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Sample records for encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes

  1. Red meat intake, doneness, polymorphisms in genes that encode carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and colorectal cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Boucher, Beatrice A.; Manno, Michael; Gallinger, Steven; Okey, Allan B.; Harper, Patricia A.

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer literature regarding the interaction between polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes and red meat intake/doneness is inconsistent. A case-control study was conducted to evaluate the interaction between red meat consumption, doneness and polymorphisms in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes. Colorectal cancer cases diagnosed 1997-2000, aged 20-74 years, were identified through the population-based Ontario Cancer Registry and recruited by the Ontario Family Colorectal Cancer Registry (OFCCR). Controls were sex- and age-group matched random sample of Ontario population. Epidemiologic and food questionnaires were completed by 1095 cases and 1890 controls; blood was provided by 842 and 1251, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted odds ratio (OR) estimates. Increased red meat intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk [OR (>5 servings/week vs. ≤2 servings/week) =1.67 (1.36, 2.05)]. Colorectal cancer risk also increased significantly with well-done meat intake [OR (>2 servings/week well-done vs. ≤ 2 servings/week rare-regular) = 1.57 (1.27, 1.93)]. We evaluated interactions between genetic variants in 15 enzymes involved in the metabolism of carcinogens in overcooked meat (CYPs, GSTs, UGTs, SULT, NATs, mEH, AHR). CYP2C9 and NAT2 variants were associated with colorectal cancer risk. Red meat intake was associated with increased colorectal cancer risk, regardless of genotypes; however, CYP1B1 combined variant and SULT1A1-638G>A variant significantly modified the association between red meat doneness intake and colorectal cancer risk. In conclusion, well-done red meat intake was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer regardless of carcinogen-metabolizing genotype, although our data suggests persons with CYP1B1 and SULT1A1 variants had the highest colorectal cancer risk. PMID:18990750

  2. Contributions of Human Enzymes in Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F. Peter

    2012-01-01

    Considerable support exists for roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are procarcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s—1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4—accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, inter-individual variations, and risk assessment. PMID:22531028

  3. Contributions of human enzymes in carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Rendic, Slobodan; Guengerich, F Peter

    2012-07-16

    Considerable support exists for the roles of metabolism in modulating the carcinogenic properties of chemicals. In particular, many of these compounds are pro-carcinogens that require activation to electrophilic forms to exert genotoxic effects. We systematically analyzed the existing literature on the metabolism of carcinogens by human enzymes, which has been developed largely in the past 25 years. The metabolism and especially bioactivation of carcinogens are dominated by cytochrome P450 enzymes (66% of bioactivations). Within this group, six P450s--1A1, 1A2, 1B1, 2A6, 2E1, and 3A4--accounted for 77% of the P450 activation reactions. The roles of these P450s can be compared with those estimated for drug metabolism and should be considered in issues involving enzyme induction, chemoprevention, molecular epidemiology, interindividual variations, and risk assessment.

  4. Expression in human prostate of drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes: association with prostate cancer risk.

    PubMed Central

    Agúndez, J. A.; Martínez, C.; Olivera, M.; Gallardo, L.; Ladero, J. M.; Rosado, C.; Prados, J.; Rodriguez-Molina, J.; Resel, L.; Benítez, J.

    1998-01-01

    The role of two common polymorphisms of enzymes involved in the metabolism of drugs and carcinogens was studied in relation to prostate cancer. The gene encoding one of these enzymes (NAT2) is located in an area where frequent allelic loss occurs in prostate cancer. Mutations at the genes CYP2D6 and NAT2 were analysed by allele-specific polymerase chain reaction and restriction mapping in DNA from 94 subjects with prostate cancer and 160 male healthy control subjects. Eleven prostate specimens were analysed for genotype and enzymatic activities NAT2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A by using the enzyme-specific substrates sulphamethazine and dextromethorphan. Enzyme activities with substrate specificities corresponding to NAT2, CYP2D6 and CYP3A are present in human prostate tissue, with mean +/-s.d. activities of 4.8+/-4.4 pmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein, 156+/-91 and 112+/-72 nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein respectively. The Km values for the prostate CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzyme activities corresponded to that of liver CYP2D6 and CYP3A activities, and the CYP2D6 enzyme activity is related to the CYP2D6 genotype. The N-acetyltransferase, in contrast, had a higher Km than NAT2 and was independent of the NAT2 genotype. The CYP2D6 and CYP3A enzymes, and an N-acetyltransferase activity that is independent of the regulation of the NAT2 gene, are expressed in human prostate tissue. The presence of carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in human prostate with a high interindividual variability may be involved in the regulation of local levels of carcinogens and mutagens and may underlie interindividual differences in cancer susceptibility. Images Figure 1 PMID:9823980

  5. Cigarette Smoking, Genetic Variants in Carcinogen-metabolizing Enzymes, and Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Cleary, Sean P.; Cotterchio, Michelle; Shi, Ellen; Gallinger, Steven; Harper, Patricia

    2010-01-01

    The risk of colorectal cancer associated with smoking is unclear and may be influenced by genetic variation in enzymes that metabolize cigarette carcinogens. The authors examined the colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking and 26 variants in carcinogen metabolism genes in 1,174 colorectal cancer cases and 1,293 population-based controls recruited in Canada by the Ontario Familial Colorectal Cancer Registry from 1997 to 2001. Adjusted odds ratios were calculated by multivariable logistic regression. Smoking for >27 years was associated with a statistically significant increased colorectal cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02, 1.53) in all subjects. Colorectal cancer risk associated with smoking was higher in males for smoking status, duration, and intensity. The CYP1A1-3801-CC (AOR = 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23, 0.94) and CYP2C9-430-CT (AOR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68, 0.99) genotypes were associated with decreased risk, and the GSTM1-K173N-CG (AOR = 1.99, 95% CI: 1.21, 3.25) genotype was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Statistical interactions between smoking and genetic variants were assessed by comparing logistic regression models with and without a multiplicative interaction term. Significant interactions were observed between smoking status and SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.02), NAT2-857 (P = 0.01), and CYP1B1-4390 (P = 0.04) variants and between smoking duration and NAT1-1088 (P = 0.02), SULT1A1-638 (P = 0.04), and NAT1-acetylator (P = 0.03) status. These findings support the hypothesis that prolonged cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of colorectal cancer and that this risk may be modified by variation in carcinogen metabolism genes. PMID:20937634

  6. Effects of cow ghee (clarified butter oil) & soybean oil on carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Rani, Rita; Kansal, Vinod K

    2012-09-01

    Our previous study showed that cow ghee relative to soybean oil had a protective effect against carcinogen induced mammary cancer in rats. The objective of this study was to elucidate its biochemical mechanism. Two groups of 21 day old rats (20 each) were fed for 44 wk diet containing cow ghee or soybean oil (10%). Five animals from each group were sacrificed at 0 day and at 5, 21 and 44 wk for analysis of phase I and phase II pathways enzymes of carcinogen metabolism. Dietary cow ghee relative to soybean oil decreased the activities of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP1B1 and CYP2B1, responsible for activation of carcinogen in liver. Carcinogen detoxification activities of uridinediphospho-glucuronosyl transferase (UDPGT) and quinone reductase (QR) in liver, and γ-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP) and QR in mammary tissue were significantly higher in cow ghee fed rats than in soybean oil fed rats. The hepatic GGTP activity decreased on soybean oil diet; while in cow ghee group it remained unaffected. Our findings show that dietary cow ghee compared to soybean oil downregulates the enzyme activities responsible for carcinogen activation in liver and upregulates carcinogen detoxification activities in liver and mammary tissues.

  7. Bladder cancer risk from the perspective of genetic polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Antonova, Olga; Toncheva, Draga; Grigorov, Evgeni

    2015-01-01

    Urinary bladder cancer is a socially significant healthcare problem. A diverse array of aromatic and heterocyclic amines, derived from the chemical and transport industry, diet, and cigarette smoke are considered carcinogens for the bladder. To exert their carcinogenic effect and to initiate the carcinogenic response, the arylamines require a metabolic activation by the host enzymes to chemically reactive compounds. The aim of this article was to review the latest and basic research developments on the role of the polymorphisms in the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes N-acetyltransferase (NAT), Glutathione S-transferases (GST), and Soluble sulfotransferases (SULT), with emphasis on the susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer. A PubMed search was conducted to identify original and review articles containing information about these polymophic variants in different populations and according to their prevalence in bladder cancer patients. We noticed that some genotypes were found to be predisposing and some protective for bladder cancer development. The NAT2 slow genotype, together with GSTM1 null genotype facilitated the development of bladder cancer in almost all ethnic groups. The 213His allele of the SULT1A1 gene which is associated with lower enzyme activity and decreased mutagen activation was reported to protect from bladder cancer in almost all studies.

  8. Resveratrol Modulates Drug and Carcinogen Metabolizing Enzymes in a Healthy Volunteer Study

    PubMed Central

    Chow, H-H. Sherry; Garland, Linda; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Vining, Donna R.; Chew, Wade M.; Miller, Jessica A.; Perloff, Marjorie; Crowell, James A.; Alberts, David

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol has been shown to exhibit cancer preventive activities in preclinical studies. We conducted a clinical study to determine the effect of pharmacological doses of resveratrol on drug and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes. Forty-two healthy volunteers underwent baseline assessment of cytochrome P450 (CYP) and Phase II detoxification enzymes. CYP 1A2, 2D6, 2C9, and 3A4 enzyme activities were measured by the metabolism of caffeine, dextromethorphan, losartan, and buspirone, respectively. Blood lymphocyte glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity and GST-π level and serum total and direct bilirubin, a surrogate for UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A1 activity, were measured to assess Phase II enzymes. After the baseline evaluation, study participants took 1 gm of resveratrol once daily for 4 wks. Enzyme assessment was repeated upon intervention completion. Resveratrol intervention was found to inhibit the phenotypic indices of CYP3A4, 2D6, and 2C9, and to induce the phenotypic index of 1A2. Overall, GST and UGT1A1 activities were minimally affected by the intervention, although an induction of GST-π level and UGT1A1 activity was observed in individuals with low baseline enzyme level/activity. We conclude that resveratrol can modulate enzyme systems involved in carcinogen activation and detoxification, which may be one mechanism by which resveratrol inhibits carcinogenesis. However, pharmacological doses of resveratrol could potentially lead to increased adverse drug reactions or altered drug efficacy due to inhibition or induction of certain CYPs. Further clinical development of resveratrol for cancer prevention should consider evaluation of lower doses of resveratrol to minimize adverse metabolic drug interactions. PMID:20716633

  9. Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2012-07-01

    Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene-diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies.

  10. Disruption of redox homeostasis and carcinogen metabolizing enzymes changes by administration of vitamin E to rats.

    PubMed

    Vivarelli, Fabio; Canistro, Donatella; Franchi, Paola; Sapone, Andrea; Vornoli, Andrea; Della Croce, Clara; Longo, Vincenzo; Lucarini, Marco; Paolini, Moreno

    2016-01-15

    A large meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials has seriously questioned chemoprevention based on vitamins including vitamin E (VE), and an increased risk for cancer among long-term users was actually seen. However, the mechanism underlying these findings still remain unknown. To clarify the mechanism, in an in vivo model we studied the putative disruption of redox homeostasis and the perturbation of carcinogen metabolizing enzymes determined by VE. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated ip with either 100 or 200mg/kg b.w. daily for 7 or 14 consecutive days. Controls received vehicle only. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) content, CYP-reductase, CYP-linked monooxygenases, as well as phase-II and the antioxidant enzymes catalase and quinone reductase were investigated in both liver and kidney. Free radical species in tissue subcellular preparations were measured by electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy coupled to a radical probe technique. No substantial changes of hepatic xenobiotic metabolism enzymes were determined by VE. Conversely, a powerful booster effect of various renal phase-I carcinogen bioactivating enzymes at both dosages and observational times was recorded. While no relevant changes of post-oxidative phase-II reactions were found in the liver, a significant inactivating effect was caused by VE in renal tissues. Antioxidant enzymes were found mainly downregulated by the treatment. In the kidney, a marked free radical over-generation linked to CYP induction was observed. This study proved that VE acts as a co-carcinogen and pro-oxidant agent. Such epigenetic mechanisms may contribute to explain the harmful outcomes observed in humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzymes, fish intake, and risk of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Mariana C.

    2012-01-01

    Cooking fish at high temperature can produce potent carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The effects of these carcinogens may undergo modification by the enzymes responsible for their detoxification and/or activation. In this study, we investigated genetic polymorphisms in nine carcinogen metabolism enzymes and their modifying effects on the association between white or dark fish consumption and prostate cancer (PCA) risk. We genotyped 497 localized and 936 advanced PCA cases and 760 controls from the California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Three polymorphisms, EPHX1 Tyr113His, CYP1B1 Leu432Val and GSTT1 null/present, were associated with localized PCA risk. The PTGS2 765 G/C polymorphism modified the association between white fish consumption and advanced PCA risk (interaction P 5 0.002), with high white fish consumption being positively associated with risk only among carriers of the C allele. This effect modification by PTGS2 genotype was stronger when restricted to consumption of well-done white fish (interaction P 5 0.021). These findings support the hypotheses that changes in white fish brought upon by high-temperature cooking methods, such as carcinogen accumulation and/or fatty acid composition changes, may contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. However, the gene–diet interactions should be interpreted with caution given the limited sample size. Thus, our findings require further validation with additional studies. Abbreviations: AA African American; BMI body mass index; CI confidence interval; CNV copy number variant; EPIC European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition; HCA heterocyclic amine; HCFA Health Care Financing Administration; LAC Los Angeles county; MAF minor allele frequency; NHW non-Hispanic White; OR odds ratio; PAH polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; PCA prostate cancer; PTGS2 prostaglandin- endoperoxide synthase 2; PUFA polyunsaturated fatty acids; RDD

  12. Genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Cotterchio, Michelle; Borgida, Ayelet; Gallinger, Steven; Cleary, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Individual susceptibility to the toxic effects of cigarette smoke may be modified by inherited variability in carcinogen metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate pancreatic cancer risk associated with cigarette smoking and 33 variants within carcinogen metabolism genes and examine whether these variants modify the association between smoking and pancreatic cancer. A population-based study was conducted with 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 893 controls. Epidemiological and smoking data were collected from questionnaires and variants were genotyped by mass spectrometry. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (ASOR) and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) estimates were obtained using multivariate logistic regression, and interactions between each variant and smoking were investigated. Current smoker status [MVOR = 2.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.62, 3.22], 10–27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.18), >27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.46) and longer durations of smoking (19–32 years: MVOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05; >32 years: MVOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.45) were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. CYP1B1-4390-GG (ASOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.86) and Uridine 5'-diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A7-622-CT (ASOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.99) were associated with reduced risk. N-acetyltransferase 1-640-GT/GG (ASOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.05), GSTM1 (rs737497)-GG (ASOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.95), GSTM1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 3.52, 6.79) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.41, 95% CI: 2.67, 7.29) were associated with increased risk. Significant interactions were observed between pack-years and EPHX1-415 (P = 0.04) and smoking status and N-acetyltransferase 2-857 (P = 0.03). Variants of carcinogen metabolism genes are independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk and may modify the risk posed by smoking. PMID:22301281

  13. Genetic variants in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, cigarette smoking and pancreatic cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji-Hyun; Cotterchio, Michelle; Borgida, Ayelet; Gallinger, Steven; Cleary, Sean P

    2012-04-01

    Individual susceptibility to the toxic effects of cigarette smoke may be modified by inherited variability in carcinogen metabolism. The purpose of the present study was to investigate pancreatic cancer risk associated with cigarette smoking and 33 variants within carcinogen metabolism genes and examine whether these variants modify the association between smoking and pancreatic cancer. A population-based study was conducted with 455 pancreatic cancer cases and 893 controls. Epidemiological and smoking data were collected from questionnaires and variants were genotyped by mass spectrometry. Age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio (ASOR) and multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (MVOR) estimates were obtained using multivariate logistic regression, and interactions between each variant and smoking were investigated. Current smoker status [MVOR = 2.29, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.62, 3.22], 10-27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.13, 2.18), >27 pack-years (MVOR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.27, 2.46) and longer durations of smoking (19-32 years: MVOR = 1.46, 95% CI: 1.05, 2.05; >32 years: MVOR = 1.78, 95% CI: 1.30, 2.45) were associated with increased pancreatic cancer risk. CYP1B1-4390-GG (ASOR = 0.36, 95% CI: 0.15, 0.86) and Uridine 5'-diphospho glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A7-622-CT (ASOR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.60, 0.99) were associated with reduced risk. N-acetyltransferase 1-640-GT/GG (ASOR = 1.75, 95% CI: 1.00, 3.05), GSTM1 (rs737497)-GG (ASOR = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.95), GSTM1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.89, 95% CI: 3.52, 6.79) and glutathione S-transferase theta-1 gene deletion (ASOR = 4.41, 95% CI: 2.67, 7.29) were associated with increased risk. Significant interactions were observed between pack-years and EPHX1-415 (P = 0.04) and smoking status and N-acetyltransferase 2-857 (P = 0.03). Variants of carcinogen metabolism genes are independently associated with pancreatic cancer risk and may modify the risk posed by smoking.

  14. Modulation of Masheri- and benzo[a]pyrene-inducible carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes by dietary vitamin A.

    PubMed

    Ammigan, N; Nair, U J; Bhide, S V

    1990-10-01

    The modulatory role of dietary vitamin A on the carcinogen metabolizing enzymes was studied in masheri extract and benzo[a]pyrene-treated rats. Weanling male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed vitamin A deficient (SR-) and vitamin A sufficient (SR+) semisynthetic diets for 12 weeks. ME/B[a]P treatment significantly increased the phase I activating enzymes in both SR- and SR+ groups. However, a higher percentage increase in enzyme activities was observed in both liver and lung of the SR- animals compared to the SR+ groups. Glutathione content and activity of glutathione S-transferase were decreased in both liver and lung of SR- animals on treatment with either ME or B[a]P. In the SR+ group, an increase in GSH content and GST activity was observed following the ME/B[a]P treatment. The hepatic pool of vitamin A was depleted while that of vitamin C was increased after ME or B[a]P treatment in both SR- and SR+ groups.

  15. MODULATION OF CARCINOGEN-METABOLIZING ENZYME BY MADINAH MINT (Mentha spp) IN RAT LIVER.

    PubMed

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L; Barbour, Elie K; Ea, Huwait; Moselhy, Said S; Choudhry, Hani

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess whether boiling water mint extract (BWME) modulates the cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase system. Male albino rats were randomly divided into two groups, comprising 12 animals each. The first group served as control, whereas the second was maintained on BWME (10 % w/v) as its sole drinking liquid for six weeks. Liver microsomal were separated and subjected for phase I and II enzymes (cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase) analysis. The results obtained showed that, BWME caused a significant elevation in the activity of epoxide hydrolase (p<0.001) when compared with the control. However, glutathione S-transferase and glucuronosyl transferase activities were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01) respectively compared with control. The mutagenic activity of N-nitrosopiperidine was lower in the mint-treated hepatic microsomal compared with the controls. It can be concluded that BWME has the potential to suppress the activity of cytochrome enzymes involved in the bio-activation of chemical carcinogen; hence may display chemo preventive activity.

  16. MODULATION OF CARCINOGEN-METABOLIZING ENZYME BY MADINAH MINT (Mentha spp) IN RAT LIVER

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Barbour, Elie K.; EA, Huwait; Moselhy, Said S.; Choudhry, Hani

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to assess whether boiling water mint extract (BWME) modulates the cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase system. Materials and methods: Male albino rats were randomly divided into two groups, comprising 12 animals each. The first group served as control, whereas the second was maintained on BWME (10 % w/v) as its sole drinking liquid for six weeks. Liver microsomal were separated and subjected for phase I and II enzymes (cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase) analysis Results: The results obtained showed that, BWME caused a significant elevation in the activity of epoxide hydrolase (p<0.001) when compared with the control. However, glutathione S-transferase and glucuronosyl transferase activities were significantly decreased (p<0.001 and p<0.01) respectively compared with control. The mutagenic activity of N-nitrosopiperidine was lower in the mint-treated hepatic microsomal compared with the controls. Conclusion: It can be concluded that BWME has the potential to suppress the activity of cytochrome enzymes involved in the bio-activation of chemical carcinogen; hence may display chemo preventive activity. PMID:28480358

  17. Effects of resveratrol on drug- and carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes, implications for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Ariane R; Chow, H-H Sherry; Martinez, Jessica A

    2017-02-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol found in grape skins and peanuts that has demonstrated many health benefits including protection against aging, cardiovascular and metabolic disease, neurological decline, and cancer. The anticancer properties of resveratrol have been attributed to a variety of mechanisms, including its general inhibition of phase I metabolism and induction of phase II metabolism. The effects of resveratrol on these enzymes, however, are still unclear, as in vitro evidence often contrasts with animal studies and clinical trials. Reasons for these variances could include the low bioavailability of resveratrol and the effects of resveratrol metabolites. Due to resveratrol's interactions with drug-metabolizing enzymes and drug transporters, individuals concurrently taking pharmacological doses of resveratrol with other supplements or medications could potentially experience nutrient-drug interactions. This review summarizes the known effects of resveratrol and its main metabolites on drug metabolism in order to help characterize which populations might benefit from resveratrol for the prevention of cancer, as well as those that may need to avoid supplementation due to potential drug interactions.

  18. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Ahva; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case–Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0–1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1–2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0–1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk. PMID:25355624

  19. Tobacco smoking, polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes, and risk of localized and advanced prostate cancer: results from the California Collaborative Prostate Cancer Study.

    PubMed

    Shahabi, Ahva; Corral, Román; Catsburg, Chelsea; Joshi, Amit D; Kim, Andre; Lewinger, Juan Pablo; Koo, Jocelyn; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Stern, Mariana C

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between tobacco smoking and prostate cancer (PCa) remains inconclusive. This study examined the association between tobacco smoking and PCa risk taking into account polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism enzyme genes as possible effect modifiers (9 polymorphisms and 1 predicted phenotype from metabolism enzyme genes). The study included cases (n = 761 localized; n = 1199 advanced) and controls (n = 1139) from the multiethnic California Collaborative Case-Control Study of Prostate Cancer. Multivariable conditional logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between tobacco smoking variables and risk of localized and advanced PCa risk. Being a former smoker, regardless of time of quit smoking, was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (odds ratio [OR] = 1.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-1.6). Among non-Hispanic Whites, ever smoking was associated with an increased risk of localized PCa (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 1.1-2.1), whereas current smoking was associated with risk of advanced PCa (OR = 1.4; 95% CI = 1.0-1.9). However, no associations were observed between smoking intensity, duration or pack-year variables, and advanced PCa. No statistically significant trends were seen among Hispanics or African-Americans. The relationship between smoking status and PCa risk was modified by the CYP1A2 rs7662551 polymorphism (P-interaction = 0.008). In conclusion, tobacco smoking was associated with risk of PCa, primarily localized disease among non-Hispanic Whites. This association was modified by a genetic variant in CYP1A2, thus supporting a role for tobacco carcinogens in PCa risk. © 2014 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Enzymes and Enzyme Activity Encoded by Nonenveloped Viruses.

    PubMed

    Azad, Kimi; Banerjee, Manidipa; Johnson, John E

    2017-06-21

    Viruses are obligate intracellular parasites that rely on host cell machineries for their replication and survival. Although viruses tend to make optimal use of the host cell protein repertoire, they need to encode essential enzymatic or effector functions that may not be available or accessible in the host cellular milieu. The enzymes encoded by nonenveloped viruses-a group of viruses that lack any lipid coating or envelope-play vital roles in all the stages of the viral life cycle. This review summarizes the structural, biochemical, and mechanistic information available for several classes of enzymes and autocatalytic activity encoded by nonenveloped viruses. Advances in research and development of antiviral inhibitors targeting specific viral enzymes are also highlighted. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Virology Volume 4 is September 29, 2017. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  1. Genes Encoding Enzymes Involved in Ethanol Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Thomas D.; Edenberg, Howard J.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of beverage alcohol (ethanol) on the body are determined largely by the rate at which it and its main breakdown product, acetaldehyde, are metabolized after consumption. The main metabolic pathway for ethanol involves the enzymes alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Seven different ADHs and three different ALDHs that metabolize ethanol have been identified. The genes encoding these enzymes exist in different variants (i.e., alleles), many of which differ by a single DNA building block (i.e., single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]). Some of these SNPs result in enzymes with altered kinetic properties. For example, certain ADH1B and ADH1C variants that are commonly found in East Asian populations lead to more rapid ethanol breakdown and acetaldehyde accumulation in the body. Because acetaldehyde has harmful effects on the body, people carrying these alleles are less likely to drink and have a lower risk of alcohol dependence. Likewise, an ALDH2 variant with reduced activity results in acetaldehyde buildup and also has a protective effect against alcoholism. In addition to affecting drinking behaviors and risk for alcoholism, ADH and ALDH alleles impact the risk for esophageal cancer. PMID:23134050

  2. Active cigarette smoking, variants in carcinogen metabolism genes and breast cancer risk among pre- and postmenopausal women in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Cotterchio, Michelle; Mirea, Lucia; Ozcelik, Hilmi; Kreiger, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is strongly associated with various diseases including many cancers; however, evidence regarding breast cancer risk remains inconclusive with some studies reporting no association, and others an increased risk with long duration and early initiation of smoking. Genetic variation in carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes may modify these associations. Breast cancer cases were identified from the Ontario Cancer Registry (OCR) during 2003-2004 and population controls through random digit dialing methods. All subjects completed self-administered questionnaires. Subsequently, saliva samples were obtained from cases (N = 1,776) and controls (N = 1,839) for deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for active smoking variables, and interactions were assessed between smoking and 36 carcinogen-metabolizing candidate gene variants. No statistically significant association was found between active smoking and breast cancer risk among all women nor when stratified by menopausal status; however, nonsignificant increased premenopausal breast cancer risk was observed among current smokers and women smoking before first pregnancy. Several statistically significant interactions were observed between smoking and genetic variants (CYP1A2 1548C>T, CYP1A1 3801T>C, CYP1B1 4326G>C, NAT1 c.-85-1014T>A, UGT1A7 W208R 622T>C, SOD2 c.47T>C, GSTT1 deletion). However, in analyses stratified by these genotypes, smoking ORs had wide confidence intervals (and with few exceptions included 1.0) making interpretations difficult. Active smoking was not associated with breast cancer risk, although several significant interactions were observed between smoking, carcinogen-metabolizing genetic variants, and breast cancer risk. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Dietary flavonoids: effects on xenobiotic and carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Moon, Young Jin; Wang, Xiaodong; Morris, Marilyn E

    2006-03-01

    Flavonoids are present in fruits, vegetables and beverages derived from plants (tea, red wine), and in many dietary supplements or herbal remedies including Ginkgo Biloba, Soy Isoflavones, and Milk Thistle. Flavonoids have been described as health-promoting, disease-preventing dietary supplements, and have activity as cancer preventive agents. Additionally, they are extremely safe and associated with low toxicity, making them excellent candidates for chemopreventive agents. The cancer protective effects of flavonoids have been attributed to a wide variety of mechanisms, including modulating enzyme activities resulting in the decreased carcinogenicity of xenobiotics. This review focuses on the flavonoid effects on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the activation of procarcinogens and phase II enzymes, largely responsible for the detoxification of carcinogens. A number of naturally occurring flavonoids have been shown to modulate the CYP450 system, including the induction of specific CYP isozymes, and the activation or inhibition of these enzymes. Some flavonoids alter CYPs through binding to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), a ligand-activated transcription factor, acting as either AhR agonists or antagonists. Inhibition of CYP enzymes, including CYP 1A1, 1A2, 2E1 and 3A4 by competitive or mechanism-based mechanisms also occurs. Flavones (chrysin, baicalein, and galangin), flavanones (naringenin) and isoflavones (genistein, biochanin A) inhibit the activity of aromatase (CYP19), thus decreasing estrogen biosynthesis and producing antiestrogenic effects, important in breast and prostate cancers. Activation of phase II detoxifying enzymes, such as UDP-glucuronyl transferase, glutathione S-transferase, and quinone reductase by flavonoids results in the detoxification of carcinogens and represents one mechanism of their anticarcinogenic effects. A number of flavonoids including fisetin, galangin, quercetin, kaempferol, and genistein represent potent non

  4. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica

    DOEpatents

    Jarvis, E.E.; Roessler, P.G.

    1999-07-27

    The present invention relates to a cloned gene which encodes an enzyme, the purified enzyme, and the applications and products resulting from the use of the gene and enzyme. The gene, isolated from Cyclotella cryptica, encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has both UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities. 8 figs.

  5. Isolated gene encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities from Cyclotella cryptica

    DOEpatents

    Jarvis, Eric E.; Roessler, Paul G.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to a cloned gene which encodes an enzyme, the purified enzyme, and the applications and products resulting from the use of the gene and enzyme. The gene, isolated from Cyclotella cryptica, encodes a multifunctional enzyme that has both UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and phosphoglucomutase activities.

  6. Importance of UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 2A2 and 2A3 in tobacco carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bushey, Ryan T; Dluzen, Douglas F; Lazarus, Philip

    2013-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase A1 (UGT2A1) is expressed in the lung and exhibits activity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting UGT2A1 involvement in the local metabolism of PAH tobacco carcinogens. The goal of the present study was to investigate the importance of two additional UGT2A enzymes, UGT2A2 and UGT2A3, in tobacco carcinogen metabolism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that wild-type UGT2A2 had the highest expression in the breast, followed by trachea > larynx > kidney. A novel splice variant of UGT2A2 lacking exon 3 (termed UGT2A2Δexon3) was investigated, with UGT2A2Δexon3 expression determined to be 25-50% that of wild-type UGT2A2 in all tissues examined. UGT2A3 was determined to be well expressed in the liver and colon, followed by pancreas > kidney > lung > tonsil > trachea > larynx. Cell homogenates prepared from human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells overexpressing wild-type UGT2A2 (termed UGT2A2_i1) exhibited glucuronidation activity, as observed by reverse-phase ultra-pressure liquid chromatography, against 1-hydroxy-(OH)-pyrene, 1-naphthol, and hydroxylated benzo(a)pyrene metabolites, whereas homogenates prepared from HEK293 cells overexpressing UGT2A3 only showed activity against simple PAHs like 1-OH-pyrene and 1-naphthol. Activity assays showed the UGT2A2Δexon3 protein (termed UGT2A2_i2) exhibited no detectable glucuronidation activity against all substrates examined; however, coexpression studies suggested that UGT2A2_i2 negatively modulates UGT2A2_i1 activity. Both UGT2A2 and UGT2A3 exhibited no detectable activity against complex PAH proximate carcinogens, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, or heterocyclic amines. These data suggest that, although UGT2A1 is the only UGT2A enzyme active against PAH proximate carcinogens (including PAH diols), both UGTs 2A1 and 2A2 play an important role in the local detoxification of procarcinogenic monohydroxylated PAH metabolites.

  7. Importance of UDP-Glucuronosyltransferases 2A2 and 2A3 in Tobacco Carcinogen Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Bushey, Ryan T.; Dluzen, Douglas F.

    2013-01-01

    UDP-glucuronosyltransferase A1 (UGT2A1) is expressed in the lung and exhibits activity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), suggesting UGT2A1 involvement in the local metabolism of PAH tobacco carcinogens. The goal of the present study was to investigate the importance of two additional UGT2A enzymes, UGT2A2 and UGT2A3, in tobacco carcinogen metabolism. Real-time polymerase chain reaction suggested that wild-type UGT2A2 had the highest expression in the breast, followed by trachea > larynx > kidney. A novel splice variant of UGT2A2 lacking exon 3 (termed UGT2A2Δexon3) was investigated, with UGT2A2Δexon3 expression determined to be 25–50% that of wild-type UGT2A2 in all tissues examined. UGT2A3 was determined to be well expressed in the liver and colon, followed by pancreas > kidney > lung > tonsil > trachea > larynx. Cell homogenates prepared from human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cells overexpressing wild-type UGT2A2 (termed UGT2A2_i1) exhibited glucuronidation activity, as observed by reverse-phase ultra-pressure liquid chromatography, against 1-hydroxy-(OH)-pyrene, 1-naphthol, and hydroxylated benzo(a)pyrene metabolites, whereas homogenates prepared from HEK293 cells overexpressing UGT2A3 only showed activity against simple PAHs like 1-OH-pyrene and 1-naphthol. Activity assays showed the UGT2A2Δexon3 protein (termed UGT2A2_i2) exhibited no detectable glucuronidation activity against all substrates examined; however, coexpression studies suggested that UGT2A2_i2 negatively modulates UGT2A2_i1 activity. Both UGT2A2 and UGT2A3 exhibited no detectable activity against complex PAH proximate carcinogens, tobacco-specific nitrosamines, or heterocyclic amines. These data suggest that, although UGT2A1 is the only UGT2A enzyme active against PAH proximate carcinogens (including PAH diols), both UGTs 2A1 and 2A2 play an important role in the local detoxification of procarcinogenic monohydroxylated PAH metabolites. PMID:23086198

  8. Interaction of cigarette smoking and carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal polyps.

    PubMed

    Fu, Zhenming; Shrubsole, Martha J; Li, Guoliang; Smalley, Walter E; Hein, David W; Cai, Qiuyin; Ness, Reid M; Zheng, Wei

    2013-04-01

    The causal role of cigarette smoking in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not established. In a case-control study including 2060 colorectal polyp patients and 3336 polyp-free controls, we evaluated 21 functional genetic variants to construct a tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk score. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained through telephone interviews. Cigarette smoking was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The association with smoking was stronger in participants with a high carcinogen-metabolizing risk score than those with a low risk score. Smoking 30 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a 1.7-fold elevated risk of any polyps (95% confidence interval = 1.3-2.2) among those with a low genetic risk score and 2.9-fold elevated risk (95% confidence interval = 1.8-4.8) among those with a high genetic risk score (P interaction = 0.025). A similar pattern of interaction was observed in analyses conducted separately for those with adenomas only (P interaction = 0.039) and hyperplastic polyps only (P interaction = 0.024). Interaction between carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk and cigarette smoking was found in relation to high-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.010) but not low-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.791). No apparent interaction was found for duration of smoking. This study shows that the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal polyp risk is modified by tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms, providing support for a causal role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of colorectal tumors.

  9. Interaction of cigarette smoking and carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms in the risk of colorectal polyps

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Wei

    2013-01-01

    The causal role of cigarette smoking in the risk of colorectal neoplasm has been suggested but not established. In a case–control study including 2060 colorectal polyp patients and 3336 polyp-free controls, we evaluated 21 functional genetic variants to construct a tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk score. Data regarding cigarette smoking were obtained through telephone interviews. Cigarette smoking was associated with an elevated risk of both adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. The association with smoking was stronger in participants with a high carcinogen-metabolizing risk score than those with a low risk score. Smoking 30 or more cigarettes per day was associated with a 1.7-fold elevated risk of any polyps (95% confidence interval = 1.3–2.2) among those with a low genetic risk score and 2.9-fold elevated risk (95% confidence interval = 1.8–4.8) among those with a high genetic risk score (P interaction = 0.025). A similar pattern of interaction was observed in analyses conducted separately for those with adenomas only (P interaction = 0.039) and hyperplastic polyps only (P interaction = 0.024). Interaction between carcinogen-metabolizing genetic risk and cigarette smoking was found in relation to high-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.010) but not low-risk adenomas (P interaction = 0.791). No apparent interaction was found for duration of smoking. This study shows that the association between cigarette smoking and colorectal polyp risk is modified by tobacco-carcinogen-metabolizing polymorphisms, providing support for a causal role of cigarette smoking in the etiology of colorectal tumors. PMID:23299405

  10. Modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing cytochromes P450 by phytochemicals in humans.

    PubMed

    Baer-Dubowska, Wanda; Szaefer, Hanna

    2013-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) families 1 - 3, besides oxidizing environmental and dietary chemicals, leading to their elimination, catalyze the bioactivation of exogenous as well as endogenous carcinogens. Phytochemicals, particularly those which are active food components, were shown to be able to affect specific CYP expression and/or activity in animal models and in human in vitro systems. Human intervention studies involving healthy volunteers were also performed. This review describes human CYP modulation by naturally occurring phytochemicals which can not only affect carcinogen metabolism in humans, but also change the drug response. The authors present an overview of carcinogens metabolizing human CYP modulation in different model systems as well as studies on human dietary intervention. Furthermore, the authors provide examples of the phytochemicals that affect CYP expression and activity. CYP, which are involved in carcinogen activation, can metabolize a range of substrates and inducing CYP by one substrate may also increase the metabolism of another. The ultimate proof of the efficacy of CYP modulation strategy for chemoprevention may be provided by clinical trials involving risk populations, which are difficult to perform. The new human-like models are highly desired for the study of modulation of carcinogen-metabolizing CYP.

  11. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Edith E; Mayr, Johannes A; Zimmermann, Franz A; Feichtinger, René G; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-20

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 ρ(0) cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in ρ(0) cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  12. Human Genetic Disorders Caused by Mutations in Genes Encoding Biosynthetic Enzymes for Sulfated Glycosaminoglycans*

    PubMed Central

    Mizumoto, Shuji; Ikegawa, Shiro; Sugahara, Kazuyuki

    2013-01-01

    A number of genetic disorders are caused by mutations in the genes encoding glycosyltransferases and sulfotransferases, enzymes responsible for the synthesis of sulfated glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains of proteoglycans, including chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate. The phenotypes of these genetic disorders reflect disturbances in crucial biological functions of GAGs in human. Recent studies have revealed that mutations in genes encoding chondroitin sulfate and dermatan sulfate biosynthetic enzymes cause various disorders of connective tissues. This minireview focuses on growing glycobiological studies of recently described genetic diseases caused by disturbances in biosynthetic enzymes for sulfated GAGs. PMID:23457301

  13. Reduction of nuclear encoded enzymes of mitochondrial energy metabolism in cells devoid of mitochondrial DNA

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Edith E.; Mayr, Johannes A.; Zimmermann, Franz A.; Feichtinger, Rene G.; Stanger, Olaf; Sperl, Wolfgang; Kofler, Barbara

    2012-01-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined OXPHOS and citrate synthase enzyme activities in HEK293 cells devoid of mtDNA. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Enzymes partially encoded by mtDNA show reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Also the entirely nuclear encoded complex II and citrate synthase exhibit reduced activities. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Loss of mtDNA induces a feedback mechanism that downregulates complex II and citrate synthase. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion syndromes are generally associated with reduced activities of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes that contain subunits encoded by mtDNA. Conversely, entirely nuclear encoded mitochondrial enzymes in these syndromes, such as the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme citrate synthase (CS) and OXPHOS complex II, usually exhibit normal or compensatory enhanced activities. Here we report that a human cell line devoid of mtDNA (HEK293 {rho}{sup 0} cells) has diminished activities of both complex II and CS. This finding indicates the existence of a feedback mechanism in {rho}{sup 0} cells that downregulates the expression of entirely nuclear encoded components of mitochondrial energy metabolism.

  14. Regulation of Aspergillus genes encoding plant cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes; relevance for industrial production.

    PubMed

    de Vries, R P

    2003-03-01

    The genus Aspergillus is widely used for the production of plant cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes. The range of enzymes purified from these fungi covers nearly every function required for the complete degradation of cellulose, xyloglucan, xylan, galacto(gluco)mannan and pectin. This paper describes the Aspergillus enzymes involved in the degradation of these polysaccharides and discusses the regulatory systems involved in the expression of the genes encoding these proteins. The latter is of major importance in the large-scale production of these enzymes for industrial applications.

  15. Designing universal primers for the isolation of DNA sequences encoding Proanthocyanidins biosynthetic enzymes in Crataegus aronia.

    PubMed

    Zuiter, Afnan Saeid; Sawwan, Jammal; Al Abdallat, Ayed

    2012-08-10

    Hawthorn is the common name of all plant species in the genus Crataegus, which belongs to the Rosaceae family. Crataegus are considered useful medicinal plants because of their high content of proanthocyanidins (PAs) and other related compounds. To improve PAs production in Crataegus tissues, the sequences of genes encoding PAs biosynthetic enzymes are required. Different bioinformatics tools, including BLAST, multiple sequence alignment and alignment PCR analysis were used to design primers suitable for the amplification of DNA fragments from 10 candidate genes encoding enzymes involved in PAs biosynthesis in C. aronia. DNA sequencing results proved the utility of the designed primers. The primers were used successfully to amplify DNA fragments of different PAs biosynthesis genes in different Rosaceae plants. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first use of the alignment PCR approach to isolate DNA sequences encoding PAs biosynthetic enzymes in Rosaceae plants.

  16. Interaction of CYP1B1, cigarette-smoke carcinogen metabolism, and lung cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Church, Timothy R; Haznadar, Majda; Geisser, Mindy S; Anderson, Kristin E; Caporaso, Neil E; Le, Chap; Abdullah, Salwan B; Hecht, Stephen S; Oken, Martin M; Van Ness, Brian

    2010-01-01

    A previously published case-control study nested in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial found a significant relationship of serum levels of total NNAL (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and its glucuronides) to prospective lung cancer risk. The present paper examines this relationship in the context of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes important in the metabolism of tobacco smoke carcinogens. DNA was extracted from the subjects' lymphocytes and analyzed for SNPs in 11 locations on four genes related to tobacco carcinogen metabolism. Logistic regressions on case-control status were used to estimate main effects of SNPs and biomarkers and their interactions adjusting for potential confounders. Of the 11 SNPs, only one, in CYP1B1, significantly interacted with total NNAL affecting risk for lung cancer. At low NNAL levels, the variant appeared protective. However, for those with the minor variant, the risk for lung cancer increased with increasing NNAL five times as rapidly compared to those without it, so that at high NNAL levels, this SNP's protection disappears. Analyzing only adenocarcinomas, the effect of the variant was even stronger, with the risk of cancer increasing six times as fast. A common polymorphism of CYP1B1 may play a role in the risk of NNK, a powerful lung carcinogen, in the development of lung cancer in smokers. PMID:21532841

  17. [Identification of genes encoding ligninolytic enzymes in naturally occurring basidiomycete isolates].

    PubMed

    Shevchenko, E A; Bessolitsyna, E A; Darmov, I V

    2013-01-01

    The presence of genes encoding lignin peroxidase, laccase, and manganese peroxidase was assessed in more than 20 types of polypore fungi collected in the woods of Kirov oblast; the fungi studied had not been previously characterized with regard to ligninolytic enzyme production. Fifteen isolates of eleven basidiomycete species were shown to contain genes coding for all three ligninolytic enzymes. Genes coding for these enzymes were detected in D. mollis, D. quercina, F. pinicola, G. trabeum, G. lucidum, H. fasciculare, L. betulina, P. betulinus, P. igniarus, P. pomaceus, P. pini, and P. cinnabarinus for the first time.

  18. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kevin A; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H

    2015-11-04

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  19. Celluloytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kevin A.; Zhao, Lishan; Cayouette, Michelle H.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  20. CARCINOGEN METABOLISM GENES, RED MEAT AND POULTRY INTAKE, AND COLORECTAL CANCER RISK

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun; Joshi, Amit D.; Corral, Román; Siegmund, Kimberly D.; Le Marchand, Loïc; Martinez, Maria Elena; Haile, Robert W.; Ahnen, Dennis J.; Sandler, Robert S.; Lance, Peter; Stern, Mariana C.

    2011-01-01

    Diets high in red meat are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Carcinogenic compounds generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents. We conducted a family-based case-control study to investigate the association between polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism genes (CYP1A2 -154A>C, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP2E1 -1054C>T, GSTP1 Ile105Val, PTGS2 5UTR -765, EPHX1 Tyr113His, NAT2 Ile114Thr, NAT2 Arg197Gln and NAT2 Gly286Glu) and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (N = 577) and compared statistically significant results to those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (N = 307 sibships). Our results suggested that CYP1A2 -154A>C might modify the association between intake of red meat cooked using high temperature methods and well done on the inside and CRC risk (case-only interaction OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97; p = 0.0008) and the association between intake of red meat heavily browned on the outside and rectal cancer risk (case-only interaction OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003). We also found that GSTP1 Ile105Val might modify the association between intake of poultry cooked with high temperature methods and CRC risk (p = 0.0035), a finding that was stronger among rectal cancer cases. Our results support a role for heterocyclic amines that form in red meat as a potential explanation for the observed association between diets high in red meat and CRC. Our findings also suggest a possible role for diets high in poultry cooked at high temperatures in CRC risk. PMID:21618522

  1. Carcinogen metabolism genes, red meat and poultry intake, and colorectal cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Joshi, Amit D; Corral, Román; Siegmund, Kimberly D; Marchand, Loïc Le; Martinez, Maria Elena; Haile, Robert W; Ahnen, Dennis J; Sandler, Robert S; Lance, Peter; Stern, Mariana C

    2012-04-15

    Diets high in red meat are established risk factors for colorectal cancer (CRC). Carcinogenic compounds generated during meat cooking have been implicated as causal agents. We conducted a family-based case-control study to investigate the association between polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism genes (CYP1A2 -154A>C, CYP1B1 Leu432Val, CYP2E1 -1054C>T, GSTP1 Ile105Val, PTGS2 5UTR -765, EPHX1 Tyr113His, NAT2 Ile114Thr, NAT2 Arg197Gln and NAT2 Gly286Glu) and CRC risk. We tested for gene-environment interactions using case-only analyses (N = 577) and compared statistically significant results to those obtained using case-unaffected sibling comparisons (N = 307 sibships). Our results suggested that CYP1A2 -154A>C might modify the association between intake of red meat cooked using high temperature methods and well done on the inside and CRC risk (case-only interaction OR = 1.53; 95% CI = 1.19-1.97; p = 0.0008) and the association between intake of red meat heavily browned on the outside and rectal cancer risk (case-only interaction OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.48-0.86; p = 0.003). We also found that GSTP1 Ile105Val might modify the association between intake of poultry cooked with high temperature methods and CRC risk (p = 0.0035), a finding that was stronger among rectal cancer cases. Our results support a role for heterocyclic amines that form in red meat as a potential explanation for the observed association between diets high in red meat and CRC. Our findings also suggest a possible role for diets high in poultry cooked at high temperatures in CRC risk. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  2. Diversity of Beetle Genes Encoding Novel Plant Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Pauchet, Yannick; Wilkinson, Paul; Chauhan, Ritika; ffrench-Constant, Richard H.

    2010-01-01

    Plant cell walls are a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharides and proteins that require a range of different enzymes to degrade them. Plant cell walls are also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the planet. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) are therefore important in a wide range of biotechnological processes from the production of biofuels and food to waste processing. However, despite the fact that the last common ancestor of all deuterostomes was inferred to be able to digest, or even synthesize, cellulose using endogenous genes, all model insects whose complete genomes have been sequenced lack genes encoding such enzymes. To establish if the apparent “disappearance” of PCWDEs from insects is simply a sampling problem, we used 454 mediated pyrosequencing to scan the gut transcriptomes of beetles that feed on a variety of plant derived diets. By sequencing the transcriptome of five beetles, and surveying publicly available ESTs, we describe 167 new beetle PCWDEs belonging to eight different enzyme families. This survey proves that these enzymes are not only present in non-model insects but that the multigene families that encode them are apparently undergoing complex birth-death dynamics. This reinforces the observation that insects themselves, and not just their microbial symbionts, are a rich source of PCWDEs. Further it emphasises that the apparent absence of genes encoding PCWDEs from model organisms is indeed simply a sampling artefact. Given the huge diversity of beetles alive today, and the diversity of their lifestyles and diets, we predict that beetle guts will emerge as an important new source of enzymes for use in biotechnology. PMID:21179425

  3. Analysis of the alcABC operon encoding alcaligin biosynthesis enzymes in Bordetella bronchiseptica.

    PubMed

    Giardina, P C; Foster, L A; Toth, S I; Roe, B A; Dyer, D W

    1997-07-18

    We previously cloned a B. bronchiseptica (Bb) genomic DNA fragment that complements a Bb alcaligin biosynthesis mutant, and reported the identification of a gene, alcA, with predicted protein sequence similarity to siderophore biosynthesis enzymes from other organisms. In the present study we show that further nt sequencing of this region revealed two open reading frames (ORFs) 3' to alcA that encode putative proteins AlcB and AlcC, with significant sequence similarity to the aerobactin biosynthesis enzymes IucB and IucC, respectively. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the three ORFs are encoded on a single transcript, and that this operon is repressed at the transcriptional level by Fe. Primer extension analysis placed the transcriptional start point (tsp) 35 nt from the 5' end of the Fur consensus sequence and 188 nt from the putative start of translation of AlcA.

  4. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of Streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1990-10-02

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252. 9 figs.

  5. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252.

  6. Halloween genes encode P450 enzymes that mediate steroid hormone biosynthesis in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2004-02-27

    Mutation of members of the Halloween gene family results in embryonic lethality. We have shown that two of these genes code for enzymes responsible for specific steps in the synthesis of ecdysone, a polyhydroxylated sterol that is the precursor of the major molting hormone of all arthropods, 20-hydroxyecdysone. These two mitochondrial P450 enzymes, coded for by disembodied (dib) (CYP302A1) and shadow (sad) (CYP315A1), are the C22 and C2 hydroxylases, respectively, as shown by transfection of the gene into S2 cells and subsequent biochemical analysis. These are the last two enzymes in the ecdysone biosynthetic pathway. A third enzyme, necessary for the critical conversion of ecdysone to 20-hydroxyecdysone, the 20-monooxygenase, is encoded by shade (shd) (CYP314A1). All three enzymes are mitochondrial although shade has motifs suggesting both mitochondrial and microsomal locations. By tagging these enzymes, their subcellular location has been confirmed by confocal microscopy. Shade is present in several tissues as expected while disembodied and shadow are restricted to the ring gland. The paradigm used should allow us to define the enzymes mediating the entire ecdysteroid biosynthetic pathway.

  7. Plant inositol monophosphatase is a lithium-sensitive enzyme encoded by a multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Gillaspy, G E; Keddie, J S; Oda, K; Gruissem, W

    1995-01-01

    myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is a soluble, Li(+)-sensitive protein that catalyzes the removal of a phosphate from myo-inositol phosphate substrates. IMP is required for de novo inositol synthesis from glucose 6-phosphate and for breakdown of inositol trisphosphate, a second messenger generated by the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway. We cloned the IMP gene from tomato (LeIMP) and show that the plant enzyme is encoded by a small gene family. Three different LeIMP cDNAs encode distinct but highly conserved IMP enzymes that are catalytically active in vitro. Similar to the single IMP from animals, the activities of all three LeIMPs are inhibited by low concentrations of LiCl. LeIMP mRNA levels are developmentally regulated in seedlings and fruit and in response to light. Immunoblot analysis detected three proteins of distinct molecular masses (30, 29, and 28 kD) in tomato; these correspond to the predicted molecular masses of the LeIMPs encoded by the genes. Immunoreactive proteins in the same size range are also present in several other plants. Immunolocalization studies indicated that many cell types within seedlings accumulate LeIMP proteins. In particular, cells associated with the vasculature express high levels of LeIMP protein; this may indicate a coordinate regulation between phloem transport and synthesis of inositol. The presence of three distinct enzymes in tomato most likely reflects the complexity of inositol utilization in higher plants. PMID:8718627

  8. Cellulolytic enzymes, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Gray, Kevin A [San Diego, CA; Zhao, Lishan [Emeryville, CA; Cayouette, Michelle H [San Diego, CA

    2012-01-24

    The invention provides polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, a endoglucanase, a cellobiohydrolase, a beta-glucosidase, a xylanase, a mannanse, a .beta.-xylosidase, an arabinofuranosidase, and/or an oligomerase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides having any cellulolytic activity, e.g., a cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, xylanase, mannanse, .beta.-xylosidase, arabinofuranosidase, and/or oligomerase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having an oligomerase activity, e.g., enzymes that convert recalcitrant soluble oligomers to fermentable sugars in the saccharification of biomass. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts. The invention also provides compositions or products of manufacture comprising mixtures of enzymes comprising at least one enzyme of this invention.

  9. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Dominic C.; Jervis, Adrian J.; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E.; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB . The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesised by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. PMID:26610891

  10. Sequence Analysis of the Gene Encoding Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Potocki De Montalk, G.; Remaud-Simeon, M.; Willemot, R. M.; Planchot, V.; Monsan, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neisseria polysaccharea gene encoding amylosucrase was subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequencing revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence differs significantly from that previously published. Comparison of the sequence with that of enzymes of the α-amylase family predicted a (β/α)8-barrel domain. Six of the eight highly conserved regions in amylolytic enzymes are present in amylosucrase. Among them, four constitute the active site in α-amylases. These sites were also conserved in the sequence of glucosyltransferases and dextransucrases. Nevertheless, the evolutionary tree does not show strong homology between them. The amylosucrase was purified by affinity chromatography between fusion protein glutathione S-transferase–amylosucrase and glutathione-Sepharose 4B. The pure enzyme linearly elongated some branched chains of glycogen, to an average degree of polymerization of 75. PMID:9882648

  11. Fungi unearthed: transcripts encoding lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes in forest soil.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Harald; Zak, Donald R; Vandenbol, Micheline

    2010-06-04

    Fungi are the main organisms responsible for the degradation of biopolymers such as lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose, and chitin in forest ecosystems. Soil surveys largely target fungal diversity, paying less attention to fungal activity. Here we have focused on the organic horizon of a hardwood forest dominated by sugar maple that spreads widely across Eastern North America. The sampling site included three plots receiving normal atmospheric nitrogen deposition and three that received an extra 3 g nitrogen m(2) y(1) in form of sodium nitrate pellets since 1994, which led to increased accumulation of organic matter in the soil. Our aim was to assess, in samples taken from all six plots, transcript-level expression of fungal genes encoding lignocellulolytic and chitinolytic enzymes. For this we collected RNA from the forest soil, reverse-transcribed it, and amplified cDNAs of interest, using both published primer pairs as well as 23 newly developed ones. We thus detected transcript-level expression of 234 genes putatively encoding 26 different groups of fungal enzymes, notably major ligninolytic and diverse aromatic-oxidizing enzymes, various cellulose- and hemicellulose-degrading glycoside hydrolases and carbohydrate esterases, enzymes involved in chitin breakdown, N-acetylglucosamine metabolism, and cell wall degradation. Among the genes identified, 125 are homologous to known ascomycete genes and 105 to basidiomycete genes. Transcripts corresponding to all 26 enzyme groups were detected in both control and nitrogen-supplemented plots. Many of these enzyme groups are known to be important in soil turnover processes, but the contribution of some is probably underestimated. Our data highlight the importance of ascomycetes, as well as basidiomycetes, in important biogeochemical cycles. In the nitrogen-supplemented plots, we have detected no transcript-level gap likely to explain the observed increased carbon storage, which is more likely due to community changes and

  12. Isolation and characterization of genes encoding two chitinase enzymes from Serratia marcescens

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Grady, Karen L.; Suslow, Trevor V.; Bedbrook, John R.

    1986-01-01

    Analysis of clones isolated from a cosmid DNA library indicates that the Serratia marcescens chromosome contains at least two genes, chiA and chiB, which encode distinct secreted forms of the enzyme chitinase. These genes have been characterized by inspection of chitinase activity and secreted proteins in Escherichia coli strains containing subclones of these cosmids. The two chitinase genes show no detectable homology to each other. DNA sequence analysis of one of the genes predicts an amino acid sequence with an N-terminal signal peptide typical of genes encoding secreted bacterial proteins. This gene was mutagenized by cloning a neomycin phosphotransferase gene within its coding region, and the insertion mutation was recombined into the parental S. marcescens strain. The resulting chiA mutant transconjugant showed reduced chitinase production, reduced inhibition of fungal spore germination and reduced biological control of a fungal plant pathogen. ImagesFig. 2. PMID:16453672

  13. Identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis gene encoding the tetrapyrrole biosynthesis enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase.

    PubMed

    Tan, Fui-Ching; Cheng, Qi; Saha, Kaushik; Heinemann, Ilka U; Jahn, Martina; Jahn, Dieter; Smith, Alison G

    2008-03-01

    UROS (uroporphyrinogen III synthase; EC 4.2.1.75) is the enzyme responsible for the formation of uroporphyrinogen III, the precursor of all cellular tetrapyrroles including haem, chlorophyll and bilins. Although UROS genes have been cloned from many organisms, the level of sequence conservation between them is low, making sequence similarity searches difficult. As an alternative approach to identify the UROS gene from plants, we used functional complementation, since this does not require conservation of primary sequence. A mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was constructed in which the HEM4 gene encoding UROS was deleted. This mutant was transformed with an Arabidopsis thaliana cDNA library in a yeast expression vector and two colonies were obtained that could grow in the absence of haem. The rescuing plasmids encoded an ORF (open reading frame) of 321 amino acids which, when subcloned into an Escherichia coli expression vector, was able to complement an E. coli hemD mutant defective in UROS. Final proof that the ORF encoded UROS came from the fact that the recombinant protein expressed with an N-terminal histidine-tag was found to have UROS activity. Comparison of the sequence of AtUROS (A. thaliana UROS) with the human enzyme found that the seven invariant residues previously identified were conserved, including three shown to be important for enzyme activity. Furthermore, a structure-based homology search of the protein database with AtUROS identified the human crystal structure. AtUROS has an N-terminal extension compared with orthologues from other organisms, suggesting that this might act as a targeting sequence. The precursor protein of 34 kDa translated in vitro was imported into isolated chloroplasts and processed to the mature size of 29 kDa. Confocal microscopy of plant cells transiently expressing a fusion protein of AtUROS with GFP (green fluorescent protein) confirmed that AtUROS was targeted exclusively to chloroplasts in vivo.

  14. Nucleotide sequencing and characterization of the genes encoding benzene oxidation enzymes of Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed Central

    Irie, S; Doi, S; Yorifuji, T; Takagi, M; Yano, K

    1987-01-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the genes from Pseudomonas putida encoding oxidation of benzene to catechol was determined. Five open reading frames were found in the sequence. Four corresponding protein molecules were detected by a DNA-directed in vitro translation system. Escherichia coli cells containing the fragment with the four open reading frames transformed benzene to cis-benzene glycol, which is an intermediate of the oxidation of benzene to catechol. The relation between the product of each cistron and the components of the benzene oxidation enzyme system is discussed. Images PMID:3667527

  15. Expression of virus-encoded proteinases: functional and structural similarities with cellular enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, W G; Semler, B L

    1993-01-01

    Many viruses express their genome, or part of their genome, initially as a polyprotein precursor that undergoes proteolytic processing. Molecular genetic analyses of viral gene expression have revealed that many of these processing events are mediated by virus-encoded proteinases. Biochemical activity studies and structural analyses of these viral enzymes reveal that they have remarkable similarities to cellular proteinases. However, the viral proteinases have evolved unique features that permit them to function in a cellular environment. In this article, the current status of plant and animal virus proteinases is described along with their role in the viral replication cycle. The reactions catalyzed by viral proteinases are not simple enzyme-substrate interactions; rather, the processing steps are highly regulated, are coordinated with other viral processes, and frequently involve the participation of other factors. Images PMID:8302216

  16. Functional analysis of N-linking oligosaccharyl transferase enzymes encoded by deep-sea vent proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Mills, Dominic C; Jervis, Adrian J; Abouelhadid, Sherif; Yates, Laura E; Cuccui, Jon; Linton, Dennis; Wren, Brendan W

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial N-linking oligosaccharyl transferases (OTase enzymes) transfer lipid-linked glycans to selected proteins in the periplasm and were first described in the intestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni, a member of the ε-proteobacteria-subdivision of bacteria. More recently, orthologues from other ε-proteobacterial Campylobacter and Helicobacter species and a δ-proteobacterium, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, have been described, suggesting that these two subdivisions of bacteria may be a source of further N-linked protein glycosylation systems. Whole-genome sequencing of both ε- and δ-proteobacteria from deep-sea vent habitats, a rich source of species from these subdivisions, revealed putative ORFs encoding OTase enzymes and associated adjacent glycosyltransferases similar to the C. jejuni N-linked glycosylation locus. We expressed putative OTase ORFs from the deep-sea vent species Nitratiruptor tergarcus, Sulfurovum lithotrophicum and Deferribacter desulfuricans in Escherichia coli and showed that they were able to functionally complement the C. jejuni OTase, CjPglB. The enzymes were shown to possess relaxed glycan specificity, transferring diverse glycan structures and demonstrated different glycosylation sequon specificities. Additionally, a permissive D. desulfuricans acceptor protein was identified, and we provide evidence that the N-linked glycan synthesized by N. tergarcus and S. lithotrophicum contains an acetylated sugar at the reducing end. This work demonstrates that deep-sea vent bacteria encode functional N-glycosylation machineries and are a potential source of biotechnologically important OTase enzymes. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. [Differential expression of genes that encode glycolysis enzymes in kidney and lung cancer in humans].

    PubMed

    Oparina, N Yu; Snezhkina, A V; Sadritdinova, A F; Veselovskii, V A; Dmitriev, A A; Senchenko, V N; Mel'nikova, N V; Speranskaya, A S; Darii, M V; Stepanov, O A; Barkhatov, I M; Kudryavtseva, A V

    2013-07-01

    Glycolysis is a main catabolic pathway of glucose metabolism, accompanied by ATP synthesis. More than 30 enzymes are involved in glycolysis, and genes that encode them can be considered housekeeping genes due to the high conservatism and evolutionary antiquity of the process. We studied the expression of these genes in kidney papillary cancer and planocellular lung cancer via the bioinformatic analysis of transcriptome database and method of quantitative real time PCR. Quantitative analysis of mRNA level demonstrated that only a part ofgenes that encode glycolysis enzymes maintain relatively stable mRNA level, including the HK1, ADPGK, GPI, PGK1, and PKM2 genes in kidney papillary cancer and the ADPGK, ALDOA, GAPDH, PGK1, BPGM, ENO1, and PKM2 genes in planocellular lung cancer. The frequent increase in the mRNA expression of PFKP, ALDOA, and GAPDH genes in kidney cancer, as well as the GPI gene in lung cancer, were detected for the first time by real time PCR. For other genes, their differential expression was demonstrated; the cases of both a decrease and increase in the mRNA level were detected. Thus, several genes that can be used as control genes in transcriptome analysis by real time PCR in kidney and lung cancer, as well as a number of differentially expressed genes that can be potential oncomarkers, were identified.

