredericks, Brian; Lipton, Howard L; Valyi-Nagy, Tibor

    2015-12-01

    The histopathologic presentation of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection of the central nervous system is varied and is not well understood. Here we report a case of VZV encephalomyelitis with prominent demyelinating pathology in a patient with a history of follicular lymphoma treated with allogeneic stem cell transplantation. The patient presented with waxing and waning bilateral limb weakness and mental status changes. MRI showed leptomeningeal, peripheral spinal cord and periventricular cerebral white matter lesions in the brain, and polymerase chain reaction on cerebrospinal fluid detected VZV DNA. The patient expired from developing atrial fibrillation that rapidly progressed to ventricular fibrillation 10 days after admission to our hospital. Autopsy revealed macrophage-rich areas of demyelination in the spinal cord and cerebrum with relative preservation of axons associated with inclusion bodies and positive immunostaining for VZV. This case represents a rare example of VZV encephalomyelitis presenting with a predominantly demyelinating, "multiple sclerosis-like" pathology. The clinical and histopathologic findings and relevant literature are presented and discussed.

  3. Enlargement of cerebral ventricles as an early indicator of encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Lepore, Stefano; Waiczies, Helmar; Hentschel, Jan; Ji, Yiyi; Skodowski, Julia; Pohlmann, Andreas; Millward, Jason M; Paul, Friedemann; Wuerfel, Jens; Niendorf, Thoralf; Waiczies, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system such as multiple sclerosis and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis involve an invasion of immune cells that ultimately leads to white matter demyelination, neurodegeneration and development of neurological symptoms. A clinical diagnosis is often made when neurodegenerative processes are already ongoing. In an attempt to seek early indicators of disease, we studied the temporal and spatial distribution of brain modifications in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In a thorough magnetic resonance imaging study performed with EAE mice, we observed significant enlargement of the ventricles prior to disease clinical manifestation and an increase in free water content within the cerebrospinal fluid as demonstrated by changes in T2 relaxation times. The increase in ventricle size was seen in the lateral, third and fourth ventricles. In some EAE mice the ventricle size started returning to normal values during disease remission. In parallel to this macroscopic phenomenon, we studied the temporal evolution of microscopic lesions commonly observed in the cerebellum also starting prior to disease onset. Our data suggest that changes in ventricle size during the early stages of brain inflammation could be an early indicator of the events preceding neurological disease and warrant further exploration in preclinical and clinical studies. PMID:23991157

  4. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports.

  5. Update on viral diseases of the equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Gilkerson, James R; Bailey, Kirsten E; Diaz-Méndez, Andrés; Hartley, Carol A

    2015-04-01

    Many viral agents have been associated with respiratory disease of the horse. The most important viral causes of respiratory disease in horses are equine influenza and the equine alphaherpesviruses. Agents such as equine viral arteritis virus, African horse sickness virus, and Hendra virus establish systemic infections. Clinical signs of disease resulting from infection with these agents can manifest as respiratory disease, but the respiratory tract is not the major body system affected by these viruses. Treatment of viral respiratory disease is generally limited to supportive therapies, whereas targeted antimicrobial therapy is effective in cases of bacterial infection.

  6. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C.

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports. PMID:27420100

  7. A Review of Evidence that Equine Influenza Viruses Are Zoonotic.

    PubMed

    Xie, Tai; Anderson, Benjamin D; Daramragchaa, Ulziimaa; Chuluunbaatar, Maitsetset; Gray, Gregory C

    2016-01-01

    Among scientists, there exist mixed opinions whether equine influenza viruses infect man. In this report, we summarize a 2016 systematic and comprehensive review of the English, Chinese, and Mongolian scientific literature regarding evidence for equine influenza virus infections in man. Searches of PubMed, Web of Knowledge, ProQuest, CNKI, Chongqing VIP Database, Wanfang Data and MongolMed yielded 2831 articles, of which 16 met the inclusion criteria for this review. Considering these 16 publications, there was considerable experimental and observational evidence that at least H3N8 equine influenza viruses have occasionally infected man. In this review we summarize the most salient scientific reports. PMID:27420100

  8. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles. PMID:27108172

  9. Genetic variability of the equine casein genes.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, J; Jagannathan, V; Drögemüller, C; Rieder, S; Leeb, T; Thaller, G; Tetens, J

    2016-07-01

    The casein genes are known to be highly variable in typical dairy species, such as cattle and goat, but the knowledge about equine casein genes is limited. Nevertheless, mare milk production and consumption is gaining importance because of its high nutritive value, use in naturopathy, and hypoallergenic properties with respect to cow milk protein allergies. In the current study, the open reading frames of the 4 casein genes CSN1S1 (αS1-casein), CSN2 (β-casein), CSN1S2 (αS2-casein), and CSN3 (κ-casein) were resequenced in 253 horses of 14 breeds. The analysis revealed 21 nonsynonymous nucleotide exchanges, as well as 11 synonymous nucleotide exchanges, leading to a total of 31 putative protein isoforms predicted at the DNA level, 26 of which considered novel. Although the majority of the alleles need to be confirmed at the transcript and protein level, a preliminary nomenclature was established for the equine casein alleles.

  10. Computed tomographic anatomy of the equine tarsus.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Julia E; Redding, W Rich; Berry, Clifford; Smallwood, James E

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a detailed computed tomographic (CT) anatomic reference for the equine tarsus. CT examinations of the tarsal regions from four clinically and radiographically normal adult horses, which were euthanized for reasons not related to musculoskeletal disease, were included in the study. Limbs were removed at the level of midtibia, and 3-mm contiguous transverse CT images were obtained, starting at a level proximal to the tuber calcanei and continuing distally into the proximal metatarsus. Soft tissue and bone windows were used to image different anatomic features, including bones, joints, and various soft tissue components of the tarsus. Each transverse slice was compared with bone models and dissected specimens to assist in the accurate identification of specific structures. The results of the study consist of nine CT images of the equine tarsus. Each image incorporates labeled soft tissue and bone-window images, a directional compass indicating cranial (Cr) or dorsal (D) and lateral (L), and a reconstructed scout image indicating the level through which the transverse slice was made. PMID:12718352

  11. Structural insight into equine lentivirus receptor 1.

    PubMed

    Qian, Lei; Han, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-05-01

    Equine lentivirus receptor 1 (ELR1) has been identified as a functional cellular receptor for equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). Herein, recombinant ELR1 and EIAV surface glycoprotein gp90 were respectively expressed in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells, and purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and gel filtration chromatography. Gel filtration chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation (AUC) analyses indicated that both ELR1 and gp90 existed as individual monomers in solution and formed a complex with a stoichiometry of 1:1 when mixed. The structure of ELR1 was first determined with the molecular replacement method, which belongs to the space group P42 21 2 with one molecule in an asymmetric unit. It contains eight antiparallel β-sheets, of which four are in cysteine rich domain 1 (CRD1) and two are in CRD2 and CRD3, respectively. Alignment of ELR1 with HVEM and CD134 indicated that Tyr61, Leu70, and Gly72 in CRD1 of ELR1 are important residues for binding to gp90. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments further confirmed that Leu70 and Gly72 are the critical residues.

  12. Anesthesia of the critically ill equine patient.

    PubMed

    Cornick-Seahorn, Janyce

    2004-04-01

    There is a plethora of information regarding anesthetic management of horses; however, controlled studies of the critically ill equine patient are few. These patients should be managed like any equine anesthetic candidate but much more stringently:I. Preoperative evaluation and appropriate therapy may represent the difference between life and death during the intraoperative and recovery periods. 2. The anesthetic induction and maintenance protocol should be based on the individual situation of the veterinary facility and personnel("comfort zone"). 3. Appropriate monitoring and intraoperative supportive measures are essential. 4. The anesthetic period is a significant perturbation to homeostasis. Even if the horse seems to have done well (ie, as indicated by the cardiopulmonary values), a problem-free anesthetic period does not guarantee a successful recovery, and close monitoring should continue until the horse is ambulatory. 5. Critically ill patients are often in a negative energy balance. Supportive measures to ensure an adequate caloric intake, such as enteral or parenteral nutrition, facilitate healing and return of homeostasis.

  13. Whooping crane titers to eastern equine encephalitis vaccinations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olsen, G.H.; Kolski, E.; Hatfield, J.S.; Docherty, D.E.; Chavez-Ramirez, Felipe

    2005-01-01

    In 1984 an epizootic of eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) virus killed 7 of 39 (18%) whooping cranes in captivity at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center in Laurel, Maryland, USA. Since that time whooping cranes have been vaccinated with a human EEE vaccine. This vaccine was unavailable for several years, necessitating use of an equine vaccine in the cranes. This study compared the antibody titers measured for three years using the human vaccine with those measured for two years using the equine form. Whooping cranes developed similarly elevated titers in one year using the human vaccine and both years using the equine vaccine. However, in two years where the human vaccine was used, the whooping cranes developed significantly lower titers compared to other years.

  14. Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Baier, Margaret E Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of children who participated in a non-equine intervention (N = 8). Parents noted significant improvements in their child's physical, emotional and social functioning following the first 6 weeks of EAA. The children participating in the non-equine program also demonstrated improvement in behavior, but to a lesser degree. The favorable outcome of this study lends support for continuation of programs utilizing EAA in the treatment of children with ASD. PMID:24526337

  15. Complete genome sequence of equine herpesvirus type 9.

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Souichi

    2012-12-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 9 (EHV-9), which we isolated from a case of epizootic encephalitis in a herd of Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in 1993, has been known to cause fatal encephalitis in Thomson's gazelle, giraffe, and polar bear in natural infections. Our previous report indicated that EHV-9 was similar to the equine pathogen equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), which mainly causes abortion, respiratory infection, and equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy. We determined the genome sequence of EHV-9. The genome has a length of 148,371 bp and all 80 of the open reading frames (ORFs) found in the genome of EHV-1. The nucleotide sequences of the ORFs in EHV-9 were 86 to 95% identical to those in EHV-1. The whole genome sequence should help to reveal the neuropathogenicity of EHV-9. PMID:23166237

  16. Effects of equine assisted activities on autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Lanning, Beth A; Baier, Margaret E Matyastik; Ivey-Hatz, Julie; Krenek, Nancy; Tubbs, Jack D

    2014-08-01

    Quality of life assessments were used in this study to determine the behavioral changes of children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in equine assisted activities. Behavioral changes of children with ASD participating in 9 weeks of equines assisted activities (EAA) (N = 10) were compared to behavioral changes of children who participated in a non-equine intervention (N = 8). Parents noted significant improvements in their child's physical, emotional and social functioning following the first 6 weeks of EAA. The children participating in the non-equine program also demonstrated improvement in behavior, but to a lesser degree. The favorable outcome of this study lends support for continuation of programs utilizing EAA in the treatment of children with ASD.

  17. Equine wellness care in ambulatory practice.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Claudia; True, Claudia

    2012-04-01

    Clients want dependable veterinary care and to understand how the services will benefit and meet their horse’s needs. Wellness visits provide ambulatory practitioners with great opportunities to strengthen the doctor-client-patient bond; effective communication with clients during wellness visits, where new literature or facts can be presented, can offer opportunities for demonstrating the value of having the veterinarian maintain a primary role in disease control. The criteria for selecting vaccines, interpreting FECs, and diagnosing dental pathology require the continued need for veterinary involvement. When providing wellness services, veterinarians should discuss those services, the reasons for them, as well as the possibility of adverse reactions. In so doing, the veterinarian is able to clearly distinguish himself or herself from a technician who is merely giving a "shot." Although some of these services can be performed by clients and lay professionals, the knowledge and training that veterinarians bring to these tasks add benefits to the horse beyond the services provided. For example, by targeting treatment and conveying the goals and limitations of FECs and deworming to clients, the speed at which anthelmintic resistance occurs will be diminished, and veterinarians will regain control over equine parasite management. Additional client education, such as demonstrating dental pathology to clients and how veterinary treatment benefits their horse, will not only improve the health of the horse further but also solidify the veterinarian’s role in preventative medicine. While all components of a wellness program were not detailed here, services such as nutritional consultation, blood work, and lameness evaluation should be offered based on the practice’s equine population. With the increasing population of geriatric horses, dentistry, nutrition, blood work, and lameness should be assessed annually or biannually. Each practice has its own set of criteria

  18. Methocarbamol suspension for the treatment of rhabdomyolysis in equines.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, Bobby N

    2013-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis in equines occurs in horses due to physical overexertion or underlying pathologic myopathy. Methocarbamol is a muscle relaxant that can be used in equines to treat symptoms associated with Rhabdomyolysis. Methocarbamol is available as a solution for injection but is not commercially available as an oral suspension. This article focuses on the treatment of Tying-up caused by overexertion, and details the treatment of Rhabdomyolysis with an oral suspension that was prepared for a veterinarian by a compounding pharmacist. PMID:24459784

  19. PRESENCE OF RESPIRATORY VIRUSES IN EQUINES IN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Mancini, Dalva Assunção Portari; Pereira, Aparecida Santo Pietro; Mendonça, Rita Maria Zucatelli; Kawamoto, Adelia Hiroko Nagamori; Alves, Rosely Cabette Barbosa; Pinto, José Ricardo; Mori, Enio; Richtzenhain, Leonardo José; Mancini-Filho, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Equines are susceptible to respiratory viruses such as influenza and parainfluenza. Respiratory diseases have adversely impacted economies all over the world. This study was intended to determine the presence of influenza and parainfluenza viruses in unvaccinated horses from some regions of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Blood serum collected from 72 equines of different towns in this state was tested by hemagglutination inhibition test to detect antibodies for both viruses using the corresponding antigens. About 98.6% (71) and 97.2% (70) of the equines responded with antibody protective titers (≥ 80 HIU/25µL) H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses, respectively. All horses (72) also responded with protective titers (≥ 80) HIU/25µL against the parainfluenza virus. The difference between mean antibody titers to H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A viruses was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). The mean titers for influenza and parainfluenza viruses, on the other hand, showed a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001). These results indicate a better antibody response from equines to parainfluenza 3 virus than to the equine influenza viruses. No statistically significant differences in the responses against H7N7 and H3N8 subtypes of influenza A and parainfluenza 3 viruses were observed according to the gender (female, male) or the age (≤ 2 to 20 years-old) groups. This study provides evidence of the concomitant presence of two subtypes of the equine influenza A (H7N7 and H3N8) viruses and the parainfluenza 3 virus in equines in Brazil. Thus, it is advisable to vaccinate equines against these respiratory viruses. PMID:24878995

  20. Principles and Application of Hydrotherapy for Equine Athletes.

    PubMed

    King, Melissa R

    2016-04-01

    Hydrotherapy has become a key element within equine rehabilitation protocols and is used to address range of motion, proprioception, strength, neuromotor control, pain, and inflammation. Various forms of hydrotherapy can be tailored to the individual's injury and the expected return to athletic performance. This article describes the mechanisms of action of hydrotherapies and potential use in the clinical management of equine musculoskeletal injuries. PMID:26898962

  1. Physio-chemical and morphological characteristics of avian encephalomyelitis virus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gosting, L.H.; Grinnell, B.W.; Matsumoto, M.

    1980-01-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) was purified from infected chick embryos by a gradient centrifugation in cesium chloride. The virus had a buoyant density of 1.31 to 1.32 g/ml and a sedimentation coefficient of 148 S. The purified AEV was resistant to treatments with chloroform, acid pH or trypsin. The presence of Mg++ stabilized the virus against heat inactivation (56°C, 1 h). Electron microscopic study showed the virus to be 24 to 32 nm in diameter. The surface structure of the purified virus was not easily discernable. Nevertheless, with uranyl acetate-stained particles, Markham's rotation technique revealed that AEV has five-fold symmetry with 32 or 42 capsomers. Exact classification of AEV awaits characterization of the viral nucleic acid.

  2. A rationally designed CD4 analogue inhibits experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jameson, Bradford A.; McDonnell, James M.; Marini, Joseph C.; Korngold, Robert

    1994-04-01

    EXPERIMENTAL allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an acute inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that can be elicited in rodents and is the major animal model for the study of multiple sclerosis (MS)1,2. The pathogenesis of both EAE and MS directly involves the CD4+ helper T-cell subset3-5. Anti-CD4 monoclonal antibodies inhibit the development of EAE in rodents6-9, and are currently being used in human clinical trials for MS. We report here that similar therapeutic effects can be achieved in mice using a small (rationally designed) synthetic analogue of the CD4 protein surface. It greatly inhibits both clinical incidence and severity of EAE with a single injection, but does so without depletion of the CD4+ subset and without the inherent immunogenicity of an antibody. Furthermore, this analogue is capable of exerting its effects on disease even after the onset of symptoms.

  3. Chronic fatigue syndrome versus sudden onset myalgic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Jason, Leonard A; Evans, Meredyth; Brown, Abigail; Sunnquist, Madison; Newton, Julia L

    2015-01-01

    A revised sudden onset case definition for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) has been developed (Jason, Damrongvachiraphan, et al., 2012 ) based on past case definitions. In a prior study, Jason, Brown, and colleagues ( 2012 ) compared patients recruited using the 1994 case definition of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) to contrast those meeting criteria for the revised ME criteria. They found that this revised ME case definition identified patients with more functional impairments and physical, mental, and cognitive problems than those meeting the CFS criteria. The study by Jason, Brown, et al. ( 2012 ) only selected individuals who first met the CFS criteria, and it only relied on one Chicago-based data set. The current study replicated this comparison with two distinct data sets with different case ascertainment methods. Results indicate that the ME criteria identified a group of patients with more functional disabilities as well as more severe post-exertional malaise symptoms.

  4. Equine Arteritis Virus Uses Equine CXCL16 as an Entry Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Chelvarajan, Lakshman; Cook, Frank; Artiushin, Sergey; Mondal, Shankar; Anderson, Kelsi; Eberth, John; Timoney, Peter J.; Kalbfleisch, Theodore S.; Bailey, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Previous studies in our laboratory have identified equine CXCL16 (EqCXCL16) to be a candidate molecule and possible cell entry receptor for equine arteritis virus (EAV). In horses, the CXCL16 gene is located on equine chromosome 11 (ECA11) and encodes a glycosylated, type I transmembrane protein with 247 amino acids. Stable transfection of HEK-293T cells with plasmid DNA carrying EqCXCL16 (HEK-EqCXCL16 cells) increased the proportion of the cell population permissive to EAV infection from <3% to almost 100%. The increase in permissiveness was blocked either by transfection of HEK-EqCXCL16 cells with small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) directed against EqCXCL16 or by pretreatment with guinea pig polyclonal antibody against EqCXCL16 protein (Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb). Furthermore, using a virus overlay protein-binding assay (VOPBA) in combination with far-Western blotting, gradient-purified EAV particles were shown to bind directly to the EqCXCL16 protein in vitro. The binding of biotinylated virulent EAV strain Bucyrus at 4°C was significantly higher in HEK-EqCXCL16 cells than nontransfected HEK-293T cells. Finally, the results demonstrated that EAV preferentially infects subpopulations of horse CD14+ monocytes expressing EqCXCL16 and that infection of these cells is significantly reduced by pretreatment with Gp anti-EqCXCL16 pAb. The collective data from this study provide confirmatory evidence that the transmembrane form of EqCXCL16 likely plays a major role in EAV host cell entry processes, possibly acting as a primary receptor molecule for this virus. IMPORTANCE Outbreaks of EVA can be a source of significant economic loss for the equine industry from high rates of abortion in pregnant mares, death in young foals, establishment of the carrier state in stallions, and trade restrictions imposed by various countries. Similar to other arteriviruses, EAV primarily targets cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, which, when infected, are believed to play a

  5. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis: Updates on an inflammatory CNS syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Daniela; Alper, Gulay; Van Haren, Keith; Kornberg, Andrew J; Lucchinetti, Claudia F; Tenembaum, Silvia; Belman, Anita L

    2016-08-30

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an immune-mediated demyelinating CNS disorder with predilection to early childhood. ADEM is generally considered a monophasic disease. However, recurrent ADEM has been described and defined as multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis. ADEM often occurs postinfectiously, although a causal relationship has never been established. ADEM and multiple sclerosis are currently viewed as distinct entities, generally distinguishable even at disease onset. However, pathologic studies have demonstrated transitional cases of yet unclear significance. ADEM is clinically defined by acute polyfocal neurologic deficits including encephalopathy. MRI typically demonstrates reversible, ill-defined white matter lesions of the brain and often also the spinal cord, along with frequent involvement of thalami and basal ganglia. CSF analysis may reveal a mild pleocytosis and elevated protein, but is generally negative for intrathecal oligoclonal immunoglobulin G synthesis. In the absence of a specific diagnostic test, ADEM is considered a diagnosis of exclusion, and ADEM mimics, especially those requiring a different treatment approach, have to be carefully ruled out. The role of biomarkers, including autoantibodies like anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, in the pathogenesis and diagnosis of ADEM is currently under debate. Based on the presumed autoimmune etiology of ADEM, the current treatment approach consists of early immunotherapy. Outcome of ADEM in pediatric patients is generally favorable, but cognitive deficits have been reported even in the absence of other neurologic sequelae. This review summarizes the current knowledge on epidemiology, pathology, clinical presentation, neuroimaging features, CSF findings, differential diagnosis, therapy, and outcome, with a focus on recent advances and controversies. PMID:27572859

  6. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a ‘notifiable’ disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication. PMID:26457190

  7. [Infection control and hygiene management in equine hospitals].

    PubMed

    Walther, Birgit; Janssen, Traute; Gehlen, Heidrun; Vincze, Szilvia; Borchers, Kerstin; Wieler, Lothar H; Barton, Ann Kristin; Lübke-Becker, Antina

    2014-01-01

    With the rising importance of nosocomial infections in equine hospitals, increased efforts with regard to biosecurity and infection control are necessary. This even more since nosocomial infections are often associated with multi-drug resistant pathogens. Consequently, the implementation of targeted prevention programs is essential. Since nosocomial infections are usually multifactorial events, realization of only a single measure is rarely effective to overcome nosocomial spread in clinical practice. Equine patients may be colonized at admission with multi-drug resistant pathogens such as methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and/or extended spectrum beta lactamase-producing (ESBL-) Enterobacteriaceae. Regardless of their individual resistance properties, these bacteria are common and usually unnoticed colonizers of either the nasopharynx or the intestinal tract. Also viral diseases caused by equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) and EHV-4 may reach a clinic by patients which are latently infected or in the incubation period. To prevent nosocomal outbreaks, achieve an interruption in the infection chain and to eradicate infectious agents from the hospital environment, a professional hospital management is necessary. This should be adapted to both the wide range of pathogens causing nosocomial infections and the individual needs of equine patients. Amongst others, this approach includes a risk classification of equine patients at admission and information/enlightenment of the animal owners at discharge. An efficient management of inpatients, a targeted hygiene management and clear responsibilities with respect to biosecurity together with a surveillance of nosocomial infections form the cornerstone of infection control in equine hospitals.

  8. Incidence of Burkholderia mallei infection among indigenous equines in India.

    PubMed

    Malik, Praveen; Singha, Harisankar; Goyal, Sachin K; Khurana, Sandip K; Tripathi, Badri Naryan; Dutt, Abha; Singh, Dabal; Sharma, Neeraj; Jain, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei is the causative agent of glanders which is a highly contagious and fatal disease of equines. Considering the nature and severity of the disease in equines, and potential of transmission to human beings, glanders is recognised as a 'notifiable' disease in many countries. An increasing number of glanders outbreaks throughout the Asian continents, including India, have been noticed recently. In view of the recent re-emergence of the disease, the present study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of glanders among indigenous equines from different parts of India. Serum samples were analysed by complement fixation test (CFT) and ELISA for the detection of B mallei specific antibodies. A total of 7794 equines, which included 4720 horses, 1881 donkeys and 1193 mules were sampled from April 2011 to December 2014 from 10 states of India. Serologically, 36 equines (pony=7, mules=10, horses=19) were found to be positive for glanders by CFT and indirect-ELISA. The highest number of cases were detected in Uttar Pradesh (n=31) followed by Himachal Pradesh (n=4) and Chhattisgarh (n=1). Isolation of B mallei was attempted from nasal and abscess swabs collected from seropositive equines. Four isolates of B mallei were cultured from nasal swabs of two mules and two ponies. Identity of the isolates was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of fliP gene fragment. The study revealed circulation of B mallei in northern India and the need for continued surveillance to support the eradication.

  9. Sensory receptors in the equine foot.

    PubMed

    Bowker, R M; Brewer, A M; Vex, K B; Guida, L A; Linder, K E; Sonea, I M; Stinson, A W

    1993-11-01

    Two types of sensory receptors were located in the equine foot, using anatomic techniques. Histologic examination of stained hoof sections revealed lamellated corpuscles in the hoof dermis, which had many of the morphologic characteristics of Pacinian corpuscles. These sensory receptors were restricted to the palmar (caudal) aspects of the solar dermis of the heel. A second type of receptor was detected by use of immunocytochemistry, indicating apparently naked nerve endings containing the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide-like immunoreactivity in skin, solar dermal tubules, and the digital cushion. This peptide is an example of a sensory neurotransmitter contained in dorsal root ganglion cells and is believed to exist only in unmyelinated sensory nerve fibers. These 2 morphologic structures may be used for detection of sensory stimuli, such as pressure (or vibratory senses) and pain, respectively, in horses during various locomotory gaits.

  10. Costs Associated with Equine Breeding in Kentucky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Cassandra L.

    There were approximately 9 million horses in the United States having a 102 billion impact on the U.S. economy (AHC, 2005). Over 1 million of those horses were involved in the breeding sector. In Kentucky, nearly 18% of the horse population have been involved in breeding. Managing an equine enterprise can be difficult, particularly given that many who undertake such endeavors do not have a background or education in business management. Kentucky Cooperative Extension has produced interactive spreadsheets to help horse owners better understand the costs associated with owning horses or managing certain equine businesses, including boarding and training operations. However, there has been little support for breeders. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to provide owners with a list of services offered for breeding and the costs associated with those services. Survey questions were created from a list of topics pertinent to equine breeding and from that list of questions, an electronic survey was created. The survey was sent via Qualtrics Survey Software to collect information on stallion and mare management costs as well as expenses related to owning and breeding. Question topics included veterinary and housing costs, management and advertising expenses, and membership fees. A total of 78 farms were selected from the 2013 breeder's listings for the Kentucky Quarter Horse Association (n = 39) and the Kentucky Thoroughbred Farm Managers' Club (n = 26), and other breed association contacts (n = 13). These farms were selected from the lists by outside individuals who were not related to the project. Participants were asked to answer all questions relevant to the farm. After the initial survey distribution, follow-up e-mails and phone calls were conducted in order to answer any questions participants might have had about the survey. Survey response rate was 32.1% (25 of 78 surveys returned). Farms in Kentucky had an average of two farm-owned and two outside

  11. Endemic Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis in Northern Peru

    PubMed Central

    Aguilar, Patricia V.; Greene, Ivorlyne P.; Coffey, Lark L.; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C.; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V.; Turell, Michael J.; O’Guinn, Monica L.; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B.; Watts, Douglas M.; Russell, Kevin L.; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C.; Klein, Terry A.; Dohm, David J.; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P.A.; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar

    2004-01-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin. PMID:15200823

  12. Endemic Venezuelan equine encephalitis in northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Greene, Ivorlyne P; Coffey, Lark L; Medina, Gladys; Moncayo, Abelardo C; Anishchenko, Michael; Ludwig, George V; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Lee, John; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Russell, Kevin L; Hice, Christine; Yanoviak, Stephen; Morrison, Amy C; Klein, Terry A; Dohm, David J; Guzman, Hilda; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P A; Guevara, Carolina; Kochel, Tadeusz; Olson, James; Cabezas, Cesar; Weaver, Scott C

    2004-05-01

    Since Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) was isolated in Peru in 1942, >70 isolates have been obtained from mosquitoes, humans, and sylvatic mammals primarily in the Amazon region. To investigate genetic relationships among the Peru VEEV isolates and between the Peru isolates and other VEEV strains, a fragment of the PE2 gene was amplified and analyzed by single-stranded conformation polymorphism. Representatives of seven genotypes underwent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The results identified four VEE complex lineages that cocirculate in the Amazon region: subtypes ID (Panama and Colombia/Venezuela genotypes), IIIC, and a new, proposed subtype IIID, which was isolated from a febrile human, mosquitoes, and spiny rats. Both ID lineages and the IIID subtype are associated with febrile human illness. Most of the subtype ID isolates belonged to the Panama genotype, but the Colombia/Venezuela genotype, which is phylogenetically related to epizootic strains, also continues to circulate in the Amazon basin.

  13. Musculoskeletal scintigraphy of the equine athlete.

    PubMed

    Dyson, Sue

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear scintigraphic examination of equine athletes has a potentially important role in the diagnosis of lameness or poor performance, but increased radiopharmaceutical uptake (IRU) is not necessarily synonymous with pain causing lameness. Nuclear scintigraphy is highly sensitive to changes in bone turnover that may be induced by loading and knowledge of normal patterns of RU is crucial for accurate diagnosis. Blood pool images can be useful for identification of some soft tissue injuries, although acute bone injuries may also have intense IRU in blood pool images. Some muscle injuries may be associated with IRU in bone phase images. The use of scintigraphy together with other diagnostic imaging modalities has helped us to better understand the mechanisms of some musculoskeletal injuries. In immature racehorses, stress-related bone injury is a common finding and may be multifocal, whereas in mature sport horses, a very different spectrum of injuries may be identified. False-negative results are common with some injuries.

  14. Transport of equine ovaries for assisted reproduction.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, B I; Love, L B; Choi, Y H; Hinrichs, K

    2008-10-01

    Use of assisted reproduction to obtain foals from valuable mares post-mortem typically necessitates holding of ovaries during shipment to a laboratory. The present study evaluated whether holding ovaries briefly at a warm ( approximately 30 degrees C) temperature improves meiotic and developmental competence of oocytes, as determined after maturation in vitro and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Ovaries were packaged in pairs in insulated containers, and held either at 24 or 25-35 degrees C for 4h, followed by cooling. Ovaries in both treatments were held for either a short (mean, 7-7.4h) or long (mean, 20.6-20.7h) duration before oocyte recovery. Control ovaries were collected en masse at the abattoir. The ovary temperature in this treatment slowly decreased to approximately 27 degrees C; oocyte recovery was performed after 3.5-7h total holding. There was no effect of temperature on oocyte meiotic or developmental competence within either treatment time period. Oocytes in the short duration holding group had similar meiotic competence to controls, but had a significantly decreased rate (P<0.05) of blastocyst development. Oocytes in the long duration holding group had decreased (P<0.05) meiotic competence and blastocyst development compared to controls. These findings indicate that storage of equine ovaries for only 7h may decrease blastocyst development, and that longer storage reduces both rate of oocyte maturation and blastocyst development. Further work is needed to determine if there is a critical time before 7h post-mortem by which equine oocytes should be recovered to maximize developmental competence. PMID:17888596

  15. Equine Tetherin Blocks Retrovirus Release and Its Activity Is Antagonized by Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Envelope Protein

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Xin; Hu, Zhe; Gu, Qinyong; Wu, Xingliang; Zheng, Yong-Hui; Wei, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Human tetherin is a host restriction factor that inhibits replication of enveloped viruses by blocking viral release. Tetherin has an unusual topology that includes an N-terminal cytoplasmic tail, a single transmembrane domain, an extracellular domain, and a C-terminal glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor. Tetherin is not well conserved across species, so it inhibits viral replication in a species-specific manner. Thus, studies of tetherin activities from different species provide an important tool for understanding its antiviral mechanism. Here, we report cloning of equine tetherin and characterization of its antiviral activity. Equine tetherin shares 53%, 40%, 36%, and 34% amino acid sequence identity with feline, human, simian, and murine tetherins, respectively. Like the feline tetherin, equine tetherin has a shorter N-terminal domain than human tetherin. Equine tetherin is localized on the cell surface and strongly blocks human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), and equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) release from virus-producing cells. The antiviral activity of equine tetherin is neutralized by EIAV envelope protein, but not by the HIV-1 accessory protein Vpu, which is a human tetherin antagonist, and EIAV envelope protein does not counteract human tetherin. These results shed new light on our understanding of the species-specific tetherin antiviral mechanism. PMID:24227834

  16. Diagnosis of equine influenza by the polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Donofrio, J C; Coonrod, J D; Chambers, T M

    1994-01-01

    Influenza A is a common respiratory infection of horses, and rapid diagnosis is important for its detection and control. Sensitive detection of influenza currently requires viral culture and is not always feasible. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to detect DNA produced by reverse transcription of equine influenza in stored nasal secretions, vaccines, and allantoic fluids. Primers directed at a target of 212 bp on conserved segment 7 (matrix gene) of human influenza A/Bangkok/1/79(H3N2) produced amplification products of appropriate size with influenza A/Equine/Prague/1/56 (H7N7), A/Equine/Miami/63 (H3N8), A/Equine/Kentucky/79 (H3N8), and A/Equine/Kentucky/2/91 (H3N8) in infected frozen allantoic fluids and in frozen extracts of nasal swabs of 2 horses with naturally acquired influenza. The products bound a 32P-labeled hybridization probe to an inner region of the target. Control samples, including nasal secretions from a horse infected with herpesvirus, were negative. In a prospective study, 2 ponies inhaled aerosols of influenza A/Equine/Kentucky/2/91 (H3N8), and thereafter supernatants of nasal swabs in transport medium were obtained daily for 10 days for culture and PCR. Amplification products were evaluated by size and binding of a 32P-labeled probe and also by dot-blotting and binding of a biotin-labeled probe. Culture detected influenza more consistently than did PCR in the first 2 days of infection, but PCR detected virus more often later in infection. Gels were the most sensitive, but radiometric and biotin-labeled probes gave specific results and were consistently positive from days 3-6. PCR is suitable for detection of equine influenza in clinical samples. PMID:8011780

  17. Equine herpesvirus type 1 modulates inflammatory host immune response genes in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Stephanie; Barsova, Jekaterina; Campos, Isabel; Frampton, Arthur R

    2016-08-30

    Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a disease caused by equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1), is characterized by severe inflammation, thrombosis, and hypoxia in central nervous system (CNS) endothelial cells, which can result in a spectrum of clinical signs including urinary incontinence, ataxia, and paralysis. Strains of EHV-1 that contain a single point mutation within the viral DNA polymerase (nucleotide A2254>G2254: amino acid N752→D752) are isolated from EHM afflicted horses at higher frequencies than EHV-1 strains that do not harbor this mutation. Due to the correlation between the DNA Pol mutation and EHM disease, EHV-1 strains that contain the mutation have been designated as neurologic. In this study, we measured virus replication, cell to cell spread efficacy, and host inflammatory responses in equine endothelial cells infected with 12 different strains of EHV-1. Two strains, T953 (Ohio 2003) (neurologic) and Kentucky A (KyA) (non-neurologic), have well described disease phenotypes while the remaining strains used in this study are classified as neurologic or non-neurologic based solely on the presence or absence of the DNA pol mutation, respectively. Results show that the neurologic strains do not replicate better or spread more efficiently in endothelial cells. Also, the majority of the host inflammatory genes were modulated similarly regardless of EHV-1 genotype. Analyses of host gene expression showed that a subset of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including the CXCR3 ligands CXCL9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, as well as CCL5, IL-6 and TNF-α were consistently up-regulated in endothelial cells infected with each EHV-1 strain. The identification of specific pro-inflammatory cytokines in endothelial cells that are modulated by EHV-1 provides further insight into the factors that contribute to the immunopathology observed after infection and may also reveal new targets for disease intervention. PMID:27527764

  18. ASPEN+ and economic modeling of equine waste utilization for localized hot water heating via fast pyrolysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ASPEN Plus based simulation models have been developed to design a pyrolysis process for the on-site production and utilization of pyrolysis oil from equine waste at the Equine Rehabilitation Center at Morrisville State College (MSC). The results indicate that utilization of all available Equine Reh...

  19. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution.

    PubMed

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease.

  20. Characterization of equine hyalocytes: their immunohistochemical properties, morphologies and distribution

    PubMed Central

    SANO, Yuto; MATSUDA, Kazuya; OKAMOTO, Minoru; TAKEHANA, Kazushige; HIRAYAMA, Kazuko; TANIYAMA, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    In horse, the characterizations of hyalocytes under the steady state are still unclear. Therefore, we investigated characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes by their immunohistochemical phenotype, histomorphology and distribution. Thirty-one eyes from 18 horses, divided into 4 groups (G) by age, were used: early (G1) and late gestation (G2) fetuses, 1- to 3-year-old (G3) and 8- to 24-year-old (G4) horses. Equine hyalocytes were histologically classified into 4 types, and they immunohistochemically expressed MHC II and CD163. Hyalocytes were detected on and/or around ciliary processes and pars plana in G2, G3 and G4, but were not located on retina and optic papilla. A significant increase in distribution was found between G2 and both G3 and G4, and the largest distribution was found at ciliary processes in these groups. Equine hyalocytes were characterized as residential ocular macrophage and MHC II antigen-bearing cell, accompanied by a pleomorphic appearance and located in the contiguous ciliary body. Our data provided characterizations of hyalocytes in normal equine eyes and may well contribute to improving the understanding of pathogenesis of equine ocular disease. PMID:26888584

  1. Benzimidazole resistance in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Várady, M; Königová, A; Corba, J

    2000-12-20

    The present study included 19 stud farms, including 243 horses, that were investigated for the occurrence of anthelmintic resistant cyathostomes. The number of horses on the farms varied from nine to more than 100, and horses of all ages were included. A minimum of seven horses were used for faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. The anthelmintics included were: fenbendazole (paste formulation), ivermectin (paste formulation) and pyrantel (powder). Resistance to benzimidazoles was detected on 14 farms, with FECR values ranging from 65.1 to 86.3%. Larval cultures after fenbendazole treatment revealed exclusively cyathostome larvae. Ivermectin was tested on eight farms and proved to be effective on all. Pyrantel was tested on two farms and FECR test indicated high efficacy (92-97%). Egg hatch assay (EHA) results showed that mean concentrations of thiabendazole that inhibited hatching in 50% of the eggs (ED(50)) in resistant populations were over 0.1 microg ml(-1). The results of our study suggest widespread resistance to fenbendazole in equine cyathostomes in Slovakia, and possible strategies to delay anthelmintic resistance are discussed briefly.

  2. Outbreaks of equine grass sickness in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, B; Brunthaler, R; Hahn, C; van den Hoven, R

    2012-01-21

    Equine grass sickness (EGS) occurs mainly in Great Britain, but has once been reported in Hungary. The stud which was affected by EGS in 2001 had no new cases until 2009/10, when 11 of 60 and five of 12 one- to three-year-old colts died or were euthanased due to EGS. Following a few hours in the high-risk field during the winter of 2010/11 further four cases of acute EGS were noted among these horses. The affected horses showed somewhat different clinical signs compared with the cases reported in Great Britain. Histopathological findings in these horses were consistent with EGS. In most examined cases carbofuran, a carbamate was found in the liver by toxicological examination, and it is postulated that carbofuran may influence the immune system and therefore predispose the horses to develop EGS. Carbamates are thought to cause a delayed neurotoxicity in human beings. Further studies are needed to clarify the potential role of carbamates in EGS.

  3. Equine model for soft-tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Bellas, Evangelia; Rollins, Amanda; Moreau, Jodie E; Lo, Tim; Quinn, Kyle P; Fourligas, Nicholas; Georgakoudi, Irene; Leisk, Gary G; Mazan, Melissa; Thane, Kristen E; Taeymans, Olivier; Hoffman, A M; Kaplan, D L; Kirker-Head, C A

    2015-08-01

    Soft-tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft-tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft-tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over 6 months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation.

  4. Equine vaccine for West Nile virus.

    PubMed

    Ng, T; Hathaway, D; Jennings, N; Champ, D; Chiang, Y W; Chu, H J

    2003-01-01

    To meet the urgent need of controlling West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the equine population, we have developed a killed WNV vaccine. A dose titration study in horses was first conducted to evaluate serum neutralization antibody responses against WNV in these animals. Horses were vaccinated intramuscularly twice with the test vaccine at low, medium and high dose, three weeks apart. Serum samples were collected periodically and were measured for serum neutralizing antibody using a plaque reduction neutralization test. Significant increases in serum neutralizing antibody were detected in all three dosage groups 14 days post the second vaccination. Twelve months after the second vaccination, horses vaccinated with the medium dose of WNV vaccine and non-vaccinated control horses were experimentally challenged with WNV. Nine out of 11 (81.8%) controls developed viraemia after challenge while only one out of 19 (5.3%) vaccinates had transient viraemia, representing a 94% preventable fraction. In a separate study, the safety of the killed WNV vaccine was demonstrated under field conditions. A total of 648 horses, including 32 pregnant mares, were enrolled in the study. During the two weeks post vaccination period, no local or systemic adverse reactions were observed following 96% of the vaccinations administered while mild, transient injection site reactions were noted in a small number of horses. These results indicate that the killed WNV vaccine developed by Fort Dodge Animal Health is safe and efficacious.

  5. Equine Model for Soft Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, J.E.; Lo, T.; Quinn, K.P.; Fourligas, N.; Georgakoudi, I.; Leisk, G.G.; Mazan, M.; Thane, K.E.; Taeymans, O.; Hoffman, A.M.; Kaplan, D. L.; Kirker-Head, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue regeneration methods currently yield suboptimal clinical outcomes due to loss of tissue volume and a lack of functional tissue regeneration. Grafted tissues and natural biomaterials often degrade or resorb too quickly, while most synthetic materials do not degrade. In previous research we demonstrated that soft tissue regeneration can be supported using silk porous biomaterials for at least 18 months in vivo in a rodent model. In the present study, we scaled the system to a survival study using a large animal model and demonstrated the feasibility of these biomaterials for soft tissue regeneration in adult horses. Both slow and rapidly degrading silk matrices were evaluated in subcutaneous pocket and intramuscular defect depots. We showed that we can effectively employ an equine model over six months to simultaneously evaluate many different implants, reducing the number of animals needed. Furthermore, we were able to tailor matrix degradation by varying the initial format of the implanted silk. Finally, we demonstrate ultrasound imaging of implants to be an effective means for tracking tissue regeneration and implant degradation. PMID:25350377

  6. Histopathological lesions associated with equine periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Cox, Alistair; Dixon, Padraic; Smith, Sionagh

    2012-12-01

    Equine periodontal disease (EPD) is a common and painful condition, the aetiology and pathology of which are poorly understood. To characterise the histopathological lesions associated with EPD, the skulls of 22 horses were assessed grossly for the presence of periodontal disease, and a standard set of interdental tissues taken from each for histopathological examination. Histological features of EPD included ulceration and neutrophilic inflammation of the gingival epithelium. Mononuclear and eosinophilic inflammation of the gingival lamina propria and submucosa was commonly present irrespective of the presence or degree of periodontal disease. Gingival hyperplasia was present to some degree in all horses, and was only weakly associated with the degree of periodontal disease. In all horses dental plaque was present at the majority of sites examined and was often associated with histological evidence of peripheral cemental erosion. Bacteria (including spirochaetes in four horses) were identified in gingival samples by Gram and silver impregnation techniques and were significantly associated with the presence of periodontal disease. This is the first study to describe histological features of EPD, and the first to identify associated spirochaetes in some cases. Histological features were variable, and there was considerable overlap of some features between the normal and diseased gingiva. Further investigation into the potential role of bacteria in the pathogenesis and progression of EPD is warranted.