  18. Characterization of Genes Encoding Key Enzymes Involved in Anthocyanin Metabolism of Kiwifruit during Storage Period

    PubMed Central

    Li, Boqiang; Xia, Yongxiu; Wang, Yuying; Qin, Guozheng; Tian, Shiping

    2017-01-01

    ‘Hongyang’ is a red fleshed kiwifruit with high anthocyanin content. In this study, we mainly investigated effects of different temperatures (25 and 0°C) on anthocyanin biosynthesis in harvested kiwifruit, and characterized the genes encoding key enzymes involved in anthocyanin metabolism, as well as evaluated the mode of the action, by which low temperature regulates anthocyanin accumulation in ‘Hongyang’ kiwifruit during storage period. The results showed that low temperature could effectively enhance the anthocyanin accumulation of kiwifruit in the end of storage period (90 days), which related to the increase in mRNA levels of ANS1, ANS2, DRF1, DRF2, and UGFT2. Moreover, the transcript abundance of MYBA1-1 and MYB5-1, the genes encoding an important component of MYB–bHLH–WD40 (MBW) complex, was up-regulated, possibly contributing to the induction of specific anthocyanin biosynthesis genes under the low temperature. To further investigate the roles of AcMYB5-1/5-2/A1-1 in regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis, genes encoding the three transcription factors were transiently transformed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Overexpression of AcMYB5-1/5-2/A1-1 activated the gene expression of NtANS and NtDFR in tobacco. Our results suggested that low temperature storage could stimulate the anthocyanin accumulation in harvested kiwifruit via regulating several structural and regulatory genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis. PMID:28344589

  19. Characterization and developmental expression of genes encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in Citrus paradisi Macf.

    PubMed

    Costa, Marcio G C; Moreira, Cristina D; Melton, John R; Otoni, Wagner C; Moore, Gloria A

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, the full-length cDNA sequences of PSY, PDS, and ZDS, encoding the early carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in the carotenoid pathway of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), were isolated and characterized for the first time. CpPSY contained a 1311-bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 436 amino acids, CpPDS contained a 1659-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 552 amino acids, and CpZDS contained a 1713-bp ORF encoding a polypeptide of 570 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CpPSY shares homology with PSYs from Citrus, tomato, pepper, Arabidopsis, and the monocot PSY1 group, while CpPDS and CpZDS are most closely related to orthologs from Citrus and tomato. Expression analysis revealed fluctuations in CpPSY, CpPDS, and CpZDS transcript abundance and a non-coordinated regulation between the former and the two latter genes during fruit development in albedo and juice vesicles of white ('Duncan') and red ('Flame') grapefruits. A 3× higher upregulation of CpPSY expression in juice vesicles of red-fleshed 'Flame' as compared to white-fruited 'Duncan' was observed in the middle stages of fruit development, which correlates with the well documented accumulation pattern of lycopene in red grapefruit. Together with previous data, our results suggest that the primary mechanism controlling lycopene accumulation in red grapefruit involves the transcriptional upregulation of CpPSY, which controls the flux into the carotenoid pathway, and the downregulated expression of CpLCYB2, which controls the step of cyclization of lycopene in chromoplasts during fruit ripening. A correlation between CpPSY expression and fruit color evolution in red grapefruit is demonstrated.

  20. Tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase: one gene encodes both an enzyme and a lens structural protein

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    tau-Crystallin has been a major component of the cellular lenses of species throughout vertebrate evolution, from lamprey to birds. Immunofluorescence analysis of the embryonic turtle lens, using antiserum to lamprey tau-crystallin showed that the protein is expressed throughout embryogenesis and is present at high concentrations in all parts of the lens. Partial peptide sequence for the isolated turtle protein and deduced sequences for several lamprey peptides all revealed a close similarity to the glycolytic enzyme enolase (E.C. 4.2.1.11). A full-sized cDNA for putative duck tau- crystallin was obtained and sequenced, confirming the close relationship with alpha-enolase. Southern blot analysis showed that the duck genome contains a single alpha-enolase gene, while Northern blot analysis showed that the message for tau-crystallin/alpha-enolase is present in embryonic duck lens at 25 times the abundance found in liver. tau-Crystallin possesses enolase activity, but the activity is greatly reduced, probably because of age-related posttranslational modification. It thus appears that a highly conserved, important glycolytic enzyme has been used as a structural component of lens since the start of vertebrate evolution. Apparently the enzyme has not been recruited for its catalytic activity but for some distinct structural property. tau-Crystallin/alpha-enolase is an example of a multifunctional protein playing two very different roles in evolution but encoded by a single gene. PMID:2462567

  1. The transferome of metabolic genes explored: analysis of the horizontal transfer of enzyme encoding genes in unicellular eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, John W; McConkey, Glenn A; Westhead, David R

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic networks are responsible for many essential cellular processes, and exhibit a high level of evolutionary conservation from bacteria to eukaryotes. If genes encoding metabolic enzymes are horizontally transferred and are advantageous, they are likely to become fixed. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has played a key role in prokaryotic evolution and its importance in eukaryotes is increasingly evident. High levels of endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT) accompanied the establishment of plastids and mitochondria, and more recent events have allowed further acquisition of bacterial genes. Here, we present the first comprehensive multi-species analysis of E/HGT of genes encoding metabolic enzymes from bacteria to unicellular eukaryotes. The phylogenetic trees of 2,257 metabolic enzymes were used to make E/HGT assertions in ten groups of unicellular eukaryotes, revealing the sources and metabolic processes of the transferred genes. Analyses revealed a preference for enzymes encoded by genes gained through horizontal and endosymbiotic transfers to be connected in the metabolic network. Enrichment in particular functional classes was particularly revealing: alongside plastid related processes and carbohydrate metabolism, this highlighted a number of pathways in eukaryotic parasites that are rich in enzymes encoded by transferred genes, and potentially key to pathogenicity. The plant parasites Phytophthora were discovered to have a potential pathway for lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis of E/HGT origin not seen before in eukaryotes outside the Plantae. The number of enzymes encoded by genes gained through E/HGT has been established, providing insight into functional gain during the evolution of unicellular eukaryotes. In eukaryotic parasites, genes encoding enzymes that have been gained through horizontal transfer may be attractive drug targets if they are part of processes not present in the host, or are significantly diverged from equivalent host enzymes.

  2. Distribution of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci.

    PubMed

    Perumal, N; Murugesan, S; Krishnan, P

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) elements among clinical isolates of methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRS). Antibiotic susceptibility test was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The presence of SCCmec types and AME genes, namely, aac (6')-Ie-aph (2''), aph (3')-IIIa and ant (4')-Ia was determined using two different multiplex polymerase chain reaction. The most encountered AME genes were aac (6')-Ie-aph (2'') (55.4%) followed by aph (3')-IIIa (32.3%) and ant (4')-Ia gene (9%). SCCmec type I (34%) was predominant in this study. In conclusion, the aac (6')-Ie-aph (2'') was the most common AME gene and SCCmec type I was most predominant among the MRS isolates.

  3. PCR detection of enzyme-encoding genes in Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains of wine origin.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, Phillip Senzo; Divol, Benoit; du Toit, Maret

    2012-04-01

    Fifteen isolates of lactic acid bacteria originating from South African grape and wine samples were identified as Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides through the taxonomic analysis of their 16S rDNA gene sequences. These isolates were further tested for the presence of genes coding for enzymes of oenological relevance using PCR detection technique. A type strain of Leuc. mesenteroides (NCDO 529(T)) was also incorporated for comparative analysis. From the PCR detection results, the estA, prtP, alsD, alsS, metK, metC and metB genes were present in all the strains tested. The bgl and gshR genes encoding β-glucosidase and glutathione reductase, respectively, were not detected in some strains. On the other hand, none of the tested strains possessed the genes encoding phenolic acid decarboxylase (padA), citrate permease (citP), citrate lyase (citD, citE and citF) and arginine deiminase pathway enzymes (arcA, arcB and arcC). The verification of PCR-generated fragments was performed by sequencing. GenBank database was used to search for homologous DNA sequences. Neighbour-joining trees based on nucleotide sequences of alsS, estA, metK and mleA genes were also constructed in order to study the phylogenetic relationship between Leuc. mesenteroides strains and closely related species. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that there are genetic heterogeneities between strains of Leuc. mesenteroides species. In conclusion, this study has improved our knowledge on the genetics of oenological strains of Leuc. mesenteroides and their genetic potential to contribute to certain wine aroma compounds.

  4. Eukaryotic Peptide Deformylases. Nuclear-Encoded and Chloroplast-Targeted Enzymes in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Dirk, Lynnette M.A.; Williams, Mark A.; Houtz, Robert L.

    2001-01-01

    Arabidopsis (ecotype Columbia-0) genes, AtDEF1and AtDEF2, represent eukaryotic homologs of the essential prokaryotic gene encoding peptide deformylase. Both deduced proteins contain three conserved protein motifs found in the active site of all eubacterial peptide deformylases, and N-terminal extensions identifiable as chloroplast-targeting sequences. Radiolabeled full-length AtDEF1 was imported and processed by isolated pea (Pisum sativum L. Laxton's Progress No. 9) chloroplasts and AtDEF1 and 2 were immunologically detected in Arabidopsis leaf and chloroplast stromal protein extracts. The partial cDNAs encoding the processed forms of Arabidopsis peptide deformylase 1 and 2 (pAtDEF1 and 2, respectively) were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using C-terminal hexahistidyl tags. Both recombinant Arabidopsis peptide deformylases had peptide deformylase activity with unique kinetic parameters that differed from those reported for the E. coli enzyme. Actinonin, a specific peptide deformylase inhibitor, was effective in vitro against Arabidopsis peptide deformylase 1 and 2 activity, respectively. Exposure of several plant species including Arabidopsis to actinonin resulted in chlorosis and severe reductions in plant growth and development. The results suggest an essential role for peptide deformylase in protein processing in all plant plastids. PMID:11553738

  5. Toxaphene affects the levels of mRNA transcripts that encode antioxidant enzymes in Hydra.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seonock; Lee, Aekyung; Won, Hyokyoung; Ryu, Jae-Chun; Yum, Seungshic

    2012-06-01

    We evaluated toxaphene-induced acute toxicity in Hydra magnipapillata. The median lethal concentrations of the animals (LC(50)) were determined to be 34.5 mg/L, 25.0 mg/L and 12.0 mg/L after exposure to toxaphene for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h, respectively. Morphological responses of hydra polyps to a range of toxaphene concentrations suggested that toxaphene negatively affects the nervous system of H. magnipapillata. We used real-time quantitative PCR of RNA extracted from polyps exposed to two concentrations of toxaphene (0.3 mg/L and 3 mg/L) for 24 h to evaluate the differential regulation of levels of transcripts that encode six antioxidant enzymes (CAT, G6PD, GPx, GR, GST and SOD), two proteins involved in detoxification and molecular stress responses (CYP1A and UB), and two proteins involved in neurotransmission and nerve cell differentiation (AChE and Hym-355). Of the genes involved in antioxidant responses, the most striking changes were observed for transcripts that encode GPx, G6PD, SOD, CAT and GST, with no evident change in levels of transcripts encoding GR. Levels of UB and CYP1A transcripts increased in a dose-dependent manner following exposure to toxaphene. Given that toxaphene-induced neurotoxicity was not reflected in the level of AChE transcripts and only slight accumulation of Hym-355 transcript was observed only at the higher of the two doses of toxaphene tested, there remains a need to identify transcriptional biomarkers for toxaphene-mediated neurotoxicity in H. magnipapillata. Transcripts that respond to toxaphene exposure could be valuable biomarkers for stress levels in H. magnipapillata and may be useful for monitoring the pollution of aquatic environments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cell-Free Phospholipid Biosynthesis by Gene-Encoded Enzymes Reconstituted in Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Andrew; Noga, Marek J.; de Graaf, Paul; Westerlaken, Ilja; Yildirim, Esengul; Danelon, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The goal of bottom-up synthetic biology culminates in the assembly of an entire cell from separate biological building blocks. One major challenge resides in the in vitro production and implementation of complex genetic and metabolic pathways that can support essential cellular functions. Here, we show that phospholipid biosynthesis, a multiple-step process involved in cell membrane homeostasis, can be reconstituted starting from the genes encoding for all necessary proteins. A total of eight E. coli enzymes for acyl transfer and headgroup modifications were produced in a cell-free gene expression system and were co-translationally reconstituted in liposomes. Acyl-coenzyme A and glycerol-3-phosphate were used as canonical precursors to generate a variety of important bacterial lipids. Moreover, this study demonstrates that two-step acyl transfer can occur from enzymes synthesized inside vesicles. Besides clear implications for growth and potentially division of a synthetic cell, we postulate that gene-based lipid biosynthesis can become instrumental for ex vivo and protein purification-free production of natural and non-natural lipids. PMID:27711229

  7. Differential accumulation of transcripts encoding sulfur assimilation enzymes upon sulfur and/or nitrogen deprivation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Y; Nakamura, T; Harada, E; Koizumi, N; Sano, H

    1999-04-01

    Expression of nine genes encoding enzymes involved in the sulfur assimilation pathway was examined by RNA blot hybridization. Significantly increased levels of transcripts encoding ATP sulfurylase and APS reductase were apparent under sulfur deprivation. However, in the absence of nitrogen, their responsiveness to sulfur deprivation was markedly reduced. Results suggest that the sulfur assimilation pathway is regulated at the transcriptional level by both nitrogen and sulfur sources.

  8. Detection of DNA sequence polymorphisms in carcinogen metabolism genes by polymerase chain reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, D.A. )

    1991-01-01

    The glutathione transferase mu gene (GST1) and the debrisoquine hydroxylase gene (CYP2D6) are known to be polymorphic in the human population and have been associated with increased susceptibility to cancer. Smokers with low lymphocyte GST mu activity are at higher risk for lung cancer, while low debrisoquine hydroxylase activity has been correlated with lower risk for lung and bladder cancer. Phenotypic characterization of these polymorphisms by lymphocyte enzyme activity (GST) and urine metabolite ratios (debrisoquine) is cumbersome for population studies. Recent cloning and sequencing of the mutant alleles of these genes has allowed genotyping via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Advantages of PCR approaches are speed, technical simplicity, and minimal sample requirements. This article reviews the PCR-based methods for detection of genetic polymorphisms in human cancer susceptibility genes.

  9. Contrasted patterns of selection since maize domestication on duplicated genes encoding a starch pathway enzyme.

    PubMed

    Corbi, J; Debieu, M; Rousselet, A; Montalent, P; Le Guilloux, M; Manicacci, D; Tenaillon, M I

    2011-03-01

    Maize domestication from teosinte (Zea mays ssp. parviglumis) was accompanied by an increase of kernel size in landraces. Subsequent breeding has led to a diversification of kernel size and starch content among major groups of inbred lines. We aim at investigating the effect of domestication on duplicated genes encoding a key enzyme of the starch pathway, the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase). Three pairs of paralogs encode the AGPase small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunits mainly expressed in the endosperm, the embryo and the leaf. We first validated the putative sequence of LSU(leaf) through a comparative expression assay of the six genes. Second, we investigated the patterns of molecular evolution on a 2 kb coding region homologous among the six genes in three panels: teosintes, landraces, and inbred lines. We corrected for demographic effects by relying on empirical distributions built from 580 previously sequenced ESTs. We found contrasted patterns of selection among duplicates: three genes exhibit patterns of directional selection during domestication (SSU(end), LSU(emb)) or breeding (LSU(leaf)), two exhibit patterns consistent with diversifying (SSU(leaf)) and balancing selection (SSU(emb)) accompanying maize breeding. While patterns of linkage disequilibrium did not reveal sign of coevolution between genes expressed in the same organ, we detected an excess of non-synonymous substitutions in the small subunit functional domains highlighting their role in AGPase evolution. Our results offer a different picture on AGPase evolution than the one depicted at the Angiosperm level and reveal how genetic redundancy can provide flexibility in the response to selection.

  10. The LS locus of pea encodes the gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme ent-kaurene synthase A.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ali, T; Swain, S M; Reid, J B; Sun, T; Kamiya, Y

    1997-03-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) are hormones required for several aspects of plant development, including internode elongation and seed development in pea (Pisum sativum L.). The first committed step in the GA biosynthesis pathway is the conversion of geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGDP) to ent-kaurene via copalyl diphosphate (CDP). These two reactions are catalyzed by the cyclases ent-kaurene synthase A (KSA) and ent-kaurene synthase B (KSB), respectively. Previous genetic and biochemical analysis of the GA-responsive ls-1 mutant of pea suggested that GA levels are reduced in a developmental- and organ-specific manner due to reduced GA biosynthesis. Analysis of cellfree enzyme preparations from WT and ls-1 embryos at contact point reveals that ls-1 reduces the activity of KSA but not KSB. To characterize the ls-1 mutation in more detail, a cDNA coding for a pea KSA was cloned and shown to be encoded by the LS locus. The ls-1 mutation results from an intronic G to A substitution that causes impaired RNA splicing. To determine the activity of the KSAs encoded by the LS and ls-1 alleles, a new in vitro assay for combined KSA and KSB activity has been developed using the KSB gene of pumpkin. Using recombinant WT KSA and KSB fusion proteins, GGDP is converted to ent-kaurene in vitro. Based on the sequence of RT-PCR products, three different truncated KSA proteins are predicted to exist in ls-1 plants. The most abundant mutant KSA protein does not possess detectable activity in vitro. Nevertheless, the ls-1 allele is not null and is able to encode at least a partially functional KSA since a more severe is allele has been identified. The ls-1 mutation has played a key role in identifying a role for GAs in pea seed development in the first few days after fertilization, but not in older seeds. KSA expression in seeds is developmentally regulated and parallels overall GA biosynthesis, suggesting that KSA expression may play an important role in the regulation of GA biosynthesis and seed

  11. Arabidopsis TH2 Encodes the Orphan Enzyme Thiamin Monophosphate Phosphatase[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Gidda, Satinder K.; Nguyen, Thuy N.D.; Anderson, Erin M.; Brown, Greg; Yakunin, Alexander F.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), plants must first hydrolyze thiamin monophosphate (ThMP) to thiamin, but dedicated enzymes for this hydrolysis step were unknown and widely doubted to exist. The classical thiamin-requiring th2-1 mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana was shown to reduce ThDP levels by half and to increase ThMP levels 5-fold, implying that the THIAMIN REQUIRING2 (TH2) gene product could be a dedicated ThMP phosphatase. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicated that TH2 corresponds to At5g32470, encoding a HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) family phosphatase fused to a TenA (thiamin salvage) family protein. Like the th2-1 mutant, an insertional mutant of At5g32470 accumulated ThMP, and the thiamin requirement of the th2-1 mutant was complemented by wild-type At5g32470. Complementation tests in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays with recombinant proteins confirmed that At5g32470 and its maize (Zea mays) orthologs GRMZM2G148896 and GRMZM2G078283 are ThMP-selective phosphatases whose activity resides in the HAD domain and that the At5g32470 TenA domain has the expected thiamin salvage activity. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that alternative translation start sites direct the At5g32470 protein to the cytosol and potentially also to mitochondria. Our findings establish that plants have a dedicated ThMP phosphatase and indicate that modest (50%) ThDP depletion can produce severe deficiency symptoms. PMID:27677881

  12. Influence of energy supply on expression of genes encoding for lipogenic enzymes and regulatory proteins in growing beef steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Forty crossbred beef steers were used to determine the effects metabolizable energy (ME) intake and of site and complexity of carbohydrate (CHO) infusion on expression of genes encoding lipogenic enzymes and regulatory proteins in subcutaneous (SC), mesenteric (MES) and omental (OM) adipose. Treatm...

  13. The Arabidopsis DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 Gene Encodes an Enzyme in the Jasmonic Acid Synthesis Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Paul M.; Lee, Pei Yun; Biesgen, Christian; Boone, James D.; Beals, Thomas P.; Weiler, Elmar W.; Goldberg, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    delayed dehiscence1 is an Arabidopsis T-DNA mutant in which anthers release pollen grains too late for pollination to occur. The delayed dehiscence1 defect is caused by a delay in the stomium degeneration program. The gene disrupted in delayed dehiscence1 encodes 12-oxophytodienoate reductase, an enzyme in the jasmonic acid biosynthesis pathway. We rescued the mutant phenotype by exogenous application of jasmonic acid and obtained seed set from previously male-sterile plants. In situ hybridization studies showed that during the early stages of floral development, DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 mRNA accumulated within all floral organs. Later, DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 mRNA accumulated specifically within the pistil, petals, and stamen filaments. DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 mRNA was not detected in the stomium and septum cells of the anther that are involved in pollen release. The T-DNA insertion in delayed dehiscence1 eliminated both DELAYED DEHISCENCE1 mRNA accumulation and 12-oxophytodienoate reductase activity. These experiments suggest that jasmonic acid signaling plays a role in controlling the time of anther dehiscence within the flower. PMID:10899973

  14. Effects of porcine oocytes on the expression levels of transcripts encoding glycolytic enzymes in granulosa cells.

    PubMed

    Matsuno, Yuta; Onuma, Asuka; Fujioka, Yoshie A; Emori, Chihiro; Fujii, Wataru; Naito, Kunihiko; Sugiura, Koji

    2016-09-01

    Oocytes play critical roles in regulating the expression of transcripts encoding the glycolytic enzymes phosphofructokinase, platelet (PFKP) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) in granulosa cells in mice, but whether this is the case in pigs or other mammals has not been adequately investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether porcine oocytes regulate the expression levels of these transcripts in granulosa cells in vitro. Porcine cumulus cells expressed higher levels of PFKP and LDHA transcripts than mural granulosa cells (MGCs). However, co-culturing with oocytes had no significant effect on the isolated cumulus cells. While murine oocytes promoted the expression of both Pfkp and Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs, porcine oocytes promoted the expression of only Pfkp, but not Ldha transcripts by murine MGCs. Neither murine nor porcine oocytes affected PFKP and LDHA expression by porcine MGCs. Moreover, in the presence of porcine follicular fluid, porcine oocytes maintained the expression of PFKP, but not LDHA by porcine cumulus cells. Therefore, porcine oocytes are capable of regulating the expression of PFKP but not LDHA in granulosa cells in coordination with unknown factor(s) present in the follicular fluid.

  15. A novel prophenoloxidase, hemocyanin encoded copper containing active enzyme from prawn: gene characterization.

    PubMed

    Arockiaraj, Jesu; Gnanam, Annie J; Pothikasalam, Gopi; Milton, James; Pasupuleti, Mukesh; Bhatt, Prasanth; Palanisamy, Rajesh; Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Thirumalai, Muthukumaresan Kuppusamy; Arasu, Abirami; Sathyamoorthi, Akila; Prabha, Nagaram

    2013-07-25

    The copper containing prophenoloxidase enzyme plays a crucial role in the defense system of arthropods, especially crustaceans and insects. In this study, we have reported a full length cDNA of prophenoloxidase identified from the constructed cDNA library of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii by genome sequence FLX technology. The identified full length M. rosenbergii prophenoloxidase (MrProPO) consists of 3378 base pairs (bp) with an open reading frame (ORF) of 2099 bp. This ORF encoded a polypeptide of 700 amino acids (aa) with an estimated molecular mass of 80 kDa and a predicted isoelectric point (pI) of 6.7. The motif analysis of MrProPO shows two copper binding sites (CuA and CuB) along with hemocyanin signatures and a thiol-ester like motif. MrProPO exhibited the maximum similarity (97%) with ProPO from Macrobrachium nipponense and is closely clustered with other crustacean ProPO in the phylogenetic tree. Bioinformatics analysis suggests that MrProPO is a member of the prophenoloxidase family, due to the conserved domains, motifs and similarity with other known ProPOs. The 3D structural analysis of MrProPO reveals that it has more random coils, moderate α-helices, few extended β-sheets and a very few β-turns. Among the 700 aa of MrProPO, 355 (50.71%), 206 (29.43%), 110 (15.71%) and 29 (4.14%) amino acids are responsible for random coils, α-helices, extended β-sheets and β-turns respectively. The gene expression results indicate MrProPO is widely distributed in all the tissues studied, but significantly (P<0.05) highest expression was observed in hepatopancreas. The relative expression of mRNA was quantified in hepatopancreas after being infected with virus [white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) and M. rosenbergii nodovirus (MrNV)] and bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio harveyi) using real-time PCR. MrProPO mRNA transcription significantly (P<0.05) increased at 24h post injection (p.i.) with subsequent decrease at 48 h p.i. in both viral

  16. GLC3 and GHA1 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae are allelic and encode the glycogen branching enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Rowen, D W; Meinke, M; LaPorte, D C

    1992-01-01

    In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, glycogen serves as a major storage carbohydrate. In a previous study, mutants with altered glycogen metabolism were isolated on the basis of the altered iodine-staining properties of colonies. We found that when glycogen produced by strains carrying the glc-1p (previously called gha1-1) mutation is stained with iodine, the absorption spectrum resembles that of starch rather than that of glycogen, suggesting that this mutation might reduce the level of branching in the glycogen particles. Indeed, glycogen branching activity was undetectable in extracts from a glc3-1p strain but was elevated in strains which expressed GLC3 from a high-copy-number plasmid. These observations suggest that GLC3 encodes the glycogen branching enzyme. In contrast to glc3-1p, the glc3-4 mutation greatly reduces the ability of yeast to accumulate glycogen. These mutations appear to be allelic despite the striking difference in the phenotypes which they produce. The GLC3 clone complemented both glc3-1p and glc3-4. Deletions and transposon insertions in this clone had parallel effects on its ability to complement glc3-1p and glc3-4. Finally, a fragment of the cloned gene was able to direct the repair of both glc3-1p and glc3-4. Disruption of GLC3 yielded the glycogen-deficient phenotype, indicating that glycogen deficiency is the null phenotype. The glc3-1p allele appears to encode a partially functional product, since it is dominant over glc3-4 but recessive to GLC3. These observations suggest that the ability to introduce branches into glycogen greatly increases the ability of the cell to accumulate that polysaccharide. Northern (RNA) blot analysis identified a single mRNA of 2,300 nucleotides that increased in abundance ca. 20-fold as the culture approached stationary phase. It thus appears that the expression of GLC3 is regulated, probably at the level of transcription. Images PMID:1729600

  17. The Evolutionary Fate of the Genes Encoding the Purine Catabolic Enzymes in Hominoids, Birds, and Reptiles

    PubMed Central

    Keebaugh, Alaine C.; Thomas, James W.

    2010-01-01

    Gene loss has been proposed to play a major role in adaptive evolution, and recent studies are beginning to reveal its importance in human evolution. However, the potential consequence of a single gene-loss event upon the fates of functionally interrelated genes is poorly understood. Here, we use the purine metabolic pathway as a model system in which to explore this important question. The loss of urate oxidase (UOX) activity, a necessary step in this pathway, has occurred independently in the hominoid and bird/reptile lineages. Because the loss of UOX would have removed the functional constraint upon downstream genes in this pathway, these downstream genes are generally assumed to have subsequently deteriorated. In this study, we used a comparative genomics approach to empirically determine the fate of UOX itself and the downstream genes in five hominoids, two birds, and a reptile. Although we found that the loss of UOX likely triggered the genetic deterioration of the immediate downstream genes in the hominoids, surprisingly in the birds and reptiles, the UOX locus itself and some of the downstream genes were present in the genome and predicted to encode proteins. To account for the variable pattern of gene retention and loss after the inactivation of UOX, we hypothesize that although gene loss is a common fate for genes that have been rendered obsolete due to the upstream loss of an enzyme a metabolic pathway, it is also possible that same lack of constraint will foster the evolution of new functions or allow the optimization of preexisting alternative functions in the downstream genes, thereby resulting in gene retention. Thus, adaptive single-gene losses have the potential to influence the long-term evolutionary fate of functionally interrelated genes. PMID:20106906

  18. Virus-Specific mRNA Capping Enzyme Encoded by Hepatitis E Virus

    PubMed Central

    Magden, Julia; Takeda, Naokazu; Li, Tiancheng; Auvinen, Petri; Ahola, Tero; Miyamura, Tatsuo; Merits, Andres; Kääriäinen, Leevi

    2001-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a positive-strand RNA virus, is an important causative agent of waterborne hepatitis. Expression of cDNA (encoding amino acids 1 to 979 of HEV nonstructural open reading frame 1) in insect cells resulted in synthesis of a 110-kDa protein (P110), a fraction of which was proteolytically processed to an 80-kDa protein. P110 was tightly bound to cytoplasmic membranes, from which it could be released by detergents. Immunopurified P110 catalyzed transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to GTP and GDP to yield m7GTP or m7GDP. GMP, GpppG, and GpppA were poor substrates for the P110 methyltransferase. There was no evidence for further methylation of m7GTP when it was used as a substrate for the methyltransferase. P110 was also a guanylyltransferase, which formed a covalent complex, P110-m7GMP, in the presence of AdoMet and GTP, because radioactivity from both [α-32P]GTP and [3H-methyl]AdoMet was found in the covalent guanylate complex. Since both methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase reactions are strictly virus specific, they should offer optimal targets for development of antiviral drugs. Cap analogs such as m7GTP, m7GDP, et2m7GMP, and m2et7GMP inhibited the methyltransferase reaction. HEV P110 capping enzyme has similar properties to the methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase of alphavirus nsP1, tobacco mosaic virus P126, brome mosaic virus replicase protein 1a, and bamboo mosaic virus (a potexvirus) nonstructural protein, indicating there is a common evolutionary origin of these distantly related plant and animal virus families. PMID:11413290

  19. Molecular characterization of genes encoding trypsin-like enzymes from Aedes aegypti larvae and identification of digestive enzymes.

    PubMed

    Soares, Tatiane S; Watanabe, Renata M O; Lemos, Francisco J A; Tanaka, Aparecida S

    2011-12-10

    Trypsin-like enzymes play an important role in the Aedes aegypti digestive process. The trypsin-like enzymes present in adults were characterized previously, but little is known about trypsins in larvae. In the present work, we identified one of the trypsin enzymes from Ae. aegypti larval midgut using a library of trypsin gene fragments, which was the sequence known as AAEL005607 from the Ae. aegypti genome. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that AAEL005607 was transcribed in all larval instars, but it was not present in adult midgut. In order to confirm transcription data, the trypsin-like enzymes from 4th instar larvae of Ae. aegypti midgut were purified and sequenced. Purified trypsin showed identity with the amino-terminal sequence of AAEL005607, AAEL005609 and AAEL005614. These three trypsins have high amino acids identity, and could all be used as a template for the design of inhibitors. In conclusion, for the first time, digestive enzymes of 4th larval instar of Ae. aegypti were purified and characterized. The knowledge of digestive enzymes present in Ae. aegypti larvae may be helpful in the development of a larvicide. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Expression of E. coli araBAD operon encoding enzymes for metabolizing L-arabinose in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sedlak; Ho

    2001-01-02

    The Escherichia coli araBAD operon consists of three genes encoding three enzymes that convert L-arabinose to D-xylulose-5 phosphate. In this paper we report that the genes of the E. coli araBAD operon have been expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using strong promoters from genes encoding S. cerevisiae glycolytic enzymes (pyruvate kinase, phosphoglucose isomerase, and phosphoglycerol kinase). The expression of these cloned genes in yeast was demonstrated by the presence of the active enzymes encoded by these cloned genes and by the presence of the corresponding mRNAs in the new host. The level of expression of L-ribulokinase (araB) and L-ribulose-5-phosphate 4-epimerase (araD) in S. cerevisiae was relatively high, with greater than 70% of the activity of the enzymes in wild type E. coli. On the other hand, the expression of L-arabinose isomerase (araA) reached only 10% of the activity of the same enzyme in wild type E. coli. Nevertheless, S. cerevisiae, bearing the cloned L-arabinose isomerase gene, converted L-arabinose to detectable levels of L-ribulose during fermentation. However, S. cerevisiae bearing all three genes (araA, araB, and araD) was not able to produce detectable amount of ethanol from L-arabinose. We speculate that factors such as pH, temperature, and competitive inhibition could reduce the activity of these enzymes to a lower level during fermentation compared to their activity measured in vitro. Thus, the ethanol produced from L-arabinose by recombinant yeast containing the expressed BAD genes is most likely totally consumed by the cell to maintain viability.

  1. Rubisco in marine symbiotic dinoflagellates: form II enzymes in eukaryotic oxygenic phototrophs encoded by a nuclear multigene family.

    PubMed Central

    Rowan, R; Whitney, S M; Fowler, A; Yellowlees, D

    1996-01-01

    Genes encoding ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) were cloned from dinoflagellate symbionts (Symbiodinium spp) of the giant clam Tridacna gigas and characterized. Strikingly, Symbiodinium Rubisco is completely different from other eukaryotic (form I) Rubiscos: it is a form II enzyme that is approximately 65% identical to Rubisco from Rhodospirillum rubrum (Rubisco forms I and II are approximately 25 to 30% identical); it is nuclear encoded by a multigene family; and the predominantly expressed Rubisco is encoded as a precursor polyprotein. One clone appears to contain a predominantly expressed Rubisco locus (rbcA), as determined by RNA gel blot analysis of Symbiodinium RNA and sequencing of purified Rubisco protein. Another contains an enigmatic locus (rbcG) that exhibits an unprecedented pattern of amino acid replacement but does not appear to be a pseudogene. The expression of rbcG has not been analyzed; it was detected only in the minor of two taxa of Symbiodinium that occur together in T. gigas. This study confirms and describes a previously unrecognized branch of Rubisco's evolution: a eukaryotic form II enzyme that participates in oxygenic photosynthesis and is encoded by a diverse, nuclear multigene family. PMID:8721755

  2. Several Genes Encoding Enzymes with the Same Activity Are Necessary for Aerobic Fungal Degradation of Cellulose in Nature

    PubMed Central

    Busk, Peter K.; Lange, Mette; Pilgaard, Bo; Lange, Lene

    2014-01-01

    The cellulose-degrading fungal enzymes are glycoside hydrolases of the GH families and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases. The entanglement of glycoside hydrolase families and functions makes it difficult to predict the enzymatic activity of glycoside hydrolases based on their sequence. In the present study we further developed the method Peptide Pattern Recognition to an automatic approach not only to find all genes encoding glycoside hydrolases and lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in fungal genomes but also to predict the function of the genes. The functional annotation is an important feature as it provides a direct route to predict function from primary sequence. Furthermore, we used Peptide Pattern Recognition to compare the cellulose-degrading enzyme activities encoded by 39 fungal genomes. The results indicated that cellobiohydrolases and AA9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases are hallmarks of cellulose-degrading fungi except brown rot fungi. Furthermore, a high number of AA9, endocellulase and β-glucosidase genes were identified, not in what are known to be the strongest, specialized lignocellulose degraders but in saprophytic fungi that can use a wide variety of substrates whereas only few of these genes were found in fungi that have a limited number of natural, lignocellulotic substrates. This correlation suggests that enzymes with different properties are necessary for degradation of cellulose in different complex substrates. Interestingly, clustering of the fungi based on their predicted enzymes indicated that Ascomycota and Basidiomycota use the same enzymatic activities to degrade plant cell walls. PMID:25461894

  3. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2014-04-08

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  4. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David N; Apel, William A; Thompson, Vicki S; Ward, Thomas E

    2013-07-23

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  5. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2016-03-22

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  6. Methods of combined bioprocessing and related microorganisms, thermophilic and/or acidophilic enzymes, and nucleic acids encoding said enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, David N.; Apel, William A.; Thompson, Vicki S.; Ward, Thomas E.

    2017-08-15

    A genetically modified organism comprising: at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid isolated from Alicyclobacillus acidocaldarius and encoding a polypeptide involved in at least partially degrading, cleaving, transporting, metabolizing, or removing polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups; and at least one nucleic acid sequence and/or at least one recombinant nucleic acid encoding a polypeptide involved in fermenting sugar molecules to a product. Additionally, enzymatic and/or proteinaceous extracts may be isolated from one or more genetically modified organisms. The extracts are utilized to convert biomass into a product. Further provided are methods of converting biomass into products comprising: placing the genetically modified organism and/or enzymatic extracts thereof in fluid contact with polysaccharides, cellulose, lignocellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, starch, sugars, sugar oligomers, carbohydrates, complex carbohydrates, chitin, heteroxylans, glycosides, and/or xylan-, glucan-, galactan-, or mannan-decorating groups.

  7. Overexpression of genes encoding glycolytic enzymes in Corynebacterium glutamicum enhances glucose metabolism and alanine production under oxygen deprivation conditions.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shogo; Gunji, Wataru; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Toda, Hiroshi; Suda, Masako; Jojima, Toru; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that Corynebacterium glutamicum strain ΔldhAΔppc+alaD+gapA, overexpressing glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding gapA, shows significantly improved glucose consumption and alanine formation under oxygen deprivation conditions (T. Jojima, M. Fujii, E. Mori, M. Inui, and H. Yukawa, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 87:159-165, 2010). In this study, we employ stepwise overexpression and chromosomal integration of a total of four genes encoding glycolytic enzymes (herein referred to as glycolytic genes) to demonstrate further successive improvements in C. glutamicum glucose metabolism under oxygen deprivation. In addition to gapA, overexpressing pyruvate kinase-encoding pyk and phosphofructokinase-encoding pfk enabled strain GLY2/pCRD500 to realize respective 13% and 20% improved rates of glucose consumption and alanine formation compared to GLY1/pCRD500. Subsequent overexpression of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase-encoding gpi in strain GLY3/pCRD500 further improved its glucose metabolism. Notably, both alanine productivity and yield increased after each overexpression step. After 48 h of incubation, GLY3/pCRD500 produced 2,430 mM alanine at a yield of 91.8%. This was 6.4-fold higher productivity than that of the wild-type strain. Intracellular metabolite analysis showed that gapA overexpression led to a decreased concentration of metabolites upstream of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, suggesting that the overexpression resolved a bottleneck in glycolysis. Changing ratios of the extracellular metabolites by overexpression of glycolytic genes resulted in reduction of the intracellular NADH/NAD(+) ratio, which also plays an important role on the improvement of glucose consumption. Enhanced alanine dehydrogenase activity using a high-copy-number plasmid further accelerated the overall alanine productivity. Increase in glycolytic enzyme activities is a promising approach to make drastic progress in growth-arrested bioprocesses.

  8. The euryhaline yeast Debaryomyces hansenii has two catalase genes encoding enzymes with differential activity profile.

    PubMed

    Segal-Kischinevzky, Claudia; Rodarte-Murguía, Beatriz; Valdés-López, Victor; Mendoza-Hernández, Guillermo; González, Alicia; Alba-Lois, Luisa

    2011-03-01

    Debaryomyces hansenii is a spoilage yeast able to grow in a variety of ecological niches, from seawater to dairy products. Results presented in this article show that (i) D. hansenii has an inherent resistance to H2O2 which could be attributed to the fact that this yeast has a basal catalase activity which is several-fold higher than that observed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae under the same culture conditions, (ii) D. hansenii has two genes (DhCTA1 and DhCTT1) encoding two catalase isozymes with a differential enzymatic activity profile which is not strictly correlated with a differential expression profile of the encoding genes.

  9. Cloning and Characterization of the pnb Genes, Encoding Enzymes for 4-Nitrobenzoate Catabolism in Pseudomonas putida TW3

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Michelle A.; Williams, Peter A.

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain TW3 is able to metabolize 4-nitrotoluene via 4-nitrobenzoate (4NBen) and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuate [PCA]) to central metabolites. We have cloned, sequenced, and characterized a 6-kbp fragment of TW3 DNA which contains five genes, two of which encode the enzymes involved in the catabolism of 4NBen to PCA. In order, they encode a 4NBen reductase (PnbA) which is responsible for catalyzing the direct reduction of 4NBen to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate with the oxidation of 2 mol of NADH per mol of 4NBen, a reductase-like enzyme (Orf1) which appears to have no function in the pathway, a regulator protein (PnbR) of the LysR family, a 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyase (PnbB) which catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to PCA and ammonium, and a second lyase-like enzyme (Orf2) which is closely associated with pnbB but appears to have no function in the pathway. The central pnbR gene is transcribed in the opposite direction to the other four genes. These genes complete the characterization of the whole pathway of 4-nitrotoluene catabolism to the ring cleavage substrate PCA in P. putida strain TW3. PMID:11157934

  10. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a human cDNA encoding the antimutator enzyme 8-hydroxyguanine-DNA glycosylase

    PubMed Central

    Roldán-Arjona, Teresa; Wei, Ying-Fei; Carter, Kenneth C.; Klungland, Arne; Anselmino, Catherine; Wang, Rui-Ping; Augustus, Meena; Lindahl, Tomas

    1997-01-01

    The major mutagenic base lesion in DNA caused by exposure to reactive oxygen species is 8-hydroxyguanine (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine). In bacteria and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this damaged base is excised by a DNA glycosylase with an associated lyase activity for chain cleavage. We have cloned, sequenced, and expressed a human cDNA with partial sequence homology to the relevant yeast gene. The encoded 47-kDa human enzyme releases free 8-hydroxyguanine from oxidized DNA and introduces a chain break in a double-stranded oligonucleotide specifically at an 8-hydroxyguanine residue base paired with cytosine. Expression of the human protein in a DNA repair-deficient E. coli mutM mutY strain partly suppresses its spontaneous mutator phenotype. The gene encoding the human enzyme maps to chromosome 3p25. These results show that human cells have an enzyme that can initiate base excision repair at mutagenic DNA lesions caused by active oxygen. PMID:9223306

  11. Molecular and Genetic Analyses of Drosophila Prat, Which Encodes the First Enzyme of De Novo Purine Biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Clark, D. V.

    1994-01-01

    The Drosophila Prat gene encodes phosphoribosylamidotransferase (PRAT), the enzyme that performs the first committed step of the de novo purine nucleotide biosynthesis pathway. Using information from amino acid sequence alignments of PRAT from other organisms, a polymerase chain reaction-based approach was employed to clone Prat. Amino acid sequence alignment of Drosophila PRAT with PRAT from bacteria, yeast, and vertebrates indicates that it is most identical (at least 60%) to the vertebrate PRATs. It shares putative amino-terminal propeptide and ironbinding domains seen only in Bacillus subtilis and vertebrate PRATs. Prat was localized to the right arm of chromosome 3 at polytene band 84E1-2. Owing to the fact that this region had been well characterized previously, Prat was localized to a 30-kilobase region between two deficiency break-points. By making the prediction that Prat would have a similar ``purine syndrome'' phenotype as mutations in the genes ade2 and ade3, which encode enzymes downstream in the pathway, five alleles of Prat were isolated. Three of the alleles were identified as missense mutations. A comparison of PRAT enzyme activity with phenotype in three of the mutants indicates that a reduction to 40% of the wild-type allele's activity is sufficient to cause the purine syndrome, suggesting that PRAT activity is limiting in Drosophila. PMID:8150282

  12. Cloning and characterization of the pnb genes, encoding enzymes for 4-nitrobenzoate catabolism in Pseudomonas putida TW3.

    PubMed

    Hughes, M A; Williams, P A

    2001-02-01

    Pseudomonas putida strain TW3 is able to metabolize 4-nitrotoluene via 4-nitrobenzoate (4NBen) and 3, 4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (protocatechuate [PCA]) to central metabolites. We have cloned, sequenced, and characterized a 6-kbp fragment of TW3 DNA which contains five genes, two of which encode the enzymes involved in the catabolism of 4NBen to PCA. In order, they encode a 4NBen reductase (PnbA) which is responsible for catalyzing the direct reduction of 4NBen to 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate with the oxidation of 2 mol of NADH per mol of 4NBen, a reductase-like enzyme (Orf1) which appears to have no function in the pathway, a regulator protein (PnbR) of the LysR family, a 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate lyase (PnbB) which catalyzes the conversion of 4-hydroxylaminobenzoate to PCA and ammonium, and a second lyase-like enzyme (Orf2) which is closely associated with pnbB but appears to have no function in the pathway. The central pnbR gene is transcribed in the opposite direction to the other four genes. These genes complete the characterization of the whole pathway of 4-nitrotoluene catabolism to the ring cleavage substrate PCA in P. putida strain TW3.

  13. Identification and Characterization of MAE1, the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Structural Gene Encoding Mitochondrial Malic Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Boles, Eckhard; de Jong-Gubbels, Patricia; Pronk, Jack T.

    1998-01-01

    Pyruvate, a precursor for several amino acids, can be synthesized from phosphoenolpyruvate by pyruvate kinase. Nevertheless, pyk1 pyk2 mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae devoid of pyruvate kinase activity grew normally on ethanol in defined media, indicating the presence of an alternative route for pyruvate synthesis. A candidate for this role is malic enzyme, which catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate. Disruption of open reading frame YKL029c, which is homologous to malic enzyme genes from other organisms, abolished malic enzyme activity in extracts of glucose-grown cells. Conversely, overexpression of YKL029c/MAE1 from the MET25 promoter resulted in an up to 33-fold increase of malic enzyme activity. Growth studies with mutants demonstrated that presence of either Pyk1p or Mae1p is required for growth on ethanol. Mutants lacking both enzymes could be rescued by addition of alanine or pyruvate to ethanol cultures. Disruption of MAE1 alone did not result in a clear phenotype. Regulation of MAE1 was studied by determining enzyme activities and MAE1 mRNA levels in wild-type cultures and by measuring β-galactosidase activities in a strain carrying a MAE1::lacZ fusion. Both in shake flask cultures and in carbon-limited chemostat cultures, MAE1 was constitutively expressed. A three- to fourfold induction was observed during anaerobic growth on glucose. Subcellular fractionation experiments indicated that malic enzyme in S. cerevisiae is a mitochondrial enzyme. Its regulation and localization suggest a role in the provision of intramitochondrial NADPH or pyruvate under anaerobic growth conditions. However, since null mutants could still grow anaerobically, this function is apparently not essential. PMID:9603875

  14. Cloning and expression of a gene encoding a bacterial enzyme for decontamination of organophosphorus nerve agents and nucleotide sequence of the enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, T C; Harvey, S P; Chen, G L

    1996-01-01

    Organophosphorus acid (OPA) anhydrolase enzymes have been found in a wide variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. Interest in these enzymes has been prompted by their ability to catalyze the hydrolysis of toxic organophosphorus cholinesterase-inhibiting compounds, including pesticides and chemical nerve agents. The natural substrates for these enzymes are unknown. The gene (opaA) which encodes an OPA anhydrolase (OPAA-2) was isolated from an Alteromonas sp. strain JD6.5 EcoRI-lambda ZAPII chromosomal library expressed in Escherichia coli and identified by immunodetection with anti-OPAA-2 serum. OPA anhydrolase activity expressed by the immunopositive recombinant clones was demonstrated by using diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP) as a substrate. A comparison of the recombinant enzyme with native, purified OPAA-2 showed they had the same apparent molecular mass (60 kDa), antigenic properties, and enzyme activity against DFP and the chemical nerve agents sarin, soman, and O-cyclohexyl methylphosphonofluoridate. The gene expressing this activity was found in a 1.74-kb PstI-HindIII fragment of the original 6.1-kb EcoRI DNA insert. The nucleotide sequence of this PstI-HindIII fragment revealed an open reading frame of 1,551 nucleotides, coding for a protein of 517 amino acid residues. Amino acid sequence comparison of OPAA-2 with the protein database showed that OPAA-2 is similar to a 647-amino-acid sequence produced by an open reading frame which appears to be the E. coli pepQ gene. Further comparison of OPAA-2, the E. coli PepQ protein sequence, E. coli aminopeptidase P, and human prolidase showed regions of different degrees of similarity or functionally conserved amino acid substitutions. These findings, along with preliminary data confirming the presence of prolidase activity expressed by OPAA-2, suggest that the OPAA-2 enzyme may, in nature, be used in peptide metabolism. PMID:8633861

  15. Using an Inducible Promoter of a Gene Encoding Penicillium verruculosum Glucoamylase for Production of Enzyme Preparations with Enhanced Cellulase Performance

    PubMed Central

    Gusakov, Alexander V.; Nemashkalov, Vitaly A.; Satrutdinov, Aidar D.; Sinitsyn, Arkady P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Penicillium verruculosum is an efficient producer of highly active cellulase multienzyme system. One of the approaches for enhancing cellulase performance in hydrolysis of cellulosic substrates is to enrich the reaction system with β -glucosidase and/or accessory enzymes, such as lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMO) displaying a synergism with cellulases. Results Genes bglI, encoding β-glucosidase from Aspergillus niger (AnBGL), and eglIV, encoding LPMO (formerly endoglucanase IV) from Trichoderma reesei (TrLPMO), were cloned and expressed by P. verruculosum B1-537 strain under the control of the inducible gla1 gene promoter. Content of the heterologous AnBGL in the secreted multienzyme cocktails (hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3) varied from 4 to 10% of the total protein, while the content of TrLPMO in the hLPMO sample was ~3%. The glucose yields in 48-h hydrolysis of Avicel and milled aspen wood by the hBGL1, hBGL2 and hBGL3 preparations increased by up to 99 and 80%, respectively, relative to control enzyme preparations without the heterologous AnBGL (at protein loading 5 mg/g substrate for all enzyme samples). The heterologous TrLPMO in the hLPMO preparation boosted the conversion of the lignocellulosic substrate by 10–43%; however, in hydrolysis of Avicel the hLPMO sample was less effective than the control preparations. The highest product yield in hydrolysis of aspen wood was obtained when the hBGL2 and hLPMO preparations were used at the ratio 1:1. Conclusions The enzyme preparations produced by recombinant P. verruculosum strains, expressing the heterologous AnBGL or TrLPMO under the control of the gla1 gene promoter in a starch-containing medium, proved to be more effective in hydrolysis of a lignocellulosic substrate than control enzyme preparations without the heterologous enzymes. The enzyme composition containing both AnBGL and TrLPMO demonstrated the highest performance in lignocellulose hydrolysis, providing a background for developing a

  16. Multiple sulfatase deficiency is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the human C(alpha)-formylglycine generating enzyme.

    PubMed

    Dierks, Thomas; Schmidt, Bernhard; Borissenko, Ljudmila V; Peng, Jianhe; Preusser, Andrea; Mariappan, Malaiyalam; von Figura, Kurt

    2003-05-16

    C(alpha)-formylglycine (FGly) is the catalytic residue in the active site of eukaryotic sulfatases. It is posttranslationally generated from a cysteine in the endoplasmic reticulum. The genetic defect of FGly formation causes multiple sulfatase deficiency (MSD), a lysosomal storage disorder. We purified the FGly generating enzyme (FGE) and identified its gene and nine mutations in seven MSD patients. In patient fibroblasts, the activity of sulfatases is partially restored by transduction of FGE encoding cDNA, but not by cDNA carrying an MSD mutation. The gene encoding FGE is highly conserved among pro- and eukaryotes and has a paralog of unknown function in vertebrates. FGE is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum and is predicted to have a tripartite domain structure.

  17. Cloning and characterization of the DAS gene encoding the major methanol assimilatory enzyme from the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Janowicz, Z A; Eckart, M R; Drewke, C; Roggenkamp, R O; Hollenberg, C P; Maat, J; Ledeboer, A M; Visser, C; Verrips, C T

    1985-05-10

    A gene library from the methanol utilizing yeast Hansenula polymorpha, constructed in a lambda Charon4A vector, was used to clone the gene encoding a key methanol assimilating enzyme, dihydroxyacetone synthase (DHAS) by differential plaque hybridization. The nucleotide sequence of the 2106 bp structural gene and the 5' and 3' non-coding regions was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of the protein is in agreement with the apparent molecular weight and amino acid composition of the purified protein. The codon bias is not so pronounced as in some Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes.

  18. Cloning and characterization of the genes encoding the malolactic enzyme and the malate permease of Leuconostoc oenos.

    PubMed Central

    Labarre, C; Guzzo, J; Cavin, J F; Diviès, C

    1996-01-01

    Using degenerated primers from conserved regions of the protein sequences of malic enzymes, we amplified a 324-bp DNA fragment by PCR from Leuconostoc oenos and used this fragment as a probe for screening a Leuconostoc oenos genomic bank. Of the 2,990 clones in the genomic bank examined, 7 with overlapping fragments were isolated by performing colony hybridization experiments. Sequencing 3,453 bp from overlapping fragments revealed two open reading frames that were 1,623 and 942 nucleotides long and were followed by a putative terminator structure. The first deduced protein (molecular weight, 59,118) is very similar (level of similarity, 66%) to the malolactic enzyme of Lactococcus lactis; as in several malic enzymes, highly conserved protein regions are present. The synthesis of a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 60 kDa was highlighted by the results of labelling experiments performed with Escherichia coli minicells. The gene was expressed in E. coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae and conferred "malolactic activity" to these species. The second open reading frame encodes a putative 34,190-Da protein which has the characteristics of a carrier protein and may have 10 membrane-spanning segments organized around a central hydrophilic core. Energy-dependent L-[14C]malate transport was observed with E. coli dicarboxylic acid transport-deficient mutants carrying the malate permease-expressing vector. Our results suggest that in Leuconostoc oenos the genes that encode the malolactic enzyme and a malate carrier protein are organized in a cluster. PMID:8919788

  19. Characterization of the lys2 gene of Acremonium chrysogenum encoding a functional alpha-aminoadipate activating and reducing enzyme.

    PubMed

    Hijarrubia, M J; Aparicio, J F; Casqueiro, J; Martín, J F

    2001-02-01

    A 5.2-kb NotI DNA fragment isolated from a genomic library of Acremonium chrysogenum by hybridization with a probe internal to the Penicillium chrysogenum lys2 gene, was able to complement an alpha-aminoadipate reductase-deficient mutant of P. chrysogenum (lysine auxotroph L-G-). Enzyme assays showed that the alpha-aminoadipate reductase activity was restored in all the transformants tested. The lys2-encoded enzyme catalyzed both the activation and reduction of alpha-aminoadipic acid to its semialdehyde, as shown by reaction of the product with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde. The reaction required NADPH, and was not observed in the presence of NADH. Sequence analysis revealed that the gene encodes a protein with relatively high similarity to members of the superfamily of acyladenylate-forming enzymes. The Lys2 protein contained all nine motifs that are conserved in the adenylating domain of this enzyme family, a peptidyl carrier domain, and a reduction domain. In addition, a new NADP-binding motif located at the N-terminus of the reduction domain that may form a Rossmann-like betaalphabeta-fold has been identified and found to be shared by all known Lys2 proteins. The lys2 gene was mapped to chromosome I (2.2 Mb, the smallest chromosome) of A. chrysogenum C10 (the chromosome that contains the "late" cephalosporin cluster) and is transcribed as a monocistronic 4.5-kb mRNA although at relatively low levels compared with the beta-actin gene.

  20. Isolation of DNA encoding sucrase genes from Streptococcus salivarius and partial characterization of the enzymes expressed in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Houck, C M; Pear, J R; Elliott, R; Perchorowicz, J T

    1987-01-01

    Restriction enzyme fragments containing two sucrase genes have been isolated from a cosmid library of Streptococcus salivarius DNA. The genes were expressed in Escherichia coli cells, and the properties of both enzymes were studied in partially purified protein extracts from E. coli. One gene encoding an invertase-type sucrase was subcloned on a 2.4-kilobase-pair fragment. The sucrase enzyme had a Km for sucrose of 48 mM and a pH optimum of 6.5. The S. salivarius sucrase clone showed no detectable hybridization to a yeast invertase clone. Two overlapping subclones which had 1 kilobase pair of DNA in common were used to localize a fructosyltransferase gene. The fructosyltransferase had a Km of 93 mM and a pH optimum of 7.0. The product of the fructosyltransferase was a levan. A fructosyltransferase clone from Bacillus subtilis did not hybridize to S. salivarius DNA. The properties of the enzymes were compared with those of previously characterized sucrases. Images PMID:3112128

  1. Sequence of the lyc gene encoding the autolytic lysozyme of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824: comparison with other lytic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Croux, C; García, J L

    1991-07-31

    The lyc gene, encoding an autolytic lysozyme from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC824, has been cloned. The nucleotide sequence of the lyc gene has been determined and found to encode a protein of 324 amino acids (aa) with a deduced Mr of 34,939. The lyc gene is preceded by two open reading frames with unknown functions, suggesting that this gene is part of an operon. Comparison between the deduced aa sequence of the lyc gene and the directly determined N-terminal sequence of the extracellular clostridial lysozyme suggests that the enzyme is synthesized without a cleavable signal peptide. Moreover, the comparative analyses between the clostridial lysozyme and other known cell-wall lytic enzymes revealed a significant similarity with the N-terminal portion of the lysozymes of Streptomyces globisporus, the fungus Chalaropsis, the Lactobacillus bulgaricus bacteriophage mv1, and the Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteriophages of the Cp family (CPL lysozymes). In addition, the analyses showed that the C-terminal half of the clostridial lysozyme was homologous to the N-terminal domain of the muramoyl-pentapeptide-carboxypeptidase of Streptomyces albus, suggesting a role in substrate binding. The existence of five putative repeated motifs in the C-terminal region of the autolytic lysozyme suggests that this region could play a role in the recognition of the polymeric substrate.

  2. Energy Landscapes Encoding Function in Enzymes Investigated Over Broad Time Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callender, Robert

    2011-03-01

    The operating hypothesis of much of our current work is that atomic motion, over broad time scales (femtoseconds to milliseconds, the latter being the time scale of most enzyme catalyzed reactions), contributes to enzymic catalysis in proteins. It is clear from our work that specific types of motions are important in binding of ligands to proteins and transition state formation in enzymatic catalysis. Since new experimental and theoretical approaches are needed to understand the dynamical nature of proteins broadly and enzymatic catalysis specifically, we have employed time-resolved ``pump-probe'' spectroscopic techniques because of the sensitivity of these type of approaches to all relevant time scales. And we have also developed and applied new theoretical methods. The talk will focus on how lactate dehydrogenase brings about catalysis based on current experimental and theoretical studies. Work supported by NIH Grant P01GM068036.

  3. Bacteriophage-encoded virion-associated enzymes to overcome the carbohydrate barriers during the infection process.

    PubMed

    Latka, Agnieszka; Maciejewska, Barbara; Majkowska-Skrobek, Grazyna; Briers, Yves; Drulis-Kawa, Zuzanna

    2017-04-01

    Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that infect the host after successful receptor recognition and adsorption to the cell surface. The irreversible adherence followed by genome material ejection into host cell cytoplasm must be preceded by the passage of diverse carbohydrate barriers such as capsule polysaccharides (CPSs), O-polysaccharide chains of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) molecules, extracellular polysaccharides (EPSs) forming biofilm matrix, and peptidoglycan (PG) layers. For that purpose, bacteriophages are equipped with various virion-associated carbohydrate active enzymes, termed polysaccharide depolymerases and lysins, that recognize, bind, and degrade the polysaccharide compounds. We discuss the existing diversity in structural locations, variable architectures, enzymatic specificities, and evolutionary aspects of polysaccharide depolymerases and virion-associated lysins (VALs) and illustrate how these aspects can correlate with the host spectrum. In addition, we present methods that can be used for activity determination and the application potential of these enzymes as antibacterials, antivirulence agents, and diagnostic tools.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi has not lost its S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase: characterization of the gene and the encoded enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Persson, K; Aslund, L; Grahn, B; Hanke, J; Heby, O

    1998-01-01

    All attempts to identify ornithine decarboxylase in the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi have failed. The parasites have instead been assumed to depend on putrescine uptake and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMetDC) for their synthesis of the polyamines spermidine and spermine. We have now identified the gene encoding AdoMetDC in T. cruzi by PCR cloning, with degenerate primers corresponding to conserved amino acid sequences in AdoMetDC proteins of other trypanosomatids. The amplified DNA fragment was used as a probe to isolate the complete AdoMetDC gene from a T. cruzi genomic library. The AdoMetDC gene was located on chromosomes with a size of approx. 1.4 Mbp, and contained a coding region of 1110 bp, specifying a sequence of 370 amino acid residues. The protein showed a sequence identity of only 25% with human AdoMetDC, the major differences being additional amino acids present in the terminal regions of the T. cruzi enzyme. As expected, a higher sequence identity (68-72%) was found in comparison with trypanosomatid AdoMetDCs. When the coding region was expressed in Escherichia coli, the recombinant protein underwent autocatalytic cleavage, generating a 33-34 kDa alpha subunit and a 9 kDa beta subunit. The encoded protein catalysed the decarboxylation of AdoMet (Km 0.21 mM) and was stimulated by putrescine but inhibited by the polyamines, weakly by spermidine and strongly by spermine. Methylglyoxal-bis(guanylhydrazone) (MGBG), a potent inhibitor of human AdoMetDC, was a poor inhibitor of the T. cruzi enzyme. This differential sensitivity to MGBG suggests that the two enzymes are sufficiently different to warrant the search for compounds that might interfere with the progression of Chagas' disease by selectively inhibiting T. cruzi AdoMetDC. PMID:9677309

  5. PCR Primers to Study the Diversity of Expressed Fungal Genes Encoding Lignocellulolytic Enzymes in Soils Using High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Barbi, Florian; Bragalini, Claudia; Vallon, Laurent; Prudent, Elsa; Dubost, Audrey; Fraissinet-Tachet, Laurence; Marmeisse, Roland; Luis, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Plant biomass degradation in soil is one of the key steps of carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Fungal saprotrophic communities play an essential role in this process by producing hydrolytic enzymes active on the main components of plant organic matter. Open questions in this field regard the diversity of the species involved, the major biochemical pathways implicated and how these are affected by external factors such as litter quality or climate changes. This can be tackled by environmental genomic approaches involving the systematic sequencing of key enzyme-coding gene families using soil-extracted RNA as material. Such an approach necessitates the design and evaluation of gene family-specific PCR primers producing sequence fragments compatible with high-throughput sequencing approaches. In the present study, we developed and evaluated PCR primers for the specific amplification of fungal CAZy Glycoside Hydrolase gene families GH5 (subfamily 5) and GH11 encoding endo-β-1,4-glucanases and endo-β-1,4-xylanases respectively as well as Basidiomycota class II peroxidases, corresponding to the CAZy Auxiliary Activity family 2 (AA2), active on lignin. These primers were experimentally validated using DNA extracted from a wide range of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota species including 27 with sequenced genomes. Along with the published primers for Glycoside Hydrolase GH7 encoding enzymes active on cellulose, the newly design primers were shown to be compatible with the Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology. Sequences obtained from RNA extracted from beech or spruce forest soils showed a high diversity and were uniformly distributed in gene trees featuring the global diversity of these gene families. This high-throughput sequencing approach using several degenerate primers constitutes a robust method, which allows the simultaneous characterization of the diversity of different fungal transcripts involved in plant organic matter degradation and may lead to the

  6. CAT8, a new zinc cluster-encoding gene necessary for derepression of gluconeogenic enzymes in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Hedges, D; Proft, M; Entian, K D

    1995-01-01

    The expression of gluconeogenic fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (encoded by the FBP1 gene) depends on the carbon source. Analysis of the FBP1 promoter revealed two upstream activating elements, UAS1FBP1 and UAS2FBP1, which confer carbon source-dependent regulation on a heterologous reporter gene. On glucose media neither element was activated, whereas after transfer to ethanol a 100-fold derepression was observed. This gene activation depended on the previously identified derepression genes CAT1 (SNF1) (encoding a protein kinase) and CAT3 (SNF4) (probably encoding a subunit of Cat1p [Snf1p]). Screening for mutations specifically involved in UAS1FBP1 derepression revealed the new recessive derepression mutation cat8. The cat8 mutants also failed to derepress UAS2FBP1, and these mutants were unable to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. The CAT8 gene encodes a zinc cluster protein related to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gal4p. Deletion of CAT8 caused a defect in glucose derepression which affected all key gluconeogenic enzymes. Derepression of glucose-repressible invertase and maltase was still normally regulated. A CAT8-lacZ promoter fusion revealed that the CAT8 gene itself is repressed by Cat4p (Mig1p). These results suggest that gluconeogenic genes are derepressed upon binding of Cat8p, whose synthesis depends on the release of Cat4p (Mig1p) from the CAT8 promoter. However, gluconeogenic promoters are still glucose repressed in cat4 mutants, which indicates that in addition to its transcription, the Cat8p protein needs further activation. The observation that multicopy expression of CAT8 reverses the inability of cat1 and cat3 mutants to grow on ethanol indicates that Cat8p might be the substrate of the Cat1p/Cat3p protein kinase. PMID:7891685

  7. Analyses of antioxidant status and nucleotide alterations in genes encoding antioxidant enzymes in patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders.

    PubMed

    Ramli, Nur Siti Fatimah; Mat Junit, Sarni; Leong, Ng Khoon; Razali, Nurhanani; Jayapalan, Jaime Jacqueline; Abdul Aziz, Azlina

    2017-01-01

    Synthesis of thyroid hormones and regulation of their metabolism involve free radicals that may affect redox balance in the body. Thyroid disorders causing variations in the levels of thyroid hormones may alter cellular oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to measure the antioxidant activities and biomarkers of oxidative stress in serum and red blood cells (RBC) of patients with benign and malignant thyroid disorders and to investigate if changes in the antioxidant activities in these patients were linked to alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes. Forty-one patients with thyroid disorders from University of Malaya Medical Centre were recruited. They were categorised into four groups: multinodular goitre (MNG) (n = 18), follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA) (n = 7), papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) (n = 10), and follicular thyroid cancer (FTC) (n = 6). Serum and RBC of patients were analysed for antioxidant activities, antioxidant enzymes, and biomarkers of oxidative stress. Alterations in genes encoding the antioxidant enzymes were analysed using whole exome sequencing and PCR-DNA sequencing. Patients with thyroid disorders had significantly higher serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities compared to control, but had lower activities in RBC. There were no significant changes in serum glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Meanwhile, GPx activity in RBC was reduced in PTC and FTC, compared to control and the respective benign groups. Antioxidant activities in serum were decreased in the thyroid disorder groups when compared to the control group. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) were elevated in the serum of FTA group when compared to controls, while in the RBC, only the MNG and PTC groups showed higher MDA equivalents than control. Serum reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in PTC group of both serum and RBC were significantly higher than control group. Whole exome sequencing has resulted in identification of 49 single

  8. Characterization of the Holliday Junction Resolving Enzyme Encoded by the Bacillus subtilis Bacteriophage SPP1

    PubMed Central

    Zecchi, Lisa; Lo Piano, Ambra; Suzuki, Yuki; Cañas, Cristina; Takeyasu, Kunio; Ayora, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Recombination-dependent DNA replication, which is a central component of viral replication restart, is poorly understood in Firmicutes bacteriophages. Phage SPP1 initiates unidirectional theta DNA replication from a discrete replication origin (oriL), and when replication progresses, the fork might stall by the binding of the origin binding protein G38P to the late replication origin (oriR). Replication restart is dependent on viral recombination proteins to synthesize a linear head-to-tail concatemer, which is the substrate for viral DNA packaging. To identify new functions involved in this process, uncharacterized genes from phage SPP1 were analyzed. Immediately after infection, SPP1 transcribes a number of genes involved in recombination and replication from PE2 and PE3 promoters. Resequencing the region corresponding to the last two hypothetical genes transcribed from the PE2 operon (genes 44 and 45) showed that they are in fact a single gene, re-annotated here as gene 44, that encodes a single polypeptide, named gene 44 product (G44P, 27.5 kDa). G44P shares a low but significant degree of identity in its C-terminal region with virus-encoded RusA-like resolvases. The data presented here demonstrate that G44P, which is a dimer in solution, binds with high affinity but without sequence specificity to several double-stranded DNA recombination intermediates. G44P preferentially cleaves Holliday junctions, but also, with lower efficiency, replicated D-loops. It also partially complemented the loss of RecU resolvase activity in B. subtilis cells. These in vitro and in vivo data suggest a role for G44P in replication restart during the transition to concatemeric viral replication. PMID:23119018

  9. Characterisation of genes encoding key enzymes involved in sugar metabolism of apple fruit in controlled atmosphere storage.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhu; Liu, Ruiling; Li, Boqiang; Tian, Shiping

    2013-12-15

    Sugars are essential contributors to fruit flavour. Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage has been proved to be beneficial for maintaining harvested fruit quality. To explore regulatory mechanism of sugar metabolism in fruit stored in CA condition, we cloned several genes, encoding key enzymes, involved in sugar metabolism in apple fruit, and analyzed sugar contents, along with gene expression and enzyme activities in fruits stored in air and CA. The results indicated that CA could maintain higher contents of sugars, including sucrose, fructose and glucose. Expression levels of key genes, such as sucrose synthase (SS), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), fructokinase (FK) and hexokinase (HK), were shown to be correlated with the corresponding enzyme activities. We found that activities of neutral invertase (NI), vacuolar invertase (VI), FK and HK were inhibited, but SPS activity was promoted in apple fruit stored in CA, suggesting that CA storage could enhance sucrose synthesis and delay hydrolysis of sucrose and hexose. These findings provided molecular evidence to explain why higher sugar levels in harvested fruit are maintained under CA storage.

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya.

  11. Transcriptional regulation of genes encoding ABA metabolism enzymes during the fruit development and dehydration stress of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki'.

    PubMed

    Dai, Shengjie; Li, Ping; Chen, Pei; Li, Qian; Pei, Yuelin; He, Suihuan; Sun, Yufei; Wang, Ya; Kai, Wenbin; Zhao, Bo; Liao, Yalan; Leng, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the contribution of abscisic acid (ABA) in pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' during fruit ripening and under dehydration stress, two cDNAs (PpNCED1 and PpNCED2) which encode 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) (a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis), two cDNAs (PpCYP707A1 and PpCYP707A2) which encode 8'-hydroxylase (a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of ABA), one cDNA (PpACS3) which encodes 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and one cDNA (PpACO1) which encodes ACC oxidase involved in ethylene biosynthesis were cloned from 'Gold Nijisseiki' fruit. In the pulp, peel and seed, expressions of PpNCED1 and PpNCED2 rose in two stages which corresponded with the increase of ABA levels. The expression of PpCYP707A1 dramatically declined after 60-90 days after full bloom (DAFB) in contrast to the changes of ABA levels during this period, while PpCYP707A2 stayed low during the whole development of fruit. Application of exogenous ABA at 100 DAFB increased the soluble sugar content and the ethylene release but significantly decreased the titratable acid and chlorophyll contents in fruits. When fruits harvested at 100 DAFB were stored in the laboratory (25 °C, 50% relative humidity), the ABA content and the expressions of PpNCED1/2 and PpCYP707A1 in the pulp, peel and seed increased significantly, while ethylene reached its highest value after the maximum peak of ABA accompanied with the expressions of PpACS3 and PpACO1. In sum the endogenous ABA may play an important role in the fruit ripening and dehydration of pear 'Gold Nijisseiki' and the ABA level was regulated mainly by the dynamics of PpNCED1, PpNCED2 and PpCYP707A1 at the transcriptional level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Pharmacogenetics of tacrolimus after renal transplantation: analysis of polymorphisms in genes encoding 16 drug metabolizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Tavira, Beatriz; Coto, Eliecer; Garciá, Eliecer Coto; Díaz-Corte, Carmen; Ortega, Francisco; Arias, Manuel; Torres, Armando; Díaz, Juan M; Selgas, Rafael; López-Larrea, Carlos; Campistol, Josep M; Alvarez, Victoria; Alvarezca, Victoria

    2011-05-01

    Tacrolimus (Tac) is an immunosuppressive drug used to prevent post-transplant (PT) organ rejection. Continuous Tac monitoring is necessary to adjust the dose and prevent toxicity or rejection. Tac is metabolized by cytochrome-P450 (CYP) enzymes, and variation at the CYP and other drug metabolizing enzymes could influence Tac bio-availability and dose requirements. Our aim was to define the effect of DNA variants at 16 drug metabolising enzymes on Tac dose in patients with kidney transplants. The REDINREN Pharmacogenetics Project was a multicenter study designed to evaluate the effect of DNA polymorphisms on Tac dose requirements. A total of 200 patients who received a first cadaveric kidney and Tac as primary immunosuppressive drug were genotyped for 96 DNA polymorphisms on 16 genes. Significant associations were further replicated in a second group of 200 patients. The Tac daily dose was adjusted to achieve a blood concentration of 10-15 ng/mL in the period 0-3 months PT, and 5-10 ng/mL thereafter. The dose of tacrolimus dose and blood concentrations were compared between genotypes at 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year PT. The CYP3A5 genotype (SNP rs776746) was the strongest predictor of Tac dose requirements. Patients who were CYP3A5*3*3 (CYP3A5 non-expressors) received significantly higher Tac dose at 1 week, 6 months, and 1 year PT (p<0.0001). At 1 week, 41% of the CYP3A5 non-expressors achieved target blood concentrations compared to 26% of the CYP3A5 expressors (p=0.007). We also found a significant effect of CYP3A4 genotype (SNP rs2740574) on Tac dose requirements in patients who were CYP3A5 non-expressors. None of the other polymorphisms were related to Tac dose requirements or modified the effect of the CYP3A5 genotype. rs776746 (CYP3A5) and rs2740574 (CYP3A4) were the only SNPs associated with Tac dosage. The genotyping of these polymorphisms could be a useful pharmacogenetic tool to determine the Tac dose immediately after transplantation.

  13. The Effect of Polymorphisms in DNA Repair Genes and Carcinogen Metabolizers on Leukocyte Telomere Length: A Cohort of Healthy Spanish Smokers.

    PubMed

    Verde, Zoraida; Reinoso-Barbero, Luis; Chicharro, Luis; Resano, Pilar; Sánchez-Hernández, Ignacio; Rodríguez González-Moro, Jose Miguel; Bandrés, Fernando; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Santiago, Catalina

    2016-04-01

    Smoking implies exposure to carcinogenic agents that causes DNA damage, which could be suspected to enhance telomere attrition. To protect and deal with DNA damage, cells possess mechanisms that repair and neutralize harmful substances. Polymorphisms altering DNA repair capacity or carcinogen metabolism may lead to synergistic effects with tobacco carcinogen-induced shorter telomere length independently of cancer interaction. The aim of this study was to explore the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and several genetic polymorphisms in DNA repair genes and carcinogen metabolizers in a cohort of healthy smokers. We evaluated the effect of six genetic polymorphisms in cytochrome P1A1 (Ile462Val), XRCC1 (Arg399Gln), APEX1 (Asp148Glu), XRCC3 (Thr241Met), and XPD (Asp312Asn; Lys751Gln) on LTL in a cohort of 145 healthy smokers in addition to smoking habits. Logistic regression analysis showed an association between XRCC1 399Gln allele and shorter telomere length (OR = 5.03, 95% CI = 1.08% to 23.36%). There were not association between the rest of polymorphisms analyzed and LTL. Continuous exposure to tobacco could overwhelm the DNA repair machinery, making the effect of the polymorphisms that reduce repair capacity more pronounced. Analyzing the function of smoking-induced DNA-repair genes and LTL is an important goal in order to identify therapeutic targets to treat smoking-induced diseases. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Bioconjugation of therapeutic proteins and enzymes using the expanded set of genetically encoded amino acids.

    PubMed

    Lim, Sung In; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-10-01

    The last decade has witnessed striking progress in the development of bioorthogonal reactions that are strictly directed towards intended sites in biomolecules while avoiding interference by a number of physical and chemical factors in biological environment. Efforts to exploit bioorthogonal reactions in protein conjugation have led to the evolution of protein translational machineries and the expansion of genetic codes that systematically incorporate a range of non-natural amino acids containing bioorthogonal groups into recombinant proteins in a site-specific manner. Chemoselective conjugation of proteins has begun to find valuable applications to previously inaccessible problems. In this review, we describe bioorthogonal reactions useful for protein conjugation, and biosynthetic methods that produce proteins amenable to those reactions through an expanded genetic code. We then provide key examples in which novel protein conjugates, generated by the genetic incorporation of a non-natural amino acid and the chemoselective reactions, address unmet needs in protein therapeutics and enzyme engineering.

  15. Characterization and expression analysis of genes encoding ubiquitin conjugating domain-containing enzymes in Carica papaya

    PubMed Central

    Jue, Dengwei; Sang, Xuelian; Shu, Bo; Liu, Liqin; Wang, Yicheng; Jia, Zhiwei; Zou, Yu; Shi, Shengyou

    2017-01-01

    Background Ripening affects the quality and nutritional contents of fleshy fruits and is a crucial process of fruit development. Although several studies have suggested that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2s or UBC enzymes) are involved in the regulation of fruit ripening, little is known about the function of E2s in papaya (Carica papaya). Methodology/Principal findings In the present study, we searched the papaya genome and identified 34 putative UBC genes, which were clustered into 17 phylogenetic subgroups. We also analyzed the nucleotide sequences of the papaya UBC (CpUBC) genes and found that both exon-intron junctions and sequence motifs were highly conserved among the phylogenetic subgroups. Using real-time PCR analysis, we also found that all the CpUBC genes were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, male and female flowers, and mature fruit, although the expression of some of the genes was increased or decreased in one or several specific organs. We also found that the expression of 13 and two CpUBC genes were incresesd or decreased during one and two ripening stages, respectively. Expression analyses indicates possible E2s playing a more significant role in fruit ripening for further studies. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported genome-wide analysis of the papaya UBC gene family, and the results will facilitate further investigation of the roles of UBC genes in fruit ripening and will aide in the functional validation of UBC genes in papaya. PMID:28231288

  16. Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase genes encode enzymes with contrasting substrate specificity and show divergent gene expression profiles in Fragaria species.

    PubMed

    Miosic, Silvija; Thill, Jana; Milosevic, Malvina; Gosch, Christian; Pober, Sabrina; Molitor, Christian; Ejaz, Shaghef; Rompel, Annette; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    During fruit ripening, strawberries show distinct changes in the flavonoid classes that accumulate, switching from the formation of flavan 3-ols and flavonols in unripe fruits to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the ripe fruits. In the common garden strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) this is accompanied by a distinct switch in the pattern of hydroxylation demonstrated by the almost exclusive accumulation of pelargonidin based pigments. In Fragaria vesca the proportion of anthocyanins showing one (pelargonidin) and two (cyanidin) hydroxyl groups within the B-ring is almost equal. We isolated two dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) cDNA clones from strawberry fruits, which show 82% sequence similarity. The encoded enzymes revealed a high variability in substrate specificity. One enzyme variant did not accept DHK (with one hydroxyl group present in the B-ring), whereas the other strongly preferred DHK as a substrate. This appears to be an uncharacterized DFR variant with novel substrate specificity. Both DFRs were expressed in the receptacle and the achenes of both Fragaria species and the DFR2 expression profile showed a pronounced dependence on fruit development, whereas DFR1 expression remained relatively stable. There were, however, significant differences in their relative rates of expression. The DFR1/DFR2 expression ratio was much higher in the Fragaria×ananassa and enzyme preparations from F.×ananassa receptacles showed higher capability to convert DHK than preparations from F. vesca. Anthocyanin concentrations in the F.×ananassa cultivar were more than twofold higher and the cyanidin:pelargonidin ratio was only 0.05 compared to 0.51 in the F. vesca cultivar. The differences in the fruit colour of the two Fragaria species can be explained by the higher expression of DFR1 in F.×ananassa as compared to F. vesca, a higher enzyme efficiency (Kcat/Km values) of DFR1 combined with the loss of F3'H activity late in fruit development of F.×ananassa.

  17. Mutations in MDH2, Encoding a Krebs Cycle Enzyme, Cause Early-Onset Severe Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Dayem-Quere, Manal; Gusic, Mirjana; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Bannwarth, Sylvie; François, Bérengère; Genin, Emmanuelle C; Fragaki, Konstantina; Volker-Touw, Catharina L M; Vasnier, Christelle; Serre, Valérie; van Gassen, Koen L I; Lespinasse, Françoise; Richter, Susan; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Rouzier, Cécile; Mochel, Fanny; De Saint-Martin, Anne; Abi Warde, Marie-Thérèse; de Sain-van der Velde, Monique G M; Jans, Judith J M; Amiel, Jeanne; Avsec, Ziga; Mertes, Christian; Haack, Tobias B; Strom, Tim; Meitinger, Thomas; Bonnen, Penelope E; Taylor, Robert W; Gagneur, Julien; van Hasselt, Peter M; Rötig, Agnès; Delahodde, Agnès; Prokisch, Holger; Fuchs, Sabine A; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2017-01-05

    MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized hypotonia, psychomotor delay, refractory epilepsy, and elevated lactate in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Functional studies in fibroblasts from affected subjects showed both an apparently complete loss of MDH2 levels and MDH2 enzymatic activity close to null. Metabolomics analyses demonstrated a significant concomitant accumulation of the MDH substrate, malate, and fumarate, its immediate precursor in the Krebs cycle, in affected subjects' fibroblasts. Lentiviral complementation with wild-type MDH2 cDNA restored MDH2 levels and mitochondrial MDH activity. Additionally, introduction of the three missense mutations from the affected subjects into Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided functional evidence to support their pathogenicity. Disruption of the Krebs cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and MDH2 has been recently identified as a novel pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma susceptibility gene. We show that loss-of-function mutations in MDH2 are also associated with severe neurological clinical presentations in children. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Mutations in STAMBP, encoding a deubiquitinating enzyme, cause microcephaly-capillary malformation syndrome.

    PubMed

    McDonell, Laura M; Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Alcantara, Diana; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Carter, Melissa T; Lee, Leo J; Clericuzio, Carol L; Graham, John M; Morris-Rosendahl, Deborah J; Polster, Tilman; Acsadi, Gyula; Townshend, Sharron; Williams, Simon; Halbert, Anne; Isidor, Bertrand; David, Albert; Smyser, Christopher D; Paciorkowski, Alex R; Willing, Marcia; Woulfe, John; Das, Soma; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Marcadier, Janet; Geraghty, Michael T; Frey, Brendan J; Majewski, Jacek; Bulman, Dennis E; Dobyns, William B; O'Driscoll, Mark; Boycott, Kym M

    2013-05-01

    Microcephaly-capillary malformation (MIC-CAP) syndrome is characterized by severe microcephaly with progressive cortical atrophy, intractable epilepsy, profound developmental delay and multiple small capillary malformations on the skin. We used whole-exome sequencing of five patients with MIC-CAP syndrome and identified recessive mutations in STAMBP, a gene encoding the deubiquitinating (DUB) isopeptidase STAMBP (STAM-binding protein, also known as AMSH, associated molecule with the SH3 domain of STAM) that has a key role in cell surface receptor-mediated endocytosis and sorting. Patient cell lines showed reduced STAMBP expression associated with accumulation of ubiquitin-conjugated protein aggregates, elevated apoptosis and insensitive activation of the RAS-MAPK and PI3K-AKT-mTOR pathways. The latter cellular phenotype is notable considering the established connection between these pathways and their association with vascular and capillary malformations. Furthermore, our findings of a congenital human disorder caused by a defective DUB protein that functions in endocytosis implicates ubiquitin-conjugate aggregation and elevated apoptosis as factors potentially influencing the progressive neuronal loss underlying MIC-CAP syndrome.

  19. Clusters of genes encoding fructan biosynthesizing enzymes in wheat and barley.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Bao-Lam; Mather, Diane E; Schreiber, Andreas W; Toubia, John; Baumann, Ute; Shoaei, Zahra; Stein, Nils; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Stangoulis, James C R; Edwards, James; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Fleury, Delphine

    2012-10-01

    Fructans are soluble carbohydrates with health benefits and possible roles in plant adaptation. Fructan biosynthetic genes were isolated using comparative genomics and physical mapping followed by BAC sequencing in barley. Genes encoding sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase (1-SST), fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase (1-FFT) and sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferase (6-SFT) were clustered together with multiple copies of vacuolar invertase genes and a transposable element on two barley BAC. Intron-exon structures of the genes were similar. Phylogenetic analysis of the fructosyltransferases and invertases in the Poaceae showed that the fructan biosynthetic genes may have evolved from vacuolar invertases. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed using leaf RNA extracted from three wheat cultivars grown under different conditions. The 1-SST, 1-FFT and 6-SFT genes had correlated expression patterns in our wheat experiment and in existing barley transcriptome database. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were developed and successfully mapped to a major QTL region affecting wheat grain fructan accumulation in two independent wheat populations. The alleles controlling high- and low- fructan in parental lines were also found to be associated in fructan production in a diverse set of 128 wheat lines. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report on the mapping and sequencing of a fructan biosynthetic gene cluster and in particular, the isolation of a novel 1-FFT gene from barley.

  20. Degradation of Benzene by Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2 and 1YB2 Is Catalyzed by Enzymes Encoded in Distinct Catabolism Gene Clusters.

    PubMed

    de Lima-Morales, Daiana; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L; Jáuregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro; Pieper, Dietmar H

    2015-10-16

    Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2, a benzene and toluene degrader, and Pseudomonas veronii 1YB2, a benzene degrader, have previously been shown to be key players in a benzene-contaminated site. These strains harbor unique catabolic pathways for the degradation of benzene comprising a gene cluster encoding an isopropylbenzene dioxygenase where genes encoding downstream enzymes were interrupted by stop codons. Extradiol dioxygenases were recruited from gene clusters comprising genes encoding a 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase necessary for benzene degradation but typically absent from isopropylbenzene dioxygenase-encoding gene clusters. The benzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase-encoding gene was not clustered with any other aromatic degradation genes, and the encoded protein was only distantly related to dehydrogenases of aromatic degradation pathways. The involvement of the different gene clusters in the degradation pathways was suggested by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR.

  1. Degradation of Benzene by Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2 and 1YB2 Is Catalyzed by Enzymes Encoded in Distinct Catabolism Gene Clusters

    PubMed Central

    de Lima-Morales, Daiana; Chaves-Moreno, Diego; Wos-Oxley, Melissa L.; Jáuregui, Ruy; Vilchez-Vargas, Ramiro

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas veronii 1YdBTEX2, a benzene and toluene degrader, and Pseudomonas veronii 1YB2, a benzene degrader, have previously been shown to be key players in a benzene-contaminated site. These strains harbor unique catabolic pathways for the degradation of benzene comprising a gene cluster encoding an isopropylbenzene dioxygenase where genes encoding downstream enzymes were interrupted by stop codons. Extradiol dioxygenases were recruited from gene clusters comprising genes encoding a 2-hydroxymuconic semialdehyde dehydrogenase necessary for benzene degradation but typically absent from isopropylbenzene dioxygenase-encoding gene clusters. The benzene dihydrodiol dehydrogenase-encoding gene was not clustered with any other aromatic degradation genes, and the encoded protein was only distantly related to dehydrogenases of aromatic degradation pathways. The involvement of the different gene clusters in the degradation pathways was suggested by real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR. PMID:26475106

  2. Distribution of genetic polymorphisms of genes encoding drug metabolizing enzymes & drug transporters - a review with Indian perspective

    PubMed Central

    Umamaheswaran, Gurusamy; Kumar, Dhakchinamoorthi Krishna; Adithan, Chandrasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Phase I and II drug metabolizing enzymes (DME) and drug transporters are involved in the absorption, distribution, metabolism as well as elimination of many therapeutic agents, toxins and various pollutants. Presence of genetic polymorphisms in genes encoding these proteins has been associated with marked inter-individual variability in their activity that could result in variation in drug response, toxicity as well as in disease predisposition. The emergent field pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics (PGx) is a promising discipline, as it predicts disease risk, selection of proper medication with regard to response and toxicity, and appropriate drug dosage guidance based on an individual's genetic make-up. Consequently, genetic variations are essential to understand the ethnic differences in disease occurrence, development, prognosis, therapeutic response and toxicity. For that reason, it is necessary to establish the normative frequency of these genes in a particular population before unraveling the genotype-phenotype associations. Although a fair amount of allele frequency data are available in Indian populations, the existing pharmacogenetic data have not been compiled into a database. This review was intended to compile the normative frequency distribution of the variants of genes encoding DMEs (CYP450s, TPMT, GSTs, COMT, SULT1A1, NAT2 and UGTs) and transporter proteins (MDR1, OCT1 and SLCO1B1) with Indian perspective. PMID:24604039

  3. Sequence and genetic organization of a Zymomonas mobilis gene cluster that encodes several enzymes of glucose metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Barnell, W.O.; Kyung Cheol Yi; Conway, T. )

    1990-12-01

    The Zymomonas mobilis genes that encode glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (zwf), 6-phosphogluconate dehydratase (edd), and glucokinase (glk) were cloned independently by genetic complementation of specific defects in Escherichia coli metabolism. The identify of these cloned genes was confirmed by various biochemical means. Nucleotide sequence analysis established that these three genes are clustered on the genome and revealed an additional open reading frame in this region that has significant amino acid identity to the E.coli xylose-proton symporter and the human glucose transporter. On the basis of this evidence and structural analysis of the deduced primary amino acid sequence, this gene is believed to encode the Z. mobilis glucose-facilitated diffusion protein, glf. The four genes in the 6-kb cluster are organized in the order glf, zwf, edd, glk. The glf and zwf genes are separated by 146 bp. The zwf and edd genes overlap by 8 bp, and their expression may be translationally coupled. The edd and glk genes are separated by 203 bp. The glk gene is followed by tandem transcriptional terminators. The four genes appear to be organized in an operon. Such an arrangement of the genes that govern glucose uptake and the first three steps of the Entner-Doudoroff glycolytic pathway provides the organism with a mechanism for carefully regulating the levels of the enzymes that control carbon flux into the pathway.

  4. Regulation of three genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes of Trichoderma aggressivum during interaction with Agaricus bisporus.

    PubMed

    Abubaker, Kamal S; Sjaarda, Calvin; Castle, Alan J

    2013-06-01

    Members of the genus Trichoderma are very effective competitors of a variety of fungi. Cell-wall-degrading enzymes, including proteinases, glucanases, and chitinases, are commonly secreted as part of the competitive process. Trichoderma aggressivum is the causative agent of green mould disease of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus. The structures of 3 T. aggressivum genes, prb1 encoding a proteinase, ech42 encoding an endochitinase, and a β-glucanase gene, were determined. Promoter elements in the prb1 and ech42 genes suggested that transcription is regulated by carbon and nitrogen levels and by stress. Both genes had mycoparasitism-related elements indicating potential roles for the protein products in competition. The promoter of the β-glucanase gene contained CreA and AreA binding sites indicative of catabolite regulation but contained no mycoparasitism elements. Transcription of the 3 genes was measured in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum and A. bisporus. Two A. bisporus strains, U1, which is sensitive to green mould disease, and SB65, which shows some resistance, were used in co-cultivation tests to assess possible roles of the genes in disease production and severity. prb1 and ech42 were coordinately upregulated after 5 days, whereas β-glucanase transcription was upregulated from day 0 with both Agaricus strains. Upregulation was much less pronounced in mixed cultures of T. aggressivum with the resistant strain, SB65, than with the sensitive strain, U1. These observations suggested that the proteins encoded by these genes have roles in both nutrition and in severity of green mould disease.

  5. A Relational Database for the Discovery of Genes Encoding Amino Acid Biosynthetic Enzymes in Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Peter F.; Soanes, Darren M.

    2003-01-01

    Fungal phytopathogens continue to cause major economic impact, either directly, through crop losses, or due to the costs of fungicide application. Attempts to understand these organisms are hampered by a lack of fungal genome sequence data. A need exists, however, to develop specific bioinformatics tools to collate and analyse the sequence data that currently is available. A web-accessible gene discovery database (http://cogeme.ex.ac.uk/biosynthesis.html) was developed as a demonstration tool for the analysis of metabolic and signal transduction pathways in pathogenic fungi using incomplete gene inventories. Using Bayesian probability to analyse the currently available gene information from pathogenic fungi, we provide evidence that the obligate pathogen Blumeria graminis possesses all amino acid biosynthetic pathways found in free-living fungi, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Phylogenetic analysis was also used to deduce a gene history of succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase, an enzyme in the glutamate and lysine biosynthesis pathways. The database provides a tool and methodology to researchers to direct experimentation towards predicting pathway conservation in pathogenic microorganisms. PMID:18629094

  6. Arabidopsis FAD2 gene encodes the enzyme that is essential for polyunsaturated lipid synthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Okuley, J; Lightner, J; Feldmann, K; Yadav, N; Lark, E; Browse, J

    1994-01-01

    The polyunsaturated fatty acids linoleate and alpha-linolenate are important membrane components and are the essential fatty acids of human nutrition. The major enzyme responsible for the synthesis of these compounds is the plant oleate desaturase of the endoplasmic reticulum, and its activity is controlled in Arabidopsis by the fatty acid desaturation 2 (fad2) locus. A fad2 allele was identified in a population of Arabidopsis in which mutations had been created by T-DNA insertions. Genomic DNA flanking the T-DNA was cloned by plasmid rescue and used to isolate cDNA and genomic clones of FAD2. A cDNA containing the entire FAD2 coding sequence was expressed in fad2 mutant plants and shown to complement the mutant fatty acid phenotype. The deduced amino acid sequence from the cDNA showed homology to other plant desaturases, and this confirmed that FAD2 is the structural gene for the desaturase. Gel blot analyses of FAD2 mRNA levels showed that the gene is expressed throughout the plant and suggest that transcript levels are in excess of the amount needed to account for oleate desaturation. Sequence analysis identified histidine-rich motifs that could contribute to an iron binding site in the cytoplasmic domain of the protein. Such a position would facilitate interaction between the desaturase and cytochrome b5, which is the direct source of electrons for the desaturation reaction, but would limit interaction of the active site with the fatty acyl substrate. PMID:7907506

  7. SARS-CoV ORF1b-encoded nonstructural proteins 12-16: replicative enzymes as antiviral targets.

    PubMed

    Subissi, Lorenzo; Imbert, Isabelle; Ferron, François; Collet, Axelle; Coutard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome) pandemic caused ten years ago by the SARS-coronavirus (SARS-CoV) has stimulated a number of studies on the molecular biology of coronaviruses. This research has provided significant new insight into many mechanisms used by the coronavirus replication-transcription complex (RTC). The RTC directs and coordinates processes in order to replicate and transcribe the coronavirus genome, a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA of outstanding length (∼27-32kilobases). Here, we review the up-to-date knowledge on SARS-CoV replicative enzymes encoded in the ORF1b, i.e., the main RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (nsp12), the helicase/triphosphatase (nsp13), two unusual ribonucleases (nsp14, nsp15) and RNA-cap methyltransferases (nsp14, nsp16). We also review how these enzymes co-operate with other viral co-factors (nsp7, nsp8, and nsp10) to regulate their activity. These last ten years of research on SARS-CoV have considerably contributed to unravel structural and functional details of one of the most fascinating replication/transcription machineries of the RNA virus world. This paper forms part of a series of invited articles in Antiviral Research on "From SARS to MERS: 10years of research on highly pathogenic human coronaviruses". Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mutation of a Rice Gene Encoding a Phenylalanine Biosynthetic Enzyme Results in Accumulation of Phenylalanine and Tryptophan[W

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Tetsuya; Matsuda, Fumio; Kasai, Koji; Fukuoka, Shuichi; Kitamura, Keisuke; Tozawa, Yuzuru; Miyagawa, Hisashi; Wakasa, Kyo

    2008-01-01

    Two distinct biosynthetic pathways for Phe in plants have been proposed: conversion of prephenate to Phe via phenylpyruvate or arogenate. The reactions catalyzed by prephenate dehydratase (PDT) and arogenate dehydratase (ADT) contribute to these respective pathways. The Mtr1 mutant of rice (Oryza sativa) manifests accumulation of Phe, Trp, and several phenylpropanoids, suggesting a link between the synthesis of Phe and Trp. Here, we show that the Mtr1 mutant gene (mtr1-D) encodes a form of rice PDT with a point mutation in the putative allosteric regulatory region of the protein. Transformed callus lines expressing mtr1-D exhibited all the characteristics of Mtr1 callus tissue. Biochemical analysis revealed that rice PDT possesses both PDT and ADT activities, with a preference for arogenate as substrate, suggesting that it functions primarily as an ADT. The wild-type enzyme is feedback regulated by Phe, whereas the mutant enzyme showed a reduced feedback sensitivity, resulting in Phe accumulation. In addition, these observations indicate that rice PDT is critical for regulating the size of the Phe pool in plant cells. Feeding external Phe to wild-type callus tissue and seedlings resulted in Trp accumulation, demonstrating a connection between Phe accumulation and Trp pool size. PMID:18487352

  9. A Rhodococcus qsdA-Encoded Enzyme Defines a Novel Class of Large-Spectrum Quorum-Quenching Lactonases▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Uroz, Stéphane; Oger, Phil M.; Chapelle, Emilie; Adeline, Marie-Thérèse; Faure, Denis; Dessaux, Yves

    2008-01-01

    A gene involved in N-acyl homoserine lactone (N-AHSL) degradation was identified by screening a genomic library of Rhodococcus erythropolis strain W2. This gene, named qsdA (for quorum-sensing signal degradation), encodes an N-AHSL lactonase unrelated to the two previously characterized N-AHSL-degrading enzymes, i.e., the lactonase AiiA and the amidohydrolase AiiD. QsdA is related to phosphotriesterases and constitutes the reference of a novel class of N-AHSL degradation enzymes. It confers the ability to inactivate N-AHSLs with an acyl chain ranging from C6 to C14, with or without substitution at carbon 3. Screening of a collection of 15 Rhodococcus strains and strains closely related to this genus clearly highlighted the relationship between the ability to degrade N-AHSLs and the presence of the qsdA gene in Rhodococcus. Bacteria harboring the qsdA gene interfere very efficiently with quorum-sensing-regulated functions, demonstrating that qsdA is a valuable tool for developing quorum-quenching procedures. PMID:18192419

  10. Upgrading HepG2 cells with adenoviral vectors that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes: application for drug hepatotoxicity testing.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Lechón, M José; Tolosa, Laia; Donato, M Teresa

    2017-02-01

    Drug attrition rates due to hepatotoxicity are an important safety issue considered in drug development. The HepG2 hepatoma cell line is currently being used for drug-induced hepatotoxicity evaluations, but its expression of drug-metabolizing enzymes is poor compared with hepatocytes. Different approaches have been proposed to upgrade HepG2 cells for more reliable drug-induced liver injury predictions. Areas covered: We describe the advantages and limitations of HepG2 cells transduced with adenoviral vectors that encode drug-metabolizing enzymes for safety risk assessments of bioactivable compounds. Adenoviral transduction facilitates efficient and controlled delivery of multiple drug-metabolizing activities to HepG2 cells at comparable levels to primary human hepatocytes by generating an 'artificial hepatocyte'. Furthermore, adenoviral transduction enables the design of tailored cells expressing particular metabolic capacities. Expert opinion: Upgraded HepG2 cells that recreate known inter-individual variations in hepatic CYP and conjugating activities due to both genetic (e.g., polymorphisms) or environmental (e.g., induction, inhibition) factors seems a suitable model to identify bioactivable drug and conduct hepatotoxicity risk assessments. This strategy should enable the generation of customized cells by reproducing human pheno- and genotypic CYP variability to represent a valuable human hepatic cell model to develop new safer drugs and to improve existing predictive toxicity assays.

  11. Gene encoding a novel invertase from a xerophilic Aspergillus niger strain and production of the enzyme in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Veana, Fabiola; Fuentes-Garibay, José Antonio; Aguilar, Cristóbal Noé; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Guerrero-Olazarán, Martha; Viader-Salvadó, José María

    2014-09-01

    β-Fructofuranosidases or invertases (EC 3.2.1.26) are enzymes that are widely used in the food industry, where fructose is preferred over sucrose, because it is sweeter and does not crystallize easily. Since Aspergillus niger GH1, an xerophilic fungus from the Mexican semi-desert, has been reported to be an invertase producer, and because of the need for new enzymes with biotechnological applications, in this work, we describe the gene and amino acid sequence of the invertase from A. niger GH1, and the use of a synthetic gene to produce the enzyme in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. In addition, the produced invertase was characterized biochemically. The sequence of the invertase gene had a length of 1770 bp without introns, encodes a protein of 589 amino acids, and presented an identity of 93% and 97% with invertases from Aspergillus kawachi IFO 4308 and A. niger B60, respectively. A 4.2 L culture with the constructed recombinant P. pastoris strain showed an extracellular and periplasmic invertase production at 72 h induction of 498 and 3776 invertase units (U), respectively, which corresponds to 1018 U/L of culture medium. The invertase produced had an optimum pH of 5.0, optimum temperature of 60 °C, and specific activity of 3389 U/mg protein, and after storage for 96 h at 4 °C showed 93.7% of its activity. This invertase could be suitable for producing inverted sugar used in the food industry.

  12. Enzyme

    MedlinePlus

    Enzymes are complex proteins that cause a specific chemical change in all parts of the body. For ... use them. Blood clotting is another example of enzymes at work. Enzymes are needed for all body ...

  13. Dihydroflavonol 4-Reductase Genes Encode Enzymes with Contrasting Substrate Specificity and Show Divergent Gene Expression Profiles in Fragaria Species

    PubMed Central

    Miosic, Silvija; Thill, Jana; Milosevic, Malvina; Gosch, Christian; Pober, Sabrina; Molitor, Christian; Ejaz, Shaghef; Rompel, Annette; Stich, Karl; Halbwirth, Heidi

    2014-01-01

    During fruit ripening, strawberries show distinct changes in the flavonoid classes that accumulate, switching from the formation of flavan 3-ols and flavonols in unripe fruits to the accumulation of anthocyanins in the ripe fruits. In the common garden strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa) this is accompanied by a distinct switch in the pattern of hydroxylation demonstrated by the almost exclusive accumulation of pelargonidin based pigments. In Fragaria vesca the proportion of anthocyanins showing one (pelargonidin) and two (cyanidin) hydroxyl groups within the B-ring is almost equal. We isolated two dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) cDNA clones from strawberry fruits, which show 82% sequence similarity. The encoded enzymes revealed a high variability in substrate specificity. One enzyme variant did not accept DHK (with one hydroxyl group present in the B-ring), whereas the other strongly preferred DHK as a substrate. This appears to be an uncharacterized DFR variant with novel substrate specificity. Both DFRs were expressed in the receptacle and the achenes of both Fragaria species and the DFR2 expression profile showed a pronounced dependence on fruit development, whereas DFR1 expression remained relatively stable. There were, however, significant differences in their relative rates of expression. The DFR1/DFR2 expression ratio was much higher in the Fragaria×ananassa and enzyme preparations from F.×ananassa receptacles showed higher capability to convert DHK than preparations from F. vesca. Anthocyanin concentrations in the F.×ananassa cultivar were more than twofold higher and the cyanidin:pelargonidin ratio was only 0.05 compared to 0.51 in the F. vesca cultivar. The differences in the fruit colour of the two Fragaria species can be explained by the higher expression of DFR1 in F.×ananassa as compared to F. vesca, a higher enzyme efficiency (Kcat/Km values) of DFR1 combined with the loss of F3’H activity late in fruit development of F.×ananassa. PMID:25393679

  14. Filamentous invasive growth of mutants of the genes encoding ammonia-metabolizing enzymes in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yoshie; Kojima, Ayumi; Shibata, Yuriko; Mitsuzawa, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe undergoes a switch from yeast to filamentous invasive growth in response to certain environmental stimuli. Among them is ammonium limitation. Amt1, one of the three ammonium transporters in this yeast, is required for the ammonium limitation-induced morphological transition; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be understood. Cells lacking Amt1 became capable of invasive growth upon increasing concentrations of ammonium in the medium, suggesting that the ammonium taken up into the cell or a metabolic intermediate in ammonium assimilation might serve as a signal for the ammonium limitation-induced morphological transition. To investigate the possible role of ammonium-metabolizing enzymes in the signaling process, deletion mutants were constructed for the gdh1, gdh2, gln1, and glt1 genes, which were demonstrated by enzyme assays to encode NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, NAD-specific glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase, respectively. Growth tests on various nitrogen sources revealed that a gln1Δ mutant was a glutamine auxotroph and that a gdh1Δ mutant had a defect in growth on ammonium, particularly at high concentrations. The latter observation indicates that the NADP-specific glutamate dehydrogenase of S. pombe plays a major role in ammonium assimilation under high ammonium concentrations. Invasive growth assays showed that gdh1Δ and glt1Δ mutants underwent invasive growth to a lesser extent than did wild-type strains. Increasing the ammonium concentration in the medium suppressed the invasive growth defect of the glt1Δ mutant, but not the gdh1Δ mutant. These results suggest that the nitrogen status of the cell is important in the induction of filamentous invasive growth in S. pombe.

  15. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  16. NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCING AND TRANSCRIPTIONAL MAPPING OF THE GENES ENCODING BIPHENYL DIOXYGENASE, A MULTICOM- PONENT POLYCHLORINATED-BIPHENYL-DEGRADING ENZYME IN PSEUDOMONAS STRAIN LB400

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA region encoding biphenyl dioxygenase, the first enzyme in the biphenyl-polychlorinated biphenyl degradation pathway of Pseudomonas species strain LB400, was sequenced. Six open reading frames were identified, four of which are homologous to the components of toluene dioxy...

  17. Transcriptional analysis of selected cellulose-acting enzymes encoding genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens on spruce wood and microcrystalline cellulose.

    PubMed

    Rytioja, Johanna; Hildén, Kristiina; Hatakka, Annele; Mäkelä, Miia R

    2014-11-01

    The recent discovery of oxidative cellulose degradation enhancing enzymes has considerably changed the traditional concept of hydrolytic cellulose degradation. The relative expression levels of ten cellulose-acting enzyme encoding genes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens were studied on solid-state spruce wood and in microcrystalline Avicel cellulose cultures. From the cellobiohydrolase encoding genes, cel7c was detected at the highest level and showed constitutive expression whereas variable transcript levels were detected for cel7a, cel7b and cel6 in the course of four-week spruce cultivation. The cellulolytic enzyme activities detected in the liquid cultures were consistent with the transcript levels. Interestingly, the selected lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase (LPMO) encoding genes were expressed in both cultures, but showed different transcription patterns on wood compared to those in submerged microcrystalline cellulose cultures. On spruce wood, higher transcript levels were detected for the lpmos carrying cellulose binding module (CBM) than for the lpmos without CBMs. In both cultures, the expression levels of the lpmo genes were generally higher than the levels of cellobiose dehydrogenase (CDH) encoding genes. Based on the results of this work, the oxidative cellulose cleaving enzymes of D. squalens have essential role in cellulose degrading machinery of the fungus.

  18. Positional cloning of rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1: rice "green revolution gene" encodes a mutant enzyme involved in gibberellin synthesis.

    PubMed

    Monna, Lisa; Kitazawa, Noriyuki; Yoshino, Rika; Suzuki, Junko; Masuda, Haruka; Maehara, Yumiko; Tanji, Masao; Sato, Mizuho; Nasu, Shinobu; Minobe, Yuzo

    2002-02-28

    A rice semidwarfing gene, sd-1, known as the "green revolution gene," was isolated by positional cloning and revealed to encode gibberellin 20-oxidase, the key enzyme in the gibberellin biosynthesis pathway. Analysis of 3477 segregants using several PCR-based marker technologies, including cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, derived-CAPS, and single nucleotide polymorphisms revealed 1 ORF in a 6-kb candidate interval. Normal-type rice cultivars have an identical sequence in this region, consisting of 3 exons (558, 318, and 291 bp) and 2 introns (105 and 1471 bp). Dee-Geo-Woo-Gen-type sd-1 mutants have a 383-bp deletion from the genome (278-bp deletion from the expressed sequence), from the middle of exon 1 to upstream of exon 2, including a 105-bp intron, resulting in a frame-shift that produces a termination codon after the deletion site. The radiation-induced sd-1 mutant Calrose 76 has a 1-bp substitution in exon 2, causing an amino acid substitution (Leu [CTC] to Phe [TTC]). Expression analysis suggests the existence of at least one more locus of gibberellin 20-oxidase which may prevent severe dwarfism from developing in sd-1 mutants.

  19. Distribution of messenger RNAs encoding the enzymes glutaminase, aspartate aminotransferase and glutamic acid decarboxylase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Najlerahim, A; Harrison, P J; Barton, A J; Heffernan, J; Pearson, R C

    1990-05-01

    In situ hybridization histochemistry (ISHH) using synthetic oligonucleotide probes has been used to identify cells containing the mRNAs coding for glutaminase (GluT), aspartate aminotransferase (AspT) and glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD). The distribution of GAD mRNA confirms previous descriptions and matches the distribution of GAD detected using specific antibodies. AspT mRNA is widely distributed in the brain, but is present at high levels in GABAergic neuronal populations, some that may be glutamatergic, and in a subset of neurons which do not contain significant levels of either GAD or GluT mRNA. Particularly prominent are the neurons of the magnocellular division of the red nucleus, the large cells in the deep cerebellar nuclei and the vestibular nuclei and neurons of the lateral superior olivary nucleus. GluT mRNA does not appear to be present at high levels in all GAD-containing neurons, but is seen prominently in many neuronal populations that may use glutamate as a neurotransmitter, such as neocortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells, the granule cells of the cerebellum and neurons of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. The heaviest labelling of GluT mRNA is seen in the lateral reticular nucleus of the medulla. ISHH using probes directed against the mRNAs encoding these enzymes may be an important technique for identifying glutamate and aspartate using neuronal populations and for examining their regulation in a variety of experimental and pathological circumstances.

  20. [Researches on influence of squalene synthase gene polymorphism on catalytic efficiency of its encode enzyme in Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Ning; Wang, Xue-Yong; Liu, Chun-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Hao; Wen, Hao

    2012-12-01

    To analyse the polymorphism of squalene synthase gene and reveal the influence of squalene synthase (SQS) gene polymorphism on the catalytic efficiency of its encode enzyme in Glycyrrhiza uralensi. The total RNA was extracted. PCR was used to amplify the coding sequences of squalene synthase gene, which were sequenced and analysed. The expression vectors containing different SQS gene sequences, including SQS1C, SQS1F, SQS2A, SQS2B, were constructed and transformed into Escherichia coli BL21. The fusion protein was induced to express by IPTG, then was isolated, purified and used to carry out the enzymatic reaction in vitro. GC-MS was used to analyse the production. There were three kinds of gene polymorphism existing in SQS1 gene of G. uralensis, including single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs), insertion/deletion length polymorphism (InDels) and level of amino acid, the proportion of conservative replace of SQS1 was 53.94%, and there were 2 mutational sites in structural domains. The proportion of conservative replace of SQS2 was 60%, and there was 1 mutational site in structural domains. The production squalene could be detected by GC-MS in all the 4 kinds of enzymatic reactions. The capacity of accumulating squalene of SQS1F was higher than other SQS genes. The polymorphism of SQS gene was quite abundant in G. uralensis, which maybe the molecular foundation of the formation of high-quality liquorice.

  1. Bacillus halodurans Strain C125 Encodes and Synthesizes Enzymes from Both Known Pathways To Form dUMP Directly from Cytosine Deoxyribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Oehlenschlæger, Christian Berg; Løvgreen, Monika Nøhr; Reinauer, Eva; Lehtinen, Emilia; Pind, Marie-Louise Lindberg; Harris, Pernille; Martinussen, Jan; Willemoës, Martin

    2015-05-15

    Analysis of the genome of Bacillus halodurans strain C125 indicated that two pathways leading from a cytosine deoxyribonucleotide to dUMP, used for dTMP synthesis, were encoded by the genome of the bacterium. The genes that were responsible, the comEB gene and the dcdB gene, encoding dCMP deaminase and the bifunctional dCTP deaminase:dUTPase (DCD:DUT), respectively, were both shown to be expressed in B. halodurans, and both genes were subject to repression by the nucleosides thymidine and deoxycytidine. The latter nucleoside presumably exerts its repression after deamination by cytidine deaminase. Both comEB and dcdB were cloned, overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to homogeneity. Both enzymes were active and displayed the expected regulatory properties: activation by dCTP for dCMP deaminase and dTTP inhibition for both enzymes. Structurally, the B. halodurans enzyme resembled the Mycobacterium tuberculosis enzyme the most. An investigation of sequenced genomes from other species of the genus Bacillus revealed that not only the genome of B. halodurans but also the genomes of Bacillus pseudofirmus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus hemicellulosilyticus, Bacillus marmarensis, Bacillus cereus, and Bacillus megaterium encode both the dCMP deaminase and the DCD:DUT enzymes. In addition, eight dcdB homologs from Bacillus species within the genus for which the whole genome has not yet been sequenced were registered in the NCBI Entrez database.

  2. Culture-independent method for identification of microbial enzyme-encoding genes by activity-based single-cell sequencing using a water-in-oil microdroplet platform.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Nishi, Shinro; Yoshida, Takao; Hatada, Yuji; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Ayaka; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Sekiguchi, Tetsushi; Shoji, Shuichi; Funatsu, Takashi

    2016-02-26

    Environmental microbes are a great source of industrially valuable enzymes with potent and unique catalytic activities. Unfortunately, the majority of microbes remain unculturable and thus are not accessible by culture-based methods. Recently, culture-independent metagenomic approaches have been successfully applied, opening access to untapped genetic resources. Here we present a methodological approach for the identification of genes that encode metabolically active enzymes in environmental microbes in a culture-independent manner. Our method is based on activity-based single-cell sequencing, which focuses on microbial cells showing specific enzymatic activities. First, at the single-cell level, environmental microbes were encapsulated in water-in-oil microdroplets with a fluorogenic substrate for the target enzyme to screen for microdroplets that contain microbially active cells. Second, the microbial cells were recovered and subjected to whole genome amplification. Finally, the amplified genomes were sequenced to identify the genes encoding target enzymes. Employing this method, we successfully identified 14 novel β-glucosidase genes from uncultured bacterial cells in marine samples. Our method contributes to the screening and identification of genes encoding industrially valuable enzymes.

  3. Culture-independent method for identification of microbial enzyme-encoding genes by activity-based single-cell sequencing using a water-in-oil microdroplet platform

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kazuki; Iizuka, Ryo; Nishi, Shinro; Yoshida, Takao; Hatada, Yuji; Takaki, Yoshihiro; Iguchi, Ayaka; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Sekiguchi, Tetsushi; Shoji, Shuichi; Funatsu, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Environmental microbes are a great source of industrially valuable enzymes with potent and unique catalytic activities. Unfortunately, the majority of microbes remain unculturable and thus are not accessible by culture-based methods. Recently, culture-independent metagenomic approaches have been successfully applied, opening access to untapped genetic resources. Here we present a methodological approach for the identification of genes that encode metabolically active enzymes in environmental microbes in a culture-independent manner. Our method is based on activity-based single-cell sequencing, which focuses on microbial cells showing specific enzymatic activities. First, at the single-cell level, environmental microbes were encapsulated in water-in-oil microdroplets with a fluorogenic substrate for the target enzyme to screen for microdroplets that contain microbially active cells. Second, the microbial cells were recovered and subjected to whole genome amplification. Finally, the amplified genomes were sequenced to identify the genes encoding target enzymes. Employing this method, we successfully identified 14 novel β-glucosidase genes from uncultured bacterial cells in marine samples. Our method contributes to the screening and identification of genes encoding industrially valuable enzymes. PMID:26915788

  4. Analysis of the blind Drosophila mutant ninaB identifies the gene encoding the key enzyme for vitamin A formation invivo.

    PubMed

    von Lintig, J; Dreher, A; Kiefer, C; Wernet, M F; Vogt, K

    2001-01-30

    Visual pigments (rhodopsins) are composed of a chromophore (vitamin A derivative) bound to a protein moiety embedded in the retinal membranes. Animals cannot synthesize the visual chromophore de novo but rely on the uptake of carotenoids, from which vitamin A is formed enzymatically by oxidative cleavage. Despite its importance, the enzyme catalyzing the key step in vitamin A formation resisted molecular analyses until recently, when the successful cloning of a cDNA encoding an enzyme with beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase activity from Drosophila was reported. To prove its identity with the key enzyme for vitamin A formation in vivo, we analyzed the blind Drosophila mutant ninaB. In two independent ninaB alleles, we found mutations in the gene encoding the beta,beta-carotene-15,15'-dioxygenase. These mutations lead to a defect in vitamin A formation and are responsible for blindness of these flies.

  5. [Effect of colchicine and Triton X-100 on expression of the enzyme-encoding genes in nongerminating seeds of sugarbeet (Beta vulgaris L.)].

    PubMed

    Kirikovich, S S; Levites, E V

    2011-01-01

    The expression of the enzyme-coding genes, controlling glucose-phosphate isomerase (GPI), malate dehydrogenase (MDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), was examined in nongerminating seeds of sugarbeet after Triton X-100 (TX-100) and colchicine treatment. Two types of changes revealed included modification of the enzymatic loci expression (change of the isozyme electrophoretic mobility) and inactivation of standard profiles. In the MDH and GPI systems, these processes were found to be associated. Complete isozyme modification was accompanied with the disappearance of standard profiles. In the ADH system, the treatment with TX-100 and colchicine gave rise to two independent processes, including silencing of the Adh1 locus and the appearance of the ADH isozymes with abnormal electrophoretic mobility, which were probably the products of the Adh2 locus. It was suggested that the effect of TX-100 and colchicine on the expression of the enzyme-encoding genes examined depended on the intracellular localization of the encoded enzymes.

  6. Cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase systems in aquatic species: carcinogen metabolism and biomarkers for carcinogen and pollutant exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Stegeman, J J; Lech, J J

    1991-01-01

    High levels of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) carcinogens commonly occur in aquatic systems where neoplasms arise in fish and other animals. Enzymes that transform PAHs can act in initiating these diseases and can indicate the contamination of fish by carcinogens and other pollutants. Cytochrome P-450 has similar roles in activating PAH carcinogens in fish and mammalian species. PAHs and many chlorinated hydrocarbons, e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) induce a form of cytochrome P-450 in fish that is the primary catalyst of PAH metabolism. The induction of this P-450 in fish can accelerate the disposition of hydrocarbons, but can also enhance the formation of carcinogenic derivatives of PAHs. Invertebrates have lower rates of PAH metabolism than fish. These rates are not obviously inducible by exposure to PAHs or PCBs. The lower rates of foreign compound metabolism contribute to higher pollutant residue levels in bivalve mollusks (clams, mussels, etc.) than in fish and may limit the involvement of some procarcinogens (requiring activation) in disease processes in invertebrates. The induction of P-450 forms can indicate the exposure of fish to PAHs, PCBs, and other toxic compounds. This is not restricted to carcinogens. Environmental induction has been detected in fish from contaminated areas by use of catalytic assay, antibodies to fish P-450, and cDNA probes that hybridize with P-450 messenger RNA. Application of these methods can provide sensitive biological monitoring tools that can detect environmental contamination of fish by some carcinogens and tumor promoters.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2050047

  7. Inventory of the GH70 enzymes encoded by Leuconostoc citreum NRRL B-1299 - identification of three novel α-transglucosylases.

    PubMed

    Passerini, Delphine; Vuillemin, Marlène; Ufarté, Lisa; Morel, Sandrine; Loux, Valentin; Fontagné-Faucher, Catherine; Monsan, Pierre; Remaud-Siméon, Magali; Moulis, Claire

    2015-06-01

    Leuconostoc citreum NRRL B-1299 has long been known to produce α-glucans containing both α-(1→6) and α-(1→2) linkages, which are synthesized by α-transglucosylases of the GH70 family. We sequenced the genome of Leuconostoc citreum NRRL B-1299 to identify the full inventory of GH70 enzymes in this strain. Three new genes (brsA, dsrM and dsrDP) putatively encoding GH70 enzymes were identified. The corresponding recombinant enzymes were characterized. Branching sucrase A (BRS-A) grafts linear α-(1→6) dextran with α-(1→2)-linked glucosyl units, and is probably involved in the α-(1→2) branching of L. citreum NRRL B-1299 dextran. This is the first report of a naturally occurring α-(1→2) branching sucrase. DSR-M and DSR-DP are dextransucrases that are specific for α-(1→6) linkage synthesis and mainly produce oligomers or short dextrans with molar masses between 580 and 27 000 g·mol(-1) . In addition, DSR-DP contains sequences that diverge from the consensus sequences that are typically present in enzymes that synthesize linear dextran. Comparison of the genome with five other L. citreum genomes further revealed that dsrDP is unique to L. citreum NRRL B-1299. The presence of this gene in a prophage represents the first evidence of phage-mediated horizontal transfer of genes encoding such enzymes in lactic acid bacteria. Finally, brsA and dsrM are located in a chromosomal region in which genes encoding strain-specific GH70 enzymes are consistently located. This region may be a good target on which to focus in order to rapidly evaluate the diversity of GH70 enzymes in L. citreum strains.

  8. Comparative analysis of genes encoding key steroid core oxidation enzymes in fast-growing Mycobacterium spp. strains.

    PubMed

    Bragin, E Yu; Shtratnikova, V Yu; Dovbnya, D V; Schelkunov, M I; Pekov, Yu A; Malakho, S G; Egorova, O V; Ivashina, T V; Sokolov, S L; Ashapkin, V V; Donova, M V

    2013-11-01

    A comparative genome analysis of Mycobacterium spp. VKM Ac-1815D, 1816D and 1817D strains used for efficient production of key steroid intermediates (androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, AD, androsta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione, ADD, 9α-hydroxy androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, 9-OH-AD) from phytosterol has been carried out by deep sequencing. The assembled contig sequences were analyzed for the presence putative genes of steroid catabolism pathways. Since 3-ketosteroid-9α-hydroxylases (KSH) and 3-ketosteroid-Δ(1)-dehydrogenase (Δ(1) KSTD) play key role in steroid core oxidation, special attention was paid to the genes encoding these enzymes. At least three genes of Δ(1) KSTD (kstD), five genes of KSH subunit A (kshA), and one gene of KSH subunit B of 3-ketosteroid-9α-hydroxylases (kshB) have been found in Mycobacterium sp. VKM Ac-1817D. Strains of Mycobacterium spp. VKM Ac-1815D and 1816D were found to possess at least one kstD, one kshB and two kshA genes. The assembled genome sequence of Mycobacterium sp. VKM Ac-1817D differs from those of 1815D and 1816D strains, whereas these last two are nearly identical, differing by 13 single nucleotide substitutions (SNPs). One of these SNPs is located in the coding region of a kstD gene and corresponds to an amino acid substitution Lys (135) in 1816D for Ser (135) in 1815D. The findings may be useful for targeted genetic engineering of the biocatalysts for biotechnological application.

  9. Analysis of the metatranscriptome of microbial communities of an alkaline hot sulfur spring revealed different gene encoding pathway enzymes associated with energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Swetaleena; Padhi, Soumesh Kumar; Mohanty, Sriprakash; Samanta, Mrinal; Maiti, Nikhil Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Alkaline sulfur hot springs notable for their specialized and complex ecosystem powered by geothermal energy are abundantly rich in different chemotrophic and phototrophic thermophilic microorganisms. Survival and adaptation of these organisms in the extreme environment is specifically related to energy metabolism. To gain a better understanding of survival mechanism of the organisms in these ecosystems, we determined the different gene encoding enzymes associated with anaerobic pathways of energy metabolism by applying the metatranscriptomics approach. The analysis of the microbial population of hot sulfur spring revealed the presence of both aerobic and anaerobic organisms indicating dual mode of lifestyle of the community members. Proteobacteria (28.1 %) was the most dominant community. A total of 988 reads were associated with energy metabolism, out of which 33.7 % of the reads were assigned to nitrogen, sulfur, and methane metabolism based on KEGG classification. The major lineages of hot spring communities were linked with the anaerobic pathways. Different gene encoding enzymes (hao, nir, nar, cysH, cysI, acs) showed the involvement of microbial members in nitrification, denitrification, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, and methane generation. This study enhances our understanding of important gene encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism, required for the survival and adaptation of microbial communities in the hot spring.

  10. Analysis of expressed sequence tags and identification of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes from the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae.