  7. Tanshinone IIA attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Yang, Xue; Han, Dong; Feng, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory autoimmune neurodegenerative disease, which features focal demyelination and inflammatory cell infiltration of the brain and the spinal cord. Tanshinone IIA (TSIIA), one of the major fat-soluble components of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and neuroprotective activity; however, its efficacy in MS remains unknown. The current study was designed to investigate the potential therapeutic function of TSIIA on MS in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) rat model. In comparison to the vehicle control group, the TSIIA-treated groups showed notably improved clinical symptoms and pathological changes, including central nervous system inflammatory cell infiltration and demyelination. Following administration of TSIIA, the quantity of CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells and macrophages/microglia in the spinal cord were reduced to different extents. Furthermore, TSIIA was also shown to downregulate interleukin (IL)-17 and IL-23 levels in the brain and serum of EAE rats. The results collectively provide evidence that TSIIA alleviates EAE and support its utility as a novel therapy for MS. PMID:27357729

  8. Translational utility of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Guerreiro-Cacais, Andre Ortlieb; Laaksonen, Hannes; Flytzani, Sevasti; N’diaye, Marie; Olsson, Tomas; Jagodic, Maja

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune condition with firmly established genetic and environmental components. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed a large number of genetic polymorphisms in the vicinity of, and within, genes that associate to disease. However, the significance of these single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease and possible mechanisms of action remain, with a few exceptions, to be established. While the animal model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), has been instrumental in understanding immunity in general and mechanisms of MS disease in particular, much of the translational information gathered from the model in terms of treatment development (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) has been extensively summarized. In this review, we would thus like to cover the work done in EAE from a GWAS perspective, highlighting the research that has addressed the role of different GWAS genes and their pathways in EAE pathogenesis. Understanding the contribution of these pathways to disease might allow for the stratification of disease subphenotypes in patients and in turn open the possibility for new and individualized treatment approaches in the future. PMID:26622189

  9. Chronic exercise confers neuroprotection in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Pryor, William M; Freeman, Kimberly G; Larson, Rebecca D; Edwards, Gaylen L; White, Lesley J

    2015-05-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease that affects the CNS, resulting in accumulated loss of cognitive, sensory, and motor function. This study evaluates the neuropathological effects of voluntary exercise in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS. Two groups of C57BL/6J mice were injected with an emulsion containing myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein and then randomized to housing with a running wheel or a locked wheel. Exercising EAE mice exhibited a less severe neurological disease score and later onset of disease compared with sedentary EAE animals. Immune cell infiltration and demyelination in the ventral white matter tracts of the lumbar spinal cord were significantly reduced in the EAE exercise group compared with sedentary EAE animals. Neurofilament immunolabeling in the ventral pyramidal and extrapyramidal motor tracts displayed a more random distribution of axons and an apparent loss of smaller diameter axons, with a greater loss of fluorescence immunolabeling in the sedentary EAE animals. In lamina IX gray matter regions of the lumbar spinal cord, sedentary animals with EAE displayed a greater loss of α-motor neurons compared with EAE animals exposed to exercise. These findings provide evidence that voluntary exercise results in reduced and attenuated disability, reductions in autoimmune cell infiltration, and preservation of axons and motor neurons in the lumbar spinal cord of mice with EAE.

  10. Beneficial effects of blueberries in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Xin, Junping; Feinstein, Douglas L; Hejna, Matthew J; Lorens, Stanley A; McGuire, Susan O

    2012-06-13

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of autoimmune disease that presents with pathological and clinical features similar to those of multiple sclerosis (MS) including inflammation and neurodegeneration. This study investigated whether blueberries, which possess immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective properties, could provide protection in EAE. Dietary supplementation with 1% whole, freeze-dried blueberries reduced disease incidence by >50% in a chronic EAE model (p < 0.01). When blueberry-fed mice with EAE were compared with control-fed mice with EAE, blueberry-fed mice had significantly lower motor disability scores (p = 0.03) as well as significantly greater myelin preservation in the lumbar spinal cord (p = 0.04). In a relapsing-remitting EAE model, blueberry-supplemented mice showed improved cumulative and final motor scores compared to control diet-fed mice (p = 0.01 and 0.03, respectively). These data demonstrate that blueberry supplementation is beneficial in multiple EAE models, suggesting that blueberries, which are easily administered orally and well-tolerated, may provide benefit to MS patients. PMID:22243431

  11. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-01-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells, CTLA4+ inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial. PMID:25269445

  12. R-flurbiprofen attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Katja; de Bruin, Natasja; Bishay, Philipp; Männich, Julia; Häussler, Annett; Altmann, Christine; Ferreirós, Nerea; Lötsch, Jörn; Ultsch, Alfred; Parnham, Michael J; Geisslinger, Gerd; Tegeder, Irmgard

    2014-11-01

    R-flurbiprofen is the non-cyclooxygenase inhibiting R-enantiomer of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug flurbiprofen, which was assessed as a remedy for Alzheimer's disease. Because of its anti-inflammatory, endocannabinoid-modulating and antioxidative properties, combined with low toxicity, the present study assessed R-flurbiprofen in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) models of multiple sclerosis in mice. Oral R-flurbiprofen prevented and attenuated primary progressive EAE in C57BL6/J mice and relapsing-remitting EAE in SJL mice, even if the treatment was initiated on or after the first flare of the disease. R-flurbiprofen reduced immune cell infiltration and microglia activation and inflammation in the spinal cord, brain and optic nerve and attenuated myelin destruction and EAE-evoked hyperalgesia. R-flurbiprofen treatment increased CD4(+)CD25(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, CTLA4(+) inhibitory T cells and interleukin-10, whereas the EAE-evoked upregulation of pro-inflammatory genes in the spinal cord was strongly reduced. The effects were associated with an increase of plasma and cortical endocannabinoids but decreased spinal prostaglandins, the latter likely due to R to S inversion. The promising results suggest potential efficacy of R-flurbiprofen in human MS, and its low toxicity may justify a clinical trial.

  13. Dendritic and Synaptic Pathology in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Bing; Luo, Liqing; Moore, G. R. Wayne; Paty, Donald W.; Cynader, Max S.

    2003-01-01

    Evidence has shown that excitotoxicity may contribute to the loss of central nervous system axons and oligodendrocytes in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Because dendrites and synapses are vulnerable to excitotoxicity, we examined these structures in acute and chronic models of EAE. Immunostaining for microtubule-associated protein-2 showed that extensive dendritic beading occurred in the white matter of the lumbosacral spinal cord (LSSC) during acute EAE episodes and EAE relapses. Retrograde labeling confirmed that most motoneuron dendrites were beaded in the white matter of the LSSC in acute EAE. In contrast, only mild swelling was observed in the gray matter of the LSSC. Dendritic beading showed marked recovery during EAE remission and after EAE recovery. In addition, synaptophysin, synapsin I, and PSD-95 immunoreactivities were significantly reduced in both the gray and white matter of the LSSC during acute EAE episodes and EAE relapses, but showed partial recovery during EAE remission and after EAE recovery. Pathologically, both dendritic beading and the reduction in synaptic protein immunoreactivity were well correlated with inflammatory cell infiltration in the LSSC at different EAE stages. We propose that dendritic and synaptic damage in the spinal cord may contribute to the neurological deficits in EAE. PMID:12707048

  14. Genetic analysis of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Rosenwasser, O.A.; O`Neill, J.K.; Turk, J.L.

    1995-10-15

    Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that exhibits many pathologic similarities with multiple sclerosis. While products of the MHC are known to control the development of EAE, it is clear that non-MHC products also influence susceptibility. The chromosomal locations of these were investigated in selective crosses between MHC class II-compatible, EAE-susceptible Biozzi ABH, and low responder nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. The disease was dominant and highly influenced by gender in the backcross one (BC{sub 1}) generation. Female mice were significantly more susceptible than male mice. Segregation of disease frequency of female animals in this cross suggested that EAE was controlled by a major locus. Although microsatellite-based exclusion mapping indicated that a number of regions on chromosomes 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 18 showed evidence of linkage (p<0.05) compared with expected random distributions of alleles, disease susceptibility was most strongly linked (p<0.05) to chromosome 7. However, by selectively analyzing animals that were either severely affected or almost normal, additional susceptibility loci were mapped on chromosomes 18 and 11 that were linked (p<0.001) to resistance and the development of severe disease, respectively. The data indicate a major locus on chromosome 7, affecting initiation and severity of EAE that is probably modified by several other unlinked loci. These localizations may provide candidate loci for the analysis of human autoimmune-demyelinating disease. 30 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Coincidence of spinal tumor (astrocytoma) and non-specific encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Burgetova, Andrea; Vaneckova, Manuela; Nytrova, Petra; Matej, Radoslav; Seidl, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that differential diagnostics of intra-medullary spinal lesions can sometimes be very difficult, even when the latest complement examinations are used, including magnetic resonance imaging. The particular case dealt with here was complicated by the presence of two different pathological processes. We present the case report, where the case history, clinical course and results of the paraclinical examinations, including the magnetic resonance imaging, suggested an intra-medullary inflammatory/demyelinating process. The post-mortem histological finding was a surprise, because besides signs of non-specific encephalomyelitis, it also displayed signs of a spinal tumor (histological character of diffuse astrocytoma grade II-III). We would like to emphasize some important facts in our discussion, especially from the perspective of the magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, we would like to ask if the presence of both pathologies (astrocytoma and nonspecific myelitis) was coincidental, or if the myelitis had an iatrogenic etiology (by therapy, by infection during the lumbar punctions). PMID:23391981

  16. Coincidence of spinal tumor (astrocytoma) and non-specific encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Burgetova, Andrea; Vaneckova, Manuela; Nytrova, Petra; Matej, Radoslav; Seidl, Zdenek

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that differential diagnostics of intra-medullary spinal lesions can sometimes be very difficult, even when the latest complement examinations are used, including magnetic resonance imaging. The particular case dealt with here was complicated by the presence of two different pathological processes. We present the case report, where the case history, clinical course and results of the paraclinical examinations, including the magnetic resonance imaging, suggested an intra-medullary inflammatory/demyelinating process. The post-mortem histological finding was a surprise, because besides signs of non-specific encephalomyelitis, it also displayed signs of a spinal tumor (histological character of diffuse astrocytoma grade II-III). We would like to emphasize some important facts in our discussion, especially from the perspective of the magnetic resonance imaging. Finally, we would like to ask if the presence of both pathologies (astrocytoma and nonspecific myelitis) was coincidental, or if the myelitis had an iatrogenic etiology (by therapy, by infection during the lumbar punctions). PMID:23391883

  17. Suppression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by intravenously administered polyclonal immunoglobulins.

    PubMed

    Achiron, A; Mor, F; Margalit, R; Cohen, I R; Lider, O; Miron, S

    2000-11-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was induced in Lewis rats either by active immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) or by adoptive transfer using anti-MBP specific CD4(+)T cells. Treatment with human polyclonal immunoglobulins (IgG) effectively suppressed active EAE. Time-dependent experiments demonstrated that the effect of IgG was manifested only when treatment was given immediately after immunization; administration from day 7 after disease induction did not suppress the disease. In the adoptive transfer model of EAE, IgG had no effect in vivo. However, pretreatment in vitro of the antigen-specific T-cells with IgG inhibited their ability to mediate adoptive EAE, as it did in active EAE. Similarly, in vitro IgG pretreatment of the antigen-specific T-cells suppressed the proliferative response to MBP. Fluorescent Activated Cell Sorter (FACS) analysis demonstrated the binding of IgG to activated T-cell lines that was inhibited by soluble Fc molecules. The differential effects of IgG on active EAE and on the adoptive transfer of EAE suggest that IgG in vivo can suppress disease by acting during the early phase of the immune response which involves naive T cells. The inhibition of T-cell proliferation and adoptive transfer of EAE by incubation of T cells in vitro appears to require higher concentrations of IgG than those obtained in vivo. PMID:11040073

  18. Tuftsin-driven experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis recovery requires neuropilin-1.

    PubMed

    Nissen, Jillian C; Tsirka, Stella E

    2016-06-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is an animal model of demyelinating autoimmune disease, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), which is characterized by central nervous system white matter lesions, microglial activation, and peripheral T-cell infiltration secondary to blood-brain barrier disruption. We have previously shown that treatment with tuftsin, a tetrapeptide generated from IgG proteolysis, dramatically improves disease symptoms in EAE. Here, we report that microglial expression of Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) is required for tuftsin-driven amelioration of EAE symptoms. Nrp1 ablation in microglia blocks microglial signaling and polarization to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype, and ablation in either the microglia or immunosuppressive regulatory T cells (Tregs) reduces extended functional contacts between them and Treg activation, implicating a role for microglia in the activation process, and more generally, how immune surveillance is conducted in the CNS. Taken together, our findings delineate the mechanistic action of tuftsin as a candidate therapeutic against immune-mediated demyelinating lesions. PMID:26880314

  19. Augmenting DAF levels in vivo ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Huang, Danping; Nacion, Kristine; Bu, Hong; Lin, Feng

    2009-09-01

    Recent studies in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) have found that CNS injury in Daf1(-/-) mice is much greater than in wild types (WTs), suggesting that upregulating DAF levels in vivo might ameliorate disease. To test this, we generated a Daf1 transgenic (Tg) mouse which had elevated DAF levels on its cell surfaces. In by-stand C3b uptake assays, Daf1 Tg mouse erythrocytes took up less C3b on their surfaces than WT erythrocytes. When co-cultured with OT-II CD4(+) T cells together with OVA(323-339) peptide, Daf1 Tg mouse bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) produced less C5a and C3a than WT BM-DCs and stimulated a lesser T cell response. In MOG(35-55) immunization induced EAE model, Daf1 Tg mice exhibited delayed disease onset and decreased clinical scores compared to WTs. Histological analyses showed that there were less inflammation and demyelination in spinal cords in Daf1 Tg mice than those in WTs. In accordance with these results, Daf1 Tg mice had decreased MOG(35-55) specific Th1 and Th17 responses. These data provide further evidence that DAF suppresses autoreactive T cell responses in EAE, and indicate that augmenting its expression levels could be effective therapeutically in treating multiple sclerosis as well as other T cell mediated diseases. PMID:19660813

  20. Persistent pseudobulbar affect secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhendong; Luo, Shijian; Ou, Jianying; Huang, Rihe; Wang, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a common complication of central nervous system diseases such as stroke, multiple sclerosis, and other neurological diseases, but it remains under-recognized and under-treated in the clinic. PBA caused by acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has rarely been reported. Here, we report a 30-year-old Chinese woman who has experienced PBA from ADEM for 7 years. The patient's principal manifestations were extreme emotions or tears when she saw, heard, or spoke about sad news or other sad things; the durations of these unmanageable emotions were often less than 30 sec, and they occurred at frequencies that ranged from one to several times a day. Occasionally, she laughed uncontrollably while people were talking despite a lack of funny or sad stimuli in the conversation or the surrounding environment. Thus, her social functioning was impaired. This case indicates that the long-term PBA can occur secondarily to ADEM, and this possibility should be considered clinically to ensure timely identification and treatment. PMID:25792370

  1. An Etiological Model for Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Sorenson, Matthew; Porter, Nicole; Belkairous, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    Kindling might represent a heuristic model for understanding the etiology of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). Kindling occurs when an organism is exposed repeatedly to an initially sub-threshold stimulus resulting in hypersensitivity and spontaneous seizure-like activity. Among patients with ME/CFS, chronically repeated low-intensity stimulation due to an infectious illness might cause kindling of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Kindling might also occur by high-intensity stimulation (e.g., brain trauma) of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis. Once this system is charged or kindled, it can sustain a high level of arousal with little or no external stimulus and eventually this could lead to hypocortisolism. Seizure activity may spread to adjacent structures of the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary axis in the brain, which might be responsible for the varied symptoms that occur among patients with ME/CFS. In addition, kindling may also be responsible for high levels of oxidative stress, which has been found in patients with ME/CFS. PMID:21892413

  2. Bladder Dysfunction in Mice with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Altuntas, Cengiz Z.; Daneshgari, Firouz; Liu, Guiming; Fabiyi, Adebola; Kavran, Michael; Johnson, Justin M.; Gulen, M. Fatih; Jaini, Ritika; Li, Xiaoxia; Frenkl, Tara L.; Tuohy, Vincent K.

    2009-01-01

    The vast majority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) develop bladder control problems including urgency to urinate, urinary incontinence, frequency of urination, and retention of urine. Over 60% of MS patients show detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, an abnormality characterized by obstruction of urinary outflow as a result of discoordinated contraction of the urethral sphincter muscle and the bladder detrusor muscle. In the current study we examined bladder function in female SWXJ mice with different defined levels of neurological impairment following induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of central nervous system inflammation widely used in MS research. We found that EAE mice develop profound bladder dysfunction characterized by significantly increased micturition frequencies and significantly decreased urine output per micturition. Moreover, we found that the severity of bladder abnormalities in EAE mice was directly related to the severity of clinical EAE and neurologic disability. Our study is the first to show and characterize micturition abnormalities in EAE mice thereby providing a most useful model system for understanding and treating neurogenic bladder. PMID:18703233

  3. Specific Binding of Peroxidase-Labeled Myelin Basic Protein in Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Anne B.; Wiśniewski, Henryk M.; Raine, Cedric S.; Eylar, E. H.; Terry, Robert D.

    1971-01-01

    A conjugate of horseradish peroxidase and the encephalitogenic basic protein from myelin has been used to study the antigen reactivity of tissue in the autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Control conjugates were also prepared of peroxidase and bovine serum albumin and of peroxidase and lysozyme, another basic protein. The basic protein from myelin conjugate was specifically bound by lymph node cells from rabbits immunized against the basic protein. Some of these cells appeared to be plasma cells. The conjugate was also specifically bound by occasional cells in the spinal-cord infiltrates of animals with early signs of allergic encephalomyelitis. These cells resembled large lymphocytes and plasma cells. There was no difference between the binding of basic protein of bovine and rabbit origin. The findings suggest the possibility that a local release of antibody within the target organ may play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic encephalomyelitis. Images PMID:5288245

  4. Specific binding of peroxidase-labeled myelin basic protein in allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, A B; Wiśniewski, H M; Raine, C S; Eylar, E H; Terry, R D

    1971-11-01

    A conjugate of horseradish peroxidase and the encephalitogenic basic protein from myelin has been used to study the antigen reactivity of tissue in the autoimmune disease, experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. Control conjugates were also prepared of peroxidase and bovine serum albumin and of peroxidase and lysozyme, another basic protein. The basic protein from myelin conjugate was specifically bound by lymph node cells from rabbits immunized against the basic protein. Some of these cells appeared to be plasma cells. The conjugate was also specifically bound by occasional cells in the spinal-cord infiltrates of animals with early signs of allergic encephalomyelitis. These cells resembled large lymphocytes and plasma cells. There was no difference between the binding of basic protein of bovine and rabbit origin. The findings suggest the possibility that a local release of antibody within the target organ may play a role in the pathogenesis of allergic encephalomyelitis.

  5. Automatic segmentation of equine larynx for diagnosis of laryngeal hemiplegia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salehin, Md. Musfequs; Zheng, Lihong; Gao, Junbin

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents an automatic segmentation method for delineation of the clinically significant contours of the equine larynx from an endoscopic image. These contours are used to diagnose the most common disease of horse larynx laryngeal hemiplegia. In this study, hierarchal structured contour map is obtained by the state-of-the-art segmentation algorithm, gPb-OWT-UCM. The conic-shaped outer boundary of equine larynx is extracted based on Pascal's theorem. Lastly, Hough Transformation method is applied to detect lines related to the edges of vocal folds. The experimental results show that the proposed approach has better performance in extracting the targeted contours of equine larynx than the results of using only the gPb-OWT-UCM method.

  6. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis.

  7. IFNAR signaling directly modulates T lymphocyte activity, resulting in milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis development.

    PubMed

    Kavrochorianou, Nadia; Evangelidou, Maria; Markogiannaki, Melina; Tovey, Michael; Thyphronitis, George; Haralambous, Sylva

    2016-01-01

    Although interferon-β is used as first-line therapy for multiple sclerosis, the cell type-specific activity of type I interferons in multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, remains obscure. In this study, we have elucidated the in vivo immunomodulatory role of type I interferon signaling in T cells during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by use of a novel transgenic mouse, carrying a cd2-ifnar1 transgene on a interferon-α/β receptor 1 null genetic background, thus allowing expression of the interferon-α/β receptor 1 and hence, a functional type I interferon receptor exclusively on T cells. These transgenic mice exhibited milder experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with reduced T cell infiltration, demyelination, and axonal damage in the central nervous system. It is noteworthy that interferon-β administration in transgenic mice generated a more pronounced, protective effect against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis compared with untreated littermates. In vivo studies demonstrated that before experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis onset, endogenous type I interferon receptor signaling in T cells led to impaired T-helper 17 responses, with a reduced fraction of CCR6(+) CD4(+) T cells in the periphery. At the acute phase, an increased proportion of interleukin-10- and interferon-γ-producing CD4(+) T cells was detected in the periphery of the transgenic mice, accompanied by up-regulation of the interferon-γ-induced gene Irgm1 in peripheral T cells. Together, these results reveal a hitherto unknown T cell-associated protective role of type I interferon in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis that may provide valuable clues for designing novel therapeutic strategies for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26232452

  8. An in vivo proton neurospectroscopy study of cerebral oxidative stress in myalgic encephalomyelitis (chronic fatigue syndrome).

    PubMed

    Puri, B K; Agour, M; Gunatilake, K D R; Fernando, K A C; Gurusinghe, A I; Treasaden, I H

    2009-01-01

    A particularly important family of antioxidant defence enzymes in the body are the glutathione peroxidases, which remove H(2)O(2) by coupling its reduction to H(2)O with oxidation of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidised glutathione (GSSG). There are suggestions that GSH in the peripheral blood may be reduced in myalgic encephalomyelitis, which is a highly disabling neurological disease of unknown aetiology. Since many of the symptoms relate to cerebral functioning, it would seem probable that peripheral blood GSH findings would be reflected in lower cerebral GSH levels. The aim of this study was to carry out the first direct assessment of cerebral GSH levels in myalgic encephalomyelitis; the hypothesis being tested was that cerebral GSH levels would be reduced in myalgic encephalomyelitis. Cerebral proton neurospectroscopy was carried out at a magnetic field strength of 3T in 26 subjects; spectra were obtained from 20x20x20mm(3) voxels using a point-resolved spectroscopy pulse sequence. The mean cerebral GSH level in the myalgic encephalomyelitis patients was 2.703 (SD 2.311) which did not differ significantly from that in age- and gender-matched normal controls who did not have any history of neurological or other major medical disorder (5.191, SD 8.984; NS). Therefore our study does not suggest that GSH is reduced in the brain in myalgic encephalomyelitis. At the present time, based on the results of this study, there is no evidence to support the suggestion that, by taking glutathione supplements, an improvement in the brain-related symptomatology of myalgic encephalomyelitis may occur.

  9. Extraction, radioiodination, and in vivo catabolism of equine fibrinogen

    SciTech Connect

    Coyne, C.P.; Hornof, W.J.; Kelly, A.B.; O'Brien, T.R.; DeNardo, S.J.

    1985-12-01

    Equine fibrinogen was isolated and aliquots were stored frozen at -70 C before radiolabeling with 125I (half-life = 60.2 days; gamma = 35 keV, using monochloroiodine reagent. Radioiodination efficiencies were 49% to 53%, resulting in a labeled product with 98% protein-bound activity and 91% clottable radioactivity. In 6 equine in vivo investigations, plasma half-lives of 125I-labeled fibrinogen were from 4.1 to 5.2 days, corresponding to a mean daily plasma elimination rate of approximately 15%.

  10. Nucleotide sequence of equine caspase-1 cDNA.

    PubMed

    Wardlow, S; Penha-Goncalves, M N; Argyle, D J; Onions, D E; Nicolson, L

    1999-01-01

    Caspases are a family of cysteine proteases which have important roles in activation of cytokines and in apoptosis. Caspase-1, or interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme (ICE), promotes maturation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) by proteolytic cleavage of precursor forms to generate biologically active peptides. We report the cloning and sequencing of equine caspase-1 cDNA. Equine caspase-1 is 405 amino acids in length and has 72% and 63% identity to human and mouse caspase-1, respectively, at the amino acid level. Sites of proteolytic cleavage and catalytic activity as identified in human caspase-1, are conserved. PMID:10376217

  11. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measurement of antibodies against equine herpesvirus 2 in equine sera.

    PubMed

    Fu, Z F; Denby, L; Lien, D H; Robinson, A J

    1987-11-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed for the detection of antibodies against equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) in equine sera. The optimal conditions of antigen concentration, and serum and conjugate dilutions were established by chequerboard titrations. When the standard ELISA test was used for titration of test sera, it was found to give titres approximately 1500 times higher than those obtained in the virus neutralization (VN) test, and a correlation coefficient of 0.815 was obtained between these two tests on 42 equine sera. All the positive serum samples by the VN were also positive by the ELISA, and one negative serum in the former test was found to be positive in the latter. Under field conditions, the test also detected increases in antibody titres against EHV-2 in 13 out of 14 foals soon after these animals excreted the virus.

  12. Neuropathic changes in equine laminitis pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma; Viñuela-Fernandez, Ignacio; Eager, Rachel A; Delaney, Ada; Anderson, Heather; Patel, Anisha; Robertson, Darren C; Allchorne, Andrew; Sirinathsinghji, Eva C; Milne, Elspeth M; MacIntyre, Neil; Shaw, Darren J; Waran, Natalie K; Mayhew, Joe; Fleetwood-Walker, Susan M

    2007-12-01

    Laminitis is a common debilitating disease in horses that involves painful disruption of the lamellar dermo-epidermal junction within the hoof. This condition is often refractory to conventional anti-inflammatory analgesia and results in unremitting pain, which in severe cases requires euthanasia. The mechanisms underlying pain in laminitis were investigated using quantification of behavioural pain indicators in conjunction with histological studies of peripheral nerves innervating the hoof. Laminitic horses displayed consistently altered or abnormal behaviours such as increased forelimb lifting and an increased proportion of time spent at the back of the box compared to normal horses. Electron micrographic analysis of the digital nerve of laminitic horses showed peripheral nerve morphology to be abnormal, as well as having reduced numbers of unmyelinated (43.2%) and myelinated fibers (34.6%) compared to normal horses. Sensory nerve cell bodies innervating the hoof, in cervical, C8 dorsal root ganglia (DRG), showed an upregulated expression of the neuronal injury marker, activating transcription factor-3 (ATF3) in both large NF-200-immunopositive neurons and small neurons that were either peripherin- or IB4-positive. A significantly increased expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) was also observed in myelinated afferent neurons. These changes are similar to those reported in other neuropathic pain states and were not observed in the C4 DRG of laminitic horses, which is not associated with innervation of the forelimb. This study provides novel evidence for a neuropathic component to the chronic pain state associated with equine laminitis, indicating that anti-neuropathic analgesic treatment may well have a role in the management of this condition.

  13. Ultrafiltration of equine digital lamellar tissue.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Claire; Collins, Simon N; van Eps, Andrew W; Allavena, Rachel E; Medina-Torres, Carlos E; Pollitt, Christopher C

    2014-11-01

    There are no experimentally validated pharmacological means of preventing laminitis; however, locally acting pharmaceutical agents with the potential to prevent laminitis have been identified. Demonstrating therapeutic drug concentrations in lamellar tissue is essential for evaluating the efficacy of these agents. The aim of this study was to develop an experimental technique for repeatedly sampling lamellar interstitial fluid. A technique for placing ultrafiltration probes was developed in vitro using 15 cadaver limbs. Subsequently, lamellar ultrafiltration probes were placed in one forelimb in six living horses. Interstitial fluid was collected continuously from the probes as ultrafiltrate for 4 (n = 4) or 14 days (n = 2). The rate of ultrafiltrate collection was calculated every 12 h. Biochemical analyses were performed on ultrafiltrate collected on night 1 (12-24 h post-implantation) and night 4 (84-96 h post-implantation). Sections surrounding the probe and control tissue from the contralateral limb were harvested, stained with H&E and Masson's trichrome and scored based on the tissue response to the probe. Ultrafiltration probes were placed in the lamellar tissue in all six horses. Ultrafiltrate was collected from these probes at 55 (30-63) μL/h (median [interquartile range]). Fluid production decreased significantly with time from night 3 onwards (P < 0.05). There was no significant change in the constituents of the ultrafiltrate between nights 1 and 4 (P > 0.05). The technique was well tolerated. This study demonstrates that ultrafiltration can be used to sample equine digital lamellar interstitial fluid, and has potential for measuring lamellar drug levels. PMID:25439438

  14. Alphavirus Encephalomyelitis: Mechanisms and Approaches to Prevention of Neuronal Damage.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Diane E

    2016-07-01

    Mosquito-borne viruses are important causes of death and long-term neurologic disability due to encephalomyelitis. Studies of mice infected with the alphavirus Sindbis virus have shown that outcome is dependent on the age and genetic background of the mouse and virulence of the infecting virus. Age-dependent susceptibility reflects the acquisition by neurons of resistance to virus replication and virus-induced cell death with maturation. In mature mice, the populations of neurons most susceptible to infection are in the hippocampus and anterior horn of the spinal cord. Hippocampal infection leads to long-term memory deficits in mice that survive, while motor neuron infection can lead to paralysis and death. Neuronal death is immune-mediated, rather than a direct consequence of virus infection, and associated with entry and differentiation of pathogenic T helper 17 cells in the nervous system. To modulate glutamate excitotoxicity, mice were treated with an N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists or a glutamine antagonist. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 protected hippocampal neurons but not motor neurons, and mice still became paralyzed and died. α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid receptor antagonists GYKI-52466 and talampanel protected both hippocampal and motor neurons and prevented paralysis and death. Glutamine antagonist 6-diazo-5-l-norleucine protected hippocampal neurons and improved memory generation in mice surviving infection with an avirulent virus. Surprisingly, in all cases protection was associated with inhibition of the antiviral immune response, reduced entry of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system, and delayed virus clearance, emphasizing the importance of treatment approaches that include prevention of immunopathologic damage. PMID:27114366

  15. CD44 Deficiency Contributes to Enhanced Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Kelly M.; Michaud, Michael; Madri, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion molecule CD44 is expressed by multiple cell types and is implicated in various cellular and immunological processes. In this study, we examined the effect of global CD44 deficiency on myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein peptide (MOG)-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a murine model of multiple sclerosis. Compared to C57BL/6 wild-type mice, CD44-deficient mice presented with greater disease severity, increased immune cell numbers in the central nervous system, and increased anti-MOG antibody and proinflammatory cytokine production, especially those associated with T helper 17 (Th17) cells. Further, decreased numbers of peripheral CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) were observed in CD44-knockout mice throughout the disease course. CD44-knockout CD4 T cells exhibited reduced transforming growth factor-β receptor type I (TGF-β RI) expression that did not impart a defect in Treg polarization in vitro, but did correlate with enhanced Th17 polarization in vitro. Further, EAE in bone marrow–chimeric animals suggested CD44 expression on both circulating and noncirculating cells limited disease severity. Endothelial expression of CD44 limited T-cell adhesion to and transmigration through murine endothelial monolayers in vitro. Importantly, we also identified increased permeability of the blood–brain barrier in vivo in CD44-deficient mice before and following immunization. These data suggest that CD44 has multiple protective roles in EAE, with effects on cytokine production, T-cell differentiation, T-cell–endothelial cell interactions, and blood–brain barrier integrity. PMID:23416161

  16. Chondroitin 6-O-sulfate ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Moriguchi, Kota; Ueno, Rino; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2014-05-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are the main component of the extracellular matrix in the central nervous system (CNS) and influence neuroplasticity. Although CSPG is considered an inhibitory factor for nerve repair in spinal cord injury, it is unclear whether CSPG influences the pathogenetic mechanisms of neuroimmunological diseases. We induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in chondroitin 6-O-sulfate transferase 1-deficient (C6st1(-/-)) mice. C6ST1 is the enzyme that transfers sulfate residues to position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the sugar chain of CSPG. The phenotypes of EAE in C6st1(-/-) mice were more severe than those in wild-type (WT) mice were. In adoptive-transfer EAE, in which antigen-reactive T cells from WT mice were transferred to C6st1(-/-) and WT mice, phenotypes were significantly more severe in C6st1(-/-) than in WT mice. The recall response of antigen-reactive T cells was not significantly different among the groups. Furthermore, the number of pathogenic T cells within the CNS was also not considerably different. When EAE was induced in C6ST1 transgenic mice with C6ST1 overexpression, the mice showed considerably milder symptoms compared with those in WT mice. In conclusion, the presence of sulfate at position 6 of N-acetylgalactosamine of CSPG may influence the effecter phase of EAE to prevent the progression of pathogenesis. Thus, modification of the carbohydrate residue of CSPG may be a novel therapeutic strategy for neuroimmunological diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  17. Role of orexin-A in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Iman; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orexin-A (OX-A) on behavioral and pathological parameters and on gene expression of some multiple sclerosis-related peptides in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by subcutaneous administration of MOG 35-55. Following immunization, the treatment was initiated by using SB.334867 (orexin-1 receptor antagonist) and/or OX-A. Locomotor activity and exploratory behaviors were monitored using open field and T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) respectively. Pain sensitivity was assessed by hot-plate test. Histopathological assessments were performed by H&E staining. The expression of TGF-β, MBP, MMP-9, IL-12, iNOS and MCP-1 were measured using real-time PCR method in lumbar spinal cord. OX-A administration in EAE mice remarkably attenuated the clinical symptoms, increased latency response in hot plate test, inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells, up-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β as well as MBP and down-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and IL-12. In contrast SB.334867 administration in EAE mice deteriorated the clinical symptoms, decreased the alternation in T-CAT, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β and MBP and up-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS. Results of this study suggest that the orexinergic system might be involved in pathological development of EAE. These findings suggest orexinergic system as a potential target for treatment of multiple sclerosis.

  18. Role of orexin-A in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Fatemi, Iman; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Ayoobi, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Zahra; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Motevalian, Manijeh

    2016-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of orexin-A (OX-A) on behavioral and pathological parameters and on gene expression of some multiple sclerosis-related peptides in a model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE was induced by subcutaneous administration of MOG 35-55. Following immunization, the treatment was initiated by using SB.334867 (orexin-1 receptor antagonist) and/or OX-A. Locomotor activity and exploratory behaviors were monitored using open field and T-maze continuous alternation task (T-CAT) respectively. Pain sensitivity was assessed by hot-plate test. Histopathological assessments were performed by H&E staining. The expression of TGF-β, MBP, MMP-9, IL-12, iNOS and MCP-1 were measured using real-time PCR method in lumbar spinal cord. OX-A administration in EAE mice remarkably attenuated the clinical symptoms, increased latency response in hot plate test, inhibited infiltration of inflammatory cells, up-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β as well as MBP and down-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS, MMP-9 and IL-12. In contrast SB.334867 administration in EAE mice deteriorated the clinical symptoms, decreased the alternation in T-CAT, increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, down-regulated mRNA expression of TGF-β and MBP and up-regulated mRNA expression of iNOS. Results of this study suggest that the orexinergic system might be involved in pathological development of EAE. These findings suggest orexinergic system as a potential target for treatment of multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857503

  19. Localization of influenza virus sialoreceptors in equine respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Scocco, Paola; Pedini, Vera

    2008-08-01

    This study was performed to identify the equine respiratory tract areas which express the specific receptor for equine influenza virus; findings may be useful to provide new ways to treat the infectious disease. The present work aims to visualize in situ the presence of sialoderivatives in the horse respiratory tract in order to localize sialoderivatives acting as influenza virus receptors. To this purpose, nasal mucosae, trachea, bronchus and lung parenchyma were removed from 8 mature horses of both sexes. We performed sialic acid characterization by means of mild and strong periodate oxidation and saponification, combined with lectin histochemistry and sialidase digestion, in addition to the direct evidentiation of sialic acid residues. No differences were shown between sexes. Sialic acid residues are present in the nasal mucous cell secretion, where they are linked to galactose by means of alpha2-3 linkage and are mainly C9 acetylated, and in the nasal and tracheal epithelial lining, where they are represented by periodate labile residues (alpha2-3)- and/or (alpha2-6)- linked to galactose. Specific receptors for equine influenza viruses are present at the nasal and tracheal epithelial lining cell coat levels, and in some trachea epithelial cells, but the horse possesses a preventive defence, which consists of the secretion of a mucous layer at nasal level, which could specifically inactivate the hemagglutinins of equine influenza virus; in addition, it expresses other sialoreceptors which can mask the influenza specific ones.

  20. 76 FR 55213 - Commercial Transportation of Equines to Slaughter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-07

    ... Register (72 FR 62798-62802, Docket No. APHIS-2006-0168) a proposed rule \\1\\ to amend the regulations by... indicate that the equine is able to bear weight on all four limbs, is able to walk unassisted, is not...

  1. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  2. The Influence of Equine Essentials on Teacher Holonomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Troy Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Analyzing the effects of the Equine Essentials discipline model by examining measurable differences in teacher holonomy at schools applying the model with varying degrees of intensity was the purpose of this study. The study decomposed the analysis into tests for the presence of each of the five dimensions of holonomy: efficacy, craftsmanship,…

  3. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up. PMID:25782709

  4. Constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Brazil, Timothy J.; Dixon, Padraic M.; Haslett, Christopher; Murray, Joanna; McGorum, Bruce C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise constitutive apoptosis in equine peripheral blood neutrophils, including assessment of factors that potentially modulate neutrophil survival through alteration of the rate of constitutive apoptosis. Cells underwent spontaneous time-dependent constitutive apoptosis when aged in culture for up to 36 h, developing the structural and functional features of apoptosis observed in many cell types, including human neutrophils. Neutrophils undergoing apoptosis also had diminished zymosan activated serum (ZAS)-stimulated chemiluminescence, but maintained responsiveness to phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The constitutive rate of equine neutrophil apoptosis was promoted by lipopolysaccharide (LPS), tumour necrosis factor α and phagocytosis of opsonised ovine erythrocytes, while it was inhibited by dexamethasone and ZAS (a source of C5a). Formyl-Met-Leu-Phe, leukotriene B4, platelet activating factor and PMA had no demonstrable effect on equine neutrophil apoptosis. There was a difference between equine and human neutrophil apoptosis in response to LPS and the time-dependence of the response to dexamethasone. PMID:25239298

  5. The folding-unfolding transition of equine lysozyme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haezebrouck, P.; Van Dael, H.

    1993-03-01

    A detailed study of the chemical and thermal unfolding transition of equine lysozyme in the presence and in the absence of Ca 2+ gives evidence for a two-step unfolding process. The pretransition can be related to the transfer of exposed Trp groups to the protein interior.

  6. Eastern equine encephalitis in moose (Alces americanus) in northeastern Vermont.

    PubMed

    Mutebi, John-Paul; Swope, Bethany N; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D; Graham, Alan C; Turmel, Jon P; Berl, Erica

    2012-10-01

    During fall 2010, 21 moose (Alces americanus) sera collected in northeastern Vermont were screened for eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) antibodies using plaque reduction neutralization tests. Six (29%) were antibody positive. This is the first evidence of EEEV activity in Vermont, and the second report of EEEV antibodies in moose.

  7. [Venezuelan equine encephalitis: state-of-the-art].

    PubMed

    Anishchenko, M; Alekseev, V V; Lipnitskiĭ, A V

    2006-01-01

    The paper provides the currently available data on the global prevalence of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE), its epidemiology, clinical picture, and specific prevention in human beings. It also discussed the problem of potential use of the causative agent of VEE as a subject of bioterrorism.

  8. Equine-assisted therapy for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Earles, Julie L; Vernon, Laura L; Yetz, Jeanne P

    2015-04-01

    We tested the efficacy of the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy for treating anxiety and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 16 volunteers who had experienced a Criterion A traumatic event, such as a rape or serious accident, and had current PTSD symptoms above 31 on the PTSD Checklist (PCL-S; Weathers, Litz, Herman, Huska, & Keane, ). Participants engaged in tasks with horses for 6 weekly 2-hour sessions. Immediately following the final session, participants reported significantly reduced posttraumatic stress symptoms, d = 1.21, less severe emotional responses to trauma, d = 0.60, less generalized anxiety, d = 1.01, and fewer symptoms of depression, d = 0.54. As well, participants significantly increased mindfulness strategies, d = 1.28, and decreased alcohol use, d = 0.58. There was no significant effect of the treatment on physical health, proactive coping, self-efficacy, social support, or life satisfaction. Thus, we found evidence that the Equine Partnering Naturally(©) approach to equine-assisted therapy may be an effective treatment for anxiety and posttraumatic stress symptoms. Future research should include larger groups, random assignment, and longer term follow-up.

  9. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  10. Microbiology of equine wounds and evidence of bacterial biofilms.

    PubMed

    Westgate, S J; Percival, S L; Knottenbelt, D C; Clegg, P D; Cochrane, C A

    2011-05-12

    Horse wounds have a high risk of becoming infected due to their environment. Infected wounds harbour diverse populations of microorganisms, however in some cases these microorganisms can be difficult to identify and fail to respond to antibiotic treatment, resulting in chronic non-healing wounds. In human wounds this has been attributed to the ability of bacteria to survive in a biofilm phenotypic state. Biofilms are known to delay wound healing, principally due to their recalcitrance towards antimicrobial therapies and components of the innate immune response. This study describes the presence of bacterial biofilms within equine wounds. Thirteen 8-mm diameter tissue samples were collected from (n=18) chronic wounds. Following histological staining, samples were observed for evidence of biofilms. Fifty one wounds and control skin sites were sampled using sterile swabs. Control skin sites were on the uninjured side of the horse at the same anatomical location as the wound. The isolated bacteria were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. The biofilm forming potential of all the isolated bacteria was determined using a standard crystal violet microtitre plate assay. Stained tissue samples provided evidence of biofilms within 61.5% (8 out of 13) equine wounds. In total 340 bacterial isolates were identified from all the equine wound and skin samples. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus faecium were the most predominantly isolated bacterial species from equine wound and skin samples respectively. Staphylococcus was the most commonly isolated genus in both environments. Bacteria cultured from chronic and acute wounds showed significantly (P<0.05) higher biofilm forming potential than bacteria isolated from skin. This paper highlights preliminary evidence supporting the presence of biofilms and a high microbial diversity in equine chronic wounds. The presence of biofilms in equine wounds partly explains the reluctance of many lower limb wounds to heal. Non

  11. Serological evidence of avian encephalomyelitis virus infection associated with vertical transmission in chicks.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiao-hui; Zhao, Jing; Qin, Xiu-hui; Zhang, Guo-zhong

    2015-11-01

    Avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) can be transmitted both horizontally and vertically. In the present study, we report a typical case of AEV infection in broiler breeder chickens and their progeny identified by clinical survey of the disease, antibody detection, and reverse transcription (RT)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. PMID:26493005

  12. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies. PMID:27466384

  13. Regenerative Medicine Approach to Reconstruction of the Equine Upper Airway

    PubMed Central

    Grevemeyer, Bernard; Bogdanovic, Lewis; Canton, Stephen; St. Jean, Guy; Cercone, Marta; Ducharme, Norm G.