    PubMed

    Karim, Nurul; Jones, John T; Okada, Hiroaki; Kikuchi, Taisei

    2009-11-16

    The fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchus avenae is widespread in soil and is found in association with decaying plant material. This nematode is also found in association with plants but its ability to cause plant disease remains largely undetermined. The taxonomic position and intermediate lifestyle of A. avenae make it an important model for studying the evolution of plant parasitism within the Nematoda. In addition, the exceptional capacity of this nematode to survive desiccation makes it an important system for study of anhydrobiosis. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis may therefore be useful in providing an initial insight into the poorly understood genetic background of A. avenae. We present the generation, analysis and annotation of over 5,000 ESTs from a mixed-stage A. avenae cDNA library. Clustering of 5,076 high-quality ESTs resulted in a set of 2,700 non-redundant sequences comprising 695 contigs and 2,005 singletons. Comparative analyses indicated that 1,567 (58.0%) of the cluster sequences had homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, 1,750 (64.8%) in other nematodes, 1,321(48.9%) in organisms other than nematodes, and 862 (31.9%) had no significant match to any sequence in current protein or nucleotide databases. In addition, 1,100 (40.7%) of the sequences were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy. Similarity searches of the cluster sequences identified a set of genes with significant homology to genes encoding enzymes that degrade plant or fungal cell walls. The full length sequences of two genes encoding glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) cellulases and two pectate lyase genes encoding polysaccharide lyase family 3 (PL3) proteins were identified and characterized. We have described at least 2,214 putative genes from A. avenae and identified a set of genes encoding a range of cell-wall-degrading enzymes. This EST dataset represents a starting point for studies in a number of different fundamental and applied areas. The presence of

  11. Analysis of expressed sequence tags and identification of genes encoding cell-wall-degrading enzymes from the fungivorous nematode Aphelenchus avenae

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The fungivorus nematode, Aphelenchus avenae is widespread in soil and is found in association with decaying plant material. This nematode is also found in association with plants but its ability to cause plant disease remains largely undetermined. The taxonomic position and intermediate lifestyle of A. avenae make it an important model for studying the evolution of plant parasitism within the Nematoda. In addition, the exceptional capacity of this nematode to survive desiccation makes it an important system for study of anhydrobiosis. Expressed sequence tag (EST) analysis may therefore be useful in providing an initial insight into the poorly understood genetic background of A. avenae. Results We present the generation, analysis and annotation of over 5,000 ESTs from a mixed-stage A. avenae cDNA library. Clustering of 5,076 high-quality ESTs resulted in a set of 2,700 non-redundant sequences comprising 695 contigs and 2,005 singletons. Comparative analyses indicated that 1,567 (58.0%) of the cluster sequences had homologues in Caenorhabditis elegans, 1,750 (64.8%) in other nematodes, 1,321(48.9%) in organisms other than nematodes, and 862 (31.9%) had no significant match to any sequence in current protein or nucleotide databases. In addition, 1,100 (40.7%) of the sequences were functionally classified using Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy. Similarity searches of the cluster sequences identified a set of genes with significant homology to genes encoding enzymes that degrade plant or fungal cell walls. The full length sequences of two genes encoding glycosyl hydrolase family 5 (GHF5) cellulases and two pectate lyase genes encoding polysaccharide lyase family 3 (PL3) proteins were identified and characterized. Conclusion We have described at least 2,214 putative genes from A. avenae and identified a set of genes encoding a range of cell-wall-degrading enzymes. This EST dataset represents a starting point for studies in a number of different fundamental and

  12. Molecular Analysis of the Gene Encoding a Novel Transglycosylative Enzyme from Alteromonas sp. Strain O-7 and Its Physiological Role in the Chitinolytic System

    PubMed Central

    Tsujibo, Hiroshi; Kondo, Norihiko; Tanaka, Keiko; Miyamoto, Katsushiro; Baba, Nao; Inamori, Yoshihiko

    1999-01-01

    We purified from the culture supernatant of Alteromonas sp. strain O-7 and characterized a transglycosylating enzyme which synthesized β-(1→6)-(GlcNAc)2, 2-acetamido-6-O-(2-acetamido-2-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranosyl)-2-deoxyglucopyranose from β-(1→4)-(GlcNAc)2. The gene encoding a novel transglycosylating enzyme was cloned into Escherichia coli, and its nucleotide sequence was determined. The molecular mass of the deduced amino acid sequence of the mature protein was determined to be 99,560 Da which corresponds very closely with the molecular mass of the cloned enzyme determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The molecular mass of the cloned enzyme was much larger than that of enzyme (70 kDa) purified from the supernatant of this strain. These results suggest that the native enzyme was the result of partial proteolysis occurring in the N-terminal region. The enzyme showed significant sequence homology with several bacterial β-N-acetylhexosaminidases which belong to family 20 glycosyl hydrolases. However, this novel enzyme differs from all reported β-N-acetylhexosaminidases in its substrate specificity. To clarify the role of the enzyme in the chitinolytic system of the strain, the effect of β-(1→6)-(GlcNAc)2 on the induction of chitinase was investigated. β-(1→6)-(GlcNAc)2 induced a level of production of chitinase similar to that induced by the medium containing chitin. On the other hand, GlcNAc, (GlcNAc)2, and (GlcNAc)3 conversely repressed the production of chitinase to below the basal level of chitinase activity produced constitutively in medium without a carbon source. PMID:10464221

  13. Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Demple, B; Herman, T; Chen, D S

    1991-12-15

    Abasic (AP) sites are common, potentially mutagenic DNA damages that are attacked by AP endonucleases. The biological roles of these enzymes in metazoans have not been tested. We have cloned the human cDNA (APE) that encodes the main nuclear AP endonuclease. The predicted Ape protein, which contains likely nuclear transport signals, is a member of a family of DNA repair enzymes that includes two bacterial AP endonucleases (ExoA protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae and exonuclease III of Escherichia coli) and Rrp1 protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Purified Ape protein lacks the 3'-exonuclease activity against undamaged DNA that is found in the bacterial and Drosophila enzymes, but the lack of obvious amino acid changes to account for this difference suggests that the various enzyme functions evolved by fine tuning a conserved active site. Expression of the active human enzyme in AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli conferred significant resistance to killing by the DNA-alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. The APE cDNA provides a molecular tool for analyzing the role of this central enzyme in maintaining genetic stability in humans.

  14. Cloning and expression of APE, the cDNA encoding the major human apurinic endonuclease: definition of a family of DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Demple, B; Herman, T; Chen, D S

    1991-01-01

    Abasic (AP) sites are common, potentially mutagenic DNA damages that are attacked by AP endonucleases. The biological roles of these enzymes in metazoans have not been tested. We have cloned the human cDNA (APE) that encodes the main nuclear AP endonuclease. The predicted Ape protein, which contains likely nuclear transport signals, is a member of a family of DNA repair enzymes that includes two bacterial AP endonucleases (ExoA protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae and exonuclease III of Escherichia coli) and Rrp1 protein of Drosophila melanogaster. Purified Ape protein lacks the 3'-exonuclease activity against undamaged DNA that is found in the bacterial and Drosophila enzymes, but the lack of obvious amino acid changes to account for this difference suggests that the various enzyme functions evolved by fine tuning a conserved active site. Expression of the active human enzyme in AP endonuclease-deficient E. coli conferred significant resistance to killing by the DNA-alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate. The APE cDNA provides a molecular tool for analyzing the role of this central enzyme in maintaining genetic stability in humans. Images PMID:1722334

  15. Isolation and analysis of a gene encoding alpha-glucuronidase, an enzyme with a novel primary structure involved in the breakdown of xylan.

    PubMed

    Ruile, P; Winterhalter, C; Liebl, W

    1997-01-01

    This is the first report describing the analysis of a gene encoding an alpha-glucuronidase, an enzyme essential for the complete breakdown of substituted xylans. A DNA fragment that carries the gene for alpha-glucuronidase was isolated from chromosomal DNA of the hyperthermophilic bacterium Thermotoga maritima MSB8. The alpha-glucuronidase gene (aguA) was identified and characterized with the aid of nucleotide sequence analysis, deletion experiments and expression studies in Escherichia coli, and the start of the coding region was defined by amino-terminal sequencing of the purified recombinant enzyme. The aguA gene encodes a 674-amino-acid, largely hydrophilic polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 78593 Da. The alpha-glucuronidase of T. maritima has a novel primary structure with no significant similarity to any other known amino acid sequence. The recombinant enzyme was purified to homogeneity as judged by SDS-PAGE. Gel filtration analysis at low salt concentrations revealed a high apparent molecular mass (> 630 kDa) for the recombinant enzyme, but the oligomeric structure changed upon variation of the ionic strength or the pH, yielding hexameric and/or dimeric forms which were also enzymatically active. The enzyme hydrolysed 2-O-(4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucopyranosyluronic acid)-D-xylobiose (MeGlcAX2) to xylobiose and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid. The K(m) for MeGlcAX2 was 0.95 mM. The pH optimum was 6.3. Maximum activity was measured at 85 degrees C, about 25 degrees C or more above the values reported for all other alpha-glucuronidases known to date. When incubated at 55-75 degrees C, the enzyme suffered partial inactivation, but thereafter the residual activity remained nearly constant for several days.

  16. DNA Polymerases of Low-GC Gram-Positive Eubacteria: Identification of the Replication-Specific Enzyme Encoded by dnaE

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Marjorie H.; Miller, Shelley D.; Brown, Neal C.

    2002-01-01

    dnaE, the gene encoding one of the two replication-specific DNA polymerases (Pols) of low-GC-content gram-positive bacteria (E. Dervyn et al., Science 294:1716-1719, 2001; R. Inoue et al., Mol. Genet. Genomics 266:564-571, 2001), was cloned from Bacillus subtilis, a model low-GC gram-positive organism. The gene was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant product displayed inhibitor responses and physical, catalytic, and antigenic properties indistinguishable from those of the low-GC gram-positive-organism-specific enzyme previously named DNA Pol II after the polB-encoded DNA Pol II of E. coli. Whereas a polB-like gene is absent from low-GC gram-positive genomes and whereas the low-GC gram-positive DNA Pol II strongly conserves a dnaE-like, Pol III primary structure, it is proposed that it be renamed DNA polymerase III E (Pol III E) to accurately reflect its replicative function and its origin from dnaE. It is also proposed that DNA Pol III, the other replication-specific Pol of low-GC gram-positive organisms, be renamed DNA polymerase III C (Pol III C) to denote its origin from polC. By this revised nomenclature, the DNA Pols that are expressed constitutively in low-GC gram-positive bacteria would include DNA Pol I, the dispensable repair enzyme encoded by polA, and the two essential, replication-specific enzymes Pol III C and Pol III E, encoded, respectively, by polC and dnaE. PMID:12081953

  17. AtROS1 overexpression provides evidence for epigenetic regulation of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways during salt stress in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Bharti, Poonam; Mahajan, Monika; Vishwakarma, Ajay K; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-09-01

    In plants, epigenetic changes have been identified as regulators of developmental events during normal growth as well as environmental stress exposures. Flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways play a significant role in plant defence during their exposure to environmental cues. The aim of this study was to unravel whether genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways are under epigenetic regulation, particularly DNA methylation, during salt stress. For this, a repressor of silencing from Arabidopsis, AtROS1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. Generated transgenics were evaluated to examine the influence of AtROS1 on methylation status of promoters as well as on coding regions of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways. Overexpression of AtROS1 increases the demethylation levels of both promoters as well as coding regions of genes encoding chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase of the antioxidant pathway during control conditions. The level of demethylation was further increased at promoters as well as coding regions of these genes during salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing AtROS1 showed tolerance to salt stress that could have been due to the higher expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. This is the first comprehensive study documenting the epigenetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways during salt-stress exposure of plants. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  18. AtROS1 overexpression provides evidence for epigenetic regulation of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways during salt stress in transgenic tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Poonam; Mahajan, Monika; Vishwakarma, Ajay K.; Bhardwaj, Jyoti; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-01-01

    In plants, epigenetic changes have been identified as regulators of developmental events during normal growth as well as environmental stress exposures. Flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways play a significant role in plant defence during their exposure to environmental cues. The aim of this study was to unravel whether genes encoding enzymes of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways are under epigenetic regulation, particularly DNA methylation, during salt stress. For this, a repressor of silencing from Arabidopsis, AtROS1, was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco. Generated transgenics were evaluated to examine the influence of AtROS1 on methylation status of promoters as well as on coding regions of genes encoding enzymes of flavonoids biosynthesis and antioxidant pathways. Overexpression of AtROS1 increases the demethylation levels of both promoters as well as coding regions of genes encoding chalcone synthase, chalcone isomerase, flavanone 3-hydroxylase, flavonol synthase, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, and anthocyanidin synthase of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway, and glutathione S-transferase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase of the antioxidant pathway during control conditions. The level of demethylation was further increased at promoters as well as coding regions of these genes during salt-stress conditions. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing AtROS1 showed tolerance to salt stress that could have been due to the higher expression levels of the genes encoding enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways. This is the first comprehensive study documenting the epigenetic regulation of flavonoid biosynthetic and antioxidant pathways during salt-stress exposure of plants. PMID:26116024

  19. An intact SAM-dependent methyltransferase fold is encoded by the human endothelin-converting enzyme-2 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Tempel, W.; Wu, H.; Dombrovsky, L.; Zeng, H.; Loppnau, P.; Zhu, H.; Plotnikov, A.N.; Bochkarev, A.

    2010-08-17

    A recent survey of protein expression patterns in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) has identified ece2 (chromosome: 3; Locations: 3q27.1) as the most significantly downregulated gene within the tested group. ece2 encodes endothelin-converting enzyme ECE2, a metalloprotease with a role in neuropeptide processing. Deficiency in the highly homologous ECE1 has earlier been linked to increased levels of AD-related {beta}-amyloid peptide in mice, consistent with a role for ECE in the degradation of that peptide. Initially, ECE2 was presumed to resemble ECE1, in that it comprises a single transmembrane region of {approx}20 residues flanked by a small amino-terminal cytosolic segment and a carboxy-terminal lumenar peptidase domain. The carboxy-terminal domain has significant sequence similarity to both neutral endopeptidase, for which an X-ray structure has been determined, and Kell blood group protein. After their initial discovery, multiple isoforms of ECE1 and ECE2 were discovered, generated by alternative splicing of multiple exons. The originally described ece2 transcript, RefSeq NM{_}174046, contains the amino-terminal cytosolic portion followed by the transmembrane region and peptidase domain (Fig. 1, isoform B). Another ece2 transcript, available from the Mammalian Gene Collection under MGC2408 (Fig. 1, isoform C), RefSeq accession NM{_}032331, is predicted to be translated into a 255 residue peptide with low but detectable sequence similarity to known S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM)-dependent methyltransferases (SAM-MTs), such as the hypothetical protein TT1324 from Thermus thermophilis, PDB code 2GS9, which shares 30% amino acid sequence identity with ECE2 over 138 residues of the sequence. Intriguingly, another 'elongated' ece2 transcript (Fig. 1, isoform A) (RefSeq NM{_}014693) contains an amino-terminal portion of the putative SAM-MT domain, the transmembrane domain, and the protease domain. This suggests the possibility for coexistence of the putative SAM

  20. Congenic rats with higher arylamine N-acetyltransferase 2 activity exhibit greater carcinogen-induced mammary tumor susceptibility independent of carcinogen metabolism.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Marcus W; Doll, Mark A; Samuelson, David J; Sanders, Mary Ann G; States, J Christopher; Hein, David W

    2017-03-31

    Recent investigations suggest role(s) of human arylamine N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) in breast cancer. Rat NAT2 is orthologous to human NAT1 and the gene products are functional homologs. We conducted in vivo studies using F344.WKY-Nat2 (rapid/slow) rats, congenic at rat Nat2 for high (rapid) and low (slow) arylamine N-acetyltransferase activity, to assess a possible role for rat NAT2 in mammary tumor susceptibility. Mammary carcinogens, methylnitrosourea (MNU) and 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) neither of which is metabolized by N-acetyltransferase, were administered to assess mammary tumors. MNU was administered at 3 or 8 weeks of age. DMBA was administered at 8 weeks of age. NAT2 enzymatic activity and endogenous acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) levels were measured in tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the congenic rats. Tumor latency was shorter in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats, with statistical significance for MNU administered at 3 and 8 weeks of age (p = 0.009 and 0.050, respectively). Tumor multiplicity and incidence were higher in rapid NAT2 rats compared to slow NAT2 rats administered MNU or DMBA at 8 weeks of age (MNU, p = 0.050 and 0.035; DMBA, p = 0.004 and 0.027, respectively). Recombinant rat rapid-NAT2, as well as tissue samples and embryonic fibroblasts derived from rapid NAT2 rats, catalyzed p-aminobenzoic acid N-acetyl transfer and folate-dependent acetyl-coenzyme A (AcCoA) hydrolysis at higher rates than those derived from rat slow-NAT2. Embryonic fibroblasts isolated from rapid NAT2 rats displayed lower levels of cellular AcCoA than slow NAT2 rats (p < 0.01). A novel role for rat NAT2 in mammary cancer was discovered unrelated to carcinogen metabolism, suggesting a role for human NAT1 in breast cancer.

  1. RNA-Seq Analysis of the Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes during Infection of Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) by Phytophthora parasitica

    PubMed Central

    Blackman, Leila M.; Cullerne, Darren P.; Torreña, Pernelyn; Taylor, Jen; Hardham, Adrienne R.

    2015-01-01

    RNA-Seq analysis has shown that over 60% (12,962) of the predicted transcripts in the Phytophthora parasitica genome are expressed during the first 60 h of lupin root infection. The infection transcriptomes included 278 of the 431 genes encoding P. parasitica cell wall degrading enzymes. The transcriptome data provide strong evidence of global transcriptional cascades of genes whose encoded proteins target the main categories of plant cell wall components. A major cohort of pectinases is predominantly expressed early but as infection progresses, the transcriptome becomes increasingly dominated by transcripts encoding cellulases, hemicellulases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycoproteins. The most highly expressed P. parasitica carbohydrate active enzyme gene contains two CBM1 cellulose binding modules and no catalytic domains. The top 200 differentially expressed genes include β-1,4-glucosidases, β-1,4-glucanases, β-1,4-galactanases, a β-1,3-glucanase, an α-1,4-polygalacturonase, a pectin deacetylase and a pectin methylesterase. Detailed analysis of gene expression profiles provides clues as to the order in which linkages within the complex carbohydrates may come under attack. The gene expression profiles suggest that (i) demethylation of pectic homogalacturonan occurs before its deacetylation; (ii) cleavage of the backbone of pectic rhamnogalacturonan I precedes digestion of its side chains; (iii) early attack on cellulose microfibrils by non-catalytic cellulose-binding proteins and enzymes with auxiliary activities may facilitate subsequent attack by glycosyl hydrolases and enzymes containing CBM1 cellulose-binding modules; (iv) terminal hemicellulose backbone residues are targeted after extensive internal backbone cleavage has occurred; and (v) the carbohydrate chains on glycoproteins are degraded late in infection. A notable feature of the P. parasitica infection transcriptome is the high level of transcription of genes encoding enzymes that degrade β-1

  2. Cloning, characterization and subcellular localization of a gene encoding a human Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2) homologous to the Arabidopsis thaliana UBC-16 gene product.

    PubMed

    Yin, Gang; Ji, Chaoneng; Wu, Tong; Shen, Zhouliang; Xu, Xin; Xie, Yi; Mao, Yumin

    2006-05-01

    Ubiquitin charging and activation of class III E2 enzymes has been directly linked to their nuclear import. It has not been published whether other classes E2s also abide by this mechanism. During the large-scale sequencing analysis of a human fetal brain cDNA library, we isolated a cDNA clone that is 2252 base pair in length, encoding a putative 162 amino acid protein, which shares high homology to Arabidopsis thaliana ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 16 (Accession number NP_565110, 51% identity and 71% similarity) at protein level. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the gene is composed of 7 exons, located on human chromosome 8q13-8q21.1, and that the predicted protein of the gene is a class I E2, for only composed of a conserved approximately 150-amino acid catalytic core, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 domain (UBC domain). In the C-terminal of the UBC domain sequence, there are two nuclear localization signals (NLSs). RT-PCR showed that this gene is ubiquitously expressed in 16 kinds of normal human tissues, but expression level is very low, unless in human heart, brain, liver, and pancreas. The subcellular localizations of the new human Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme E2 and its mutation were also examined, which showed that the nuclear localization of hUBC16 depended on two conditions: It has NLS, and at the same time, has enzyme active site, too, at least in HEK293 cells.

  3. Characterization of the Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens glgB gene, which encodes a glycogen-branching enzyme with starch-clearing activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rumbak, E; Rawlings, D E; Lindsey, G G; Woods, D R

    1991-01-01

    A Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens H17c glgB gene, was isolated by direct selection for colonies that produced clearing on starch azure plates. The gene was expressed in Escherichia coli from its own promoter. The glgB gene consisted of an open reading frame of 1,920 bp encoding a protein of 639 amino acids (calculated Mr, 73,875) with 46 to 50% sequence homology with other branching enzymes. A limited region of 12 amino acids showed sequence similarity to amylases and glucanotransferases. The B. fibrisolvens branching enzyme was not able to hydrolyze starch but stimulated phosphorylase alpha-mediated incorporation of glucose into alpha-1,4-glucan polymer 13.4-fold. The branching enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a simple two-step procedure; N-terminal sequence and amino acid composition determinations confirmed the deduced translational start and amino acid sequence of the open reading frame. The enzymatic properties of the purified enzyme were investigated. The enzyme transferred chains of 5 to 10 (optimum, 7) glucose units, using amylose and amylopetin as substrates, to produce a highly branched polymer. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 4 FIG. 7 PMID:1938880

  4. Characterization of a Novel Amylolytic Enzyme Encoded by a Gene from a Soil-Derived Metagenomic Library

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Jiae; Kang, Seowon; Park, Sulhee; Yoon, Hyunjin; Kim, Myo-Jeong; Heu, Sunggi; Ryu, Sangyeol

    2004-01-01

    It has been estimated that less than 1% of the microorganisms in nature can be cultivated by conventional techniques. Thus, the classical approach of isolating enzymes from pure cultures allows the analysis of only a subset of the total naturally occurring microbiota in environmental samples enriched in microorganisms. To isolate useful microbial enzymes from uncultured soil microorganisms, a metagenome was isolated from soil samples, and a metagenomic library was constructed by using the pUC19 vector. The library was screened for amylase activity, and one clone from among approximately 30,000 recombinant Escherichia coli clones showed amylase activity. Sequencing of the clone revealed a novel amylolytic enzyme expressed from a novel gene. The putative amylase gene (amyM) was overexpressed and purified for characterization. Optimal conditions for the enzyme activity of the AmyM protein were 42°C and pH 9.0; Ca2+ stabilized the activity. The amylase hydrolyzed soluble starch and cyclodextrins to produce high levels of maltose and hydrolyzed pullulan to panose. The enzyme showed a high transglycosylation activity, making α-(1, 4) linkages exclusively. The hydrolysis and transglycosylation properties of AmyM suggest that it has novel characteristics and can be regarded as an intermediate type of maltogenic amylase, α-amylase, and 4-α-glucanotransferase. PMID:15574921

  5. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding an enzyme with glucosyltransferase activity for cyclo-DOPA from four o'clocks and feather cockscombs.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Wada, Katsuhiro; Koda, Takatoshi; Kasahara, Kichiji; Adachi, Taiji; Ozeki, Yoshihiro

    2005-04-01

    cDNAs encoding an enzyme with UDP-glucose:cyclo-DOPA 5-O-glucosyltransferase activity were isolated from four o'clocks and feather cockscombs. Phylogenetic analysis of the amino acid sequences deduced from the cDNAs show that they represent a single subclade distinct from those of other phenylpropanoid and flavonoid glucosyltransferases. Changes in the amount of transcripts of the cDNA in four o'clocks correlated with the accumulation of betanin during flower development. The cDNAs isolated here were candidates for the gene of the enzyme involved in another pathway of betacyanin biosynthesis via glucosylation at the cyclo-DOPA step rather than at the betanidin step.

  6. Characterization of splice variants of the genes encoding human mitochondrial HMG-CoA lyase and HMG-CoA synthase, the main enzymes of the ketogenesis pathway.

    PubMed

    Puisac, Beatriz; Ramos, Mónica; Arnedo, María; Menao, Sebastián; Gil-Rodríguez, María Concepción; Teresa-Rodrigo, María Esperanza; Pié, Angeles; de Karam, Juan Carlos; Wesselink, Jan-Jaap; Giménez, Ignacio; Ramos, Feliciano J; Casals, Nuria; Gómez-Puertas, Paulino; Hegardt, Fausto G; Pié, Juan

    2012-04-01

    The genes HMGCS2 and HMGCL encode the two main enzymes for ketone-body synthesis, mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase and HMG-CoA lyase. Here, we identify and describe possible splice variants of these genes in human tissues. We detected an alternative transcript of HMGCS2 carrying a deletion of exon 4, and two alternative transcripts of HMGCL with deletions of exons 5 and 6, and exons 5, 6 and 7, respectively. All splice variants maintained the reading frame. However, Western blot studies and overexpression measurements in eukaryotic or prokaryotic cell models did not reveal HL or mHS protein variants. Both genes showed a similar distribution of the inactive variants in different tissues. Surprisingly, the highest percentages were found in tissues where almost no ketone bodies are synthesized: heart, skeletal muscle and brain. Our results suggest that alternative splicing might coordinately block the two main enzymes of ketogenesis in specific human tissues.

  7. Multiple defects in the respiratory chain lead to the repression of genes encoding components of the respiratory chain and TCA cycle enzymes.

    PubMed

    Bourges, Ingrid; Mucchielli, Marie-Helene; Herbert, Christopher J; Guiard, Bernard; Dujardin, Geneviève; Meunier, Brigitte

    2009-04-17

    Respiratory complexes III, IV and V are formed by components of both nuclear and mitochondrial origin and are embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Their assembly requires the auxiliary factor Oxa1, and the absence of this protein has severe consequences on these three major respiratory chain enzymes. We have studied, in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the effect of the loss of Oxa1 function and of other respiratory defects on the expression of nuclear genes encoding components of the respiratory complexes and tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes. We observed that the concomitant decrease in the level of two respiratory enzymes, complexes III and IV, led to their repression. These genes are known targets of the transcriptional activator complex Hap2/3/4/5 that plays a central role in the reprogramming of yeast metabolism when cells switch from a fermenting, glucose-repressed state to a respiring, derepressed state. We found that the Hap4 protein, the regulatory subunit of the transcriptional complex, was present at a lower level in the oxa1 mutants whereas no change in HAP4 transcript level was observed, suggesting a posttranscriptional modulation. In addition, an altered mitochondrial morphology was observed in mutants with decreased expression of Hap2/3/4/5 target genes. We suggest that the aberrant mitochondrial morphology, presumably caused by the severely decreased level of at least two respiratory enzymes, might be part of the signalling pathway linking the mitochondrial defect and Hap2/3/4/5.

  8. Prorenin processing enzyme (PPE) produced by Baculovirus-infected Sf-9 insect cells: PPE is the cysteine protease encoded in the acMNPV gene.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Takeshi; Awa, Hirono; Kikuchi, Ken-Ichi; Nirasawa, Satoru; Takahashi, Saori

    2010-01-01

    In infection cultures of Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf-9) insect cells with a recombinant baculovirus, vhpR, carrying human preprorenin cDNA in the polyhedrin locus of Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV), the expressed inactive recombinant human (rh)-prorenin is reported to be proteolytically processed to yield active rh-renin in the very late phase of culture (Takahashi et al., Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 71, 2610-2613 (2007)). To identify the enzyme that catalyzes the processing of rh-prorenin, referred to as prorenin processing enzyme (PPE), we purified potential PPE from virus-infected Sf-9 culture supernatant by the use of an internally quenched fluorescent (IQF) substrate for PPE. The 32-kDa protein band agreed well with PPE activity on the final Mono Q FPLC. By N-terminal amino acid sequence analysis, the protein was revealed to be a cysteine protease encoded by the AcMNPV gene. Enzyme activity was inhibited by cysteine protease inhibitors but not by other protease inhibitors. When the purified rh-prorenin was incubated with the 32-kDa protein, renin activity appeared concomitant with the disappearance of rh-prorenin. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the activated product was identical to that of the rh-renin that had accumulated in the infection cultures. These results indicate that the 32-kDa cysteine protease derived from the AcMNPV gene is the enzyme PPE of virus-infected Sf-9 cells.

  9. The ketogenic diet upregulates expression of the gene encoding the key ketogenic enzyme mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim E; Eagles, Douglas A; Sato, Hitoshi

    2002-04-01

    The ketogenic diet is a clinically and experimentally effective anti-epileptic treatment whose molecular mechanism(s) of action remain to be elucidated. As a first step in defining its effects on regulation of fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis at the genetic level, we have administered to rats: (1) a calorie-restricted ketogenic diet (KCR); (2) a calorie-restricted normal diet (NCR); or (3) a normal diet ad libitum (NAL). We have used RNase protection to co-assay diet-induced changes in abundance of the mRNA encoding the critical enzyme of ketogenesis from acetyl-CoA namely mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase (mHS) in liver and brain, together with mRNAs encoding three other key enzymes of fatty acid oxidation. We demonstrate that NCR-fed rats exhibit a significant 2-fold increase in liver mHS mRNA compared to NAL-fed rats, and that KCR-fed rats exhibit a significant 2-fold increase in both liver and brain mHS mRNA compared to NAL-fed rats. Our results demonstrate, for the first time, the effect of a ketogenic diet on gene expression in brain, and suggest possible anti-epileptic mechanisms for future investigation.

  10. aph(3')-IIb, a gene encoding an aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme, is under the positive control of surrogate regulator HpaA.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lin; Jin, Shouguang

    2003-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbors a chromosomal aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene, aph(3')-IIb, which confers P. aeruginosa resistance to several important aminoglycoside antibiotics, including kanamycin A and B, neomycin B and C, butirosin, and seldomycin F5. The aph(3')-IIb gene has been found to be regulated by an AraC-type transcriptional regulator (HpaA) encoded by a gene located upstream of the aph(3')-IIb gene. In the presence of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA), HpaA activates the expression of aph(3')-IIb as well as that of the hpa regulon which encodes metabolic enzymes for the utilization of 4-HPA. hpaA and aph(3')-IIb form an operon, and in response to the presence of 4-HPA, the wild-type P. aeruginosa strain PAK (but not its hpaA mutant strain) displays increased resistance to neomycin. A survey of 39 clinical and 19 environmental isolates of P. aeruginosa demonstrated in all of them the presence of an hpaA-aph gene cluster, while 56 out of the 58 isolates are able to utilize the 4-HPA as a sole carbon source, suggesting a feature common to P. aeruginosa strains. Interestingly, a larger portion of clinical isolates than environmental isolates showed 4-HPA-induced resistance to neomycin. The aph(3')-IIb gene product is likely to function as a metabolic enzyme which has a cross-reactivity with aminoglycosides. These findings provide new insight into the possible mechanism of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance.

  11. Cloning and Expression of the algL Gene, Encoding the Azotobacter chroococcum Alginate Lyase: Purification and Characterization of the Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Peciña, Ana; Pascual, Alberto; Paneque, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    The alginate lyase-encoding gene (algL) of Azotobacter chroococcum was localized to a 3.1-kb EcoRI DNA fragment that revealed an open reading frame of 1,116 bp. This open reading frame encodes a protein of 42.98 kDa, in agreement with the value previously reported by us for this protein. The deduced protein has a potential N-terminal signal peptide that is consistent with its proposed periplasmic location. The analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence indicated that the gene sequence has a high homology (90% identity) to the Azotobacter vinelandii gene sequence, which has very recently been deposited in the GenBank database, and that it has 64% identity to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa gene sequence but that it has rather low homology (15 to 22% identity) to the gene sequences encoding alginate lyase in other bacteria. The A. chroococcum AlgL protein was overproduced in Escherichia coli and purified to electrophoretic homogeneity in a two-step chromatography procedure on hydroxyapatite and phenyl-Sepharose. The kinetic and molecular parameters of the recombinant alginate lyase are similar to those found for the native enzyme. PMID:10049370

  12. Cloning and functional expression of the gene encoding the key enzyme for chlorophyll b biosynthesis (CAO) from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Oster, U; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, A; Rüdiger, W

    2000-02-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthesis and degradation are the only biochemical processes on Earth that can be directly observed from satellites or other planets. The bulk of the Chls is found in the light-harvesting antenna complexes of photosynthetic organisms. Surprisingly little is known about the biosynthesis of Chl b, which is the second most abundant Chl pigment after Chl a. We describe here the expression and properties of the chlorophyllide a oxygenase gene (CAO) from Arabidopsis thaliana, which is apparently the key enzyme in Chl b biosynthesis. The recombinant enzyme produced in Escherichia coli catalyses an unusual two-step oxygenase reaction that is the 'missing link' in the chlorophyll cycle of higher plants.

  13. The Calvin cycle enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase of Xanthobacter flavus required for autotrophic CO2 fixation is not encoded by the cbb operon.

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, W G

    1994-01-01

    During autotrophic growth of Xanthobacter flavus, energy derived from the oxidation of hydrogen methanol or formate is used to drive the assimilation of CO2 via the Calvin cycle. The genes encoding the Calvin cycle enzymes are organized in the cbb operon, which is expressed only during autotrophic growth. Although it has been established that the transcriptional activator CbbR is required for the expression of the cbb operon, it is unclear whether CbbR is the only factor contributing to the regulation of the cbb operon. This paper describes the isolation of X. flavus mutants which were affected in the regulation of the cbb operon. One of the mutant strains was subject to an enhanced repression of the cbb operon promoter by the gluconeogenic substrate succinate and in addition failed to grow autotrophically. The rate of growth of the X. flavus mutant on succinate-containing medium was lower than that of the wild-type strain, but rates of growth on medium supplemented with gluconate were identical. A genomic library of X. flavus was constructed and was used to complement the mutant strain. The nucleotide sequence of the DNA fragment required to restore autotrophic growth of the X. flavus mutant was determined. One open reading frame that displayed extensive similarities to phosphoglycerate kinase-encoding genes (pgk) was identified. The X. flavus mutant lacked phosphoglycerate kinase activity following growth on gluconate or succinate. Introduction of the pgk gene into the X. flavus mutant partially restored the activity of phosphoglycerate kinase. Induction of the cbb operon of the X. flavus wild-type strain resulted in a simultaneous and parallel increase in the activities of ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase and phosphoglycerate kinase, whereas the latter activity remained absent in the X. flavus pgk mutant. It is concluded that X. flavus employees a single phosphoglycerate kinase enzyme and this is not encoded within the cbb operon. PMID:7928974

  14. Cloning and expression of zebrafish genes encoding the heme synthesis enzymes uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO).

    PubMed

    Hanaoka, Ryuki; Dawid, Igor B; Kawahara, Atsuo

    2007-02-01

    Heme is synthesized from glycine and succinyl CoA by eight heme synthesis enzymes. Although genetic defects in any of these enzymes are known to cause severe human blood diseases, their developmental expression in mammals is unknown. In this paper, we report two zebrafish heme synthesis enzymes, uroporphyrinogen III synthase (UROS) and protoporphyrinogen oxidase (PPO) that are well conserved in comparison to their human counterparts. Both UROS and PPO formed pairs of bilateral stripes in the lateral plate mesoderm at the 15-somite stage. At 24 h post-fertilization (hpf), UROS and PPO were predominantly expressed in the intermediate cell mass (ICM) that is the major site of primitive hematopoiesis. The expression of UROS and PPO was drastically suppressed in the bloodless mutants cloche and vlad tepes/gata 1 from 15-somite to 24hpf stages, indicating that both cloche and vlad tepes/gata 1 are required for the induction and maintenance of UROS and PPO expression in the ICM.

  15. A maize gene encoding an NADPH binding enzyme highly homologous to isoflavone reductases is activated in response to sulfur starvation.

    PubMed Central

    Petrucco, S; Bolchi, A; Foroni, C; Percudani, R; Rossi, G L; Ottonello, S

    1996-01-01

    we isolated a novel gene that is selectively induced both in roots and shoots in response to sulfur starvation. This gene encodes a cytosolic, monomeric protein of 33 kD that selectively binds NADPH. The predicted polypeptide is highly homologous ( > 70%) to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but the maize protein (IRL for isoflavone reductase-like) belongs to a novel family of proteins present in a variety of plants. Anti-IRL antibodies specifically recognize IFR polypeptides, yet the maize protein is unable to use various isoflavonoids as substrates. IRL expression is correlated closely to glutathione availability: it is persistently induced in seedlings whose glutathione content is about fourfold lower than controls, and it is down-regulated rapidly when control levels of glutathione are restored. This glutathione-dependent regulation indicates that maize IRL may play a crucial role in the establishment of a thiol-independent response to oxidative stress under glutathione shortage conditions. PMID:8597660

  16. A maize gene encoding an NADPH binding enzyme highly homologous to isoflavone reductases is activated in response to sulfur starvation.

    PubMed

    Petrucco, S; Bolchi, A; Foroni, C; Percudani, R; Rossi, G L; Ottonello, S

    1996-01-01

    we isolated a novel gene that is selectively induced both in roots and shoots in response to sulfur starvation. This gene encodes a cytosolic, monomeric protein of 33 kD that selectively binds NADPH. The predicted polypeptide is highly homologous ( > 70%) to leguminous isoflavone reductases (IFRs), but the maize protein (IRL for isoflavone reductase-like) belongs to a novel family of proteins present in a variety of plants. Anti-IRL antibodies specifically recognize IFR polypeptides, yet the maize protein is unable to use various isoflavonoids as substrates. IRL expression is correlated closely to glutathione availability: it is persistently induced in seedlings whose glutathione content is about fourfold lower than controls, and it is down-regulated rapidly when control levels of glutathione are restored. This glutathione-dependent regulation indicates that maize IRL may play a crucial role in the establishment of a thiol-independent response to oxidative stress under glutathione shortage conditions.

  17. Differential expression of genes encoding anti-oxidant enzymes in Sydney rock oysters, Saccostrea glomerata (Gould) selected for disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Green, Timothy J; Dixon, Tom J; Devic, Emilie; Adlard, Robert D; Barnes, Andrew C

    2009-05-01

    Sydney rock oysters (Saccostrea glomerata) selectively bred for disease resistance (R) and wild-caught control oysters (W) were exposed to a field infection of disseminating neoplasia. Cumulative mortality of W oysters (31.7%) was significantly greater than R oysters (0.0%) over the 118 days of the experiment. In an attempt to understand the biochemical and molecular pathways involved in disease resistance, differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs) between R and W S. glomerata hemocytes were identified using the PCR technique, suppression subtractive hybridisation (SSH). Sequencing of 300 clones from two SSH libraries revealed 183 distinct sequences of which 113 shared high similarity to sequences in the public databases. Putative function could be assigned to 64 of the sequences. Expression of nine ESTs homologous to genes previously shown to be involved in bivalve immunity was further studied using quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR). The base-line expression of an extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) and a small heat shock protein (sHsP) were significantly increased, whilst peroxiredoxin 6 (Prx6) and interferon inhibiting cytokine factor (IK) were significantly decreased in R oysters. From these results it was hypothesised that R oysters would be able to generate the anti-parasitic compound, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) faster and to higher concentrations during respiratory burst due to the differential expression of genes for the two anti-oxidant enzymes of ecSOD and Prx6. To investigate this hypothesis, protein extracts from hemolymph were analysed for oxidative burst enzyme activity. Analysis of the cell free hemolymph proteins separated by native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) failed to detect true superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity by assaying dismutation of superoxide anion in zymograms. However, the ecSOD enzyme appears to generate hydrogen peroxide, presumably via another process, which is yet to be elucidated. This

  18. Identification and characterization of cDNAs encoding ethylene biosynthetic enzymes from Pelargonium x hortorum cv Snow Mass leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, T W; Arteca, R N

    1995-01-01

    Two Pelargonium 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase cDNAs (GAC-1 and GAC-2) were identified and characterized. GAC-1 is 1934 bp long with a 1446-bp open reading frame encoding a 54.1-kD polypeptide. GAC-2 is a 1170-bp-long ACC synthase polymerase chain reaction fragment encoding 390 amino acids. Expression of GAC-1 and GAC-2 together with a previously identified ACC oxidase (GEFE-1) was examined in different Pelargonium plant parts, and leaves were subjected to osmotic stress (sorbitol), metal ion stress (CuCl2), auxin (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid [2,4-D]), and ethylene. GAC-1 expression was not detectable in any of the plant parts tested, whereas high levels of GAC-2 were expressed in the leaf bud, young leaf, young floret, fully open floret, and senescing floret. GAC-2 was expressed to a lesser degree in fully expanded leaves or roots and was undetectable in old leaves and floret buds. GEFE-1 was detectable at all leaf ages tested, in young and fully open florets, and in the roots; however, the highest degree of expression was in the senescing florets. GAC-1 was induced by sorbitol. Both GAC-1 and GAC-2 were only slightly affected by CuCl2 and induced indirectly by 2,4-D. GEFE-1 was highly induced by sorbitol, CuCl2, and 2,4-D. GAC-1, GAC-2, and GEFE-1 were unaffected by ethylene treatment. These results suggest that GAC-1 is only induced by stress and that GAC-2 may be developmentally regulated, whereas GEFE-1 is influenced by both stress and development. PMID:7480351

  19. DHN melanin biosynthesis in the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea is based on two developmentally regulated key enzyme (PKS)-encoding genes.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Julia

    2016-02-01

    Botrytis cinerea is the causal agent of gray mold disease in various plant species and produces grayish macroconidia and/or black sclerotia at the end of the infection cycle. It has been suggested that the pigmentation is due to the accumulation of 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene (DHN) melanin. To unravel its basis and regulation, the putative melanogenic and regulatory genes were identified and functionally characterized. Unlike other DHN melanin-producing fungi, B. cinerea and other Leotiomycetes contain two key enzyme (PKS)-encoding enzymes. Bcpks12 and bcpks13 are developmentally regulated and are required for melanogenesis in sclerotia and conidia respectively. BcYGH1 converts the BcPKS13 product and contributes thereby to conidial melanogenesis. In contrast, enzymes acting downstream in conversion of the PKS products (BcBRN2, BcSCD1 and BcBRN1) are required for both, sclerotial and conidial melanogenesis, suggesting that DHN melanogenesis in B. cinerea follows a non-linear pathway that is rather unusual for secondary metabolic pathways. Regulation of the melanogenic genes involves three pathway-specific transcription factors (TFs) that are clustered with bcpks12 or bcpks13 and other developmental regulators such as light-responsive TFs. Melanogenic genes are dispensable in vegetative mycelia for proper growth and virulence. However, DHN melanin is considered to contribute to the longevity of the reproduction structures.

  20. A 5-hydroxymethyl furfural reducing enzyme encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae ADH6 gene conveys HMF tolerance.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Anneli; Almeida, João R M; Modig, Tobias; Karhumaa, Kaisa; Hahn-Hägerdal, Bärbel; Gorwa-Grauslund, Marie F; Lidén, Gunnar

    2006-04-30

    The fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates by Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fuel ethanol production is inhibited by 5-hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF), a furan derivative which is formed during the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials. The inhibition can be avoided if the yeast strain used in the fermentation has the ability to reduce HMF to 5-hydroxymethylfurfuryl alcohol. To enable the identification of enzyme(s) responsible for HMF conversion in S. cerevisiae, microarray analyses of two strains with different abilities to convert HMF were performed. Based on the expression data, a subset of 15 reductase genes was chosen to be further examined using an overexpression strain collection. Three candidate genes were cloned from two different strains, TMB3000 and the laboratory strain CEN.PK 113-5D, and overexpressed using a strong promoter in the strain CEN.PK 113-5D. Strains overexpressing ADH6 had increased HMF conversion activity in cell-free crude extracts with both NADPH and NADH as co-factors. In vitro activities were recorded of 8 mU/mg with NADH as co-factor and as high as 1200 mU/mg for the NADPH-coupled reduction. Yeast strains overexpressing ADH6 also had a substantially higher in vivo conversion rate of HMF in both aerobic and anaerobic cultures, showing that the overexpression indeed conveyed the desired increased reduction capacity.

  1. Microarray Analysis of Differentially-Expressed Genes Encoding CYP450 and Phase II Drug Metabolizing Enzymes in Psoriasis and Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Sumantran, Venil N.; Mishra, Pratik; Bera, Rakesh; Sudhakar, Natarajan

    2016-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 drug metabolizing enzymes are implicated in personalized medicine for two main reasons. First, inter-individual variability in CYP3A4 expression is a confounding factor during cancer treatment. Second, inhibition or induction of CYP3A4 can trigger adverse drug–drug interactions. However, inflammation can downregulate CYP3A4 and other drug metabolizing enzymes and lead to altered metabolism of drugs and essential vitamins and lipids. Little is known about effects of inflammation on expression of CYP450 genes controlling drug metabolism in the skin. Therefore, we analyzed seven published microarray datasets, and identified differentially-expressed genes in two inflammatory skin diseases (melanoma and psoriasis). We observed opposite patterns of expression of genes regulating metabolism of specific vitamins and lipids in psoriasis and melanoma samples. Thus, genes controlling the turnover of vitamin D (CYP27B1, CYP24A1), vitamin A (ALDH1A3, AKR1B10), and cholesterol (CYP7B1), were up-regulated in psoriasis, whereas melanomas showed downregulation of genes regulating turnover of vitamin A (AKR1C3), and cholesterol (CYP39A1). Genes controlling abnormal keratinocyte differentiation and epidermal barrier function (CYP4F22, SULT2B1) were up-regulated in psoriasis. The up-regulated CYP24A1, CYP4F22, SULT2B1, and CYP7B1 genes are potential drug targets in psoriatic skin. Both disease samples showed diminished drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP1B1 and CYP3A5 genes. However, melanomas showed greater loss of drug metabolizing capacity due to downregulation of the CYP3A4 gene. PMID:26901218

  2. VMA13 encodes a 54-kDa vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit required for activity but not assembly of the enzyme complex in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Ho, M N; Hirata, R; Umemoto, N; Ohya, Y; Takatsuki, A; Stevens, T H; Anraku, Y

    1993-08-25

    Previous purifications and characterizations of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase (V-ATPase) have indicated that this enzyme is a multisubunit complex composed of at least eight subunits of 100-, 69-, 60-, 42-, 36-, 32-, 27-, and 17-kDa (Kane, P. M., Yamashiro, C. T., and Stevens, T. H. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 19236-19244). We report the cloning and characterization of an additional V-ATPase subunit, the 54-kDa subunit, which is encoded by the VMA13 gene. VMA13 was isolated by complementation of the growth phenotypes associated with the vma13 mutation, which was originally described as cls11 (Ohya, Y., Umemoto, N., Tanida, I., Ohta, A., Iida, H., and Anraku, Y. (1991) J. Biol. Chem. 266, 13971-13977). The nucleotide sequence of the VMA13 gene predicted a hydrophilic polypeptide with a calculated molecular mass of 54,415 daltons. The VMA13 54-kDa gene product resides on the vacuolar membrane and co-purified with the active V-ATPase complex. Characterization of a null vma13 mutant (delta vma13) revealed that the Vma13 polypeptide is essential for V-ATPase activity. However, the Vma13 polypeptide is not required for targeting of the other V-ATPase subunits (100-, 69-, 60-, 42-, 27-, or 17-kDa subunits) to the vacuolar membrane as shown by the association of these subunits with vacuolar membranes isolated from delta vma13 cells. The nature of the V-ATPase "complex" in delta vma13 mutant is, nevertheless, fundamentally different from the wild-type enzyme. This is evidenced by the fact that the inactive V-ATPase complex from delta vma13 cells is less stable than the wild-type enzyme. Taken together, these results indicate that VMA13 encodes the 54-kDa subunit of the V-ATPase and that this subunit is essential for activity, but not assembly, of the enzyme complex.

  3. Indirect Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Detection of Immunoglobulin G Reactive with a Recombinant Protein Expressed from the Gene Encoding the 116-Kilodalton Protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Michael F.; Whithear, Kevin G.; Noormohammadi, Amir H.; Markham, Philip F.; Catton, Michael; Leydon, Jennie; Browning, Glenn F.

    1999-01-01

    Serology remains the method of choice for laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Currently available serological tests employ complex cellular fractions of M. pneumoniae as antigen. To improve the specificity of M. pneumoniae diagnosis, a recombinant protein was assessed as a serodiagnostic reagent. A panel of recombinant proteins were expressed from a cloned M. pneumoniae gene that encodes a 116-kDa surface protein antigen. The recombinant proteins were assessed for reactivity with patient sera and the most antigenic was further assessed for its serodiagnostic potential by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA based on the recombinant protein was equivalent in sensitivity to the commercial test (Serodia Myco II; Fujirebio Inc.) to which it was compared. Southern and Western blotting data suggested that the recombinant protein derived from the 116-kDa protein of M. pneumoniae could provide a species-specific diagnostic tool, although further assessment is required. PMID:10074521

  4. Suppression of 9-cis-Epoxycarotenoid Dioxygenase, Which Encodes a Key Enzyme in Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis, Alters Fruit Texture in Transgenic Tomato1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), β-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-β-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp). PMID:22108525

  5. Suppression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase, which encodes a key enzyme in abscisic acid biosynthesis, alters fruit texture in transgenic tomato.

    PubMed

    Sun, Liang; Sun, Yufei; Zhang, Mei; Wang, Ling; Ren, Jie; Cui, Mengmeng; Wang, Yanping; Ji, Kai; Li, Ping; Li, Qian; Chen, Pei; Dai, Shengjie; Duan, Chaorui; Wu, Yan; Leng, Ping

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall catabolism during fruit ripening is under complex control and is key for fruit quality and shelf life. To examine the role of abscisic acid (ABA) in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit ripening, we suppressed SlNCED1, which encodes 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED), a key enzyme in the biosynthesis of ABA. To suppress SlNCED1 specifically in tomato fruits, and thus avoid the pleiotropic phenotypes associated with ABA deficiency, we used an RNA interference construct driven by the fruit-specific E8 promoter. ABA accumulation and SlNCED1 transcript levels in the transgenic fruit were down-regulated to between 20% and 50% of the levels measured in the control fruit. This significant reduction in NCED activity led to a down-regulation in the transcription of genes encoding major cell wall catabolic enzymes, specifically polygalacturonase (SlPG), pectin methyl esterase (SlPME), β-galactosidase precursor mRNA (SlTBG), xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (SlXET), endo-1,4-β-cellulose (SlCels), and expansin (SlExp). This resulted in an increased accumulation of pectin during ripening. In turn, this led to a significant extension of the shelf life to 15 to 29 d compared with a shelf life of only 7 d for the control fruit and an enhancement of fruit firmness at the mature stage by 30% to 45%. In conclusion, ABA affects cell wall catabolism during tomato fruit ripening via down-regulation of the expression of major catabolic genes (SlPG, SlPME, SlTBG, SlXET, SlCels, and SlExp).

  6. The Variability of Sesquiterpenes Emitted from Two Zea mays Cultivars Is Controlled by Allelic Variation of Two Terpene Synthase Genes Encoding Stereoselective Multiple Product Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Köllner, Tobias G.; Schnee, Christiane; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    The mature leaves and husks of Zea mays release a complex blend of terpene volatiles after anthesis consisting predominantly of bisabolane-, sesquithujane-, and bergamotane-type sesquiterpenes. The varieties B73 and Delprim release the same volatile constituents but in significantly different proportions. To study the molecular genetic and biochemical mechanisms controlling terpene diversity and distribution in these varieties, we isolated the closely related terpene synthase genes terpene synthase4 (tps4) and tps5 from both varieties. The encoded enzymes, TPS4 and TPS5, each formed the same complex mixture of sesquiterpenes from the precursor farnesyl diphosphate but with different proportions of products. These mixtures correspond to the sesquiterpene blends observed in the varieties B73 and Delprim, respectively. The differences in the stereoselectivity of TPS4 and TPS5 are determined by four amino acid substitutions with the most important being a Gly instead of an Ala residue at position 409 at the catalytic site of the enzyme. Although both varieties contain tps4 and tps5 alleles, their differences in terpene composition result from the fact that B73 has only a single functional allele of tps4 and no functional alleles of tps5, whereas Delprim has only a functional allele of tps5 and no functional alleles of tps4. Lack of functionality was shown to be attributable to frame-shift mutations or amino acid substitutions that greatly reduce the activity of their encoded proteins. Therefore, the diversity of sesquiterpenes in these two maize cultivars is strongly influenced by single nucleotide changes in the alleles of two terpene synthase genes. PMID:15075399

  7. aph(3′)-IIb, a Gene Encoding an Aminoglycoside-Modifying Enzyme, Is under the Positive Control of Surrogate Regulator HpaA

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lin; Jin, Shouguang

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa harbors a chromosomal aminoglycoside phosphotransferase gene, aph(3′)-IIb, which confers P. aeruginosa resistance to several important aminoglycoside antibiotics, including kanamycin A and B, neomycin B and C, butirosin, and seldomycin F5. The aph(3′)-IIb gene has been found to be regulated by an AraC-type transcriptional regulator (HpaA) encoded by a gene located upstream of the aph(3′)-IIb gene. In the presence of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (4-HPA), HpaA activates the expression of aph(3′)-IIb as well as that of the hpa regulon which encodes metabolic enzymes for the utilization of 4-HPA. hpaA and aph(3′)-IIb form an operon, and in response to the presence of 4-HPA, the wild-type P. aeruginosa strain PAK (but not its hpaA mutant strain) displays increased resistance to neomycin. A survey of 39 clinical and 19 environmental isolates of P. aeruginosa demonstrated in all of them the presence of an hpaA-aph gene cluster, while 56 out of the 58 isolates are able to utilize the 4-HPA as a sole carbon source, suggesting a feature common to P. aeruginosa strains. Interestingly, a larger portion of clinical isolates than environmental isolates showed 4-HPA-induced resistance to neomycin. The aph(3′)-IIb gene product is likely to function as a metabolic enzyme which has a cross-reactivity with aminoglycosides. These findings provide new insight into the possible mechanism of P. aeruginosa antibiotic resistance. PMID:14638496

  8. Evolutionary diversification and characterization of the eubacterial gene family encoding DXR type II, an alternative isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Isoprenoids constitute a vast family of natural compounds performing diverse and essential functions in all domains of life. In most eubacteria, isoprenoids are synthesized through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The production of MEP is usually catalyzed by deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR-I) but a few organisms use an alternative DXR-like enzyme (DXR-II). Results Searches through 1498 bacterial complete proteomes detected 130 sequences with similarity to DXR-II. Phylogenetic analysis identified three well-resolved clades: the DXR-II family (clustering 53 sequences including eleven experimentally verified as functional enzymes able to produce MEP), and two previously uncharacterized NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductase families (designated DLO1 and DLO2 for DXR-II-like oxidoreductases 1 and 2). Our analyses identified amino acid changes critical for the acquisition of DXR-II biochemical function through type-I functional divergence, two of them mapping onto key residues for DXR-II activity. DXR-II showed a markedly discontinuous distribution, which was verified at several levels: taxonomic (being predominantly found in Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes), metabolic (being mostly found in bacteria with complete functional MEP pathways with or without DXR-I), and phenotypic (as no biological/phenotypic property was found to be preferentially distributed among DXR-II-containing strains, apart from pathogenicity in animals). By performing a thorough comparative sequence analysis of GC content, 3:1 dinucleotide frequencies, codon usage and codon adaptation indexes (CAI) between DXR-II sequences and their corresponding genomes, we examined the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as opposed to an scenario of massive gene loss, in the evolutionary origin and diversification of the DXR-II subfamily in bacteria. Conclusions Our analyses support a single origin of the DXR-II family through functional divergence, in which constitutes

  9. Evolutionary diversification and characterization of the eubacterial gene family encoding DXR type II, an alternative isoprenoid biosynthetic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Lipska, Agnieszka; Pérez-Gil, Jordi; Sangari, Félix J; Albert, Victor A; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel

    2013-09-03

    Isoprenoids constitute a vast family of natural compounds performing diverse and essential functions in all domains of life. In most eubacteria, isoprenoids are synthesized through the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The production of MEP is usually catalyzed by deoxyxylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR-I) but a few organisms use an alternative DXR-like enzyme (DXR-II). Searches through 1498 bacterial complete proteomes detected 130 sequences with similarity to DXR-II. Phylogenetic analysis identified three well-resolved clades: the DXR-II family (clustering 53 sequences including eleven experimentally verified as functional enzymes able to produce MEP), and two previously uncharacterized NAD(P)-dependent oxidoreductase families (designated DLO1 and DLO2 for DXR-II-like oxidoreductases 1 and 2). Our analyses identified amino acid changes critical for the acquisition of DXR-II biochemical function through type-I functional divergence, two of them mapping onto key residues for DXR-II activity. DXR-II showed a markedly discontinuous distribution, which was verified at several levels: taxonomic (being predominantly found in Alphaproteobacteria and Firmicutes), metabolic (being mostly found in bacteria with complete functional MEP pathways with or without DXR-I), and phenotypic (as no biological/phenotypic property was found to be preferentially distributed among DXR-II-containing strains, apart from pathogenicity in animals). By performing a thorough comparative sequence analysis of GC content, 3:1 dinucleotide frequencies, codon usage and codon adaptation indexes (CAI) between DXR-II sequences and their corresponding genomes, we examined the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), as opposed to an scenario of massive gene loss, in the evolutionary origin and diversification of the DXR-II subfamily in bacteria. Our analyses support a single origin of the DXR-II family through functional divergence, in which constitutes an exceptional model of

  10. Arabidopsis CYP707As encode (+)-abscisic acid 8'-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of abscisic acid.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shigeki; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Ohigashi, Hajime; Ohta, Daisaku; Sakata, Kanzo; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2004-04-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a number of critical processes in normal growth and development as well as in adaptive responses to environmental stresses. For correct and accurate actions, a physiologically active ABA level is controlled through fine-tuning of de novo biosynthesis and catabolism. The hydroxylation at the 8'-position of ABA is known as the key step of ABA catabolism, and this reaction is catalyzed by ABA 8'-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450. Here, we demonstrate CYP707As as the P450 responsible for the 8'-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA. First, all four CYP707A cDNAs were cloned from Arabidopsis and used for the production of the recombinant proteins in insect cells using a baculovirus system. The insect cells expressing CYP707A3 efficiently metabolized (+)-ABA to yield phaseic acid, the isomerized form of 8'-hydroxy-ABA. The microsomes from the insect cells exhibited very strong activity of 8'-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA (K(m) = 1.3 microm and k(cat) = 15 min(-1)). The solubilized CYP707A3 protein bound (+)-ABA with the binding constant K(s) = 3.5 microm, but did not bind (-)-ABA. Detailed analyses of the reaction products confirmed that CYP707A3 does not have the isomerization activity of 8'-hydroxy-ABA to phaseic acid. Further experiments revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A1 and CYP707A4 also encode ABA 8'-hydroxylase. The transcripts of the CYP707A genes increased in response to salt, osmotic, and dehydration stresses as well as ABA. These results establish that the CYP707A family plays a key role in regulating the ABA level through the 8'-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA.

  11. A rice semi-dwarf gene, Tan-Ginbozu (D35), encodes the gibberellin biosynthesis enzyme, ent-kaurene oxidase.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Hironori; Tatsumi, Tomoko; Sakamoto, Tomoaki; Otomo, Kazuko; Toyomasu, Tomonobu; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Ichihara, Shigeyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto

    2004-03-01

    A rice (Oryza sativa L.) semi-dwarf cultivar, Tan-Ginbozu (d35Tan-Ginbozu), contributed to the increase in crop productivity in Japan in the 1950s. Previous studies suggested that the semi-dwarf stature of d35Tan-Ginbozu is caused by a defective early step of gibberellin biosynthesis, which is catalyzed by ent-kaurene oxidase (KO). To study the molecular characteristics of d35Tan-Ginbozu, we isolated 5 KO-like (KOL) genes from the rice genome, which encoded proteins highly homologous to Arabidopsis and pumpkin KOs. The genes (OsKOL1 to 5) were arranged as tandem repeats in the same direction within a 120 kb sequence. Expression analysis revealed that OsKOL2 and OsKOL4 were actively transcribed in various organs, while OsKOL1 and OsKOL5 were expressed only at low levels; OsKOL3 may be a pseudogene. Sequence analysis and complementation experiments demonstrated that OsKOL2 corresponds to D35. Homozygote with null alleles of D35 showed a severe dwarf phenotype; therefore, d35Tan-Ginbozu is a weak allele of D35. Introduction of OsKOL4 into d35Tan-Ginbozu did not rescue its dwarf phenotype, indicating that OsKOL4 is not involved in GA biosynthesis. OsKOL4 and OsKOL5 are likely to take part in phytoalexin biosynthesis, because their expression was promoted by UV irradiation and/or elicitor treatment. Comparing d35Tan-Ginbozu with other high yielding cultivars, we discuss strategies to produce culm architectures suitable for high crop yield by decreasing GA levels.

  12. Identification of a novel operon in Lactococcus lactis encoding three enzymes for lactic acid synthesis: phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, R M; Harris, C J; Hillier, A J; Davidson, B E

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a novel multicistronic operon that encodes phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is reported. The three genes in the operon, designated pfk, pyk, and ldh, contain 340, 502, and 325 codons, respectively. The intergenic distances are 87 bp between pfk and pyk and 117 bp between pyk and ldh. Plasmids containing pfk and pyk conferred phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, respectively, on their host. The identity of ldh was established previously by the same approach (R. M. Llanos, A. J. Hillier, and B. E. Davidson, J. Bacteriol. 174:6956-6964, 1992). Each of the genes is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site. The operon is expressed in a 4.1-kb transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was determined to be a G nucleotide positioned 81 bp upstream from the pfk start codon. The pattern of codon usage within the operon is highly biased, with 11 unused amino acid codons. This degree of bias suggests that the operon is highly expressed. The three proteins encoded on the operon are key enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, the central pathway of energy production and lactic acid synthesis in L. lactis. For this reason, we have called the operon the las (lactic acid synthesis) operon. Images PMID:8478320

  13. Comparative analysis of basidiomycete transcriptomes reveals a core set of expressed genes encoding plant biomass degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Mao; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria Victoria; Hainaut, Matthieu; Henrissat, Bernard; Hildén, Kristiina; Mäkelä, Miia R; de Vries, Ronald P

    2017-08-10

    Basidiomycete fungi can degrade a wide range of plant biomass, including living and dead trees, forest litter, crops, and plant matter in soils. Understanding the process of plant biomass decay by basidiomycetes could facilitate their application in various industrial sectors such as food & feed, detergents and biofuels, and also provide new insights into their essential biological role in the global carbon cycle. The fast expansion of basidiomycete genomic and functional genomics data (e.g. transcriptomics, proteomics) has facilitated exploration of key genes and regulatory mechanisms of plant biomass degradation. In this study, we comparatively analyzed 22 transcriptome datasets from basidiomycetes related to plant biomass degradation, and identified 328 commonly induced genes and 318 repressed genes, and defined a core set of carbohydrate active enzymes (CAZymes), which was shared by most of the basidiomycete species. High conservation of these CAZymes in genomes and similar regulation pattern in transcriptomics data from lignocellulosic substrates indicate their key role in plant biomass degradation and need for their further biochemical investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Arabidopsis CYP94B3 encodes jasmonyl-L-isoleucine 12-hydroxylase, a key enzyme in the oxidative catabolism of jasmonate.

    PubMed

    Kitaoka, Naoki; Matsubara, Takuya; Sato, Michio; Takahashi, Kosaku; Wakuta, Shinji; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Matsui, Hirokazu; Nabeta, Kensuke; Matsuura, Hideyuki

    2011-10-01

    The hormonal action of jasmonate in plants is controlled by the precise balance between its biosynthesis and catabolism. It has been shown that jasmonyl-L-isoleucine (JA-Ile) is the bioactive form involved in the jasmonate-mediated signaling pathway. However, the catabolism of JA-Ile is poorly understood. Although a metabolite, 12-hydroxyJA-Ile, has been characterized, detailed functional studies of the compound and the enzyme that produces it have not been conducted. In this report, the kinetics of wound-induced accumulation of 12-hydroxyJA-Ile in plants were examined, and its involvement in the plant wound response is described. Candidate genes for the catabolic enzyme were narrowed down from 272 Arabidopsis Cyt P450 genes using Arabidopsis mutants. The candidate gene was functionally expressed in Pichia pastoris to reveal that CYP94B3 encodes JA-Ile 12-hydroxylase. Expression analyses demonstrate that expression of CYP94B3 is induced by wounding and shows specific activity toward JA-Ile. Plants grown in medium containing JA-Ile show higher sensitivity to JA-Ile in cyp94b3 mutants than in wild-type plants. These results demonstrate that CYP94B3 plays a major regulatory role in controlling the level of JA-Ile in plants.

  15. Real time PCR expression analysis of gene encoding p5cs enzyme and proline metabolism under NaCI salinity in rice.

    PubMed

    Bagdi, D L; Shaw, B P; Sahu, B B; Purohit, G K

    2015-07-01

    Regulation of proline accumulation in seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Lunishree) was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl from 85 mM to 425 mM NaCl progressively increased proline content in rice. The maximum increase in proline content was recorded at 425 mM NaCl concentration as compared to control and other concentrations of NaCl. The highest significant activity of proline synthesizing enzymes, delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase, delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate reductase and Ornithine-δ- aminotransferase with lowest activity of proline hydrolysis enzymes;Proline dehydrogenase was also recorded at 425 mM NaCl salinity over control and other concentrations of NaCI with insignificant increase in the activity of delta1-Pyrrolline-5-carboxylate synthetase and Ornithine-δ-aminotransferase at 85 mM NaCI over control. It was found that the transcript of gene encoded with p5cs is up regulated about 1.35 folds under salinity stress. This gene synthesis an osmo protectant to help the plant resist the change in osmotic imbalances. Externally addition of MnCl2 at 300 mg/220 ml 1/2 strength Hoagland solution, having 1% NaCI, was also seen to increase 893.9% proline content of this variety as compared to control.

  16. MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4 Encodes a Putative Pectin Biosynthetic Enzyme Developmentally Regulated by APETALA2, TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1, and GLABRA2 in the Arabidopsis Seed Coat1

    PubMed Central

    Western, Tamara L.; Young, Diana S.; Dean, Gillian H.; Tan, Wei Ling; Samuels, A. Lacey; Haughn, George W.

    2004-01-01

    The Arabidopsis seed coat epidermis undergoes a complex process of differentiation that includes the biosynthesis and secretion of large quantities of pectinaceous mucilage, cytoplasmic rearrangement, and secondary cell wall biosynthesis. Mutations in MUM4 (MUCILAGE-MODIFIED4) lead to a decrease in seed coat mucilage and incomplete cytoplasmic rearrangement. We show that MUM4 encodes a putative NDP-l-rhamnose synthase, an enzyme required for the synthesis of the pectin rhamnogalacturonan I, the major component of Arabidopsis mucilage. This result suggests that the synthesis of monosaccharide substrates is a limiting factor in the biosynthesis of pectinaceous seed coat mucilage. In addition, the reduced cytoplasmic rearrangement observed in the absence of a key enzyme in pectin biosynthesis in mum4 mutants establishes a causal link between mucilage production and cellular morphogenesis. The cellular phenotype seen in mum4 mutants is similar to that of several transcription factors (AP2 [APETALA2], TTG1 [TRANSPARENT TESTA GLABRA1], TTG2 MYB61, and GL2 [GLABRA2]). Expression studies suggest that MUM4 is developmentally regulated in the seed coat by AP2, TTG1, and GL2, whereas TTG2 and MYB61 appear to be regulating mucilage production through alternate pathway(s). Our results provide a framework for the regulation of mucilage production and secretory cell differentiation. PMID:14701918

  17. Arabidopsis thaliana VTC4 encodes L-galactose-1-P phosphatase, a plant ascorbic acid biosynthetic enzyme.

    PubMed

    Conklin, Patricia L; Gatzek, Stephan; Wheeler, Glen L; Dowdle, John; Raymond, Marjorie J; Rolinski, Susanne; Isupov, Mikhail; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2006-06-09

    In plants, a proposed ascorbate (vitamin C) biosynthesis pathway occurs via GDP-D-mannose (GDP-D-Man), GDP-L-galactose (GDP-L-Gal), and L-galactose. However, the steps involved in the synthesis of L-Gal from GDP-L-Gal in planta are not fully characterized. Here we present evidence for an in vivo role for L-Gal-1-P phosphatase in plant ascorbate biosynthesis. We have characterized a low ascorbate mutant (vtc4-1) of Arabidopsis thaliana, which exhibits decreased ascorbate biosynthesis. Genetic mapping and sequencing of the VTC4 locus identified a mutation (P92L) in a gene with predicted L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity (At3g02870). Pro-92 is within a beta-bulge that is conserved in related myo-inositol monophosphatases. The mutation is predicted to disrupt the positioning of catalytic amino acid residues within the active site. Accordingly, L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity in vtc4-1 was approximately 50% of wild-type plants. In addition, vtc4-1 plants incorporate significantly more radiolabel from [2-(3)H]Man into L-galactosyl residues suggesting that the mutation increases the availability of GDP-L-Gal for polysaccharide synthesis. Finally, a homozygous T-DNA insertion line, which lacks a functional At3g02870 gene product, is also ascorbate-deficient (50% of wild type) and deficient in L-Gal-1-P phosphatase activity. Genetic complementation tests revealed that the insertion mutant and VTC4-1 are alleles of the same genetic locus. The significantly lower ascorbate and perturbed L-Gal metabolism in vtc4-1 and the T-DNA insertion mutant indicate that L-Gal-1-P phosphatase plays a role in plant ascorbate biosynthesis. The presence of ascorbate in the T-DNA insertion mutant suggests there is a bypass to this enzyme or that other pathways also contribute to ascorbate biosynthesis.

  18. Nuclear receptors CAR and PXR cross talk with FOXO1 to regulate genes that encode drug-metabolizing and gluconeogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Susumu; Koike, Chika; Negishi, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Yukio

    2004-09-01

    The nuclear receptors CAR and PXR activate hepatic genes in response to therapeutic drugs and xenobiotics, leading to the induction of drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450. Insulin inhibits the ability of FOXO1 to express genes encoding gluconeogenic enzymes. Induction by drugs is known to be decreased by insulin, whereas gluconeogenic activity is often repressed by treatment with certain drugs, such as phenobarbital (PB). Performing cell-based transfection assays with drug-responsive and insulin-responsive enhancers, glutathione S-transferase pull down, RNA interference (RNAi), and mouse primary hepatocytes, we examined the molecular mechanism by which nuclear receptors and FOXO1 could coordinately regulate both enzyme pathways. FOXO1 was found to be a coactivator to CAR- and PXR-mediated transcription. In contrast, CAR and PXR, acting as corepressors, downregulated FOXO1-mediated transcription in the presence of their activators, such as 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) and pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile, respectively. A constitutively active mutant of the insulin-responsive protein kinase Akt, but not the kinase-negative mutant, effectively blocked FOXO1 activity in cell-based assays. Thus, insulin could repress the receptors by activating the Akt-FOXO1 signal, whereas drugs could interfere with FOXO1-mediated transcription by activating CAR and/or PXR. Treatment with TCPOBOP or PB decreased the levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase 1 mRNA in mice but not in Car(-/-) mice. We conclude that FOXO1 and the nuclear receptors reciprocally coregulate their target genes, modulating both drug metabolism and gluconeogenesis.

  19. Copper-induced overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant system enzymes and metallothioneins involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in the marine alga Ulva compressa.

    PubMed

    Laporte, Daniel; Valdés, Natalia; González, Alberto; Sáez, Claudio A; Zúñiga, Antonio; Navarrete, Axel; Meneses, Claudio; Moenne, Alejandra

    2016-08-01

    Transcriptomic analyses were performed in the green macroalga Ulva compressa cultivated with 10μM copper for 24h. Nucleotide sequences encoding antioxidant enzymes, ascorbate peroxidase (ap), dehydroascorbate reductase (dhar) and glutathione reductase (gr), enzymes involved in ascorbate (ASC) synthesis l-galactose dehydrogenase (l-gdh) and l-galactono lactone dehydrogenase (l-gldh), in glutathione (GSH) synthesis, γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase (γ-gcl) and glutathione synthase (gs), and metal-chelating proteins metallothioneins (mt) were identified. Amino acid sequences encoded by transcripts identified in U. compressa corresponding to antioxidant system enzymes showed homology mainly to plant and green alga enzymes but those corresponding to MTs displayed homology to animal and plant MTs. Level of transcripts encoding the latter proteins were quantified in the alga cultivated with 10μM copper for 0-12 days. Transcripts encoding enzymes of the antioxidant system increased with maximal levels at day 7, 9 or 12, and for MTs at day 3, 7 or 12. In addition, the involvement of calmodulins (CaMs), calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs), and the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK1/2) in the increase of the level of the latter transcripts was analyzed using inhibitors. Transcript levels decreased with inhibitors of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2. Thus, copper induces overexpression of genes encoding antioxidant enzymes, enzymes involved in ASC and GSH syntheses and MTs. The increase in transcript levels may involve the activation of CaMs, CDPKs and MEK1/2 in U. compressa.

  20. Transcriptional regulation and molecular characterization of the manA gene encoding the biofilm dispersing enzyme mannan endo-1,4-beta-mannosidase in Xanthomonas campestris.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Yi-Min; Liu, Yu-Fan; Fang, Mei-Chiung; Tseng, Yi-Hsiung

    2010-02-10

    Exopolysaccharide and several extracellular enzymes of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc), the causative agent of black rot in crucifers, are important virulence determinants. It is known that Clp (cAMP receptor protein-like protein) and RpfF (an enoyl-CoA hydratase homologue required for the synthesis of diffusible signal factor, DSF) regulate the production of these determinants. Addition of DSF or Xcc extracellular protein containing partially purified mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78, encoded by manA) can disperse the cell aggregates formed by rpfF mutant. In this study, nucleotide G 64 nt upstream of the manA translation start codon was determined as the transcription initiation site by the 5' RACE technique. Transcriptional fusion assays showed that manA transcription is positively regulated by Clp and RpfF and induced by locust bean gum. The manA coding region was cloned and expressed in E. coli as recombinant ManA (rManA). The rManA was purified by affinity chromatography, and its biochemical properties were characterized. The rManA had a pH optimum at 7.0 (0.1 M Hepes) and a temperature optimum at about 37 degrees C. Sequence and mutational analyses demonstrated that Xcc manA encodes the major mannanase, a member of family 5 of glycosyl hydrolases. This study not only extends previous work on Clp and RpfF regulation by showing that they both influence the expression of manA in Xcc, but it also for the first time characterizes Xanthomonas mannanase at the protein level.

  1. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance

    DOE PAGES

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K.; ...

    2014-10-10

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thusmore » provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. In conclusion, the combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new and

  2. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K.; Hahn, Michael G.; Mohnen, Debra; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-10-10

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thus provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. In conclusion, the combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new

  3. Deletion of a gene cluster encoding pectin degrading enzymes in Caldicellulosiruptor bescii reveals an important role for pectin in plant biomass recalcitrance.

    PubMed

    Chung, Daehwan; Pattathil, Sivakumar; Biswal, Ajaya K; Hahn, Michael G; Mohnen, Debra; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    A major obstacle, and perhaps the most important economic barrier to the effective use of plant biomass for the production of fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts, is our current lack of knowledge of how to efficiently and effectively deconstruct wall polymers for their subsequent use as feedstocks. Plants represent the most desired source of renewable energy and hydrocarbons because they fix CO2, making their use carbon neutral. Their biomass structure, however, is a barrier to deconstruction, and this is often referred to as recalcitrance. Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor have the ability to grow on unpretreated plant biomass and thus provide an assay for plant deconstruction and biomass recalcitrance. Using recently developed genetic tools for manipulation of these bacteria, a deletion of a gene cluster encoding enzymes for pectin degradation was constructed, and the resulting mutant was reduced in its ability to grow on both dicot and grass biomass, but not on soluble sugars. The plant biomass from three phylogenetically diverse plants, Arabidopsis (a herbaceous dicot), switchgrass (a monocot grass), and poplar (a woody dicot), was used in these analyses. These biomass types have cell walls that are significantly different from each other in both structure and composition. While pectin is a relatively minor component of the grass and woody dicot substrates, the reduced growth of the mutant on all three biomass types provides direct evidence that pectin plays an important role in biomass recalcitrance. Glycome profiling of the plant material remaining after growth of the mutant on Arabidopsis biomass compared to the wild-type revealed differences in the rhamnogalacturonan I, homogalacturonan, arabinogalactan, and xylan profiles. In contrast, only minor differences were observed in the glycome profiles of the switchgrass and poplar biomass. The combination of microbial digestion and plant biomass analysis provides a new and important platform to

  4. Carcinogen metabolism in human lung tissues and the effect of tobacco smoking: results from a case--control multicenter study on lung cancer patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, H; Petruzzelli, S; De Flora, S; Hietanen, E; Camus, A M; Castegnaro, M; Alexandrov, K; Rojas, M; Saracci, R; Giuntini, C

    1992-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is the strongest risk factor for lung cancer, but genetically determined variations in the activities of pulmonary enzyme that metabolize tobacco-derived carcinogens may affect individual risk. To investigate whether these enzymes (e.g., CYP1A-related) can serve as markers for carcinogen-DNA damage, lung tissue specimens were taken during surgery from middle-aged men with either lung cancer or non-neoplastic lung disease. Phase I [aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH), ethoxycoumarin O-deethylase (ECOD)] and phase II (epoxide hydrolase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, glutathione S-transferase) enzyme activities, glutathione and malondialdehyde contents were determined in lung parenchyma and/or bronchial tissues; some samples were also analyzed for DNA adducts, using 32P-postlabeling. The data were then analyzed for the following: a) differences in metabolic profiles between bronchial and parenchymal lung tissue; b) the effect of recent exposure to tobacco smoke on enzyme inducibility and benzo[a]pyrene metabolism; c) differences in enzyme inducibility between lung cancer and non-lung cancer patients; d) the effect of smoking on metabolism of mutagens in vitro; e) pulmonary DNA adduct levels and AHH activity in lung parenchyma of smokers and ex-smokers; f) lipid peroxidation products in lung tissue from lung cancer and non-lung cancer patients, as related to smoking habits and degree of airway obstruction; and g) prognostic value of AHH pulmonary activity in lung cancer patients. The results demonstrate a pronounced effect of tobacco smoke on pulmonary metabolism of xenobiotics and prooxidant state and suggest the existence of a metabolic phenotype at higher risk for tobacco-associated lung cancer. PMID:1336722

  5. A Gene Cluster Involved in Degradation of Substituted Salicylates via ortho Cleavage in Pseudomonas sp. Strain MT1 Encodes Enzymes Specifically Adapted for Transformation of 4-Methylcatechol and 3-Methylmuconate▿

    PubMed Central

    Cámara, Beatriz; Bielecki, Piotr; Kaminski, Filip; dos Santos, Vitor Martins; Plumeier, Iris; Nikodem, Patricia; Pieper, Dietmar H.

    2007-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain MT1 has recently been reported to degrade 4- and 5-chlorosalicylate by a pathway assumed to consist of a patchwork of reactions comprising enzymes of the 3-oxoadipate pathway. Genes encoding the initial steps in the degradation of salicylate and substituted derivatives were now localized and sequenced. One of the gene clusters characterized (sal) showed a novel gene arrangement, with salA, encoding a salicylate 1-hydroxylase, being clustered with salCD genes, encoding muconate cycloisomerase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase, respectively, and was expressed during growth on salicylate and chlorosalicylate. A second gene cluster (cat), exhibiting the typical catRBCA arrangement of genes of the catechol branch of the 3-oxoadipate pathway in Pseudomonas strains, was expressed during growth on salicylate. Despite their high sequence similarities with isoenzymes encoded by the cat gene cluster, the catechol 1,2-dioxygenase and muconate cycloisomerase encoded by the sal cluster showed unusual kinetic properties. Enzymes were adapted for turnover of 4-chlorocatechol and 3-chloromuconate; however, 4-methylcatechol and 3-methylmuconate were identified as the preferred substrates. Investigation of the substrate spectrum identified 4- and 5-methylsalicylate as growth substrates, which were effectively converted by enzymes of the sal cluster into 4-methylmuconolactone, followed by isomerization to 3-methylmuconolactone. The function of the sal gene cluster is therefore to channel both chlorosubstituted and methylsubstituted salicylates into a catechol ortho cleavage pathway, followed by dismantling of the formed substituted muconolactones through specific pathways. PMID:17172348

  6. Cloning and expression of the cDNA encoding human fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase, the enzyme deficient in hereditary tyrosinemia: assignment of the gene to chromosome 15.

    PubMed Central

    Phaneuf, D; Labelle, Y; Bérubé, D; Arden, K; Cavenee, W; Gagné, R; Tanguay, R M

    1991-01-01

    Type 1 hereditary tyrosinemia (HT) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by a deficiency of the enzyme fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH; E.C.3.7.1.2). We have isolated human FAH cDNA clones by screening a liver cDNA expression library using specific antibodies and plaque hybridization with a rat FAH cDNA probe. A 1,477-bp cDNA was sequenced and shown to code for FAH by an in vitro transcription-translation assay and sequence homology with tryptic fragments of purified FAH. Transient expression of this FAH cDNA in transfected CV-1 mammalian cells resulted in the synthesis of an immunoreactive protein comigrating with purified human liver FAH on SDS-PAGE and having enzymatic activity as shown by the hydrolysis of the natural substrate fumarylacetoacetate. This indicates that the single polypeptide chain encoded by the FAH gene contains all the genetic information required for functional activity, suggesting that the dimer found in vivo is a homodimer. The human FAH cDNA was used as a probe to determine the gene's chromosomal localization using somatic cell hybrids and in situ hybridization. The human FAH gene maps to the long arm of chromosome 15 in the region q23-q25. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 6 Figure 8 PMID:1998338

  7. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a gene encoding cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase into hamsters increases hepatic enzyme activity and reduces plasma total and low density lipoprotein cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Spady, D K; Cuthbert, J A; Willard, M N; Meidell, R S

    1995-01-01

    Clinical interventions that accelerate conversion of cholesterol to bile acids reduce circulating low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations. The initial and rate-limiting step in the bile acid biosynthetic pathway is catalyzed by hepatic cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase. To examine the effects of transient primary overexpression of this enzyme on sterol metabolism and lipoprotein transport, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus in which a cDNA encoding rat 7 alpha-hydroxylase is expressed from the human cytomegalovirus immediate-early promoter (AdCMV7 alpha). Syrian hamsters administered AdCMV7 alpha intravenously accumulated transgene-specific mRNA in the liver and demonstrated a dose-dependent increase in hepatic microsomal 7 alpha-hydroxylase activity. The increased conversion of cholesterol to bile acids resulted in a compensatory increase in hepatic cholesterol synthesis. In addition, overexpression of 7 alpha-hydroxylase reduced the rate of LDL cholesterol entry into the plasma space and, in animals maintained on a Western-type diet, restored hepatic LDL receptor expression. As a consequence, plasma LDL concentrations fell by approximately 60% in animals maintained on control diet and by approximately 75% in animals consuming a Western-type diet. Plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were reduced to a lesser degree. These results demonstrate that transient upregulation of bile acid synthesis by direct transfer of a 7 alpha-hydroxylase gene favorably alters circulating lipoprotein profiles and suggest one potential molecular target for genetic strategies aimed at reducing cardiovascular risk. Images PMID:7635963

  8. The Phosphinomethylmalate Isomerase Gene pmi, Encoding an Aconitase-Like Enzyme, Is Involved in the Synthesis of Phosphinothricin Tripeptide in Streptomyces viridochromogenes

    PubMed Central

    Heinzelmann, E.; Kienzlen, G.; Kaspar, S.; Recktenwald, J.; Wohlleben, W.; Schwartz, D.

    2001-01-01

    Streptomyces viridochromogenes Tü494 produces the antibiotic phosphinothricin tripeptide (PTT). In the postulated biosynthetic pathway, one reaction, the isomerization of phosphinomethylmalate, resembles the aconitase reaction of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. It was speculated that this reaction is carried out by the corresponding enzyme of the primary metabolism (C. J. Thompson and H. Seto, p. 197–222, in L. C. Vining and C. Stuttard, ed., Genetics and Biochemistry of Antibiotic Production, 1995). However, in addition to the TCA cycle aconitase gene, a gene encoding an aconitase-like protein (the phosphinomethylmalate isomerase gene, pmi) was identified in the PTT biosynthetic gene cluster by Southern hybridization experiments, using oligonucleotides which were derived from conserved amino acid sequences of aconitases. The deduced protein revealed high similarity to aconitases from plants, bacteria, and fungi and to iron regulatory proteins from eucaryotes. Pmi and the S. viridochromogenes TCA cycle aconitase, AcnA, have 52% identity. By gene insertion mutagenesis, a pmi mutant (Mapra1) was generated. The mutant failed to produce PTT, indicating the inability of AcnA to carry out the secondary-metabolism reaction. A His-tagged protein (Hispmi*) was heterologously produced in Streptomyces lividans. The purified protein showed no standard aconitase activity with citrate as a substrate, and the corresponding gene was not able to complement an acnA mutant. This indicates that Pmi and AcnA are highly specific for their respective enzymatic reactions. PMID:11472937

  9. Identification, characterization and developmental expression of Halloween genes encoding P450 enzymes mediating ecdysone biosynthesis in the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Rewitz, Kim F; Rybczynski, Robert; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I

    2006-03-01

    The insect molting hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) plays a central role in regulating gene expression during development and metamorphosis. In many Lepidoptera, the pro-hormone 3-dehydroecdysone (3DE), synthesized from cholesterol in the prothoracic gland, is rapidly converted to ecdysone (E) by a hemolymph reductase, and E is subsequently converted to 20E in various peripheral target tissues. Recently, four Drosophila melanogaster P450 enzymes, encoded by specific Halloween genes, were cloned and functionally characterized as mediating the last hydroxylation steps leading to 20E. We extended this work to the tobacco hornworm Manduca sexta, an established model for endocrinological and developmental studies. cDNA clones were obtained for three Manduca orthologs of CYP306A1 (phantom; phm, the 25-hydroxylase), CYP302A1 (disembodied; dib, the 22-hydroxylase) and CYP315A1 (shadow; sad, the 2-hydroxylase), expressed predominantly in the prothoracic gland during the fifth (final) larval instar and during pupal-adult development, with fifth instar mRNA levels closely paralleling the hemolymph ecdysteroid titer. The data indicate that transcriptional regulation of phm, dib and sad plays a role in the developmentally varying steroidogenic capacities of the prothoracic glands during the fifth instar. The consistent expression of the Halloween genes confirms the importance of the prothoracic glands in pupal-adult development. These studies establish Manduca as an excellent model for examining the regulation of the Halloween genes.

  10. Insulin-like growth factor I stimulates degradation of an mRNA transcript encoding the 14 kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S S; Bedard, N

    1996-01-01

    Upon fasting, the ubiquitin-dependent proteolytic system is activated in skeletal muscle in parallel with the increases in rates of proteolysis. Levels of mRNA encoding the 14 kDa ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (E2(14K)), which can catalyse the first irreversible reaction in this pathway, rise and fall in parallel with the rates of proteolysis [Wing and Banville (1994) Am.J. Physiol. 267, E39-E48], indicating that the conjugation of ubiquitin to proteins is a regulated step. To characterize the mechanisms of this regulation, we have examined the effects of insulin, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and des(1-3) insulin-like growth factor I (DES-IGF-I), which does not bind IGF-binding proteins, on E2(14K) mRNA levels in L6 myotubes. Insulin suppressed levels of E2(14K) mRNA with an IC50 of 4 x 10(-9) M, but had no effects on mRNAs encoding polyubiquitin and proteasome subunits C2 and C8, which, like E2(14K), also increase in skeletal muscle upon fasting. Reduction of E2(14K) mRNA levels was more sensitive to IGF-I with an IC50 of approx. 5 x 10(-10) M. During the incubation of these cells for 12 h there was significant secretion of IGF-I-binding proteins into the medium. DES-IGF-I, which has markedly reduced affinity for these binding proteins, was found to potently reduce E2(14K) mRNA levels with an IC50 of 3 x 10(-11) M. DES-IGF-I did not alter rates of transcription of the E2(14K) gene, but enhanced the rate of degradation of the 1.2 kb mRNA transcript. The half-life of the 1.2 kb transcript was approximately one-third that of the 1.8 kb transcript and can explain the more marked regulation of this transcript observed previously. This indicates that the additional 3' non-coding sequence in the 1.8 kb transcript confers stability. These observations suggest that IGF-I is an important regulator of E2(14K) expression and demonstrate, for the first time, stimulation of degradation of a specific mRNA transcript by this hormone, while overall RNA accumulates. PMID

  11. Effect of nitrogen and phosphorus deficiency on transcriptional regulation of genes encoding key enzymes of starch metabolism in duckweed (Landoltia punctata).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhao; Shi, Hui-juan; Wang, Mao-lin; Cui, Long; Zhao, Hai; Zhao, Yun

    2015-01-01

    The production of starch by plants influences their use as biofuels. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) regulate starch gene expression during plant growth and development, yet the role of key enzymes such as ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (E.C. 2.7.7.27 AGPase) in starch metabolism during N- and P-deficiency remains unknown. We investigated the effect of N- and P-deficiency on the expression of large (LeAPL1, LeAPL2, and LeAPL3) and small (LeAPS) subunits of AGPase in duckweed (Landoltia punctata) and their correlation with starch content. We first isolated the full-length cDNA encoding LeAPL1 (GenBank Accession No. KJ603244) and LeAPS (GenBank Accession No. KJ603243); they contained open reading frames of 1554 bp (57.7-kDa polypeptide of 517 amino acids) and 1578 bp (57.0 kDa polypeptide of 525 amino acids), respectively. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that LeAPL1 and LeAPL3 were highly expressed during early stages of N-deficiency, while LeAPL2 was only expressed during late stage. However, in response to P-deficiency, LeAPL1 and LeAPL2 were upregulated during early stages and LeAPL3 was primarily expressed in the late stage. Interestingly, LeAPS was highly expressed following N-deficiency during both stages, but was only upregulated in the early stage after P-deficiency. The activities of AGPase and soluble starch synthesis enzyme (SSS EC 2.4.1.21) were positively correlated with changes in starch content. Furthermore, LeAPL3 and LeSSS (SSS gene) were positively correlated with changes in starch content during N-deficiency, while LeAPS and LeSSS were correlated with starch content in response to P-deficiency. These results elevate current knowledge of the molecular mechanisms underlying starch synthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Transcriptional Organization and Dynamic Expression of the hbpCAD Genes, Which Encode the First Three Enzymes for 2-Hydroxybiphenyl Degradation in Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1

    PubMed Central

    Jaspers, Marco C. M.; Schmid, Andreas; Sturme, Mark H. J.; Goslings, David A. M.; Kohler, Hans-Peter E.; Roelof van der Meer, Jan

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas azelaica HBP1 degrades the toxic substance 2-hydroxybiphenyl (2-HBP) by means of three enzymes that are encoded by structural genes hbpC, hbpA, and hbpD. These three genes form a small noncontiguous cluster. Their expression is activated by the product of regulatory gene hbpR, which is located directly upstream of the hbpCAD genes. The HbpR protein is a transcription activator and belongs to the so-called XylR/DmpR subclass within the NtrC family of transcriptional activators. Transcriptional fusions between the different hbp intergenic regions and the luxAB genes of Vibrio harveyi in P. azelaica and in Escherichia coli revealed the existence of two HbpR-regulated promoters; one is located in front of hbpC, and the other one is located in front of hbpD. Northern analysis confirmed that the hbpC and hbpA genes are cotranscribed, whereas the hbpD gene is transcribed separately. No transcripts comprising the entire hbpCAD cluster were detected, indicating that transcription from PhbpC is terminated after the hbpA gene. E. coli mutant strains lacking the structural genes for the RNA polymerase ς54 subunit or for the integration host factor failed to express bioluminescence from PhbpC- and PhbpD-luxAB fusions when a functional hbpR gene was provided in trans. This pointed to the active role of ς54 and integration host factor in transcriptional activation from these promoters. Primer extension analysis revealed that both PhbpC and PhbpD contain the typical motifs at position −24 (GG) and −12 (GC) found in ς54-dependent promoters. Analysis of changes in the synthesis of the hbp mRNAs, in activities of the 2-HBP pathway enzymes, and in concentrations of 2-HBP intermediates during the first 4 h after induction of continuously grown P. azelaica cells with 2-HBP demonstrated that the specific transcriptional organization of the hbp genes ensured smooth pathway expression. PMID:11114926

  13. Genomic organisation of the mouse gene encoding endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) and mRNA expression of ECE-1 isoforms in murine tissues.

    PubMed

    Lindenau, Steffi; von Langsdorff, Christian; Saxena, Amit; Paul, Martin; Orzechowski, Hans-Dieter

    2006-05-24

    Mouse knockout-models have previously revealed important biological functions of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) in normal cardiac and craniofacial development. Since human ECE-1 is expressed in various isoforms, termed a, b, c, and d, expression of which is controlled by alternative promoters, we postulated that corresponding isoforms may also be transcribed from the murine Ece1 gene. By comparative sequence analysis using exon-specific sequences of human and rat ECE-1 we have resolved the complete exon-intron structure of the murine Ece1 locus on chromosome 4. The murine Ece1 gene comprises 23 exons distributed over 100 kb of genomic DNA and was found to be structurally highly conserved when compared to the human ECE1 gene. As with the human gene, the exons containing isoform-specific sequences were localised in the 5' terminal region of the murine Ece1 gene. Using specific sense primers, isoform-specific expression of murine ECE-1 mRNA in various mouse tissues was confirmed by RT-PCR. Using real-time PCR we demonstrated that ECE-1c was the most abundantly expressed isoform in most tissues, except for heart and aorta displaying a more even isoform distribution. We detected an additional isoform-specific exon, designated c2, which was apparently constitutively spliced and expressed only as minor fraction of ECE-1c transcripts. Our results provide evidence of structural conservation of mammalian genes encoding ECE-1 and will facilitate a more refined analysis of ECE-1 mRNA expression in the mouse model organism.

  14. CUT1, an Arabidopsis gene required for cuticular wax biosynthesis and pollen fertility, encodes a very-long-chain fatty acid condensing enzyme.

    PubMed Central

    Millar, A A; Clemens, S; Zachgo, S; Giblin, E M; Taylor, D C; Kunst, L

    1999-01-01

    Land plants secrete a layer of wax onto their aerial surfaces that is essential for survival in a terrestrial environment. This wax is composed of long-chain, aliphatic hydrocarbons derived from very-long-chain fatty acids (VLCFAs). Using the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database, we have identified a gene, designated CUT1, that encodes a VLCFA condensing enzyme required for cuticular wax production. Sense suppression of CUT1 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants results in waxless (eceriferum) stems and siliques as well as conditional male sterility. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that this was a severe waxless phenotype, because stems of CUT1-suppressed plants were completely devoid of wax crystals. Furthermore, chemical analyses of waxless plants demonstrated that the stem wax load was reduced to 6 to 7% of wild-type levels. This value is lower than that reported for any of the known eceriferum mutants. The severe waxless phenotype resulted from the downregulation of both the decarbonylation and acyl reduction wax biosynthetic pathways. This result indicates that CUT1 is involved in the production of VLCFA precursors used for the synthesis of all stem wax components in Arabidopsis. In CUT1-suppressed plants, the C24 chain-length wax components predominate, suggesting that CUT1 is required for elongation of C24 VLCFAs. The unique wax composition of CUT1-suppressed plants together with the fact that the location of CUT1 on the genetic map did not coincide with any of the known ECERIFERUM loci suggest that we have identified a novel gene involved in wax biosynthesis. CUT1 is currently the only known gene with a clearly established function in wax production. PMID:10330468

  15. Cloning and sequencing of a dehalogenase gene encoding an enzyme with hydrolase activity involved in the degradation of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane in Pseudomonas paucimobilis.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, Y; Nariya, T; Ohtomo, R; Fukuda, M; Yano, K; Takagi, M

    1993-01-01

    In Pseudomonas paucimobilis UT26, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (gamma-HCH) is converted by two steps of dehydrochlorination to a chemically unstable intermediate, 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-1,4-cyclohexadiene (1,4-TCDN), which is then metabolized to 2,5-dichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-diol (2,5-DDOL) by two steps of hydrolytic dehalogenation via the chemically unstable intermediate 2,4,5-trichloro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1-ol (2,4,5-DNOL). To clone a gene encoding the enzyme responsible for the conversion of the chemically unstable intermediates 1,4-TCDN and 2,4,5-DNOL, a genomic library of P. paucimobilis UT26 was constructed in Pseudomonas putida PpY101LA into which the linA gene had been introduced by Tn5. An 8-kb BglII fragment from one of the cosmid clones, which could convert gamma-HCH to 2,5-DDOL, was subcloned, and subsequent deletion analyses revealed that a ca. 1.1-kb region was responsible for the activity. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame (designated the linB gene) of 885 bp within the region. The deduced amino acid sequence of LinB showed significant similarity to hydrolytic dehalogenase, DhlA (D. B. Janssen, F. Pries, J. van der Ploeg, B. Kazemier, P. Terpstra, and B. Witholt, J. Bacteriol. 171:6791-6799, 1989). The protein product of the linB gene was 32 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Not only 1-chlorobutane but also 1-chlorodecane (C10) and 2-chlorobutane, which are poor substrates for other dehalogenases, were good substrates for LinB, suggesting that LinB may be a member of haloalkane dehalogenases with broad-range specificity for substrates. Images PMID:7691794

  16. Malonyl-CoA Synthetase, Encoded by ACYL ACTIVATING ENZYME13, Is Essential for Growth and Development of Arabidopsis[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hui; Kim, Hyun Uk; Weng, Hua; Browse, John

    2011-01-01

    Malonyl-CoA is the precursor for fatty acid synthesis and elongation. It is also one of the building blocks for the biosynthesis of some phytoalexins, flavonoids, and many malonylated compounds. In plants as well as in animals, malonyl-CoA is almost exclusively derived from acetyl-CoA by acetyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.2). However, previous studies have suggested that malonyl-CoA may also be made directly from malonic acid by malonyl-CoA synthetase (EC 6.2.1.14). Here, we report the cloning of a eukaryotic malonyl-CoA synthetase gene, Acyl Activating Enzyme13 (AAE13; At3g16170), from Arabidopsis thaliana. Recombinant AAE13 protein showed high activity against malonic acid (Km = 529.4 ± 98.5 μM; Vm = 24.0 ± 2.7 μmol/mg/min) but little or no activity against other dicarboxylic or fatty acids tested. Exogenous malonic acid was toxic to Arabidopsis seedlings and caused accumulation of malonic and succinic acids in the seedlings. aae13 null mutants also grew poorly and accumulated malonic and succinic acids. These defects were complemented by an AAE13 transgene or by a bacterial malonyl-CoA synthetase gene under control of the AAE13 promoter. Our results demonstrate that the malonyl-CoA synthetase encoded by AAE13 is essential for healthy growth and development, probably because it is required for the detoxification of malonate. PMID:21642549

  17. Antioxidant-rich leaf extract of Barringtonia racemosa significantly alters the in vitro expression of genes encoding enzymes that are involved in methylglyoxal degradation III

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Kin Weng; Abdul Aziz, Azlina; Razali, Nurhanani; Aminuddin, Norhaniza

    2016-01-01

    Background Barringtonia racemosa is a medicinal plant belonging to the Lecythidaceae family. The water extract of B. racemosa leaf (BLE) has been shown to be rich in polyphenols. Despite the diverse medicinal properties of B. racemosa, information on its major biological effects and the underlying molecular mechanisms are still lacking. Methods In this study, the effect of the antioxidant-rich BLE on gene expression in HepG2 cells was investigated using microarray analysis in order to shed more light on the molecular mechanism associated with the medicinal properties of the plant. Results Microarray analysis showed that a total of 138 genes were significantly altered in response to BLE treatment (p < 0.05) with a fold change difference of at least 1.5. SERPINE1 was the most significantly up-regulated gene at 2.8-fold while HAMP was the most significantly down-regulated gene at 6.5-fold. Ingenuity Pathways Analysis (IPA) revealed that “Cancer, cell death and survival, cellular movement” was the top network affected by the BLE with a score of 44. The top five canonical pathways associated with BLE were Methylglyoxal Degradation III followed by VDR/RXR activation, TR/RXR activation, PXR/RXR activation and gluconeogenesis. The expression of genes that encode for enzymes involved in methylglyoxal degradation (ADH4, AKR1B10 and AKR1C2) and glycolytic process (ENO3, ALDOC and SLC2A1) was significantly regulated. Owing to the Warburg effect, aerobic glycolysis in cancer cells may increase the level of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic compound. Conclusions BLE has the potential to be developed into a novel chemopreventive agent provided that the cytotoxic effects related to methylglyoxal accumulation are minimized in normal cells that rely on aerobic glycolysis for energy supply. PMID:27635343

  18. Impact of mutations affecting ND mitochondria-encoded subunits on the activity and assembly of complex I in Chlamydomonas. Implication for the structural organization of the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Cardol, Pierre; Matagne, René F; Remacle, Claire

    2002-06-21

    The mitochondrial rotenone-sensitive NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex I) comprises more than 35 subunits, the majority of which are encoded by the nucleus. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, only five components (ND1, ND2, ND4, ND5 and ND6) are coded for by the mitochondrial genome. Here, we characterize two mitochondrial mutants (dum5 and dum17) showing strong reduction or inactivation of complex I activity: dum5 is a 1T deletion in the 3' UTR of nd5 whereas dum17 is a 1T deletion in the coding sequence of nd6. The impact of these mutations and of mutations affecting nd1, nd4 and nd4/nd5 genes on the assembly of complex I is investigated. After separation of the respiratory complexes by blue native (BN)-PAGE or sucrose gradient centrifugation, we demonstrate that the absence of intact ND1 or ND6 subunit prevents the assembly of the 850 kDa whole complex, whereas the loss of ND4 or ND4/ND5 leads to the formation of a subcomplex of 650 kDa present in reduced amount. The implications of our findings for the possible role of these ND subunits on the activity of complex I and for the structural organization of the membrane arm of the enzyme are discussed. In mitochondria from all the strains analyzed, we moreover detected a 160-210 kDa fragment comprising the hydrophilic 49 kDa and 76 kDa subunits of the complex I peripheral arm and showing NADH dehydrogenase activity. (c) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  19. Cloning and functional analysis of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) genes encoding a key enzyme during abscisic acid biosynthesis from peach and grape fruits.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mei; Leng, Ping; Zhang, Guanglian; Li, Xiangxin

    2009-08-15

    Ripening and senescence are generally controlled by ethylene in climacteric fruits like peaches, and the ripening process of grape, a non-climacteric fruit, may have some relationship to abscisic acid (ABA) function. In order to better understand the role of ABA in ripening and senescence of these two types of fruits, we cloned the 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) gene that encodes a key enzyme in ABA biosynthesis from peaches and grapes using an RT-PCR approach. The NCED gene fragments were cloned from peaches (PpNCED1and PpNCED2, each 740bp) and grapes (VVNCED1, 741bp) using degenerate primers designed based on the conserved amino acids sequence of NCEDs in other plants. PpNCED1 showed 78.54% homology with PpNCED2, 74.90% homology with VVNCED1, and both showed high homology to NCEDs from other plants. The expression patterns of PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 were very similar. Both were highly expressed at the beginning of ripening when ABA content becomes high. The maximum ABA preceded ethylene production in peach fruit. ABA in the grape gradually increased from the beginning of ripening and reached the highest level at 20d before the harvest stage. However, ethylene remained at low levels during the entire process of fruit development, including ripening and senescence. ABA content, and ripening and softening of both types of fruits, were promoted or delayed by exogenous ABA or Fluridone (or NDGA) treatment. The roles of ABA and ethylene in the later ripening of fruit are complex. Based on results obtained in this study, we concluded that PpNCED1 and VVNCED1 initiate ABA biosynthesis at the beginning of fruit ripening, and that ABA accumulation might play a key role in the regulation of ripeness and senescence of both peach and grape fruits.

  20. Effects of elevated CO2 on levels of primary metabolites and transcripts of genes encoding respiratory enzymes and their diurnal patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana: possible relationships with respiratory rates.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Chihiro K; Sato, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Uesono, Yukifumi; Terashima, Ichiro; Noguchi, Ko

    2014-02-01

    Elevated CO2 affects plant growth and photosynthesis, which results in changes in plant respiration. However, the mechanisms underlying the responses of plant respiration to elevated CO2 are poorly understood. In this study, we measured diurnal changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding respiratory enzymes, the maximal activities of the enzymes and primary metabolite levels in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under moderate or elevated CO2 conditions (390 or 780 parts per million by volume CO2, respectively). We examined the relationships between these changes and respiratory rates. Under elevated CO2, the transcript levels of several genes encoding respiratory enzymes increased at the end of the light period, but these increases did not result in changes in the maximal activities of the corresponding enzymes. The levels of some primary metabolites such as starch and sugar phosphates increased under elevated CO2, particularly at the end of the light period. The O2 uptake rate at the end of the dark period was higher under elevated CO2 than under moderate CO2, but higher under moderate CO2 than under elevated CO2 at the end of the light period. These results indicate that the changes in O2 uptake rates are not directly related to changes in maximal enzyme activities and primary metabolite levels. Instead, elevated CO2 may affect anabolic processes that consume respiratory ATP, thereby affecting O2 uptake rates.

  1. Effects of Elevated CO2 on Levels of Primary Metabolites and Transcripts of Genes Encoding Respiratory Enzymes and Their Diurnal Patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana: Possible Relationships with Respiratory Rates

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Chihiro K.; Sato, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Uesono, Yukifumi; Terashima, Ichiro; Noguchi, Ko

    2014-01-01

    Elevated CO2 affects plant growth and photosynthesis, which results in changes in plant respiration. However, the mechanisms underlying the responses of plant respiration to elevated CO2 are poorly understood. In this study, we measured diurnal changes in the transcript levels of genes encoding respiratory enzymes, the maximal activities of the enzymes and primary metabolite levels in shoots of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under moderate or elevated CO2 conditions (390 or 780 parts per million by volume CO2, respectively). We examined the relationships between these changes and respiratory rates. Under elevated CO2, the transcript levels of several genes encoding respiratory enzymes increased at the end of the light period, but these increases did not result in changes in the maximal activities of the corresponding enzymes. The levels of some primary metabolites such as starch and sugar phosphates increased under elevated CO2, particularly at the end of the light period. The O2 uptake rate at the end of the dark period was higher under elevated CO2 than under moderate CO2, but higher under moderate CO2 than under elevated CO2 at the end of the light period. These results indicate that the changes in O2 uptake rates are not directly related to changes in maximal enzyme activities and primary metabolite levels. Instead, elevated CO2 may affect anabolic processes that consume respiratory ATP, thereby affecting O2 uptake rates. PMID:24319073

  2. Cloning and nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene encoding the pyoverdin biosynthetic enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed Central

    Visca, P; Ciervo, A; Orsi, N

    1994-01-01

    The enzyme L-ornithine N5-oxygenase catalyzes the hydroxylation of L-ornithine (L-Orn), which represents an early step in the biosynthesis of the peptidic moiety of the fluorescent siderophore pyoverdin in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A gene bank of DNA from P. aeruginosa PAO1 (ATCC 15692) was constructed in the broad-host-range cosmid pLAFR3 and mobilized into the L-Orn N5-oxygenase-defective (pvdA) P. aeruginosa mutant PALS124. Screening for fluorescent transconjugants made it possible to identify the trans-complementing cosmid pPV4, which was able to restore pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity in the pvdA mutant PALS124. The 17-kb PAO1 DNA insert of pPV4 contained at least two genetic determinants involved in pyoverdin synthesis, i.e., pvdA and pvdC4, as shown by complementation analysis of a set of mutants blocked in different steps of the pyoverdin biosynthetic pathway. Deletion analysis, subcloning, and transposon mutagenesis enabled us to locate the pvdA gene in a minimum DNA fragment of 1.7 kb flanked by two SphI restriction sites. Complementation of the pvdA mutation was under stringent iron control; both pyoverdin synthesis and L-Orn N5-oxygenase activity were undetectable in cells of the trans-complemented mutant which had been grown in the presence of 100 microM FeCl3. The entire nucleotide sequence of the pvdA gene, from which the primary structure of the encoded polypeptide was deduced, was determined. The pvdA structural gene is 1,278 bp; the cloned DNA fragment contains at the 5' end of the gene a putative ribosome-binding site but apparently lacks known promoterlike sequences. The P. aeruginosa L-Orn N5-oxygenase gene codes for a 426-amino-acid peptide with a predicted molecular mass of 47.7 kDa and an isoelectric point of 8.1. The enzyme shows approximately 50% homology with functional analogs, i.e., L-lysine N6-hydroxylase of aerobactin-producing Escherichia coli and L-Orn N5-oxygenase of ferrichrome-producing Ustilago maydis. The pvd

  3. Characterization of the Genes Encoding d-Amino Acid Transaminase and Glutamate Racemase, Two d-Glutamate Biosynthetic Enzymes of Bacillus sphaericus ATCC 10208

    PubMed Central

    Fotheringham, Ian G.; Bledig, Stefan A.; Taylor, Paul P.

    1998-01-01

    In Bacillus sphaericus and other Bacillus spp., d-amino acid transaminase has been considered solely responsible for biosynthesis of d-glutamate, an essential component of cell wall peptidoglycan, in contrast to the glutamate racemase employed by many other bacteria. We report here the cloning of the dat gene encoding d-amino acid transaminase and the glr gene encoding a glutamate racemase from B. sphaericus ATCC 10208. The glr gene encodes a 28.8-kDa protein with 40 to 50% sequence identity to the glutamate racemases of Lactobacillus, Pediococcus, and Staphylococcus species. The dat gene encodes a 31.4-kDa peptide with 67% primary sequence homology to the d-amino acid transaminase of the thermophilic Bacillus sp. strain YM1. PMID:9696787

  4. Cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces peucetius dnrQS genes encoding a daunosamine biosynthesis enzyme and a glycosyl transferase involved in daunorubicin biosynthesis.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S L; Liu, X; Ferguson, J; Hutchinson, C R

    1995-01-01

    The dnrQS genes from the daunorubicin producer Streptomyces peucetius were characterized by DNA sequencing, complementation analysis, and gene disruption. The dnrQ gene is required for daunosamine biosynthesis, and dnrS appears to encode a glycosyltransferase for the addition of the 2,3,6-trideoxy-3-aminohexose, daunosamine, to epsilon-rhodomycinone. PMID:7592454

  5. Cloning of a human cDNA encoding a novel enzyme involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, A E; Bobik, E G; Dorado, J; Kroeger, P E; Chuang, L T; Thurmond, J M; Parker-Barnes, J M; Das, T; Huang, Y S; Mukerji, P

    2000-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae protein ELO2p is involved in the elongation of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids. Among several sequences with limited identity with the S. cerevisiae ELO2 gene, a consensus cDNA sequence was identified from the LifeSeq(R) database of Incyte Pharmaceuticals, Inc. Human liver cDNA was amplified by PCR using oligonucleotides complementary to the 5' and 3' ends of the putative human cDNA sequence. The resulting full-length sequence, termed HELO1, consisted of 897 bp, which encoded 299 amino acids. However, in contrast with the ELO2 gene, expression of this open reading frame in S. cerevisiae demonstrated that the encoded protein was involved in the elongation of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, as determined by the conversion of gamma-linolenic acid (C(18:3, n-6)) into dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (C(20:3, n-6)), arachidonic acid (C(20:4, n-6)) into adrenic acid (C(22:4, n-6)), stearidonic acid (C(18:4, n-3)) into eicosatetraenoic acid (C(20:4, n-3)), eicosapentaenoic acid (C(20:5, n-3)) into omega3-docosapentaenoic acid (C(22:5, n-3)) and alpha-linolenic acid (C(18:3, n-3)) into omega3-eicosatrienoic acid (C(20:3, n-3)). The predicted amino acid sequence of the open reading frame had only 29% identity with the yeast ELO2 sequence, contained a single histidine-rich domain and had six transmembrane-spanning regions, as suggested by hydropathy analysis. The tissue expression profile revealed that the HELO1 gene is highly expressed in the adrenal gland and testis. Furthermore, the HELO1 gene is located on chromosome 6, best known for encoding the major histocompatibility complex, which is essential to the human immune response. PMID:10970790

  6. Cloning and characterization of the Streptomyces peucetius dnmZUV genes encoding three enzymes required for biosynthesis of the daunorubicin precursor thymidine diphospho-L-daunosamine.

    PubMed Central

    Otten, S L; Gallo, M A; Madduri, K; Liu, X; Hutchinson, C R

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the dnmZ, dnmU, and dnmV genes from the daunorubicin-producer Streptomyces peucetius by DNA sequence analysis indicated that these genes encode a protein of unknown function plus a putative thymidine diphospho-4-keto-6-deoxyglucose-3(5)-epimerase and thymidine diphospho-4-ketodeoxyhexulose reductase, respectively. Inactivation of each of the three genes by gene disruption and replacement in the wild-type strain demonstrated that all of them are required for daunosamine biosynthesis. PMID:9209071

  7. Identification, sequence analysis, and expression of a Corynebacterium glutamicum gene cluster encoding the three glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, and triosephosphate isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Eikmanns, B J

    1992-01-01

    To investigate a possible chromosomal clustering of glycolytic enzyme genes in Corynebacterium glutamicum, a 6.4-kb DNA fragment located 5' adjacent to the structural phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPCx) gene ppc was isolated. Sequence analysis of the ppc-proximal part of this fragment identified a cluster of three glycolytic genes, namely, the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) gene gap, the 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) gene pgk, and the triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene tpi. The four genes are organized in the order gap-pgk-tpi-ppc and are separated by 215 bp (gap and pgk), 78 bp (pgk and tpi), and 185 bp (tpi and ppc). The predicted gene product of gap consists of 336 amino acids (M(r) of 36,204), that of pgk consists of 403 amino acids (M(r) of 42,654), and that of tpi consists of 259 amino acids (M(r) of 27,198). The amino acid sequences of the three enzymes show up to 62% (GAPDH), 48% (PGK), and 44% (TPI) identity in comparison with respective enzymes from other organisms. The gap, pgk, tpi, and ppc genes were cloned into the C. glutamicum-Escherichia coli shuttle vector pEK0 and introduced into C. glutamicum. Relative to the wild type, the recombinant strains showed up to 20-fold-higher specific activities of the respective enzymes. On the basis of codon usage analysis of gap, pgk, tpi, and previously sequenced genes from C. glutamicum, a codon preference profile for this organism which differs significantly from those of E. coli and Bacillus subtilis is presented. Images PMID:1400158

  8. Amplification and disruption of the phenylacetyl-CoA ligase gene of Penicillium chrysogenum encoding an aryl-capping enzyme that supplies phenylacetic acid to the isopenicillin N-acyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Lamas-Maceiras, Mónica; Vaca, Inmaculada; Rodríguez, Esther; Casqueiro, Javier; Martín, Juan F

    2006-04-01

    A gene, phl, encoding a phenylacetyl-CoA ligase was cloned from a phage library of Penicillium chrysogenum AS-P-78. The presence of five introns in the phl gene was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-PCR. The phl gene encoded an aryl-CoA ligase closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana 4-coumaroyl-CoA ligase. The Phl protein contained most of the amino acids defining the aryl-CoA (4-coumaroyl-CoA) ligase substrate-specificity code and differed from acetyl-CoA ligase and other acyl-CoA ligases. The phl gene was not linked to the penicillin gene cluster. Amplification of phl in an autonomous replicating plasmid led to an 8-fold increase in phenylacetyl-CoA ligase activity and a 35% increase in penicillin production. Transformants containing the amplified phl gene were resistant to high concentrations of phenylacetic acid (more than 2.5 g/l). Disruption of the phl gene resulted in a 40% decrease in penicillin production and a similar reduction of phenylacetyl-CoA ligase activity. The disrupted mutants were highly susceptible to phenylacetic acid. Complementation of the disrupted mutants with the phl gene restored normal levels of penicillin production and resistance to phenylacetic acid. The phenylacetyl-CoA ligase encoded by the phl gene is therefore involved in penicillin production, although a second aryl-CoA ligase appears to contribute partially to phenylacetic acid activation. The Phl protein lacks a peptide-carrier-protein domain and behaves as an aryl-capping enzyme that activates phenylacetic acid and transfers it to the isopenicillin N acyltransferase. The Phl protein contains the peroxisome-targeting sequence that is also present in the isopenicillin N acyltransferase. The peroxisomal co-localization of these two proteins indicates that the last two enzymes of the penicillin pathway form a peroxisomal functional complex.

  9. Overexpression of erg20 gene encoding farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase has contrasting effects on activity of enzymes of the dolichyl and sterol branches of mevalonate pathway in Trichoderma reesei.

    PubMed

    Piłsyk, Sebastian; Perlińska-Lenart, Urszula; Górka-Nieć, Wioletta; Graczyk, Sebastian; Antosiewicz, Beata; Zembek, Patrycja; Palamarczyk, Grażyna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2014-07-10

    The mevalonate pathway is the most diverse metabolic route resulting in the biosynthesis of at least 30,000 isoprenoid compounds, many of which, such as sterols or dolichols, are indispensable for living cells. In the filamentous fungus Trichoderma of major biotechnological interest isoprenoid metabolites are also involved in the biocontrol processes giving the mevalonate pathway an additional significance. On the other hand, little is known about genes coding for enzymes of the mevalonate pathway in Trichoderma. Here, we present cloning and functional analysis of the erg20 gene from Trichoderma reesei coding for farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) synthase (EC 2.5.1.10), an enzyme located at the branching point of the mevalonate pathway. Expression of the gene in a thermosensitive erg20-2 mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae impaired in the FPP synthase activity suppressed the thermosensitive phenotype. The same gene overexpressed in T. reesei significantly enhanced the FPP synthase activity and also stimulated the activity of cis-prenyltransferase, an enzyme of the dolichyl branch of the mevalonate pathway. Unexpectedly, the activity of squalene synthase from the other, sterol branch, was significantly decreased without, however, affecting ergosterol level.

  10. Rv3634c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv encodes an enzyme with UDP-Gal/Glc and UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase activities

    PubMed Central

    Pardeshi, Peehu; Rao, K. Krishnamurthy

    2017-01-01

    A bioinformatics study revealed that Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (Mtb) contains sequence homologs of Campylobacter jejuni protein glycosylation enzymes. The ORF Rv3634c from Mtb was identified as a sequence homolog of C. jejuni UDP-Gal/GalNAc 4-epimerase. This study reports the cloning of Rv3634c and its expression as an N-terminal His-tagged protein. The recombinant protein was shown to have UDP-Gal/Glc 4-epimerase activity by GOD-POD assay and by reverse phase HPLC. This enzyme was shown to have UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase activity also. Residues Ser121, Tyr146 and Lys150 were shown by site-directed mutagenesis to be important for enzyme activity. Mutation of Ser121 and Tyr146 to Ala and Phe, respectively, led to complete loss of activity whereas mutation of Lys150 to Arg led to partial loss of activity. There were no gross changes in the secondary structures of any of these three mutants. These results suggest that Ser121 and Tyr146 are essential for epimerase activity of Rv3634c. UDP-Gal/Glc 4-epimerases from other organisms also have a catalytic triad consisting of Ser, Tyr and Lys. The triad carries out proton transfer from nucleotide sugar to NAD+ and back, thus effecting the epimerization of the substrate. Addition of NAD+ to Lys150 significantly abrogates the loss of activity, suggesting that, as in other epimerases, NAD+ is associated with Rv3634c. PMID:28403215

  11. Agrobacterium tumefaciens estC, Encoding an Enzyme Containing Esterase Activity, Is Regulated by EstR, a Regulator in the MarR Family

    PubMed Central

    Giengkam, Suparat; Vattanaviboon, Paiboon

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of the A. tumefaciens genome revealed estC, which encodes an esterase located next to its transcriptional regulator estR, a regulator of esterase in the MarR family. Inactivation of estC results in a small increase in the resistance to organic hydroperoxides, whereas a high level of expression of estC from an expression vector leads to a reduction in the resistance to organic hydroperoxides and menadione. The estC gene is transcribed divergently from its regulator, estR. Expression analysis showed that only high concentrations of cumene hydroperoxide (CHP, 1 mM) induced expression of both genes in an EstR-dependent manner. The EstR protein acts as a CHP sensor and a transcriptional repressor of both genes. EstR specifically binds to the operator sites OI and OII overlapping the promoter elements of estC and estR. This binding is responsible for transcription repression of both genes. Exposure to organic hydroperoxide results in oxidation of the sensing cysteine (Cys16) residue of EstR, leading to a release of the oxidized repressor from the operator sites, thereby allowing transcription and high levels of expression of both genes. The estC is the first organic hydroperoxide-inducible esterase-encoding gene in alphaproteobacteria. PMID:28036400

  12. Marine enzymes.

    PubMed

    Debashish, Ghosh; Malay, Saha; Barindra, Sana; Joydeep, Mukherjee

    2005-01-01

    Marine enzyme biotechnology can offer novel biocatalysts with properties like high salt tolerance, hyperthermostability, barophilicity, cold adaptivity, and ease in large-scale cultivation. This review deals with the research and development work done on the occurrence, molecular biology, and bioprocessing of marine enzymes during the last decade. Exotic locations have been accessed for the search of novel enzymes. Scientists have isolated proteases and carbohydrases from deep sea hydrothermal vents. Cold active metabolic enzymes from psychrophilic marine microorganisms have received considerable research attention. Marine symbiont microorganisms growing in association with animals and plants were shown to produce enzymes of commercial interest. Microorganisms isolated from sediment and seawater have been the most widely studied, proteases, carbohydrases, and peroxidases being noteworthy. Enzymes from marine animals and plants were primarily studied for their metabolic roles, though proteases and peroxidases have found industrial applications. Novel techniques in molecular biology applied to assess the diversity of chitinases, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia-metabolizing, and pollutant-degrading enzymes are discussed. Genes encoding chitinases, proteases, and carbohydrases from microbial and animal sources have been cloned and characterized. Research on the bioprocessing of marine-derived enzymes, however, has been scanty, focusing mainly on the application of solid-state fermentation to the production of enzymes from microbial sources.

  13. Remote Ischemic Preconditioning Enhances the Expression of Genes Encoding Antioxidant Enzymes and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Related Proteins in Rat Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ui Jun; Kim, Hyoung Tae; Cho, Won Hyun; Park, Jae Hyoung; Jung, Hye Ra; Kim, Min Young

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC), including remote IPC (rIPC) and direct IPC (dIPC), is a promising method to decrease ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury. This study tested the effect of both rIPC and dIPC on the genes for antioxidant enzymes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins. Materials and Methods: Twenty rats were randomly divided into the control and study groups. In the control group (n=10), the right hind limb was sham-operated. The left hind limb (IscR) of the control group underwent IR injury without IPC. In the study group (n=10), the right hind limb received IR injury after 3 cycles of rIPC. The IscR received IR injury after 3 cycles of dIPC. Gene expression was analyzed by Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction from the anterior tibialis muscle. Results: The expression of the antioxidant enzyme genes including glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) 1 and catalase (CAT) were significantly reduced in IscR compared with sham treatment. In comparison with IscR, rIPC enhanced the expression of GPx, SOD2, and CAT genes. dIPC enhanced the expression of SOD2 and CAT genes. The expression of SOD2 genes was consistently higher in rIPC than in dIPC, but the difference was only significant for SOD2. The expression of genes for ER stress-related proteins tended to be reduced in IscR in comparison with sham treatment. However, the difference was only significant for C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). In comparison with IscR, rIPC significantly up-regulated activating transcription factor 4 and CHOP, whereas dIPC up-regulated CHOP. Conclusion: Both rIPC and dIPC enhanced expression of genes for antioxidant enzymes and ER stress-related proteins. PMID:28042553

  14. Regulation of mRNAs encoding the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme in the elasmobranch interrenal gland.

    PubMed

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2010-08-01

    The rate-limiting and regulated step in steroidogenesis, the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, is facilitated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc). We have isolated cDNAs encoding StAR and P450scc from the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina, and characterized the steroidogenic activity of the encoded proteins using a heterologous expression system. Green monkey kidney (COS-1) cells cotransfected with D. sabina StAR and human P450scc/adrenodoxin reductase/adrenodoxin fusion (F2) constructs produced significantly more pregnenolone than cells transfected with the F2 construct alone. COS-1 cells transfected with a modified F2 construct (F2DS) in which human P450scc is replaced by D. sabina P450scc had higher rates than cells transfected with D. sabina P450scc alone. In other vertebrates, the stress peptide adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) elicits its effects on corticosteroidogenesis in part through regulation of StAR and P450scc mRNAs. In vitro incubation of D. sabina interrenal tissue with porcine ACTH significantly increased intracellular cAMP and corticosteroid production. As demonstrated by quantitative PCR, ACTH also induced significant increases in mRNA abundance of both StAR and P450scc. Our results suggest that, as in higher vertebrates, chronic ACTH-induced glucocorticoid synthesis in elasmobranchs is mediated by regulation of primary steroidogenic mRNAs. This study is the first to demonstrate steroidogenic activity of an elasmobranch P450scc protein and express a composite elasmobranch steroidogenic pathway in a heterologous cell line. Also, the regulation of StAR and P450scc mRNAs has not previously been demonstrated in elasmobranch fishes. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in the one carbon cycle in rat placenta is determined by maternal micronutrients (folic acid, vitamin B12) and omega-3 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Khot, Vinita; Kale, Anvita; Joshi, Asmita; Chavan-Gautam, Preeti; Joshi, Sadhana

    2014-01-01

    We have reported that folic acid, vitamin B12, and omega-3 fatty acids are interlinked in the one carbon cycle and have implications for fetal programming. Our earlier studies demonstrate that an imbalance in maternal micronutrients influence long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism and global methylation in rat placenta. We hypothesize that these changes are mediated through micronutrient dependent regulation of enzymes in one carbon cycle. Pregnant dams were assigned to six dietary groups with varying folic acid and vitamin B12 levels. Vitamin B12 deficient groups were supplemented with omega-3 fatty acid. Placental mRNA levels of enzymes, levels of phospholipids, and glutathione were determined. Results suggest that maternal micronutrient imbalance (excess folic acid with vitamin B12 deficiency) leads to lower mRNA levels of methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and methionine synthase , but higher cystathionine b-synthase (CBS) and Phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase (PEMT) as compared to control. Omega-3 supplementation normalized CBS and MTHFR mRNA levels. Increased placental phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylcholine (PC), in the same group was also observed. Our data suggests that adverse effects of a maternal micronutrient imbalanced diet may be due to differential regulation of key genes encoding enzymes in one carbon cycle and omega-3 supplementation may ameliorate most of these changes.