    2014-01-01

    Airway obstruction is a common cause of poor performance in horses. Structural abnormalities (insufficient length, rigidity) can be a cause for the obstruction. Currently, there are a few effective clinical options for reconstruction of the equine larynx. A regenerative medicine approach to reconstruction may provide the capability to stabilize laryngeal structures and to encourage restoration of site-appropriate, functional, and host-derived tissue. The purpose of this study was the histopathological evaluation of (1) decellularization of equine (horse) laryngeal cartilages (epiglottis and arytenoids); (2) the host response to decellularized laryngeal cartilages implanted subcutaneously in a donkey model as a test of biocompatibility; and (3) the use of decellularized laryngeal cartilages in a clinically relevant pilot study in the horse larynx. Equine laryngeal cartilages were found to be sufficiently decellularized and were subsequently implanted subcutaneously in donkeys to test biocompatibility. After 4 weeks, the implanted cartilage was harvested. In the subcutaneous model, the samples did not elicit a rejection or foreign body type reaction and were judged suitable for implantation in a clinically relevant equine model. Implants were placed in the upper airway (arytenoids and epiglottis) of one horse. At 4 weeks, the implants were observed to remodel rapidly and were replaced by dense connective tissue with signs of new hyaline cartilage formation in the arytenoids and by connective tissue containing glandular structures and an epithelial covering in the epiglottis. The results of the present study demonstrate the feasibility of a scaffold-based regenerative medicine approach to reconstruction of the equine upper airway; however, further studies investigating long-term integration, formation of new cartilage, and mechanical properties are needed. PMID:24160675

  14. Equine 5α-reductase activity and expression in epididymis.

    PubMed

    Corbin, C J; Legacki, E L; Ball, B A; Scoggin, K E; Stanley, S D; Conley, A J

    2016-10-01

    The 5α-reductase enzymes play an important role during male sexual differentiation, and in pregnant females, especially equine species where maintenance relies on 5α-reduced progesterone, 5α-dihydroprogesterone (DHP). Epididymis expresses 5α-reductases but was not studied elaborately in horses. Epididymis from younger and older postpubertal stallions was divided into caput, corpus and cauda and examined for 5α-reductase activity and expression of type 1 and 2 isoforms by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Metabolism of progesterone and testosterone to DHP and dihydrotestosterone (DHT), respectively, by epididymal microsomal protein was examined by thin-layer chromatography and verified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relative inhibitory potencies of finasteride and dutasteride toward equine 5α-reductase activity were investigated. Pregnenolone was investigated as an additional potential substrate for 5α-reductase, suggested previously from in vivo studies in mares but never directly examined. No regional gradient of 5α-reductase expression was observed by either enzyme activity or transcript analysis. Results of PCR experiments suggested that type 1 isoform predominates in equine epididymis. Primers for the type 2 isoform were unable to amplify product from any samples examined. Progesterone and testosterone were readily reduced to DHP and DHT, and activity was effectively inhibited by both inhibitors. Using epididymis as an enzyme source, no experimental evidence was obtained supporting the notion that pregnenolone could be directly metabolized by equine 5α-reductases as has been suggested by previous investigators speculating on alternative metabolic pathways leading to DHP synthesis in placenta during equine pregnancies.

  15. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S.; Nasir, L.

    2008-04-10

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.

  16. Polymerase I pathway inhibitor ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Achiron, Anat; Mashiach, Roi; Zilkha-Falb, Rina; Meijler, Michael M; Gurevich, Michael

    2013-10-15

    Applying high throughput gene expression microarrays we identified that the suppression of polymerase 1 (POL1) pathway is associated with benign course of multiple sclerosis (MS). This finding supports the rationale for direct targeting of the POL1 transcription machinery as an innovative strategy to suppress MS. To evaluate the effects of a specific polymerase I inhibitor (POL1-I) on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), we immunized female C57BL/6J mice (8 weeks) with MOG35-55/CFA. A new POL1-I was administered at a daily dose of 12.5mg/kg body weight by oral gavage either from the day of immunization until disease onset (EAE score 1.0, immunization model), at disease onset (EAE score=1.0) for the following 14 days (treatment model), or by alternate daily dose of 25.0mg/kg body weight, by oral gavage from the day of immunization for the following 25 days (combined model). POL1-I remarkably suppressed EAE in the immunization model; while in the Vehicle group the onset of EAE occurred on day 10.0±0.4 with maximal clinical score of 3.2±0.2, in the POL1-I treated mice onset was significantly delayed and occurred on day 16.9±1.1 (p=0.001), and maximal disease score 2.0±0.1 was reduced (p=0.004). In the treatment model POL1-I treatment significantly reduced disease activity; maximal score was 2.0±0.5 while in the Vehicle group it reached a mean maximal score of 3.9±0.1, (p=0.0008). In the combined model, POL1-I treatment completely inhibited disease activity. The effect of POL1-I treatment was modulated through decreased expression of POL1 pathway key-related genes LRPPRC, pre-RNA, POLR1D and RRN3 together with activation of P53 dependent apoptosis of CD4+ splenocytes. Our findings demonstrate that POL1 pathway inhibition delayed and suppressed the development of EAE and ameliorated the disease in mice with persistent clinical signs.

  17. Myalgic encephalomyelitis, chronic fatigue syndrome: An infectious disease.

    PubMed

    Underhill, R A

    2015-12-01

    The etiology of myalgic encephalomyelitis also known as chronic fatigue syndrome or ME/CFS has not been established. Controversies exist over whether it is an organic disease or a psychological disorder and even the existence of ME/CFS as a disease entity is sometimes denied. Suggested causal hypotheses have included psychosomatic disorders, infectious agents, immune dysfunctions, autoimmunity, metabolic disturbances, toxins and inherited genetic factors. Clinical, immunological and epidemiological evidence supports the hypothesis that: ME/CFS is an infectious disease; the causal pathogen persists in patients; the pathogen can be transmitted by casual contact; host factors determine susceptibility to the illness; and there is a population of healthy carriers, who may be able to shed the pathogen. ME/CFS is endemic globally as sporadic cases and occasional cluster outbreaks (epidemics). Cluster outbreaks imply an infectious agent. An abrupt flu-like onset resembling an infectious illness occurs in outbreak patients and many sporadic patients. Immune responses in sporadic patients resemble immune responses in other infectious diseases. Contagion is shown by finding secondary cases in outbreaks, and suggested by a higher prevalence of ME/CFS in sporadic patients' genetically unrelated close contacts (spouses/partners) than the community. Abortive cases, sub-clinical cases, and carrier state individuals were found in outbreaks. The chronic phase of ME/CFS does not appear to be particularly infective. Some healthy patient-contacts show immune responses similar to patients' immune responses, suggesting exposure to the same antigen (a pathogen). The chronicity of symptoms and of immune system changes and the occurrence of secondary cases suggest persistence of a causal pathogen. Risk factors which predispose to developing ME/CFS are: a close family member with ME/CFS; inherited genetic factors; female gender; age; rest/activity; previous exposure to stress or toxins

  18. Intranasal Location and Immunohistochemical Characterization of the Equine Olfactory Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Kupke, Alexandra; Wenisch, Sabine; Failing, Klaus; Herden, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The olfactory epithelium (OE) is the only body site where neurons contact directly the environment and are therefore exposed to a broad variation of substances and insults. It can serve as portal of entry for neurotropic viruses which spread via the olfactory pathway to the central nervous system. For horses, it has been proposed and concluded mainly from rodent studies that different viruses, e.g., Borna disease virus, equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1), hendra virus, influenza virus, rabies virus, vesicular stomatitis virus can use this route. However, little is yet known about cytoarchitecture, protein expression and the intranasal location of the equine OE. Revealing differences in cytoarchitecture or protein expression pattern in comparison to rodents, canines, or humans might help to explain varying susceptibility to certain intranasal virus infections. On the other hand, disclosing similarities especially between rodents and other species, e.g., horses would help to underscore transferability of rodent models. Analysis of the complete noses of five adult horses revealed that in the equine OE two epithelial subtypes with distinct marker expression exist, designated as types a and b which resemble those previously described in dogs. Detailed statistical analysis was carried out to confirm the results obtained on the descriptive level. The equine OE was predominantly located in caudodorsal areas of the nasal turbinates with a significant decline in rostroventral direction, especially for type a. Immunohistochemically, olfactory marker protein and doublecortin (DCX) expression was found in more cells of OE type a, whereas expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen and tropomyosin receptor kinase A was present in more cells of type b. Accordingly, type a resembles the mature epithelium, in contrast to the more juvenile type b. Protein expression profile was comparable to canine and rodent OE but equine types a and b were located differently within the nose and

  19. The anti-human CD21 antibody, BU33, identifies equine B cells.

    PubMed

    Mayall, S; Siedek, E; Hamblin, A S

    2001-01-01

    The number of antibodies for identifying equine B cells is small and the number that react with well-defined epitopes even smaller. The monoclonal antibody, BU33, which is directed against human CD21 (Complement Receptor 2; CR2) was shown to identify (1) follicular lymphocytes in the lymph nodes and spleen of three horses, and (2) a mean of 18 +/- 6% (SEM) of peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 horses. These findings indicate that the antibody identifies equine B cells and possibly equine CR2 or a related molecule. This study adds to the reagents available for equine research and diagnostic pathology.

  20. Effects of pentoxifylline on equine neutrophil function and flow properties.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, D J; Geor, R J; Burris, S M; Smith, C M

    1992-01-01

    Pentoxifylline has been reported to improve peripheral vascular circulation by altering the flow properties of blood. To determine if the hemorrheological effects of pentoxifylline were mediated by alterations in neutrophil function and/or flow properties, we evaluated the drug's effects on equine neutrophils in vitro. Pentoxifylline, at a concentration of 1 x 10(-1) M, but not at concentrations of 1 x 10(-6) M to 1 x 10(-2) M, markedly suppressed neutrophil superoxide production, zymosan phagocytosis and adherence to nylon wool. Pentoxifylline failed to improve neutrophil filterability through 3 mu polycarbonate filters at any concentration tested. We conclude that equine neutrophil function and flow properties are unlikely to be affected by pentoxifylline concentrations achievable in vivo. PMID:1335832

  1. Molecular biological characterization of equine surfactant protein A.

    PubMed

    Hospes, R; Hospes, B I L; Reiss, I; Bostedt, H; Gortner, L

    2002-12-01

    In the following, we describe the isolation and sequencing of the equine surfactant protein A (Sp-A) as found in both the cDNA and the genomic DNA. We found a length of the cDNA sequence of 747 bp (base pairs), in translation into amino acids of 248. Compared with the known molecular biological facts about Sp-A in other species, the cDNA sequence obtained showed highest homology with that of sheep (85.01%). The genomic DNA of equine Sp-A, as in other species, includes three introns. There were no hints for the existence of two different Sp-A genes. These results should form the basis for a better understanding of respiratory failure in foals and adult horses, and also lead to further studies on this item.

  2. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells.

    PubMed

    Murata, Daiki; Yamasaki, Atsushi; Matsuzaki, Shouta; Sunaga, Takafumi; Fujiki, Makoto; Tokunaga, Satoshi; Misumi, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of tilmicosin in equine tissues and plasma.

    PubMed

    Clark, C; Dowling, P M; Ross, S; Woodbury, M; Boison, J O

    2008-02-01

    The macrolide antibiotic tilmicosin has potential for treating bacterial respiratory tract infections in horses. A pharmacokinetic study evaluated the disposition of tilmicosin in the horse after oral (4 mg/kg) or subcutaneous (s.c.) (10 mg/kg) administration. Tilmicosin was not detected in equine plasma or tissues after oral administration at this dose. With s.c. injection, tilmicosin concentrations reached a maximum concentration of approximately 200 ng/mL in the plasma of the horses. Tilmicosin concentrations in plasma persisted with a mean residence time (MRT) of 19 h. Maximum tissue residue concentrations (C(max)) of tilmicosin measured in equine lung, kidney, liver and muscle tissues after s.c. administration were 2784, 4877, 1398, and 881 ng/g, respectively. The MRT of tilmicosin in these tissues was approximately 27 h. Subcutaneous administration of tilmicosin resulted in severe reactions at the injection sites.

  4. A Rapid Method for the Diagnosis of Equine Virus Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Correa, W. M.

    1970-01-01

    Smears and imprints were made from the liver of 27 equine fetuses, believed to have aborted as a result of Equine Virus Abortion (EVA) infection. Several different fixatives and staining techniques were employed for the demonstration of typical intra-nuclear inclusion bodies in these preparations, and the following conclusions were reached. Methanol proved to be the best fixative and Pappenheim's panoptic method was the best staining technique, giving good contrast and definition of the inclusion bodies. Cytological methods provided a simple and rapid means of diagnosis, but histological sections provided evidence of lesions which was most useful when inclusion bodies were very difficult to find. However, cytological methods proved better than histological sections for the demonstration of EVA intranuclear inclusion bodies. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:4192198

  5. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Catherine L; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A

    2015-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 10(3) MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine.

  6. The microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Rebekah; Lappin, David Francis; Dixon, Padraic Martin; Buijs, Mark Johannes; Zaura, Egija; Crielaard, Wim; O'Donnell, Lindsay; Bennett, David; Brandt, Bernd Willem; Riggio, Marcello Pasquale

    2016-04-14

    Equine periodontal disease is a common and painful condition and its severe form, periodontitis, can lead to tooth loss. Its aetiopathogenesis remains poorly understood despite recent increased awareness of this disorder amongst the veterinary profession. Bacteria have been found to be causative agents of the disease in other species, but current understanding of their role in equine periodontitis is extremely limited. The aim of this study was to use high-throughput sequencing to identify the microbiome associated with equine periodontitis and oral health. Subgingival plaque samples from 24 horses with periodontitis and gingival swabs from 24 orally healthy horses were collected. DNA was extracted from samples, the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR and amplicons sequenced using Illumina MiSeq. Data processing was conducted using USEARCH and QIIME. Diversity analyses were performed with PAST v3.02. Linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) was used to determine differences between the groups. In total, 1308 OTUs were identified and classified into 356 genera or higher taxa. Microbial profiles at health differed significantly from periodontitis, both in their composition (p < 0.0001, F = 12.24; PERMANOVA) and in microbial diversity (p < 0.001; Mann-Whitney test). Samples from healthy horses were less diverse (1.78, SD 0.74; Shannon diversity index) and were dominated by the genera Gemella and Actinobacillus, while the periodontitis group samples showed higher diversity (3.16, SD 0.98) and were dominated by the genera Prevotella and Veillonella. It is concluded that the microbiomes associated with equine oral health and periodontitis are distinct, with the latter displaying greater microbial diversity.

  7. Osteogenic potential of sorted equine mesenchymal stem cell subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Catherine L.; Nino-Fong, Rodolfo; Rodriguez-Lecompte, Juan Carlos; Esparza Gonzalez, Blanca P.; Stryhn, Henrik; McDuffee, Laurie A.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to use non-equilibrium gravitational field-flow fractionation (GrFFF), an immunotag-less method of sorting mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), to sort equine muscle tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MMSCs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSC) into subpopulations and to carry out assays in order to compare their osteogenic capabilities. Cells from 1 young adult horse were isolated from left semitendinosus muscle tissue and from bone marrow aspirates of the fourth and fifth sternebrae. Aliquots of 800 × 103 MSCs from each tissue source were sorted into 5 fractions using non-equilibrium GrFFF (GrFFF proprietary system). Pooled fractions were cultured and expanded for use in osteogenic assays, including flow cytometry, histochemistry, bone nodule assays, and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for gene expression of osteocalcin (OCN), RUNX2, and osterix. Equine MMSCs and BMSCs were consistently sorted into 5 fractions that remained viable for use in further osteogenic assays. Statistical analysis confirmed strongly significant upregulation of OCN, RUNX2, and osterix for the BMSC fraction 4 with P < 0.00001. Flow cytometry revealed different cell size and granularity for BMSC fraction 4 and MMSC fraction 2 compared to unsorted controls and other fractions. Histochemisty and bone nodule assays revealed positive staining nodules without differences in average nodule area, perimeter, or stain intensity between tissues or fractions. As there are different subpopulations of MSCs with different osteogenic capacities within equine muscle- and bone marrow-derived sources, these differences must be taken into account when using equine stem cell therapy to induce bone healing in veterinary medicine. PMID:25852225

  8. Effect of Dehydration Prior to Cryopreservation of Large Equine Embryos

    PubMed Central

    Barfield, JP; McCue, PM; Squires, EL; Seidel, GE

    2009-01-01

    Cryopreservation of equine embryos > 300 μm in diameter results in low survival rates using protocols that work well for smaller equine embryos. These experiments tested the potential benefit of incorporating a dehydration step prior to standard cryopreservation procedures. Forty-six, d 7–8, grade 1, equine embryos ≥ 400 μm in diameter were subjected to one of the following treatments: (A) 2-min in 0.6 M galactose, 10 min in 1.5 M glycerol, slow freeze (n=21); (B) 10 min in 1.5 M glycerol, slow freeze (n=15); (C) 2 min in 0.6 M galactose, 10 min in 1.5 M glycerol, followed by exposure to thaw solutions, then culture medium (n=5); (D) transferred directly to culture medium (n=5). Frozen embryos were thawed and subjected to a 3-step cryoprotectant removal. Five embryos from each treatment were evaluated morphologically after 24 and 48 h culture (1=excellent, 5=degenerate/dead). All treatments had at least 4/5 embryos with a quality score ≥ 3 at these time points except treatment B (2/5 at 24 h, 1/5 at 48 h). Subsequent embryos from treatment A (n=16) or B (n=10) were matched in sets of two for size and treatment, thawed, and immediately transferred in pairs to 13 recipients. Only two recipient mares were pregnant; one received two 400 μm embryos from treatment A, and the other one 400 μm and one 415 μm embryo from treatment B. There was no advantage of incorporating a 2 min dehydration step into the cryopreservation protocol for large equine embryos. PMID:19375416

  9. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, A; Nyman, G; Lundeberg, T; Drevemo, S

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2) in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334%) and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264%) and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature. PMID:16722304

  10. Low-power laser effects in equine traumatology and postsurgically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antikas, Theo G.

    1991-05-01

    The present field study on 800 cases of LPL treatments in situ using a preset `blind code' was designed to verify previously published field results; and to check whether a practicing equine vet, trainer, horse owner or rider may obtain beneficial therapeutic effects in traumatology and/or post-surgery, two of the most prevailing modalities in equine sportsmedicine. With the exception of chronic infected traumas, the positive/beneficial response to LPL treatment was verified in a range of 33.3% (infected) to 100% (non-infected, surgical) of the traumas under investigation. The administration of antibiotics, a modality compatible with LPL treatment in infected injuries, increased the beneficial effects of LPL irradiation to 66.7%. This fact indicates that laser irradiation should not be considered a replacement of common therapeutic routine but simply an efficient follow up or parallel treatment that may act synergistically to the benefit of an injured equine athlete. In the case of non-infected surgical trauma, LPL-treatment was additionally found to shorten the post-surgical `inactive' time period or `comeback time' (CBT), thus bringing the horse back into its sportive capacity considerably faster than without LPL irradiation, and at a statistically significant level (p < 0.001).

  11. Characterization of discrete equine intestinal epithelial cell lineages

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Liara M.; Kinnin, Leslie A.; Blikslager, Anthony T.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To characterize epithelial cells of the small intestine and colon in horses without clinical gastrointestinal abnormalities with an emphasis on the stem cell niche constituents. SAMPLE Mucosal biopsy specimens from small and large intestines obtained from 12 horses euthanized for reasons unrelated to gastrointestinal disease or systemic disease. PROCEDURES Intestinal biopsy specimens were collected by sharp dissection immediately following euthanasia. Specimens were prepared for immunohistochemical, immunofluorescence, and transmission electron microscopic imaging to detect and characterize each epithelial cell type. Antibodies against protein biomarkers for cellular identification were selected on the basis of expression in other mammalian species. RESULTS Intestinal epithelial cell types were identified by means of immunostaining and morphological characterization with transmission electron microscopy. Some differences in biomarker expression and antibody cross-reactivity were identified in equine tissue, compared with other species. However, each known type of mucosal epithelial cell was identified in equine tissue. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE The methodology used can enhance detection of stem cells and progenitor cells as well as postmitotic cell lineages in equine intestinal tissues. Results may have relevance to regenerative potential of intestinal mucosa and survival in horses with colic. PMID:25815577

  12. [Production and titration of a vaccine against the infectious encephalomyelitis of poultry].

    PubMed

    Shishkov, N; Enchev, S; Ribarov, B; Stoĭchev, S; Kalaĭdzhiĭski, A

    1978-01-01

    A vaccine was produced against infectious encephalomyelitis of day-old chicks infected cerebrally with strain Calnek 1143. It is a brain suspension from killed birds that have shown disease symptoms, treated with penicillin and streptomycin and stored at -20 degrees C. Experiments were carried out to titrate the vaccine through determining the minimum infective dose for day-old chicks treated with 0.1 cm3 each of it, orally, as obtained from tenfold dilutions. It was found that birds do not manifest clinically the disease, however, with birds killed 20--25 days following infection there have been characteristic histologic changes speaking of infectious encephalomyelitis. The minimum infective dose of the various batches of vaccine have been found to range from 10(-3) to 10(-5)/cm3. Applied under the conditions of the practice the vaccine has proved harmless, contributing to eradication of the disease on the infected farms.

  13. Development of an Equine-Tropic Replication-Competent Lentivirus Assay for Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Based Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Richard; Leroux-Carlucci, Marie A.; Evans, Nerys E.; Miskin, James E.; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The release of lentiviral vectors for clinical use requires the testing of vector material, production cells, and, if applicable, ex vivo-transduced cells for the presence of replication-competent lentivirus (RCL). Vectors derived from the nonprimate lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) have been directly administered to patients in several clinical trials, with no toxicity observed to date. Because EIAV does not replicate in human cells, and because putative RCLs derived from vector components within human vector production cells would most likely be human cell-tropic, we previously developed an RCL assay using amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV) as a surrogate positive control and human cells as RCL amplification/indicator cells. Here we report an additional RCL assay that tests for the presence of theoretical “equine-tropic” RCLs. This approach provides further assurance of safety by detecting putative RCLs with an equine cell-specific tropism that might not be efficiently amplified by the human cell-based RCL assay. We tested the ability of accessory gene-deficient EIAV mutant viruses to replicate in a highly permissive equine cell line to direct our choice of a suitable EIAV-derived positive control. In addition, we report for the first time the mathematical rationale for use of the Poisson distribution to calculate minimal infectious dose of positive control virus and for use in monitoring assay positive/spike control failures in accumulating data sets. No RCLs have been detected in Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP)-compliant RCL assays to date, further demonstrating that RCL formation is highly unlikely in contemporary minimal lentiviral vector systems. PMID:23121195

  14. Myalgic encephalomyelitis: a review with emphasis on key findings in biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, M

    2007-01-01

    This review examines research findings in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis in light of the current debate about this chronic multiple‐symptom, multiorgan, multisystem illness and the conflicting views in medicine. These issues cannot be separated from the political opinions and assertions that conflict with science and medicine, and will be part of this review as they have enormous consequences for scientific and medical research, patients, clinicians, carers and policy makers. PMID:16935967

  15. A Case Report of Post Rabipur (Purified Chick Embryo Rabies Vaccine) Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, A K Bishorjit; Pradhan, R N; Pathak, Vipin Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that typically occurs following a viral infection or vaccination. The incidence of ADEM following vaccination has become very low since introduction of non-neural rabies vaccine and only few cases had been reported due to pure chick embryo derived rabies vaccine (PCERV). Here we are reporting a rare case of delayed post vaccinal ADEM. PMID:26591130

  16. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses and equine arteritis virus in Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli ) from the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Kerstin; Wiik, Harald; Frölich, Kai; Ludwig, Hanns; East, Marion L

    2005-01-01

    A total of 51 sera from a migratory population of Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) were collected in the Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) between 1999 and 2001 to assess levels of exposure to equine herpesvirus types 1, 2, 4, 9 (EHV-1, -2, -4, -9), EHV-1 zebra isolate T965, and equine arteritis virus (EAV). Using virus-specific neutralizing antibody tests, seroprevalence was high for EHV-9 (60% of 45), moderate for EAV (24% of 51), and lower for the EHV-1-related zebra isolate (17% of 41), EHV-1 (14% of 49), and EHV-4 (2% of 50). No evidence for exposure to EHV-2 was found (0% of 51). The high level of exposure to EHV-9 is interesting because evidence of infection with this virus has not been previously described in any wild equine population. Although the epidemiology of EHV-9 in Burchell's zebras is presently unknown, our results suggest that in East Africa, this species may be a natural host of EHV-9, a neuropathogenic virus that was only recently isolated from captive Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in Japan. There is currently no evidence that EHV-9 induced mortality in Burchell's zebras in the Serengeti, but because of the reported virulence of this virus for more susceptible species such as Thomson's gazelles, viral transmission from infected zebras to ungulates may result in mortality. PMID:15827213

  17. Hepatitis Due to Equine Abortion Virus. Comparison Between the Liver Histology in Human, Canine, Duckling, and Equine Viral Hepatitis1

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, W. M.; Nilsson, M. R.

    1966-01-01

    Five livers of equine fetuses, aborted due to the action of equine abortion virus, five livers from men, two of whom died of epidemic hepatitis and three obtained by needle biopsies, 5 livers of dogs with infectious canine hepatitis and 7 livers of ducklings that had hepatitis, were studied histopathologically. The foals' livers were studied by several staining methods and the others by H. E. only. The results indicate that the lesions are quite similar in the four species with the appearance of nuclear inclusion bodies only in foals and dogs. The strong staining properties of the nuclear inclusion bodies in infectious canine hepatitis and the weak staining properties of the equine virus abortion reveal that the protein-DNA association is different resulting in a different electropolarity. The lesions in foals are of two main types, one a Necrotic-Mosaic Type in which the hepatocyte degeneration is irregularly distributed within the hepatic lobules and the other an Hyperplastic Type in which marked regeneration occurs. In the Hyperplastic Type the practical absence of plasmocytes in foals' livers might suggest that if the newborn is a female, abortions may occur later in life because the virus remained alive in colts which were born in an immune tolerance state. Histologically the picture in the livers of aborted foals assume features of a viral hepatitis similar to the viral hepatitis in men, dogs and ducklings. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7.Fig. 8.Fig. 9. PMID:4225286

  18. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses and equine arteritis virus in Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli ) from the Serengeti ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Borchers, Kerstin; Wiik, Harald; Frölich, Kai; Ludwig, Hanns; East, Marion L

    2005-01-01

    A total of 51 sera from a migratory population of Burchell's zebras (Equus burchelli) were collected in the Serengeti National Park (Tanzania) between 1999 and 2001 to assess levels of exposure to equine herpesvirus types 1, 2, 4, 9 (EHV-1, -2, -4, -9), EHV-1 zebra isolate T965, and equine arteritis virus (EAV). Using virus-specific neutralizing antibody tests, seroprevalence was high for EHV-9 (60% of 45), moderate for EAV (24% of 51), and lower for the EHV-1-related zebra isolate (17% of 41), EHV-1 (14% of 49), and EHV-4 (2% of 50). No evidence for exposure to EHV-2 was found (0% of 51). The high level of exposure to EHV-9 is interesting because evidence of infection with this virus has not been previously described in any wild equine population. Although the epidemiology of EHV-9 in Burchell's zebras is presently unknown, our results suggest that in East Africa, this species may be a natural host of EHV-9, a neuropathogenic virus that was only recently isolated from captive Thomson's gazelles (Gazella thomsoni) in Japan. There is currently no evidence that EHV-9 induced mortality in Burchell's zebras in the Serengeti, but because of the reported virulence of this virus for more susceptible species such as Thomson's gazelles, viral transmission from infected zebras to ungulates may result in mortality.

  19. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  20. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    PubMed

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  1. Antibody responses after vaccination against equine influenza in the Republic of Korea in 2013

    PubMed Central

    KIM, Eun-Ju; KIM, Bo-Hye; YANG, Sunjoo; CHOI, Eun-Jin; SHIN, Ye-Jin; SONG, Jae-Young; SHIN, Yeun-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    In this study, antibody responses after equine influenza vaccination were investigated among 1,098 horses in Korea using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. The equine influenza viruses, A/equine/South Africa/4/03 (H3N8) and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08 (H3N8), were used as antigens in the HI assay. The mean seropositive rates were 91.7% (geometric mean antibody levels (GMT), 56.8) and 93.6% (GMT, 105.2) for A/equine/South Africa/4/03 and A/equine/Wildeshausen/1/08, respectively. Yearlings and two-year-olds in training exhibited lower positive rates (68.1% (GMT, 14) and 61.7% (GMT, 11.9), respectively, with different antigens) than average. Horses two years old or younger may require more attention in vaccination against equine influenza according to the vaccination regime, because they could be a target of the equine influenza virus. PMID:26062436

  2. Effect of dietary starch source and concentration on equine fecal microbiota

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch from corn is less susceptible to equine small intestinal digestion than starch from oats, and starch that reaches the hindgut can be utilized by the microbiota. The objective of the current study was to examine the effects of starch source on equine fecal microbiota. Thirty horses were assig...

  3. Characteristics of the Equine Degree Department: Budgeting and the Department Chairperson.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matte, Grace E.

    This study examined characteristics of 73 equine degree programs in the United States, the training and duties of their department chairpersons, and their budgetary processes. Analysis of data from questionnaire responses revealed a large variety of equine degree and minor programs, with annual budgets ranging from $2,000 to $757,200. Public…

  4. Monoclonal antibody to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus defines a determinant on myelin and oligodendrocytes, and augments demyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Yamada, M; Zurbriggen, A; Fujinami, R S

    1990-06-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes a chronic demyelinating disease in mice. The mechanisms underlying the demyelination have not been fully elucidated. We have raised a mAb to TMEV (DA strain), H8, that reacts both with TMEV VP-1 and galactocerebroside (GC). In mouse brain cultures, cells positive for the mAb H8 epitope were double labeled with antibody to myelin basic protein, indicating that those cells were oligodendrocytes. Further, mAb H8 could immunostain myelin structures in frozen sections from mouse brains. When injected intravenously into mice with acute allergic encephalomyelitis, mAb H8 increased by 10-fold the size of demyelinated areas within the spinal cords. This is the first report demonstrating that an antibody to virus can enhance demyelination of a central nervous system disease. Ig fractions from the sera of mice with chronic TMEV infection had antibody(s) to GC, as well as to TMEV, as determined by ELISA. Furthermore, a competition ELISA for TMEV or GC antigen revealed that sera from these infected mice contained antibody(s) with the same specificity as mAb H8. Our results indicate that antibodies generated by immune response to TMEV can react with myelin and oligodendrocytes, and contribute to demyelination through an immune process.

  5. Monoclonal antibody to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus defines a determinant on myelin and oligodendrocytes, and augments demyelination in experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes a chronic demyelinating disease in mice. The mechanisms underlying the demyelination have not been fully elucidated. We have raised a mAb to TMEV (DA strain), H8, that reacts both with TMEV VP-1 and galactocerebroside (GC). In mouse brain cultures, cells positive for the mAb H8 epitope were double labeled with antibody to myelin basic protein, indicating that those cells were oligodendrocytes. Further, mAb H8 could immunostain myelin structures in frozen sections from mouse brains. When injected intravenously into mice with acute allergic encephalomyelitis, mAb H8 increased by 10-fold the size of demyelinated areas within the spinal cords. This is the first report demonstrating that an antibody to virus can enhance demyelination of a central nervous system disease. Ig fractions from the sera of mice with chronic TMEV infection had antibody(s) to GC, as well as to TMEV, as determined by ELISA. Furthermore, a competition ELISA for TMEV or GC antigen revealed that sera from these infected mice contained antibody(s) with the same specificity as mAb H8. Our results indicate that antibodies generated by immune response to TMEV can react with myelin and oligodendrocytes, and contribute to demyelination through an immune process. PMID:1693653

  6. Effects of weather and landscape on the equine West Nile virus infection risk in Mississippi, USA.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guiming

    2015-11-04

    The West Nile virus (WNv) continues to be a public health concern in North America. Dry weather appears to increase human WNv infection risks, but it is uncertain whether dry weather conditions exert similar effects on the corresponding equine WNv infection. This study assessed the effects of precipitation of the previous year and land cover diversity on the equine WNv risk of Mississippi, USA, at the county level in the year 2002 using Bayesian hierarchical models. The risk estimated for 2002 was found to be inversely related to annual precipitation of the preceding year. Equine WNv risks were lower with greater land cover diversity probably due to the diluting effects of biodiversity. Correlation between the equine and human WNv risks was positive but relatively low. Dry weather conditions of the previous year might reduce mosquito competitors and predators and subsequently increase mosquito abundances and equine WNv risks in agricultural areas with low biodiversity.

  7. Identification of equine influenza virus infection in Asian wild horses (Equus przewalskii).

    PubMed

    Yin, Xin; Lu, Gang; Guo, Wei; Qi, Ting; Ma, Jian; Zhu, Chao; Zhao, Shihua; Pan, Jialiang; Xiang, Wenhua

    2014-05-01

    An outbreak of equine influenza was observed in the Asian wild horse population in Xinjiang Province, China, in 2007. Nasal swabs were collected from wild horses and inoculated into 9-10-day SPF embryonated eggs. The complete genome of the isolate was sequenced. A comparison of the amino acid sequence revealed that the isolate was an equine influenza virus strain, which we named A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007. Each gene of the virus was found to have greater than 99 % homology to equine influenza virus strains of the Florida-2 sublineage, which were circulating simultaneously in China, and a lesser amount of homology was found to the strain A/equine/Qinghai/1/1994 (European lineage), which was isolated during the last outbreak in China. These observations were confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. In addition, the deduced amino acid sequence of the neuraminidase of the A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 strain was identical to that of A/equine/California/8560/2002, an American isolate, and was found to be similar to those of Florida-2 strains found in other countries by comparing them with nine other field strains that were isolated in China from 2007 to 2008. It is suggested that the neuraminidase segment of A/equine/Xinjiang/4/2007 may have been obtained from equine influenza virus strains from other countries. We report for the first time an outbreak of equine influenza in the Asian wild horse population, and the complete genome of the virus is provided and analyzed.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Equine APRIL and its Expression Analysis During the Adipogenic Differentiation of Equine Adipose-Derived Stem Cell In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haitao; Bi, Xiaolin; Cao, Fang; Zhu, Cuicui; Liu, Hongzhen; Song, Jinyun; Ma, Lei; Ma, Li; Zhang, Yi; Zhao, Dongwei; Liu, Hongyan; Xu, Xinzhou; Zhang, Shuangquan

    2016-10-01

    A proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) is a member of the TNF superfamily. It shares two receptors with B-cell activating factor (BAFF), B-cell maturation antigen (BCMA), and transmembrane activator and CAML interactor (TACI). Herein, the equine APRIL was identified from equine adipose-derived stem cell (ASC), and the protein expression of APRIL and its related molecules were detected during the adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC in vitro. The equine APRIL gene was located on chromosome 11, spans 1852 base pairs (bp). Its open reading frame covers 753 bp, encoding a 250-amino acid protein with the typical TNF structure domain. During the two weeks' adipogenic differentiation of equine ASC, although the protein expression of APRIL and TACI had an insignificant change, that of BCMA increased significantly. Moreover, with the addition of recombinant protein His6-sAPRIL, a reduced differentiation of equine ASC toward adipocyte was detected. These results may provide the basis for investigating the role of APRIL in ASC adipogenic differentiation. PMID:27565870

  9. Cloning and expression of recombinant equine interleukin-3 and its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Lehmann, Melissa; Luttmann, Werner; Marti, Eliane

    2015-02-15

    Interleukin-3 is a growth and differentiation factor for various hematopoietic cells. IL-3 also enhances stimulus-dependent release of mediators and cytokine production by mature basophils. Function of IL-3 has not been studied in horses because of lack of horse-specific reagents. Our aim was to produce recombinant equine IL-3 and test its effect on sulfidoleukotriene and cytokine production by equine peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Equine IL-3 was cloned, expressed in E. coli and purified. PBL of 19 healthy and 20 insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH)-affected horses were stimulated with Culicoides nubeculosus extract with or without IL-3. Sulfidoleukotriene (sLT) production was measured in supernatants by ELISA and mRNA expression of IL-4, IL-13 and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) assessed in cell lysate by quantitative real-time PCR. Recombinant equine IL-3 (req-IL-3) had a dose dependent effect on sLT production by stimulated equine PBL and significantly increased IL-4, IL-13 and TSLP expression compared to non-primed cells. IL-3 priming significantly increased Culicoides-induced sLT production in IBH-affected but not in non-affected horses and was particularly effective in young IBH-affected horses (≤ 3 years). A functionally active recombinant equine IL-3 has been produced which will be useful for future immunological studies in horses. It will also allow improving the sensitivity of cellular in vitro tests for allergy diagnosis in horses. PMID:25530476

  10. Exploring the applicability of equine blood to bloodstain pattern analysis.

    PubMed

    Larkin, Bethany A J; Banks, Craig E

    2016-07-01

    Bloodstain pattern analysis (BPA) is the forensic application of the interpretation of distinct patterns which blood exhibits during a bloodletting incident, providing key evidence with its ability to map the sequence of events. Here, we explore the use of equine blood and investigate its suitability within the field of BPA. Blood is a complex fluid, and finding a suitable safe substitute to human blood that encompasses all of its characteristics has been the focus of many investigations. Animal blood has been concluded as the closest and therefore the most suitable alternate. However, it seems that currently only porcine blood is most prominently utilised.In this study, equine blood was investigated, using two different anti-clotting methods, where blood impacts were explored over a typical range of varying impact velocities upon a selection of commonly encountered surfaces. Key BPA parameters, such as the diameters of the resulting bloodstains, number of spines and area of origin were measured, which were subsequently applied into previously derived BPA equations.We find that defibrinated equine blood is a suitable alternative and offers the same conclusive outcomes to human blood. This gives bloodstain pattern investigators and researchers an additional choice of blood which can be of benefit when certain bloods are difficult to attain or when the activity involves the usage of a large quantity of blood. Additionally we explore the effect on BPA of aged blood, which revealed a significant decrease in stain diameter of up to 12.78 % when blood has been left for 57 days. A shelf life of no more than 12 days is recommended when blood is refrigerated at 4℃. PMID:25013163

  11. Equine Clinical Genomics: A Clinician’s Primer

    PubMed Central

    Brosnahan, Margaret Mary; Brooks, Samantha A.; Antczak, Douglas F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The objective of this review is to introduce equine clinicians to the rapidly evolving field of clinical genomics with a vision of improving the health and welfare of the domestic horse. For fifteen years a consortium of veterinary geneticists and clinicians has worked together under the umbrella of The Horse Genome Project. This group, encompassing 22 laboratories in 12 countries, has made rapid progress, developing several iterations of linkage, physical and comparative gene maps of the horse with increasing levels of detail. In early 2006, the research was greatly facilitated when the U.S. National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institutes of Health added the horse to the list of mammalian species scheduled for whole genome sequencing. The genome of the domestic horse has now been sequenced and is available to researchers worldwide in publicly accessible databases. This achievement creates the potential for transformative change within the horse industry, particularly in the fields of internal medicine, sports medicine and reproduction. The genome sequence has enabled the development of new genome-wide tools and resources for studying inherited diseases of the horse. To date, researchers have identified eleven mutations causing ten clinical syndromes in the horse. Testing is commercially available for all but one of these diseases. Future research will probably identify the genetic bases for other equine diseases, produce new diagnostic tests and generate novel therapeutics for some of these conditions. This will enable equine clinicians to play a critical role in ensuring the thoughtful and appropriate application of this knowledge as they assist clients with breeding and clinical decision-making. PMID:20840582

  12. A rapid screen for four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Bischoff, Karyn

    2014-06-01

    Most antidoping method development in the equine industry has been for plasma and urine, though there has been recent interest in the analysis of synovial fluid for evidence of doping by intra-articular corticosteroid injection. Published methods for corticosteroid analysis in synovial fluid are primarily singleplex methods, do not screen for all corticosteroids of interest and are not adequately sensitive. The purpose of this study is to develop a rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) screening method for the detection of four of the most common intra-articularly administered corticosteroids--betamethasone, methylprednisolone, methylprednisolone acetate and triamcinolone acetonide. Sample preparation consisted of protein precipitation followed by a basified liquid-liquid extraction. LC-MS-MS experiments consisted of a six-min isocratic separation using a Phenomenex Polar-RP stationary phase and a mobile phase consisting of 35% acetonitrile, 5 mM ammonium acetate and 0.1% formic acid in nanopure water. The detection system used was a triple quadrupole mass analyzer with thermospray ionization, and compounds were identified using selective reaction monitoring. The method was validated to the ISO/IEC 17025 standard, and real synovial fluid samples were analyzed to demonstrate the application of the method in an antidoping context. The method was highly selective for the four corticosteroids with limits of detection of 1-3 ng/mL. The extraction efficiency was 50-101%, and the matrix effects were 14-31%. These results indicate that the method is a rapid and sensitive screen for the four corticosteroids in equine synovial fluid, fit for purpose for equine antidoping assays. PMID:24713534

  13. Equine laryngeal hemiplegia. Part V. Central nervous system pathology.

    PubMed

    Cahill, J I; Goulden, B E

    1986-11-01

    Evidence of long central nerve fibre degeneration (axonal spheroids) in the lateral cuneate nuclei was found in all eight Thoroughbreds affected clinically and subclinically with equine laryngeal hemiplegia, but in only one of six control animals. It was considered that these spheroids may signify a central nervous component of the disease process of laryngeal hemiplegia although until further investigations are performed no firm conclusions regarding the relationship of these findings with laryngeal hemiplegia could be made. Examination of the left and right nucleus ambiguus of clinical and subclinical laryngeal hemiplegic horses revealed no pathological alterations.

  14. Practical Rehabilitation and Physical Therapy for the General Equine Practitioner.

    PubMed

    Kaneps, Andris J

    2016-04-01

    Physical treatment and rehabilitation play major roles in recovery and maintenance of the equine athlete, and many therapeutic measures are accessible by the veterinarian in general practice. An accurate diagnosis of the condition undergoing treatment is a requirement, and measurable parameters obtained at diagnosis allows for quantification of treatment outcomes. Therapeutic modalities accessible to the general practicing veterinarian are reviewed. Mechanisms of action, indications, and treatment protocols of thermal therapy, therapeutic ultrasound, extracorporeal shock wave, and laser are discussed. Manipulative therapies, including stretching and use of core strengthening exercises and equipment, are outlined. PMID:26898959

  15. Carbon nanospheres mediated delivery of nuclear matrix protein SMAR1 to direct experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice

    PubMed Central

    Chemmannur, Sijo V; Bhagat, Prasad; Mirlekar, Bhalchandra; Paknikar, Kishore M; Chattopadhyay, Samit

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the suppression of immune responses and associated side effects, steroid based treatments for inflammatory encephalitis disease can be detrimental. Here, we demonstrate a novel carbon nanosphere (CNP) based treatment regime for encephalomyelitis in mice by exploiting the functional property of the nuclear matrix binding protein SMAR1. A truncated part of SMAR1 ie, the DNA binding domain was conjugated with hydrothermally synthesized CNPs. When administered intravenously, the conjugate suppressed experimental animal encephalomyelitis in T cell specific conditional SMAR1 knockout mice (SMAR−/−). Further, CNP-SMAR1 conjugate delayed the onset of the disease and reduced the demyelination significantly. There was a significant decrease in the production of IL-17 after re-stimulation with MOG. Altogether, our findings suggest a potential carbon nanomaterial based therapeutic intervention to combat Th17 mediated autoimmune diseases including experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. PMID:27274234

  16. The Equine PeptideAtlas – a resource for developing proteomics-based veterinary research

    PubMed Central

    Bundgaard, Louise; Jacobsen, Stine; Sørensen, Mette Aamand; Sun, Zhi; Deutsch, Eric W.; Moritz, Robert L.; Bendixen, Emøke

    2015-01-01

    Progress in mass spectrometry-based methods for veterinary research and diagnostics is lagging behind compared to the human research, and proteome data of domestic animals is still not well represented in open source data repositories. This is particularly true for the equine species. Here we present a first Equine PeptideAtlas encompassing high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analyses of 51 samples representing a selection of equine tissues and body fluids from healthy and diseased animals. The raw data were processed through the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline to yield high quality identification of proteins and peptides. The current release comprises 24,131 distinct peptides representing 2636 canonical proteins observed at false discovery rates of 0.2 % at the peptide level and 1.4 % at the protein level. Data from the Equine PeptideAtlas are available for experimental planning, validation of new datasets, and as a proteomic data mining resource. The advantages of the Equine PeptideAtlas are demonstrated by examples of mining the contents for information on potential and well-known equine acute phase proteins, which have extensive general interest in the veterinary clinic. The extracted information will support further analyses, and emphasises the value of the Equine PeptideAtlas as a resource for the design of targeted quantitative proteomic studies. PMID:24436130

  17. The epitheliogenesis imperfecta locus maps to equine chromosome 8 in American Saddlebred horses.

    PubMed

    Lieto, L D; Cothran, E G

    2003-01-01

    Epitheliogenesis imperfecta (EI) is a hereditary junctional mechanobullous disease that occurs in newborn American Saddlebred foals. The pathological signs of epitheliogenesis imperfecta closely match a similar disease in humans known as Herlitz junctional epidermolysis bullosa, which is caused by a mutation in one of the genes (LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2) coding for the subunits of the laminin 5 protein (laminin alpha3, laminin beta3 and laminin gamma2). The LAMA3 gene has been assigned to equine chromosome 8 and LAMB3 and LAMC2 have been mapped to equine chromosome 5. Linkage disequilibrium between microsatellite markers that mapped to equine chromosome 5 and equine chromosome 8 and the EI disease locus was tested in American Saddlebred horses. The allele frequencies of microsatellite alleles at 11 loci were determined for both epitheliogenesis imperfecta affected and unaffected populations of American Saddlebred horses by genotyping and direct counting of alleles. These were used to determine fit to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for control and EI populations using Chi square analysis. Two microsatellite loci located on equine chromosome 8q, ASB14 and AHT3, were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in affected American Saddlebred horses. In comparison, all of the microsatellite markers located on equine chromosome 5 were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in affected American Saddlebred horses. This suggested that the EI disease locus was located on equine chromosome 8q, where LAMA3 is also located. PMID:14970704

  18. Assessment of fallen equine data in France and their usefulness for epidemiological investigations.

    PubMed

    Tapprest, Jackie; Borey, Marion; Dornier, Xavier; Morignat, Eric; Calavas, Didier; Hendrikx, Pascal; Ferry, Bénédicte; Sala, Carole

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative information about equine mortality is relatively scarce, yet it could be of great value for epidemiology purposes. Several European projects based on the exploitation of data from rendering plants have been developed to improve livestock surveillance. Similar data are available for equines in France but have never been studied to date. The objective of this research was to evaluate the potential of the French Ministry of Agriculture's Fallen Stock Data Interchange (FSDI) database to provide quantitative mortality information on the French equine population. The quality of FSDI equine data from 2011 to 2014 was assessed using complementary data registered in the French equine census database, SIRE. Despite a perfectible quality, the FSDI database proved to be a valuable source for studying the basal patterns of mortality over time in the French equine population as illustrated by the spatial representation of the number of deaths. However, improvements in the FSDI database are needed, in particular regarding the registration of animal identification numbers, in order to detail equine mortality for epidemiology purposes. PMID:26850545

  19. Environmental risk factors for equine West Nile virus disease cases in Texas.

    PubMed

    Ward, Michael P; Wittich, Courtney A; Fosgate, Geoffrey; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2009-06-01

    West Nile Virus (WNV) was first detected in the Texas equine population during June 2002. Infection has since spread rapidly across the state and become endemic in the equine population. Environmental risk factors associated with equine WNV attack rates in Texas counties during the period 2002 to 2004 were investigated. Equine WNV attack rates were smoothed using an empirical Bayesian model, because of the variability among county equine populations (range 46-9,517). Risk factors investigated included hydrological features (lakes, rivers, swamps, canals and river basins), land cover (tree, mosaic, shrub, herbaceous, cultivated and artificial), elevation, climate (rainfall and temperature), and reports of WNV-positive mosquito and wild bird samples. Estimated county equine WNV attack rate was best described by the number of lakes, presence of broadleaf deciduous forest, presence of cultivated areas, location within the Brazos River watershed, WNV-positive mosquito status and average temperature. An understanding of environmental factors that increase equine WNV disease risk can be used to design and target disease control programs.

  20. A fresh look at the anatomy and physiology of equine mastication.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Padraic M; du Toit, Nicole; Staszyk, Carsten

    2013-08-01

    There have been many significant and interesting developments in equine dental anatomy during the past 20 years that are of major clinical significance in better understanding the physiology of equine mastication, the etiopathogenesis of some dental disorders, and their safe treatment. The many recent significant developments include descriptions of the enamel infolding of cheek teeth and of infundibular anatomy, including the frequent absence of cementum infilling in many infundibulae, which can lead to infundibular caries. Many important developments in equine dental anatomy are summarized in this article.

  1. Equine pythiosis: report in crossed bred (Criole Venezuelan) horses.

    PubMed

    Salas, Y; Márquez, A; Canelón, J; Perazzo, Y; Colmenárez, V; López, J A

    2012-12-01

    Pythium insidiosum is a pathogenic oomycete known since 1890 that causes pythiosis in mammals. In this report, seven P. insidiosum isolates were recovered from Venezuelan horses and were characterized. The strains were recovered from biopsied tissues and kunkers collected from granulomatous masses located on the hind limb and from a nodular lesion in the left upper eyelid, which decrease the ability of the horses to be used for working purposes. The methods used to identify P. insidiosum isolates were based on the production of sporangia and zoospores, histopathology and PCR assay. To further characterize these strains, portions of the 18S rRNA genes of the seven isolates were sequenced. The sequences showed high homology to previously described P. insidiosum DNA sequences available in GenBank. Similar studies based on the morphological, histological and molecular data identified the etiological agent in samples of granulomatous lesions in these equines as P. insidiosum. In America, the infection has been diagnosed more frequently in equines of Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica and the United States of America. PMID:22772508

  2. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens.

  3. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts.

    PubMed

    Murakami, S; Otaki, M; Hayashi, Y; Higuchi, K; Kobayashi, T; Torii, Y; Yokoyama, E; Azuma, R

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7-99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  4. Isolation and characterization of equine microvascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bochsler, P N; Slauson, D O; Chandler, S K; Suyemoto, M M

    1989-10-01

    The use of cultured tissue has not yet become widespread in research involving equine disease, and this may be attributable in part to the scarcity of published reports concerning tissue culture methods for this species. We report here the isolation of equine microvascular endothelium (EMVE) from fresh omental tissue of horses and ponies. Fresh donor tissue was minced, subjected to collagenase digestion, and filtered. Cells were layered on 5% bovine serum albumin for gravity sedimentation, the bottom layer was collected, and the cells were plated onto fibronectin-coated flasks. Medium consisted of Dulbecco modified Eagle medium with 10% whole fetal bovine serum (wFBS) and 20 micrograms of endothelial cell growth supplement/ml. The EMVE grew readily in culture, had the cobblestone morphologic feature at confluence, stained positively for factor VIII-related antigen, and metabolized acetylated low-density lipoprotein. Fibroblast and smooth muscle cell contamination was minimal in primary cell cultures, which were successfully passed and maintained in culture for 3 to 5 serial passages, using various media and substrates. Preliminary studies were undertaken to determine optimal growth conditions with a range of variables: serum concentration, extracellular matrix components, and growth factors, Optimal conditions were achieved with a minimum of 10% wFBS, and with either fibronectin or laminin as extracellular matrix substrates. The EMVE grew adequately in Dulbecco modified Eagle medium plus 10% wFBS, and the added growth factors or serum supplements did not appear necessary for growth of EMVE.

  5. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 13 DNA in Equine Sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Michele; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Rodrigues, Wagner Borges; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Equine sarcoids are locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasms considered to be the most common skin tumors of horses worldwide. Bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 have typically been associated with sarcoids in equids. Investigations aiming to identify papillomavirus strains, aside from bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2, which might be associated with sarcoid lesions, have been lacking. The aim of this article is to report the identification of a third bovine papillomavirus type, bovine papillomavirus 13, associated with equine sarcoids. Six sarcoid lesions were collected from diverse anatomical sites on two horses from southern Brazil. To detect a broad spectrum of papillomavirus strains, eight degenerate primer pairs designed to detect conserved regions on the L1 and E1 genes were tested on the DNA samples. Direct sequencing was then performed on the obtained amplicons, and sequence identities were compared with sequences from all bovine papillomavirus types. The FAP59/FAP64, MY09/MY11, and AR-E1F2/AR-E1R4 sequences generated from the sarcoids were shown to present 99 to 100% identity with bovine papillomavirus 13, a new bovine papillomavirus type previously described in cattle. The results from this study suggest that there is a need to identify bovine papillomavirus type 13 and other papillomavirus strains that might be associated with sarcoids in diverse geographical areas; such investigations might establish the frequency of occurrence of this viral type in these common tumors of equids. PMID:23637294

  6. Characteristics and multipotency of equine dedifferentiated fat cells

    PubMed Central

    MURATA, Daiki; YAMASAKI, Atsushi; MATSUZAKI, Shouta; SUNAGA, Takafumi; FUJIKI, Makoto; TOKUNAGA, Satoshi; MISUMI, Kazuhiro

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells have been shown to be multipotent, similar to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we aimed to establish and characterize equine DFAT cells. Equine adipocytes were ceiling cultured, and then dedifferentiated into DFAT cells by the seventh day of culture. The number of DFAT cells was increased to over 10 million by the fourth passage. Flow cytometry of DFAT cells showed that the cells were strongly positive for CD44, CD90, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I; moderately positive for CD11a/18, CD105, and MHC class II; and negative for CD34 and CD45. Moreover, DFAT cells were positive for the expression of sex determining region Y-box 2 as a marker of multipotency. Finally, we found that DFAT cells could differentiate into osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic lineages under specific nutrient conditions. Thus, DFAT cells could have clinical applications in tissue regeneration, similar to MSCs derived from adipose tissue. PMID:27330399

  7. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype. PMID:27054586

  8. Polarization sensitive optical coherence tomography in equine bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, J. W.; Matcher, S. J.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been used to image equine bone samples. OCT and polarization sensitive OCT (PS-OCT) images of equine bone samples, before and after demineralization, are presented. Using a novel approach, taking a series of images at different angles of illumination, the polar angle and true birefringence of collagen within the tissue is determined, at one site in the sample. The images were taken before and after the bones were passed through a demineralization process. The images show an improvement in depth penetration after demineralization allowing better visualization of the internal structure of the bone and the optical orientation of the collagen. A quantitative measurement of true birefringence has been made of the bone; true birefringence was shown to be 1.9x10-3 before demineralization increasing to 2.7x10-3 after demineralization. However, determined collagen fiber orientation remains the same before and after demineralization. The study of bone is extensive within the field of tissue engineering where an understanding of the internal structures is essential. OCT in bone, and improved depth penetration through demineralization, offers a useful approach to bone analysis.

  9. Actinomyces denticolens colonisation identified in equine tonsillar crypts

    PubMed Central

    Murakami, S.; Otaki, M.; Hayashi, Y.; Higuchi, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Torii, Y.; Yokoyama, E.; Azuma, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recently, submandibular abscesses associated with Actinomyces denticolens have been reported in horses. The actinomycotic clumps have been observed in the tonsillar crypts. The aim of this study was to demonstrate colonisation of A denticolens in equine tonsils. Twelve equine tonsils obtained from a slaughterhouse were divided into two parts for histopathological examination and for isolation of A denticolens. When actinomycotic clumps were found in these tonsillar crypts, immunohistochemistry using hyperimmune serum against A denticolens (DMS 20671) was performed on the serial sections. To determine whether Actinomyces-like bacteria isolated using immunoantigenic separation technique were A denticolens, the isolates were analysed for the 16S rRNA gene sequence. Actinomycotic clumps were found in the tonsillar crypts of 11 (91.7 per cent) horses. The clumps were of the saprophytic type accompanied with the feedstuffs, but a few clumps were surrounded by inflammatory cells. A denticolens antigens were immunodetected not only in the clumps of 11 (100 per cent) tonsils, but also in the tonsillar parenchyma. Six isolates obtained from four tonsils showed 99.7–99.9 per cent similarity to A denticolens in the 16S rRNA gene sequence. In horses, the colonisation sites of A denticolens are the tonsils, thus the authors suggest that the tonsils provide the intrinsic infection site for A denticolens. PMID:27651913

  10. The Past, Present and Future of Domestic Equines in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    WILSON, R. Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania’s array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  11. Characterization of genetic variability of Venezuelan equine encephalitis viruses

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A.; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C.; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-04-07

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broadmore » panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Lastly, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.« less

  12. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Shea N.; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A.; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C.; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype. PMID:27054586

  13. Inheritance of equine sarcoid disease in Franches-Montagnes horses.

    PubMed

    Christen, Garance; Gerber, Vinzenz; Dolf, Gaudenz; Burger, Dominique; Koch, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The mode of inheritance for susceptibility to equine sarcoid disease (ES) remains unknown. The objectives of this study were to analyse a large sample of the Franches-Montagnes (FM) horse population and investigate the heritability and mode of inheritance for susceptibility to ES. Horses were clinically examined for the presence of sarcoid tumours. A standardized examination protocol and client questionnaire were used and a pedigree- and subsequent segregation-analysis for the ES trait performed. To investigate the mode of inheritance, five models were evaluated and compared in a hierarchical way. The analyses reveal that variation in susceptibility to ES is best explained by a model incorporating polygenic variation. The possible effect of a major gene, such as specific equine leukocyte antigen alleles, is unlikely, but cannot be ruled-out entirely. The heritability of the phenotype on the observation scale for the trait 'affected with ES' was estimated to be 8%. A corrected value for the heritability on a liability scale was estimated at 21% and it is therefore possible to estimate breeding values for ES. The arguments against the practical implementation of an estimated breeding value in a multifactorial condition like ES are discussed.

  14. Characterization of Genetic Variability of Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Viruses.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Shea N; McLoughlin, Kevin; Be, Nicholas A; Allen, Jonathan; Weaver, Scott C; Forrester, Naomi; Guerbois, Mathilde; Jaing, Crystal

    2016-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that has caused large outbreaks of severe illness in both horses and humans. New approaches are needed to rapidly infer the origin of a newly discovered VEEV strain, estimate its equine amplification and resultant epidemic potential, and predict human virulence phenotype. We performed whole genome single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis of all available VEE antigenic complex genomes, verified that a SNP-based phylogeny accurately captured the features of a phylogenetic tree based on multiple sequence alignment, and developed a high resolution genome-wide SNP microarray. We used the microarray to analyze a broad panel of VEEV isolates, found excellent concordance between array- and sequence-based SNP calls, genotyped unsequenced isolates, and placed them on a phylogeny with sequenced genomes. The microarray successfully genotyped VEEV directly from tissue samples of an infected mouse, bypassing the need for viral isolation, culture and genomic sequencing. Finally, we identified genomic variants associated with serotypes and host species, revealing a complex relationship between genotype and phenotype.

  15. The past, present and future of domestic equines in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Wilson, R Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Equines are minor species in Tanzania's array of domestic livestock. Attempts to use them for transport by early explorers from the mid-nineteenth century usually failed. Donkeys were used extensively as pack animals to complement human porters by both British and German forces in the First World War, but their advantages were often outweighed by slow progress and competition with troops and porters for water, and they died in huge numbers. The British had regular cavalry troops in their campaign and mules found limited use as individual mounts for officers. In modern times, there are very few horses in Tanzania but they find several uses. Exotic safaris are made on horseback, they are used as stock horses on ranches, there is a polo club in northern Tanzania and there are leisure riding activities around the capital city. Official census records for donkeys estimate numbers at under 300,000 with concentrations in the northern pastoral and agropastoral areas where they are used as pack animals with water being the main commodity transported. Elsewhere donkeys are used to a limited extent in transport and traction work. There is little interest in equines by the central and local governments or the general public and the status quo can be expected to continue. PMID:24834000

  16. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine in equine liver and lung microsomes

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, A.; Portier, C. J.; Thormann, W.; Theurillat, R.; Mevissen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Stereoselectivity has to be considered for pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic features of ketamine. Stereoselective biotransformation of ketamine was investigated in equine microsomes in vitro. Concentration curves were constructed over time, and enzyme activity was determined for different substrate concentrations using equine liver and lung microsomes. The concentrations of R/S-ketamine and R/S-norketamine were determined by enantioselective capillary electrophoresis. A two-phase model based on Hill kinetics was used to analyze the biotransformation of R/S-ketamine into R/S-norketamine and, in a second step, into R/S-downstream metabolites. In liver and lung microsomes, levels of R-ketamine exceeded those of S-ketamine at all time points and S-norketamine exceeded R-norketamine at time points below the maximum concentration. In liver and lung microsomes, significant differences in the enzyme velocity (Vmax) were observed between Sand R-norketamine formation and between Vmax of S-norketamine formation when S-ketamine was compared to S-ketamine of the racemate. Our investigations in microsomal reactions in vitro suggest that stereoselective ketamine biotransformation in horses occurs in the liver and the lung with a slower elimination of S-ketamine in the presence of R-ketamine. Scaling of the in vitro parameters to liver and lung organ clearances provided an excellent fit with previously published in vivo data and confirmed a lung first-pass effect. PMID:19000264

  17. Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome and encephalomyelitis disseminata/multiple sclerosis show remarkable levels of similarity in phenomenology and neuroimmune characteristics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ‘Encephalomyelitis disseminata’ (multiple sclerosis) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are both classified as diseases of the central nervous system by the World Health Organization. This review aims to compare the phenomenological and neuroimmune characteristics of MS with those of ME/CFS. Discussion There are remarkable phenomenological and neuroimmune overlaps between both disorders. Patients with ME/CFS and MS both experience severe levels of disabling fatigue and a worsening of symptoms following exercise and resort to energy conservation strategies in an attempt to meet the energy demands of day-to-day living. Debilitating autonomic symptoms, diminished cardiac responses to exercise, orthostatic intolerance and postural hypotension are experienced by patients with both illnesses. Both disorders show a relapsing-remitting or progressive course, while infections and psychosocial stress play a large part in worsening of fatigue symptoms. Activated immunoinflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative (O+NS) pathways and autoimmunity occur in both illnesses. The consequences of O+NS damage to self-epitopes is evidenced by the almost bewildering and almost identical array of autoantibodies formed against damaged epitopes seen in both illnesses. Mitochondrial dysfunctions, including lowered levels of ATP, decreased phosphocreatine synthesis and impaired oxidative phosphorylation, are heavily involved in the pathophysiology of both MS and ME/CFS. The findings produced by neuroimaging techniques are quite similar in both illnesses and show decreased cerebral blood flow, atrophy, gray matter reduction, white matter hyperintensities, increased cerebral lactate and choline signaling and lowered acetyl-aspartate levels. Summary This review shows that there are neuroimmune similarities between MS and ME/CFS. This further substantiates the view that ME/CFS is a neuroimmune illness and that patients with MS are immunologically primed to

  18. New type of encephalomyelitis responsive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole treatment in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sakiyama, Yusuke; Kanda, Naoaki; Higuchi, Yujiro; Yoshimura, Michiyoshi; Wakaguri, Hiroyuki; Takata, Yoshiharu; Watanabe, Osamu; Yuan, Junhui; Tashiro, Yuichi; Saigo, Ryuji; Nozuma, Satoshi; Yoshimura, Akiko; Arishima, Shiho; Ikeda, Kenichi; Shinohara, Kazuya; Arata, Hitoshi; Michizono, Kumiko; Higashi, Keiko; Hashiguchi, Akihiro; Okamoto, Yuji; Hirano, Ryuki; Shiraishi, Tadafumi; Matsuura, Eiji; Okubo, Ryuichi; Higuchi, Itsuro; Goto, Masamichi; Hirano, Hirofumi; Sano, Akira; Iwasaki, Takuya; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Izumo, Shuji

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the causative pathogen and investigate the effective treatment of a new type of encephalomyelitis with an unknown pathogen in Japan and report the preliminary ultrastructural and genomic characterization of the causative agent. Methods: From 2005 to 2012, we treated 4 Japanese patients with geographic clustering and comparable clinical features, serum/CSF cytology, and radiologic findings. Brain biopsy was conducted in all patients to analyze neuropathologic changes by histology, and electron microscopy was applied to reveal the features of the putative pathogen. Genomic DNA was obtained from the affected brain tissues and CSF, and an unbiased high-throughput sequencing approach was used to screen for specific genomic sequences indicative of the pathogen origin. Results: All patients exhibited progressive dementia with involuntary tongue movements. Cytologic examination of CSF revealed elevated mononuclear cells. Abnormal MRI signals were observed in temporal lobes, subcortical white matter, and spinal cord. Biopsied brain tissue exhibited aggregated periodic acid-Schiff–positive macrophages and 2–7 μm diameter round/oval bodies without nuclei or cell walls scattered around the vessels. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing identified more than 100 archaea-specific DNA fragments. All patients were responsive to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) plus corticosteroid therapy. Conclusions: We report 4 cases of encephalomyelitis due to an unknown pathogen. On the basis of ultrastructural and genomic studies, we propose a new disease entity resulting from a causative pathogen having archaeal features. TMP-SMX therapy was effective against this new type of encephalomyelitis. PMID:26309903

  19. The complement inhibitor FUT-175 suppresses T cell autoreactivity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Qing; Nacion, Kristine; Bu, Hong; Lin, Feng

    2009-08-01

    Several recent studies have shown that interacting antigen presenting cells and/or T cells produced complement activation products C5a and C3a, are integrally involved in T-cell activation, and promote the generation of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG(35-55))-specific interferon-gamma and interleukin-17-producing T cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a rodent model of multiple sclerosis. In this study, we tested whether FUT-175, a clinical pharmaceutical that has been shown to inhibit the formation of C3/C5 convertases, can attenuate myelin-specific T-cell responses, as well as disease severity in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. In vitro, FUT-175 inhibited local C5a/C3a production by antigen presenting cell-T-cell complexes and attenuated MOG(35-55)-specific Th1 and Th17 responses with little nonspecific cytotoxicity. In vivo administration of FUT-175 delayed experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis disease onset, lowered clinical scores, decreased central nervous system inflammation, and reduced demyelination. The FUT-175-treated mice exhibited decreased numbers of MOG(35-55)-specific interferon-gamma- and interleukin-17-producing T cells. In addition, results from the FUT-175 treatment of naive recipients of adoptively transferred splenocytes from MOG(35-55)-immunized mice suggested that the effect of FUT-175 was on MOG-specific cellular responses and not on anti-MOG antibodies. These results argue that complement regulators, which inhibit C5a/C3a production, may have therapeutic efficacy in multiple sclerosis and in other clinical conditions in which T cells drive disease pathogenesis. PMID:19608865

  20. The approach to the equine dermatology case in practice.

    PubMed

    Knottenbelt, Derek C

    2012-04-01

    A logical and thorough clinical investigation should provide the best basis for the diagnosis of skin diseases. Where no diagnosis can be reached despite a full range of investigations, the clinician can justifiably attempt symptomatic treatment, but it is always better to focus treatment on a specific condition based on properly accumulated and tested clinical evidence. Unfortunately, in equine dermatology there are few text descriptions of the majority of the conditions encountered in practice. While a few diseases are well recognized, there is still little consensus on the best treatments for many of them. Individual veterinarians will have treatments that they rely on, but frequently the same treatment applied by another person inexplicably fails to work in the same way. In dermatology cases, there is no substitute for experience. Referencing to quality textbooks and to colleagues who might have encountered the condition before is often advisable. Unusual presentations are frequently encountered in horses. For example, there are many manifestations of the pemphigus group of diseases, and not all will have a clear diagnostic pathway. It is important to remember that the skin is one of the biggest organs in the body and yet little is known of its function and pathology! While there are many significant primary dermatologic conditions, there are also important systemic diseases that have more or less pathognomonic secondary dermatologic signs; this makes the proper clinical examination even more imperative. One of the biggest problems with equine dermatology is the dearth of scientific reports. Many experienced clinicians have much useful information, but this may never reach the rest of the profession. Also there are few useful reference textbooks dedicated to the equine species. Equine dermatology most likely suffers the most of all disciplines in this respect. As a result, every clinician is expected to reinvent the wheel! There is a need for publications and

  1. Lethal acute demyelinization with encephalo-myelitis as a complication of cured Cushing's disease.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, N; Hieronimus, S; Vandenbos, F; Delmont, E; Cua, E; Cherick, F; Paquis, P; Michiels, J-F; Fenichel, P; Brucker-Davis, F

    2010-12-01

    Cushing's disease is usually associated with higher mortality rate, especially from cardiovascular causes. Development or exacerbation of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases is known to occur in patients with hypercortisolism after cure. We report for the first time a 34-year old woman with a psychiatric background, who developed four months after the surgical cure of Cushing's disease an acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) presenting initially as a psychiatric illness. We hypothesize that the recent correction of hypercortisolism triggered ADEM and that the atypical presentation, responsible for diagnosis delay, led to the death of this patient. PMID:20850107

  2. Infectious cDNA clones of the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R P; Stein, S; Ohara, Y; Fu, J L; Semler, B L

    1989-01-01

    The DA strain and other members of the TO subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses cause a persistent demyelinating infection, whereas the GDVII strain and other GDVII subgroup strains cause an acute lethal polioencephalomyelitis. We generated an infectious DA cDNA clone inserted into a transcription vector. Virus derived from transfection of transcripts produced a demyelinating disease indistinguishable from that of wild-type virus. The infectious clone provides a critical reagent for the production of interstrain recombinant viruses to help identify genetic loci responsible for the biological activities of the strains. Images PMID:2555569

  3. Chimeric cDNA studies of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus neurovirulence.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Senkowski, A; Shim, B; Roos, R P

    1993-01-01

    Strain GDVII and other members of the GDVII subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus are highly neurovirulent and rapidly fatal, while strain DA and other members of the TO subgroup produce a chronic, demyelinating disease. GDVII/DA chimeric cDNA studies suggest that a major neurovirulence determinant is within the GDVII 1B through 1D capsid protein coding region, although the additional presence of upstream GDVII sequences, including the 5' untranslated region, contributes to full neurovirulence. Our studies indicate that there are limitations in precisely delineating neurovirulence determinants with chimeric cDNAs between evolutionarily diverged viruses, such as GDVII and DA. PMID:8510228

  4. Chimeric cDNA studies of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus neurovirulence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Senkowski, A; Shim, B; Roos, R P

    1993-07-01

    Strain GDVII and other members of the GDVII subgroup of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus are highly neurovirulent and rapidly fatal, while strain DA and other members of the TO subgroup produce a chronic, demyelinating disease. GDVII/DA chimeric cDNA studies suggest that a major neurovirulence determinant is within the GDVII 1B through 1D capsid protein coding region, although the additional presence of upstream GDVII sequences, including the 5' untranslated region, contributes to full neurovirulence. Our studies indicate that there are limitations in precisely delineating neurovirulence determinants with chimeric cDNAs between evolutionarily diverged viruses, such as GDVII and DA.

  5. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus neutralization escape mutants have a change in disease phenotype.

    PubMed Central

    Roos, R P; Stein, S; Routbort, M; Senkowski, A; Bodwell, T; Wollmann, R

    1989-01-01

    DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus produces a persistent demyelinating infection. We previously produced escape mutant viruses that are resistant to a neutralizing monoclonal antibody and have a mutation in VP1 amino acid residue 268 in a neutralization site (Y. Ohara, A. Senkowski, J. Fu, L. Klaman, J. Goodall, M. Toth, and R.P. Roos, J. Virol. 62:3527-3529, 1988). In contrast to wild-type DA strain, these escape mutants produce little if any demyelinating disease after inoculation into weanling mice. Images PMID:2476574

  6. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS.

  7. Effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (an animal model of multiple sclerosis)

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Motl, Robert W.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Miller, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Exercise training has improved many outcomes in “clinical” research involving persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), but there is limited understanding of the underlying “basic” pathophysiological mechanisms. The animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), seems ideal for examining the effects of exercise training on MS-disease pathophysiology. EAE is an autoimmune T-helper cell-mediated disease characterized by T-cell and monocyte infiltration and inflammation in the CNS. To that end, this paper briefly describes common models of EAE, reviews existing research on exercise and EAE, and then identifies future research directions for understanding the consequences of exercise training using EAE. PMID:24999244

  8. A monoclonal antibody to alpha 4 integrin suppresses and reverses active experimental allergic encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Kent, S J; Karlik, S J; Cannon, C; Hines, D K; Yednock, T A; Fritz, L C; Horner, H C

    1995-04-01

    In experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), circulating leukocytes enter the central nervous system (CNS) producing inflammation, myelin damage and paralysis. Prevention of leukocyte infiltration by an antibody against alpha 4 integrin suppressed clinical and pathological features of EAE in the guinea pig. Rapid clearance of leukocytes from the CNS and reversal of clinical findings were observed when anti-alpha 4 treatment was administered during active disease. Clinical improvement was accompanied by a marked decrease in abnormal pathological findings, including demyelination. Therefore anti-alpha 4 is an effective treatment of EAE and may be similarly useful in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

  9. Teriflunomide attenuates immunopathological changes in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ringheim, Garth E; Lee, Lan; Laws-Ricker, Lynn; Delohery, Tomas; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; Colletti, Nicholas; Soos, Timothy J; Schroeder, Kendra; Fanelli, Barbara; Tian, Nian; Arendt, Christopher W; Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Petty, Margaret; Ji, Zhongqi; Qian, George; Gaur, Rajula; Weinstock, Daniel; Cavallo, Jean; Telsinskas, Juventas; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-01-01

    Teriflunomide is an oral disease-modifying therapy recently approved in several locations for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. To gain insight into the effects of teriflunomide, immunocyte population changes were measured during progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Dark Agouti rats. Treatment with teriflunomide attenuated levels of spinal cord-infiltrating T cells, natural killer cells, macrophages, and neutrophils. Teriflunomide also mitigated the disease-induced changes in immune cell populations in the blood and spleen suggesting an inhibitory effect on pathogenic immune responses. PMID:24198809

  10. Role of CD8^+ T Cells in Murine Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Sheng-Le; Pernis, Benvenuto

    1992-05-01

    The course of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for multiple sclerosis, is affected by immunoregulatory T lymphocytes. When animals are immunized with encephalitogenic peptide of myelin basic protein and recover from the first episode of EAE, they become resistant to a second induction of this disease. Animals depleted of CD8^+ T cells by antibody-mediated clearance were used to examine the role of CD8^+ T cells in EAE. These cells were found to be major participants in the resistance to a second induction of EAE but were not essential for spontaneous recovery from the first episode of the disease.

  11. Total glucosides of peony attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qiling; Ma, Xiaomeng; Zhu, Dong Liang; Chen, Li; Jiang, Ying; Zhou, Linli; Cen, Lei; Pi, Rongbiao; Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-07-15

    Total glucosides of peony (TGP), an active compound extracted from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has wide pharmacological effects on nervous system. Here we examined the effects of TGP on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an established model of multiple sclerosis (MS). The results showed that TGP can reduce the severity and progression of EAE in C57 BL/6 mice. In addition, TGP also down-regulated the Th1/Th17 inflammatory response and prevented the reduced expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and 2',3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase of EAE. These findings suggest that TGP could be a potential therapeutic agent for MS. PMID:26025060

  12. Equine herpesvirus-1 infection disrupts interferon regulatory factor-3 (IRF-3) signaling pathways in equine endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sanjay; Balasuriya, Udeni B R; Horohov, David W; Chambers, Thomas M

    2016-05-01

    Equine herpesvirus-1 (EHV-1) is a major respiratory viral pathogen of horses, causing upper respiratory tract disease, abortion, neonatal death, and neurological disease that may lead to paralysis and death. EHV-1 replicates initially in the respiratory epithelium and then spreads systemically to endothelial cells lining the small blood vessels in the uterus and spinal cord leading to abortion and EHM in horses. Like other herpesviruses, EHV-1 employs a variety of mechanisms for immune evasion including suppression of type-I interferon (IFN) production in equine endothelial cells (EECs). Previously we have shown that the neuropathogenic T953 strain of EHV-1 inhibits type-I IFN production in EECs and this is mediated by a viral late gene product. But the mechanism of inhibition was not known. Here we show that T953 strain infection of EECs induced degradation of endogenous IRF-3 protein. This in turn interfered with the activation of IRF-3 signaling pathways. EHV-1 infection caused the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathways, suggesting that inhibition of type-I IFN production is probably due to interference in IRF-3 and not NF-κB signal transduction.

  13. Equine schlafen 11 restricts the production of equine infectious anemia virus via a codon usage-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yue-Zhi; Sun, Liu-Ke; Zhu, Dan-Tong; Hu, Zhe; Wang, Xue-Feng; Du, Cheng; Wang, Yu-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Jun; Zhou, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Human schlafen11 is a novel restriction factor for HIV-1 based on bias regarding relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU). Here, we report the cloning of equine schlafen11 (eSLFN11) and the characteristics of its role in restricting the production of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a retrovirus similar to HIV-1. Overexpression of eSLFN11 inhibited EIAV replication, whereas knockdown of endogenous eSLFN11 by siRNA enhanced the release of EIAV from its principal target cell. Notably, although eSLFN11 significantly suppressed expression of viral Gag protein and EIAV release into the culture medium, the levels of intracellular viral early gene proteins Tat and Rev and viral genomic RNA were unaffected. Coincidently, similar altered patterns of codon usage bias were observed for both the early and late genes of EIAV. Therefore, our data suggest that eSLFN11 restricts EIAV production by impairing viral mRNA translation via a mechanism that is similar to that employed by hSLFN11 for HIV-1. PMID:27200480

  14. Andrographolide Exerts Chondroprotective Activity in Equine Cartilage Explant and Suppresses Interleukin-1β-Induced MMP-2 Expression in Equine Chondrocyte Culture

    PubMed Central

    Kongtawelert, Prachya

    2014-01-01

    Cartilage erosion in degenerative joint diseases leads to lameness in affected horses. It has been reported that andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata inhibited cartilage matrix-degrading enzymes. This study aimed to explore whether this compound protects equine cartilage degradation in the explant culture model and to determine its effect on matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) expression, a matrix-degrading enzyme, in equine chondrocyte culture. Equine articular cartilage explant culture was induced by 25 ng/mL interleukin-1β, a key inducer of cartilage degeneration, in cultures with or without andrographolide ranging from 10 to 50 μM. After 3–21 days, they were analyzed for the markers of cartilage degradation. It was found that interleukin-1β increased the release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans and hyaluronan from the explants into the culture media consistently with the decrease in uronic acid and collagen content in the cartilage explants. These catabolic effects were inhibited when cotreated with interleukin-1β and andrographolide. In primary equine chondrocytes, andrographolide suppressed interleukin-1β-induced MMP-2 mRNA expression and MMP-2 activity in the culture medium. These results confirmed the in vitro potent chondroprotective activities of this compound which were performed in cartilage explants and on a cellular level. These may indicate the application of andrographolide for therapeutic use in equine degenerative joint diseases. PMID:27379277

  15. Eating disorders and equine therapy: a nurse's perspective on connecting through the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Dezutti, Joyce E

    2013-09-01

    Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session.

  16. Eating disorders and equine therapy: a nurse's perspective on connecting through the recovery process.

    PubMed

    Dezutti, Joyce E

    2013-09-01

    Patients with eating disorders may have the most complex interdisciplinary treatment plans of any mental illness. Nurses need innovative evidence-based treatment interventions to assist their patients with eating disorders on their road to recovery. Although much has been written about equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP) and equine-facilitated psychotherapy, the literature has not described a detailed session that can help nurses understand how this experiential treatment works and the impact it can have on the patient. A review of the literature on eating disorders and on the use of equine therapy in its treatment is presented in this article. In addition, the role of the nurse during equine therapy will be highlighted, and an individual example will provide a detailed review of an EAP session. PMID:23786240

  17. Concepts for the clinical use of stem cells in equine medicine

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Thomas G.; Berg, Lise C.; Betts, Dean H.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells from various tissues hold great promise for their therapeutic use in horses, but so far efficacy or proof-of-principle has not been established. The basic characteristics and properties of various equine stem cells remain largely unknown, despite their increasingly widespread experimental and empirical commercial use. A better understanding of equine stem cell biology and concepts is needed in order to develop and evaluate rational clinical applications in the horse. Controlled, well-designed studies of the basic biologic characteristics and properties of these cells are needed to move this new equine research field forward. Stem cell research in the horse has exciting equine specific and comparative perspectives that will most likely benefit the health of horses and, potentially, humans. PMID:19119371

  18. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  19. Quantitative analysis of the probability of introducing equine encephalosis virus (EEV) into The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Egil Andreas Joor; Martínez López, Evelyn Pamela; De Vos, Clazien J; Faverjon, Céline

    2016-09-01

    Equine encephalosis is a midge-borne viral disease of equines caused by equine encephalosis virus (EEV, Orbivirus, Reoviridae), and closely related to African horse sickness virus (AHSV). EEV and AHSV share common vectors and show similar transmission patterns. Until now EEV has caused outbreaks in Africa and Israel. This study aimed to provide insight in the probability of an EEV outbreak in The Netherlands caused by infected vectors or hosts, the contribution of potential source areas (risk regions) to this probability, and the effectiveness of preventive measures (sanitary regimes). A stochastic risk model constructed for risk assessment of AHSV introduction was adapted to EEV. Source areas were categorized in risk regions (high, low, and very low risk) based on EEV history and the presence of competent vectors. Two possible EEV introduction pathways were considered: importation of infected equines and importation of infected vectors along with their vertebrate hosts. The probability of EEV introduction (PEEV) was calculated by combining the probability of EEV release by either pathway and the probability of EEV establishment. The median current annual probability of EEV introduction by an infected equine was estimated at 0.012 (90% uncertainty interval 0.002-0.020), and by an infected vector at 4.0 10(-5) (90% uncertainty interval 5.3 10(-6)-2.0 10(-4)). Equines from high risk regions contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction with 74% on the EEV introduction by equines, whereas low and very low risk regions contributed 18% and 8%, respectively. International movements of horses participating in equestrian events contributed most to the probability of EEV introduction by equines from high risk regions (86%), but also contributed substantially for low and very low risk regions with 47% and 56%. The probability of introducing EEV into The Netherlands is much higher than the probability of introducing AHSV with equines from high risk countries

  20. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    PubMed

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  1. The Brain Proteome of the Ubiquitin Ligase Peli1 Knock-Out Mouse during Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Lereim, Ragnhild Reehorst; Oveland, Eystein; Xiao, Yichuan; Torkildsen, Øivind; Wergeland, Stig; Myhr, Kjell-Morten; Sun, Shao-Cong; Berven, Frode S

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin ligase Peli1 has previously been suggested as a potential treatment target in multiple sclerosis. In the multiple sclerosis disease model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, Peli1 knock-out led to less activated microglia and less inflammation in the central nervous system. Despite being important in microglia, Peli1 expression has also been detected in glial and neuronal cells. In the present study the overall brain proteomes of Peli1 knock-out mice and wild-type mice were compared prior to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis induction, at onset of the disease and at disease peak. Brain samples from the frontal hemisphere, peripheral from the extensive inflammatory foci, were analyzed using TMT-labeling of sample pools, and the discovered proteins were verified in individual mice using label-free proteomics. The greatest proteomic differences between Peli1 knock-out and wild-type mice were observed at the disease peak. In Peli1 knock-out a higher degree of antigen presentation, increased activity of adaptive and innate immune cells and alterations to proteins involved in iron metabolism were observed during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These results unravel global effects to the brain proteome when abrogating Peli1 expression, underlining the importance of Peli1 as a regulator of the immune response also peripheral to inflammatory foci during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The proteomics data is available in PRIDE with accession PXD003710. PMID:27746629

  2. Cap-independent translation by the 5' untranslated region of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, P K; Wang, C; Lipton, H L

    1992-01-01

    The RNA genome of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses, a picornavirus belonging to the genus Cardiovirus, is translated in infected cells to a polyprotein. Unlike cellular messages, the 5' end of the RNA is not capped, and the untranslated region (UTR) is quite long (1,064 nucleotides in size). In poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus, the 5'UTR is thought to mediate cap-independent translation. We report here experiments to determine the role of the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus 5'UTR in translation. Recombinant DNAs were constructed that were transcribed into bicistronic mRNAs encoding 5' chloramphenicol acetyltransferase intercistronic sequences linked to luciferase and a poly(A) 3' tail. The sequences of the 5'UTR, either complete or with sequential 5' deletions, were inserted into the intercistronic region. Bicistronic RNA transcripts were translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or used to transfect BHK-21 cells, and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and luciferase synthesis was quantitated. The results strongly suggest that the Theiler's virus 5'UTR promotes cap-independent translation and that the 5' boundary of the relevant signals resides 3' to nucleotide 500. Monocistronic mRNAs were synthesized by using an expression vector in which the 5'UTR containing deletions at the 3' terminus was inserted 5' to the coding sequences for luciferase. Analysis of luciferase translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate suggests that the 3' end of the translation initiation signal lies between nucleotides 1043 and 1053. Images PMID:1404591

  3. Cap-independent translation by the 5' untranslated region of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, P K; Wang, C; Lipton, H L

    1992-11-01

    The RNA genome of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses, a picornavirus belonging to the genus Cardiovirus, is translated in infected cells to a polyprotein. Unlike cellular messages, the 5' end of the RNA is not capped, and the untranslated region (UTR) is quite long (1,064 nucleotides in size). In poliovirus and encephalomyocarditis virus, the 5'UTR is thought to mediate cap-independent translation. We report here experiments to determine the role of the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus 5'UTR in translation. Recombinant DNAs were constructed that were transcribed into bicistronic mRNAs encoding 5' chloramphenicol acetyltransferase intercistronic sequences linked to luciferase and a poly(A) 3' tail. The sequences of the 5'UTR, either complete or with sequential 5' deletions, were inserted into the intercistronic region. Bicistronic RNA transcripts were translated in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate or used to transfect BHK-21 cells, and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase and luciferase synthesis was quantitated. The results strongly suggest that the Theiler's virus 5'UTR promotes cap-independent translation and that the 5' boundary of the relevant signals resides 3' to nucleotide 500. Monocistronic mRNAs were synthesized by using an expression vector in which the 5'UTR containing deletions at the 3' terminus was inserted 5' to the coding sequences for luciferase. Analysis of luciferase translation in a rabbit reticulocyte lysate suggests that the 3' end of the translation initiation signal lies between nucleotides 1043 and 1053.

  4. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease.

  5. Chaperone Activity of Small Heat Shock Proteins Underlies Therapeutic Efficacy in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis*

    PubMed Central

    Kurnellas, Michael P.; Brownell, Sara E.; Su, Leon; Malkovskiy, Andrey V.; Rajadas, Jayakumar; Dolganov, Gregory; Chopra, Sidharth; Schoolnik, Gary K.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Webster, Jonathan; Ousman, Shalina S.; Becker, Rachel A.; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B.

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the therapeutic activity of αB crystallin, small heat shock protein B5 (HspB5), was shared with other human sHsps, a set of seven human family members, a mutant of HspB5 G120 known to exhibit reduced chaperone activity, and a mycobacterial sHsp were expressed and purified from bacteria. Each of the recombinant proteins was shown to be a functional chaperone, capable of inhibiting aggregation of denatured insulin with varying efficiency. When injected into mice at the peak of disease, they were all effective in reducing the paralysis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Additional structure activity correlations between chaperone activity and therapeutic function were established when linear regions within HspB5 were examined. A single region, corresponding to residues 73–92 of HspB5, forms amyloid fibrils, exhibited chaperone activity, and was an effective therapeutic for encephalomyelitis. The linkage of the three activities was further established by demonstrating individual substitutions of critical hydrophobic amino acids in the peptide resulted in the loss of all of the functions. PMID:22955287

  6. Anti-Hu--associated paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis/sensory neuronopathy. A clinical study of 71 patients.