  16. Improved soluble expression of the gene encoding amylolytic enzyme Amo45 by fusion with the mobile-loop-region of co-chaperonin GroES in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The gene encoding the amylolytic enzyme Amo45, originating from a metagenomic project, was retrieved by a consensus primer-based approach for glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 57 enzymes. Family 57 contains mainly uncharacterized proteins similar to archaeal thermoactive amylopullulanases. For characterization of these family members soluble, active enzymes have to be produced in sufficient amounts. Heterologous expression of amo45 in E.coli resulted in low yields of protein, most of which was found in inclusion bodies. To improve protein production and to increase the amount of soluble protein, two different modifications of the gene were applied. The first was fusion to an N-terminal His-tag sequence which increased the yield of protein, but still resulted in high amounts of inclusion bodies. Co-expression with chaperones enhanced the amount of soluble protein 4-fold. An alternative modification was the attachment of a peptide consisting of the amino acid sequence of the mobile-loop of the co-chaperonin GroES of E.coli. This sequence improved the soluble protein production 5-fold compared to His6-Amo45 and additional expression of chaperones was unnecessary. PMID:24829536

  17. Improved soluble expression of the gene encoding amylolytic enzyme Amo45 by fusion with the mobile-loop-region of co-chaperonin GroES in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Fridjonsson, Olafur; Hreggvidsson, Gudmundur; Altenbuchner, Josef

    2013-11-01

    The gene encoding the amylolytic enzyme Amo45, originating from a metagenomic project, was retrieved by a consensus primer-based approach for glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 57 enzymes. Family 57 contains mainly uncharacterized proteins similar to archaeal thermoactive amylopullulanases. For characterization of these family members soluble, active enzymes have to be produced in sufficient amounts. Heterologous expression of amo45 in E.coli resulted in low yields of protein, most of which was found in inclusion bodies. To improve protein production and to increase the amount of soluble protein, two different modifications of the gene were applied. The first was fusion to an N-terminal His-tag sequence which increased the yield of protein, but still resulted in high amounts of inclusion bodies. Co-expression with chaperones enhanced the amount of soluble protein 4-fold. An alternative modification was the attachment of a peptide consisting of the amino acid sequence of the mobile-loop of the co-chaperonin GroES of E.coli. This sequence improved the soluble protein production 5-fold compared to His6-Amo45 and additional expression of chaperones was unnecessary.

  18. Isolation of a gene encoding a cellulolytic enzyme from swamp buffalo rumen metagenomes and its cloning and expression in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cheema, Tanzeem Akbar; Jirajaroenrat, Kanya; Sirinarumitr, Theerapol; Rakshit, Sudip K

    2012-01-01

    Ruminants are capable of hydrolyzing lignocellulosic residues to absorbable sugars by virtue of the microbial communities residing in their rumen. However, large sections of such microbial communities are not yet culturable using conventional laboratory techniques. Therefore in the present study, the metagenomic DNA of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) rumen contents was explored using culture-independent techniques. The consensus regions of glycosyl hydrolase 5 (GH5) family of cellulases were used as primers for PCR amplification. A full-length metagenomic cellulase gene, Umcel5B29, with a complete open reading frame (ORF) of 1611 bp was identified. The similarity search analysis revealed that Umcel5B29 is closely related to the cellulases (73% to 98% similarity) of ruminal unculturable microorganisms, indicating its phylogenetic origin. Further analysis indicated that Umcel5B29 does not contain a carbohydrate binding module (CBM). Subsequently, Umcel5B29 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant enzyme worked optimally at pH 5.5 and 45°C, a condition similar to the buffalo's rumen. However, the enzyme retained more than 70% of its maximal activity after incubation at pH 4-7 and more than 50% maximal activity after incubation at 30-60°C for 30 min. These characteristics render Umcel5B29 as a potential candidate for the bio-stoning process of denim.

  19. Suppression of Cell Wall Degrading Enzymes and their Encoding Genes in Button Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) by CaCl2 and Citric Acid.

    PubMed

    Khan, Zia Ullah; Jiayin, Li; Khan, Nasir Mehmood; Mou, Wangshu; Li, Dongdong; Wang, Yansheng; Feng, Simin; Luo, Zisheng; Mao, Linchun; Ying, Tiejin

    2017-03-01

    Fresh button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) were harvested and treated with a solution of 1.5% CaCl2 + 0.5% citric acid and stored for 16 days at 12 °C. The effects of this treatment on firmness, weight, color, cell wall compositions (cellulose and chitin) and cell wall degrading enzymes (cel1ulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase) were investigated during post-harvest storage. The expressions of major genes (Cel1, Glu1, Chi1 and PAL1) involved in cell wall degradation during post-harvest storage were also monitored. The results revealed that the post-harvest chemical treatment maintained better firmness, weight, color and inhibited cellulase, beta-1, 3 glucanase, chitinase and phenylalanine ammonialyase activities. These findings showed that the down-regulation of cell wall degrading enzymes is a possible mechanism that delays the softening of button mushrooms by the application of combined chemical treatment.

  20. Expression pattern of genes encoding nitrate and ammonium assimilating enzymes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to short term NaCl stress.

    PubMed

    Debouba, Mohamed; Dguimi, Houda Maaroufi; Ghorbel, Mohamed; Gouia, Houda; Suzuki, Akira

    2013-01-15

    Key steps in nitrate nutrition and assimilation were assessed over two weeks in control and 100mM NaCl-exposed Arabidopsis thaliana (Columbia) plants. The data showed that NaCl stress lowered nitrate contents in both leaves and roots. While NaCl stress decreased ammonium contents in leaves, it increased the contents in roots at the end of treatment. A survey of transcript levels of NIA1 (At1g77760) and NIA2 (At1g37130) and nitrate reductase (NR, EC 1.6.1.6) activity in the leaves and roots suggested a major role of NIA2 rather than NIA1 in the regulation of NR by salt stress. A drop in mRNA levels for GLN2 (At5g35630) and GLN1;2 (At1g66200) by salt was associated with a similar inhibition of glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activity in the leaves. In the roots, NaCl stress was found to enhance mRNA levels of GLN2 and cytosolic-encoding genes (GLN1;1 (At5g37600) and GLN1;2).

  1. Lutein ester profile in wheat and tritordeum can be modulated by temperature: Evidences for regioselectivity and fatty acid preferential of enzymes encoded by genes on chromosomes 7D and 7H(ch).

    PubMed

    Mattera, M G; Hornero-Méndez, D; Atienza, S G

    2017-03-15

    The increase of lutein retention through the food chain is desirable for wheat breeding. Lutein esters are more stable than free lutein during post-harvest storage and two loci on chromosomes 7D and 7H(ch) are important for esterification. We investigated the effect of temperature during grain filling on carotenoid accumulation and lutein ester profile including fatty acid selectivity (palmitic vs. linoleic) and regioselectivity (esterification at positions 3 vs. 3'). Three different temperature regimes were assayed (controlled, semi-controlled and non-controlled). Lutein esters were more stable than free carotenoids in vivo and the enzymes encoded by chromosomes 7H(ch) and 7D are complementary. Indeed, they show differential preferences for the fatty acid (palmitic and linoleic, respectively) and regioselectivity (3 and 3', respectively). Besides, H. chilense has additional genes for esterification. Finally, the increase of temperature favoured the accumulation of lutein esters with linoleic acid and the synthesis of regioisomers at position 3'.

  2. Genomic and functional characterization of the oas gene family encoding O-acetylserine (thiol) lyases, enzymes catalyzing the final step in cysteine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Jost, R; Berkowitz, O; Wirtz, M; Hopkins, L; Hawkesford, M J; Hell, R

    2000-08-08

    The final step of cysteine biosynthesis in plants is catalyzed by O-acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL), which occurs as several isoforms found in the cytosol, the plastids and the mitochondria. Genomic DNA blot hybridization and isolation of genomic clones indicate single copy genes (oasA1, oasA2, oasB and oasC) that encode the activities of OAS-TL A, B and C found in separate subcellular compartments in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Sequence analysis reveals that the newly discovered oasA2 gene represents a pseudogene that is still transcribed, but is not functionally translated. The comparison of gene structures suggests that oasA1/oasA2 and oasB/oasC are closely related and may be derived from a common ancestor by subsequent duplications. OAS-TL A, B and C were overexpressed in an Escherichia coli mutant lacking cysteine synthesis and exhibited bifunctional OAS-TL and beta-cyanoalanine synthase (CAS) activities. However, all three proteins represent true OAS-TLs according to kinetic analysis and are unlikely to function in cyanide detoxification or secondary metabolism. In addition, it was demonstrated that the mitochondrial OAS-TL C exhibits in vivo protein-protein interaction capabilities with respect to cysteine synthase complex formation similar to cytosolic OAS-TL A and plastid OAS-TL B. Multiple database accessions for each of the A. thaliana OAS-TL isoforms can thus be attributed to a specified number of oas genes to which functionally defined gene products are assigned, and which are responsible for compartment-specific cysteine synthesis.

  3. Arabidopsis CYP707As Encode (+)-Abscisic Acid 8′-Hydroxylase, a Key Enzyme in the Oxidative Catabolism of Abscisic Acid1

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Shigeki; Hirai, Nobuhiro; Matsumoto, Chiaki; Ohigashi, Hajime; Ohta, Daisaku; Sakata, Kanzo; Mizutani, Masaharu

    2004-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in a number of critical processes in normal growth and development as well as in adaptive responses to environmental stresses. For correct and accurate actions, a physiologically active ABA level is controlled through fine-tuning of de novo biosynthesis and catabolism. The hydroxylation at the 8′-position of ABA is known as the key step of ABA catabolism, and this reaction is catalyzed by ABA 8′-hydroxylase, a cytochrome P450. Here, we demonstrate CYP707As as the P450 responsible for the 8′-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA. First, all four CYP707A cDNAs were cloned from Arabidopsis and used for the production of the recombinant proteins in insect cells using a baculovirus system. The insect cells expressing CYP707A3 efficiently metabolized (+)-ABA to yield phaseic acid, the isomerized form of 8′-hydroxy-ABA. The microsomes from the insect cells exhibited very strong activity of 8′-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA (Km = 1.3 μm and kcat = 15 min−1). The solubilized CYP707A3 protein bound (+)-ABA with the binding constant Ks = 3.5 μm, but did not bind (−)-ABA. Detailed analyses of the reaction products confirmed that CYP707A3 does not have the isomerization activity of 8′-hydroxy-ABA to phaseic acid. Further experiments revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A1 and CYP707A4 also encode ABA 8′-hydroxylase. The transcripts of the CYP707A genes increased in response to salt, osmotic, and dehydration stresses as well as ABA. These results establish that the CYP707A family plays a key role in regulating the ABA level through the 8′-hydroxylation of (+)-ABA. PMID:15064374

  4. Cloning and sequence analysis of the plasmid-borne genes encoding the Eco29kI restriction and modification enzymes.

    PubMed

    Zakharova, M V; Beletskaya, I V; Kravetz, A N; Pertzev, A V; Mayorov, S G; Shlyapnikov, M G; Solonin, A S

    1998-02-27

    The Eco29kI restriction-modification system (RMS2) has been found to be localized on the plasmid pECO29 occurring naturally in the Escherichia coli strain 29k (Pertzev, A.V., Ruban, N.M., Zakharova, M.V., Beletskaya, I.V., Petrov, S.I., Kravetz, A.N., Solonin, A.S., 1992. Eco29kI, a novel plasmid encoded restriction endonuclease from Escherichia coli. Nucleic Acids Res. 20, 1991). The genes coding for this RMS2, a SacII isoschizomer recognizing the sequence CCGCGG have been cloned in Escherichia coli K802 and sequenced. The DNA sequence predicts the restriction endonuclease (ENase) of 214 amino acids (aa) (24,556 Da) and the DNA-methyltransferase (MTase) of 382 aa (43,007 Da) where the genes are separated by 2 bp and arranged in tandem with eco29kIR preceding eco29kIM. The recombinant plasmid with eco29kIR produces a protein of expected size. MEco29kI contains all the conserved aa sequence motifs characteristic of m5C-MTases. Remarkably, its variable region exhibits a significant similarity to the part of the specific target-recognition domain (TRD) from MBssHII--multispecific m5C-MTase (Schumann, J.J., Walter, J., Willert, J., Wild, C., Koch D., Trautner, T.A., 1996. MBssHII: a multispecific cytosine-C5-DNA-methyltransferase with unusual target recognizing properties. J. Mol. Biol. 257, 949-959), which recognizes five different sites on DNA (HaeII, MluI, Cfr10I, SacII and BssHII), and the comparison of the nt sequences of its variable regions allowed us to determine the putative TRD of MEco29kI.

  5. Decreased survival in normal karyotype AML with single-nucleotide polymorphisms in genes encoding the AraC metabolizing enzymes cytidine deaminase and 5'-nucleotidase.

    PubMed

    Falk, Ingrid Jakobsen; Fyrberg, Anna; Paul, Esbjörn; Nahi, Hareth; Hermanson, Monica; Rosenquist, Richard; Höglund, Martin; Palmqvist, Lars; Stockelberg, Dick; Wei, Yuan; Gréen, Henrik; Lotfi, Kourosh

    2013-12-01

    De novo acute myeloid leukemia with normal karyotype (NK-AML) comprises a large group of patients with no common cytogenetic alterations and with a large variation in treatment response. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes related to the metabolism of the nucleoside analogue AraC, the backbone in AML treatment, might affect drug sensitivity and treatment outcome. Therefore, SNPs may serve as prognostic biomarkers aiding clinicians in individualized treatment decisions, with the aim of improving patient outcomes. We analyzed polymorphisms in genes encoding cytidine deaminase (CDA 79A>C rs2072671 and -451C>T rs532545), 5'-nucleotidase (cN-II 7A>G rs10883841), and deoxycytidine kinase (DCK 3'UTR 948T>C rs4643786) in 205 de novo NK-AML patients. In FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD)-positive patients, the CDA 79C/C and -451T/T genotypes were associated with shorter overall survival compared to other genotypes (5 vs. 24 months, P < 0.001 and 5 vs. 23 months, P = 0.015, respectively), and this was most pronounced in FLT3-ITD-positive/NPM1-positive patients. We observed altered in vitro sensitivity to topoisomerase inhibitory drugs, but not to nucleoside analogues, and a decrease in global DNA methylation in cells carrying both CDA variant alleles. A shorter survival was also observed for the cN-II variant allele, but only in FLT3-ITD-negative patients (25 vs. 31 months, P = 0.075). Our results indicate that polymorphisms in genes related to nucleoside analog drug metabolism may serve as prognostic markers in de novo NK-AML.

  6. The eutT gene of Salmonella enterica Encodes an oxygen-labile, metal-containing ATP:corrinoid adenosyltransferase enzyme.

    PubMed

    Buan, Nicole R; Suh, Sang-Jin; Escalante-Semerena, Jorge C

    2004-09-01

    The eutT gene of Salmonella enterica was cloned and overexpressed, and the function of its product was established in vivo and in vitro. The EutT protein has an oxygen-labile, metal-containing ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase activity associated with it. Functional redundancy between EutT and the housekeeping ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase CobA enzyme was demonstrated through phenotypic analyses of mutant strains. Lack of CobA and EutT blocked ethanolamine utilization. EutT was necessary and sufficient for growth of an S. enterica cobA eutT strain on ethanolamine as a carbon and energy or nitrogen source. A eutT+ gene provided in trans corrected the adenosylcobalamin-dependent transcription of a eut-lacZ operon fusion in a cobA strain. Cell extracts enriched for EutT protein contained strong, readily detectable ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase activity. The activity was only detected in extracts maintained under anoxic conditions, with complete loss of activity upon exposure to air or treatment with the Fe2+ ion chelator bathophenanthroline. While the involvement of another metal ion cannot be ruled out, the observed sensitivity to air and bathophenanthroline suggests involvement of Fe2+. We propose that the EutT protein is a unique metal-containing ATP:co(I)rrinoid adenosyltransferase. It is unclear whether the metal ion plays a structural or catalytic role.

  7. A gene encoding an abscisic acid biosynthetic enzyme (LsNCED4) collocates with the high temperature germination locus Htg6.1 in lettuce (Lactuca sp.)

    PubMed Central

    Argyris, Jason; Truco, María José; Ochoa, Oswaldo; McHale, Leah; Dahal, Peetambar; Van Deynze, Allen; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2010-01-01

    Thermoinhibition, or failure of seeds to germinate when imbibed at warm temperatures, can be a significant problem in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) production. The reliability of stand establishment would be improved by increasing the ability of lettuce seeds to germinate at high temperatures. Genes encoding germination- or dormancy-related proteins were mapped in a recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between L. sativa cv. Salinas and L. serriola accession UC96US23. This revealed several candidate genes that are located in the genomic regions containing quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature and light requirements for germination. In particular, LsNCED4, a temperature-regulated gene in the biosynthetic pathway for abscisic acid (ABA), a germination inhibitor, mapped to the center of a previously detected QTL for high temperature germination (Htg6.1) from UC96US23. Three sets of sister BC3S2 near-isogenic lines (NILs) that were homozygous for the UC96US23 allele of LsNCED4 at Htg6.1 were developed by backcrossing to cv. Salinas and marker-assisted selection followed by selfing. The maximum temperature for germination of NIL seed lots with the UC96US23 allele at LsNCED4 was increased by 2–3°C when compared with sister NIL seed lots lacking the introgression. In addition, the expression of LsNCED4 was two- to threefold lower in the former NIL lines as compared to expression in the latter. Together, these data strongly implicate LsNCED4 as the candidate gene responsible for the Htg6.1 phenotype and indicate that decreased ABA biosynthesis at high imbibition temperatures is a major factor responsible for the increased germination thermotolerance of UC96US23 seeds. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00122-010-1425-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20703871

  8. Starch phosphorylation in potato tubers is influenced by allelic variation in the genes encoding glucan water dikinase, starch branching enzymes I and II, and starch synthase III.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Margaret A; Joyce, Nigel I; Genet, Russell A; Cooper, Rebecca D; Murray, Sarah R; Noble, Alasdair D; Butler, Ruth C; Timmerman-Vaughan, Gail M

    2015-01-01

    Starch phosphorylation is an important aspect of plant metabolism due to its role in starch degradation. Moreover, the degree of phosphorylation of starch determines its physicochemical properties and is therefore relevant for industrial uses of starch. Currently, starch is chemically phosphorylated to increase viscosity and paste stability. Potato cultivars with elevated starch phosphorylation would make this process unnecessary, thereby bestowing economic and environmental benefits. Starch phosphorylation is a complex trait which has been previously shown by antisense gene repression to be influenced by a number of genes including those involved in starch synthesis and degradation. We have used an association mapping approach to discover genetic markers associated with the degree of starch phosphorylation. A diverse collection of 193 potato lines was grown in replicated field trials, and the levels of starch phosphorylation at the C6 and C3 positions of the glucosyl residues were determined by mass spectrometry of hydrolyzed starch from tubers. In addition, the potato lines were genotyped by amplicon sequencing and microsatellite analysis, focusing on candidate genes known to be involved in starch synthesis. As potato is an autotetraploid, genotyping included determination of allele dosage. Significant associations (p < 0.001) were found with SNPs in the glucan water dikinase (GWD), starch branching enzyme I (SBEI) and the starch synthase III (SSIII) genes, and with a SSR allele in the SBEII gene. SNPs in the GWD gene were associated with C6 phosphorylation, whereas polymorphisms in the SBEI and SBEII genes were associated with both C6 and C3 phosphorylation and the SNP in the SSIII gene was associated with C3 phosphorylation. These allelic variants have potential as genetic markers for starch phosphorylation in potato.

  9. Variation in AKR1C3, which Encodes the Neuroactive Steroid Synthetic Enzyme 3α-HSD Type 2 (17β-HSD Type 5), Moderates the Subjective Effects of Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Milivojevic, Verica; Feinn, Richard; Kranzler, Henry R.; Covault, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Animal models suggest that neuroactive steroids contribute to alcohol’s acute effects. We previously reported that a common non-synonymous polymorphism, AKR1C3*2 in the gene encoding the enzyme 3α-HSD2/17β-HSD5 and a synonymous SNP, rs248793, in SRD5A1, which encodes 5α-reductase, were associated with alcohol dependence (AD). Objectives To investigate whether these polymorphisms moderate subjective effects of alcohol in humans and whether AKR1C3*2 affects neuroactive steroid synthesis. Methods 65 Caucasian men (34 lighter and 31 heavier drinkers; mean age 26.2 y) participated in a double-blind laboratory study where they consumed drinks containing no ethanol or 0.8 g/kg of ethanol. Breath alcohol, heart rate (HR), and self-reported alcohol effects were measured at 40-min intervals and genotype was examined as a moderator of alcohol’s effects. Levels of the neuroactive steroid 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol and its precursors, 3α,5α-androsterone and dihydrotestosterone, were measured at study entry using GC/MS. Results Initially, carriers of the AD-protective AK1C3*2 G-allele had higher levels of 5α-androstane-3α,17β-diol relative to the precursor 3α,5α-androsterone than C-allele homozygotes. AKR1C3*2 G-allele carriers exhibited greater increases in heart rate and stimulant and sedative effects of alcohol than C-allele homozygotes. The genotype effects on sedation were observed only in heavier drinkers. The only effect of the SRD5A1 SNP was to moderate HR. There were no interactive effects of the two SNPs. Conclusions The observed effects of variation in a gene encoding a neuroactive steroid biosynthetic enzyme on the rate of 17p–reduction of androsterone relative to androstanediol and on alcohol’s sedative effects may help to explain the association of AKR1C3*2 with AD. PMID:24838369

  10. Cloning and heterologous expression of cDNA encoding class alpha rat glutathione transferase 8-8, an enzyme with high catalytic activity towards genotoxic alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Stenberg, G; Ridderström, M; Engström, A; Pemble, S E; Mannervik, B

    1992-01-01

    A cDNA clone, lambda GTRA8, encoding rat glutathione transferase subunit 8 has been isolated from a lambda gt10 rat hepatoma cDNA library. The previously known amino acid sequence of the enzyme was used to design primers for a polymerase chain reaction that yielded a 0.3 kb DNA fragment from the hepatoma library. The 0.3 kb fragment was used as a probe for screening and a 0.9 kb cDNA clone containing a complete open reading frame was obtained. After DNA sequencing and subcloning into an expression vector, the enzyme was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified. Specific activities and kcat./Km values were determined for a number of substrates, including alpha,beta-unsaturated carbonyl compounds. The highest activity was obtained with 4-hydroxyalkenals and with acrolein, genotoxic products of lipid peroxidation. In addition, the rat class Alpha glutathione transferase 8-8 displays high catalytic activity in the reaction between glutathione and the diuretic drug ethacrynic acid, a compound normally considered as a substrate characteristic for class Pi glutathione transferases. PMID:1599415

  11. Beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III from pea (Pisum sativum L.): properties, inhibition by a novel thiolactomycin analogue and isolation of a cDNA clone encoding the enzyme.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Lesley; Gane, Andy M; Herbert, Derek; Willey, David L; Rutter, Andrew J; Kille, Peter; Dancer, Jane E; Harwood, John L

    2003-03-01

    A beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (KAS III; short-chain condensing enzyme) has been partly purified from pea leaves. The enzyme, which had acetyl-CoA:ACP acyltransferase (ACAT) activity, was resolved from a second, specific, ACAT protein. The KAS III enzyme had a derived molecular mass of 42 kDa (from its cDNA sequence) and operated as a dimer. Its enzymological characteristics were similar to those of two other plant KAS III enzymes except for its inhibition by thiolactomycin. A derivative of thiolactomycin containing a longer (C8 saturated) hydrophobic side-chain (compound 332) was a more effective inhibitor of pea KAS III and showed competitive inhibition towards malonyl-ACP whereas thiolactomycin showed uncompetitive characteristics at high concentrations. This difference may be due to the better fit of compound 332 into a hydrophobic pocket at the active site. A full-length cDNA for the pea KAS III was isolated. This was expressed in Escherichia coli as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase in order to facilitate subsequent purification. Demonstrated activity in preparations from E. coli confirmed that the cDNA encoded a KAS III enzyme. Furthermore, the expressed KAS III had ACAT activity, showing that the latter was inherent. The derived amino acid sequence of the pea cDNA showed 81-87% similarity to that for other plant dicotyledon KAS IIIs, somewhat less for Allium porrum (leek, 71%) and for Porphyra spp. (62%), Synechocystis spp. (65%) and various bacteria (42-65%). The pea KAS III exhibited four areas of homology, three of which were around the active-site Cys(123), His(323) and Asn(353). In addition, a stretch of 23 amino acids (residues 207-229 in the pea KAS III) was almost completely conserved in the plant KAS IIIs. Modelling this stretch showed they belonged to a peptide fragment that fitted over the active site and contained segments suggested to be involved in substrate binding and in conformational changes during

  12. Bioinformatic evaluation of L-arginine catabolic pathways in 24 cyanobacteria and transcriptional analysis of genes encoding enzymes of L-arginine catabolism in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803

    PubMed Central

    Schriek, Sarah; Rückert, Christian; Staiger, Dorothee; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Michel, Klaus-Peter

    2007-01-01

    five different L-arginine-degrading pathways are present in the investigated cyanobacterial species. In Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 an L-arginine deiminase pathway and an L-arginine oxidase/dehydrogenase pathway represent the major pathways, while the L-arginine decarboxylase pathway most likely only functions in polyamine biosynthesis. The transcripts encoding the enzymes of the two major pathways were constitutively expressed with the exception of the transcript for the carbamate kinase, which was substantially up-regulated in cells grown with L-arginine. PMID:18045455

  13. Differential characteristics and subcellular localization of two starch-branching enzyme isoforms encoded by a single gene in Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Shigeki; Ito, Hiroyuki; Hiraga, Susumu; Inagaki, Keisuke; Nozaki, Kouichi; Isono, Naoto; Yoshimoto, Yasushi; Takeda, Yasuhito; Matsui, Hirokazu

    2002-05-10

    Starch-branching enzymes (SBE) have a dominant role for amylopectin structure as they define chain length and frequency of branch points. We have previously shown that one of the SBE isoforms of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), designated PvSBE2, has a molecular mass (82 kDa) significantly smaller than those reported for isologous SBEs from pea (SBEI), maize (BEIIb), and rice (RBE3). Additionally, in contrast to the dual location of the pea SBEI in both the soluble and starch granule fractions, PvSBE2 was found only in the soluble fraction during seed development. Analysis of a pvsbe2 cDNA suggested that PvSBE2 is generated from a larger precursor with a putative plastid targeting sequence of 156 residues. Here we describe the occurrence of a larger 100-kDa form (LF-PvSBE2) of PvSBE2 found both in the soluble and starch granule fractions of the developing seeds. The determined N-terminal sequence, VKSSHDSD, of LF-PvSBE2 corresponded to a peptide sequence located 111 amino acids upstream from the N terminus of purified PvSBE2, suggesting that LF-PvSBE2 and PvSBE2 are products of the same gene. Analysis of the products by 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) and reverse transcription PCR indicated that the two transcripts for pre-LF-PvSBE2 and pre-PvSBE2 are generated by alternative splicing. Recombinant LF-PvSBE2 (rLF-PvSBE2) was purified from Escherichia coli and the kinetic properties were compared with those of recombinant PvSBE2 (rPvSBE2). rLF-PvSBE2 had much higher affinity for amylopectin (K(m) = 4.4 mg/ml) than rPvSBE2 (18.4 mg/ml), whereas the V(max) of rLF-PvSBE2 (135 units/mg) for this substrate was much lower than that of rPvSBE2 (561 units/mg). These results suggest that the N-terminal extension of LF-PvSBE2 plays a critical role for localization in starch granules by altering its enzymatic properties.

  14. Genomic origin, expression differentiation and regulation of multiple genes encoding CYP83A1, a key enzyme for core glucosinolate biosynthesis, from the allotetraploid Brassica juncea.

    PubMed

    Meenu; Augustine, Rehna; Majee, Manoj; Pradhan, Akshay K; Bisht, Naveen C

    2015-03-01

    The multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes formed as a result of polyploidy have retained cell-, tissue-, and condition-specific transcriptional sub-functionalization to control the complex aliphatic glucosinolates biosynthesis in the allotetraploid Brassica juncea. Glucosinolates along with their breakdown products are associated with diverse roles in plant metabolism, plant defense and animal nutrition. CYP83A1 is a key enzyme that oxidizes aliphatic aldoximes to aci-nitro compounds in the complex aliphatic glucosinolate biosynthetic pathway. In this study, we reported the isolation of four CYP83A1 genes named BjuCYP83A1-1, -2, -3, and -4 from allotetraploid Brassica juncea (AABB genome), an economically important oilseed crop of Brassica genus. The deduced BjuCYP83A1 proteins shared 85.7-88.4 % of sequence identity with A. thaliana AtCYP83A1 and 84.2-95.8 % among themselves. Phylogenetic and divergence analysis revealed that the four BjuCYP83A1 proteins are evolutionary conserved and have evolved via duplication and hybridization of two relatively simpler diploid Brassica genomes namely B. rapa (AA genome) and B. nigra (BB genome), and have retained high level of sequence conservation following allopolyploidization. Ectopic over-expression of BjuCYP83A1-1 in A. thaliana showed that it is involved mainly in the synthesis of C4 aliphatic glucosinolates. Detailed expression analysis using real-time qRT-PCR in B. juncea and PromoterBjuCYP83A1-GUS lines in A. thaliana confirmed that the four BjuCYP83A1 genes have retained ubiquitous, overlapping but distinct expression profiles in different tissue and cell types of B. juncea, and in response to various elicitor treatments and environmental conditions. Taken together, this study demonstrated that transcriptional sub-functionalization and coordinated roles of multiple BjuCYP83A1 genes control the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in the allotetraploid B. juncea, and provide a framework for metabolic engineering of

  15. Polymorphisms of Pyrimidine Pathway Enzymes Encoding Genes and HLA-B*40∶01 Carriage in Stavudine-Associated Lipodystrophy in HIV-Infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pruvost, Alain; Torres, Ferran; Salazar, Juliana; Gutierrez, Maria del Mar; Domingo, Joan Carles; Fernandez, Irene; Villarroya, Francesc; Vidal, Francesc; Baiget, Montserrat; de la Calle-Martín, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To assess in a cohort of Caucasian patients exposed to stavudine (d4T) the association of polymorphisms in pyrimidine pathway enzymes and HLA-B*40∶01 carriage with HIV/Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS). Methods Three-hundred and thirty-six patients, 187 with HALS and 149 without HALS, and 72 uninfected subjects were recruited. The diagnosis of HALS was performed following the criteria of the Lipodystrophy Severity Grading Scale. Polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase (TS) and methylene-tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes were determined by direct sequencing, HLA-B genotyping by PCR-SSOr Luminex Technology, and intracellular levels of stavudine triphosphate (d4T-TP) by a LC-MS/MS assay method. Results HALS was associated with the presence of a low expression TS genotype polymorphism (64.7% vs. 42.9%, OR = 2.43; 95%CI: 1.53–3.88, P<0.0001). MTHFR gene polymorphisms and HLA-B*40∶01 carriage were not associated with HALS or d4T-TP intracellular levels. Low and high expression TS polymorphisms had different d4T-TP intracellular levels (25.60 vs. 13.60 fmol/106 cells, P<0.0001). Independent factors associated with HALS were(OR [95%CI]: (a) Combined TS and MTHFR genotypes (p = 0.006, reference category (ref.): ‘A+A’; OR for ‘A+B’ vs. ref.: 1.39 [0.69–2.80]; OR for ‘B+A’ vs. ref.: 2.16 [1.22–3.83]; OR for ‘B+B’ vs. ref.: 3.13, 95%CI: 1.54–6.35), (b) maximum viral load ≥5 log10 (OR: 2.55, 95%CI: 1.56–4.14, P = 0.001), (c) use of EFV (1.10 [1.00–1.21], P = 0.008, per year of use). Conclusion HALS is associated with combined low-expression TS and MTHFR associated with high activity polymorphisms but not with HLA-B*40∶01 carriage in Caucasian patients with long-term exposure to stavudine. PMID:23840581

  16. Differentially expressed myo-inositol monophosphatase gene (CaIMP) in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) encodes a lithium-sensitive phosphatase enzyme with broad substrate specificity and improves seed germination and seedling growth under abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Saurabh C; Salvi, Prafull; Kaur, Harmeet; Verma, Pooja; Petla, Bhanu Prakash; Rao, Venkateswara; Kamble, Nitin; Majee, Manoj

    2013-12-01

    myo-Inositol monophosphatase (IMP) is an essential enzyme in the myo-inositol metabolic pathway where it primarily dephosphorylates myo-inositol 1-phosphate to maintain the cellular inositol pool which is important for many metabolic and signalling pathways in plants. The stress-induced increased accumulation of inositol has been reported in a few plants including chickpea; however, the role and regulation of IMP is not well defined in response to stress. In this work, it has been shown that IMP activity is distributed in all organs in chickpea and was noticeably enhanced during environmental stresses. Subsequently, using degenerate oligonucleotides and RACE strategy, a full-length IMP cDNA (CaIMP) was cloned and sequenced. Biochemical study revealed that CaIMP encodes a lithium-sensitive phosphatase enzyme with broad substrate specificity, although maximum activity was observed with the myo-inositol 1-phosphate and l-galactose 1-phosphate substrates. Transcript analysis revealed that CaIMP is differentially expressed and regulated in different organs, stresses and phytohormones. Complementation analysis in Arabidopsis further confirmed the role of CaIMP in l-galactose 1-phosphate and myo-inositol 1-phosphate hydrolysis and its participation in myo-inositol and ascorbate biosynthesis. Moreover, Arabidopsis transgenic plants over-expressing CaIMP exhibited improved tolerance to stress during seed germination and seedling growth, while the VTC4/IMP loss-of-function mutants exhibited sensitivity to stress. Collectively, CaIMP links various metabolic pathways and plays an important role in improving seed germination and seedling growth, particularly under stressful environments.

  17. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Diabetic Neuropathy: Generation of Free Radical Species in the Glycation Reaction and Gene Polymorphisms Encoding Antioxidant Enzymes to Genetic Susceptibility to Diabetic Neuropathy in Population of Type I Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Strokov, Igor A; Nosikov, Valery V; Savel'yeva, Ekaterina L; Sitnikov, Vladimir F; Yegorov, Yegor E; Lankin, Vadim Z

    2015-04-01

    pathway are detoxified by the glyoxalase system with reduced glutathione as co-factor. The concentration of reduced glutathione may be decreased by oxidative stress and by decreased in situ glutathione reductase activity in diabetes mellitus. Genetic variations within the antioxidant genes therefore could be implicated in the pathogenesis of DN. In this work, the supporting data about the association between the -262T > C polymorphism of the catalase (CAT) gene and DN were shown. The -262TT genotype of the CAT gene was significantly associated with higher erythrocyte catalase activity in blood of DN patients compared to the -262CC genotype (17.8 ± 2.7 × 10(4) IU/g Hb vs. 13.5 ± 3.2 × 10(4) IU/g Hb, P = 0.0022). The role of these factors in the development of diabetic complications and the prospective prevention of DN by supplementation in formulations of transglycating imidazole-containing peptide-based antioxidants (non-hydrolyzed carnosine, carcinine, n-acetylcarcinine) scavenging ROS in the glycation reaction, modifying the activity of enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidant defenses that participate in metabolic processes with ability of controlling at transcriptional levels the differential expression of several genes encoding antioxidant enzymes inherent to DN in Type I Diabetic patients, now deserve investigation.

  18. Drug-metabolizing enzymes: mechanisms and functions.

    PubMed

    Sheweita, S A

    2000-09-01

    Drug-metabolizing enzymes are called mixed-function oxidase or monooxygenase and containing many enzymes including cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and other components. The hepatic cytochrome P450s (Cyp) are a multigene family of enzymes that play a critical role in the metabolism of many drugs and xenobiotics with each cytochrome isozyme responding differently to exogenous chemicals in terms of its induction and inhibition. For example, Cyp 1A1 is particularly active towards polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), activating them into reactive intermediates those covalently bind to DNA, a key event in the initiation of carcinogenesis. Likewise, Cyp 1A2 activates a variety of bladder carcinogens, such as aromatic amines and amides. Also, some forms of cytochrome P450 isozymes such as Cyp 3A and 2E1 activate the naturally occurring carcinogens (e.g. aflatoxin B1) and N-nitrosamines respectively into highly mutagenic and carcinogenic agents. The carcinogenic potency of PAHs, and other carcinogens and the extent of binding of their ultimate metabolites to DNA and proteins are correlated with the induction of cytochrome P450 isozymes. Phase II drug-metabolizing enzymes such as glutathione S-transferase, aryl sulfatase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase inactivate chemical carcinogens into less toxic or inactive metabolites. Many drugs change the rate of activation or detoxification of carcinogens by changing the activities of phases I and II drug-metabolizing enzymes. The balance of detoxification and activation reactions depends on the chemical structure of the agents, and is subjected to many variables that are a function of this structure, or genetic background, sex, endocrine status, age, diet, and the presence of other chemicals. It is important to realize that the enzymes involved in carcinogen metabolism are also involved in the metabolism of a variety of substrates, and thus the introduction of specific xenobiotics may change

  19. Characterization and functional analysis of the genes encoding 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase, the two enzymes in the MEP pathway, from Amomum villosum Lour.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jinfen; Adhikari, Megha Nath; Liu, Hui; Xu, Hui; He, Guozhen; Zhan, Ruoting; Wei, Jieshu; Chen, Weiwen

    2012-08-01

    A DXR gene, AvDXR (GenBank accession no. FJ459894), and a DXS gene, AvDXS (GenBank accession no. FJ455512), were isolated from the leaves of Amomum villosum, one of the most well-known and authentic herbs in South China. The 1,749-bp full-length cDNA of AvDXR encoded a peptide of 472 amino acids, and the 2,347-bp full-length cDNA of AvDXS encoded a peptide of 715 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequences of the AvDXR and AvDXS proteins share high homology with DXRs and DXSs from other plant species, and AvDXS belongs to class 1 plant DXS. The characterization based on bioinformatic analysis indicated that the AvDXR and AvDXS encoded functional proteins as DXR and DXS, respectively. The functional color assay in Escherichia coli with pAC-BETA implied that AvDXR and AvDXS encoded functional proteins that manipulated the biosynthesis of isoprenoid precursors. Both AvDXR and AvDXS were expressed extensively in the leaves, stems, roots, pericarps and seeds of A. villosum. AvDXS expression was similar in all tissues investigated, whereas higher levels of AvDXR were observed in the fruits, the main part for the accumulation of volatile oil in this plant. AvDXR was transformed into tobacco to confirm its function further. Overexpression of AvDXR in transgenic T1 generation tobacco increased DXR activity, photosynthetic pigment content and volatile isoprenoid components, and the increase of photosynthetic pigment content was consistent with the AvDXR transcription level. This study demonstrated that AvDXR plays important role in isoprenoid biosynthesis and it is useful for metabolic engineering.

  20. Enzyme assays.

    PubMed

    Reymond, Jean-Louis; Fluxà, Viviana S; Maillard, Noélie

    2009-01-07

    Enzyme assays are analytical tools to visualize enzyme activities. In recent years a large variety of enzyme assays have been developed to assist the discovery and optimization of industrial enzymes, in particular for "white biotechnology" where selective enzymes are used with great success for economically viable, mild and environmentally benign production processes. The present article highlights the aspects of fluorogenic and chromogenic substrates, sensors, and enzyme fingerprinting, which are our particular areas of interest.

  1. XTH31, Encoding an in Vitro XEH/XET-Active Enzyme, Regulates Aluminum Sensitivity by Modulating in Vivo XET Action, Cell Wall Xyloglucan Content, and Aluminum Binding Capacity in Arabidopsis[W

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiao Fang; Shi, Yuan Zhi; Lei, Gui Jie; Fry, Stephen C.; Zhang, Bao Cai; Zhou, Yi Hua; Braam, Janet; Jiang, Tao; Xu, Xiao Yan; Mao, Chuan Zao; Pan, Yuan Jiang; Yang, Jian Li; Wu, Ping; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2012-01-01

    Xyloglucan endohydrolase (XEH) and xyloglucan endotransglucosylase (XET) activities, encoded by xyloglucan endotransglucosylase-hydrolase (XTH) genes, are involved in cell wall extension by cutting or cutting and rejoining xyloglucan chains, respectively. However, the physiological significance of this biochemical activity remains incompletely understood. Here, we find that an XTH31 T-DNA insertion mutant, xth31, is more Al resistant than the wild type. XTH31 is bound to the plasma membrane and the encoding gene is expressed in the root elongation zone and in nascent leaves, suggesting a role in cell expansion. XTH31 transcript accumulation is strongly downregulated by Al treatment. XTH31 expression in yeast yields a protein with an in vitro XEH:XET activity ratio of >5000:1. xth31 accumulates significantly less Al in the root apex and cell wall, shows remarkably lower in vivo XET action and extractable XET activity, has a lower xyloglucan content, and exhibits slower elongation. An exogenous supply of xyloglucan significantly ameliorates Al toxicity by reducing Al accumulation in the roots, owing to the formation of an Al-xyloglucan complex in the medium, as verified by an obvious change in chemical shift of 27Al-NMR. Taken together, the data indicate that XTH31 affects Al sensitivity by modulating cell wall xyloglucan content and Al binding capacity. PMID:23204407

  2. Over-expression of tobacco UBC1 encoding a ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme increases cadmium tolerance by activating the 20S/26S proteasome and by decreasing Cd accumulation and oxidative stress in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Bahmani, Ramin; Kim, DongGwan; Lee, Byoung Doo; Hwang, Seongbin

    2017-07-01

    Ubiquitin (Ub)-conjugating enzyme (UBC, E2) receives Ub from Ub-activating enzyme (E1) and transfers it to target proteins, thereby playing a key role in Ub/26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis. UBC has been reported to be involved in tolerating abiotic stress in plants, including drought, salt, osmotic and water stresses. To isolate the genes involved in Cd tolerance, we transformed WT (wild-type) yeast Y800 with a tobacco cDNA expression library and isolated a tobacco cDNA, NtUBC1 (Ub-conjugating enzyme), that enhances cadmium tolerance. When NtUBC1 was over-expressed in tobacco, cadmium tolerance was enhanced, but the Cd level was decreased. Interestingly, 20S proteasome activity was increased and ubiquitinated protein levels were diminished in response to cadmium in NtUBC1 tobacco. By contrast, proteasome activity was decreased and ubiquitinated protein levels were slightly enhanced by Cd treatment in control tobacco, which is sensitive to Cd. Moreover, the oxidative stress level was induced to a lesser extent by Cd in NtUBC1 tobacco compared with control plants, which is ascribed to the higher activity of antioxidant enzymes in NtUBC1 tobacco. In addition, NtUBC1 tobacco displayed a reduced accumulation of Cd compared with the control, likely due to the higher expression of CAX3 (Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger) and the lower expression of IRT1 (iron-responsive transporter 1) and HMA-A and -B (heavy metal ATPase). In contrast, atubc1 and atubc1atubc2 Arabidopsis exhibited lower Cd tolerance and proteasome activity than WT. In conclusion, NtUBC1 expression promotes cadmium tolerance likely by removing cadmium-damaged proteins via Ub/26S proteasome-dependent proteolysis or the Ub-independent 20S proteasome and by diminishing oxidative stress through the activation of antioxidant enzymes and decreasing Cd accumulation due to higher CAX3 and lower IRT1 and HMA-A/B expression in response to 50 µM Cd challenge for 3 weeks.

  3. ENCODE data at the ENCODE portal

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Cricket A.; Chan, Esther T.; Davidson, Jean M.; Malladi, Venkat S.; Strattan, J. Seth; Hitz, Benjamin C.; Gabdank, Idan; Narayanan, Aditi K.; Ho, Marcus; Lee, Brian T.; Rowe, Laurence D.; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Roe, Greg; Podduturi, Nikhil R.; Tanaka, Forrest; Hong, Eurie L.; Cherry, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) Project is in its third phase of creating a comprehensive catalog of functional elements in the human genome. This phase of the project includes an expansion of assays that measure diverse RNA populations, identify proteins that interact with RNA and DNA, probe regions of DNA hypersensitivity, and measure levels of DNA methylation in a wide range of cell and tissue types to identify putative regulatory elements. To date, results for almost 5000 experiments have been released for use by the scientific community. These data are available for searching, visualization and download at the new ENCODE Portal (www.encodeproject.org). The revamped ENCODE Portal provides new ways to browse and search the ENCODE data based on the metadata that describe the assays as well as summaries of the assays that focus on data provenance. In addition, it is a flexible platform that allows integration of genomic data from multiple projects. The portal experience was designed to improve access to ENCODE data by relying on metadata that allow reusability and reproducibility of the experiments. PMID:26527727

  4. DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase of Bacillus subtilis: expression and characterization of recombinant enzymes encoded by the gyrA, gyrB and parC, parE genes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Marjorie H; LaMarr, William A; Foster, Kimberly A

    2003-06-01

    Bacillus subtilis Bs gyrA and gyrB genes specifying the DNA gyrase subunits, and parC and parE genes specifying the DNA topoisomerase IV subunits, have been separately cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli as hexahistidine (his6)-tagged recombinant proteins. Purification of the gyrA and gyrB subunits together resulted in predominantly two bands at molecular weights of 94 and 73kDa; purification of the parC and parE subunits together resulted in predominantly two bands at molecular weights of 93 and 75kDa, as predicted by their respective sequences. The ability of the subunits to complement their partner was tested in an ATP-dependent decatenation/supercoiling assay system. The results demonstrated that the DNA gyrase and the topoisomerase IV subunits produce the expected supercoiled DNA and relaxed DNA products, respectively. Additionally, inhibition of these two enzymes by fluoroquinolones has been shown to be comparable to those of the DNA gyrases and topoisomerases of other bacterial strains. In sum, the biological and enzymatic properties of these products are consistent with their authenticity as DNA gyrase and DNA topoisomerase IV enzymes from B. subtilis.

  5. A R2R3-MYB transcription factor, GmMYB12B2, affects the expression levels of flavonoid biosynthesis genes encoding key enzymes in transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Wei; Li, Jing-Wen; Zhai, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Xu; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Su, Lian-Tai; Wang, Ying; Wang, Qing-Yu

    2013-12-10

    Isoflavones play diverse roles in plant-microbe interactions and are potentially important for human nutrition and health. To study the regulation of isoflavonoid synthesis in soybean, the R2R3-MYB transcription factor GmMYB12B2 was isolated and characterized. Yeast expression experiments demonstrated that GmMYB12B2 showed transcriptional activity. GmMYB12B2 was localized in the nucleus when it was transiently expressed in onion epidermal cells. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that GmMYB12B2 transcription was increased in roots and mature seeds compared with other organs. The gene expression level in immature embryos was consistent with the accumulation of isoflavones. CHS8 is a key enzyme in plant flavonoid biosynthesis. Transient expression experiments in soybean calli demonstrated that CHS8 was regulated by GmMYB12B2 and produced more fluorescence. The expression levels of some key enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis were examined in transgenic Arabidopsis lines. The results showed that the expression levels of PAL1, CHS and FLS in transgenic plants were significantly higher than those in wild type plants. However, the expression level of DFR was lower, and the expression levels of CHI, F3H and F3'H were the same in all lines. GmMYB12B2 expression caused a constitutive increase in the accumulation of flavonoids in transgenic Arabidopsis lines compared with wild type plants.

  6. Cloning and analysis of structural genes from Streptomyces pristinaespiralis encoding enzymes involved in the conversion of pristinamycin IIB to pristinamycin IIA (PIIA): PIIA synthase and NADH:riboflavin 5'-phosphate oxidoreductase.

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, V; Lagneaux, D; Didier, P; Gil, P; Lacroix, P; Crouzet, J

    1995-01-01

    In Streptomyces pristinaespiralis, two enzymes are necessary for conversion of pristinamycin IIB (PIIB) to pristinamycin IIA (PIIA), the major component of pristinamycin (D. Thibaut, N. Ratet, D. Bisch, D. Faucher, L. Debussche, and F. Blanche, J. Bacteriol. 177:5199-5205, 1995); these enzymes are PIIA synthase, a heterodimer composed of the SnaA and SnaB proteins, which catalyzes the oxidation of PIIB to PIIA, and the NADH:riboflavin 5'-phosphate oxidoreductase (hereafter called FMN reductase), the SnaC protein, which provides the reduced form of flavin mononucleotide for the reaction. By using oligonucleotide probes designed from limited peptide sequence information of the purified proteins, the corresponding genes were cloned from a genomic library of S. pristinaespiralis. SnaA and SnaB showed no significant similarity with proteins from databases, but SnaA and SnaB had similar protein domains. Disruption of the snaA gene in S. pristinaespiralis led to accumulation of PIIB. Complementation of a S. pristinaespiralis PIIA-PIIB+ mutant with the snaA and snaB genes, cloned in a low-copy-number plasmid, partially restored production of PIIA. The deduced amino acid sequence of the snaC gene showed no similarity to the sequences of other FMN reductases but was 39% identical with the product of the actVB gene of the actinorhodin cluster of Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2, likely to be involved in the dimerization step of actinorhodin biosynthesis. Furthermore, an S. coelicolor A(3)2 mutant blocked in this step was successfully complemented by the snaC gene, restoring the production of actinorhodin. PMID:7665509

  7. Lipolytic Enzymes in Myxococcus xanthus▿

    PubMed Central

    Moraleda-Muñoz, Aurelio; Shimkets, Lawrence J.

    2007-01-01

    The genome of Myxococcus xanthus encodes lipolytic enzymes in three different families: patatin lipases, α/β hydrolases, and GDSL lipases. One member of each family was characterized. The protein encoded by MXAN_3852 contains motifs characteristic of patatins. MXAN_5522 encodes a protein with the G-X-S-X-G motif characteristic of the lipase subfamily of α/β hydrolases. MXAN_4569 encodes a member of the GDSL family of lipolytic enzymes. Strains with deletions of MXAN_5522 and MXAN_4569 undergo faster development and earlier myxospore formation than the wild-type strain. The MXAN_5522 mutation results in spore yields substantially higher than those seen for wild-type cells. Gene expression analysis using translational lacZ fusions indicates that while all three genes are expressed during development, only MXAN_5522 and MXAN_4569 are expressed during vegetative growth. The proteins encoded by these genes were overexpressed using a T7 RNA polymerase transcription (pET102/D-TOPO) system in Escherichia coli BL21 Star (DE3) cells. The substrate specificities of the purified enzymes were investigated using p-nitrophenyl esters with chain lengths from C2 to C16. These enzymes preferentially hydrolyzed esters of short-chain fatty acids, yielding the highest activity with p-nitrophenyl acetate. PMID:17307851

  8. lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar and Morula/Apc2

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a critical step in key cell cycle events, such as metaphase-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking regulatory proteins for proteasomal degradation. Its overall structure and function has been elucidated mostly in yeasts and mammalian cell lines. The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex is still relatively uncharacterized, particularly in metazoan systems. Here, lemming (lmg) mutants were used to study the APC/C subunit, Apc11, and its interaction partners in Drosophila melanogaster. Results The lmg gene was initially identified through a pharate adult lethal P element insertion mutation expressing developmental abnormalities and widespread apoptosis in larval imaginal discs and pupal abdominal histoblasts. Larval neuroblasts were observed to arrest mitosis in a metaphase-like state with highly condensed, scattered chromosomes and frequent polyploidy. These neuroblasts contain high levels of both cyclin A and cyclin B. The lmg gene was cloned by virtue of the lmg03424 P element insertion which is located in the 5' untranslated region. The lemming locus is transcribed to give a 2.0 kb mRNA that contains two ORFs, lmgA and lmgB. The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 amino acid protein also contains a RING-finger motif characteristic of known APC11 subunits. The lmgA ORF alone was sufficient to rescue the lethal and mitotic phenotypes of the lmg138 null allele and to complement the temperature sensitive lethal phenotype of the APC11-myc9 budding yeast mutant. The LmgA protein interacts with Mr/Apc2, and they together form a binding site for Vihar, the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. Despite being conserved among

  9. Expression and Molecular Analysis of the Arabidopsis DXR Gene Encoding 1-Deoxy-d-Xylulose 5-Phosphate Reductoisomerase, the First Committed Enzyme of the 2-C-Methyl-d-Erythritol 4-Phosphate Pathway1

    PubMed Central

    Carretero-Paulet, Lorenzo; Ahumada, Iván; Cunillera, Nuria; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Ferrer, Albert; Boronat, Albert; Campos, Narciso

    2002-01-01

    1-Deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) catalyzes the first committed step of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway for isoprenoid biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, DXR is encoded by a single-copy gene. We have cloned a full-length cDNA corresponding to this gene. A comparative analysis of all plant DXR sequences known to date predicted an N-terminal transit peptide for plastids, with a conserved cleavage site, and a conserved proline-rich region at the N terminus of the mature protein, which is not present in the prokaryotic DXR homologs. We demonstrate that Arabidopsis DXR is targeted to plastids and localizes into chloroplasts of leaf cells. The presence of the proline-rich region in the mature Arabidopsis DXR was confirmed by detection with a specific antibody. A proof of the enzymatic function of this protein was obtained by complementation of an Escherichia coli mutant defective in DXR activity. The expression pattern of β-glucuronidase, driven by the DXR promoter in Arabidopsis transgenic plants, together with the tissue distribution of DXR transcript and protein, revealed developmental and environmental regulation of the DXR gene. The expression pattern of the DXR gene parallels that of the Arabidopsis 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase gene, but the former is slightly more restricted. These genes are expressed in most organs of the plant including roots, with higher levels in seedlings and inflorescences. The block of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway in Arabidopsis seedlings with fosmidomycin led to a rapid accumulation of DXR protein, whereas the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate synthase protein level was not altered. Our results are consistent with the participation of the Arabidopsis DXR gene in the control of the 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate pathway. PMID:12177470

  10. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  11. Enzyme Kinetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moe, Owen; Cornelius, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Conveys an appreciation of enzyme kinetic analysis by using a practical and intuitive approach. Discusses enzyme assays, kinetic models and rate laws, the kinetic constants (V, velocity, and Km, Michaels constant), evaluation of V and Km from experimental data, and enzyme inhibition. (CW)

  12. Characterization of nitrogen-fixing Paenibacillus species by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of part of genes encoding 16S rRNA and 23S rRNA and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marcia Reed Rodrigues; von der Weid, Irene; Zahner, Viviane; Seldin, Lucy

    2003-05-28

    Forty-two strains representing the eight recognized nitrogen-fixing Paenibacillus species and 12 non-identified strains were examined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis of part of 16S and 23S rRNA genes amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven different 16S rDNA genotypes were obtained from the combined data of RFLP analysis with four endonucleases and they were in agreement with the established taxonomic classification. Only one group of unclassified strains (Group I) was assigned in a separate genotype, suggesting they belong to a new species. Using the 23S PCR-RFLP method only six genotypes were detected, showing that this method is less discriminative than the 16S PCR-RFLP. Using the multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) assay, the 48 strains tested could be classified into 35 zymovars. The seven enzymatic loci tested were polymorphic and the different profiles obtained among strains allowed the grouping of strains into 10 clusters. The PCR-RFLP methods together with the MLEE assay provide a rapid tool for the characterization and the establishment of the taxonomic position of isolates belonging to this nitrogen-fixing group, which shows a great potentiality in promoting plant growth.

  13. Exogenous methionine increases levels of mRNAs transcribed from pcbAB, pcbC, and cefEF genes, encoding enzymes of the cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway, in Acremonium chrysogenum.

    PubMed Central

    Velasco, J; Gutierrez, S; Fernandez, F J; Marcos, A T; Arenos, C; Martin, J F

    1994-01-01

    Methionine stimulated cephalosporin production in cultures of three different strains of Acremonium chrysogenum when added either at inoculation time or at 72 h to cells grown previously in the absence of methionine. When methionine was added at 72 h, the stimulation of cephalosporin biosynthesis was observed only 12 h later and required de novo protein synthesis. Methionine increased the levels of enzymes (isopenicillin N synthase and deacetylcephalosporin C acetyltransferase) expressed from genes (pcbC and cefG, respectively) located in the two clusters of cephalosporin biosynthesis genes in the wild-type A. chrysogenum strain and also in the two improved strains, CW19 and C10. Methionine-supplemented cells showed higher levels of transcripts of the four known genes (pcbAB, pcbC, cefEF and, to a slight extent, cefG) of the cephalosporin biosynthetic pathway than cells grown in the absence of methionine. The levels of the cefG transcript were much lower than those of the pcbAB, pcbC, and cefEF transcripts. The induction by methionine of transcription of the four cephalosporin biosynthesis genes and the known effect of this amino acid on the differentiation of A. chrysogenum indicate that methionine exerts a pleiotropic effect that coordinately regulates cephalosporin biosynthesis and differentiation. Images PMID:8106341

  14. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  15. Enzyme Informatics

    PubMed Central

    Alderson, Rosanna G.; Ferrari, Luna De; Mavridis, Lazaros; McDonagh, James L.; Mitchell, John B. O.; Nath, Neetika

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 50 years, sequencing, structural biology and bioinformatics have completely revolutionised biomolecular science, with millions of sequences and tens of thousands of three dimensional structures becoming available. The bioinformatics of enzymes is well served by, mostly free, online databases. BRENDA describes the chemistry, substrate specificity, kinetics, preparation and biological sources of enzymes, while KEGG is valuable for understanding enzymes and metabolic pathways. EzCatDB, SFLD and MACiE are key repositories for data on the chemical mechanisms by which enzymes operate. At the current rate of genome sequencing and manual annotation, human curation will never finish the functional annotation of the ever-expanding list of known enzymes. Hence there is an increasing need for automated annotation, though it is not yet widespread for enzyme data. In contrast, functional ontologies such as the Gene Ontology already profit from automation. Despite our growing understanding of enzyme structure and dynamics, we are only beginning to be able to design novel enzymes. One can now begin to trace the functional evolution of enzymes using phylogenetics. The ability of enzymes to perform secondary functions, albeit relatively inefficiently, gives clues as to how enzyme function evolves. Substrate promiscuity in enzymes is one example of imperfect specificity in protein-ligand interactions. Similarly, most drugs bind to more than one protein target. This may sometimes result in helpful polypharmacology as a drug modulates plural targets, but also often leads to adverse side-effects. Many cheminformatics approaches can be used to model the interactions between druglike molecules and proteins in silico. We can even use quantum chemical techniques like DFT and QM/MM to compute the structural and energetic course of enzyme catalysed chemical reaction mechanisms, including a full description of bond making and breaking. PMID:23116471

  16. Determination of lipolytic enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Kovacic, Filip

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a versatile human opportunistic pathogen that produces and secretes an arsenal of enzymes, proteins and small molecules many of which serve as virulence factors. Notably, about 40 % of P. aeruginosa genes code for proteins of unknown function, among them more than 80 encoding putative, but still unknown lipolytic enzymes. This group of hydrolases (EC 3.1.1) is known already for decades, but only recently, several of these enzymes have attracted attention as potential virulence factors. Reliable and reproducible enzymatic activity assays are crucial to determine their physiological function and particularly assess their contribution to pathogenicity. As a consequence of the unique biochemical properties of lipids resulting in the formation of micellar structures in water, the reproducible preparation of substrate emulsions is strongly dependent on the method used. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of the respective substrate emulsion may drastically affect the activities of the tested lipolytic enzymes. Here, we describe common methods for the activity determination of lipase, esterase, phospholipase, and lysophospholipase. These methods cover lipolytic activity assays carried out in vitro, with cell extracts or separated subcellular compartments and with purified enzymes. We have attempted to describe standardized protocols, allowing the determination and comparison of enzymatic activities of lipolytic enzymes from different sources. These methods should also encourage the Pseudomonas community to address the wealth of still unexplored lipolytic enzymes encoded and produced by P. aeruginosa.

  17. Understanding Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinnott, M. L.

    1979-01-01

    Describes the way enzymes operate through reaction energetics, and explains that most of the catalytic power of enzymes lies in the strong noncovalent forces responsible for initial binding of substrate, which are only manifested at the transition state of the reaction. (Author/GA)

  18. Enzymes, Industrial

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Enzymes serve key roles in numerous biotechnology processes and products that are commonly encountered in the forms of food and beverages, cleaning supplies, clothing, paper products, transportation fuels, pharmaceuticals, and monitoring devices. Enzymes can display regio- and stereo-specificity, p...

  19. Miniaturised optical encoder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, John; Desmulliez, Marc P. Y.; Weston, Nick; McKendrick, David; Cunningham, Graeme; McFarland, Geoff; Meredith, Wyn; McKee, Andrew; Langton, Conrad; Eddie, Iain

    2008-08-01

    Optical encoders are pervasive in many sectors of industry including metrology, motion systems, electronics, medical, scanning/ printing, scientific instruments, space research and specialist machine tools. The precision of automated manufacture and assembly has been revolutionised by the adoption of optical diffractive measurement methods. Today's optical encoders comprise discrete components: light source(s), reference and analyser gratings, and a photodiode array that utilise diffractive optic methods to achieve high resolution. However the critical alignment requirements between the optical gratings and to the photodiode array, the bulky nature of the encoder devices and subsequent packaging mean that optical encoders can be prohibitively expensive for many applications and unsuitable for others. We report here on the design, manufacture and test of a miniaturised optical encoder to be used in precision measurement systems. Microsystems manufacturing techniques facilitate the monolithic integration of the traditional encoder components onto a single compound semiconductor chip, radically reducing the size, cost and set-up time. Fabrication of the gratings at the wafer level, by standard photo-lithography, allows for the simultaneous alignment of many devices in a single process step. This development coupled with a unique photodiode configuration not only provides increased performance but also significantly improves the alignment tolerances in both manufacture and set-up. A National Research and Development Corporation type optical encoder chip has been successfully demonstrated under test conditions on both amplitude and phase scales with pitches of 20 micron, 8 micron and 4 micron, showing significantly relaxed alignment tolerances with signal-to-noise ratios greater than 60:1. Various reference mark schemes have also been investigated. Results are presented here.

  20. Mg-chelatase of tobacco: identification of a Chl D cDNA sequence encoding a third subunit, analysis of the interaction of the three subunits with the yeast two-hybrid system, and reconstitution of the enzyme activity by co-expression of recombinant CHL D, CHL H and CHL I.