    PubMed

    Dalmau, J; Graus, F; Rosenblum, M K; Posner, J B

    1992-03-01

    We studied 71 patients with "paraneoplastic" encephalomyelitis, sensory neuronopathy, or both associated with the presence of the anti-Hu antibody in their serum. Most (78%) had small-cell lung cancer. In 9 patients no tumor was detected. Fifty-two patients (73%) had signs and symptoms of multifocal involvement of the nervous system; in 28 (39%), 2 areas, and in 24 (34%), 3 or more areas were clinically affected. Sensory neuronopathy was present in 52 patients (74%), but in only 44 (62%) did it dominate the course of the disease. Other predominant findings were: motor neuron dysfunction (14 patients, 20%), limbic encephalopathy (14, 20%), cerebellar symptoms (11, 15%), brainstem encephalopathy (10, 14%), and autonomic nervous system dysfunction (7, 10%). The presence of the anti-Hu antibody prompted a search for the tumor in 60% of the patients; the tumor when found was usually small and remained localized until death, or was demonstrated only at autopsy. Treatment using steroids and plasmapheresis, immunosuppressants, or both, did not improve the paraneoplastic symptoms. Autonomic and respiratory failure, either of central origin or secondary to neuromuscular weakness, were the principal causes of death. Patients with rapidly developing sensory neuropathy or symptoms of encephalomyelitis should be studied for the presence of the anti-Hu antibody; if the antibody is found, the possibility of small-cell lung cancer should be investigated. If a tumor is not found in the initial search, one may become evident in several months. PMID:1312211

  7. Von-Willebrand Factor Influences Blood Brain Barrier Permeability and Brain Inflammation in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Noubade, Rajkumar; del Rio, Roxana; McElvany, Benjamin; Zachary, James F.; Millward, Jason M.; Wagner, Denisa D.; Offner, Halina; Blankenhorn, Elizabeth P.; Teuscher, Cory

    2008-01-01

    Weibel-Palade bodies within endothelial cells are secretory granules known to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF), P-selectin, chemokines, and other stored molecules following histamine exposure. Mice with a disrupted VWF gene (VWFKO) have endothelial cells that are deficient in Weibel-Palade bodies. These mice were used to evaluate the role of VWF and/or Weibel-Palade bodies in Bordetella pertussis toxin-induced hypersensitivity to histamine, a subphenotype of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, the principal autoimmune model of multiple sclerosis. No significant differences in susceptibility to histamine between wild-type and VWFKO mice were detected after 3 days; however, histamine sensitivity persisted significantly longer in VWFKO mice. Correspondingly, encephalomyelitis onset was earlier, disease was more severe, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability was significantly increased in VWFKO mice, as compared with wild-type mice. Moreover, inflammation was selectively increased in the brains, but not spinal cords, of VWFKO mice as compared with wild-type mice. Early increases in BBB permeability in VWFKO mice were not due to increased encephalitogenic T-cell activity since BBB permeability did not differ in adjuvant-treated VWFKO mice as compared with littermates immunized with encephalitogenic peptide plus adjuvant. Taken together, these data indicate that VWF and/or Weibel-Palade bodies negatively regulate BBB permeability changes and autoimmune inflammatory lesion formation within the brain elicited by peripheral inflammatory stimuli. PMID:18688020

  8. Retrospective Analysis of the Equine Influenza Virus A/Equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) Isolated in Central Asia

    PubMed Central

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Sayatov, Marat; Strochkov, Vitaliy; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Sultankulova, Kulaysan

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan) in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe. The absence of antibodies to this subtype EI virus (EIV) in recent research confirms its disappearance as of the 1990s when the antibodies were last found in unvaccinated horses. PMID:27517962

  9. Retrospective Analysis of the Equine Influenza Virus A/Equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) Isolated in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, Aidyn; Sayatov, Marat; Strochkov, Vitaliy; Sandybayev, Nurlan; Sultankulova, Kulaysan

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective phylogenetic characterization of the hemagglutinin, neuraminidase and nucleoprotein genes of equine influenza virus A/equine/Kirgizia/26/1974 (H7N7) which caused an outbreak in Kirgizia (a former Soviet Union republic, now Kyrgyzstan) in 1977 was conducted. It was defined that it was closely related to the strain London/1973 isolated in Europe and it shared a maximum nucleotide sequence identity at 99% with it. This Central Asian equine influenza virus isolate did not have any specific genetic signatures and can be considered as an epizootic strain of 1974 that spread in Europe. The absence of antibodies to this subtype EI virus (EIV) in recent research confirms its disappearance as of the 1990s when the antibodies were last found in unvaccinated horses. PMID:27517962

  10. Descriptive epidemiology of equine influenza in India (2008-2009): temporal and spatial trends.

    PubMed

    Virmani, Nitin; Bera, Bidhan C; Gulati, Baldev R; Karuppusamy, Shanmugasundaram; Singh, Birendra K; Kumar Vaid, Rajesh; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Rajendra; Malik, Parveen; Khurana, Sandeep K; Singh, Jitender; Manuja, Anju; Dedar, Ramesh; Gupta, Ashok K; Yadav, Suresh C; Chugh, Parmod K; Narwal, Partap S; Thankur, Vinod L N; Kaul, Rakesh; Kanani, Amit; Rautmare, Sunil S; Singh, Raj K

    2010-01-01

    Equine influenza is a contagious viral disease that affects all members of the family Equidae, i.e., horses, donkeys and mules. The authors describe the pattern of equine influenza outbreaks in a number of states of India from July 2008 to June 2009. The disease was first reported in June 2008 in Katra (Jammu and Kashmir) and spread to ten other states within a year. All outbreaks of equine influenza in the various states were confirmed by laboratory investigations (virus isolation and/or serological confirmation based on haemagglutination inhibition [HI] assays of paired samples) before declaring them as equine influenza virus-affected state(s). The virus (H3N8) was reported from various locations in the country including Katra, Mysore (Karnataka), Ahmedabad (Gujarat), Gopeshwar and Uttarkashi (Uttarakhand) and was isolated in 9- to 11-day-old embryonated chicken eggs. The virus was confirmed as H3N8 by HI assays with standard serum and amplification of full-length haemagglutinin and neuraminidase genes by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Serum samples (n = 4 740) of equines from 13 states in India screened by HI revealed 1074 (22.65%) samples as being positive for antibodies to equine influenza virus (H3N8). PMID:21120800

  11. The Equine Endometrial Cup Reaction: A Fetomaternal Signal of Significance

    PubMed Central

    Antczak, D. F.; de Mestre, Amanda M.; Wilsher, Sandra; Allen, W. R.

    2015-01-01

    A remarkable feature of equine pregnancy is the development of the invasive trophoblast of the chorionic girdle and its formation of the gonadotrophin-secreting endometrial cup cells in early gestation. The details of this process have been revealed only slowly over the past century, since the first description of the endometrial cups in 1912. This centennial presents an opportunity to review the characteristics of the cells and molecules involved in this early, critical phase of placentation in the mare. The invasiveness of the chorionic girdle trophoblast appears to represent an atavistic attribute more commonly associated with the hemochorial placentae of primates and rodents but not with the more recently derived epitheliochorial placentae of the odd-toed ungulates. The nature of and raison d’etre for the strong fetal signals transmitted to the mare by the endometrial cup reaction, and her responses to these messages, are the subject of the present review. PMID:25387026

  12. Four cases of equine motor neuron disease in Japan

    PubMed Central

    SASAKI, Naoki; IMAMURA, Yui; SEKIYA, Akio; ITOH, Megumi; FURUOKA, Hidefumi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In this study, fasciculation of the limbs and tongue was observed in four horses kept by a riding club. Neurogenic muscle atrophy was also observed in biopsy of pathological tissues. In addition, in two cases that subjected to autopsy, Bunina-like bodies of inclusion in the cell bodies of neurons in the spinal cord ventral horn were confirmed, leading to a diagnosis of equine motor neuron disease (EMND). Serum vitamin E concentrations varied between 0.3 and 0.4µg/ml, which is significantly lower than the levels in normal horses. Although lack of vitamin E is speculated to be a contributory factor for development of EMND, no significant improvement was observed following administration of vitamin E. PMID:27703407

  13. Equine-facilitated psychotherapy with adult female survivors of abuse.

    PubMed

    Meinersmann, Krista M; Bradberry, Judy; Roberts, Florence Bright

    2008-12-01

    This qualitative study examined the stories of 5 women who experienced abuse and participated in equine-facilitated psychotherapy (EFP) as part of their recovery. Anecdotal accounts support the effectiveness of EFP with women who have experienced abuse, but there is a lack of supporting research. This study was designed to examine the effectiveness of EFP in the treatment of women who have experienced abuse. Selection criteria included age, experience of abuse, participation in EFP, and ability to understand English. Data analysis identified four patterns in the participants' stories: I Can Have Power; Doing It Hands On, Horses as Co-Therapists, and Turned My Life Around. Overall, the participants' stories show that EFP can be an effective intervention for women who have experienced abuse. PMID:19133493

  14. Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus transmission and effect on pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Darci R; Aguilar, Patricia V; Coffey, Lark L; Gromowski, Gregory D; Wang, Eryu; Weaver, Scott C

    2006-08-01

    Quantifying the dose of an arbovirus transmitted by mosquitoes is essential for designing pathogenesis studies simulating natural infection of vertebrates. Titration of saliva collected in vitro from infected mosquitoes may not accurately estimate titers transmitted during blood feeding, and infection by needle injection may affect vertebrate pathogenesis. We compared the amount of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus collected from the saliva of Aedes taeniorhynchus to the amount injected into a mouse during blood feeding. Less virus was transmitted by mosquitoes in vivo (geometric mean 11 PFU) than was found for comparable times of salivation in vitro (mean saliva titer 74 PFU). We also observed slightly lower early and late viremia titers in mice that were needle injected with 8 PFU, which represents the low end of the in vivo transmission range. No differences in survival were detected, regardless of the dose or infection route.

  15. Morphology of three strains of contagious equine metritis organism.

    PubMed Central

    Hitchcock, P J; Brown, T M; Corwin, D; Hayes, S F; Olszewski, A; Todd, W J

    1985-01-01

    Examination of recently isolated cultures of three strains of Contagious Equine Metritis Organism grown on specially formulated, serum-free, clear typing medium revealed the presence of numerous colonial opacity variants. These colonies were prepared by a number of fixation and staining techniques and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Opaque and transparent phenotypes produced copious amounts of extracellular material compared with intermediate-opacity phenotypes which produced little or none. Also unique to intermediate colonies were numerous thin intercellular strands, which may represent pili or polymers of extracellular material. The presence of an unusual fibrillar layer (with similar electron density to the extracellular material) on the outer leaf of the outer membrane also was confirmed. A number of other ultrastructural features also were noted, including an epilayer, a thin nonmembranous layer which covered colonies and adjacent agar. Images PMID:3838532

  16. Naturally occurring eastern equine encephalitis in a Hampshire wether.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rudy W; Gill, Marjorie S; Poston, Rob P; Kim, Dae Young

    2005-05-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE) was diagnosed (postmortem) in a sheep with clinical signs attributable to a central nervous system disease. The sheep was febrile and initially had front limb incoordination, which progressed to paralysis of both front and hind limbs during a course of 2 days. The sheep maintained an alert attitude with the ability to eat up to the time of euthanasia. The only clinical pathologic abnormalities were neutrophilia and lymphopenia without appreciable leukocytosis, a moderate hyperglycemia, and an elevated creatine kinase. Treatment included hydrotherapy for lowering body temperature, intravenous fluids, thiamine hydrochloride, tetanus antitoxin, antibiotics, and corticosteroids. The only gross lesion at the time of necropsy was a wet glistening surface of the brain (leptomeninges). Microscopically, there was severe nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, poliomyelitis, and polyradiculoneuritis with mild multifocal neutrophilic infiltration. The EEE virus was isolated from the brain, and subsequent fluorescent antibody testing for EEE was positive on cell culture.

  17. Center-of-pressure movements during equine-assisted activities.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Hilary M; Kaiser, Leeann J; de Pue, Bonnie; Kaiser, Lana

    2011-01-01

    We compared anteroposterior and mediolateral range of motion and velocity of the center of pressure (COP) on the horse's back between riders without disabilities and riders with cerebral palsy. An electronic pressure mat was used to track COP movements beneath the saddle in 4 riders without disabilities and 4 riders with cerebral palsy. Comparisons between rider groups were made using the Mann-Whitney test (p < .05). The two rider groups differed significantly in anteroposterior range of COP motion, mediolateral range of COP motion, and mediolateral COP velocity. Anteroposterior COP velocity did not differ between groups. The results suggest that measurements of COP range of motion and velocity are potentially useful for monitoring changes in balance as an indicator of core stability during equine-assisted activities.

  18. Generation of equine TSLP-specific antibodies and their use for detection of TSLP produced by equine keratinocytes and leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Janda, Jozef; Plattet, Philippe; Torsteinsdottir, Sigurbjörg; Jonsdottir, Sigridur; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Marti, Eliane

    2012-06-30

    Allergic horses react to innocuous environmental substances by activation of Th2 cells and production of allergen-specific IgE antibodies. The mechanisms leading to Th2 differentiation are not well understood. In humans and mice, epithelial cell-derived thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) plays a central role in this process. Little is known about equine TSLP (eqTSLP) and its role in allergic diseases and our current knowledge is limited to the assessment of TSLP mRNA expression. In order to be able to study eqTSLP at the protein level, the aim of the present study was to produce recombinant eqTSLP protein and generate TSLP-specific antibodies. EqTSLP was cloned from a skin biopsy sample from a horse with chronic urticaria and eqTSLP protein was expressed in E.coli and in mammalian cells. Recombinant proteins were designed to include C-terminal Histag, which allowed subsequent purification and detection by Histag-specific Ab. Polyclonal and monoclonal eqTSLP-specific Ab were generated after immunization of mice with E.coli-expressed TSLP. Their specificity was tested by western blotting and ELISA. In addition, a commercially available polyclonal human TSLP-specific antibody was tested for cross-reactivity with eqTSLP. Expression of TSLP protein was confirmed by western blotting using Histag-specific Ab. E.coli-expressed TSLP appears as a band of ∼13 kDa, whereas mammalian cell-expressed TSLP showed several bands at 20-25 kDa, probably representing several glycosylation forms. Polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies generated in this study, as well as commercially available human TSLP-specific Ab reacted with both E.coli- and mammalian cell-expressed TSLP in western blotting and ELISA. A capture ELISA was established to quantitate TSLP in cell supernatants and validated using supernatants from primary equine keratinocytes and peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL). Increased TSLP concentrations were found after stimulation of keratinocytes with PMA+ionomycine and with

  19. RNA Sequencing of the Exercise Transcriptome in Equine Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as “nucleic acid binding” and “signal transduction activity” functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress

  20. RNA sequencing of the exercise transcriptome in equine athletes.

    PubMed

    Capomaccio, Stefano; Vitulo, Nicola; Verini-Supplizi, Andrea; Barcaccia, Gianni; Albiero, Alessandro; D'Angelo, Michela; Campagna, Davide; Valle, Giorgio; Felicetti, Michela; Silvestrelli, Maurizio; Cappelli, Katia

    2013-01-01

    The horse is an optimal model organism for studying the genomic response to exercise-induced stress, due to its natural aptitude for athletic performance and the relative homogeneity of its genetic and environmental backgrounds. Here, we applied RNA-sequencing analysis through the use of SOLiD technology in an experimental framework centered on exercise-induced stress during endurance races in equine athletes. We monitored the transcriptional landscape by comparing gene expression levels between animals at rest and after competition. Overall, we observed a shift from coding to non-coding regions, suggesting that the stress response involves the differential expression of not annotated regions. Notably, we observed significant post-race increases of reads that correspond to repeats, especially the intergenic and intronic L1 and L2 transposable elements. We also observed increased expression of the antisense strands compared to the sense strands in intronic and regulatory regions (1 kb up- and downstream) of the genes, suggesting that antisense transcription could be one of the main mechanisms for transposon regulation in the horse under stress conditions. We identified a large number of transcripts corresponding to intergenic and intronic regions putatively associated with new transcriptional elements. Gene expression and pathway analysis allowed us to identify several biological processes and molecular functions that may be involved with exercise-induced stress. Ontology clustering reflected mechanisms that are already known to be stress activated (e.g., chemokine-type cytokines, Toll-like receptors, and kinases), as well as "nucleic acid binding" and "signal transduction activity" functions. There was also a general and transient decrease in the global rates of protein synthesis, which would be expected after strenuous global stress. In sum, our network analysis points toward the involvement of specific gene clusters in equine exercise-induced stress, including

  1. [Control of Anocentor nitens (Neumann, 1897) (Acari: Ixodidae) on equines].

    PubMed

    Bello, Ana Cristina P De P; Da Cunha, Arildo P; Leite, Romário C; Oliveira, Paulo R; Ribeiro, Antônio Cândido C L; Domingues, Luisa N; De Freitas, Carolina Maria V; Bastianetto, Eduardo; Dalla Rosa, Ricardo C

    2008-09-01

    This trial evaluated control practices of Anocentor nitens on equines, using spraying devices and application of acaricide paste formulation in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. The study was carried out from October 2003 to March of 2008 and the evaluations had been divided in the following stages: Phase 1--out/03 mar/04 and Phases 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively, correspondents to the month's periods until março/08. It was used score of 0 to 3 to classify infestation levels. From abr/04 to mar/06 was implanted a schedule of acaricide sprayings every seven days and divided in two series. The first one beginning in April 2004 and the second beginning in July, both using six sprayings treatments with pyrethroid chemical base--cypermethrin 0,015%, plus topical treatments applied monthly in the auricular pavilions (powder acaricide). From abril/06 to março/08 was carried out similar schedule treatments, each two months, using an experimental acaricide paste in the auricular pavilion and nasal diverticulum. Phases 2 and 3 did not showed reduction of the parasitic loads of A. nitens compared to the control period. Whereas in Phases 4 and 5 registered significant reduction compared control period and also with the results of Phases 2 and 3, characterizing the effectiveness of the treatment with the acaricide paste formulation. Results demonstrated of A. nitens populations present in the nasal diverticulum are important in the maintenance of the infestations on equines, and necessary attention to this anatomical structure when controlling ticks.

  2. The Transcriptome of Equine Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Pacholewska, Alicja; Drögemüller, Michaela; Klukowska-Rötzler, Jolanta; Lanz, Simone; Hamza, Eman; Dermitzakis, Emmanouil T.; Marti, Eliane; Gerber, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Complete transcriptomic data at high resolution are available only for a few model organisms with medical importance. The gene structures of non-model organisms are mostly computationally predicted based on comparative genomics with other species. As a result, more than half of the horse gene models are known only by projection. Experimental data supporting these gene models are scarce. Moreover, most of the annotated equine genes are single-transcript genes. Utilizing RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) the experimental validation of predicted transcriptomes has become accessible at reasonable costs. To improve the horse genome annotation we performed RNA-seq on 561 samples of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) derived from 85 Warmblood horses. The mapped sequencing reads were used to build a new transcriptome assembly. The new assembly revealed many alternative isoforms associated to known genes or to those predicted by the Ensembl and/or Gnomon pipelines. We also identified 7,531 transcripts not associated with any horse gene annotated in public databases. Of these, 3,280 transcripts did not have a homologous match to any sequence deposited in the NCBI EST database suggesting horse specificity. The unknown transcripts were categorized as coding and noncoding based on predicted coding potential scores. Among them 230 transcripts had high coding potential score, at least 2 exons, and an open reading frame of at least 300 nt. We experimentally validated 9 new equine coding transcripts using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. Our results provide valuable detailed information on many transcripts yet to be annotated in the horse genome. PMID:25790166

  3. Validation of a heterologous fertilization assay and comparison of fertilization rates of equine oocytes using in vitro fertilization, perivitelline, and intracytoplasmic sperm injections.

    PubMed

    Sessions-Bresnahan, D R; Graham, J K; Carnevale, E M

    2014-07-15

    IVF in horses is rarely successful. One reason for this could be the failure of sperm to fully capacitate or exhibit hyperactive motility. We hypothesized that the zona pellucida (ZP) of equine oocytes prevents fertilization in vitro, and bypassing the ZP would increase fertilization rates. Limited availability of equine oocytes for research has necessitated the use of heterologous oocyte binding assays using bovine oocytes. We sought to validate an assay using bovine oocytes and equine sperm and then to demonstrate that bypassing the ZP using perivitelline sperm injections (PVIs) with equine sperm capacitated with dilauroyl phosphatidylcholine would result in higher fertilization rates than standard IVF in bovine and equine oocytes. In experiment 1, bovine oocytes were used for (1) IVF with bovine sperm, (2) IVF with equine sperm, and (3) intracytoplasmic sperm injections (ICSIs) with equine sperm. Presumptive zygotes were either stained with 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole from 18 to 26 hours at 2-hour intervals or evaluated for cleavage at 56 hours after addition of sperm. Equine sperm fertilized bovine oocytes; however, pronuclei formation was delayed compared with bovine sperm after IVF. The delayed pronuclear formation was not seen after ICSI. In experiment 2, bovine oocytes were assigned to the following five groups: (1) cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) coincubated with bovine sperm; (2) COC exposed to sucrose then coincubated with bovine sperm; (3) COC coincubated with equine sperm; (4) COC exposed to sucrose, and coincubated with equine sperm; and (5) oocytes exposed to sucrose, and 10 to 15 equine sperm injected into the perivitelline (PV) space. Equine sperm tended (P = 0.08) to fertilize more bovine oocytes when injected into the PV space than after IVF. In experiment 3, oocytes were assigned to the following four groups: (1) IVF, equine, and bovine COC coincubated with equine sperm; (2) PVI of equine and bovine oocytes; (3) PVI with equine oocytes

  4. Genetic stability of equine arteritis virus during horizontal and vertical transmission in an outbreak of equine viral arteritis.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, U B; Hedges, J F; Nadler, S A; McCollum, W H; Timoney, P J; MacLachlan, N J

    1999-08-01

    An imported carrier stallion (A) from Europe was implicated in causing an extensive outbreak of equine viral arteritis (EVA) on a Warmblood breeding farm in Pennsylvania, USA. Strains of equine arteritis virus (EAV) present in the semen of two carrier stallions (A and G) on the farm were compared to those in tissues of foals born during the outbreak, as well as viruses present in the semen of two other stallions that became persistently infected carriers of EAV following infection during the outbreak. The 2822 bp segment encompassing ORFs 2-7 (nt 9807-12628; which encode the G(S), GP3, GP4, G(L), M and N proteins, respectively) was directly amplified by RT-PCR from semen samples and foal tissues. Nucleotide and phylogenetic analyses confirmed that virus present in the semen of stallion A initiated the outbreak. The genomes of viruses present in most foal tissues (10/11) and serum from an acutely infected mare collected during the outbreak were identical to that of virus present in the lung of the first foal that died of EVA. Virus in the placenta of one foal differed by one nucleotide (99.9% identity) from the predominant outbreak virus. The relative genetic stability of viruses that circulated during the outbreak contrasts markedly with the heterogeneous virus populations variously present in the semen of persistently infected stallions on the farm. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the carrier stallion can be a source of genetic diversity of EAV, and that outbreaks of EVA can be initiated by the horizontal aerosol transmission of specific viral variants that occur in the semen of particular carrier stallions. PMID:10466790

  5. Equine peripheral blood-derived progenitors in comparison to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Koerner, Jens; Nesic, Dobrila; Romero, Jose Diaz; Brehm, Walter; Mainil-Varlet, Pierre; Grogan, Shawn Patrick

    2006-06-01

    Fibroblast-like cells isolated from peripheral blood of human, canine, guinea pig, and rat have been demonstrated to possess the capacity to differentiate into several mesenchymal lineages. The aim of this work was to investigate the possibility of isolating pluripotent precursor cells from equine peripheral blood and compare them with equine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were used as a control for cell multipotency assessment. Venous blood (n = 33) and bone marrow (n = 5) were obtained from adult horses. Mononuclear cells were obtained by Ficoll gradient centrifugation and cultured in monolayer, and adherent fibroblast-like cells were tested for their differentiation potential. Chondrogenic differentiation was performed in serum-free medium in pellet cultures as a three-dimensional model, whereas osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation were induced in monolayer culture. Evidence for differentiation was made via biochemical, histological, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction evaluations. Fibroblast-like cells were observed on day 10 in 12 out of 33 samples and were allowed to proliferate until confluence. Equine peripheral blood-derived cells had osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation capacities comparable to cells derived from bone marrow. Both cell types showed a limited capacity to produce lipid droplets compared to human MSCs. This result may be due to the assay conditions, which are established for human MSCs from bone marrow and may not be optimal for equine progenitor cells. Bone marrow-derived equine and human MSCs could be induced to develop cartilage, whereas equine peripheral blood progenitors did not show any capacity to produce cartilage at the histological level. In conclusion, equine peripheral blood-derived fibroblast-like cells can differentiate into distinct mesenchymal lineages but have less multipotency than bone marrow-derived MSCs under the conditions used in this study.

  6. Cleavage site and Ectodomain of HA2 sub-unit sequence of three equine influenza virus isolated in Morocco

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The equine influenza (EI) is an infectious and contagious disease of the upper respiratory tract of horses. Two outbreaks were notified in Morocco during 1997 and 2004 respectively in Nador and Essaouira. The aims of the present study concern the amino acids sequences comparison with reference strain A/equine/Miami/1963(H3N8) of the HA2 subunit including the cleavage site of three equine influenza viruses (H3N8) isolated in Morocco: A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8), A/equine/Essaouira/2/2004 (H3N8) and A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004 (H3N8). Results The obtained results demonstrated that the substitutions were located at Ectodomain (ED) and transmembrane domain (TD), and they have only one arginine in cleavage site (HA1-PEKQI-R329-GI-HA2). In the Ectodomain, the mutation N/154 2 /T deleted the NGT glycosylation site at position 154 for both strains A/equine/Essaouira/2/2004(H3N8) and A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004(H3N8). Except for mutation D/1602/Y of the A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8) strain, the other mutations were involved in non conserved sites. While the transmembrane domain (TM) of the strain A/equine/Essaouira/3/2004(H3N8) exhibits a substitution at residue C/199 2 /F. For the A/equine/Nador/1/1997(H3N8) strain the HA2 shows a mutation at residue M/207 2 /L. Three Moroccan strains reveals a common substitution at the residue E/211 2 /Q located between transmembrane domain TM and the cytoplasmic domain (CD). Conclusion The given nature virulence of three Moroccan strains, the identified and reported mutations certainly played a permissive role of infection viral process. PMID:25016480

  7. Cloning and large-scale expansion of epitope-specific equine cytotoxic T lymphocytes using an anti-equine CD3 monoclonal antibody and human recombinant IL-2

    PubMed Central

    Mealey, Robert H.; Littke, Matt H.; Leib, Steven R.; Davis, William C.; McGuire, Travis C.

    2007-01-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are involved in controlling intracellular pathogens in many species, including horses. Particularly, CTL are critical for the control of equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV), a lentivirus that infects horses world-wide. In humans and animal models, CTL clones are valuable for evaluating the fine specificity of epitope recognition, and for adoptive immunotherapy against infectious and neoplastic diseases. Cloned CTL would be equally useful for similar studies in the horse. Here we present the first analysis of a method to generate equine CTL clones. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained from an EIAV-infected horse and stimulated with the EIAV Rev-QW11 peptide. Sorted CD8+ T cells were cloned by limiting dilution, and expanded without further antigen addition using irradiated PBMC, anti-equine CD3, and human recombinant IL-2. Clones could be frozen and thawed without detrimental effects, and could be subsequently expanded to numbers exceeding 2 × 109 cells. Flow cytometry of expanded clones confirmed the CD3+/CD8+ phenotype, and chromium release assays confirmed CTL activity. Finally, sequencing TCR beta chain genes confirmed clonality. Our results provide a reliable means to generate large numbers of epitope-specific equine CTL clones that are suitable for use in downstream applications, including functional assays and adoptive transfer studies. PMID:17498813

  8. Evidence of widespread natural recombination among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 4 but not among field isolates of equine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Vaz, P K; Horsington, J; Hartley, C A; Browning, G F; Ficorilli, N P; Studdert, M J; Gilkerson, J R; Devlin, J M

    2016-03-01

    Recombination in alphaherpesviruses allows evolution to occur in viruses that have an otherwise stable DNA genome with a low rate of nucleotide substitution. High-throughput sequencing of complete viral genomes has recently allowed natural (field) recombination to be studied in a number of different alphaherpesviruses, however, such studies have not been applied to equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) or equine herpesvirus 4 (EHV-4). These two equine alphaherpesviruses are genetically similar, but differ in their pathogenesis and epidemiology. Both cause economically significant disease in horse populations worldwide. This study used high-throughput sequencing to determine the full genome sequences of EHV-1 and EHV-4 isolates (11 and 14 isolates, respectively) from Australian or New Zealand horses. These sequences were then analysed and examined for evidence of recombination. Evidence of widespread recombination was detected in the genomes of the EHV-4 isolates. Only one potential recombination event was detected in the genomes of the EHV-1 isolates, even when the genomes from an additional 11 international EHV-1 isolates were analysed. The results from this study reveal another fundamental difference between the biology of EHV-1 and EHV-4. The results may also be used to help inform the future safe use of attenuated equine herpesvirus vaccines.

  9. Vibsanin B preferentially targets HSP90β, inhibits interstitial leukocyte migration, and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Bai-Xin; Deng, Xu; Shao, Li-Dong; Lu, Ying; Xiao, Run; Liu, Yi-Jie; Jin, Yi; Xie, Yin-Yin; Zhao, Yan; Luo, Liu-Fei; Ma, Shun; Gao, Ming; Zhang, Lian-Ru; He, Juan; Zhang, Wei-Na; Chen, Yi; Xia, Cheng-Feng; Deng, Min; Liu, Ting-Xi; Zhao, Qin-Shi; Chen, Sai-Juan; Chen, Zhu

    2015-05-01

    Interstitial leukocyte migration plays a critical role in inflammation and offers a therapeutic target for treating inflammation-associated diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Identifying small molecules to inhibit undesired leukocyte migration provides promise for the treatment of these disorders. In this study, we identified vibsanin B, a novel macrocyclic diterpenoid isolated from Viburnum odoratissimum Ker-Gawl, that inhibited zebrafish interstitial leukocyte migration using a transgenic zebrafish line (TG:zlyz-enhanced GFP). We found that vibsanin B preferentially binds to heat shock protein (HSP)90β. At the molecular level, inactivation of HSP90 can mimic vibsanin B's effect of inhibiting interstitial leukocyte migration. Furthermore, we demonstrated that vibsanin B ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice with pathological manifestation of decreased leukocyte infiltration into their CNS. In summary, vibsanin B is a novel lead compound that preferentially targets HSP90β and inhibits interstitial leukocyte migration, offering a promising drug lead for treating inflammation-associated diseases.

  10. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis: a model of demyelination and persistence of virus.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, M; Oleszak, E; Leibowitz, J

    1987-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) causes immune-mediated demyelination in susceptible mice which is similar to human demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis. In addition, the picornavirus persists within the central nervous system throughout the course of the chronic demyelinating disease. This article reviews the neuropathology, virology, immunology, and molecular biology of the model system. We analyze the possible mechanisms by which this virus induces demyelination and persists in the nervous system. Finally, we provide a hypothesis that the specificity of primary white matter destruction in the TMEV model depends on immune-sensitized cells which interact with viral antigen plus major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens on the surfaces of oligodendrocytes or myelin sheaths.

  11. Three-dimensional structure of Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (BeAn strain).

    PubMed

    Luo, M; He, C; Toth, K S; Zhang, C X; Lipton, H L

    1992-03-15

    Depending on the strain, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) may cause acute encephalitis or chronic demyelinating disease, which is associated with viral persistence in mice. Persistent central nervous system infection and demyelination by the less-virulent TMEV has provided a useful animal model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The less-virulent BeAn strain of TMEV was crystallized and its atomic structure was determined by x-ray crystallography. The alpha-carbon coordinates of the closely related Mengo virus were used to calculate the initial phases to 3.5 A resolution and the interpretable electron density map was produced by 10 cycles of 30-fold noncrystallographic molecular replacement averaging. The structure revealed a high degree of overall structural similarity to Mengo virus as well as substantial differences in the surface loops. These structural changes might be correlated with TMEV host-specific recognition, pH-related stability, and neurovirulence.

  12. Receptors for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: characterization by using rabbit antiviral antiserum.

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, N; Cuesta, A

    1988-01-01

    An immunological assay was developed to characterize the binding of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus to BHK-21 cell receptors. After absorption of the virus and formaldehyde fixation, rabbit antibodies and Staphylococcus aureus protein A labeled with 125I formed a specific complex on the surfaces of the cells. The optimal multiplicity of infection in this system was 10 PFU per cell. The virus was internalized at 33 and 37 degrees C, but internalization did not take place at 25 or 4 degrees C. The binding was proportional to the number of cells and was significant within 30 s. Cell surface receptors were still active after fixation, and only intact viruses were bound, as demonstrated by the lack of binding of the purified, isolated virion proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3. PMID:2845143

  13. Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces tumour necrosis factor-alpha in murine astrocyte cell cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Sierra, A; Rubio, N

    1993-01-01

    Cytokines have been postulated to exert an important modulatory and recruiting role in demyelination induced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in SJL/J mice. Using a cytolytic bioassay and ELISA, we have detected and quantified a cytokine, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), in supernatants from astrocyte cultures infected in vitro with TMEV. TNF was detected only after TMEV-specific infection of astrocyte cultures (approximately 200-400 U/ml). In vitro TNF synthesis appeared in a dose- and time-dependent manner and was produced by both SJL/J (a strain susceptible to TMEV-induced demyelination) and BALB/c (a resistant strain) astrocytes. The precise nature of TNF activity was further assessed by fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) and antibody neutralization. These results indicate an active role for astrocytes as accessory immune cells in our experimental model for multiple sclerosis. PMID:8478023

  14. Three-dimensional structure of Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (BeAn strain).

    PubMed Central

    Luo, M; He, C; Toth, K S; Zhang, C X; Lipton, H L

    1992-01-01

    Depending on the strain, Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) may cause acute encephalitis or chronic demyelinating disease, which is associated with viral persistence in mice. Persistent central nervous system infection and demyelination by the less-virulent TMEV has provided a useful animal model for the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. The less-virulent BeAn strain of TMEV was crystallized and its atomic structure was determined by x-ray crystallography. The alpha-carbon coordinates of the closely related Mengo virus were used to calculate the initial phases to 3.5 A resolution and the interpretable electron density map was produced by 10 cycles of 30-fold noncrystallographic molecular replacement averaging. The structure revealed a high degree of overall structural similarity to Mengo virus as well as substantial differences in the surface loops. These structural changes might be correlated with TMEV host-specific recognition, pH-related stability, and neurovirulence. Images PMID:1312722

  15. Receptors for Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus: characterization by using rabbit antiviral antiserum.

    PubMed

    Rubio, N; Cuesta, A

    1988-11-01

    An immunological assay was developed to characterize the binding of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus to BHK-21 cell receptors. After absorption of the virus and formaldehyde fixation, rabbit antibodies and Staphylococcus aureus protein A labeled with 125I formed a specific complex on the surfaces of the cells. The optimal multiplicity of infection in this system was 10 PFU per cell. The virus was internalized at 33 and 37 degrees C, but internalization did not take place at 25 or 4 degrees C. The binding was proportional to the number of cells and was significant within 30 s. Cell surface receptors were still active after fixation, and only intact viruses were bound, as demonstrated by the lack of binding of the purified, isolated virion proteins VP1, VP2, and VP3.

  16. Treatment with retinoid X receptor agonist IRX4204 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Chandraratna, Roshantha As; Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid x receptors (RXRs) are master regulators that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival and form heterodimers with many other family members. Here we show that treatment with the RXR agonist IRX4204 enhances the differentiation of CD4(+) T cells into inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) and suppresses the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells in vitro. Furthermore in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), treatment with IRX4204 profoundly attenuates both active and Th17-mediated passive disease. In the periphery, treatment with IRX4204 is associated with decreased numbers of CD4(+) T cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, CD4(+) T cells express decreased levels of Ki-67 and increased expression of CTLA-4. Our findings demonstrate IRX4204 treatment during EAE results in immune modulation and profound attenuation of disease severity. PMID:27158387

  17. C-C chemokine receptor type 4 antagonist Compound 22 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Kota; Miyamoto, Katsuichi; Tanaka, Noriko; Ueno, Rino; Nakayama, Takashi; Yoshie, Osamu; Kusunoki, Susumu

    2016-02-15

    Chemokines and chemokine receptors play important roles in the immune response. We previously reported the pathogenic role of C-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CCR4) in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Here, we examined whether CCR4 antagonism modulates the disease course of EAE. Wild-type and CCR4-knockout mice were induced EAE and were administered Compound 22, an antagonist of CCR4. Compound 22 significantly ameliorated the severity of EAE in wild-type mice, but not in the CCR4-knockout mice. Compound 22 inhibited Th1 and Th17 polarization of antigen-induced T-cell responses. Therefore, CCR4 antagonists might be potential therapeutic agents for multiple sclerosis. PMID:26857495

  18. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease masquerading as acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis-like illness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gun-Ha; Kim, Kyoung Min; Suh, Sang-Il; Ki, Chang-Seok; Eun, Baik-Lin

    2014-07-01

    X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX1) is a clinically heterogeneous hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with X-linked transmission. Common clinical manifestations of CMTX1 disease, as in other forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT) disease, are distal muscle wasting and weakness, hyporeflexia, distal sensory disturbance, and foot deformities. Mutations in the connexin-32 gene (gap junction protein β1 [GJB1]) are responsible for CMTX1 disease. In this report, we describe a patient with CMTX1 disease presenting with recurrent attacks of transient and episodic acute demyelinating encephalomyelitis (ADEM)-like symptoms without previous signs of lower extremity weakness or foot deformities; the patient, as well as his asymptomatic mother, exhibited a novel GJB1 mutation (p.Met1Ile). Differential diagnosis of recurrent and transient ADEM-like illness, if unexplained, should include the possibility of CMTX1 disease.

  19. Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Foster, Scott C; Daniels, Crystal; Bourdette, Dennis N; Bebo, Bruce F

    2003-07-01

    The ability of sex hormones to regulate cytokine production is well established, but the ability of cytokines to regulate sex hormone production has only begun to be investigated. We measured sex hormones in mice with passive experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with sexual dysfunction. Abnormally low serum testosterone levels were found in male mice with EAE and in male MS patients, while serum estrogen levels in female mice with EAE were normal. An inverse relationship between cytokine and testosterone levels in male mice with EAE, coupled with an increase in serum luteinizing hormone (LH) levels, suggests that inflammatory cytokines suppress testosterone production by a direct effect on testicular Leydig cells. Gender differences in the sensitivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis to inflammation may be an important factor regulating the duration and severity of central nervous system (CNS) autoimmunity.

  20. Microglia response in retina and optic nerve in chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Horstmann, Lioba; Kuehn, Sandra; Pedreiturria, Xiomara; Haak, Kathrin; Pfarrer, Christiane; Dick, H Burkhard; Kleiter, Ingo; Joachim, Stephanie C

    2016-09-15

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a common rodent model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Yet, the long-term consequences for retina and optic nerve (ON) are unknown. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with an encephalitogenic peptide (MOG35-55) and the controls received the carriers or PBS. Clinical symptoms started at day 8, peaked at day 14, and were prevalent until day 60. They correlated with infiltration and demyelination of the ON. In MOG-immunized animals more microglia cells in the ONs and retinas were detected at day 60. Additionally, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss was combined with an increased macroglia response. At this late stage, an increased number of microglia was associated with axonal damage in the ON and in the retina with RGC loss. Whether glial activation contributes to repair mechanisms or adversely affects the number of RGCs is currently unclear. PMID:27609273

  1. Probenecid Application Prevents Clinical Symptoms and Inflammation in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Hainz, Nadine; Wolf, Sandra; Tschernig, Thomas; Meier, Carola

    2016-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system. Neurological impairments are caused by axonal damage due to demyelination and neuroinflammation within the central nervous system. T cells mediate the neuroinflammation. The activation of T cells is induced by the release of adenosine triphosphate and involves purinergic receptors as well as pannexin (Panx) proteins. As Panx1 is expressed on T cells, we here propose that application of probenecid, a known Panx inhibitor, will prevent the onset of clinical symptoms in a mouse model of MS, the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model. EAE-induced mice received daily injections of probenecid. Disease scores, T cell numbers, and microglia activation were compared between experimental groups. Probenecid treatment resulted in lower disease scores as compared to EAE animals. Probenecid-treated animals also displayed fewer inflammatory lesions. Microglia activation was not altered by treatment. In conclusion, probenecid prevented the onset of EAE. PMID:26276126

  2. An in vitro assay for quantifying the virus of avian encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Berger, R G

    1982-01-01

    Chicken embryo brain (CEB) cell cultures support the replication of embryo-adapted strains, vaccine strains, and field isolates of avian encephalomyelitis virus. A centrifugal force of 1,500 X g was applied during virus adsorption. Viral antigen was detected in the infected cells by using the indirect fluorescent-antibody technique (IFAT). Combining the infectivity of the virus in CEB cell culture with the ability to detect viral antigen by the IFAT resulted in the development of a virus-titration method. This in vitro assay proved to be more sensitive than the standard embryo-inoculation assay. It was concluded that the in vitro assay provides a satisfactory alternative to the embryo-inoculation assay.

  3. Development and application of an improved infectivity assay for the standardization of avian encephalomyelitis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Shafren, D R; Tannock, G A

    1990-06-01

    An improved infectivity assay for avian encephalomyelitis viruses (AEVs) is described in which susceptible 7-day-old chicken embryos were inoculated with dilutions of a particular AEV strain and, after incubation for 12 days, the presence of viral antigen in brains was detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The assay (the brain antigen ELISA), which may be used for the titration of both egg-adapted and non-egg-adapted strains, can be completed within 12 days. For the conventional essays of non-egg-adapted vaccine strains, embryos are infected in ovo and hatched chickens examined for neurological signs after 3-4 weeks. No animal handling facilities are required with the brain antigen ELISA and results of comparable sensitivity to the hatch-out assay were obtained.

  4. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches.

  5. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, J Luis; Salinas, Eva; Quintanar-Stephano, Andrés

    2011-02-01

    It has been reported that the spinal cord possesses Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor and that GnRH has neurotrophic properties. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) causes neurodegeneration in spinal cord. Thus, the present study was designed to determine whether administration of GnRH reduces the severity of EAE. The clinical signs of locomotion, axonal morphometry and neurofilaments (NFs) expression were evaluated. Clinical signs remained significantly lower in EAE rats with GnRH administration compared to animals without treatment. Morphometric analysis, there were more axons of larger areas in the spinal cord of EAE+GnRH group compared to EAE animals. Western blot analysis demonstrated that GnRH administration significantly increased the expression of NFs of 68, 160 and 200kDa in the spinal cord of EAE animals. Our results indicate that GnRH administration reduces the severity of EAE in the rat.

  6. CD20 therapies in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - Targeting T or B cells?

    PubMed

    Agahozo, Marie Colombe; Peferoen, Laura; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    MS is widely considered to be a T cell-mediated disease although T cell immunotherapy has consistently failed, demonstrating distinct differences with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS in which T cell therapies are effective. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that B cells also play key role in MS pathogenesis. The high frequency of oligoclonal antibodies in the CSF, the localization of immunoglobulin in brain lesions and pathogenicity of antibodies originally pointed to the pathogenic role of B cells as autoantibody producing plasma cells. However, emerging evidence reveal that B cells also act as antigen presenting cells, T cell activators and cytokine producers suggesting that the strong efficacy of anti-CD20 antibody therapy observed in people with MS may reduce disease progression by several different mechanisms. Here we review the evidence and mechanisms by which B cells contribute to disease in MS compared to findings in the EAE model. PMID:27645355

  7. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  8. Cytokine network analysis of cerebrospinal fluid in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hornig, M; Gottschalk, G; Peterson, D L; Knox, K K; Schultz, A F; Eddy, M L; Che, X; Lipkin, W I

    2016-02-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome is an unexplained debilitating disorder that is frequently associated with cognitive and motor dysfunction. We analyzed cerebrospinal fluid from 32 cases, 40 subjects with multiple sclerosis and 19 normal subjects frequency-matched for age and sex using a 51-plex cytokine assay. Group-specific differences were found for the majority of analytes with an increase in cases of CCL11 (eotaxin), a chemokine involved in eosinophil recruitment. Network analysis revealed an inverse relationship between interleukin 1 receptor antagonist and colony-stimulating factor 1, colony-stimulating factor 2 and interleukin 17F, without effects on interleukin 1α or interleukin 1β, suggesting a disturbance in interleukin 1 signaling. Our results indicate a markedly disturbed immune signature in the cerebrospinal fluid of cases that is consistent with immune activation in the central nervous system, and a shift toward an allergic or T helper type-2 pattern associated with autoimmunity.

  9. Strain-related effects of fenbendazole treatment on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Ramp, A A; Hall, C; Orian, J M

    2010-07-01

    Parasitic infections are a concern in animal facilities, in view of their influence on physiological processes and the immune status of animals. Pinworms are effectively controlled with the anthelminthic fenbendazole (FBZ, [5-(phenylthio)-1H-benzamidazol-2-yl]carbamic acid methyl ester; C(15)H(13)N(3)O(2)S); however, questions remain as to whether prolonged FBZ exposure alters the disease course in specific experimental models, such as those pertaining to the immune system. We report that a three-month regimen of FBZ-medicated feed severely affected the onset and disease severity of murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease that mimics multiple sclerosis. Differences were recorded between mouse strains used. Our data suggest that where the use of FBZ is mandatory, its full effect should be verified on the particular EAE variant adopted by the laboratory.

  10. Kindling and Oxidative Stress as Contributors to Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jason, L. A.; Porter, N.; Herrington, J.; Sorenson, M.; Kubow, S.

    2010-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is one of the more complex illnesses involving multiple systems within the body. Onset of ME/CFS frequently occurs quickly, and many patients report a prior exposure to a viral infection. This debilitating illness can affect the immune, neuroendocrine, autonomic, and neurologic systems. Abnormal biological findings among some patients have included aberrant ion transport and ion channel activity, cortisol deficiency, sympathetic nervous system hyperactivity, EEG spike waves, left ventricular dysfunction in the heart, low natural killer cell cytotoxicity, and a shift from Th1 to Th2 cytokines. We propose that the kindling and oxidative stress theories provide a heuristic template for better understanding the at times conflicting findings regarding the etiology and pathophysiology of this illness. PMID:21253446

  11. Kappa opioid receptor activation alleviates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and promotes oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination.

    PubMed

    Du, Changsheng; Duan, Yanhui; Wei, Wei; Cai, Yingying; Chai, Hui; Lv, Jie; Du, Xiling; Zhu, Jian; Xie, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is characterized by autoimmune damage to the central nervous system. All the current drugs for MS target the immune system. Although effective in reducing new lesions, they have limited effects in preventing the progression of disability. Promoting oligodendrocyte-mediated remyelination and recovery of neurons are the new directions of MS therapy. The endogenous opioid system, consisting of MOR, DOR, KOR and their ligands, has been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of MS. However, the exact receptor and mechanism remain elusive. Here we show that genetic deletion of KOR exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, whereas activating KOR with agonists alleviates the symptoms. KOR does not affect immune cell differentiation and function. Instead, it promotes oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that targeting KOR might be an intriguing way to develop new MS therapies that may complement the existing immunosuppressive approaches. PMID:27040771

  12. CD20 therapies in multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis - Targeting T or B cells?

    PubMed

    Agahozo, Marie Colombe; Peferoen, Laura; Baker, David; Amor, Sandra

    2016-09-01

    MS is widely considered to be a T cell-mediated disease although T cell immunotherapy has consistently failed, demonstrating distinct differences with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS in which T cell therapies are effective. Accumulating evidence has highlighted that B cells also play key role in MS pathogenesis. The high frequency of oligoclonal antibodies in the CSF, the localization of immunoglobulin in brain lesions and pathogenicity of antibodies originally pointed to the pathogenic role of B cells as autoantibody producing plasma cells. However, emerging evidence reveal that B cells also act as antigen presenting cells, T cell activators and cytokine producers suggesting that the strong efficacy of anti-CD20 antibody therapy observed in people with MS may reduce disease progression by several different mechanisms. Here we review the evidence and mechanisms by which B cells contribute to disease in MS compared to findings in the EAE model.

  13. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis following 2009 H1N1 influenza vaccination.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kengo; Idehara, Ryo

    2012-01-01

    Since the worldwide spread of the novel influenza type A virus in 2009, trivalent vaccines against H1N1 (pandemic) 09 and seasonal influenza have been used. We describe a 33-year-old woman who presented with hypoesthesia below the Th7 level fifteen days after vaccination without any preceding infection. Cerebrospinal fluid showed an increased level of myelin basic protein and positive oligoclonal IgG bands. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed disseminated lesions in the brain and thoracic cord. Steroid therapy improved her symptoms. She was diagnosed as having acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) possibly related to the vaccination. As a potential adverse effect of the influenza vaccine, in addition to Guillain-Barré syndrome, ADEM should also be recognized. PMID:22821116

  14. A MURINE VIRUS (JHM) CAUSING DISSEMINATED ENCEPHALOMYELITIS WITH EXTENSIVE DESTRUCTION OF MYELIN

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Orville T.; Pappenheimer, Alwin M.; Cheever, F. Sargent; Daniels, Joan B.

    1949-01-01

    A description has been given of the pathologic changes produced experimentally in animals by the inoculation of a virus material obtained from a mouse with spontaneous encephalomyelitis. The most distinctive feature of the lesions in the central nervous system is the widespread destruction of myelin. Giant cells derived from a variety of tissue elements characterize the early lesions. The liver in the majority of cases is the seat of focal necrosis. In some mice, infected with large doses by the intravenous route, there is produced massive necrosis of the liver, with fat infiltration and calcification. Giant cells are occasionally found in lymphatic tissue, but no significant changes were noted in other organs. Inclusions or elementary bodies were not demonstrated in the lesions. Similar lesions were produced by the inoculation of mouse virus into hamsters. In rats, the lesions were of a more chronic character. The relation of this disease to other demyelinating diseases of man and animals is discussed. PMID:19871701

  15. Treatment with retinoid X receptor agonist IRX4204 ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Chandraratna, Roshantha AS; Noelle, Randolph J; Nowak, Elizabeth C

    2016-01-01

    Retinoid x receptors (RXRs) are master regulators that control cell growth, differentiation, and survival and form heterodimers with many other family members. Here we show that treatment with the RXR agonist IRX4204 enhances the differentiation of CD4+ T cells into inducible regulatory T cells (iTreg) and suppresses the development of T helper (Th) 17 cells in vitro. Furthermore in a murine model of multiple sclerosis (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)), treatment with IRX4204 profoundly attenuates both active and Th17-mediated passive disease. In the periphery, treatment with IRX4204 is associated with decreased numbers of CD4+ T cells that produce pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, CD4+ T cells express decreased levels of Ki-67 and increased expression of CTLA-4. Our findings demonstrate IRX4204 treatment during EAE results in immune modulation and profound attenuation of disease severity. PMID:27158387

  16. In silico analysis of exercise intolerance in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lengert, Nicor; Drossel, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Post-exertional malaise is commonly observed in patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, but its mechanism is not yet well understood. A reduced capacity for mitochondrial ATP synthesis is associated with the pathogenesis of CFS and is suspected to be a major contribution to exercise intolerance in CFS patients. To demonstrate the connection between a reduced mitochondrial capacity and exercise intolerance, we present a model which simulates metabolite dynamics in skeletal muscles during exercise and recovery. CFS simulations exhibit critically low levels of ATP, where an increased rate of cell death would be expected. To stabilize the energy supply at low ATP concentrations the total adenine nucleotide pool is reduced substantially causing a prolonged recovery time even without consideration of other factors, such as immunological dysregulations and oxidative stress. Repeated exercises worsen this situation considerably. Furthermore, CFS simulations exhibited an increased acidosis and lactate accumulation consistent with experimental observations.

  17. Galectin isolated from parasite inhibits remission of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by up-regulating autoantibody

    PubMed Central

    Bing, S J; Ha, D; Ahn, G; Cho, J; Kim, A; Park, S K; Yu, H S; Jee, Y

    2015-01-01

    Recently, parasite infections or parasite-derived products have been suggested as a therapeutic strategy with suppression of immunopathology, which involves the induction of regulatory T cells or/and T helper type 2 (Th2) responses. In a recent study, researchers reported that constructed recombinant galectin (rTl-gal) isolated from an adult worm of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite Toxascaris leonina attenuated clinical symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease in mice treated with dextran sulphate sodium. Noting the role of rTl-gal in inflammatory disease, we attempted to investigate the effect of the parasite via its rTl-gal on neuronal autoimmune disease using experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a mouse inflammatory and demyelinating autoimmune disease model of human multiple sclerosis. In this model, rTl-gal-treated experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice failed to recover after the peak of the disease, leading to persistent central nervous system (CNS) damage, such as demyelination, gliosis and axonal damage. Further, rTl-gal-treated EAE mice markedly increased the number of CD45R/B220+ B cells in both infiltrated inflammation and the periphery, along with the increased production of autoantibody [anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)35–55] in serum at chronic stage. Upon antigen restimulation, rTl-gal treatment affected the release of overall cytokines, especially interferon (IFN)-γ and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Our results suggest that galectin isolated from a gastrointestinal parasite can deliver a harmful effect to EAE contrary to its beneficial effect on inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:25619397

  18. Identification of cardioviruses related to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus in human infections

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Charles Y.; Greninger, Alexander L.; Kanada, Kimberly; Kwok, Thomas; Fischer, Kael F.; Runckel, Charles; Louie, Janice K.; Glaser, Carol A.; Yagi, Shigeo; Schnurr, David P.; Haggerty, Tom D.; Parsonnet, Julie; Ganem, Don; DeRisi, Joseph L.

    2008-01-01

    Cardioviruses comprise a genus of picornaviruses that cause severe illnesses in rodents, but little is known about the prevalence, diversity, or spectrum of disease of such agents among humans. A single cardiovirus isolate, Saffold virus, was cultured in 1981 in stool from an infant with fever. Here, we describe the identification of a group of human cardioviruses that have been cloned directly from patient specimens, the first of which was detected using a pan-viral microarray in respiratory secretions from a child with influenza-like illness. Phylogenetic analysis of the nearly complete viral genome (7961 bp) revealed that this virus belongs to the Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) subgroup of cardioviruses and is most closely related to Saffold virus. Subsequent screening by RT-PCR of 719 additional respiratory specimens [637 (89%) from patients with acute respiratory illness] and 400 cerebrospinal fluid specimens from patients with neurological disease (aseptic meningitis, encephalitis, and multiple sclerosis) revealed no evidence of cardiovirus infection. However, screening of 751 stool specimens from 498 individuals in a gastroenteritis cohort resulted in the detection of 6 additional cardioviruses (1.2%). Although all 8 human cardioviruses (including Saffold virus) clustered together by phylogenetic analysis, significant sequence diversity was observed in the VP1 gene (66.9%–100% pairwise amino acid identities). These findings suggest that there exists a diverse group of novel human Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-like cardioviruses that hitherto have gone largely undetected, are found primarily in the gastrointestinal tract, can be shed asymptomatically, and have potential links to enteric and extraintestinal disease. PMID:18768820

  19. Histamine H2 receptor signaling × environment interactions determine susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Saligrama, Naresha; Case, Laure K.; Krementsov, Dimitry N.; Teuscher, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Histamine and its receptors are important in both multiple sclerosis and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE). C57BL/6J (B6) mice deficient for the histamine H2 receptor (H2RKO) are less susceptible to EAE and exhibit blunted Th1 responses. However, whether decreased antigen-specific T-cell effector responses in H2RKO mice were due to a lack of H2R signaling in CD4+ T cells or antigen-presenting cells has remained unclear. We generated transgenic mice expressing H2R specifically in T cells on the H2RKO background, and, using wild-type B6 and H2RKO mice as controls, induced EAE either in the presence or absence of the ancillary adjuvant pertussis toxin (PTX), which models the effects of infectious inflammatory stimuli on autoimmune disease. We monitored the mice for clinical signs of EAE and neuropathology, as well as effector T-cell responses using flow cytometry. EAE severity and neuropathology in H2RKO mice expressing H2R exclusively in T cells become equal to those in wild-type B6 mice only when PTX is used to elicit disease. EAE complementation was associated with frequencies of CD4+IFN-γ+ and CD4+IL-17+ cells that are equal to or greater than those in wild-type B6, respectively. Thus, the regulation of encephalitogenic T-cell responses and EAE susceptibility by H2R signaling in CD4+ T cells is dependent on gene × environment interactions.—Saligrama, N., Case, L. K., Krementsov, D. N., Teuscher, C. Histamine H2 receptor signaling × environment interactions determine susceptibility to experimental allergic encephalomyelitis. PMID:24371118

  20. Prior regular exercise improves clinical outcome and reduces demyelination and axonal injury in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bernardes, Danielle; Brambilla, Roberta; Bracchi-Ricard, Valerie; Karmally, Shaffiat; Dellarole, Anna; Carvalho-Tavares, Juliana; Bethea, John R

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that forced exercise modulates inflammation and is therapeutic acutely for experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the long-term benefits have not been evaluated. In this study, we investigated the effects of preconditioning exercise on the clinical and pathological progression of EAE. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to either an exercised (Ex) or unexercised (UEx) group and all of them were induced for EAE. Mice in the Ex group had an attenuated clinical score relative to UEx mice throughout the study. At 42 dpi, flow cytometry analysis showed a significant reduction in B cells, CD4(+) T cells, and CD8(+) T cells infiltrating into the spinal cord in the Ex group compared to UEx. Ex mice also had a significant reduction in myelin damage with a corresponding increase in proteolipid protein expression. Finally, Ex mice had a significant reduction in axonal damage. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a prolonged and forced preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. In this study, we show that a program of 6 weeks of preconditioning exercise promoted a significant reduction of cells infiltrating into the spinal cord, a significant reduction in myelin damage and a significant reduction in axonal damage in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice at 42 dpi. Collectively, our study demonstrates for the first time that a preconditioning protocol of exercise improves clinical outcome and attenuates pathological hallmarks of EAE at chronic disease. PMID:26364732

  1. Equine cytochrome P450 2B6 — Genomic identification, expression and functional characterization with ketamine

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.M.; Demmel, S.; Pusch, G.; Buters, J.T.M.; Zielinski, J.; Leeb, T.; Mevissen, M.; Schmitz, A.

    2013-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic and analgesic regularly used in veterinary patients. As ketamine is almost always administered in combination with other drugs, interactions between ketamine and other drugs bear the risk of either adverse effects or diminished efficacy. Since cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYPs) play a pivotal role in the phase I metabolism of the majority of all marketed drugs, drug–drug interactions often occur at the active site of these enzymes. CYPs have been thoroughly examined in humans and laboratory animals, but little is known about equine CYPs. The characterization of equine CYPs is essential for a better understanding of drug metabolism in horses. We report annotation, cloning and heterologous expression of the equine CYP2B6 in V79 Chinese hamster fibroblasts. After computational annotation of all CYP2B genes, the coding sequence (CDS) of equine CYP2B6 was amplified by RT-PCR from horse liver total RNA and revealed an amino acid sequence identity of 77% and a similarity of 93.7% to its human ortholog. A non-synonymous variant c.226G>A in exon 2 of the equine CYP2B6 was detected in 97 horses. The mutant A-allele showed an allele frequency of 82%. Two further variants in exon 3 were detected in one and two horses of this group, respectively. Transfected V79 cells were incubated with racemic ketamine and norketamine as probe substrates to determine metabolic activity. The recombinant equine CYP2B6 N-demethylated ketamine to norketamine and produced metabolites of norketamine, such as hydroxylated norketamines and 5,6-dehydronorketamine. V{sub max} for S-/and R-norketamine formation was 0.49 and 0.45 nmol/h/mg cellular protein and K{sub m} was 3.41 and 2.66 μM, respectively. The N-demethylation of S-/R-ketamine was inhibited concentration-dependently with clopidogrel showing an IC{sub 50} of 5.63 and 6.26 μM, respectively. The functional importance of the recorded genetic variants remains to be explored. Equine CYP2B6 was determined to be a CYP

  2. Structural Illumination of Equine MHC Class I Molecules Highlights Unconventional Epitope Presentation Manner That Is Evolved in Equine Leukocyte Antigen Alleles.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shugang; Liu, Jun; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Rong; Zhang, Nianzhi; Liu, Yanjie; Wang, Junya; Wu, Yanan; Gao, George Fu; Xia, Chun

    2016-02-15

    MHC class I (MHC I)-restricted virus-specific CTLs are implicated as critical components in the control of this naturally occurring lentivirus and in the protective immune response to the successfully applied attenuated equine infectious anemia virus vaccine in the horse. Nevertheless, the structural basis for how the equine MHC I presents epitope peptides remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the binding of several equine infectious anemia virus-derived epitope peptides by the ability to refold recombinant molecules and by thermal stability, and then by determining the x-ray structure of five peptide-MHC I complexes: equine MHC class I allele (Eqca)-N*00602/Env-RW12, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-GW12, Eqca-N*00602/Rev-QW11, Eqca-N*00602/Gag-CF9, and Eqca-N*00601/Gag-GW12. Although Eqca-N*00601 and Eqca-N*00602 differ by a single amino acid, Eqca-N*00601 exhibited a drastically different peptide presentation when binding a similar CTL epitope, Gag-GW12; the result makes the previously reported function clear to be non-cross-recognition between these two alleles. The structures plus Eqca-N*00602 complexed with a 9-mer peptide are particularly noteworthy in that we illuminated differences in apparent flexibility in the center of the epitope peptides for the complexes with Gag-GW12 as compared with Env-RW12, and a strict selection of epitope peptides with normal length. The featured preferences and unconventional presentations of long peptides by equine MHC I molecules provide structural bases to explain the exceptional anti-lentivirus immunity in the horse. We think that the beneficial reference points could serve as an initial platform for other human or animal lentiviruses. PMID:26764037

  3. 77 FR 7588 - Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and Equines; Public Meeting; Request for Comments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and... meeting entitled ``Antiparasitic Drug Use and Resistance in Ruminants and Equines.'' The purpose of the... ruminants and equines. DATES: Date and Time: The public meeting will be held on March 5 and 6, 2012, from...

  4. A Healing Space: The Experiences of First Nations and Inuit Youth with Equine-Assisted Learning (EAL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell, Colleen Anne; Chalmers, Darlene; Bresette, Nora; Swain, Sue; Rankin, Deb; Hopkins, Carol

    2011-01-01

    The Nimkee NupiGawagan Healing Centre (NNHC) in Muncey, ON provides residential treatment to First Nations and Inuit youth who abuse solvents. As a complement to its culture-based programming, in 2008 the centre began offering weekly equine-assisted learning (EAL) curriculum to its clients in partnership with the Keystone Equine Centre and the…

  5. Assessment of theileria equi and babesia caballi infections in equine populations in Egypt by molecular, serological and hematological approaches

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Equine piroplasmosis caused by Theileria equi, Babesia caballi, or both, cause significant economic losses in the equine industry and remains uncontrolled in Egypt. Methods: T. equi and B. caballi infections were assessed in blood from 88 horses and 51 donkeys from different localities ...

  6. Trajectories of Positive and Negative Behavior during Participation in Equine Facilitated Learning Program for Horse-Novice Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendry, Patricia; Roeter, Stephanie; Smith, Annelise; Jacobson, Sue; Erdman, Phyllis

    2013-01-01

    To explore the efficacy of equine programming to support positive behavioral development of horse-novice youth, researchers examined trajectories of behavioral change of 5-8th grade students as they participate in an equine facilitated learning program. Behaviors were rated and analyzed to examine group trajectories of change. Results indicated…

  7. Xenogenous fertilization of equine oocytes following recovery from slaughterhouse ovaries and in vitro maturation.

    PubMed

    Wirtu, G; Bailey, T L; Chauhan, M S; Parker, N A; Dascanio, J J; Gwazdauskas, F C; Ley, W B

    2004-01-15

    The in vitro production (IVP) of equine embryos using currently available protocols has met limited success; therefore investigations into alternative approaches to IVP are justified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of xenogenous fertilization and early embryo development of in vitro matured (IVM) equine oocytes. Follicular aspirations followed by slicing of ovarian tissue were performed on 202 equine ovaries obtained from an abattoir. A total of 667 oocytes (3.3 per ovary) were recovered from 1023 follicles (recovery rate, 65%). Oocytes underwent IVM for 41 +/- 2 h (mean +/- S.D.), before being subjected to xenogenous gamete intrafallopian transfer (XGIFT). An average of 13 +/- 0.8 oocytes and 40x10(3) spermatozoa per oocyte were transferred into 20 oviducts of ewes. Fourteen percent of transferred oocytes (36/259) were recovered between 2 and 7 days post-XGIFT and 36% of those recovered displayed embryonic development ranging from the 2-cell to the blastocyst stage. Fertilization following XGIFT was also demonstrated by the detection of zinc finger protein Y (ZFY) loci. Ligation of the uterotubal junction (UTJ), ovarian structures, or the duration of oviductal incubation did not significantly affect the frequency of embryonic development or recovery of oocytes/embryos after XGIFT. In conclusion, equine embryos can be produced in a smaller non-equine species that is easier for handling. PMID:14662137

  8. Otoscopic, cytological, and microbiological examination of the equine external ear canal.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Sandra J; Frank, Linda A; Buchanan, Benjamin R; Donnell, Robert L; Morandi, Federica

    2006-06-01

    Otoscopic examination and cytology of the equine ear would be beneficial in diseases such as head trauma, headshaking, otitis externa secondary to otitis media, vestibular disease, aural neoplasia and aural pruritus secondary to parasites. In practice, otic examinations of horses are rarely done due to the perceived difficulty in visualizing the equine external ear canal and tympanic membrane, as well as the need for chemical restraint. In this study, the proximal external ear canal was examined in live horses using a handheld otoscope and in cadaver heads using video otoscopy. Visualization of the proximal ear canal of the sedated horse could be done with a handheld otoscope, but more sedation or general anaesthesia and a video otoscope would be required to adequately visualize the tympanic membrane in the live horse. The proximal ear canals of 18 horses were examined cytologically and cultured aerobically. In three horses, both ears were sampled. No cells or organisms were seen on cytological examination of 11/21 ears. Nine of the 21 ears were sterile when cultured. Ten of the 21 ears had mixed growth with low numbers of organisms (Corynebacterium sp. being most common). Two of the 21 ears had heavy growth of a single organism (Corynebacterium sp. and Staphylococcus intermedius, respectively). Equine cadaver heads were examined in cross-section by computed tomography (CT) imaging and histopathology in order to further understand the anatomy of the equine external ear canal. Equine practitioners should be aware that otic examination is possible and may provide important diagnostic information.

  9. Immunostimulatory Effects of the Anionic Alkali Mineral Complex BARODON on Equine Lymphocytes▿

    PubMed Central

    Koo, HyeCheong; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Ahn, Hyung Jin; Jung, Woo Kyung; Park, Young Kyung; Kwon, Nam Hoon; Kim, So Hyun; Kim, Jun Man; Yoo, Byung Woo; Choi, Soo Il; Davis, William C.; Park, Yong Ho

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the anionic alkali mineral complex BARODON has an immunoenhancing effect on pigs as an adjuvant and as a nonspecific immunostimulant. Likewise, the equine immune system has been defined with various monoclonal antibodies specific to equine leukocyte differentiation antigens to determine the possibility of enhancing equine resistance to respiratory diseases and promoting other immunostimulatory effects with the application of BARODON. Compared with the control group, after 3 weeks of treatment, BARODON-treated groups showed higher proportions of cells (P < 0.05) expressing major histocompatibility complex class II and CD2, CD4+, CD4+ CD25+, CD8+, and CD8+ CD25+ T lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and surface immunoglobulin M+ B lymphocytes in peripheral blood, as well as enhanced cell proliferative responses with phytohemagglutinin and increased phagocytic activity against Streptococcus equi and Staphylococcus aureus strains with high antibiotic resistance, the bacteria frequently identified as etiologic agents of equine respiratory diseases at the Seoul Race Park in Seoul, Korea. This study shows that BARODON may act as an immunostimulator and can be an effective alternative to antimicrobial feed additives for nonspecific improvements in equine immune responses, particularly against respiratory diseases. PMID:16943344

  10. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  11. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Altier, Craig; Bischoff, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Acer rubrum (red maple), especially when wilted in the fall, cause severe oxidative damage to equine erythrocytes, leading to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Gallic acid and tannins from A. rubrum leaves have been implicated as the toxic compounds responsible for red maple toxicosis, but the mechanism of action and toxic principle(s) have not been elucidated to date. In order to investigate further how red maple toxicosis occurs, aqueous solutions of gallic acid, tannic acid, and ground dried A. rubrum leaves were incubated with contents of equine ileum, jejunum, cecum, colon, and liver, and then analyzed for the metabolite pyrogallol, as pyrogallol is a more potent oxidizing agent. Gallic acid was observed to be metabolized to pyrogallol maximally in equine ileum contents in the first 24 hr. Incubation of tannic acid and A. rubrum leaves, individually with ileum contents, produced gallic acid and, subsequently, pyrogallol. Ileum suspensions, when passed through a filter to exclude microbes but not enzymes, formed no pyrogallol, suggesting a microbial basis to the pathway. Bacteria isolated from ileum capable of pyrogallol formation were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, gallotannins and free gallic acid are present in A. rubrum leaves and can be metabolized by K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae found in the equine ileum to form pyrogallol either directly or through a gallic acid intermediate (gallotannins). Identification of these compounds and their physiological effects is necessary for the development of effective treatments for red maple toxicosis in equines.

  12. National Institutes of Health Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Green, Carmen R; Cowan, Penney; Elk, Ronit; O'Neil, Kathleen M; Rasmussen, Angela L

    2015-06-16

    The National Institutes of Health (NIH) Pathways to Prevention Workshop: Advancing the Research on Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome was cosponsored by the NIH Office of Disease Prevention and the Trans-NIH Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome Research Working Group. A multidisciplinary working group developed the agenda, and an Evidence-based Practice Center prepared an evidence report through a contract with the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality to facilitate the discussion. During the 1.5-day workshop, invited experts discussed the body of evidence and attendees had the opportunity to comment during open discussions. After weighing evidence from the evidence report, expert presentations, and public comments, an unbiased, independent panel prepared a draft report that identified research gaps and future research priorities. The report was posted on the NIH Office of Disease Prevention Web site for 4 weeks for public comment.

  13. Factors affecting the ultrasonic properties of equine digital flexor tendons.

    PubMed

    Miles, C A; Fursey, G A; Birch, H L; Young, R D

    1996-01-01

    The velocity, attenuation and apparent backscattering coefficient of 6-11-MHz ultrasound were measured in three orthogonal directions in equine deep digital flexor (DDF) and superficial digital flexor (SDF) tendons at 0 degree C. Ultrasonic measurements were examined for correlation with tendon water, collagen, DNA and glycosaminoglycans contents, determined by chemical analyses and with structure observed by scanning electron microscopy. The SDF tendon contained more water, more DNA (i.e., more cells), less collagen and less glycosaminoglycans and exhibited lower velocities and attenuations than the DDF tendon. Velocities were governed primarily by the adiabatic bulk modulus and density, perturbed by a highly direction-dependent rigidity. Ultrasound propagating across tendon generated frequency-independent backscattering which appeared to derive from the large interfaces between the fascicles, while along the fibres backscattering varied as f3.62 +/- 0.88 and appeared to derive from small structures such as collagen fibres. The mechanisms by which ultrasound is attenuated by tendon remain unknown.

  14. A dynamic transmission model of eastern equine encephalitis virus

    PubMed Central

    Unnasch, Robert S.; Sprenger, Tonya; Katholi, Charles R.; Cupp, Eddie W.; Hill, Geoffrey E.; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is one of several arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) endemic to the United States. Interactions between arthropod (mosquito) vectors and avian amplification host populations play a significant role in the dynamics of arboviral transmission. Recent data have suggested the hypothesis that an increased rate of successful feeding on young-of-the-year (YOY) birds might play a role in the dynamics of EEEV transmission. To test this hypothesis, we developed a model to explore the effect of the interactions of the vectors and avian host populations on EEEV transmission. Sensitivity analyses conducted using this model revealed eleven parameters that were capable of disproportionately affecting the predicted level of EEEV infection in the vertebrate reservoir and vector populations. Of these, four parameters were related to the interaction of the vector with young-of-the-year birds. Furthermore, adult birds could not substitute for young-of-the-year in initiating and maintaining a predicted enzootic outbreak of EEEV. Taken together, the model predicted that young-of-the-year birds play a key role in establishing and maintaining enzootic outbreaks of EEEV. PMID:16501661

  15. Ceratohyoidectomy for treatment of equine temporohyoid osteoarthopathy (15 cases)

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Shem T.; Hardy, Joanne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated 15 horses diagnosed with temporohyoid osteoarthopathy (THO) and treated by ceratohyoidectomy between 2004 and 2012. The presenting complaint, duration and nature of the clinical signs, additional diagnostic procedures, and complications were reviewed retrospectively. Long-term follow-up on horses was used to determine prognosis. All horses were diagnosed by guttural pouch endoscopy. Follow-up was available for 14 horses that survived to discharge. Eight of 10 horses that were used athletically prior to surgery returned to previous levels of use. Persisting clinical signs included mild facial nerve paralysis (3/14; 21.4%) or head tilt (6/14; 42.8%) but these were not functionally limiting. It was concluded that equine THO affects a wide range of breeds, disciplines, and ages of horses, and has a variety of presenting clinical signs most commonly associated with vestibular and facial nerves. Prognosis following ceratohyoidectomy is good for resolution of ataxia but some cranial nerve deficits may persist. PMID:25829558

  16. Equine infectious anemia in mules: virus isolation and pathogenicity studies.

    PubMed

    Spyrou, V; Papanastassopoulou, M; Psychas, V; Billinis, Ch; Koumbati, M; Vlemmas, J; Koptopoulos, G

    2003-08-29

    There appears to be a lack of information concerning responses of mules to natural infection or experimental inoculation with equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV). In the present study EIAV was isolated from mules, for the first time, and its pathogenicity in naturally infected and experimentally inoculated animals was investigated. Two naturally infected (A and B) and three EIAV free mules (C, D and E) were used for this purpose. Mule A developed clinical signs, whereas mule B remained asymptomatic until the end of the study. Mules C and D were each inoculated with 10ml of blood from mule A and developed signs of the disease; they were euthanatized or died at day 22 and 25 post-inoculation, respectively. Mule E served as a negative control. The virus was isolated from the plasma samples of mules with clinical signs of the disease (A, C and D), but not from the asymptomatic mule B. Both proviral DNA and viral RNA were amplified from blood and tissues of the infected animals by nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR). Antibodies were not detected in the two experimentally infected mules until their natural death or euthanasia. Clinicopathological and laboratory findings showed that, in mules, EIAV produced clinical signs similar to those observed in horses and ponies. Nested PCR proved to be a rapid, sensitive and specific diagnostic method for the detection of EIAV, regardless of the disease stage.

  17. Equine Odontoclastic Tooth Resorption and Hypercementosis: Histopathologic Features.

    PubMed

    Smedley, R C; Earley, E T; Galloway, S S; Baratt, R M; Rawlinson, J E

    2015-09-01

    Equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis (EOTRH) is a painful progressive condition of older horses that involves multiple teeth, including canines and incisors. EOTRH is uncommonly recognized by veterinary pathologists and in some cases may be misdiagnosed as cementoblastoma. The cause is unknown. The goals of this study were to describe the histopathologic features of EOTRH in 17 affected horses from the United States and to increase awareness of this condition. Samples ranged from affected tooth to the entire rostral mandible and maxilla. Affected teeth exhibited cemental hyperplasia and lysis. The marked proliferation of cementum in severe cases caused bulbous enlargement of the intra-alveolar portions of affected teeth. Several teeth contained necrotic debris, bacteria, and plant material in the regions of cemental lysis. All horses exhibited dentinal lysis in at least affected tooth, and several contained necrotic debris in these regions. Endodontic disease was often present with inflammation, lysis, necrotic debris, fibrosis, and/or a thin rim of atubular mineralized tissue in the pulp cavity. Periodontal disease was a common feature that was primarily characterized by moderate lymphoplasmacytic inflammation. Resorption with secondary hypercementosis appears to begin on the external surface of the teeth rather than within the pulp cavity. Distinguishing EOTRH from other diseases requires a complete history that includes the number and location of affected teeth, a gross description of regional hard/soft tissue health, and radiographic findings.

  18. Multi-frequency bioimpedance in equine muscle assessment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring; Riis-Olesen, Kiwa; Bartels, Else Marie

    2015-03-01

    Multi-frequency BIA (mfBIA) equipment has been shown to be a non-invasive and reliable method to assess a muscle as a whole or at fibre level. In the equine world this may be the future method of assessment of training condition or of muscle injury. The aim of this study was to test if mfBIA reliably can be used to assess the condition of a horse's muscles in connection with health assessment, injury and both training and re-training. mfBIA measurements was carried out on 10 'hobby' horses and 5 selected cases with known anamnesis. Impedance, resistance, reactance, phase angle, centre frequency, membrane capacitance and both extracellular and intracellular resistance were measured. Platinum electrodes in connection with a conductance paste were used to accommodate the typical BIA frequencies and to facilitate accurate measurements. Use of mfBIA data to look into the effects of myofascial release treatment was also demonstrated. Our findings indicate that mfBIA provides a non-invasive, easily measurable and very precise assessment of the state of muscles in horses. This study also shows the potential of mfBIA as a diagnostic tool as well as a tool to monitor effects of treatment e.g. myofascial release therapy and metabolic diseases, respectively. PMID:25656988

  19. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine. PMID:24957845

  20. State of the art: stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Lopez, M J; Jarazo, J

    2015-03-01

    According to Greek mythology, Prometheus' liver grew back nightly after it was removed each day by an eagle as punishment for giving mankind fire. Hence, contrary to popular belief, the concept of tissue and organ regeneration is not new. In the early 20th century, cell culture and ex vivo organ preservation studies by Alexis Carrel, some with famed aviator Charles Lindbergh, established a foundation for much of modern regenerative medicine. While early beliefs and discoveries foreshadowed significant accomplishments in regenerative medicine, advances in knowledge within numerous scientific disciplines, as well as nano- and micromolecular level imaging and detection technologies, have contributed to explosive advances over the last 20 years. Virtually limitless preparations, combinations and applications of the 3 major components of regenerative medicine, namely cells, biomaterials and bioactive molecules, have created a new paradigm of future therapeutic options for most species. It is increasingly clear, however, that despite significant parallels among and within species, there is no 'one-size-fits-all' regenerative therapy. Likewise, a panacea has yet to be discovered that completely reverses the consequences of time, trauma and disease. Nonetheless, there is no question that the promise and potential of regenerative medicine have forever altered medical practices. The horse is a relative newcomer to regenerative medicine applications, yet there is already a large body of work to incorporate novel regenerative therapies into standard care. This review focuses on the current state and potential future of stem cells in equine regenerative medicine.

  1. Susceptibility of Peruvian mosquitoes to eastern equine encephalitis virus.

    PubMed

    Turell, M J; O'Guinn, M L; Dohm, D; Zyzak, M; Watts, D; Fernandez, R; Calampa, C; Klein, T A; Jones, J W

    2008-07-01

    Mosquitoes were collected in the Amazon Basin, near Iquitos, Peru, and used in experimental studies to evaluate their susceptibility to strains of eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) that were isolated from mosquitoes captured within 20 km of Iquitos. When fed on hamsters or chickens with a viremia of 4105 plaque-forming units (PFU) of EEEV/ml, Culex pedroi Sirivanakarn and Belkin, Aedesfulvus (Wiedemann), Psorophora albigenu (Peryassu), and Psorophoraferox (Von Humboldt) were susceptible to infection, whereas none of the Aedes serratus (Theobald), Culex vomerifer Komp, Culex gnomatos Sallum, Huchings, and Ferreira, Culex portesi Senevet and Abonnenc, or Culex coronator Dyar and Knab became infected, even though they fed on the same viremic blood sources. When these mosquito species fed on animals with viremias of approximately 10(8) PFU/ml, Cx. pedroi, Ae.II (Brazil-Peru) and a lineage III (Argentina-Panama) isolate of EEEV. This study, combined with the repeated isolation of strains of EEEV from Cx. pedroi captured in the Amazon Basin region of Peru, suggests that Cx. pedroi may be the primary enzootic vector of EEEV in this region.

  2. Endemic eastern equine encephalitis in the Amazon region of Peru.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Patricia V; Robich, Rebecca M; Turell, Michael J; O'Guinn, Monica L; Klein, Terry A; Huaman, Alfredo; Guevara, Carolina; Rios, Zonia; Tesh, Robert B; Watts, Douglas M; Olson, James; Weaver, Scott C

    2007-02-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) causes severe neurologic disease in North America, but only two fatal human cases have been documented in South America. To test the hypothesis that alphavirus heterologous antibodies cross-protect, animals were vaccinated against other alphaviruses and challenged up to 3 months later with EEEV. Short-lived cross-protection was detected, even in the absence of cross-neutralizing antibodies. To assess exposure to EEEV in Peru, sera from acutely ill and healthy persons were tested for EEEV and other alphavirus antibodies, as well as for virus isolation. No EEEV was isolated from patients living in an EEEV-enzootic area, and only 2% of individuals with febrile illness had EEEV-reactive IgM. Only 3% of healthy persons from the enzootic region had EEEV-neutralizing antibodies. Our results suggest that humans are exposed but do not develop apparent infection with EEEV because of poor infectivity and/or avirulence of South American strains.

  3. Questionnaire assessment of airway disease symptoms in equine barn personnel

    PubMed Central

    Svatek, Jessica; Maranda, Louise; Christiani, David; Ghio, Andrew; Nadeau, Jenifer; Hoffman, Andrew M.

    2009-01-01

    Background People working in cattle, swine and poultry barns have a higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms and decreased lung function. There is scant evidence regarding the respiratory health of humans working in horse barns, although it is well documented that stabled horses have a high prevalence of airway disease. Aims To determine whether people spending time in horse barns have a higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms than non-exposed controls. Methods A cross-sectional questionnaire study was conducted from May 2005 to January 2006 to investigate the prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in 82 barn-exposed subjects and 74 control subjects. Logistic regression and the chi-square test were used to analyse the data. Results There was a significantly higher prevalence of self-reported respiratory symptoms in the barn-exposed group (50%) versus the control group (15%). Exposure to horse barns, smoking and family history of asthma or allergies was independent risk factors for respiratory symptoms. High exposure to the horse barn yielded a higher odds ratio for self-reported respiratory symptoms (8.9). Conclusions Exposure to the equine barn is a risk factor for respiratory symptoms. Investigation of organic dust exposures, lung function and horse dander allergies in the barn-exposed group will be necessary to determine how best to protect the health of this group. PMID:19223434

  4. Quantitation of fluphenazine in equine serum following fluphenazine decanoate administration.

    PubMed

    Costello, Sara; Heffron, Brendan; Taddei, Lisa; Benoit, Marc; Hurt, Laura; Simpson, Lindsay; Bishop, Jennifer; Folker-Calderon, Dawn; Negrusz, Adam

    2013-10-01

    Fluphenazine, a potent antipsychotic used to treat schizophrenia in humans, is used in racehorses as a performance-enhancing drug, and for that reason it has been banned by the Association of Racing Commissioners International. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for detecting and quantitating fluphenazine in equine serum was developed and validated. The method was then employed to quantitate fluphenazine in serum samples collected from three study horses after intramuscular injection of fluphenazine decanoate. Stability testing showed that fluphenazine is stable in unextracted and processed samples as well as samples that have been subjected to up to three freeze-thaw cycles. The limit of detection and lower limit of quantitation of fluphenazine were determined to be 0.05 and 0.1 ng/mL, respectively. Precision was evaluated based on one-way analysis of variance of replicate quality control samples and was determined to be 27.2% at the 0.2 ng/mL level and 18.1% at the 2 ng/mL level. Bias was determined to be 0.55% at the 0.2 ng/mL level and 3.66% at the 2 ng/mL level. In two of three horses, fluphenazine was detected in serum up to 14 days post-administration. The highest detected concentration of fluphenazine in serum was 1.4 ng/mL.

  5. Infection control and biosecurity in equine disease control.

    PubMed

    Weese, J S

    2014-11-01

    Infectious diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in horses, along with economic costs and broader impacts associated with the loss of members of a species that generates income, acts as a working animal and is a companion. Endemic diseases continue to challenge, emerging diseases are an ever-present threat and outbreaks can be both destructive and disruptive. While infectious diseases can never be completely prevented, measures can be introduced to restrict the entry of pathogens into a population or limit the implications of the presence of a pathogen. Objective research regarding infection control and biosecurity in horses is limited, yet a variety of practical infection prevention and control measures can be used. Unfortunately, infection control can be challenging, because of the nature of the equine industry (e.g. frequent horse movement) and endemic pathogens, but also because of lack of understanding or motivation to try to improve practices. Recognition of the basic concepts of infection control and biosecurity, and indeed the need for measures to control infectious diseases, is the foundation for successful infection prevention and control. PMID:24802183

  6. The role of working equines to livelihoods in current day campesino hill-slope communities in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Velázquez-Beltrán, Leon G; Sánchez-Vera, Ernesto; Nava-Bernal, Eufemio Gabino; Arriaga-Jordán, Carlos M

    2011-12-01

    Small-holder campesino agriculture is based on the diversified use of resources and off-farm work. Working equines have a multifunctional character and sustain the diversification of livelihoods having different values as assets or providing services. The objective was to identify the role of working equines in current diversification strategies in the livelihoods of campesino families in a hill-slope community in central Mexico within livelihoods analysis. Thirty-one variables related to ownership and use of working equines were analysed by cluster analysis and descriptive statistics contrasting the presence of equines in the diversification of livelihoods. Four groups were identified, determined mainly by age of farmer and number of family members who utilise equines. Results show these systems diversify in response to conditions of risk or to take advantage of opportunities, such that a balance is reached by resorting to off-farm activities without the total loss of components of the farming system. Two main situations were found in relation to working equines: the disappearance and change of functions of the large equines (mules), and the adaptation of small equines (donkeys) to the new conditions. It is concluded that there is a process of adaptation in hill-slope campesino farms such that large equines are less present in farms that have moved towards more diversification, but are kept in those farms less diversified. The use of equines for draught force in agricultural production and as pack animals continues, as is the presence of small livestock (sheep and poultry) irrespective of the context of the farm. PMID:21637993

  7. ELA-DRA polymorphisms are not associated with Equine Arteritis Virus infection in horses from Argentina.

    PubMed

    Kalemkerian, P B; Metz, G E; Peral-Garcia, P; Echeverria, M G; Giovambattista, G; Díaz, S

    2012-12-01

    Polymorphisms at Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) genes have been associated with resistance/susceptibility to infectious diseases in domestic animals. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate whether polymorphisms of the DRA gene the Equine Lymphocyte Antigen is associated with susceptibility to Equine Arteritis Virus (EAV) infection in horses in Argentina. The equine DRA gene was screened for polymorphisms using Pyrosequencing® Technology which allowed the detection of three ELA-DRA exon 2 alleles. Neither allele frequencies nor genotypic differentiation exhibited any statistically significant (P-values=0.788 and 0.745) differences between the EAV-infected and no-infected horses. Fisher's exact test and OR calculations did not show any significant association. As a consequence, no association could be established between the serological condition and ELA-DRA.

  8. A method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies.

    PubMed

    Rose, B V; Cabrera-Sharp, V; Firth, M J; Barrelet, F E; Bate, S; Cameron, I J; Crabtree, J R; Crowhurst, J; McGladdery, A J; Neal, H; Pynn, J; Pynn, O D; Smith, C; Wise, Z; Verheyen, K L P; Wathes, D C; de Mestre, A M

    2016-02-01

    Early pregnancy loss occurs in 6-10% of equine pregnancies making it the main cause of reproductive wastage. Despite this, reasons for the losses are known in only 16% of cases. Lack of viable conceptus material has inhibited investigations of many potential genetic and pathological causes. We present a method for isolating and culturing placental cells from failed early equine pregnancies. Trophoblast cells from 18/30 (60%) failed equine pregnancies of gestational ages 14-65 days were successfully cultured in three different media, with the greatest growth achieved for cells cultured in AmnioChrome™ Plus. Genomic DNA of a suitable quality for molecular assays was also isolated from 29/30 of these cases. This method will enable future investigations determining pathologies causing EPL. PMID:26907389

  9. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  10. Virucidal effect of commercially available disinfectants on equine group A rotavirus.

    PubMed

    Nemoto, Manabu; Bannai, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Koji; Yamanaka, Takashi; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection.