    PubMed

    Papenbrock, J; Gräfe, S; Kruse, E; Hänel, F; Grimm, B

    1997-11-01

    Mg-protoporphyrin IX chelatase catalyzes insertion of the magnesium ion into protoporphyrin IX, the last common intermediate precursor in chlorophyll and heme biosynthesis, to form Mg-protoporphyrin IX. In Rhodobacter sphaeroides, and Synechocystis, the three open reading frames bchD/chID, bchH/chIH and bchI/chII encode proteins which are required for in vitro Mg-chelatase activity. In higher plants also, three proteins are necessary for the Mg chelation, and genes homologous to bchH and bchI have been isolated previously. In this study, a novel tobacco cDNA sequence homologous to bchD is isolated and initially characterized. Together with the tobacco clones encoding the other two subunits, full-length cDNAs are now available for the first time for all three subunits of one plant species. The CHL D polypeptide deduced from the open reading frame encodes a protein of 758 aa (82.9 kDa) with an amino terminal extension that resembles a plastid transit peptide. Sequence comparison of tobacco CHL D revealed similarities to the D subunit of Rhodobacter and Synechocystis of 44% and 75%. The amino terminal half of CHL D shows significant similarity (46%) to the entire CHL I peptide sequence, indicating a gene duplication from an ancestral gene. The carboxy terminal half seemed to be unique. Both parts of CHL D are linked with a glutamine/asparagine/proline-rich region flanked by a highly acid-rich segment. Protein-protein interaction among the three subunits CHL D, H and I was studied using the yeast two-hybrid system. Physical interaction was demonstrated between CHL D and CHL I indicating that CHL D is part of the Mg-chelatase. Heterodimer formation of CHL H with CHL I or CHL D could not be demonstrated by transactivation of the lacZ reporter gene. Homodimerization of the CHL D subunit was indicated in the more sensitive assay on X-Gal-containing agar plates. In vitro Mg2+ insertion into protoporphyrin IX was demonstrated in protein extracts of yeast strains expressing

  1. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared.

  2. Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.

    1993-03-01

    Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the [beta]-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. [beta]-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for [beta]-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to [beta]-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

  3. Video time encoding machines.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Aurel A; Pnevmatikakis, Eftychios A

    2011-03-01

    We investigate architectures for time encoding and time decoding of visual stimuli such as natural and synthetic video streams (movies, animation). The architecture for time encoding is akin to models of the early visual system. It consists of a bank of filters in cascade with single-input multi-output neural circuits. Neuron firing is based on either a threshold-and-fire or an integrate-and-fire spiking mechanism with feedback. We show that analog information is represented by the neural circuits as projections on a set of band-limited functions determined by the spike sequence. Under Nyquist-type and frame conditions, the encoded signal can be recovered from these projections with arbitrary precision. For the video time encoding machine architecture, we demonstrate that band-limited video streams of finite energy can be faithfully recovered from the spike trains and provide a stable algorithm for perfect recovery. The key condition for recovery calls for the number of neurons in the population to be above a threshold value.

  4. Plasmids encoding therapeutic agents

    DOEpatents

    Keener, William K.

    2007-08-07

    Plasmids encoding anti-HIV and anti-anthrax therapeutic agents are disclosed. Plasmid pWKK-500 encodes a fusion protein containing DP178 as a targeting moiety, the ricin A chain, an HIV protease cleavable linker, and a truncated ricin B chain. N-terminal extensions of the fusion protein include the maltose binding protein and a Factor Xa protease site. C-terminal extensions include a hydrophobic linker, an L domain motif peptide, a KDEL ER retention signal, another Factor Xa protease site, an out-of-frame buforin II coding sequence, the lacZ.alpha. peptide, and a polyhistidine tag. More than twenty derivatives of plasmid pWKK-500 are described. Plasmids pWKK-700 and pWKK-800 are similar to pWKK-500 wherein the DP178-encoding sequence is substituted by RANTES- and SDF-1-encoding sequences, respectively. Plasmid pWKK-900 is similar to pWKK-500 wherein the HIV protease cleavable linker is substituted by a lethal factor (LF) peptide-cleavable linker.

  5. Genetically-encoded Reporters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isacoff, Ehud

    2002-03-01

    One of the principle goals of neuroscience has been to understand the cellular basis of information processing and the plasticity that underlies learning and memory. Efforts in this area have mainly relied on electrical recording and optical imaging with chemical dyes. Over the last few years we and others have begun to develop genetically-encoded optical reporter "dyes" which should provide several important advantages over the classical methods for monitoring signal transmission in the nervous system. The advantages are that genetically-encoded reporters can be molecularly targeted a) to specific cell types via cell-specific promoters, and b) to specific subcellular compartments by peptides that are recognized by the protein sorting machinery of the cell. This makes it possible, in principle, to exclude signals from non-neuronal cells and to visualize selectively, in a brain region that contains many cell types with numerous kinds of synaptic connections, the activity of specific types of neurons (e.g. GABAergic interneurons) and specific synaptic elements (e.g. nerve terminals or dendrites), something that has hitherto not been possible. An additional advantage is that protein reporters may be rationally and irrationally "tuned" with mutations in functional domains known to control their dynamic range of operation. The general idea behind genetically-encoded reporters of cell signaling is to encode a protein that is either intrinsically fluorescent, or that can be labeled orthogonally with a fluorescent probe, and where the physiological signal changes fluorescence emission. I will describe recent progress employing both kinds of approaches.

  6. Time-Encoded Imagers.

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik

    2014-11-01

    This report provides a short overview of the DNN R&D funded project, Time-Encoded Imagers. The project began in FY11 and concluded in FY14. The Project Description below provides the overall motivation and objectives for the project as well as a summary of programmatic direction. It is followed by a short description of each task and the resulting deliverables.

  7. Genetically Encoded Sensors for Metabolites

    PubMed Central

    Deuschle, Karen; Fehr, Marcus; Hilpert, Melanie; Lager, Ida; Lalonde, Sylvie; Looger, Loren L.; Okumoto, Sakiko; Persson, Jörgen; Schmidt, Anja; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2009-01-01

    Background Metabolomics, i.e., the multiparallel analysis of metabolite changes occurring in a cell or an organism, has become feasible with the development of highly efficient mass spectroscopic technologies. Functional genomics as a standard tool helped to identify the function of many of the genes that encode important transporters and metabolic enzymes over the past few years. Advanced expression systems and analysis technologies made it possible to study the biochemical properties of the corresponding proteins in great detail. We begin to understand the biological functions of the gene products by systematic analysis of mutants using systematic PTGS/RNAi, knockout and TILLING approaches. However, one crucial set of data especially relevant in the case of multicellular organisms is lacking: the knowledge of the spatial and temporal profiles of metabolite levels at cellular and subcellular levels. Methods We therefore developed genetically encoded nanosensors for several metabolites to provide a basic set of tools for the determination of cytosolic and subcellular metabolite levels in real time by using fluorescence microscopy. Results Prototypes of these sensors were successfully used in vitro and also in vivo, i.e., to measure sugar levels in fungal and animal cells. Conclusions One of the future goals will be to expand the set of sensors to a wider spectrum of substrates by using the natural spectrum of periplasmic binding proteins from bacteria and by computational design of proteins with altered binding pockets in conjunction with mutagenesis. This toolbox can then be applied for four-dimensional imaging of cells and tissues to elucidate the spatial and temporal distribution of metabolites as a discovery tool in functional genomics, as a tool for high-throughput, high-content screening for drugs, to test metabolic models, and to analyze the interplay of cells in a tissue or organ. PMID:15688353

  8. Enzymatic characterization of a lysin encoded by bacteriophage EL.

    PubMed

    Tafoya, Diana A; Hildenbrand, Zacariah L; Herrera, Nadia; Molugu, Sudheer K; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A; Bernal, Ricardo A

    2013-04-01

    The bacteriophage EL is a virus that specifically attacks the human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This phage carries a large genome that encodes for its own chaperonin which presumably facilitates the proper folding of phage proteins independently of the host chaperonin system. EL also encodes a lysin enzyme, a critical component of the lytic cycle that is responsible for digesting the peptidoglycan layer of the host cell wall. Previously, this lysin was believed to be a substrate of the chaperonin encoded by phage EL. In order to characterize the activity of the EL lysin, and to determine whether lysin activity is contingent on chaperonin-mediated folding, a series of peptidoglycan hydrolysis activity assays were performed. Results indicate that the EL-encoded lysin has similar enzymatic activity to that of the Gallus gallus lysozyme and that the EL lysin folds into a functional enzyme in the absence of phage chaperonin and should not be considered a substrate.

  9. Time-Encoded Imagers

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Brennan, James S.; Nowack, Aaron

    2014-09-01

    We have developed two neutron detector systems based on time-encoded imaging and demonstrated their applicability toward non-proliferation missions. The 1D-TEI system was designed for and evaluated against the ability to detect Special Nuclear Material (SNM) in very low signal to noise environments; in particular, very large stand-off and/or weak sources that may be shielded. We have demonstrated significant detection (>5 sigma) of a 2.8e5 n/s neutron fission source at 100 meters stand-off in 30 min. If scaled to an IAEA significant quantity of Pu, we estimate that this could be reduced to as few as ~5 minutes. In contrast to simple counting detectors, this was accomplished without the need of previous background measurements. The 2D-TEI system was designed for high resolution spatial mapping of distributions of SNM and proved feasibility of twodimensional fast neutron imaging using the time encoded modulation of rates on a single pixel detector. Because of the simplicity of the TEI design, there is much lower systematic uncertainty in the detector response typical coded apertures. Other imaging methods require either multiple interactions (e.g. neutron scatter camera or Compton imagers), leading to intrinsically low efficiencies, or spatial modulation of the signal (e.g., Neutron Coded Aperture Imager (Hausladen, 2012)), which requires a complicated, high channel count, and expensive position sensitive detector. In contrast, a single detector using a time-modulated collimator can encode directional information in the time distribution of detected events. This is the first investigation of time-encoded imaging for nuclear nonproliferation applications.

  10. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  11. Food Enzymes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  12. Zinc Enzymes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertini, I.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the role of zinc in various enzymes concerned with hydration, hydrolysis, and redox reactions. The binding of zinc to protein residues, properties of noncatalytic zinc(II) and catalytic zinc, and the reactions catalyzed by zinc are among the topics considered. (JN)

  13. Engineering enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dutton, P Leslie; Moser, Christopher C

    2011-01-01

    Fundamental research into bioinorganic catalysis of the kind presented at this Faraday Discussion has the potential to turn inspiration drawn from impressive natural energy and chemical transformations into artificial catalyst constructions useful to mankind. Creating bio-inspired artificial constructions requires a level of understanding well beyond simple description of structures and mechanisms of natural enzymes. To be useful, such description must be augmented by a practical sense of structural and energetic engineering tolerances of the mechanism. Significant barriers to achieving an engineering understanding of enzyme mechanisms arise from natural protein complexity. In certain cases we can surmount these barriers to understanding, such as natural electron tunneling, coupling of electron tunneling to light capture and proton exchange as well as simpler bond breaking redox catalysis. Hope for similar solutions of more complex bioinorganic enzymes is indicated in several papers presented in this Discussion. Armed with an engineering understanding of mechanism, the current serious frustrations to successful creation of functional artificial proteins that are rooted in protein complexity can fall away. Here we discuss the genetic and biological roots of protein complexity and show how to dodge and minimize the effects of complexity. In the best-understood cases, artificial enzymes can be designed from scratch using the simplest of protein scaffolds.

  14. Food Enzymes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBroom, Rachel; Oliver-Hoyo, Maria T.

    2007-01-01

    Many students view biology and chemistry as two unrelated, separate sciences; how these courses are generally taught in high schools may do little to change that impression. The study of enzymes provide a great opportunity for both biology and chemistry teachers to share with students the interdisciplinary nature of science. This article describes…

  15. Cell-free translation of biofuel enzymes.

    PubMed

    Takasuka, Taichi E; Walker, Johnnie A; Bergeman, Lai F; Vander Meulen, Kirk A; Makino, Shin-ichi; Elsen, Nathaniel L; Fox, Brian G

    2014-01-01

    In nature, bacteria and fungi are able to utilize recalcitrant plant materials by secreting a diverse set of enzymes. While genomic sequencing efforts offer exhaustive lists of genes annotated as potential polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, biochemical and functional characterizations of the encoded proteins are still needed to realize the full potential of this natural genomic diversity. This chapter outlines an application of wheat germ cell-free translation to the study of biofuel enzymes using genes from Clostridium thermocellum, a model cellulolytic organism. Since wheat germ extract lacks enzymatic activities that can hydrolyze insoluble polysaccharide substrates and is likewise devoid of enzymes that consume the soluble sugar products, the cell-free translation reactions provide a clean background for production and study of the reactions of biofuel enzymes. Examples of assays performed with individual enzymes or with small sets of enzymes obtained directly from cell-free translation are provided.

  16. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tearney, G.J.; Webb, R.H.; Bouma, B.E.

    1998-08-01

    An endoscope-compatible, submicrometer-resolution scanning confocal microscopy imaging system is presented. This approach, spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM), uses a quasi-monochromatic light source and a transmission diffraction grating to detect the reflectivity simultaneously at multiple points along a transverse line within the sample. Since this method does not require fast spatial scanning within the probe, the equipment can be miniaturized and incorporated into a catheter or endoscope. Confocal images of an electron microscope grid were acquired with SECM to demonstrate the feasibility of this technique. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital Optical Society of America}

  17. Time Encoded Radiation Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Gerling, Mark D.; Schuster, Patricia Frances; Steele, John T.

    2011-09-01

    Passive detection of special nuclear material (SNM) at long range or under heavy shielding can only be achieved by observing the penetrating neutral particles that it emits: gamma rays and neutrons in the MeV energy range. The ultimate SNM standoff detector system would have sensitivity to both gamma and neutron radiation, a large area and high efficiency to capture as many signal particles as possible, and good discrimination against background particles via directional and energy information. Designing such a system is a daunting task. Using timemodulated collimators could be a transformative technique leading to practical gamma-neutron imaging detector systems that are highly efficient with the potential to exhibit simultaneously high angular and energy resolution. A new technique using time encoding to make a compact, high efficiency imaging detector was conceived. Design considerations using Monte Carlo modeling and the construction and demonstration of a prototype imager are described.

  18. Time encoded radiation imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

    2014-10-21

    The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

  19. Rotary encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A device for position encoding of a rotating shaft in which a polygonal mirror having a number of facets is mounted to the shaft and a light beam is directed towards the facets is presented. The facets of the polygonal mirror reflect the light beam such that a light spot is created on a linear array detector. An analog-to-digital converter is connected to the linear array detector for reading the position of the spot on the linear array detector. A microprocessor with memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate the data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the position of the shaft based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  20. Linear encoding device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A Linear Motion Encoding device for measuring the linear motion of a moving object is disclosed in which a light source is mounted on the moving object and a position sensitive detector such as an array photodetector is mounted on a nearby stationary object. The light source emits a light beam directed towards the array photodetector such that a light spot is created on the array. An analog-to-digital converter, connected to the array photodetector is used for reading the position of the spot on the array photodetector. A microprocessor and memory is connected to the analog-to-digital converter to hold and manipulate data provided by the analog-to-digital converter on the position of the spot and to compute the linear displacement of the moving object based upon the data from the analog-to-digital converter.

  1. Primary enzyme quantitation

    DOEpatents

    Saunders, G.C.

    1982-03-04

    The disclosure relates to the quantitation of a primary enzyme concentration by utilizing a substrate for the primary enzyme labeled with a second enzyme which is an indicator enzyme. Enzyme catalysis of the substrate occurs and results in release of the indicator enzyme in an amount directly proportional to the amount of primary enzyme present. By quantifying the free indicator enzyme one determines the amount of primary enzyme present.

  2. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  3. N-Consecutive-Phase Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Divsalar, Dariush; Lee, Ho-Kyoung; Weber, Charles

    1995-01-01

    N-consecutive-phase encoder (NCPE) is conceptual encoder for generating alphabet of N consecutive full-response continuous-phase-modulation (CPM) signals. Enables use of binary preencoder of higher rate than used with simple continuous-phase encoder (CPE). NCPE makes possible to achieve power efficiencies and bandwidth efficiencies greater than conventional trellis coders with continuous-phase frequency-shift keying (CPFSK).

  4. Genetically encoding new bioreactivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei

    2017-09-25

    The genetic code can be expanded to include unnatural amino acids (Uaas) by engineering orthogonal components involved in protein translation. To be compatible with live cells, side chains of Uaas have been limited to either chemically inert or bio-orthogonal (i.e., nonreactive toward biomolecules) functionalities. To introduce bioreactivity into live systems, the genetic code has recently been engineered to encode a new class of Uaas, the bioreactive Uaas. These Uaas, after being incorporated into proteins, specifically react with target natural amino acid residues via proximity-enabled bioreactivity, enabling the selective formation of new covalent linkages within and between proteins both in vitro and in live systems. The new covalent bonding ability has been harnessed within proteins to enhance photostability, increase thermostability, staple proteins recombinantly, and build optical nano-switches, and between proteins to pinpoint ligand-receptor interaction, target native receptors irreversibly, and generate covalent macromolecular inhibitors. These diverse bioreactivities, inaccessible to natural proteins, thus open doors to novel protein engineering and provide new avenues for biological studies, biotherapeutics and synthetic biology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) juice modulates 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene induced hepatic but not mammary gland phase I and II enzymes in female rats.

    PubMed

    Szaefer, Hanna; Krajka-Kuźniak, Violetta; Ignatowicz, Ewa; Adamska, Teresa; Baer-Dubowska, Wanda

    2011-03-01

    Chokeberry is a rich source of procyanidins known to have several types of biological activity including anticarcinogenic potential in experimental models. In this study we examined the effect of chokeberry juice on the hepatic and mammary gland carcinogen metabolizing enzyme expression altered by the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA). Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged with chokeberry juice (8 ml/kg b.w.) for 28 consecutive days. DMBA was administered i.p. on the 27th and the 28th days. Pretreatment with chokeberry juice reduced the activity of CYP1A1 and increased that of CYP2B involved in metabolic activation/detoxication of DMBA in rat liver, as well as expression and activity of phase II enzymes. Chokeberry juice had no effect on these parameters in the mammary gland and DMBA induced DNA damage in rat blood cells. These results together with our earlier observations indicate that metabolic alterations induced by chokeberry feeding are tissue specific and depend on the class of carcinogen. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Industrial applications of hyperthermophilic enzymes: a review.

    PubMed

    de Miguel Bouzas, Trinidad; Barros-Velázquez, Jorge; Villa, Tomás González

    2006-01-01

    Over the past two decades, research scientists have been involved in the investigation of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic microorganisms owing to the unique features of their enzymic systems. Such in-depth investigations are now on their way to mastering the cloning and industrial exploitation of a broad variety of genes encoding enzymes involved in starch hydrolysis, amino acid biosynthesis, protein hydrolysis, etc. In this work, we review the state of the art and future perspectives of industrial applications of enzymes from hyperthermophilic and extreme thermophilic microorganisms, special attention being paid to the biotechnological methods involved in their industrial exploitation.

  7. Prosodic Encoding in Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Deborah

    In silent reading, short-memory tasks, such as semantic and syntactic processing, require a stage of phonetic encoding between visual representation and the actual extraction of meaning, and this encoding includes prosodic as well as segmental features. To test for this suprasegmental coding, an experiment was conducted in which subjects were…

  8. Prosodic Encoding in Silent Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkenfeld, Deborah

    In silent reading, short-memory tasks, such as semantic and syntactic processing, require a stage of phonetic encoding between visual representation and the actual extraction of meaning, and this encoding includes prosodic as well as segmental features. To test for this suprasegmental coding, an experiment was conducted in which subjects were…

  9. Peri-encoding predictors of memory encoding and consolidation.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Noga; Pell, Liat; Edelson, Micah G; Ben-Yakov, Aya; Pine, Alex; Dudai, Yadin

    2015-03-01

    We review reports of brain activations that occur immediately prior to the onset or following the offset of to-be-remembered information and can predict subsequent mnemonic success. Memory-predictive pre-encoding processes, occurring from fractions of a second to minutes prior to event onset, are mainly associated with activations in the medial temporal lobe (MTL), amygdala and midbrain, and with enhanced theta oscillations. These activations may be considered as the neural correlates of one or more cognitive operations, including contextual processing, attention, and the engagement of distinct computational modes associated with prior encoding or retrieval. Post-encoding activations that correlate with subsequent memory performance are mainly observed in the MTL, sensory cortices and frontal regions. These activations may reflect binding of elements of the encoded information and initiation of memory consolidation. In all, the findings reviewed here illustrate the importance of brain states in the immediate peri-encoding time windows in determining encoding success. Understanding these brain states and their specific effects on memory may lead to optimization of the encoding of desired memories and mitigation of undesired ones. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chlorella viruses contain genes encoding a complete polyamine biosynthetic pathway

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Sascha; Sander, Adrianne; Gurnon, James R.; Yanai-Balser, Giane; VanEtten, James L.; Piotrowski, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Two genes encoding the putative polyamine biosynthetic enzymes agmatine iminohydrolase (AIH) and N-carbamoylputrescine amidohydrolase (CPA) were cloned from the chloroviruses PBCV-1, NY-2A and MT325. They were expressed in Escherichia coli to form C-terminal (His)6-tagged proteins and the recombinant proteins were purified by Ni2+- binding affinity chromatography. The biochemical properties of the two enzymes are similar to AIH and CPA enzymes from Arabidopsis thaliana and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Together with the previously known virus genes encoding ornithine/arginine decarboxlyase (ODC/ADC) and homospermidine synthase, the chloroviruses have genes that encode a complete set of functional enzymes that synthesize the rare polyamine homospermidine from arginine via agmatine, N-carbamoylputrescine and putrescine. The PBCV-1 aih and cpa genes are expressed early during virus infection together with the odc/adc gene, suggesting that biosynthesis of putrescine is important in early stages of viral replication. The aih and cpa genes are widespread in the chlorella viruses. PMID:17101165

  11. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, S.L.; Miller, W.M.; McWhorter, P.J.

    1997-10-21

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals. 32 figs.

  12. Information encoder/decoder using chaotic systems

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Samuel Lee; Miller, William Michael; McWhorter, Paul Jackson

    1997-01-01

    The present invention discloses a chaotic system-based information encoder and decoder that operates according to a relationship defining a chaotic system. Encoder input signals modify the dynamics of the chaotic system comprising the encoder. The modifications result in chaotic, encoder output signals that contain the encoder input signals encoded within them. The encoder output signals are then capable of secure transmissions using conventional transmission techniques. A decoder receives the encoder output signals (i.e., decoder input signals) and inverts the dynamics of the encoding system to directly reconstruct the original encoder input signals.

  13. DNA-Encoded Solid-Phase Synthesis: Encoding Language Design and Complex Oligomer Library Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The promise of exploiting combinatorial synthesis for small molecule discovery remains unfulfilled due primarily to the “structure elucidation problem”: the back-end mass spectrometric analysis that significantly restricts one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library complexity. The very molecular features that confer binding potency and specificity, such as stereochemistry, regiochemistry, and scaffold rigidity, are conspicuously absent from most libraries because isomerism introduces mass redundancy and diverse scaffolds yield uninterpretable MS fragmentation. Here we present DNA-encoded solid-phase synthesis (DESPS), comprising parallel compound synthesis in organic solvent and aqueous enzymatic ligation of unprotected encoding dsDNA oligonucleotides. Computational encoding language design yielded 148 thermodynamically optimized sequences with Hamming string distance ≥ 3 and total read length <100 bases for facile sequencing. Ligation is efficient (70% yield), specific, and directional over 6 encoding positions. A series of isomers served as a testbed for DESPS’s utility in split-and-pool diversification. Single-bead quantitative PCR detected 9 × 104 molecules/bead and sequencing allowed for elucidation of each compound’s synthetic history. We applied DESPS to the combinatorial synthesis of a 75 645-member OBOC library containing scaffold, stereochemical and regiochemical diversity using mixed-scale resin (160-μm quality control beads and 10-μm screening beads). Tandem DNA sequencing/MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 19 quality control beads showed excellent agreement (<1 ppt) between DNA sequence-predicted mass and the observed mass. DESPS synergistically unites the advantages of solid-phase synthesis and DNA encoding, enabling single-bead structural elucidation of complex compounds and synthesis using reactions normally considered incompatible with unprotected DNA. The widespread availability of inexpensive oligonucleotide synthesis, enzymes, DNA sequencing, and

  14. DNA-Encoded Solid-Phase Synthesis: Encoding Language Design and Complex Oligomer Library Synthesis.

    PubMed

    MacConnell, Andrew B; McEnaney, Patrick J; Cavett, Valerie J; Paegel, Brian M

    2015-09-14

    The promise of exploiting combinatorial synthesis for small molecule discovery remains unfulfilled due primarily to the "structure elucidation problem": the back-end mass spectrometric analysis that significantly restricts one-bead-one-compound (OBOC) library complexity. The very molecular features that confer binding potency and specificity, such as stereochemistry, regiochemistry, and scaffold rigidity, are conspicuously absent from most libraries because isomerism introduces mass redundancy and diverse scaffolds yield uninterpretable MS fragmentation. Here we present DNA-encoded solid-phase synthesis (DESPS), comprising parallel compound synthesis in organic solvent and aqueous enzymatic ligation of unprotected encoding dsDNA oligonucleotides. Computational encoding language design yielded 148 thermodynamically optimized sequences with Hamming string distance ≥ 3 and total read length <100 bases for facile sequencing. Ligation is efficient (70% yield), specific, and directional over 6 encoding positions. A series of isomers served as a testbed for DESPS's utility in split-and-pool diversification. Single-bead quantitative PCR detected 9 × 10(4) molecules/bead and sequencing allowed for elucidation of each compound's synthetic history. We applied DESPS to the combinatorial synthesis of a 75,645-member OBOC library containing scaffold, stereochemical and regiochemical diversity using mixed-scale resin (160-μm quality control beads and 10-μm screening beads). Tandem DNA sequencing/MALDI-TOF MS analysis of 19 quality control beads showed excellent agreement (<1 ppt) between DNA sequence-predicted mass and the observed mass. DESPS synergistically unites the advantages of solid-phase synthesis and DNA encoding, enabling single-bead structural elucidation of complex compounds and synthesis using reactions normally considered incompatible with unprotected DNA. The widespread availability of inexpensive oligonucleotide synthesis, enzymes, DNA sequencing, and PCR

  15. PNA-encoded chemical libraries.

    PubMed

    Zambaldo, Claudio; Barluenga, Sofia; Winssinger, Nicolas

    2015-06-01

    Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)-encoded chemical libraries along with DNA-encoded libraries have provided a powerful new paradigm for library synthesis and ligand discovery. PNA-encoding stands out for its compatibility with standard solid phase synthesis and the technology has been used to prepare libraries of peptides, heterocycles and glycoconjugates. Different screening formats have now been reported including selection-based and microarray-based methods that have yielded specific ligands against diverse target classes including membrane receptors, lectins and challenging targets such as Hsp70.

  16. Effects of naturally occurring coumarins on hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes inmice

    SciTech Connect

    Kleiner, Heather E. Xia, Xiaojun; Sonoda, Junichiro; Zhang, Jun; Pontius, Elizabeth; Abey, Jane; Evans, Ronald M.; Moore, David D.; DiGiovanni, John

    2008-10-15

    Cytochromes P450 (P450s) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) constitute two important enzyme families involved in carcinogen metabolism. Generally, P450s play activation or detoxifying roles while GSTs act primarily as detoxifying enzymes. We previously demonstrated that oral administration of the linear furanocoumarins, isopimpinellin and imperatorin, modulated P450 and GST activities in various tissues of mice. The purpose of the present study was to compare a broader range of naturally occurring coumarins (simple coumarins, and furanocoumarins of the linear and angular type) for their abilities to modulate hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes when administered orally to mice. We now report that all of the different coumarins tested (coumarin, limettin, auraptene, angelicin, bergamottin, imperatorin and isopimpinellin) induced hepatic GST activities, whereas the linear furanocoumarins possessed the greatest abilities to induce hepatic P450 activities, in particular P450 2B and 3A. In both cases, this corresponded to an increase in protein expression of the enzymes. Induction of P4502B10, 3A11, and 2C9 by xenobiotics often is a result of activation of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and/or constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Using a pregnane X receptor reporter system, our results demonstrated that isopimpinellin activated both PXR and its human ortholog SXR by recruiting coactivator SRC-1 in transfected cells. In CAR transfection assays, isopimpinellin counteracted the inhibitory effect of androstanol on full-length mCAR, a Gal4-mCAR ligand-binding domain fusion, and restored coactivator binding. Orally administered isopimpinellin induced hepatic mRNA expression of Cyp2b10, Cyp3a11, and GSTa in CAR(+/+) wild-type mice. In contrast, the induction of Cyp2b10 mRNA by isopimpinellin was attenuated in the CAR(-/-) mice, suggesting that isopimpinellin induces Cyp2b10 via the CAR receptor. Overall, the current data indicate that naturally occurring coumarins have

  17. Food-processing enzymes from recombinant microorganisms--a review.

    PubMed

    Olempska-Beer, Zofia S; Merker, Robert I; Ditto, Mary D; DiNovi, Michael J

    2006-07-01

    Enzymes are commonly used in food processing and in the production of food ingredients. Enzymes traditionally isolated from culturable microorganisms, plants, and mammalian tissues are often not well-adapted to the conditions used in modern food production methods. The use of recombinant DNA technology has made it possible to manufacture novel enzymes suitable for specific food-processing conditions. Such enzymes may be discovered by screening microorganisms sampled from diverse environments or developed by modification of known enzymes using modern methods of protein engineering or molecular evolution. As a result, several important food-processing enzymes such as amylases and lipases with properties tailored to particular food applications have become available. Another important achievement is improvement of microbial production strains. For example, several microbial strains recently developed for enzyme production have been engineered to increase enzyme yield by deleting native genes encoding extracellular proteases. Moreover, certain fungal production strains have been modified to reduce or eliminate their potential for production of toxic secondary metabolites. In this article, we discuss the safety of microorganisms used as hosts for enzyme-encoding genes, the construction of recombinant production strains, and methods of improving enzyme properties. We also briefly describe the manufacture and safety assessment of enzyme preparations and summarize options for submitting information on enzyme preparations to the US Food and Drug Administration.

  18. Crystal Structure of a Virus-Encoded Putative Glycosyltransferase

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Ye; Baxa, Ulrich; Zhang, Ying; Steven, Alasdair C.; Lewis, Gentry L.; Van Etten, James L.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-11-22

    The chloroviruses (family Phycodnaviridae), unlike most viruses, encode some, if not most, of the enzymes involved in the glycosylation of their structural proteins. Annotation of the gene product B736L from chlorovirus NY-2A suggests that it is a glycosyltransferase. The structure of the recombinantly expressed B736L protein was determined by X-ray crystallography to 2.3-{angstrom} resolution, and the protein was shown to have two nucleotide-binding folds like other glycosyltransferase type B enzymes. This is the second structure of a chlorovirus-encoded glycosyltransferase and the first structure of a chlorovirus type B enzyme to be determined. B736L is a retaining enzyme and belongs to glycosyltransferase family 4. The donor substrate was identified as GDP-mannose by isothermal titration calorimetry and was shown to bind into the cleft between the two domains in the protein. The active form of the enzyme is probably a dimer in which the active centers are separated by about 40 {angstrom}.

  19. DNA sequences encoding osteoinductive products

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.A.; Wozney, J.M.; Rosen, V.

    1991-05-07

    This patent describes an isolated DNA sequence encoding an osteoinductive protein the DNA sequence comprising a coding sequence. It comprises: nucleotide No.1 through nucleotide No.387, nucleotide No.356 through nucleotide No.1543, nucleotide $402 through nucleotide No.1626, naturally occurring allelic sequences and equivalent degenerative codon sequences and sequences which hybridize to any of sequences under stringent hybridization conditions; and encode a protein characterized by the ability to induce the formation of bone and/or cartilage.

  20. Structures and Mechanisms of the Mycothiol Biosynthetic Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Fan; Vetting, Matthew W.; Frantom, Patrick A.; Blanchard, John S.

    2009-01-01

    In the last decade, the genes encoding all four enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of mycothiol in Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been identified. Orthologues of each of these have been stably expressed and structurally characterized. The chemical mechanisms of all four have also been studied. Due to the unique phylogenetic distribution of mycothiol, and the enzymes responsible for its biosynthesis, these enzymes represent interesting potential targets for anti mycobacterial agents. PMID:19699138

  1. Cracking the Glycome Encoder: Signaling, Trafficking, and Glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Bard, Frederic; Chia, Joanne

    2016-05-01

    The glycoproteome, the ensemble of glycans and their carrier proteins, plays major roles in multicellular life by regulating cell interactions with their environment. How information is encoded into the glycome, in other words how glycosylation is modulated in response to signals, remains largely unclear. Glycosylation enzymes operate predominantly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi, a highly compartmentalized membrane-bound environment. Recent work indicates that this compartmentalization is plastic and tightly regulated. For instance, specific signals can induce the relocation of O-glycosylation enzymes, GALNTs, from the Golgi to the ER, resulting in significant upregulation of O-glycosylation initiation. We have named this re-compartmentation process the 'GALA pathway'. GALA illustrates how membrane trafficking in the secretory pathway can regulate protein glycosylation and thus encode information in the glycome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Elevated Liver Enzymes

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms Elevated liver enzymes By Mayo Clinic Staff Elevated liver enzymes may indicate inflammation or damage to cells in the liver. Inflamed or ... than normal amounts of certain chemicals, including liver enzymes, into the bloodstream, which can result in elevated ...

  3. Gut fermentation products of inulin-type fructans modulate the expression of xenobiotic-metabolising enzymes in human colonic tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Munjal, Umang; Scharlau, Daniel; Glei, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that nutrition plays an important role in colonic cancer prevention. A possible mechanism of this prevention may be the modulation of carcinogen metabolism and scavenging of reactive intermediates. In particular, dietary fibres are discussed as potentially protective food ingredients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse if the expression of genes related to biotransformation is modulated by fermentation samples of dietary fibres. HT29 (human colonic carcinoma) and LT97 (human adenoma) cells were incubated with fermentation supernatant (SFS), produced by in vitro fermentation of inulin enriched with oligofructose. Possible mechanisms of de-toxification were investigated by analysing the expression of catalase and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) A4 mRNA and the enzyme activity of catalase and GST. In addition, protection of both cell lines against DNA damage, induced by H(2)O(2) or 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), was analysed using the comet assay. Incubation with SFS resulted in significantly increased GSTA4 mRNA expression, significantly enhanced catalase activity and a significant reduction in the amount of H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage in HT29 cells. Our results show that complex fermentation samples of inulin-type fructans favourably modulate expression of genes related to biotransformation in carcinoma cells, which in turn supports the important role of dietary fibres in primary chemoprevention.

  4. Multidimensionally encoded magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Fa-Hsuan

    2013-07-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) typically achieves spatial encoding by measuring the projection of a q-dimensional object over q-dimensional spatial bases created by linear spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs). Recently, imaging strategies using nonlinear SEMs have demonstrated potential advantages for reconstructing images with higher spatiotemporal resolution and reducing peripheral nerve stimulation. In practice, nonlinear SEMs and linear SEMs can be used jointly to further improve the image reconstruction performance. Here, we propose the multidimensionally encoded (MDE) MRI to map a q-dimensional object onto a p-dimensional encoding space where p > q. MDE MRI is a theoretical framework linking imaging strategies using linear and nonlinear SEMs. Using a system of eight surface SEM coils with an eight-channel radiofrequency coil array, we demonstrate the five-dimensional MDE MRI for a two-dimensional object as a further generalization of PatLoc imaging and O-space imaging. We also present a method of optimizing spatial bases in MDE MRI. Results show that MDE MRI with a higher dimensional encoding space can reconstruct images more efficiently and with a smaller reconstruction error when the k-space sampling distribution and the number of samples are controlled. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Stabilization of Enzymes by Using Thermophiles.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Luisa; Sánchez, Mercedes; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Berenguer, José

    2017-01-01

    Manufactured steroid compounds have many applications in the pharmaceutical industry. Due to the chemical complexity and chirality of steroids, there is an increasing demand for enzyme-based bioconversion processes to replace those based on chemical synthesis. In this context, thermostability of the involved enzymes is a highly desirable property as both the increased half-life of the enzyme and the enhanced solubility of substrates and products will improve the yield of the reactions. Metagenomic libraries from thermal environments are potential sources of thermostable enzymes of prokaryotic origin, but the number of expected hits could be quite low for enzymes handling substrates such as steroids, rarely found in prokaryotes. An alternative to metagenome screening is the selection of thermostable variants of well-known steroid-processing enzymes. Here we review and detail a protocol for such selection, where error-prone PCR (epPCR) is used to introduce random mutations into a gene to create a variants library for further selection of thermostable variants in the thermophile Thermus thermophilus. The method involves the use of folding interference vectors where the proper folding of the enzyme of interest at high temperature is linked to the folding of a reporter encoding a selectable property such as thermostable resistance to kanamycin, leading to a life-or-death selection of variants of reinforced folding independently of the activity of the enzyme.

  6. Fly Photoreceptors Encode Phase Congruency

    PubMed Central

    Friederich, Uwe; Billings, Stephen A.; Hardie, Roger C.; Juusola, Mikko; Coca, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    More than five decades ago it was postulated that sensory neurons detect and selectively enhance behaviourally relevant features of natural signals. Although we now know that sensory neurons are tuned to efficiently encode natural stimuli, until now it was not clear what statistical features of the stimuli they encode and how. Here we reverse-engineer the neural code of Drosophila photoreceptors and show for the first time that photoreceptors exploit nonlinear dynamics to selectively enhance and encode phase-related features of temporal stimuli, such as local phase congruency, which are invariant to changes in illumination and contrast. We demonstrate that to mitigate for the inherent sensitivity to noise of the local phase congruency measure, the nonlinear coding mechanisms of the fly photoreceptors are tuned to suppress random phase signals, which explains why photoreceptor responses to naturalistic stimuli are significantly different from their responses to white noise stimuli. PMID:27336733

  7. Synaptic encoding of temporal contiguity

    PubMed Central

    Ostojic, Srdjan; Fusi, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Often we need to perform tasks in an environment that changes stochastically. In these situations it is important to learn the statistics of sequences of events in order to predict the future and the outcome of our actions. The statistical description of many of these sequences can be reduced to the set of probabilities that a particular event follows another event (temporal contiguity). Under these conditions, it is important to encode and store in our memory these transition probabilities. Here we show that for a large class of synaptic plasticity models, the distribution of synaptic strengths encodes transitions probabilities. Specifically, when the synaptic dynamics depend on pairs of contiguous events and the synapses can remember multiple instances of the transitions, then the average synaptic weights are a monotonic function of the transition probabilities. The synaptic weights converge to the distribution encoding the probabilities also when the correlations between consecutive synaptic modifications are considered. We studied how this distribution depends on the number of synaptic states for a specific model of a multi-state synapse with hard bounds. In the case of bistable synapses, the average synaptic weights are a smooth function of the transition probabilities and the accuracy of the encoding depends on the learning rate. As the number of synaptic states increases, the average synaptic weights become a step function of the transition probabilities. We finally show that the information stored in the synaptic weights can be read out by a simple rate-based neural network. Our study shows that synapses encode transition probabilities under general assumptions and this indicates that temporal contiguity is likely to be encoded and harnessed in almost every neural circuit in the brain. PMID:23641210

  8. Holographically Encoded Volume Phase Masks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-13

    yÞAg; (6) where à and B̃ are the Fourier transforms of A and B, respec- tively, and fx and fy are the spatial frequencies along the x and y axes...collimated and directed onto a reflecting spatial light modulator (SLM). Applying the SLM encoding technique by Arrizón et al.,42 the incident beam was...converted into the LP11 and LP21 HOMs. These modes were selected because their spatial phase pattern match the HPM with the encoded four-sector binary

  9. Roles of phosphatidate phosphatase enzymes in lipid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Carman, George M.; Han, Gil-Soo

    2006-01-01

    Phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP) enzymes catalyze the dephosphorylation of phosphatidate, yielding diacylglycerol and inorganic phosphate. In eukaryotic cells, PAP activity has a central role in the synthesis of phospholipids and triacylglycerol through its product diacylglycerol, and it also generates and/or degrades lipid-signaling molecules that are related to phosphatidate. There are two types of PAP enzyme, Mg2+ dependent (PAP1) and Mg2+ independent (PAP2), but only genes encoding PAP2 enzymes had been identified until recently, when a gene (PAH1) encoding a PAP1 enzyme was found in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This discovery has revealed a molecular function of the mammalian protein lipin, a deficiency of which causes lipodystrophy in mice. With molecular information now available for both types of PAP, the specific roles of these enzymes in lipid metabolism are being clarified. PMID:17079146

  10. Fundamentals of enzyme kinetics.

    PubMed

    Seibert, Eleanore; Tracy, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides a general introduction to the kinetics of enzyme-catalyzed reactions, with a focus on drug-metabolizing enzymes. A prerequisite to understanding enzyme kinetics is having a clear grasp of the meanings of "enzyme" and "catalysis." Catalysts are reagents that can increase the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed in the reaction. Enzymes are proteins that form a subset of catalysts. These concepts are further explored below.

  11. How Infants Encode Spatial Extent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Sean; Huttenlocher, Janellen; Levine, Susan; Duffy, Renee

    2005-01-01

    This study explores how infants encode an object's spatial extent. We habituated 6.5-month-old infants to a dowel inside a container and then tested whether they dishabituate to a change in absolute size when the relation between dowel and container is held constant (by altering the size of both container and dowel) and when the relation changes…

  12. Encoding Standards for Linguistic Corpora.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    The demand for extensive reusability of large language text collections for natural languages processing research requires development of standardized encoding formats. Such formats must be capable of representing different kinds of information across the spectrum of text types and languages, capable of representing different levels of…

  13. Encoding Ownership Types in Java

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Nicholas; Noble, James

    Ownership types systems organise the heap into a hierarchy which can be used to support encapsulation properties, effects, and invariants. Ownership types have many applications including parallelisation, concurrency, memory management, and security. In this paper, we show that several flavours and extensions of ownership types can be entirely encoded using the standard Java type system.

  14. Spectrally-encoded color imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kang, DongKyun; Yelin, Dvir; Bouma, Brett E.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2010-01-01

    Spectrally-encoded endoscopy (SEE) is a technique for ultraminiature endoscopy that encodes each spatial location on the sample with a different wavelength. One limitation of previous incarnations of SEE is that it inherently creates monochromatic images, since the spectral bandwidth is expended in the spatial encoding process. Here we present a spectrally-encoded imaging system that has color imaging capability. The new imaging system utilizes three distinct red, green, and blue spectral bands that are configured to illuminate the grating at different incident angles. By careful selection of the incident angles, the three spectral bands can be made to overlap on the sample. To demonstrate the method, a bench-top system was built, comprising a 2400-lpmm grating illuminated by three 525-μm-diameter beams with three different spectral bands. Each spectral band had a bandwidth of 75 nm, producing 189 resolvable points. A resolution target, color phantoms, and excised swine small intestine were imaged to validate the system's performance. The color SEE system showed qualitatively and quantitatively similar color imaging performance to that of a conventional digital camera. PMID:19688002

  15. Divergence and Convergence in Enzyme Evolution*

    PubMed Central

    Galperin, Michael Y.; Koonin, Eugene V.

    2012-01-01

    Comparative analysis of the sequences of enzymes encoded in a variety of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes reveals convergence and divergence at several levels. Functional convergence can be inferred when structurally distinct and hence non-homologous enzymes show the ability to catalyze the same biochemical reaction. In contrast, as a result of functional diversification, many structurally similar enzyme molecules act on substantially distinct substrates and catalyze diverse biochemical reactions. Here, we present updates on the ATP-grasp, alkaline phosphatase, cupin, HD hydrolase, and N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn) hydrolase enzyme superfamilies and discuss the patterns of sequence and structural conservation and diversity within these superfamilies. Typically, enzymes within a superfamily possess common sequence motifs and key active site residues, as well as (predicted) reaction mechanisms. These observations suggest that the strained conformation (the entatic state) of the active site, which is responsible for the substrate binding and formation of the transition complex, tends to be conserved within enzyme superfamilies. The subsequent fate of the transition complex is not necessarily conserved and depends on the details of the structures of the enzyme and the substrate. This variability of reaction outcomes limits the ability of sequence analysis to predict the exact enzymatic activities of newly sequenced gene products. Nevertheless, sequence-based (super)family assignments and generic functional predictions, even if imprecise, provide valuable leads for experimental studies and remain the best approach to the functional annotation of uncharacterized proteins from new genomes. PMID:22069324

  16. Carcinogen metabolism, cigarette smoking, and breast cancer risk: a Bayes model averaging approach

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Standard logistic regression with or without stepwise selection has the disadvantage of not incorporating model uncertainty and the dependency of estimates on the underlying model into the final inference. We explore the use of a Bayes Model Averaging approach as an alternative to analyze the influence of genetic variants, environmental effects and their interactions on disease. Methods Logistic regression with and without stepwise selection and Bayes Model Averaging were applied to a population-based case-control study exploring the association of genetic variants in tobacco smoke-related carcinogen pathways with breast cancer. Results Both regression and Bayes Model Averaging highlighted a significant effect of NAT1*10 on breast cancer, while regression analysis also suggested a significant effect for packyears and for the interaction of packyears and NAT2. Conclusions Bayes Model Averaging allows incorporation of model uncertainty, helps reduce dimensionality and avoids the problem of multiple comparisons. It can be used to incorporate biological information, such as pathway data, into the analysis. As with all Bayesian analysis methods, careful consideration must be given to prior specification. PMID:21080951

  17. Insolubilization process increases enzyme stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.; Lyn, J.

    1971-01-01

    Enzymes complexed with polymeric matrices contain properties suggesting application to enzyme-controlled reactions. Stability of insolubilized enzyme derivatives is markedly greater than that of soluble enzymes and physical form of insolubilized enzymes is useful in column and batch processes.

  18. Encoding information into precipitation structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, Kirsten; Bena, Ioana; Droz, Michel; Rácz, Zoltan

    2008-12-01

    Material design at submicron scales would be profoundly affected if the formation of precipitation patterns could be easily controlled. It would allow the direct building of bulk structures, in contrast to traditional techniques which consist of removing material in order to create patterns. Here, we discuss an extension of our recent proposal of using electrical currents to control precipitation bands which emerge in the wake of reaction fronts in A+ + B- → C reaction-diffusion processes. Our main result, based on simulating the reaction-diffusion-precipitation equations, is that the dynamics of the charged agents can be guided by an appropriately designed time-dependent electric current so that, in addition to the control of the band spacing, the width of the precipitation bands can also be tuned. This makes straightforward the encoding of information into precipitation patterns and, as an amusing example, we demonstrate the feasibility by showing how to encode a musical rhythm.

  19. Vector Encoding in Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potter, Garrett; Sun, Bo

    Encoding of environmental cues via biochemical signaling pathways is of vital importance in the transmission of information for cells in a network. The current literature assumes a single cell state is used to encode information, however, recent research suggests the optimal strategy utilizes a vector of cell states sampled at various time points. To elucidate the optimal sampling strategy for vector encoding, we take an information theoretic approach and determine the mutual information of the calcium signaling dynamics obtained from fibroblast cells perturbed with different concentrations of ATP. Specifically, we analyze the sampling strategies under the cases of fixed and non-fixed vector dimension as well as the efficiency of these strategies. Our results show that sampling with greater frequency is optimal in the case of non-fixed vector dimension but that, in general, a lower sampling frequency is best from both a fixed vector dimension and efficiency standpoint. Further, we find the use of a simple modified Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process as a model qualitatively captures many of our experimental results suggesting that sampling in biochemical networks is based on a few basic components.

  20. Identifying metabolic enzymes with multiple types of association evidence.

    PubMed

    Kharchenko, Peter; Chen, Lifeng; Freund, Yoav; Vitkup, Dennis; Church, George M

    2006-03-29

    Existing large-scale metabolic models of sequenced organisms commonly include enzymatic functions which can not be attributed to any gene in that organism. Existing computational strategies for identifying such missing genes rely primarily on sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes. We present a novel method for identifying genes encoding for a specific metabolic function based on a local structure of metabolic network and multiple types of functional association evidence, including clustering of genes on the chromosome, similarity of phylogenetic profiles, gene expression, protein fusion events and others. Using E. coli and S. cerevisiae metabolic networks, we illustrate predictive ability of each individual type of association evidence and show that significantly better predictions can be obtained based on the combination of all data. In this way our method is able to predict 60% of enzyme-encoding genes of E. coli metabolism within the top 10 (out of 3551) candidates for their enzymatic function, and as a top candidate within 43% of the cases. We illustrate that a combination of genome context and other functional association evidence is effective in predicting genes encoding metabolic enzymes. Our approach does not rely on direct sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes, and can be used in conjunction with traditional homology-based metabolic reconstruction methods. The method can also be used to target orphan metabolic activities.

  1. Molecular evolution of nitrogen assimilatory enzymes in marine prasinophytes.

    PubMed

    Ghoshroy, Sohini; Robertson, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    Nitrogen assimilation is a highly regulated process requiring metabolic coordination of enzymes and pathways in the cytosol, chloroplast, and mitochondria. Previous studies of prasinophyte genomes revealed that genes encoding nitrate and ammonium transporters have a complex evolutionary history involving both vertical and horizontal transmission. Here we examine the evolutionary history of well-conserved nitrogen-assimilating enzymes to determine if a similar complex history is observed. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that genes encoding glutamine synthetase (GS) III in the prasinophytes evolved by horizontal gene transfer from a member of the heterokonts. In contrast, genes encoding GSIIE, a canonical vascular plant and green algal enzyme, were found in the Micromonas genomes but have been lost from Ostreococcus. Phylogenetic analyses placed the Micromonas GSIIs in a larger chlorophyte/vascular plant clade; a similar topology was observed for ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductase (Fd-NiR), indicating the genes encoding GSII and Fd-NiR in these prasinophytes evolved via vertical transmission. Our results show that genes encoding the nitrogen-assimilating enzymes in Micromonas and Ostreococcus have been differentially lost and as well as recruited from different evolutionary lineages, suggesting that the regulation of nitrogen assimilation in prasinophytes will differ from other green algae.

  2. Identifying metabolic enzymes with multiple types of association evidence

    PubMed Central

    Kharchenko, Peter; Chen, Lifeng; Freund, Yoav; Vitkup, Dennis; Church, George M

    2006-01-01

    Background Existing large-scale metabolic models of sequenced organisms commonly include enzymatic functions which can not be attributed to any gene in that organism. Existing computational strategies for identifying such missing genes rely primarily on sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes. Results We present a novel method for identifying genes encoding for a specific metabolic function based on a local structure of metabolic network and multiple types of functional association evidence, including clustering of genes on the chromosome, similarity of phylogenetic profiles, gene expression, protein fusion events and others. Using E. coli and S. cerevisiae metabolic networks, we illustrate predictive ability of each individual type of association evidence and show that significantly better predictions can be obtained based on the combination of all data. In this way our method is able to predict 60% of enzyme-encoding genes of E. coli metabolism within the top 10 (out of 3551) candidates for their enzymatic function, and as a top candidate within 43% of the cases. Conclusion We illustrate that a combination of genome context and other functional association evidence is effective in predicting genes encoding metabolic enzymes. Our approach does not rely on direct sequence homology to known enzyme-encoding genes, and can be used in conjunction with traditional homology-based metabolic reconstruction methods. The method can also be used to target orphan metabolic activities. PMID:16571130

  3. Isolation and characterization of cDNAs encoding imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed Central

    Tada, S; Volrath, S; Guyer, D; Scheidegger, A; Ryals, J; Ohta, D; Ward, E

    1994-01-01

    cDNA clones encoding imidazoleglycerolphosphate dehydratase (IGPD; EC 4.2.1.19) from Arabidopsis thaliana were isolated by complementation of a bacterial auxotroph. The predicted primary translation product shared significant identity with the corresponding sequences from bacteria and fungi. As in yeast, the plant enzyme is monofunctional, lacking the histidinol phosphatase activity present in the Escherichia coli protein. IGPD mRNA was present in major organs at all developmental stages assayed. The Arabidopsis genome appears to contain two genes encoding this enzyme, based on DNA gel blot and polymerase chain reaction analysis. PMID:8066131

  4. Developments in Enzyme Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Enzyme technology has a well-established industrial base, with applications that have survived competition. The most prominent applications of enzymes in biotechnology are examined with an explanation of some theoretical background. Topics include extending an enzyme's useful life, partition and diffusion, industrial uses, and therapeutic uses.…

  5. Developments in Enzyme Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaplin, M. F.

    1984-01-01

    Enzyme technology has a well-established industrial base, with applications that have survived competition. The most prominent applications of enzymes in biotechnology are examined with an explanation of some theoretical background. Topics include extending an enzyme's useful life, partition and diffusion, industrial uses, and therapeutic uses.…

  6. Genetic diversity of genes encoding OKP and LEN beta-lactamases produced by clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Nuno; Ferreira, Eugénia; Caniça, Manuela

    2009-03-01

    Of the 308 clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains collected in 21 Portuguese health institutions, 11 encoded for LEN and 9 for OKP enzymes; of these, 15 were new enzymes. Ninety-one percent of LEN and all OKP producer strains were resistant to amoxicillin. We demonstrate that these beta-lactamase were highly diverse.

  7. The average enzyme principle

    PubMed Central

    Reznik, Ed; Chaudhary, Osman; Segrè, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The Michaelis-Menten equation for an irreversible enzymatic reaction depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Even if the enzyme concentration changes in time, this linearity implies that the amount of substrate depleted during a given time interval depends only on the average enzyme concentration. Here, we use a time re-scaling approach to generalize this result to a broad category of multi-reaction systems, whose constituent enzymes have the same dependence on time, e.g. they belong to the same regulon. This “average enzyme principle” provides a natural methodology for jointly studying metabolism and its regulation. PMID:23892076

  8. The udhA Gene of Escherichia coli Encodes a Soluble Pyridine Nucleotide Transhydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Boonstra, Birgitte; French, Christopher E.; Wainwright, Ian; Bruce, Neil C.

    1999-01-01

    The udhA gene of Escherichia coli was cloned and expressed in E. coli and found to encode an enzyme with soluble pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase activity. The N-terminal end of the enzyme contains the fingerprint motif of a dinucleotide binding domain, not present in published E. coli genome sequences due to a sequencing error. E. coli is hereby the first organism reported to possess both a soluble and a membrane-bound pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenase. PMID:9922271

  9. Hall effect encoding of brushless dc motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berard, C. A.; Furia, T. J.; Goldberg, E. A.; Greene, R. C.

    1970-01-01

    Encoding mechanism integral to the motor and using the permanent magnets embedded in the rotor eliminates the need for external devices to encode information relating the position and velocity of the rotating member.

  10. NRZ Data Asymmetry Corrector and Convolutional Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfiffner, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    Circuit compensates for timing, amplitude and symmetry perturbations. Data asymmetry corrector and convolutional encoder regenerate data and clock signals in spite of signal variations such as data or clock asymmetry, phase errors, and amplitude variations, then encode data for transmission.

  11. Novel optical encoder for harsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Bernard; Mueller, Ulrich; Brac-de-la-Perriere, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    We are presenting a new optical encoder architecture for shaft encoding, both in incremental and absolute modes. This encoder is based on a diffractive optics technology platform. We have developed various disk based rotary diffractive encoders previously. This encoder is different in the way it is not a disk composed of successive gratings or computer generated holograms, but rather composed of a single element placed on the shaft. It is thus best suited for hollow shaft or end of shaft applications such as in encoder controlled electrical motors. This new architecture aims at solving some of the problems encountered with previous implementations of diffractive encoders such as disk wobble, disk to shaft centering and also encoding in harsh environments.

  12. Terahertz wavelength encoding compressive imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiong; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz (THz) compressive imaging can obtain two dimensional image with a single or linear detector, which can overcome the bottleneck problem of lacking of THz two dimensional detectors. In this presentation, we propose a method to obtain two dimensional images using a linear detector. A plano-convex cylindrical lens is employed to perform Fourier transform and to encode one dimensional information of an object into wavelengths. After recording, both amplitude and phase information for different frequency at each pixel of the line detector are extracted, two dimensional image of the object can be reconstructed. Numerical simulation demonstrates the validity of the proposed method.

  13. Profiling the orphan enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sorokina, Maria; Stam, Mark; Médigue, Claudine; Lespinet, Olivier; Vallenet, David

    2014-06-06

    The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing generates an incredible amount of sequence and great potential for new enzyme discovery. Despite this huge amount of data and the profusion of bioinformatic methods for function prediction, a large part of known enzyme activities is still lacking an associated protein sequence. These particular activities are called "orphan enzymes". The present review proposes an update of previous surveys on orphan enzymes by mining the current content of public databases. While the percentage of orphan enzyme activities has decreased from 38% to 22% in ten years, there are still more than 1,000 orphans among the 5,000 entries of the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification. Taking into account all the reactions present in metabolic databases, this proportion dramatically increases to reach nearly 50% of orphans and many of them are not associated to a known pathway. We extended our survey to "local orphan enzymes" that are activities which have no representative sequence in a given clade, but have at least one in organisms belonging to other clades. We observe an important bias in Archaea and find that in general more than 30% of the EC activities have incomplete sequence information in at least one superkingdom. To estimate if candidate proteins for local orphans could be retrieved by homology search, we applied a simple strategy based on the PRIAM software and noticed that candidates may be proposed for an important fraction of local orphan enzymes. Finally, by studying relation between protein domains and catalyzed activities, it appears that newly discovered enzymes are mostly associated with already known enzyme domains. Thus, the exploration of the promiscuity and the multifunctional aspect of known enzyme families may solve part of the orphan enzyme issue. We conclude this review with a presentation of recent initiatives in finding proteins for orphan enzymes and in extending the enzyme world by the discovery of new activities.

  14. Schematic driven layout of Reed Solomon encoders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arave, Kari; Canaris, John; Miles, Lowell; Whitaker, Sterling

    1992-01-01

    Two Reed Solomon error correcting encoders are presented. Schematic driven layout tools were used to create the encoder layouts. Special consideration had to be given to the architecture and logic to provide scalability of the encoder designs. Knowledge gained from these projects was used to create a more flexible schematic driven layout system.

  15. Time Course of Grammatical Encoding in Agrammatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2011-01-01

    Producing a sentence involves encoding a preverbal message into a grammatical structure by retrieving lexical items and integrating them into a functional (semantic-to-grammatical) structure. Individuals with agrammatism are impaired in this grammatical encoding process. However, it is unclear what aspect of grammatical encoding is impaired and…

  16. Enzyme kinetics of conjugating enzymes: PAPS sulfotransferase.

    PubMed

    James, Margaret O

    2014-01-01

    The sulfotransferase (SULT) enzymes catalyze the formation of sulfate esters or sulfamates from substrates that contain hydroxy or amine groups, utilizing 3'-phosphoadenosyl-5'-phosphosulfate (PAPS) as the donor of the sulfonic group. The rate of product formation depends on the concentrations of PAPS and substrate as well as the sulfotransferase enzyme; thus, if PAPS is held constant while varying substrate concentration (or vice versa), the kinetic constants derived are apparent constants. When studied over a narrow range of substrate concentrations, classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics can be observed with many SULT enzymes and most substrates. Some SULT enzymes exhibit positive or negative cooperativity during conversion of substrate to product, and the kinetics fit the Hill plot. A characteristic feature of most sulfotransferase-catalyzed reactions is that, when studied over a wide range of substrate concentrations, the rate of product formation initially increases as substrate concentration increases, then decreases at high substrate concentrations, i.e., they exhibit substrate inhibition or partial substrate inhibition. This chapter gives an introduction to sulfotransferases, including a historical note, the nomenclature, a description of the function of SULTs with different types of substrates, presentation of examples of enzyme kinetics with SULTs, and a discussion of what is known about mechanisms of substrate inhibition in the sulfotransferases.

  17. [Neurons that encode sound direction].

    PubMed

    Peña, J L

    In the auditory system, the inner ear breaks down complex signals into their spectral components, and encodes the amplitude and phase of each. In order to infer sound direction in space, a computation on each frequency component of the sound must be performed. Space specific neurons in the owl s inferior colliculus respond only to sounds coming from a particular direction and represent the results of this computation. The interaural time difference (ITD) and interaural level difference (ILD define the auditory space for the owl and are processed in separate neural pathways. The parallel pathways that process these cues merge in the external nucleus of the inferior colliculus where the space specific neurons are selective to combinations of ITD and ILD. How do inputs from the two sources interact to produce combination selectivity to ITD ILD pairs? A multiplication of postsynaptic potentials tuned to ITD and ILD can account for the subthreshold responses of these neurons to ITD ILD pairs. Examples of multiplication by neurons or neural circuits are scarce, but many computational models assume the existence of this basic operation. The owl s auditory system uses such operation to create a 2 dimensional map of auditory space. The map of space in the owl s auditory system shows important similarities with representations of space in the cerebral cortex and other sensory systems. In encoding space or other stimulus features, individual neurons appear to possess analogous functional properties related to the synthesis of high order receptive fields.

  18. Yeast PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase controls the expression of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase for membrane phospholipid synthesis.