  11. Epidermal growth factor-mediated effects on equine vascular smooth muscle cells

    SciTech Connect

    Grosenbaugh, D.A.; Amoss, M.S.; Hood, D.M.; Morgan, S.J.; Williams, J.D. )

    1988-10-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor binding kinetics and EGF-mediated stimulation of DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation were studied in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) from the equine thoracic aorta. Binding studies, using murine {sup 125}I-labeled EGF, indicate the presence of a single class of high-affinity binding sites, with an estimated maximal binding capacity of 5,800 sites/cells. EGF stimulated ({sup 3}H)thymidine uptake in confluent quiescent monolayers in a dose-dependent fashion, half-maximal stimulation occurring at 7.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}11} M. Likewise, EGF-mediated cellular proliferation was dose dependent under reduced serum concentrations. Equine VSMC contain specific receptors for EGF, and EGF can stimulate DNA synthesis and proliferation in these cultured cells, which suggests that EGF may participate in the proliferative changes observed in equine distal digital peripheral vascular disease.

  12. Virucidal Effect of Commercially Available Disinfectants on Equine Group A Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    NEMOTO, Manabu; BANNAI, Hiroshi; TSUJIMURA, Koji; YAMANAKA, Takashi; KONDO, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many disinfectants are commercially available in the veterinary field, information on the virucidal effects of disinfectants against equine group A rotavirus (RVA) is limited. We evaluated the performance of commercially available disinfectants against equine RVA. Chlorine- and iodine-based disinfectants showed virucidal effects, but these were reduced by the presence of organic matter. Glutaraldehyde had a virucidal effect regardless of the presence of organic matter, but the effect was reduced by low temperature or short reaction time, or both. Benzalkonium chloride had the greatest virucidal effect among the three quaternary ammonium compounds examined, but its effect was reduced by the presence of organic matter or by low temperature or a short reaction time. These findings will be useful for preventing the spread of equine RVA infection. PMID:24681569

  13. Wheat germ agglutinin as a counterstain for immunofluorescence studies of equine hoof lamellae.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert K; Galantino-Homer, Hannah L

    2014-09-01

    Equine laminitis is a common, painful, debilitating condition of the hoof that is a leading cause of disability in horses, often necessitating euthanasia. The equine hoof represents an extreme evolutionary adaptation of an epidermal structure homologous to the human or murine nail units. Immunohistochemistry is frequently utilized in the study of the pathophysiology of laminitis. The complex, multilayered, extensively interdigitated epidermal-dermal lamellar interface renders precise interpretation of immunofluorescence localization difficult, especially when effective technique and reagents render non-reactive tissues completely dark. Fluorescent-conjugated wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) selectively labels dermal extracellular matrix fibres and epidermal cell membranes in tissue sections of horse hoof lamellae, is compatible with indirect immunofluorescence and augments interpretation of indirect immunofluorescence antigen localization. The current report details the use of WGA as a rapid, simple, economical counterstain for immunofluorescence studies of the equine hoof and may have application to other complex epidermal tissue structures. PMID:25040657

  14. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    PubMed

    Barba, Marta; Daly, Janet M

    2016-08-31

    Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies.

  15. The Influenza NS1 Protein: What Do We Know in Equine Influenza Virus Pathogenesis?

    PubMed Central

    Barba, Marta; Daly, Janet M.

    2016-01-01

    Equine influenza virus remains a serious health and potential economic problem throughout most parts of the world, despite intensive vaccination programs in some horse populations. The influenza non-structural protein 1 (NS1) has multiple functions involved in the regulation of several cellular and viral processes during influenza infection. We review the strategies that NS1 uses to facilitate virus replication and inhibit antiviral responses in the host, including sequestering of double-stranded RNA, direct modulation of protein kinase R activity and inhibition of transcription and translation of host antiviral response genes such as type I interferon. Details are provided regarding what it is known about NS1 in equine influenza, especially concerning C-terminal truncation. Further research is needed to determine the role of NS1 in equine influenza infection, which will help to understand the pathophysiology of complicated cases related to cytokine imbalance and secondary bacterial infection, and to investigate new therapeutic and vaccination strategies. PMID:27589809

  16. Antibodies against equine herpesviruses in free-ranging mountain zebras from Namibia.

    PubMed

    Borchers, K; Frölich, K

    1997-10-01

    Twenty-one blood samples of free-ranging mountain zebras (Equus zebra) from Namibia were tested for equine herpesvirus (EHV-1, -2, -3, -4) specific antibodies by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and neutralization test (NT). Additionally, type-specific nested polymerase chain reactions (nested PCR) were employed for detection of EHV-1, -2 and -4 DNA. Equine herpesvirus-1 antibodies were detected by IFA in all zebras, while only seven serum samples contained EHV-4 IFA antibodies. Sera with high IFA antibodies also were found to neutralize EHV-1 and -4. Furthermore, 20 zebras were EHV-2 seropositive by IFA, and one zebra had EHV-2 neutralizing antibodies. Equine herpesvirus-3 specific antibodies were not detected. We did not amplify EHV-1, -2 or -4 specific DNA sequences in peripheral blood leukocytes of the same zebras using type-specific nested PCR. EHV infections appear to be widespread in free-ranging zebras, as they are in domestic horses.

  17. Structural and biomechanical aspects of equine sacroiliac joint function and their relationship to clinical disease.

    PubMed

    Goff, L M; Jeffcott, L B; Jasiewicz, J; McGowan, C M

    2008-06-01

    Pain originating from the sacroiliac joint (SIJ) in horses has long been associated with poor performance, yet specific diagnosis of sacroiliac dysfunction (SID) has been difficult to achieve. Clinical presentation of SID appears to fall into two categories. The first, presenting as pain and poor performance, is responsive to local analgesia of periarticular structures with poorly defined pathology. The second presents primarily as poor performance with bony pathological changes as a result of chronic instability. Diagnostic tests based on biomechanics as well as manual provocation for SIJ pain have formed the basis of tests currently used to diagnose SIJ dysfunction in humans. This review summarises the anatomy and biomechanics of the equine SIJ and current biomechanical, innervation and motor control concepts in human SID. The relationship between abnormal SIJ motion and altered neuromotor control with clinical disease of the equine SIJ are discussed. Future utilisation of these principles to develop new diagnostic and management tools for the equine SID is promising.

  18. Monitoring acute equine visceral pain with the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP): A validation study.

    PubMed

    VanDierendonck, Machteld C; van Loon, Johannes P A M

    2016-10-01

    This study presents the validation of two recently described pain scales, the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Composite Pain Assessment (EQUUS-COMPASS) and the Equine Utrecht University Scale for Facial Assessment of Pain (EQUUS-FAP), in horses with acute colic. A follow-up cohort study of 46 adult horses (n = 23 with acute colic; n = 23 healthy control horses) was performed for validation and refinement of the constructed scales. Both pain scales showed statistically significant differences between horses with colic and healthy control horses, and between horses with colic that could be treated conservatively and those that required surgical treatment or were euthanased. Sensitivity and specificity were good for both EQUUS-COMPASS (87% and 71%, respectively) and EQUUS-FAP (77% and 100%, respectively) and were not substantially influenced by applying weighting factors to the individual parameters. PMID:27687948

  19. Activation of cannabinoid CB2 receptors reduces hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Fu, Weisi; Taylor, Bradley K

    2015-05-19

    Clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis have yielded mixed results, possibly due to psychotropic side effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that, a CB2-specific agonist (JWH-133) would decrease hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. Four weeks after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we found that intrathecal administration of JWH-133 (10-100μg) dose-dependently reduced both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity without producing signs of sedation or ataxia. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of JWH-133 could be dose-dependently prevented by intrathecal co-administration of the CB2 antagonist, AM-630 (1-3μg). Our results suggest that JWH-133 acts at CB2 receptors, most likely within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, to suppress the hypersensitivity associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These are the first pre-clinical studies to directly promote CB2 as a promising target for the treatment of central pain in an animal model of multiple sclerosis.

  20. Activation of Cannabinoid CB2 receptors Reduces Hyperalgesia in an Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mouse Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Weisi; Taylor, Bradley K.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical trials investigating the analgesic efficacy of cannabinoids in multiple sclerosis have yielded mixed results, possibly due to psychotropic side effects mediated by cannabinoid CB1 receptors. We hypothesized that a CB2-specific agonist (JWH-133) would decrease hyperalgesia in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model of multiple sclerosis. 4 weeks after induction of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, we found that intrathecal administration of JWH-133 (10–100 μg) dose-dependently reduced both mechanical and cold hypersensitivity without producing signs of sedation or ataxia. The anti-hyperalgesic effects of JWH-133 could be dose-dependently prevented by intrathecal co-administration of the CB2 antagonist, AM-630 (1–3 μg). Our results suggest that JWH-133 acts at CB2 receptors, most likely within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord, to suppress the hypersensitivity associated with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. These are the first pre-clinical studies to directly promote CB2 as a promising target for the treatment of central pain in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:25849525

  1. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of five bisphosphonates in equine urine and plasma.

    PubMed

    Wong, April S Y; Ho, Emmie N M; Wan, Terence S M; Lam, Kenneth K H; Stewart, Brian D

    2015-08-15

    Bisphosphonates are used in the management of skeletal disorder in humans and horses, with tiludronic acid being the first licensed veterinary medicine in the treatment of lameness associated with degenerative joint disease. Bisphosphonates are prohibited in horseracing according to Article 6 of the International Agreement on Breeding, Racing and Wagering (published by the International Federation of Horseracing Authorities). In order to control the use of bisphosphonates in equine sports, an effective method to detect the use of bisphosphonates is required. Bisphosphonates are difficult-to-detect drugs due to their hydrophilic properties. The complexity of equine matrices also added to their extraction difficulties. This study describes a method for the simultaneous detection of five bisphosphonates, namely alendronic acid, clodronic acid, ibandronic acid, risedronic acid and tiludronic acid, in equine urine and plasma. Bisphosphonates were first isolated from the sample matrices by solid-phase extractions, followed by methylation with trimethylsilyldiazomethane prior to liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry analysis using selective reaction monitoring in the positive electrospray ionization mode. The five bisphosphonates could be detected at low ppb levels in 0.5mL equine plasma or urine with acceptable precision, fast instrumental turnaround time, and negligible matrix interferences. The method has also been applied to the excretion study of tiludronic acid in plasma and urine collected from a horse having been administered a single dose of tiludronic acid. The applicability and effectiveness of the method was demonstrated by the successful detection and confirmation of the presence of tiludronic acid in an overseas equine urine sample. To our knowledge, this is the first reported method in the successful screening and confirmation of five amino- and non-amino bisphosphonates in equine biological samples.

  2. Generation of functional neurons from feeder-free, keratinocyte-derived equine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ruchi; Livesey, Matthew Robert; Wyllie, David J A; Proudfoot, Christopher; Whitelaw, Christopher Bruce Alexander; Hay, David Christopher; Donadeu, Francesc Xavier

    2014-07-01

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) offer unprecedented biomedical potential not only in relation to humans but also companion animals, particularly the horse. Despite this, attempts to generate bona fide equine embryonic stem cells have been unsuccessful. A very limited number of induced PSC lines have so far been generated from equine fibroblasts but their potential for directed differentiation into clinically relevant tissues has not been explored. In this study, we used retroviral vectors to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with comparatively high efficiency from equine keratinocytes. Expression of endogenous PSC markers (OCT4, SOX2, LIN28, NANOG, DNMT3B, and REX1) was effectively restored in these cells, which could also form in vivo several tissue derivatives of the three germ layers, including functional neurons, keratinized epithelium, cartilage, bone, muscle, and respiratory and gastric epithelia. Comparative analysis of different reprogrammed cell lines revealed an association between the ability of iPSCs to form well-differentiated teratomas and the distinct endogenous expression of OCT4 and REX1 and reduced expression of viral transgenes. Importantly, unlike in previous studies, equine iPSCs were successfully expanded using simplified feeder-free culture conditions, constituting significant progress toward future biomedical applications. Further, under appropriate conditions equine iPSCs generated cells with features of cholinergic motor neurons including the ability to generate action potentials, providing the first report of functional cells derived from equine iPSCs. The ability to derive electrically active neurons in vitro from a large animal reveals highly conserved pathways of differentiation across species and opens the way for new and exciting applications in veterinary regenerative medicine. PMID:24548115

  3. The collagen structure of equine articular cartilage, characterized using polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugryumova, Nadya; Attenburrow, Don P.; Winlove, C. Peter; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography and polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography images of equine articular cartilage are presented. Measurements were made on intact joint surfaces. Significant (e.g. × 2) variations in the intrinsic birefringence were found over spatial scales of a few millimetres, even on samples taken from young (18 month) animals that appeared visually homogeneous. A comparison of data obtained on a control tissue (equine flexor tendon) further suggests that significant variations in the orientation of the collagen fibres relative to the plane of the joint surface exist. Images of visually damaged cartilage tissue show characteristic features both in terms of the distribution of optical scatterers and of the birefringent components.

  4. Fluorescence of equine platelet tropomyosin labeled with acrylodan.

    PubMed

    Clark, I D; Burtnick, L D

    1988-02-01

    Equine platelet tropomyosin was labeled with the sulfhydryl-specific fluorescent reagent 6-acryloyl-2-dimethylaminonaphthalene (acrylodan). The extent of labeling at 4 degrees C could be regulated between 0.5 and 1.3 acrylodans per tropomyosin chain by varying the reaction time from 1 to 4.5 h. Acrylodan-labeled platelet tropomyosin, AD-P-TM, was highly fluorescent, having an emission maximum near 518 nm on excitation at 365 nm. Steady-state measurements of polarization of the fluorescence of AD-P-TM in both low and high ionic strength solutions gave Perrin plots that exhibited sharp changes in slope near 50 degrees C, indicative of a sharp increase in mobility of the label at that temperature. This correlates with the melting temperature of the platelet tropomyosin coiled coil observed by circular dichroism [G. P. Côté, W. G. Lewis, M. D. Pato, and L. B. Smillie, (1978) FEBS Lett. 91, 237-241]. Perrin plots of carboxypeptidase A-treated platelet tropomyosin that was labeled with acrylodan after digestion resembled more closely those of acrylodan-labeled cardiac tropomyosin rather than those of AD-P-TM, suggesting that the observed emission arose from label at Cys-153 on each truncated platelet tropomyosin chain. In solutions containing 150 mM KCl and 5 mM MgCl2, addition of actin at up to a sixfold molar excess over AD-P-TM caused both the fluorescence emission intensities and fluorescence polarization values of samples to increase. In the presence of actin, the wavelength of maximal emission was shifted to shorter values by about 5 to 7 nm. These changes indicate that actin does bind to AD-P-TM and that the binding affects the environment of the label, both by making it more hydrophobic and by reducing the freedom of the label to tumble in solution.

  5. Equine botulinum antitoxin for the treatment of infant botulism.

    PubMed

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E; Fernandez, Rafael A; Bianco, María I; Sartori, Omar J; Piovano, María L; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I T

    2011-11-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available.

  6. The role of IKKβ in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Moushimi; Voss, Kelsey; Sampey, Gavin; Senina, Svetlana; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Mueller, Claudius; Calvert, Valerie; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Carpenter, Calvin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Mogelsvang, Soren; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ(-/-) cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKKβ protein may be

  7. Spatial epidemiology of eastern equine encephalitis in Florida

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Eastern Equine Encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an alphavirus with high pathogenicity in both humans and horses. Florida continues to have the highest occurrence of human cases in the USA, with four fatalities recorded in 2010. Unlike other states, Florida supports year-round EEEV transmission. This research uses GIS to examine spatial patterns of documented horse cases during 2005–2010 in order to understand the relationships between habitat and transmission intensity of EEEV in Florida. Methods Cumulative incidence rates of EEE in horses were calculated for each county. Two cluster analyses were performed using density-based spatial clustering of applications with noise (DBSCAN). The first analysis was based on regional clustering while the second focused on local clustering. Ecological associations of EEEV were examined using compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis to determine if the proportion or proximity of certain habitats played a role in transmission. Results The DBSCAN algorithm identified five distinct regional spatial clusters that contained 360 of the 438 horse cases. The local clustering resulted in 18 separate clusters containing 105 of the 438 cases. Both the compositional analysis and Euclidean distance analysis indicated that the top five habitats positively associated with horse cases were rural residential areas, crop and pastureland, upland hardwood forests, vegetated non-forested wetlands, and tree plantations. Conclusions This study demonstrates that in Florida tree plantations are a focus for epizootic transmission of EEEV. It appears both the abundance and proximity of tree plantations are factors associated with increased risk of EEE in horses and therefore humans. This association helps to explain why there is are spatially distinct differences in the amount of EEE horse cases across Florida. PMID:23126615

  8. Equine Botulinum Antitoxin for the Treatment of Infant Botulism ▿

    PubMed Central

    Vanella de Cuetos, Elida E.; Fernandez, Rafael A.; Bianco, María I.; Sartori, Omar J.; Piovano, María L.; Lúquez, Carolina; de Jong, Laura I. T.

    2011-01-01

    Infant botulism is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina and the United States. BabyBIG (botulism immune globulin intravenous [human]) is the antitoxin of choice for specific treatment of infant botulism in the United States. However, its high cost limits its use in many countries. We report here the effectiveness and safety of equine botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) as an alternative treatment. We conducted an analytical, observational, retrospective, and longitudinal study on cases of infant botulism registered in Mendoza, Argentina, from 1993 to 2007. We analyzed 92 medical records of laboratory-confirmed cases and evaluated the safety and efficacy of treatment with EqBA. Forty-nine laboratory-confirmed cases of infant botulism demanding admission in intensive care units and mechanical ventilation included 31 treated with EqBA within the 5 days after the onset of signs and 18 untreated with EqBA. EqBA-treated patients had a reduction in the mean length of hospital stay of 23.9 days (P = 0.0007). For infants treated with EqBA, the intensive care unit stay was shortened by 11.2 days (P = 0.0036), mechanical ventilation was reduced by 11.1 days (P = 0.0155), and tube feeding was reduced by 24.4 days (P = 0.0001). The incidence of sepsis in EqBA-treated patients was 47.3% lower (P = 0.0017) than in the untreated ones. Neither sequelae nor adverse effects attributable to EqBA were noticed, except for one infant who developed a transient erythematous rash. These results suggest that prompt treatment of infant botulism with EqBA is safe and effective and that EqBA could be considered an alternative specific treatment for infant botulism when BabyBIG is not available. PMID:21918119

  9. Enumeration of anaerobic bacterial microflora of the equine gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Mackie, R I; Wilkins, C A

    1988-09-01

    Samples from the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, as well as from the cecum and colon, were obtained from 11 mature grass-fed horses. Viable counts of total culturable and proteolytic bacteria were made on habitat-simulating media containing 40% clarified ruminal fluid. The mean pHs in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum were 6.32, 7.10, and 7.47, respectively; the mean pH decreased to 6.7 in the hindgut. The acetate concentration increased along the length of the small intestine and was the only volatile fatty acid present in this gut segment. Molar proportions of acetate, propionate, and butyrate in the hindgut were 85:10:3. Differences in bacterial counts on habitat-simulating media containing equine cecal fluid or clarified ruminal fluid were negligible. Bacterial counts showed a substantial population in the duodenum (ca. 2.9 x 10(6) per g [wet weight] of sample), and this increased to 29.0 x 10(6) in the jejunum and 38.4 x 10(6) in the ileum. Proteolytic bacteria formed a high proportion of the total culturable bacteria, especially in duodenal samples. Counts of proteolytic bacteria per gram (wet weight) of sample were 3.0 x 10(6), 15.6 x 10(6), and 22.0 x 10(6) in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum, respectively. There was a close relationship between lumenal and mucosal bacterial counts, although actual values were lower in mucosal samples. The mucosal bacterial population in the duodenum was high relative to the lumenal population. Although the comparison of bacterial populations in the hindgut of the horse and white rhino was limited to a single animal, the results were of interest. Counts were higher in the cecum than in the colon for both the horse and the white rhino.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. The Role of IKKβ in Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Amaya, Moushimi; Voss, Kelsey; Sampey, Gavin; Senina, Svetlana; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Mueller, Claudius; Calvert, Valerie; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Carpenter, Calvin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Mogelsvang, Soren; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ−/− cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKKβ protein may be

  11. The role of IKKβ in Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Amaya, Moushimi; Voss, Kelsey; Sampey, Gavin; Senina, Svetlana; de la Fuente, Cynthia; Mueller, Claudius; Calvert, Valerie; Kehn-Hall, Kylene; Carpenter, Calvin; Kashanchi, Fatah; Bailey, Charles; Mogelsvang, Soren; Petricoin, Emanuel; Narayanan, Aarthi

    2014-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) belongs to the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae. VEEV infection is characterized by extensive inflammation and studies from other laboratories implicated an involvement of the NF-κB cascade in the in vivo pathology. Initial studies indicated that at early time points of VEEV infection, the NF-κB complex was activated in cells infected with the TC-83 strain of VEEV. One upstream kinase that contributes to the phosphorylation of p65 is the IKKβ component of the IKK complex. Our previous studies with Rift valley fever virus, which exhibited early activation of the NF-κB cascade in infected cells, had indicated that the IKKβ component underwent macromolecular reorganization to form a novel low molecular weight form unique to infected cells. This prompted us to investigate if the IKK complex undergoes a comparable macromolecular reorganization in VEEV infection. Size-fractionated VEEV infected cell extracts indicated a macromolecular reorganization of IKKβ in VEEV infected cells that resulted in formation of lower molecular weight complexes. Well-documented inhibitors of IKKβ function, BAY-11-7082, BAY-11-7085 and IKK2 compound IV, were employed to determine whether IKKβ function was required for the production of infectious progeny virus. A decrease in infectious viral particles and viral RNA copies was observed with inhibitor treatment in the attenuated and virulent strains of VEEV infection. In order to further validate the requirement of IKKβ for VEEV replication, we over-expressed IKKβ in cells and observed an increase in viral titers. In contrast, studies carried out using IKKβ(-/-) cells demonstrated a decrease in VEEV replication. In vivo studies demonstrated that inhibitor treatment of TC-83 infected mice increased their survival. Finally, proteomics studies have revealed that IKKβ may interact with the viral protein nsP3. In conclusion, our studies have revealed that the host IKKβ protein may be

  12. Equine lamellar energy metabolism studied using tissue microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Medina-Torres, C E; Pollitt, C C; Underwood, C; Castro-Olivera, E M; Collins, S N; Allavena, R E; Richardson, D W; van Eps, A W

    2014-09-01

    Failure of lamellar energy metabolism may contribute to the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Tissue microdialysis has the potential to dynamically monitor lamellar energy balance over time. The objectives of this study were to develop a minimally invasive lamellar microdialysis technique and use it to measure normal lamellar energy metabolite concentrations over 24 h. Microdialysis probes were placed (through the white line) into either the lamellar dermis (LAM) (n = 6) or the sublamellar dermis (SUBLAM) (n = 6) and perfused continuously over a 24 h study period. Probes were placed in the skin dermis (SKIN) for simultaneous comparison to LAM (n = 6). Samples were collected every 2 h and analysed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate, urea and glycerol concentrations. LAM was further compared with SUBLAM by simultaneous placement and sampling in four feet from two horses over 4 h. Horses were monitored for lameness, and either clinically evaluated for 1 month after probe removal (n = 4) or subjected to histological evaluation of the probe site (n = 10). There were no deleterious clinical effects of probe placement and the histological response was mild. Sample fluid recovery and metabolite concentrations were stable for 24 h. Glucose was lower (and lactate:glucose ratio higher) in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN (P < 0.05). Pyruvate was lower in SUBLAM than SKIN and urea was lower in LAM than SKIN (P < 0.05). These differences suggest lower perfusion and increased glucose consumption in LAM compared with SUBLAM and SKIN. In conclusion, lamellar tissue microdialysis was well tolerated and may be useful for determining the contribution of energy failure in laminitis pathogenesis. PMID:24947715

  13. Cloning and expression of ADAM related metalloproteases in Equine Laminitis

    PubMed Central

    Coyne, Michael J.; Cousin, Hélène; Loftus, John P.; Johnson, Philip J.; Belknap, James K.; Gradil, Carlos M.; Black, Samuel J.; Alfandari, Dominique

    2010-01-01

    Equine laminitis is a debilitating disease affecting the digital laminae that suspends the distal phalanx within the hoof. While the clinical progression of the disease has been well documented, the molecular events associated with its pathogenesis remain largely unknown. We have investigated the expression of genes coding for proteins containing a Disintegrin and Metalloprotease domain (ADAM), as well as genes encoding the natural inhibitors of these enzymes (Tissue Inhibitor of MetalloProtease; TIMP) in horses with naturally acquired (acute, chronic and aggravated chronic cases collected in clinic) or experimentally-induced (black walnut extract and starch gruel models) laminitis using real time quantitative RT-PCR. Changes in expression of these enzymes and regulators may underlie the pathologic remodeling of lamellar tissue in laminitis. Genes encoding ADAMs involved in inflammation (ADAM-10 and ADAM-17), as well as those implicated in arthritis (ADAMTS-1, ADAMTS-4 and ADAMTS-5) were cloned, and the sequences used to generate specific oligonucleotide primers for the RT-qPCR experiments. Our results show that genes encoding ADAM-10 and 17 were not induced in most laminitic animals whereas ADAMTS-4 gene expression was strongly upregulated in practically all cases of experimentally induced and naturally acquired laminitis. The expression of MMP-9 and ADAMTS-5 was also increased in many of the laminitic horses. In addition, TIMP-2 gene expression was decreased in most laminitic horses, whereas expression of genes encoding other TIMPs, namely TIMP-1 and TIMP-3 was randomly increased or decreased in the various models. We conclude that elevated expression of lamellar ADAMTS-4 is a common feature of laminitis consistent with a central role of the gene product in the pathophysiology of laminitis. PMID:19131116

  14. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L.; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A.; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J.; Ball, Katherine R.; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M.; Hamilton, Don L.; Gebhart, Connie J.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present. PMID:24082402

  15. The rabbit as an infection model for equine proliferative enteropathy.

    PubMed

    Sampieri, Francesca; Allen, Andrew L; Pusterla, Nicola; Vannucci, Fabio A; Antonopoulos, Aphroditi J; Ball, Katherine R; Thompson, Julie; Dowling, Patricia M; Hamilton, Don L; Gebhart, Connie J

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the susceptibility of rabbits to Lawsonia intracellularis obtained from a case of clinical equine proliferative enteropathy (EPE). This is a preliminary step toward developing a rabbit infection model for studying pathogenesis and therapy of EPE in horses. Nine does were equally assigned to 3 groups. Animals in 2 groups (Group 1 and Group 2) were orally inoculated with different doses of cell-cultured L. intracellularis. Controls (Group 3) were sham-inoculated. Feces and blood were collected before the rabbits were infected and at 7, 14, and 21 days post-infection (DPI). Serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers were measured using an immunoperoxidase monolayer assay (IPMA) and fecal samples were analyzed with quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A doe from each group was euthanized at 7, 14, and 21 DPI for collection and evaluation of intestinal samples. Tissues were stained by routine hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) method and immunohistochemistry (IHC) with L. intracellularis-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. At 14 DPI, serologic responses were detected in both infected groups, which maintained high titers through to 21 DPI. Lawsonia intracellularis DNA was detected in the feces of Group 2 on 7 DPI and in both infected groups on 14 DPI. Gross lesions were apparent in Group 1 and Group 2 on 14 DPI. Immunohistochemistry confirmed L. intracellularis antigen within cells of rabbits in Group 1 and Group 2 on 7, 14, and 21 DPI. No lesions, serologic response, shedding, or IHC labeling were found in Group 3 rabbits. This study describes an EPE rabbit model that simulates natural infection, as typical lesions, immune response, and fecal shedding were present.

  16. Equine travellers to the Olympic Games in Hong Kong 2008: a review of worldwide challenges to equine health, with particular reference to vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Herholz, C; Füssel, A-E; Timoney, P; Schwermer, H; Bruckner, L; Leadon, D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10-20 years have seen exponential growth in the volume of trade in horses and equine germplasm; and the extent of global horse movements has increased significantly in the last 4 years. In preparing for the transport of elite Olympic horses to Hong Kong in 2008, it will be very important to be as fully informed as possible of the disease situation in both the exporting and importing country, import and re-entry requirements, as well as having a vaccination strategy to protect against particular diseases. In this context the review describes the equine vector-borne disease situation in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America and provides estimates of the number of horse movements between these countries, as well as information on import requirements and vaccination strategies. PMID:18083666

  17. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  18. Varicella zoster virus encephalomyelitis as a late complication following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh

    2014-12-19

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) causes the primary infection manifesting as varicella or chickenpox, with possibility of reactivation later in life. A 71-year-old man presented with headache and lower extremity weakness. There was no evidence of skin lesions to suggest a recent zoster infection. The patient had a history of multiple myeloma diagnosed 2 years earlier, treated with chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was discontinued 12 months after the transplant. MRI of the brain demonstrated areas of T2/fluid-attenuated inversion recovery hyperintensity in bilateral cerebral white matter and MRI of the spine demonstrated enhancement along the cauda equine. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis showed lymphocytic pleocytosis and VZV DNA was detected by PCR in the CSF. The patient was treated with 8 weeks of antiviral therapy with complete resolution of symptoms. VZV should be considered in patients with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation presenting with similar neurological manifestations even in the absence of dermatological signs.

  19. A vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine elicits protective immune responses against EHV-1 and H3N8 equine influenza virus.

    PubMed

    Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; May, Maeva A; Peters, Sarah T; Metzger, Stephan M; Rosas, Cristina T; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2010-01-22

    Vaccination is commonly used to control equine respiratory pathogens such as equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) and equine influenza virus (EIV). Here, we describe the generation and characterization of a recombinant EHV-1 modified live virus vaccine (MLV) based on a recent abortogenic EHV-1 strain, NY03. The immunogenicity and efficacy of the MLV was tested in horses in an EHV-1 vaccination/challenge experiment using the highly virulent neurovirulent EHV-1 strain OH03. Induction of a robust EHV-1-specific immune response was observed. Upon challenge infection, vaccinated horses were partially protected against disease as demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical signs, nasal shedding and viremia levels. In addition, the NY03-based MLV was used to express the EIV H3 protein and immunogenicity was tested in horses. Expression of H3 was readily detected in NY03-H3-infected cells in vitro. Vaccination of horses resulted in the induction of a robust serological immune responses against two recent but genetically distinct EIV representatives, VA05 and NY-99, which were above the threshold predicted to be protective against development of clinical disease.

  20. Combined Alphavirus Replicon Particle Vaccine Induces Durable and Cross-Protective Immune Responses against Equine Encephalitis Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Glass, Pamela J.; Bakken, Russell R.; Barth, James F.; Lind, Cathleen M.; da Silva, Luis; Hart, Mary Kate; Rayner, Jonathan; Alterson, Kim; Custer, Max; Dudek, Jeanne; Owens, Gary; Kamrud, Kurt I.; Parker, Michael D.; Smith, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Alphavirus replicons were evaluated as potential vaccine candidates for Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), or eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) when given individually or in combination (V/W/E) to mice or cynomolgus macaques. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in mice to their respective alphavirus. Protection from either subcutaneous or aerosol challenge with VEEV, WEEV, or EEEV was demonstrated out to 12 months after vaccination in mice. Individual replicon vaccines or the combination V/W/E replicon vaccine elicited strong neutralizing antibodies in macaques and demonstrated good protection against aerosol challenge with an epizootic VEEV-IAB virus, Trinidad donkey. Similarly, the EEEV replicon and V/W/E combination vaccine elicited neutralizing antibodies against EEEV and protected against aerosol exposure to a North American variety of EEEV. Both the WEEV replicon and combination V/W/E vaccination, however, elicited poor neutralizing antibodies to WEEV in macaques, and the protection conferred was not as strong. These results demonstrate that a combination V/W/E vaccine is possible for protection against aerosol challenge and that cross-interference between the vaccines is minimal. IMPORTANCE Three related viruses belonging to the genus Alphavirus cause severe encephalitis in humans: Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), and eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV). Normally transmitted by mosquitoes, these viruses can cause disease when inhaled, so there is concern that these viruses could be used as biological weapons. Prior reports have suggested that vaccines for these three viruses might interfere with one another. We have developed a combined vaccine for Venezuelan equine encephalitis, western equine encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis expressing the

  1. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMappTM and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab′)2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab′)2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs. PMID:27067649

  2. Does immunotherapy protect equines from reinfection by the oomycete Pythium insidiosum?

    PubMed

    Santos, Carlos E P; Marques, Luiz C; Zanette, Régis A; Jesus, Francielli P K; Santurio, Janio M

    2011-08-01

    A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

  3. Does Immunotherapy Protect Equines from Reinfection by the Oomycete Pythium insidiosum?▿

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos E. P.; Marques, Luiz C.; Zanette, Régis A.; Jesus, Francielli P. K.; Santurio, Janio M.

    2011-01-01

    A cutaneous Pythium insidiosum reinfection was diagnosed in an equine in Brazil. Lesions with focal presentation appeared 2 years apart. The first infection and even immunotherapy were not likely to develop enough immune response to prevent reinfection. The use of adjuvants should be considered in the immunotherapy of pythiosis. PMID:21715582

  4. Prevalence and Antibiogram study of Rhodococcus equi in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Mir, Irfan Ahmad; Kumar, Bablu; Taku, Anil; Bhardwaj, Rajinder Kumar; Bhat, Mohd Altaf; Badroo, Gulzar Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of Rhodococcus equi infection in equines of Jammu and Kashmir, India, and evaluate the zoonotic threat posed by this organism to equine owners and tourists. One hundred and forty-one samples (98 samples from adult animals ≥5 years old and 43 samples from foals less than 6 months old) were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of equines for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 12 isolates of R. equi were recovered, of which 9 were from foals and 3 from adult animals. Therefore, the present study recorded prevalence rates of 20.93% and 3.06% among foals and adult equines respectively. The prevalence rates were found to be 25.58% and 4.08% by 16S rRNA species-specific PCR among foals and adult animals respectively. Thus, the PCR-based assay was found to be more sensitive and helped in quick detection of R. equi than the culture based method which is time consuming and laborious. However, the culture-based method is still preferred due to some limitations of PCR. The antibiogram of the isolates revealed that erythromycin and rifampicin were the most effective antimicrobials with 100% sensitivity, followed by amoxicillin (66.67%), lincomycin (58.3%) and kanamycin (58.3%). The results also revealed that resistance was highest for penicillin G (50%), followed by kanamycin (25%) and streptomycin (25%).

  5. Assessment of equine waste as a biomass resource in New York State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine operations may generate excessive quantities of biomass (manure and used bedding) that could either become a waste or a resource, especially when the biomass is developed as an alternative energy source. Using the generated biomass as a resource can involve a variety of approaches such as la...

  6. Working together to achieve the best outcomes for equine health and welfare.

    PubMed

    2016-03-19

    Gill Harris reports from this year's National Equine Forum where a key theme was the importance of collaboration and effective communication in achieving the best outcomes for the health and welfare of the horse and the future of equestrianism in the UK. PMID:26993448

  7. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  8. Effects of an Equine Assisted Activities Program on Youth with Emotional Disturbance: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebbins, Tira

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of a 10-week Equine Assisted Activities (EAA) program on special education students (aged 9 to 15) identified as Emotionally Disturbed (ED) who were enrolled in an alternative school. A control group of special education students receiving treatment-as-usual was included. The Behavior Assessment Scale for Children,…

  9. Equine Education Programs and Related Studies as Found in Colleges and Universities in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parmenter, Carol L. W.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the nature and scope of equine education programs being offered in the colleges and universities throughout the country and the attitudes of specialists toward these programs. The paper is organized into five major categories: (1) introduction, statement of purpose, design and scope of the study, and…

  10. Continuing evolution of equine influenza virus in Central Asia, 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Karamendin, Kobey; Kydyrmanov, A; Kasymbekov, Y; Khan, E; Daulbayeva, K; Asanova, S; Zhumatov, K; Seidalina, A; Sayatov, M; Fereidouni, S R

    2014-09-01

    Equine influenza (EI) continues to be an important respiratory pathogen of horses worldwide. Since 2007 several outbreaks of EI have occurred in Central Asian countries, including Kazakhstan, western Mongolia, India and western China. Phylogenetic analysis showed that two H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV) isolates from Kazakhstan, A/equine/Almaty/26/2007 and A/equine/South Kazakhstan/236/12, were related to Florida sublineage 2, with high similarity to EIVs circulating in the same period in neighbouring countries. New outbreaks of EI during 2011 and 2012 in Kazakhstan and other Central Asian countries were caused by viruses of the same lineage. Genetic characterization of the viruses showed formation of a small EIV cluster with specific genetic signatures and continued evolution of this lineage in Central Asia between 2007 and 2012. The main genetic changes were observed in hemagglutinin gene without any antigenic drift. Although no vaccination policy was carried out in Kazakhstan, application of Florida clade 2-based vaccines is recommended.

  11. Owners' perception of the efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids.

    PubMed

    Wilford, Sophie; Woodward, Ella; Dunkel, Bettina

    2014-07-01

    A retrospective questionnaire-based survey was used to determine the perceived efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids. In 49 horses with 74 sarcoids, 64 sarcoids responded either completely (n = 49) or partially (n = 15) while 10 did not respond or worsened. Sarcoids < 2 cm responded better to treatment (P < 0.001) than did larger sarcoids.

  12. Owners’ perception of the efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, Sophie; Woodward, Ella; Dunkel, Bettina

    2014-01-01

    A retrospective questionnaire-based survey was used to determine the perceived efficacy of Newmarket bloodroot ointment in treating equine sarcoids. In 49 horses with 74 sarcoids, 64 sarcoids responded either completely (n = 49) or partially (n = 15) while 10 did not respond or worsened. Sarcoids < 2 cm responded better to treatment (P < 0.001) than did larger sarcoids. PMID:24982522

  13. Metabolic syndrome: is equine disease comparable to what we know in humans?

    PubMed Central

    Ertelt, Antonia; Barton, Ann-Kristin; Schmitz, Robert R; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    This review summarizes similarities and differences between the metabolic syndromes in humans and equines, concerning the anatomy, symptoms, and pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, it discusses the structure and distribution of adipose tissue and its specific metabolic pathways. Furthermore, this article provides insights and focuses on issues concerning laminitis in horses and cardiovascular diseases in humans, as well as their overlap. PMID:24894908

  14. Horses for Courses: Exploring the Limits of Leadership Development through Equine-Assisted Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Simon

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on insights taken from Lacanian psychoanalysis to rethink and resituate notions of the self and subjectivity within the theory and practice of experiential leadership development. Adopting an autoethnographic approach, it describes the author's own experience as a participant in a program of equine-assisted learning or…

  15. Effectiveness of a Standardized Equine-Assisted Therapy Program for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgi, Marta; Loliva, Dafne; Cerino, Stefania; Chiarotti, Flavia; Venerosi, Aldina; Bramini, Maria; Nonnis, Enrico; Marcelli, Marco; Vinti, Claudia; De Santis, Chiara; Bisacco, Francesca; Fagerlie, Monica; Frascarelli, Massimo; Cirulli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    In this study the effectiveness of an equine-assisted therapy (EAT) in improving adaptive and executive functioning in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was examined (children attending EAT, n = 15, control group n = 13; inclusion criteria: IQ > 70). Therapeutic sessions consisted in structured activities involving horses and…

  16. Experimental transmission of equine hepacivirus in horses as a model for hepatitis C virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine hepacivirus (EHCV; non-primate hepacivirus) is a hepatotropic member of the Flaviviridae family that infects horses. Although EHCV is the closest known relative to hepatitis C virus (HCV), its complete replication kinetics in vivo have not been described, and direct evidence that it causes he...

  17. Glial cells missing homologue 1 is induced in differentiating equine chorionic girdle trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    de Mestre, Amanda M; Miller, Donald; Roberson, Mark S; Liford, Jenny; Chizmar, Lisay C; McLaughlin, Kristin E; Antczak, Douglas F

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this study was to identify transcription factors associated with differentiation of the chorionic girdle, the invasive form of equine trophoblast. The expression patterns of five transcription factors were determined on a panel of conceptus tissues from early horse pregnancy. Tissues from Days 15 through 46 were tested. Eomesodermin (EOMES), glial cells missing homologue 1 (GCM1), heart and neural crest derivatives expressed transcript 1 (HAND1), caudal type homeobox 2 (CDX2), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3) were detected in horse trophoblast, but the expression patterns for these genes varied. EOMES had the most restricted distribution, while DLX3 CDX2, and HAND1 were widely expressed. GCM1 seemed to increase in the developing chorionic girdle, and this was confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR assays. GCM1 expression preceded a striking increase in expression of equine chorionic gonadotropin beta (CGB) in the chorionic girdle, and binding sites for GCM1 were discovered in the promoter region of the CGB gene. GCM1, CGB, and CGA mRNA were expressed preferentially in binucleate cells as opposed to uninucleate cells of the chorionic girdle. Based on these findings, it is likely that GCM1 has a role in differentiation and function of the invasive trophoblast of the equine chorionic girdle and endometrial cups. The equine binucleate chorionic girdle (CG) secreting trophoblast shares molecular, morphological, and functional characteristics with human syncytiotrophoblast and represents a model for studies of human placental function.

  18. Metabolic syndrome: is equine disease comparable to what we know in humans?

    PubMed

    Ertelt, Antonia; Barton, Ann-Kristin; Schmitz, Robert R; Gehlen, Heidrun

    2014-09-01

    This review summarizes similarities and differences between the metabolic syndromes in humans and equines, concerning the anatomy, symptoms, and pathophysiological mechanisms. In particular, it discusses the structure and distribution of adipose tissue and its specific metabolic pathways. Furthermore, this article provides insights and focuses on issues concerning laminitis in horses and cardiovascular diseases in humans, as well as their overlap. PMID:24894908

  19. Treatment with hyperimmune equine immunoglobulin or immunoglobulin fragments completely protects rodents from Ebola virus infection.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xuexing; Wong, Gary; Zhao, Yongkun; Wang, Hualei; He, Shihua; Bi, Yuhai; Chen, Weijin; Jin, Hongli; Gai, Weiwei; Chu, Di; Cao, Zengguo; Wang, Chong; Fan, Quanshui; Chi, Hang; Gao, Yuwei; Wang, Tiecheng; Feng, Na; Yan, Feihu; Huang, Geng; Zheng, Ying; Li, Nan; Li, Yuetao; Qian, Jun; Zou, Yong; Kobinger, Gary; Gao, George Fu; Qiu, Xiangguo; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    Recent successes with monoclonal antibody cocktails ZMapp(TM) and MIL77 against Ebola virus (EBOV) infections have reignited interest in antibody-based therapeutics. Since the production process for monoclonal antibodies can be prolonged and costly, alternative treatments should be investigated. We produced purified equine antisera from horses hyperimmunized with EBOV virus-like particles, and tested the post-exposure efficacy of the antisera in a mouse model of infection. BALB/c mice were given up to 2 mg of purified equine antisera per animal, at 30 minutes, 1 or 2 days post-infection (dpi), in which all animals survived. To decrease the possibility of serum sickness, the equine antisera was digested with pepsin to generate F(ab')2 fragments, with in vitro neutralizing activity comparable to whole immunoglobulin. Full protection was achieved with when treatment was initiated at 1 dpi, but the suboptimal protection observed with the 30 minute and 2 dpi groups demonstrate that in addition to virus neutralization, other Fc-dependent antibody mechanisms may also contribute to survival. Guinea pigs given 20 mg of antisera or F(ab')2 at or starting at 1 or 2 dpi were also fully protected from EBOV infection. These results justify future efficacy studies for purified equine products in NHPs.

  20. Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy in a 14-year-old quarter horse stallion.

    PubMed Central

    Olsen, T F

    2001-01-01

    A 14-year-old, quarter horse stallion was presented in lateral recumbency, unable to rise. Equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy was diagnosed, based on presentation, clinical signs, and the ruling out of other possibilities. After initial rapid improvements, ataxia remained, as did chronic cystitis secondary to bladder paralysis. He was euthanized after 2 months. PMID:11265193

  1. Immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation.

    PubMed

    Weng, Qiang; Tanaka, Yumiko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Tsunoda, Nobuo; Nambo, Yasuo; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2007-10-01

    To elucidate the relationship between steroidogenic hormones and developing adrenal glands, we investigated the immunolocalization of steroidogenic enzymes in equine fetal adrenal glands during mid-late gestation. Fetal adrenal glands were obtained from three horses at 217, 225 and 235 days of gestation. Steroidogenic enzymes were immunolocalized using polyclonal antisera raised against bovine adrenal cholesterol side-chain cleavage cytochrome P450 (P450scc), human placental 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3betaHSD), porcine testicular 17alpha-hydroxylase cytochrome P450 (P450c17) and human placental aromatase cytochrome P450 (P450arom). Histologically, cortex and medulla cells were clearly observed in the three fetal adrenal gland tissue samples. P450scc and P450c17 were identified in cortex cells close to medulla cells and in some medulla cells in the fetal adrenal glands. P450arom was present in both cortex and medulla cells in the fetal adrenal glands. However, 3betaHSD was not found in any of the equine fetal adrenal gland tissue samples. These results suggest that equine fetal adrenal glands have the ability to synthesize androgen and estrogen, which may play an important physiological role in the development of equine fetal adrenal glands.

  2. Diarrhea-associated pathogens, lactobacilli and cellulolytic bacteria in equine feces: responses to antibiotic challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antibiotics are important to equine medicine, but antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) can lead to poor performance and even mortality. AAD is attributed to disruption of the hindgut microbiota, which permits proliferation of pathogenic microbes. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects o...

  3. An update on Sarcocystis neurona infections in animals and Equine Protozoal Myeloencephalitis (EPM)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) is a serious disease of horses, and its management continues to be a challenge for veterinarians. The protozoan Sarcocystis neurona is most commonly associated with EPM. Recently, S. neurona has emerged as a common cause of mortality in marine mammals, especi...

  4. Use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents of filth flies on equine facilities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    House flies, Musca domestica L., and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (L.), (Diptera: Muscidae), are common pests on horse farms. The use of pupal parasitoids as biological control agents for filth flies is becoming more popular on equine facilities; however, there is a lack of information on the e...

  5. Assessment of Equine Fecal Contamination: The Search for Alternative Bacterial Source-tracking Targets

    EPA Science Inventory

    16S rDNA clone libraries were evaluated for detection of fecal source-identifying bacteria from a collapsed equine manure pile. Libraries were constructed using universal eubacterial primers and Bacteroides-Prevotella group-specific primers. Eubacterial sequences indicat...

  6. A novel group A rotavirus G serotype: serological and genomic characterization of equine isolate FI23.

    PubMed Central

    Browning, G F; Fitzgerald, T A; Chalmers, R M; Snodgrass, D R

    1991-01-01

    Equine rotavirus FI23 was shown to be prototypic of a novel G serotype, provisionally G14, by cross-neutralization and VP7 sequence determination. Although distinct, there are as few as six differing amino acid residues (92, 94, 96, 146, 147, and 221) in the VP7 antigenic regions of FI23 and G3 rotaviruses. PMID:1663521

  7. Comparative immunophenotyping of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells: an approach toward a standardized definition.

    PubMed

    Paebst, Felicitas; Piehler, Daniel; Brehm, Walter; Heller, Sandra; Schroeck, Carmen; Tárnok, Attila; Burk, Janina

    2014-08-01

    Horses are an approved large animal model for therapies of the musculoskeletal system. Especially for tendon disease where cell-based therapy is commonly used in equine patients, the translation of achieved results to human medicine would be a great accomplishment. Immunophenotyping of equine mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) remains the last obstacle to meet the criteria of the International Society for Cellular Therapy (ISCT) definition of human MSCs. Therefore, the surface antigen expression of CD 29, CD 44, CD 73, CD 90, CD 105, CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α, and MHC II in equine MSCs from adipose tissue, bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, umbilical cord tissue, and tendon tissue was analyzed using flow cytometry. Isolated cells from the different sources and donors varied in their expression pattern of MSC-defining antigens. In particular, CD 90 and 105 showed most heterogeneity. However, cells from all samples were robustly positive for CD 29 and CD 44, while being mostly negative for CD 73 and the exclusion markers CD 14, CD 34, CD 45, CD 79α and MHC II. Furthermore, it was evident that enzymes used for cell detachment after in vitro-culture affected the detection of antigen expression. These results emphasize the need of standardization of MSC isolation, culturing, and harvesting techniques. As the equine MSCs did not meet all criteria the ISCT defined for human MSCs, further investigations for a better characterization of the cell type should be conducted.

  8. Role of U.S. animal control agencies in equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations.

    PubMed

    Stull, C L; Holcomb, K E

    2014-05-01

    Every state in the United States has regulations prohibiting acts of neglect and cruelty against animals. Local law enforcement and animal control agencies are responsible in many communities to enforce these statutes. As society's perception of horses has changed from their origin as livestock to companion animals in modern times, owners have transitioned their care and management. The goal of this study was to identify the role and capacities of local animal control services in the United States that investigate equine neglect, cruelty, and abandonment investigations and to identify challenges and outcomes of the investigations. A 128-question online survey was accessible for animal agencies to complete. Comprehensive questions included their capacity for investigating equine cases, funding, housing for horses, and causes and outcomes of investigations. Respondents also were asked to select a single case and provide detailed information on the condition of horses, seizure and custody procedures, costs, and prosecution proceedings. A total of 165 respondents from 26 states completed all or the majority of the questions. A total of 6,864 equine investigations were initiated between 2007 and 2009 by 90 agencies, which extrapolates to 38 investigations annually per agency. A typical agency has an average annual budget of $740,000, employs 7 animal control officers, and spends about $10,000 annually on equine cases. Neglect was ranked as the most common reason for investigation. Owner ignorance, economic hardship, and lack of responsibility were the highest ranked causes of neglect and cruelty. Individual cases were provided by 91 agencies concerning 749 equines. The physical condition of the horse was the primary factor of investigation, and low body condition, parasite infestation, and compromised dental condition were present in most seized horses. Over half of the equine owners previously had been investigated or charged with neglect or cruelty of animals or were

  9. Efficacy of rintatolimod in the treatment of chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME)

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, William M

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chronic fatigue syndrome/ Myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) is a poorly understood seriously debilitating disorder in which disabling fatigue is an universal symptom in combination with a variety of variable symptoms. The only drug in advanced clinical development is rintatolimod, a mismatched double stranded polymer of RNA (dsRNA). Rintatolimod is a restricted Toll-Like Receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist lacking activation of other primary cellular inducers of innate immunity (e.g.- cytosolic helicases). Rintatolimod also activates interferon induced proteins that require dsRNA for activity (e.g.- 2ʹ-5ʹ adenylate synthetase, protein kinase R). Rintatolimod has achieved statistically significant improvements in primary endpoints in Phase II and Phase III double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials with a generally well tolerated safety profile and supported by open-label trials in the United States and Europe. The chemistry, mechanism of action, clinical trial data, and current regulatory status of rintatolimod for CFS/ME including current evidence for etiology of the syndrome are reviewed. PMID:27045557

  10. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis after Oral Therapy with Herbal Extracts: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kaymakamzade, Bahar; Karabudak, Rana; Kurne, Aslı Tuncer; Nurlu, Gülay

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disease of the central nervous system, commonly attributed to infections or vaccinations. Toxic or allergenic compounds can also trigger a response in the immune system and may cause demyelination. We present a case with ADEM after using oral herbal medications. Case Report: A 25 year-old male developed bilateral central facial palsy and severe quadriparesis after taking herbal drugs (containing echinacea and many other herbal ingredients) for two weeks. He had used the extract to increase his potency and reproductivity. He had no past history of recent immunization or viral infection. The clinical findings, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were compatible with ADEM. The neurological findings were improved after seven doses of pulse methylprednisolone treatment. To our knowledge, this is the third report in the literature that links herbal therapy and demyelinating disease. Conclusion: Most of the ADEM cases related to herbal therapy in the literature similarly used echinacea. It is our opinion that other ingredients of the herbal extract used by our case, besides echinacea, could have the potential to cause a trigger in the immune system. Further studies are needed to clarify the immunological effects of different kinds of herbal compounds, as well as the effects of different parts of the plants and the results of various dosages. Moreover, ingredients should also be tested for toxicity, adverse effects and drug interactions. PMID:27308086

  11. SAP suppresses the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Ji, Zhe; Ke, Zun-Ji; Geng, Jian-Guo

    2012-04-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a CD4(+) T cell-mediated disease of the central nervous system. Serum amyloid P component (SAP) is a highly conserved plasma protein named for its universal presence in amyloid deposits. Here we report that SAP-transgenic mice had unexpectedly attenuated EAE due to impaired encephalitogenic responses. Following induction with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein (MOG) peptide 35-55 in complete Freund's adjuvant, SAP-transgenic mice showed reduced spinal cord inflammation with lower severity of EAE attacks as compared with control C57BL/6 mice. However, in SAP-Knockout mice, the severity of EAE is enhanced. Adoptive transfer of Ag-restimulated T cells from wild type to SAP-transgenic mice, or transfer of SAP-transgenic Ag-restimulated T cells to control mice, induced milder EAE. T cells from MOG-primed SAP-transgenic mice showed weak proliferative responses. Furthermore, in SAP-transgenic mice, there is little infiltration of CD45-positive cells in the spinal cord. In vitro, SAP suppressed the secretion of interleukin-2 stimulated by P-selectin and blocked P-selectin binding to T cells. Moreover, SAP could change the affinity between α4-integrin and T cells. These data suggested that SAP could antagonize the development of the acute phase of inflammation accompanying EAE by modulating the function of P-selectin.

  12. Serum Immune Proteins in Moderate and Severe Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hardcastle, Sharni Lee; Brenu, Ekua Weba; Johnston, Samantha; Nguyen, Thao; Huth, Teilah; Ramos, Sandra; Staines, Donald; Marshall-Gradisnik, Sonya

    2015-01-01

    Immunological dysregulation is present in Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME), with recent studies also highlighting the importance of examining symptom severity. This research addressed this relationship between CFS/ME severity subgroups, assessing serum immunoglobulins and serum cytokines in severe and moderate CFS/ME patients. Participants included healthy controls (n= 22), moderately (n = 22) and severely (n=19) affected CFS/ME patients. The 1994 Fukuda Criteria defined CFS/ME and severity scales confirmed mobile and housebound CFS/ME patients as moderate and severe respectively. IL-1β was significantly reduced in severe compared with moderate CFS/ME patients. IL-6 was significantly decreased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared with healthy controls and severe CFS/ME patients. RANTES was significantly increased in moderate CFS/ME patients compared to severe CFS/ME patients. Serum IL-7 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the severe CFS/ME group compared with healthy controls and moderate CFS/ME patients. IFN-γ was significantly increased in severe CFS/ME patients compared with moderately affected patients. This was the first study to show cytokine variation in moderate and severe CFS/ME patients, with significant differences shown between CFS/ME symptom severity groups. This research suggests that distinguishing severity subgroups in CFS/ME research settings may allow for a more stringent analysis of the heterogeneous and otherwise inconsistent illness. PMID:26516304

  13. A pain-mediated neural signal induces relapse in murine autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a multiple sclerosis model

    PubMed Central

    Arima, Yasunobu; Kamimura, Daisuke; Atsumi, Toru; Harada, Masaya; Kawamoto, Tadafumi; Nishikawa, Naoki; Stofkova, Andrea; Ohki, Takuto; Higuchi, Kotaro; Morimoto, Yuji; Wieghofer, Peter; Okada, Yuka; Mori, Yuki; Sakoda, Saburo; Saika, Shizuya; Yoshioka, Yoshichika; Komuro, Issei; Yamashita, Toshihide; Hirano, Toshio; Prinz, Marco; Murakami, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    Although pain is a common symptom of various diseases and disorders, its contribution to disease pathogenesis is not well understood. Here we show using murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis (MS), that pain induces EAE relapse. Mechanistic analysis showed that pain induction activates a sensory-sympathetic signal followed by a chemokine-mediated accumulation of MHC class II+CD11b+ cells that showed antigen-presentation activity at specific ventral vessels in the fifth lumbar cord of EAE-recovered mice. Following this accumulation, various immune cells including pathogenic CD4+ T cells recruited in the spinal cord in a manner dependent on a local chemokine inducer in endothelial cells, resulting in EAE relapse. Our results demonstrate that a pain-mediated neural signal can be transformed into an inflammation reaction at specific vessels to induce disease relapse, thus making this signal a potential therapeutic target. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08733.001 PMID:26193120

  14. CXCR7 suppression modulates microglial chemotaxis to ameliorate experimentally-induced autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Bao, Jianhong; Zhu, Jinying; Luo, Sheng; Cheng, Ying; Zhou, Saijun

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the prototypical inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), widely used as an animal model of MS, classically manifests as an ascending paralysis that is characterized by extensive infiltration of the CNS by inflammatory cells. Although several studies uncover the significant role of microglia in the development of EAE, the cellular mechanisms of microglia that govern EAE pathogenesis remain unknown. In the current study, we report that CXCR7 expression is dynamic regulated in activated microglia during CNS autoimmunity and positively correlates with the clinical severity of EAE. In addition, microglial chemotaxis is mediated by CXCR7 during CNS autoimmunity, signaling through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 activation, whereas p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and (c-Jun N-terminal kinase) JNK are not involved. Most importantly, CXCR7 neutralizing treatment ameliorates the clinical severity of EAE along with ERK1/2 phosphorylation reduction. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CXCR7 suppression modulates microglial chemotaxis to ameliorate EAE.

  15. Alternative translation initiation site in the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Kong, W P; Roos, R P

    1991-01-01

    Polyprotein processing studies of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a group of mouse picornaviruses, demonstrated synthesis of a protein we have called l during in vitro translations from the RNA of DA, a demyelinating strain of TMEV, but not GDVII, an acute neurovirulent strain. We have proposed that l is synthesized from an alternative initiation site in the DA leader (L) coding area out of phase with the polyprotein reading frame (R. P. Roos, W.-P. Kong, B. L. Semler, J. Virol. 63:5344-5353, 1989). We now provide support for this proposal from experiments involving in vitro translation of three separate mutations of an infectious DA cDNA clone: DA"l"-1, which contains a base mismatch at the putative initiation codon of l, DAL-1, which contains a base mismatch at the presumed authentic initiation site of L at the beginning of the polyprotein; and DAL:NheI, which contains nucleotides coding for a four-amino-acid insertion in the L coding area with a termination codon in the l reading frame. Our results demonstrate that the DA strain uses an alternative initiation site and reading frame to in vitro synthesize l. l may have a role in the biological activity of the virus. Images PMID:2033677

  16. Isolation and characterization of two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (DA strain).

    PubMed

    Oleszak, E L; Leibowitz, J L; Rodriguez, M

    1988-09-01

    We have isolated two plaque size variants of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) strain DA. One variant, TMEV-CL (CL), produced large plaques, while the other, TMEV-DS (DS), produced small plaques in L-2 cells. The DS variant yielded a lower titre in BHK cells and had a significantly slower growth rate when compared to CL and DA. In contrast, DS replicated to a higher titre in the central nervous system (CNS) of infected mice than the large plaque counterpart and DA. Furthermore, the DS (but not CL) variant was temperature-sensitive, replicating 130- to 500-fold more at 37 degrees C than at 39 degrees C. Although DS, CL and DA were able to establish persistent CNS infections in mice, only the DS variant and DA induced demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Therefore persistence of TMEV in the CNS is not sufficient to produce demyelinating disease. These two variants of the DA strain of TMEV will be useful for study of the viral genetic elements important in the mechanism of virus-induced demyelination.

  17. Genomic regions of neurovirulence and attenuation in Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed Central

    Calenoff, M A; Faaberg, K S; Lipton, H L

    1990-01-01

    Full-length cDNA clones of two Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) strains, one highly virulent and the other less virulent, were constructed in the bacterial plasmid pGEMR-3. Transfection of BHK-21 cells with RNA transcribed from these cDNAs yielded progeny viruses with the exact in vitro growth phenotype and mouse neurovirulence pattern of the respective parental virus strains. RNA transcripts derived from recombinant chimeras constructed by exchanging corresponding genomic regions [5' noncoding, leader/P1 (L/P1), P2, P3, and 3' noncoding] between the parental cDNAs were infectious and enabled analysis of the growth characteristics in vitro and mouse neurovirulence of the chimeras. A correlation was found between plaque size and temperature sensitivity and the origin of the L/P1 region. Neurovirulence mapped primarily to the L/P1 region encoding the leader and coat proteins. Depending on parental origin, the 5' noncoding region either influenced virus attenuation or augmented virulence. Images PMID:2153981

  18. Molecular cloning and sequence determination of DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Y; Stein, S; Fu, J L; Stillman, L; Klaman, L; Roos, R P

    1988-05-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis viruses (TMEV) belong to the Picornaviridae, and are divided into two subgroups. TO subgroup strains produce a persistent demyelinating central nervous system infection in mice, while GDVII subgroup strains cause acute polioencephalomyelitis. We generated three overlapping clones of the genome of DA strain, a member of TO subgroup. Sequence analysis revealed that the genome is 8093 nucleotides long with a poly(A) tail. The 5' noncoding region stretches from nucleotides 1 to 1065 and lacks a poly(C) tract. The open reading frame stretches from 1066 to 7968 and encodes 2301 amino acids. DA strain sequence is more closely related to members of the Cardiovirus genus than to members of other Picornavirus genera. Comparison with sequence of BeAn strain, another TO subgroup strain, showed that the P1 area has the greatest number of differences, while the noncoding regions are more well-conserved. The three overlapping clones will be important in recombinant infectious cDNA studies between strains of both subgroups.

  19. Persistent Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection in mice depends on plaque size.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L

    1980-01-01

    Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) is an enteric pathogen of mice which causes acute and chronic neurological disorders in the natural host. When brain-derived stocks of TMEV isolates are adapted to cell culture they predominantly form either large or small plaques. In this study the type of central nervous system (CNS) infection (acute versus chronic) and the associated disease occurring in mice inoculated intracerebrally with large and small plaque strains of TMEV was investigated. Large and small plaque strains of TMEV were found to vary in virulence, type of neurological disease produced and ability to establish persistent CNS infection in mice. Two large plaque strains, GDVII and FA viruses, were highly virulent, produced acute encephalitis, but were cleared from the nervous systems of surviving animals. Therefore, it appears that these large plaque variants do not cause persistent CNS infection in mice. In contrast, five small plaque strains, DA, WW, TO4, Yale and BeAn8386 viruses, were relatively avirulent, usually produced no illness during the first month after inoculation, but readily established persistent CNS infection in mice. Persistently infected mice later developed demyelinating disease. Having identified strains of TMEV that differ regarding their ability to persist, we now hope to be able to exploit this difference in elucidating the basic mechanism(s) of TMEV persistence.

  20. Influence of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus 5' untranslated region on translation and neurovirulence.

    PubMed

    Stein, S B; Zhang, L; Roos, R P

    1992-07-01

    The DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a picornavirus, causes a persistent, restricted infection and demyelinating disease in mice. In contrast, the GDVII strain causes an acute, fatal, neuronal disease and is highly neurovirulent. To investigate the role of the TMEV 5' untranslated region (UTR) in translational efficiency and the TMEV subgroup differences, we tested the translational efficiency of transcripts in vitro derived from plasmids containing DA, GDVII, or DA/GDVII chimeric 5' UTRs preceding a reporter gene or the rest of the TMEV genome. We demonstrated that GDVII RNA translates more efficiently in rabbit reticulocyte lysate than DA RNA and that this enhanced translation is mediated by multiple domains in the GDVII 5' UTR as well as a region of the genome outside of the 5' UTR. We also identified a region within DA nucleotides 14 to 395 which inhibits translation of DA RNA and could contribute to the persistent, restricted DA central nervous system infection; the predicted secondary structure of the 5' UTR demonstrates a remarkable stem-loop structure within this region that is relatively unique among picornaviruses. Data from experiments involving DA/GDVII chimeric 5' UTR full-length infectious cDNA clones suggested that sequences in the 5' UTR can affect the neurovirulence phenotype but that translational efficiency is necessary but not sufficient for neurovirulence. These studies emphasize the multigenic nature of neurovirulence and the importance of translation in the regulation of picornaviral gene expression.

  1. Influence of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus 5' untranslated region on translation and neurovirulence.

    PubMed Central

    Stein, S B; Zhang, L; Roos, R P

    1992-01-01

    The DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV), a picornavirus, causes a persistent, restricted infection and demyelinating disease in mice. In contrast, the GDVII strain causes an acute, fatal, neuronal disease and is highly neurovirulent. To investigate the role of the TMEV 5' untranslated region (UTR) in translational efficiency and the TMEV subgroup differences, we tested the translational efficiency of transcripts in vitro derived from plasmids containing DA, GDVII, or DA/GDVII chimeric 5' UTRs preceding a reporter gene or the rest of the TMEV genome. We demonstrated that GDVII RNA translates more efficiently in rabbit reticulocyte lysate than DA RNA and that this enhanced translation is mediated by multiple domains in the GDVII 5' UTR as well as a region of the genome outside of the 5' UTR. We also identified a region within DA nucleotides 14 to 395 which inhibits translation of DA RNA and could contribute to the persistent, restricted DA central nervous system infection; the predicted secondary structure of the 5' UTR demonstrates a remarkable stem-loop structure within this region that is relatively unique among picornaviruses. Data from experiments involving DA/GDVII chimeric 5' UTR full-length infectious cDNA clones suggested that sequences in the 5' UTR can affect the neurovirulence phenotype but that translational efficiency is necessary but not sufficient for neurovirulence. These studies emphasize the multigenic nature of neurovirulence and the importance of translation in the regulation of picornaviral gene expression. Images PMID:1602556

  2. Recurrent demyelination in chronic central nervous system infection produced by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Dal Canto, M C; Lipton, H L

    1979-08-01

    A morphologic study of demyelination produced by Theiler's encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection in C3H/He mice was performed. Demyelination in this strain of mouse was less intense and had a milder gliomesodermal response than that observed in SJL mice. As early as 80 days after infection numerous remyelinated axons were present in C3H/He mice, and later, extensive remyelination was observed and was mainly by Schwann cells. About one-third of remyelinated plaques showed recurrent demyelinating activity at 200 days. The best evidence of recurrent demyelination was the loss of myelin by abons which had been previously remyelinated by Schwann cells. In addition, acute areas of demyelination were also seen in spinal cords which contained chronic or quiescent plaques. The demonstration of recurrent demyelination in TMEV infection is important for it increases the relevance of this model to multiple sclerosis (MS). In addition TMEV infection of C3H/He mice appears to be an excellent model for further studies of Schwann cell remyelination and recurrent demyelination in the central nervous system (CNS).

  3. Protection of SJL/J mice from demyelinating disease mediated by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, C I; Sun, X M; Fujinami, R S

    1995-01-01

    Intracerebral infection with the DA strain of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus induces a chronic demyelinating disease in SJL/J mice. Intraperitoneal inoculation with either the wild-type DA virus or an attenuated variant virus of DA, H7A6-2, results in protection from development of chronic demyelinating disease. Protective anti-viral immune responses result in reduced viral titers and decreased inflammation in the central nervous system within the first week following intracerebral challenge with virus. Development of protective immunity requires the presence of B cells and CD4+ T cells but does not require CD8+ T cells. High titers of serum anti-viral IgG and neutralizing antibodies are induced following the intraperitoneal inoculation with the DA virus or H7A6-2 virus prior to challenge. While protection could not be transferred with immune serum from DA virus-infected mice or neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, protection was correlated with increased numbers of DA virus-specific plasma cells in the central nervous system within the first week following intracerebral challenge. Protected mice also had enhanced levels of anti-DA virus IgG and neutralizing antibodies in the cerebral spinal fluid by 1 week following intracerebral challenge with DA virus. Thus, we conclude that vaccination with live virus results in protection from chronic demyelinating disease by inducing immune responses which are manifested in the central nervous system and rapidly clear infection after intracerebral challenge with DA virus.

  4. Susceptibility of inbred mice to chronic central nervous system infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus.

    PubMed

    Lipton, H L; Dal Canto, M C

    1979-10-01

    The present study demonstrated that the clinicopathological expression of the late demyelinating disease due to chronic central nervous system infection by Theiler's mouse encephalomyelitis virus was dependent, at least in part, on the strain of mouse used as host. A range of involvement was observed, with late disease being most severe in the SJL strain, intermediate in the CBA and C3H/He strains, and least in C57BL/6 mice. The lack of clinical signs in seven other inbred strains of mice indicates that their response to chronic infection was similar to C57BL/6 mice. SJL, CBA, C3H/He, and C57BL/6 mice all generated similar levels of neutralizing antibody. A correlation between the severity of late disease and central nervous system virus content was not demonstrated, which indirectly suggests an immunopathological rather than a cytolytic mechanism of myelin injury during the late disease period. Finally, in addition to being more extensive, SJL demyelinating lesions contained a disproportionately large number of macrophages compared with those of similar lesions in CBA and C3H/He mice.

  5. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats ("EAE" group). 2- "N. sativa + EAE" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- "EAE + N. sativa" group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE.

  6. Nigella sativa amliorates inflammation and demyelination in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis-induced Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Noor, Neveen A; Fahmy, Heba M; Mohammed, Faten F; Elsayed, Anwar A; Radwan, Nasr M

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major, immune-mediated, demyelinating neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-established animal model of MS. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective and ameliorative effects of N. sativa seeds (2.8 g/kg body weight) in EAE-induced Wistar rats. EAE-induced rats were divided into: 1- EAE-induced rats (“EAE” group). 2- “N. sativa + EAE” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa 2 weeks prior EAE induction until the end of the experiment. 3- “EAE + N. sativa” group received daily oral administration of N. sativa after the appearance of first clinical signs until the end of the experiment. All animals were decapitated at the 28th day post EAE-induction. EAE was investigated using histopathological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural examinations in addition to determination of some oxidative stress parameters in the cerebellum and medulla. N. sativa suppressed inflammation observed in EAE-induced rats. In addition, N. sativa enhanced remyelination in the cerebellum. Moreover, N. sativa reduced the expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF β1). N. sativa seeds could provide a promising agent effective in both the protection and treatment of EAE. PMID:26261504

  7. Effects of Intermittent Fasting on Experimental Autoimune Encephalomyelitis in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Razeghi Jahromi, Soodeh; Ghaemi, Amir; Alizadeh, Akram; Sabetghadam, Fatemeh; Moradi Tabriz, Hedieh; Togha, Mansoureh

    2016-06-01

    Several religions recommend periods of fasting. One of the most frequently asked questions of MS patients before the holy month of Ramadan is weather fasting might have an unfavorable effect on their disease course. This debate became more challenging after the publication of experimental studies suggesting that calorie restriction prior to disease induction attenuates disease severity. We conducted this study to assess early and late effects of fasting on the animal model of MS, known as autoimmune encephalomyelitis. EAE was induced in the C57BL/6 mice, using Myelin Oligodendrocyte Glycopeptide  (MOG) 35-55 and they fasted every other day either after the appearance of the first clinical sign or 30 days after disease induction for ten days. Thereafter, the mice were sacrificed for further histological and immunological evaluations. Intermittent fasting after the establishment of EAE did not have any unfavorable effect on the course of disease. Moreover, fasting at the early phase of disease alleviated EAE severity by ameliorating spinal cord demyelination. Fasting suppressed the secretion of IFN-γ, TNF-α and raised IL-10 production in splenocytes. Fasting was also associated with a lower percent of cytotoxicity. Intermittent fasting not only had no unfavorable effect on EAE but also reduced EAE severity if started at early phase of disease. PMID:27424136

  8. Targeting Non-classical Myelin Epitopes to Treat Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohua; Zhang, Jintao; Baylink, David J.; Li, Chih-Huang; Watts, Douglas M.; Xu, Yi; Qin, Xuezhong; Walter, Michael H.; Tang, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Qa-1 epitopes, the peptides that bind to non-classical major histocompatibility complex Ib Qa-1 molecules and are recognized by Qa-1-restricted CD8+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, have been identified in pathogenic autoimmune cells that attack myelin sheath in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an animal model for multiple sclerosis [MS]). Additionally, immunization with such epitopes ameliorates the EAE. However, identification of such epitopes requires knowledge of the pathogenic autoimmune cells which are largely unknown in MS patients. Hence, we asked whether the CD8+ Treg cells could directly target the myelin sheath to ameliorate EAE. To address this question, we analyzed Qa-1 epitopes in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG that is a protein in myelin sheath). Here, we report identification of a MOG-specific Qa-1 epitope. Immunization with this epitope suppressed ongoing EAE, which was abrogated by CD8+ T cell depletion. Additionally, the epitope immunization activated the epitope-specific CD8+ T cells which specifically accumulated in the CNS-draining cervical lymph nodes. Finally, CD8+ T cells primed by the epitope immunization transferred EAE suppression. Hence, this study reveals a novel regulatory mechanism mediated by the CD8+ Treg cells. We propose that immunization with myelin-specific HLA-E epitopes (human homologues of Qa-1 epitopes) is a promising therapy for MS. PMID:27796368

  9. Differing roles for members of the phospholipase A2 superfamily in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Kalyvas, Athena; Baskakis, Constantinos; Magrioti, Victoria; Constantinou-Kokotou, Violetta; Stephens, Daren; López-Vales, Rubèn; Lu, Jian-Qiang; Yong, V. Wee; Dennis, Edward A.; Kokotos, George

    2009-01-01

    The phospholipase A2 (PLA2) superfamily hydrolyzes phospholipids to release free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, some of which can mediate inflammation and demyelination, hallmarks of the CNS autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis. The expression of two of the intracellular PLA2s (cPLA2 GIVA and iPLA2 GVIA) and two of the secreted PLA2s (sPLA2 GIIA and sPLA2 GV) are increased in different stages of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis. We show using small molecule inhibitors, that cPLA2 GIVA plays a role in the onset, and iPLA2 GVIA in the onset and progression of EAE. We also show a potential role for sPLA2 in the later remission phase. These studies demonstrate that selective inhibition of iPLA2 can ameliorate disease progression when treatment is started before or after the onset of symptoms. The effects of these inhibitors on lesion burden, chemokine and cytokine expression as well as on the lipid profile provide insights into their potential modes of action. iPLA2 is also expressed by macrophages and other immune cells in multiple sclerosis lesions. Our results therefore suggest that iPLA2 might be an excellent target to block for the treatment of CNS autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:19218359

  10. Significant Contribution of Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 in Early Phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    PubMed Central

    Gharagozloo, Marjan; Mahmoud, Shaimaa; Gris, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG35–55 plus complete Freund's adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE triggered significant increases in brain levels of mMCP-4 mRNA and immunoreactive ET-1 in WT mice, the latter peptide was reduced to basal levels in mMCP-4 KO congeners. Together, the present study supports a role for mMCP-4 in the early inflammatory phases of the disease in a mouse model of MS. PMID:27610007

  11. Ulinastatin attenuates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis by enhancing anti-inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Feng, Ming; Shu, Yaqing; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Xueping; Li, Rui; Wang, Yuge; Dai, Yongqiang; Qiu, Wei; Lu, Zhengqi; Hu, Xueqiang

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a common inflammatory and demyelinating neurological disease. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model of MS, has been widely used to test MS treatment methods. Ulinastatin (UTI), a drug used to treat acute inflammatory disorders, has been tested in animal models of autoimmune inflammatory diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and crescentic glomerulonephritis. We recently found that UTI has a neuroprotective effect on EAE by reducing oligodendrocyte apoptosis and demyelination. The anti-inflammatory effects of UTI on EAE/MS, however, have never been investigated. We have therefore evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of UTI in EAE and explored the mechanisms underlying this effect. EAE was induced in mice with and without UTI treatment. Inflammation and demyelination of spinal cords were evaluated by staining with hematoxylin and eosin and with Luxol fast blue, respectively. Inflammatory markers in serum were analyzed by the Luminex method, and spinal cords were evaluated by immunofluorescence and Western blotting. UTI significantly lowered the clinical and pathological scores and the serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and matrix metal protease-9 (MMP-9). UTI also reduced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)/nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB)/inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) proteins and decreased CD11b(+) cells in spinal cord lesions. UTI may protect against EAE in mice by suppressing inflammatory responses. We think that UTI might be a potential therapeutic agent for MS.

  12. Significant Contribution of Mouse Mast Cell Protease 4 in Early Phases of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Desbiens, Louisane; Lapointe, Catherine; Gharagozloo, Marjan; Mahmoud, Shaimaa; Pejler, Gunnar; Gris, Denis; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro

    2016-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a mouse model that reproduces cardinal signs of clinical, histopathological, and immunological features found in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). Mast cells are suggested to be involved in the main inflammatory phases occurring during EAE development, possibly by secreting several autacoids and proteases. Among the latter, the chymase mouse mast cell protease 4 (mMCP-4) can contribute to the inflammatory response by producing endothelin-1 (ET-1). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of mMCP-4 on acute inflammatory stages in EAE. C57BL/6 wild type (WT) or mMCP-4 knockout (KO) mice were immunized with MOG35-55 plus complete Freund's adjuvant followed by pertussis toxin. Immunized WT mice presented an initial acute phase characterized by progressive increases in clinical score, which were significantly reduced in mMCP-4 KO mice. In addition, higher levels of spinal myelin were found in mMCP-4 KO as compared with WT mice. Finally, whereas EAE triggered significant increases in brain levels of mMCP-4 mRNA and immunoreactive ET-1 in WT mice, the latter peptide was reduced to basal levels in mMCP-4 KO congeners. Together, the present study supports a role for mMCP-4 in the early inflammatory phases of the disease in a mouse model of MS. PMID:27610007

  13. Gestational Hypothyroidism Increases the Severity of Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis in Adult Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Albornoz, Eduardo A.; Carreño, Leandro J.; Cortes, Claudia M.; Gonzalez, Pablo A.; Cisternas, Pablo A.; Cautivo, Kelly M.; Catalán, Tamara P.; Opazo, M. Cecilia; Eugenin, Eliseo A.; Berman, Joan W.; Bueno, Susan M.; Kalergis, Alexis M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Maternal thyroid hormones play a fundamental role in appropriate fetal development during gestation. Offspring that have been gestated under maternal hypothyroidism suffer cognitive impairment. Thyroid hormone deficiency during gestation can significantly impact the central nervous system by altering the migration, differentiation, and function of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and astrocytes. Given that gestational hypothyroidism alters the immune cell ratio in offspring, it is possible that this condition could result in higher sensitivity for the development of autoimmune diseases. Methods: Adult mice gestated under hypothyroidism were induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Twenty-one days after EAE induction, the disease score, myelin content, immune cell infiltration, and oligodendrocyte death were evaluated. Results: We observed that mice gestated under hypothyroidism showed higher EAE scores after disease induction during adulthood compared to mice gestated in euthyroidism. In addition, spinal cord sections of mice gestated under hypothyroidism that suffered EAE in adulthood showed higher demyelination, CD4+ and CD8+ infiltration, and increased oligodendrocyte death. Conclusions: These results show for the first time that a deficiency in maternal thyroid hormones during gestation can influence the outcome of a central nervous system inflammatory disease, such as EAE, in their offspring. These data strongly support evaluating thyroid hormones in pregnant women and treating hypothyroidism during pregnancy to prevent increased susceptibility to inflammatory diseases in the central nervous system of offspring. PMID:23777566

  14. Lack of effect of Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus infection on system xc⁻.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Ellen; Demuyser, Thomas; Bentea, Eduard; Van Liefferinge, Joeri; Albertini, Giulia; Deneyer, Lauren; Michiels, Thomas; Massie, Ann

    2015-04-23

    Changes in the expression of xCT, the specific subunit of system xc(-) or the cystine/glutamate antiporter, have been associated with several neurological disorders and system xc(-) was recently proposed as a potential target for the development of new treatment strategies for multiple sclerosis (MS). In this study we used Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) infection, both in vitro and in vivo, as a model to further evaluate the involvement of system xc(-) in MS. Protein levels of xCT, as well as activity of system xc(-) were unaffected in RAW264.7 macrophages after infection with the demyelinating DA strain of TMEV. Also, protein expression of xCT remained stable in spinal cord and brain of FVB mice 1-2 and 6 weeks after intracranial injection of the DA strain of TMEV. These results demonstrate that TMEV infection of macrophages or FVB mice has no effect on system xc(-) and as such cannot be used as a model to study the involvement of system xc(-) in MS.

  15. LINGO-1 antibody ameliorates myelin impairment and spatial memory deficits in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mice.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jun-Jun; Ren, Qing-Guo; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Zhi-Jun

    2015-09-18

    More than 50% of multiple sclerosis patients develop cognitive impairment. However, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear, and there is no effective treatment. LINGO-1 (LRR and Ig domain containing NOGO receptor interacting protein 1) has been identified as an inhibitor of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model, we assessed cognitive function at early and late stages of EAE, determined brain expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and investigated whether the LINGO-1 antibody could restore deficits in learning and memory and ameliorate any loss of MBP. We found that deficits in learning and memory occurred in late EAE and identified decreased expression of MBP in the parahippocampal cortex (PHC) and fimbria-fornix. Moreover, the LINGO-1 antibody significantly improved learning and memory in EAE and partially restored MBP in PHC. Furthermore, the LINGO-1 antibody activated the AKT/mTOR signaling pathway regulating myelin growth. Our results suggest that demyelination in the PHC and fimbria-fornix might contribute to cognitive deficits and the LINGO-1 antibody could ameliorate these deficits by promoting myelin growth in the PHC. Our research demonstrates that LINGO-1 antagonism may be an effective approach to the treatment of the cognitive impairment of multiple sclerosis patients.

  16. Central Nervous System Demyelination and Remyelination is Independent from Systemic Cholesterol Level in Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Raddatz, Barbara B; Sun, Wenhui; Brogden, Graham; Sun, Yanyong; Kammeyer, Patricia; Kalkuhl, Arno; Colbatzky, Florian; Deschl, Ulrich; Naim, Hassan Y; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Reiner

    2016-01-01

    High dietary fat and/or cholesterol intake is a risk factor for multiple diseases and has been debated for multiple sclerosis. However, cholesterol biosynthesis is a key pathway during myelination and disturbances are described in demyelinating diseases. To address the possible interaction of dyslipidemia and demyelination, cholesterol biosynthesis gene expression, composition of the body's major lipid repositories and Paigen diet-induced, systemic hypercholesterolemia were examined in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis (TME) using histology, immunohistochemistry, serum clinical chemistry, microarrays and high-performance thin layer chromatography. TME-virus (TMEV)-infected mice showed progressive loss of motor performance and demyelinating leukomyelitis. Gene expression associated with cholesterol biosynthesis was overall down-regulated in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. Spinal cord levels of galactocerebroside and sphingomyelin were reduced on day 196 post TMEV infection. Paigen diet induced serum hypercholesterolemia and hepatic lipidosis. However, high dietary fat and cholesterol intake led to no significant differences in clinical course, inflammatory response, astrocytosis, and the amount of demyelination and remyelination in the spinal cord of TMEV-infected animals. The results suggest that down-regulation of cholesterol biosynthesis is a transcriptional marker for demyelination, quantitative loss of myelin-specific lipids, but not cholesterol occurs late in chronic demyelination, and serum hypercholesterolemia exhibited no significant effect on TMEV infection.

  17. A comparison of titration methods for live avian encephalomyelitis virus vaccines.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, R A; Hopkins, I G; Southern, S J; Thornton, D H

    1986-01-01

    Factors associated with the indirect fluorescent antibody test used for the titration of avian encephalomyelitis virus (AEV) in chick embryo brain cell cultures were examined for their influence on virus replication. It was found that virus should be inoculated onto semi-confluent cell cultures and adsorbed for two hours at room temperature. The cells should then be examined for fluorescence after five days' incubation. Using these conditions, the cell culture assay was compared with the embryo and chick assays for its ability to estimate the virus content of live commercial AEV vaccines. In most cases titres obtained by the chick assay were slightly, but not significantly, higher than those obtained in the cell culture assay, although the reliability of the chick assay was, at times, questionable. In all cases titres obtained in the embryo assay were low. It is recommended that the cell culture assay be adopted as the method of choice for titrating AEV vaccines because it is rapid, reproducible, specific and greatly reduces the requirement for experimental animals.

  18. Effects of exercise in a relapsing-remitting model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Stasula, Ulana; Steelman, Andrew J; Hernandez, Jessica; Pence, Brandt D; Woods, Jeffrey A; Motl, Robert W

    2016-10-01

    Previous research has examined the effects of exercise in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the animal model of multiple sclerosis. However, all previous studies have utilized a chronic model of EAE, with exercise delivered prior to or immediately after induction of EAE. To our knowledge, no study has examined the effects of exercise delivered during a remission period after initial disease onset in a relapsing-remitting model of EAE (RR-EAE). The current study examines the effects of both voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill exercise on clinical disability and hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in SJL mice with RR-EAE. The results demonstrate no significant effects of exercise delivered during remission after initial disease onset on clinical disability scores or levels of hippocampal BDNF in mice with RR-EAE. Furthermore, our results demonstrate no significant increase in citrate synthase activity in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles of mice in the running wheel or treadmill conditions compared with the sedentary condition. These results suggest that the exercise stimuli might have been insufficient to elicit differences in clinical disability or hippocampal BDNF among treatment conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27312674

  19. Autophagy regulates the therapeutic potential of mesenchymal stem cells in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Dang, Shipeng; Xu, Huanbai; Xu, Congfeng; Cai, Wei; Li, Qian; Cheng, Yiji; Jin, Min; Wang, Ru-Xing; Peng, Yongde; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Changping; He, Xiaozhou; Wan, Bing; Zhang, Yanyun

    2014-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising approach to treat various inflammatory disorders including multiple sclerosis. However, the fate of MSCs in the inflammatory microenvironment is largely unknown. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a well-studied animal model of multiple sclerosis. We demonstrated that autophagy occurred in MSCs during their application for EAE treatment. Inflammatory cytokines, e.g., interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor, induced autophagy in MSCs synergistically by inducing expression of BECN1/Beclin 1. Inhibition of autophagy by knockdown of Becn1 significantly improved the therapeutic effects of MSCs on EAE, which was mainly attributable to enhanced suppression upon activation and expansion of CD4(+) T cells. Mechanistically, inhibition of autophagy increased reactive oxygen species generation and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 activation in MSCs, which were essential for PTGS2 (prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 [prostaglandin G/H synthase and cyclooxygenase]) and downstream prostaglandin E2 expression to exert immunoregulatory function. Furthermore, pharmacological treatment of MSCs to inhibit autophagy increased their immunosuppressive effects on T cell-mediated EAE. Our findings indicate that inflammatory microenvironment-induced autophagy downregulates the immunosuppressive function of MSCs. Therefore, modulation of autophagy in MSCs would provide a novel strategy to improve MSC-based immunotherapy.

  20. The experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model of MS: utility for understanding disease pathophysiology and treatment

    PubMed Central

    ROBINSON, ANDREW P.; HARP, CHRISTOPHER T.; NORONHA, AVERTANO; MILLER, STEPHEN D.

    2014-01-01

    While no single model can exactly recapitulate all aspects of multiple sclerosis (MS), animal models are essential in understanding the induction and pathogenesis of the disease and to develop therapeutic strategies that limit disease progression and eventually lead to effective treatments for the human disease. Several different models of MS exist, but by far the best understood and most commonly used is the rodent model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). This model is typically induced by either active immunization with myelin-derived proteins or peptides in adjuvant or by passive transfer of activated myelin-specific CD4+ T lymphocytes. Mouse models are most frequently used because of the inbred genotype of laboratory mice, their rapid breeding capacity, the ease of genetic manipulation, and availability of transgenic and knockout mice to facilitate mechanistic studies. Although not all therapeutic strategies for MS have been developed in EAE, all of the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved immunomodulatory drugs are effective to some degree in treating EAE, a strong indicator that EAE is an extremely useful model to study potential treatments for MS. Several therapies, such as glatiramer acetate (GA: Copaxone), and natalizumab (Tysabri), were tested first in the mouse model of EAE and then went on to clinical trials. Here we discuss the usefulness of the EAE model in understanding basic disease pathophysiology and developing treatments for MS as well as the potential drawbacks of this model. PMID:24507518