    PubMed

    Han, Gil-Soo; Carman, George M

    2017-08-11

    The PAH1-encoded phosphatidate phosphatase (PAP), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of triacylglycerol in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, exerts a negative regulatory effect on the level of phosphatidate used for the de novo synthesis of membrane phospholipids. This raises the question whether PAP thereby affects the expression and activity of enzymes involved in phospholipid synthesis. Here, we examined the PAP-mediated regulation of CHO1-encoded phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS), which catalyzes the committed step for the synthesis of major phospholipids via the CDP-diacylglycerol pathway. The lack of PAP in the pah1Δ mutant highly elevated PSS activity, exhibiting a growth-dependent up-regulation from the exponential to the stationary phase of growth. Immunoblot analysis showed that the elevation of PSS activity results from an increase in the level of the enzyme encoded by CHO1 Truncation analysis and site-directed mutagenesis of the CHO1 promoter indicated that Cho1 expression in the pah1Δ mutant is induced through the inositol-sensitive upstream activation sequence (UASINO), a cis-acting element for the phosphatidate-controlled Henry (Ino2-Ino4/Opi1) regulatory circuit. The abrogation of Cho1 induction and PSS activity by a CHO1 UASINO mutation suppressed pah1Δ effects on lipid synthesis, nuclear/endoplasmic reticulum membrane morphology, and lipid droplet formation, but not on growth at elevated temperature. Loss of the DGK1-encoded diacylglycerol kinase, which converts diacylglycerol to phosphatidate, partially suppressed the pah1Δ-mediated induction of Cho1 and PSS activity. Collectively, these data showed that PAP activity controls the expression of PSS for membrane phospholipid synthesis. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Evolutionary dynamics of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Demetrius, L

    1995-08-01

    This paper codifies and rationalizes the large diversity in reaction rates and substrate specificity of enzymes in terms of a model which postulates that the kinetic properties of present-day enzymes are the consequence of the evolutionary force of mutation and selection acting on a class of primordial enzymes with poor catalytic activity and broad substrate specificity. Enzymes are classified in terms of their thermodynamic parameters, activation enthalpy delta H* and activation entropy delta S*, in their kinetically significant transition states as follows: type 1, delta H* > 0, delta S* < 0; type 2, delta H* < or = 0, delta S* < or = 0; type 3, delta H* > 0, delta S* > 0. We study the evolutionary dynamics of these three classes of enzymes subject to mutation, which acts at the level of the gene which codes for the enzyme and selection, which acts on the organism that contains the enzyme. Our model predicts the following evolutionary trends in the reaction rate and binding specificity for the three classes of molecules. In type 1 enzymes, evolution results in random, non-directional changes in the reaction rate and binding specificity. In type 2 and 3 enzymes, evolution results in a unidirectional increase in both the reaction rate and binding specificity. We exploit these results in order to codify the diversity in functional properties of present-day enzymes. Type 1 molecules will be described by intermediate reaction rates and broad substrate specificity. Type 2 enzymes will be characterized by diffusion-controlled rates and absolute substrate specificity. The type 3 catalysts can be further subdivided in terms of their activation enthalpy into two classes: type 3a (delta H* small) and type 3b (delta H* large). We show that type 3a will be represented by the same functional properties that identify type 2, namely, diffusion-controlled rates and absolute substrate specificity, whereas type 3b will be characterized by non-diffusion-controlled rates and absolute

  20. Catalyzed enzyme electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Zawodzinski, Thomas A.; Wilson, Mahlon S.; Rishpon, Judith; Gottesfeld, Shimshon

    1993-01-01

    An enzyme electrode is prepared with a composite coating on an electrical conductor. The composite coating is formed from a casting solution of a perfluorosulfonic acid polymer, an enzyme, and a carbon supported catalyst. The solution may be cast directly on the conductor surface or may be formed as a membrane and applied to the surface. The perfluorosulfonic acid ionomer formed from the casting solution provides an insoluble biocompatible protective matrix for the enzyme and acts to retain the enzyme for long term availability in the electrode structure. The carbon supported catalyst provides catalytic sites throughout the layer for the oxidation of hydrogen peroxide from the enzyme reactions. The carbon support then provides a conductive path for establishing an electrical signal to the electrical conductor. In one embodiment, the electrical conductor is a carbon cloth that permits oxygen or other gas to be introduced to the perfluorosulfonic polymer to promote the enzyme reaction independent of oxygen in the solution being tested.

  1. Rational enzyme redesign

    SciTech Connect

    Ornstein, R.L.

    1994-05-01

    Protein engineering is first a means of elucidating structure-function relations in an enzyme, and second, a means of changing a protein to make it serve a different, but generally related, purpose. In principle, one may change the functional characteristics of an enzyme by altering its substrate specificity, kinetics, optimum range of activity, and chemical mechanism. Obviously one cannot make all possible combinations of amino acid changes for even the smallest enzyme, so the essential question is which changes to make. The intent of rational protein/enzyme redesign is to alter a protein/enzyme in a timely and premeditated fashion. This article provides an outline of the process of rational enzyme redesign.

  2. Magnetically responsive enzyme powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pospiskova, Kristyna; Safarik, Ivo

    2015-04-01

    Powdered enzymes were transformed into their insoluble magnetic derivatives retaining their catalytic activity. Enzyme powders (e.g., trypsin and lipase) were suspended in various liquid media not allowing their solubilization (e.g., saturated ammonium sulfate and highly concentrated polyethylene glycol solutions, ethanol, methanol, 2-propanol) and subsequently cross-linked with glutaraldehyde. Magnetic modification was successfully performed at low temperature in a freezer (-20 °C) using magnetic iron oxides nano- and microparticles prepared by microwave-assisted synthesis from ferrous sulfate. Magnetized cross-linked enzyme powders were stable at least for two months in water suspension without leakage of fixed magnetic particles. Operational stability of magnetically responsive enzymes during eight repeated reaction cycles was generally without loss of enzyme activity. Separation of magnetically modified cross-linked powdered enzymes from reaction mixtures was significantly simplified due to their magnetic properties.

  3. Plastid-localized amino acid biosynthetic pathways of Plantae are predominantly composed of non-cyanobacterial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Reyes-Prieto, Adrian; Moustafa, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Studies of photosynthetic eukaryotes have revealed that the evolution of plastids from cyanobacteria involved the recruitment of non-cyanobacterial proteins. Our phylogenetic survey of >100 Arabidopsis nuclear-encoded plastid enzymes involved in amino acid biosynthesis identified only 21 unambiguous cyanobacterial-derived proteins. Some of the several non-cyanobacterial plastid enzymes have a shared phylogenetic origin in the three Plantae lineages. We hypothesize that during the evolution of plastids some enzymes encoded in the host nuclear genome were mistargeted into the plastid. Then, the activity of those foreign enzymes was sustained by both the plastid metabolites and interactions with the native cyanobacterial enzymes. Some of the novel enzymatic activities were favored by selective compartmentation of additional complementary enzymes. The mosaic phylogenetic composition of the plastid amino acid biosynthetic pathways and the reduced number of plastid-encoded proteins of non-cyanobacterial origin suggest that enzyme recruitment underlies the recompartmentation of metabolic routes during the evolution of plastids. PMID:23233874

  4. Enzymes for improved biomass conversion

    DOEpatents

    Brunecky, Roman; Himmel, Michael E.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein are enzymes and combinations of the enzymes useful for the hydrolysis of cellulose and the conversion of biomass. Methods of degrading cellulose and biomass using enzymes and cocktails of enzymes are also disclosed.

  5. Profiling the orphan enzymes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The emergence of Next Generation Sequencing generates an incredible amount of sequence and great potential for new enzyme discovery. Despite this huge amount of data and the profusion of bioinformatic methods for function prediction, a large part of known enzyme activities is still lacking an associated protein sequence. These particular activities are called “orphan enzymes”. The present review proposes an update of previous surveys on orphan enzymes by mining the current content of public databases. While the percentage of orphan enzyme activities has decreased from 38% to 22% in ten years, there are still more than 1,000 orphans among the 5,000 entries of the Enzyme Commission (EC) classification. Taking into account all the reactions present in metabolic databases, this proportion dramatically increases to reach nearly 50% of orphans and many of them are not associated to a known pathway. We extended our survey to “local orphan enzymes” that are activities which have no representative sequence in a given clade, but have at least one in organisms belonging to other clades. We observe an important bias in Archaea and find that in general more than 30% of the EC activities have incomplete sequence information in at least one superkingdom. To estimate if candidate proteins for local orphans could be retrieved by homology search, we applied a simple strategy based on the PRIAM software and noticed that candidates may be proposed for an important fraction of local orphan enzymes. Finally, by studying relation between protein domains and catalyzed activities, it appears that newly discovered enzymes are mostly associated with already known enzyme domains. Thus, the exploration of the promiscuity and the multifunctional aspect of known enzyme families may solve part of the orphan enzyme issue. We conclude this review with a presentation of recent initiatives in finding proteins for orphan enzymes and in extending the enzyme world by the discovery of new

  6. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance.

    PubMed

    Wiltzius, Jed J W; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R; Apostol, Marcin I; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2009-09-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of beta-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct beta-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  7. Molecular mechanisms for protein-encoded inheritance

    SciTech Connect

    Wiltzius, Jed J.W.; Landau, Meytal; Nelson, Rebecca; Sawaya, Michael R.; Apostol, Marcin I.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Soriaga, Angela B.; Cascio, Duilio; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta; Eisenberg, David

    2009-12-01

    In prion inheritance and transmission, strains are phenotypic variants encoded by protein 'conformations'. However, it is unclear how a protein conformation can be stable enough to endure transmission between cells or organisms. Here we describe new polymorphic crystal structures of segments of prion and other amyloid proteins, which offer two structural mechanisms for the encoding of prion strains. In packing polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by alternative packing arrangements (polymorphs) of {beta}-sheets formed by the same segment of a protein; in segmental polymorphism, prion strains are encoded by distinct {beta}-sheets built from different segments of a protein. Both forms of polymorphism can produce enduring conformations capable of encoding strains. These molecular mechanisms for transfer of protein-encoded information into prion strains share features with the familiar mechanism for transfer of nucleic acid-encoded information into microbial strains, including sequence specificity and recognition by noncovalent bonds.

  8. Enzymes on material surfaces.

    PubMed

    Talbert, Joey N; Goddard, Julie M

    2012-05-01

    Enzyme interactions with material surfaces are of interest for industrial food and pharmaceutical transformations, biosensors, artificial cells, cell free reactions, drug and nutrition delivery technologies, and imaging. When in contact with a material surface, an enzyme may lose or appear to lose activity due to the nature of the enzyme, the nature of the material, and/or the nature of the interface between the enzyme, material, and substrate environment. The purpose of this review is to survey recent advances that have been made towards the preservation, optimization, and enhancement of enzyme activity on material surfaces within the context of well-known concepts that describe the loss of activity after immobilization. This review breaks down the immobilized enzyme system to look at the individual components of the system-namely the enzyme, the material, and the interface. For each piece, possible causes for the loss of enzyme activity are described as well as strategies that have been applied to limit the affect. At the conclusion we identify areas of future research needed to overcome limitations in the current state-of-the art for immobilized enzyme systems.

  9. Food and feed enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fraatz, Marco Alexander; Rühl, Martin; Zorn, Holger

    2014-01-01

    Humans have benefited from the unique catalytic properties of enzymes, in particular for food production, for thousands of years. Prominent examples include the production of fermented alcoholic beverages, such as beer and wine, as well as bakery and dairy products. The chapter reviews the historic background of the development of modern enzyme technology and provides an overview of the industrial food and feed enzymes currently available on the world market. The chapter highlights enzyme applications for the improvement of resource efficiency, the biopreservation of food, and the treatment of food intolerances. Further topics address the improvement of food safety and food quality.

  10. Enzymes are enriched in bacterial essential genes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2011-01-01

    Essential genes, those indispensable for the survival of an organism, play a key role in the emerging field, synthetic biology. Characterization of functions encoded by essential genes not only has important practical implications, such as in identifying antibiotic drug targets, but can also enhance our understanding of basic biology, such as functions needed to support cellular life. Enzymes are critical for almost all cellular activities. However, essential genes have not been systematically examined from the aspect of enzymes and the chemical reactions that they catalyze. Here, by comprehensively analyzing essential genes in 14 bacterial genomes in which large-scale gene essentiality screens have been performed, we found that enzymes are enriched in essential genes. Essential enzymes have overrepresented ligases (especially those forming carbon-oxygen bonds and carbon-nitrogen bonds), nucleotidyltransferases and phosphotransferases, while have underrepresented oxidoreductases. Furthermore, essential enzymes tend to associate with more gene ontology domains. These results, from the aspect of chemical reactions, provide further insights into the understanding of functions needed to support natural cellular life, as well as synthetic cells, and provide additional parameters that can be integrated into gene essentiality prediction algorithms.

  11. Photolithographic Encoding of Metal Complexes.

    PubMed

    Lang, Christiane; Bestgen, Sebastian; Welle, Alexander; Müller, Rouven; Roesky, Peter W; Barner-Kowollik, Christopher

    2015-10-12

    A platform technology for the creation of spatially resolved surfaces encoded with a monolayer consisting of different metal complexes was developed. The concept entails the light-triggered activation of a self- assembled monolayer (SAM) of UV-labile anchors, that is, phenacylsulfides, and the subsequent cycloaddition of selected diene-functionalized metal complexes at defined areas on the surface. The synthesis and characterization of the metal complexes for the UV-light assisted anchoring on the surface and a detailed study of a short-chain oligomer model system in solution confirm the high efficiency of the photoreaction. The hybrid materials obtained by this concept can potentially be utilized for the design of highly valuable catalytic or (opto-)electronic devices. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Engineering Genetically Encoded FRET Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Lindenburg, Laurens; Merkx, Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) between two fluorescent proteins can be exploited to create fully genetically encoded and thus subcellularly targetable sensors. FRET sensors report changes in energy transfer between a donor and an acceptor fluorescent protein that occur when an attached sensor domain undergoes a change in conformation in response to ligand binding. The design of sensitive FRET sensors remains challenging as there are few generally applicable design rules and each sensor must be optimized anew. In this review we discuss various strategies that address this shortcoming, including rational design approaches that exploit self-associating fluorescent domains and the directed evolution of FRET sensors using high-throughput screening. PMID:24991940

  13. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    PubMed

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Ornithine decarboxylase encoded by chlorella virus PBCV-1.

    PubMed

    Morehead, Tiara A; Gurnon, James R; Adams, Byron; Nickerson, Kenneth W; Fitzgerald, Lisa A; Van Etten, James L

    2002-09-15

    Sequence analysis of the 330-kb genome of chlorella virus PBCV-1 revealed an open reading frame, A207R, which encodes a protein with 37-41% amino acid identity to ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) from many eukaryotic organisms. The a207r gene was cloned and the protein was expressed as a His-A207R fusion protein in Escherichia coli. The recombinant protein catalyzes pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent decarboxylation of ornithine to putrescine, the first step in the polyamine biosynthetic pathway. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 9.0 and a temperature optimum of 42 degrees C, and it requires dithiothreitol for maximal activity. The enzyme has a K(m) for ornithine of 0.78 mM and a specific activity of 100 micromol/min/mg protein. PBCV-1 ODC is quite sensitive to the competitive inhibitor L-arginine and the irreversible inhibitor difluoromethylarginine but it is less sensitive to the irreversible inhibitor difluoromethylornithine. The a207r gene is expressed both early and late in PBCV-1 infection and is highly conserved among the chlorella viruses. The 42-kDa PBCV-1 ODC (372 amino acids) is the smallest ODC in the databases and, to our knowledge, is the first virus-encoded ODC.

  15. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata

    PubMed Central

    Podduturi, Nikhil R.; Glick, David I.; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K.; Malladi, Venkat S.; Chan, Esther T.; Davidson, Jean M.; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K.; Onate, Kathrina C.; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C.; Lee, Brian T.; Miyasato, Stuart R.; Dreszer, Timothy R.; Sloan, Cricket A.; Strattan, J. Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y.; Hong, Eurie L.; Cherry, J. Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package. PMID:28403240

  16. SnoVault and encodeD: A novel object-based storage system and applications to ENCODE metadata.

    PubMed

    Hitz, Benjamin C; Rowe, Laurence D; Podduturi, Nikhil R; Glick, David I; Baymuradov, Ulugbek K; Malladi, Venkat S; Chan, Esther T; Davidson, Jean M; Gabdank, Idan; Narayana, Aditi K; Onate, Kathrina C; Hilton, Jason; Ho, Marcus C; Lee, Brian T; Miyasato, Stuart R; Dreszer, Timothy R; Sloan, Cricket A; Strattan, J Seth; Tanaka, Forrest Y; Hong, Eurie L; Cherry, J Michael

    2017-01-01

    The Encyclopedia of DNA elements (ENCODE) project is an ongoing collaborative effort to create a comprehensive catalog of functional elements initiated shortly after the completion of the Human Genome Project. The current database exceeds 6500 experiments across more than 450 cell lines and tissues using a wide array of experimental techniques to study the chromatin structure, regulatory and transcriptional landscape of the H. sapiens and M. musculus genomes. All ENCODE experimental data, metadata, and associated computational analyses are submitted to the ENCODE Data Coordination Center (DCC) for validation, tracking, storage, unified processing, and distribution to community resources and the scientific community. As the volume of data increases, the identification and organization of experimental details becomes increasingly intricate and demands careful curation. The ENCODE DCC has created a general purpose software system, known as SnoVault, that supports metadata and file submission, a database used for metadata storage, web pages for displaying the metadata and a robust API for querying the metadata. The software is fully open-source, code and installation instructions can be found at: http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/snovault/ (for the generic database) and http://github.com/ENCODE-DCC/encoded/ to store genomic data in the manner of ENCODE. The core database engine, SnoVault (which is completely independent of ENCODE, genomic data, or bioinformatic data) has been released as a separate Python package.

  17. Industrial Enzymes and Biocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuliffe, Joseph C.; Aehle, Wolfgang; Whited, Gregory M.; Ward, Donald E.

    All life processes are the result of enzyme activity. In fact, life itself, whether plant or animal, involves a complex network of enzymatic reactions. An enzyme is a protein that is synthesized in a living cell. It catalyzes a thermodynamically possible reaction so that the rate of the reaction is compatible with the numerous biochemical processes essential for the growth and maintenance of a cell. The synthesis of an enzyme thus is under tight metabolic regulations and controls that can be genetically or environmentally manipulated sometimes to cause the overproduction of an enzyme by the cell. An enzyme, like chemical catalysts, in no way modifies the equilibrium constant or the free energy change of a reaction.

  18. Carbohydrate-related enzymes of important Phytophthora plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Henk; Coutinho, Pedro M; Henrissat, Bernard; de Vries, Ronald P

    2014-11-01

    Carbohydrate-Active enZymes (CAZymes) form particularly interesting targets to study in plant pathogens. Despite the fact that many CAZymes are pathogenicity factors, oomycete CAZymes have received significantly less attention than effectors in the literature. Here we present an analysis of the CAZymes present in the Phytophthora infestans, Ph. ramorum, Ph. sojae and Pythium ultimum genomes compared to growth of these species on a range of different carbon sources. Growth on these carbon sources indicates that the size of enzyme families involved in degradation of cell-wall related substrates like cellulose, xylan and pectin is not always a good predictor of growth on these substrates. While a capacity to degrade xylan and cellulose exists the products are not fully saccharified and used as a carbon source. The Phytophthora genomes encode larger CAZyme sets when compared to Py. ultimum, and encode putative cutinases, GH12 xyloglucanases and GH10 xylanases that are missing in the Py. ultimum genome. Phytophthora spp. also encode a larger number of enzyme families and genes involved in pectin degradation. No loss or gain of complete enzyme families was found between the Phytophthora genomes, but there are some marked differences in the size of some enzyme families.

  19. Bioinformatics analysis and detection of gelatinase encoded gene in Lysinibacillussphaericus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repin, Rul Aisyah Mat; Mutalib, Sahilah Abdul; Shahimi, Safiyyah; Khalid, Rozida Mohd.; Ayob, Mohd. Khan; Bakar, Mohd. Faizal Abu; Isa, Mohd Noor Mat

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis toward genome sequence of Lysinibacillussphaericus (L. sphaericus) to determine gene encoded for gelatinase. L. sphaericus was isolated from soil and gelatinase species-specific bacterium to porcine and bovine gelatin. This bacterium offers the possibility of enzymes production which is specific to both species of meat, respectively. The main focus of this research is to identify the gelatinase encoded gene within the bacteria of L. Sphaericus using bioinformatics analysis of partially sequence genome. From the research study, three candidate gene were identified which was, gelatinase candidate gene 1 (P1), NODE_71_length_93919_cov_158.931839_21 which containing 1563 base pair (bp) in size with 520 amino acids sequence; Secondly, gelatinase candidate gene 2 (P2), NODE_23_length_52851_cov_190.061386_17 which containing 1776 bp in size with 591 amino acids sequence; and Thirdly, gelatinase candidate gene 3 (P3), NODE_106_length_32943_cov_169.147919_8 containing 1701 bp in size with 566 amino acids sequence. Three pairs of oligonucleotide primers were designed and namely as, F1, R1, F2, R2, F3 and R3 were targeted short sequences of cDNA by PCR. The amplicons were reliably results in 1563 bp in size for candidate gene P1 and 1701 bp in size for candidate gene P3. Therefore, the results of bioinformatics analysis of L. Sphaericus resulting in gene encoded gelatinase were identified.

  20. The Schizosaccharomyces pombe cho1+ gene encodes a phospholipid methyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Kanipes, M I; Hill, J E; Henry, S A

    1998-01-01

    The isolation of mutants of Schizosaccharomyces pombe defective in the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine via the methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine is reported. These mutants are choline auxotrophs and fall into two unlinked complementation groups, cho1 and cho2. We also report the analysis of the cho1+ gene, the first structural gene encoding a phospholipid biosynthetic enzyme from S. pombe to be cloned and characterized. The cho1+ gene disruption mutant (cho1Delta) is viable if choline is supplied and resembles the cho1 mutants isolated after mutagenesis. Sequence analysis of the cho1+ gene indicates that it encodes a protein closely related to phospholipid methyltransferases from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and rat. Phospholipid methyltransferases encoded by a rat liver cDNA and the S. cerevisiae OPI3 gene are both able to complement the choline auxotrophy of the S. pombe cho1 mutants. These results suggest that both the structure and function of the phospholipid N-methyltransferases are broadly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. PMID:9755189

  1. Recent developments of genetically encoded optical sensors for cell biology.

    PubMed

    Bolbat, Andrey; Schultz, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Optical sensors are powerful tools for live cell research as they permit to follow the location, concentration changes or activities of key cellular players such as lipids, ions and enzymes. Most of the current sensor probes are based on fluorescence which provides great spatial and temporal precision provided that high-end microscopy is used and that the timescale of the event of interest fits the response time of the sensor. Many of the sensors developed in the past 20 years are genetically encoded. There is a diversity of designs leading to simple or sometimes complicated applications for the use in live cells. Genetically encoded sensors began to emerge after the discovery of fluorescent proteins, engineering of their improved optical properties and the manipulation of their structure through application of circular permutation. In this review, we will describe a variety of genetically encoded biosensor concepts, including those for intensiometric and ratiometric sensors based on single fluorescent proteins, Forster resonance energy transfer-based sensors, sensors utilising bioluminescence, sensors using self-labelling SNAP- and CLIP-tags, and finally tetracysteine-based sensors. We focus on the newer developments and discuss the current approaches and techniques for design and application. This will demonstrate the power of using optical sensors in cell biology and will help opening the field to more systematic applications in the future. © 2016 Société Française des Microscopies and Société de Biologie Cellulaire de France. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Gene encoding plant asparagine synthetase

    DOEpatents

    Coruzzi, Gloria M.; Tsai, Fong-Ying

    1993-10-26

    The identification and cloning of the gene(s) for plant asparagine synthetase (AS), an important enzyme involved in the formation of asparagine, a major nitrogen transport compound of higher plants is described. Expression vectors constructed with the AS coding sequence may be utilized to produce plant AS; to engineer herbicide resistant plants, salt/drought tolerant plants or pathogen resistant plants; as a dominant selectable marker; or to select for novel herbicides or compounds useful as agents that synchronize plant cells in culture. The promoter for plant AS, which directs high levels of gene expression and is induced in an organ specific manner and by darkness, is also described. The AS promoter may be used to direct the expression of heterologous coding sequences in appropriate hosts.

  3. Cotton cellulose: enzyme adsorption and enzymic hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Beltrame, P.L.; Carniti, P.; Focher, B.; Marzetti, A.; Cattaneo, M.

    1982-01-01

    The adsorption of a crude cellulase complex from Trichoderma viride on variously pretreated cotton cellulose samples was studied in the framework of the Langmuir approach at 2-8 degrees. The saturation amount of adsorbed enzyme was related to the susceptibility of the substrates to hydrolysis. In every case the adsorption process was faster by 2-3 orders of magnitude than the hydrolysis step to give end products. For ZnCl/sub 2/-treated cotton cellulose the Langmuir parameters correlated fairly well with the value of the Michaelis constant, measured for its enzymic hydrolysis, and the adsorptive complex was indistinguishable from the complex of the Michaelis-Menten model for the hydrolysis.

  4. Evaluation of GOES encoder lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viehmann, W.; Helmold, N.

    1983-01-01

    Aging characteristics and life expectancies of flight quality, tungsten filament, encoder lamps are similar to those of 'commercial' grade gas filled lamps of similar construction, filament material and filament temperature. The aging and final failure by filament burnout are caused by single crystal growth over large portions of the filament with the concomitant development of facets and notches resulting in reduction of cross section and mechanical weakening of the filament. The life expectancy of presently produced lamps is about one year at their nominal operating voltage of five volts dc. At 4.5 volts, it is about two years. These life times are considerably shorter, and the degradation rates of lamp current and light flux are considerably higher, than were observed in the laboratory and in orbit on lamps of the same type manufactured more than a decade ago. It is speculated that the filaments of these earlier lamps contained a crystallization retarding dopant, possibly thorium oxide. To obtain the desired life expectancy of or = to four years in present lamps, operating voltages of or = to four volts dc would be required.

  5. Multidimensional encoding of brain connectomes.

    PubMed

    Caiafa, Cesar F; Pestilli, Franco

    2017-09-13

    The ability to map brain networks in living individuals is fundamental in efforts to chart the relation between human behavior, health and disease. Advances in network neuroscience may benefit from developing new frameworks for mapping brain connectomes. We present a framework to encode structural brain connectomes and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (dMRI) data using multidimensional arrays. The framework integrates the relation between connectome nodes, edges, white matter fascicles and diffusion data. We demonstrate the utility of the framework for in vivo white matter mapping and anatomical computing by evaluating 1,490 connectomes, thirteen tractography methods, and three data sets. The framework dramatically reduces storage requirements for connectome evaluation methods, with up to 40x compression factors. Evaluation of multiple, diverse datasets demonstrates the importance of spatial resolution in dMRI. We measured large increases in connectome resolution as function of data spatial resolution (up to 52%). Moreover, we demonstrate that the framework allows performing anatomical manipulations on white matter tracts for statistical inference and to study the white matter geometrical organization. Finally, we provide open-source software implementing the method and data to reproduce the results.

  6. Novelty's effect on memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Gomez, Mauricio; Janenaite, Sigita; Meeter, Martijn

    2015-07-01

    It is often thought that novelty benefits memory formation. However, support for this idea mostly comes from paradigms that are open to alternative explanations. In the present study we manipulated novelty in a word-learning task through task-irrelevant background images. These background images were either standard (presented repeatedly), or novel (presented only once). Two types of background images were used: Landscape pictures and fractals. EEG was also recorded during encoding. Contrary to the idea that novelty aids memory formation, memory performance was not affected by the novelty of the background. In the evoked response potentials, we found evidence of distracting effects of novelty: both the N1 and P3b components were smaller to words studied with novel backgrounds, and the amplitude of the N2b component correlated negatively with subsequent retrieval. We conclude that although evidence from other studies does suggest benefits on a longer time scale, novelty has no instantaneous benefits for learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Image encoding with triangulation wavelets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, D. J.; Kim, HyungJun

    1995-09-01

    We demonstrate some wavelet-based image processing applications of a class of simplicial grids arising in finite element computations and computer graphics. The cells of a triangular grid form the set of leaves of a binary tree and the nodes of a directed graph consisting of a single cycle. The leaf cycle of a uniform grid forms a pattern for pixel image scanning and for coherent computation of coefficients of splines and wavelets. A simple form of image encoding is accomplished with a 1D quadrature mirror filter whose coefficients represent an expansion of the image in terms of 2D Haar wavelets with triangular support. A combination the leaf cycle and an inherent quadtree structure allow efficient neighbor finding, grid refinement, tree pruning and storage. Pruning of the simplex tree yields a partially compressed image which requires no decoding, but rather may be rendered as a shaded triangulation. This structure and its generalization to n-dimensions form a convenient setting for wavelet analysis and computations based on simplicial grids.

  8. Isolation of alpha-glucuronidase enzyme from a rumen metagenomic library

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alpha-Glucuronidase enzymes play an essential role in the full enzymatic hydrolysis of hemicellulose. Up to this point, all genes encoding alpha-glucuronidase enzymes have been cloned from individual, pure culture strains. Using a high-throughput screening strategy, we have isolated the first Alpha-...

  9. Biochemical evidence that secretor gene, Se, is a structural gene encoding a specific fucosyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Kumazaki, T; Yoshida, A

    1984-01-01

    Nonsecretors have no ABH blood group substances in their saliva and milk, but their erythrocytes contain the blood group substances. It has been generally believed that the secretor gene, Se, is a regulatory gene, not a structural gene, controlling the expression of (alpha 1----2)fucosyltransferase, which synthesizes the blood group H substance from its precursor, in secretions. To account for the existence of the blood type of "para Bombay" phenotype--i.e., H-negative in erythrocytes but H-positive in secretory fluids, another regulatory gene, Z, which would regulate the expression of the enzyme in the hematopoietic tissues, has been proposed. Contrary to this, a more simple model, in which the H gene and Se gene are both structural genes, encoding two separate fucosyltransferases in different tissues, was recently proposed. To settle the controversy, (alpha 1----2)fucosyltransferases were partially purified from human plasma and milk. The two enzymes differed from each other in the following respects: (i) the milk enzyme adsorbed to SP-Sephadex at pH 6.0, while the plasma enzyme did not; (ii) pH-activity profiles, with phenyl beta-D-galactoside as an acceptor, differed between the two enzymes; (iii) the milk enzyme exhibited lower thermal stability than the plasma enzyme; and (iv) Km values for several oligosaccharides with Gal(beta 1----3)GlcNAc and Gal(beta 1----4)GlcNAc as acceptors differed between the two enzymes. These results support the model that the Se gene is a structural gene encoding a distinctive (alpha 1----2)fucosyltransferase, refuting the classical regulatory gene model for the Se locus. The anomeric configuration of the fucosylated galactose residue produced by the action of enzyme was identified, thus establishing the specificity of the enzyme. Images PMID:6588382

  10. Characterization of the Yeast DGK1-encoded CTP-dependent Diacylglycerol Kinase*♦

    PubMed Central

    Han, Gil-Soo; O'Hara, Laura; Siniossoglou, Symeon; Carman, George M.

    2008-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae DGK1 gene encodes a diacylglycerol kinase enzyme that catalyzes the formation of phosphatidate from diacylglycerol. Unlike the diacylglycerol kinases from bacteria, plants, and animals, the yeast enzyme utilizes CTP, instead of ATP, as the phosphate donor in the reaction. Dgk1p contains a CTP transferase domain that is present in the SEC59-encoded dolichol kinase and CDS1-encoded CDP-diacylglycerol synthase enzymes. Deletion analysis showed that the CTP transferase domain was sufficient for diacylglycerol kinase activity. Point mutations (R76A, K77A, D177A, and G184A) of conserved residues within the CTP transferase domain caused a loss of diacylglycerol kinase activity. Analysis of DGK1 alleles showed that the in vivo functions of Dgk1p were specifically due to its diacylglycerol kinase activity. The DGK1-encoded enzyme had a pH optimum at 7.0-7.5, required Ca2+ or Mg2+ ions for activity, was potently inhibited by N-ethylmaleimide, and was labile at temperatures above 40 °C. The enzyme exhibited positive cooperative (Hill number = 2.5) kinetics with respect to diacylglycerol (apparent Km = 6.5 mol %) and saturation kinetics with respect to CTP (apparent Km = 0.3 mm). dCTP was both a substrate (apparent Km = 0.4 mm) and competitive inhibitor (apparent Ki = 0.4 mm) of the enzyme. Diacylglycerol kinase activity was stimulated by major membrane phospholipids and was inhibited by CDP-diacylglycerol and sphingoid bases. PMID:18458076

  11. Chemotactic separation of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Dey, Krishna Kanti; Das, Sambeeta; Poyton, Matthew F; Sengupta, Samudra; Butler, Peter J; Cremer, Paul S; Sen, Ayusman

    2014-12-23

    We demonstrate a procedure for the separation of enzymes based on their chemotactic response toward an imposed substrate concentration gradient. The separation is observed within a two-inlet, five-outlet microfluidic network, designed to allow mixtures of active (ones that catalyze substrate turnover) and inactive (ones that do not catalyze substrate turnover) enzymes, labeled with different fluorophores, to flow through one of the inlets. Substrate solution prepared in phosphate buffer was introduced through the other inlet of the device at the same flow rate. The steady-state concentration profiles of the enzymes were obtained at specific positions within the outlets of the microchannel using fluorescence microscopy. In the presence of a substrate concentration gradient, active enzyme molecules migrated preferentially toward the substrate channel. The excess migration of the active enzyme molecules was quantified in terms of an enrichment coefficient. Experiments were carried out with different pairs of enzymes. Coupling the physics of laminar flow of liquid and molecular diffusion, multiphysics simulations were carried out to estimate the extent of the chemotactic separation. Our results show that, with appropriate microfluidic arrangement, molecular chemotaxis leads to spontaneous separation of active enzyme molecules from their inactive counterparts of similar charge and size.

  12. Unconscious relational encoding depends on hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Duss, Simone B; Reber, Thomas P; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens; Henke, Katharina

    2014-12-01

    Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age=45.55 years, standard deviation=8.74, range=23-60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. © The Author (2014). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  13. Unconscious relational encoding depends on hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Duss, Simone B.; Reber, Thomas P.; Hänggi, Jürgen; Schwab, Simon; Wiest, Roland; Müri, René M.; Brugger, Peter; Gutbrod, Klemens

    2014-01-01

    Textbooks divide between human memory systems based on consciousness. Hippocampus is thought to support only conscious encoding, while neocortex supports both conscious and unconscious encoding. We tested whether processing modes, not consciousness, divide between memory systems in three neuroimaging experiments with 11 amnesic patients (mean age = 45.55 years, standard deviation = 8.74, range = 23–60) and 11 matched healthy control subjects. Examined processing modes were single item versus relational encoding with only relational encoding hypothesized to depend on hippocampus. Participants encoded and later retrieved either single words or new relations between words. Consciousness of encoding was excluded by subliminal (invisible) word presentation. Amnesic patients and controls performed equally well on the single item task activating prefrontal cortex. But only the controls succeeded on the relational task activating the hippocampus, while amnesic patients failed as a group. Hence, unconscious relational encoding, but not unconscious single item encoding, depended on hippocampus. Yet, three patients performed normally on unconscious relational encoding in spite of amnesia capitalizing on spared hippocampal tissue and connections to language cortex. This pattern of results suggests that processing modes divide between memory systems, while consciousness divides between levels of function within a memory system. PMID:25273998

  14. Encoders for block-circulant LDPC codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, Kenneth; Dolinar, Sam; Thorpe, Jeremy

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present two encoding methods for block-circulant LDPC codes. The first is an iterative encoding method based on the erasure decoding algorithm, and the computations required are well organized due to the block-circulant structure of the parity check matrix. The second method uses block-circulant generator matrices, and the encoders are very similar to those for recursive convolutional codes. Some encoders of the second type have been implemented in a small Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) and operate at 100 Msymbols/second.

  15. Vibrational spectroscopic encoding of polystyrene-based resin beads: converting the encoding peaks into barcodes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lie-Xiong; Huang, Zhen-Li; Zhao, Yuan-Di

    2005-12-01

    A detailed approach is described for the vibrational spectroscopic encoding of polystyrene-based resin beads by converting the infrared absorption peaks suitable for encoding (encoding peaks) into barcodes. Based on combining the FT-IR measurements and the quantum-chemical computations, the vibrational characteristics of p-tert-butylstyrene monomer, polystyrene and poly(p-tert-butylstyrene) resin beads are analyzed, which are helpful for the selection of encoding peaks. The vibrational spectroscopic encoding of polystyrene-based resin beads could be obtained by converting the wavenumber, intensity and full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the encoding peaks into barcodes automatically through a computer program designed in our laboratory.

  16. The EBI enzyme portal.

    PubMed

    Alcántara, Rafael; Onwubiko, Joseph; Cao, Hong; Matos, Paula de; Cham, Jennifer A; Jacobsen, Jules; Holliday, Gemma L; Fischer, Julia D; Rahman, Syed Asad; Jassal, Bijay; Goujon, Mikael; Rowland, Francis; Velankar, Sameer; López, Rodrigo; Overington, John P; Kleywegt, Gerard J; Hermjakob, Henning; O'Donovan, Claire; Martín, María Jesús; Thornton, Janet M; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The availability of comprehensive information about enzymes plays an important role in answering questions relevant to interdisciplinary fields such as biochemistry, enzymology, biofuels, bioengineering and drug discovery. At the EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, we have developed an enzyme portal (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enzymeportal) to provide this wealth of information on enzymes from multiple in-house resources addressing particular data classes: protein sequence and structure, reactions, pathways and small molecules. The fact that these data reside in separate databases makes information discovery cumbersome. The main goal of the portal is to simplify this process for end users.

  17. Enzyme nanoband electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.; Naser, N. ); Renschler, C.L. )

    1993-07-01

    Enzyme nanoelectrodes have been constructed by immobilizing glucose oxidase, alcohol oxidase or tyrosinase onto ultrathin carbon films (of 35-50 nm thickness). The enzyme immobilization is accomplished via entrapment within electropolymerized poly(o-phenylenediamine) coatings. Cyclic voltammetry and controlled-potential amperometry are used to characterize the performance of the new nanoscopic biosensors under different preparation and operation conditions. The resulting electrodes offer convenient and rapid measurements of millimolar substrate concentrations, and (to the best of the authors' knowledge) are the smallest enzyme probes reported to date. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  18. The EBI enzyme portal

    PubMed Central

    Alcántara, Rafael; Onwubiko, Joseph; Cao, Hong; de Matos, Paula; Cham, Jennifer A.; Jacobsen, Jules; Fischer, Julia D.; Rahman, Syed Asad; Jassal, Bijay; Goujon, Mikael; Rowland, Francis; Velankar, Sameer; López, Rodrigo; Overington, John P.; Kleywegt, Gerard J.; Hermjakob, Henning; O’Donovan, Claire; Martín, María Jesús; Thornton, Janet M.; Steinbeck, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The availability of comprehensive information about enzymes plays an important role in answering questions relevant to interdisciplinary fields such as biochemistry, enzymology, biofuels, bioengineering and drug discovery. At the EMBL European Bioinformatics Institute, we have developed an enzyme portal (http://www.ebi.ac.uk/enzymeportal) to provide this wealth of information on enzymes from multiple in-house resources addressing particular data classes: protein sequence and structure, reactions, pathways and small molecules. The fact that these data reside in separate databases makes information discovery cumbersome. The main goal of the portal is to simplify this process for end users. PMID:23175605

  19. Enzyme molecules as nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Samudra; Dey, Krishna K; Muddana, Hari S; Tabouillot, Tristan; Ibele, Michael E; Butler, Peter J; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-01-30

    Using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we show that the diffusive movements of catalase enzyme molecules increase in the presence of the substrate, hydrogen peroxide, in a concentration-dependent manner. Employing a microfluidic device to generate a substrate concentration gradient, we show that both catalase and urease enzyme molecules spread toward areas of higher substrate concentration, a form of chemotaxis at the molecular scale. Using glucose oxidase and glucose to generate a hydrogen peroxide gradient, we induce the migration of catalase toward glucose oxidase, thereby showing that chemically interconnected enzymes can be drawn together.

  20. How to achieve high-level expression of microbial enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Long; Yang, Haiquan; Shin, Hyun-dong; Chen, Rachel R.; Li, Jianghua; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-01-01

    Microbial enzymes have been used in a large number of fields, such as chemical, agricultural and biopharmaceutical industries. The enzyme production rate and yield are the main factors to consider when choosing the appropriate expression system for the production of recombinant proteins. Recombinant enzymes have been expressed in bacteria (e.g., Escherichia coli, Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria), filamentous fungi (e.g., Aspergillus) and yeasts (e.g., Pichia pastoris). The favorable and very advantageous characteristics of these species have resulted in an increasing number of biotechnological applications. Bacterial hosts (e.g., E. coli) can be used to quickly and easily overexpress recombinant enzymes; however, bacterial systems cannot express very large proteins and proteins that require post-translational modifications. The main bacterial expression hosts, with the exception of lactic acid bacteria and filamentous fungi, can produce several toxins which are not compatible with the expression of recombinant enzymes in food and drugs. However, due to the multiplicity of the physiological impacts arising from high-level expression of genes encoding the enzymes and expression hosts, the goal of overproduction can hardly be achieved, and therefore, the yield of recombinant enzymes is limited. In this review, the recent strategies used for the high-level expression of microbial enzymes in the hosts mentioned above are summarized and the prospects are also discussed. We hope this review will contribute to the development of the enzyme-related research field. PMID:23686280

  1. Hyperthermophilic Enzymes: Sources, Uses, and Molecular Mechanisms for Thermostability

    PubMed Central

    Vieille, Claire; Zeikus, Gregory J.

    2001-01-01

    Enzymes synthesized by hyperthermophiles (bacteria and archaea with optimal growth temperatures of >80°C), also called hyperthermophilic enzymes, are typically thermostable (i.e., resistant to irreversible inactivation at high temperatures) and are optimally active at high temperatures. These enzymes share the same catalytic mechanisms with their mesophilic counterparts. When cloned and expressed in mesophilic hosts, hyperthermophilic enzymes usually retain their thermal properties, indicating that these properties are genetically encoded. Sequence alignments, amino acid content comparisons, crystal structure comparisons, and mutagenesis experiments indicate that hyperthermophilic enzymes are, indeed, very similar to their mesophilic homologues. No single mechanism is responsible for the remarkable stability of hyperthermophilic enzymes. Increased thermostability must be found, instead, in a small number of highly specific alterations that often do not obey any obvious traffic rules. After briefly discussing the diversity of hyperthermophilic organisms, this review concentrates on the remarkable thermostability of their enzymes. The biochemical and molecular properties of hyperthermophilic enzymes are described. Mechanisms responsible for protein inactivation are reviewed. The molecular mechanisms involved in protein thermostabilization are discussed, including ion pairs, hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bridges, packing, decrease of the entropy of unfolding, and intersubunit interactions. Finally, current uses and potential applications of thermophilic and hyperthermophilic enzymes as research reagents and as catalysts for industrial processes are described. PMID:11238984

  2. Encoding and decoding in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Naselaris, Thomas; Kay, Kendrick N.; Nishimoto, Shinji; Gallant, Jack L.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade fMRI researchers have developed increasingly sensitive techniques for analyzing the information represented in BOLD activity. The most popular of these techniques is linear classification, a simple technique for decoding information about experimental stimuli or tasks from patterns of activity across an array of voxels. A more recent development is the voxel-based encoding model, which describes the information about the stimulus or task that is represented in the activity of single voxels. Encoding and decoding are complementary operations: encoding uses stimuli to predict activity while decoding uses activity to predict information about stimuli. However, in practice these two operations are often confused, and their respective strengths and weaknesses have not been made clear. Here we use the concept of a linearizing feature space to clarify the relationship between encoding and decoding. We show that encoding and decoding operations can both be used to investigate some of the most common questions about how information is represented in the brain. However, focusing on encoding models offers two important advantages over decoding. First, an encoding model can in principle provide a complete functional description of a region of interest, while a decoding model can provide only a partial description. Second, while it is straightforward to derive an optimal decoding model from an encoding model it is much more difficult to derive an encoding model from a decoding model. We propose a systematic modeling approach that begins by estimating an encoding model for every voxel in a scan and ends by using the estimated encoding models to perform decoding. PMID:20691790

  3. Commercial production of microbial enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, I.G.

    1985-01-01

    The advantages and uses of industrially produced microbial enzymes are described. The processes involved in the production of these enzymes, cultivation techniques, enzyme extraction, enzyme purification and immobilization are outlined. Both the history of enzyme technology and its future development are discussed.

  4. RNA as an Enzyme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews current findings that explain RNA's function as an enzyme in addition to being an informational molecule. Highlights recent research efforts and notes changes in the information base on RNA activity. Includes models and diagrams of RNA activity. (ML)

  5. Enzymes in Analytical Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishman, Myer M.

    1980-01-01

    Presents tabular information concerning recent research in the field of enzymes in analytic chemistry, with methods, substrate or reaction catalyzed, assay, comments and references listed. The table refers to 128 references. Also listed are 13 general citations. (CS)

  6. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  7. Starch Biorefinery Enzymes.

    PubMed

    Läufer, Albrecht

    2017-03-07

    Nature uses enzymes to build and convert biomass; mankind uses the same enzymes and produces them on a large scale to make optimum use of biomass in biorefineries. Bacterial α-amylases and fungal glucoamylases have been the workhorses of starch biorefineries for many decades. Pullulanases were introduced in the 1980s. Proteases, cellulases, hemicellulases, and phytases have been on the market for a few years as process aids, improving yields, performance, and costs. Detailed studies of the complex chemical structures of biomass and of the physicochemical limitations of industrial biorefineries have led enzyme developers to produce novel tailor-made solutions for improving yield and profitability in the industry. This chapter reviews the development of enzyme applications in the major starch biorefining processes.

  8. RNA as an Enzyme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Thomas R.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews current findings that explain RNA's function as an enzyme in addition to being an informational molecule. Highlights recent research efforts and notes changes in the information base on RNA activity. Includes models and diagrams of RNA activity. (ML)

  9. Overproduction of ligninolytic enzymes

    DOEpatents

    Elisashvili, Vladimir; Kachlishvili, Eva; Torok, Tamas

    2014-06-17

    Methods, compositions, and systems for overproducing ligninolytic enzymes from the basidiomycetous fungus are described herein. As described, the method can include incubating a fungal strain of Cerrena unicolor IBB 303 in a fermentation system having growth medium which includes lignocellulosic material and then cultivating the fungal strain in the fermentation system under conditions wherein the fungus expresses the ligninolytic enzymes. In some cases, the lignocellulosic material is mandarin peel, ethanol production residue, walnut pericarp, wheat bran, wheat straw, or banana peel.

  10. Effect of malic enzyme on ethanol production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Katsunori; Hirasawa, Takashi; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    We investigated effects of malic enzyme on ethanol production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 under autotrophic conditions. Deletion of me, which encodes malic enzyme, decreased ethanol production, whereas its overexpression had no effect. Our results suggest that maintaining optimal malic enzyme activity controls ethanol production by Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The mononuclear molybdenum enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Hille, R.

    1996-11-01

    Molybdenum is widely available to biological systems due to the solubility of its high-valent oxides in water and is found in two basic forms: as an integral component of the multinuclear M center of nitrogenases and as the mononuclear active sites of a much more diverse group of enzymes that in general function catalytically to transfer an oxygen atom either to or from a physiological acceptor/donor molecule. It is on the basis of this commonly encountered aspect of catalysis that these enzymes are frequently referred to as oxotransferases, although no mechanistic connotation is intended in using the term. Similarly, the vast majority of these enzymes possess a Mo{double_bond}O unit in their active sites and are often referred to as oxomolybdenum enzymes. Neither of these terms is strictly applicable to the entire class of enzymes, however, as some (polysulfide reductase, for example, and possibly formate dehydrogenase) do not possess a Mo{double_bond}O unit. Here the term mononuclear molybdenum enzymes will be used in order to be as generic as possible. 431 refs.

  12. Optoelectronic Shaft-Angle Encoder Tolerates Misalignments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Eric P.

    1991-01-01

    Optoelectronic shaft-angle encoder measures angle of rotation of shaft with high precision while minimizing effects of eccentricity and other misalignments. Grooves on disk serve as reference marks to locate reading heads and measure increments of rotation of disk. Shaft-angle encoder, resembling optical compact-disk drive, includes two tracking heads illuminating grooves on disk and measures reflections from them.

  13. The Acquisition of Syntactically Encoded Evidentiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rett, Jessica; Hyams, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This article presents several empirical studies of syntactically encoded evidentiality in English. The first part of our study consists of an adult online experiment that confirms claims in Asudeh & Toivonen (2012) that raised Perception Verb Similatives (PVSs; e.g. "John looks like he is sick") encode direct evidentiality. We then…

  14. DNA encoding a DNA repair protein

    DOEpatents

    Petrini, John H.; Morgan, William Francis; Maser, Richard Scott; Carney, James Patrick

    2006-08-15

    An isolated and purified DNA molecule encoding a DNA repair protein, p95, is provided, as is isolated and purified p95. Also provided are methods of detecting p95 and DNA encoding p95. The invention further provides p95 knock-out mice.

  15. Precision Digital Position Encoding For Resonant Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, Stanley; Tuchman, Israel

    1984-11-01

    Presented is a versatile precision digital encoding technique for mechanical resonant scanners. Described is it's application to electronic correction of the sinusoidal scan pattern traced. To contrast the flexibility of the electronic encoding technique a number of direct correction methods are described.

  16. The Acquisition of Syntactically Encoded Evidentiality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rett, Jessica; Hyams, Nina

    2014-01-01

    This article presents several empirical studies of syntactically encoded evidentiality in English. The first part of our study consists of an adult online experiment that confirms claims in Asudeh & Toivonen (2012) that raised Perception Verb Similatives (PVSs; e.g. "John looks like he is sick") encode direct evidentiality. We then…

  17. Experiments in encoding multilevel images as quadtrees

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansing, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    Image storage requirements for several encoding methods are investigated and the use of quadtrees with multigray level or multicolor images are explored. The results of encoding a variety of images having up to 256 gray levels using three schemes (full raster, runlength and quadtree) are presented. Although there is considerable literature on the use of quadtrees to store and manipulate binary images, their application to multilevel images is relatively undeveloped. The potential advantage of quadtree encoding is that an entire area with a uniform gray level may be encoded as a unit. A pointerless quadtree encoding scheme is described. Data are presented on the size of the quadtree required to encode selected images and on the relative storage requirements of the three encoding schemes. A segmentation scheme based on the statistical variation of gray levels within a quadtree quadrant is described. This parametric scheme may be used to control the storage required by an encoded image and to preprocess a scene for feature identification. Several sets of black and white and pseudocolor images obtained by varying the segmentation parameter are shown.

  18. Recent advances on the encoding and selection methods of DNA-encoded chemical library.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bingbing; Zhou, Yu; Huang, Yiran; Zhang, Jianfu; Li, Xiaoyu

    2017-02-01

    DNA-encoded chemical library (DEL) has emerged as a powerful and versatile tool for ligand discovery in chemical biology research and in drug discovery. Encoding and selection methods are two of the most important technological aspects of DEL that can dictate the performance and utilities of DELs. In this digest, we have summarized recent advances on the encoding and selection strategies of DEL and also discussed the latest developments on DNA-encoded dynamic library, a new frontier in DEL research.

  19. Thermophilic fungi: their physiology and enzymes.

    PubMed

    Maheshwari, R; Bharadwaj, G; Bhat, M K

    2000-09-01

    Thermophilic fungi are a small assemblage in mycota that have a minimum temperature of growth at or above 20 degrees C and a maximum temperature of growth extending up to 60 to 62 degrees C. As the only representatives of eukaryotic organisms that can grow at temperatures above 45 degrees C, the thermophilic fungi are valuable experimental systems for investigations of mechanisms that allow growth at moderately high temperature yet limit their growth beyond 60 to 62 degrees C. Although widespread in terrestrial habitats, they have remained underexplored compared to thermophilic species of eubacteria and archaea. However, thermophilic fungi are potential sources of enzymes with scientific and commercial interests. This review, for the first time, compiles information on the physiology and enzymes of thermophilic fungi. Thermophilic fungi can be grown in minimal media with metabolic rates and growth yields comparable to those of mesophilic fungi. Studies of their growth kinetics, respiration, mixed-substrate utilization, nutrient uptake, and protein breakdown rate have provided some basic information not only on thermophilic fungi but also on filamentous fungi in general. Some species have the ability to grow at ambient temperatures if cultures are initiated with germinated spores or mycelial inoculum or if a nutritionally rich medium is used. Thermophilic fungi have a powerful ability to degrade polysaccharide constituents of biomass. The properties of their enzymes show differences not only among species but also among strains of the same species. Their extracellular enzymes display temperature optima for activity that are close to or above the optimum temperature for the growth of organism and, in general, are more heat stable than those of the mesophilic fungi. Some extracellular enzymes from thermophilic fungi are being produced commercially, and a few others have commercial prospects. Genes of thermophilic fungi encoding lipase, protease, xylanase, and

  20. Comparison of H.265/HEVC encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trochimiuk, Maciej

    2016-09-01

    The H.265/HEVC is the state-of-the-art video compression standard, which allows the bitrate reduction up to 50% compared with its predecessor, H.264/AVC, maintaining equal perceptual video quality. The growth in coding efficiency was achieved by increasing the number of available intra- and inter-frame prediction features and improvements in existing ones, such as entropy encoding and filtering. Nevertheless, to achieve real-time performance of the encoder, simplifications in algorithm are inevitable. Some features and coding modes shall be skipped, to reduce time needed to evaluate modes forwarded to rate-distortion optimisation. Thus, the potential acceleration of the encoding process comes at the expense of coding efficiency. In this paper, a trade-off between video quality and encoding speed of various H.265/HEVC encoders is discussed.

  1. Industrial Applications Of Optical Shaft Encoders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edmister, Brian W.

    1980-11-01

    The development of the microprocessor and mini-computer for industrial process control has made the optical shaft angle encoder a natural choice for a position feedback transducer. Many of these applications, however, require the encoder to operate reliably in extremely hostile environments. In response to this, the encoder manufacturer has been faced with reliability problems which fall into the following general categories: 1. Exposure to weather 2. Wide operating and storage temperature range 3. Exposure to corrosive chemicals 4. Severe shock and vibration 5. High electrical noise levels 6. Severe blows to encoder housing 7. Operation in explosive atmospheres Three of these applications expose the encoder to most of these environmental conditions: 1. A jack-up control position feedback for an offshore oil well drilling rig 2. A depth measurement system for oil well logging instrumentation 3. Elevation and azimuth feedback for a solar power plant heliostat

  2. Microdiversity of extracellular enzyme genes among sequenced prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Amy E; Martiny, Adam C; Allison, Steven D

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between prokaryotic traits and phylogeny is important for predicting and modeling ecological processes. Microbial extracellular enzymes have a pivotal role in nutrient cycling and the decomposition of organic matter, yet little is known about the phylogenetic distribution of genes encoding these enzymes. In this study, we analyzed 3058 annotated prokaryotic genomes to determine which taxa have the genetic potential to produce alkaline phosphatase, chitinase and β-N-acetyl-glucosaminidase enzymes. We then evaluated the relationship between the genetic potential for enzyme production and 16S rRNA phylogeny using the consenTRAIT algorithm, which calculated the phylogenetic depth and corresponding 16S rRNA sequence identity of clades of potential enzyme producers. Nearly half (49.2%) of the genomes analyzed were found to be capable of extracellular enzyme production, and these were non-randomly distributed across most prokaryotic phyla. On average, clades of potential enzyme-producing organisms had a maximum phylogenetic depth of 0.008004–0.009780, though individual clades varied broadly in both size and depth. These values correspond to a minimum 16S rRNA sequence identity of 98.04–98.40%. The distribution pattern we found is an indication of microdiversity, the occurrence of ecologically or physiologically distinct populations within phylogenetically related groups. Additionally, we found positive correlations among the genes encoding different extracellular enzymes. Our results suggest that the capacity to produce extracellular enzymes varies at relatively fine-scale phylogenetic resolution. This variation is consistent with other traits that require a small number of genes and provides insight into the relationship between taxonomy and traits that may be useful for predicting ecological function. PMID:23303371

  3. The same Arabidopsis gene encodes both cytosolic and mitochondrial alanyl-tRNA synthetases.

    PubMed Central

    Mireau, H; Lancelin, D; Small, I D

    1996-01-01

    In plants, all aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases are nuclearly encoded, despite the fact that their activities are required in the three protein-synthesizing cell compartments (cytosol, mitochondria, and chloroplasts). To investigate targeting of these enzymes, we cloned cDNAs encoding alanyl-tRNA synthetase (AlaRS) and the corresponding nuclear gene, ALATS, from Arabidopsis by using degenerate polymerase chain reaction primers based on highly conserved regions shared between known AlaRSs from other organisms. Analysis of the transcription of the gene showed the presence of two potential translation initiation codons in some ALATS mRNAs. Translation from the upstream AUG would generate an N-terminal extension with features characteristic of mitochondrial targeting peptides. A polyclonal antibody raised against part of the Arabidopsis AlaRS revealed that the Arabidopsis cytosolic and mitochondrial AlaRSs are immunologically similar, suggesting that both isoforms are encoded by the ALATS gene. In vitro experiments confirmed that two polypeptides can be translated from AlATS transcripts, with most ribosomes initiating on the downstream AUG to give the shorter polypeptide corresponding in size to the cytosolic enzyme. The ability of the presequence encoded between the two initiation codons to direct polypeptides to mitochondria was demonstrated by expression of fusion proteins in tobacco protoplasts and in yeast. We conclude that the ALATS gene encodes both the cytosolic and the mitochondrial forms of AlaRS, depending on which of the two AUG codons is used to initiate translation. PMID:8672889

  4. Encoder: A Connectionist Model of How Learning to Visually Encode Fixated Text Images Improves Reading Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Gale L.

    2004-01-01

    This article proposes that visual encoding learning improves reading fluency by widening the span over which letters are recognized from a fixated text image so that fewer fixations are needed to cover a text line. Encoder is a connectionist model that learns to convert images like the fixated text images human readers encode into the…

  5. A model for visual memory encoding.

    PubMed

    Nenert, Rodolphe; Allendorfer, Jane B; Szaflarski, Jerzy P

    2014-01-01

    Memory encoding engages multiple concurrent and sequential processes. While the individual processes involved in successful encoding have been examined in many studies, a sequence of events and the importance of modules associated with memory encoding has not been established. For this reason, we sought to perform a comprehensive examination of the network for memory encoding using data driven methods and to determine the directionality of the information flow in order to build a viable model of visual memory encoding. Forty healthy controls ages 19-59 performed a visual scene encoding task. FMRI data were preprocessed using SPM8 and then processed using independent component analysis (ICA) with the reliability of the identified components confirmed using ICASSO as implemented in GIFT. The directionality of the information flow was examined using Granger causality analyses (GCA). All participants performed the fMRI task well above the chance level (>90% correct on both active and control conditions) and the post-fMRI testing recall revealed correct memory encoding at 86.33 ± 5.83%. ICA identified involvement of components of five different networks in the process of memory encoding, and the GCA allowed for the directionality of the information flow to be assessed, from visual cortex via ventral stream to the attention network and then to the default mode network (DMN). Two additional networks involved in this process were the cerebellar and the auditory-insular network. This study provides evidence that successful visual memory encoding is dependent on multiple modules that are part of other networks that are only indirectly related to the main process. This model may help to identify the node(s) of the network that are affected by a specific disease processes and explain the presence of memory encoding difficulties in patients in whom focal or global network dysfunction exists.

  6. Resistance to β-Lactams in Neisseria ssp Due to Chromosomally Encoded Penicillin-Binding Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zapun, André; Morlot, Cécile; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae are human pathogens that cause a variety of life-threatening systemic and local infections, such as meningitis or gonorrhoea. The treatment of such infection is becoming more difficult due to antibiotic resistance. The focus of this review is on the mechanism of reduced susceptibility to penicillin and other β-lactams due to the modification of chromosomally encoded penicillin-binding proteins (PBP), in particular PBP2 encoded by the penA gene. The variety of penA alleles and resulting variant PBP2 enzymes is described and the important amino acid substitutions are presented and discussed in a structural context. PMID:27690121

  7. Design, synthesis and selection of DNA-encoded small-molecule libraries.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew A; Acharya, Raksha A; Arico-Muendel, Christopher C; Belyanskaya, Svetlana L; Benjamin, Dennis R; Carlson, Neil R; Centrella, Paolo A; Chiu, Cynthia H; Creaser, Steffen P; Cuozzo, John W; Davie, Christopher P; Ding, Yun; Franklin, G Joseph; Franzen, Kurt D; Gefter, Malcolm L; Hale, Steven P; Hansen, Nils J V; Israel, David I; Jiang, Jinwei; Kavarana, Malcolm J; Kelley, Michael S; Kollmann, Christopher S; Li, Fan; Lind, Kenneth; Mataruse, Sibongile; Medeiros, Patricia F; Messer, Jeffrey A; Myers, Paul; O'Keefe, Heather; Oliff, Matthew C; Rise, Cecil E; Satz, Alexander L; Skinner, Steven R; Svendsen, Jennifer L; Tang, Lujia; van Vloten, Kurt; Wagner, Richard W; Yao, Gang; Zhao, Baoguang; Morgan, Barry A

    2009-09-01

    Biochemical combinatorial techniques such as phage display, RNA display and oligonucleotide aptamers have proven to be reliable methods for generation of ligands to protein targets. Adapting these techniques to small synthetic molecules has been a long-sought goal. We report the synthesis and interrogation of an 800-million-member DNA-encoded library in which small molecules are covalently attached to an encoding oligonucleotide. The library was assembled by a combination of chemical and enzymatic synthesis, and interrogated by affinity selection. We describe methods for the selection and deconvolution of the chemical display library, and the discovery of inhibitors for two enzymes: Aurora A kinase and p38 MAP kinase.

  8. Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encodes a serine peptidase essential for colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Karlyshev, A.V.; Thacker, G.; Jones, M.A.; Clements, M.O.; Wren, B.W.

    2014-01-01

    According to MEROPS peptidase database, Campylobacter species encode 64 predicted peptidases. However, proteolytic properties of only a few of these proteins have been confirmed experimentally. In this study we identified and characterised a Campylobacter jejuni gene cj0511 encoding a novel peptidase. The proteolytic activity associated with this enzyme was demonstrated in cell lysates. Moreover, enzymatic studies conducted with a purified protein confirmed a prediction of it being a serine peptidase. Furthermore, cj0511 mutant was found to be severely attenuated in chicken colonisation model, suggesting a role of the Cj0511 protein in infection. PMID:24918062

  9. Cellulases, nucleic acids encoding them and methods for making and using them

    DOEpatents

    Blum, David; Gemsch Cuenca, Joslin; Dycaico, Mark

    2013-04-23

    This invention relates to molecular and cellular biology and biochemistry. In one aspect, the invention provides polypeptides having cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, polynucleotides encoding these polypeptides, and methods of making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention is directed to polypeptides cellulase activity, e.g., endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, mannanase and/or .beta.-glucosidase activity, including thermostable and thermotolerant activity, and polynucleotides encoding these enzymes, and making and using these polynucleotides and polypeptides. The polypeptides of the invention can be used in a variety of pharmaceutical, agricultural, food and feed processing and industrial contexts.

  10. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  11. Random-walk enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C → U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics. PMID:26465508

  12. Random-walk enzymes.

    PubMed

    Mak, Chi H; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A; Goodman, Myron F

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C→U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  13. Lignin-degrading enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pollegioni, Loredano; Tonin, Fabio; Rosini, Elena

    2015-04-01

    A main goal of green biotechnology is to reduce our dependence on fossil reserves and to increase the use of renewable materials. For this, lignocellulose, which is composed of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, represents the most promising feedstock. The latter is a complex aromatic heteropolymer formed by radical polymerization of guaiacyl, syringyl, and p-hydroxyphenyl units linked by β-aryl ether linkages, biphenyl bonds and heterocyclic linkages. Accordingly, lignin appears to be a potentially valuable renewable aromatic chemical, thus representing a main pillar in future biorefinery. The resistance of lignin to breakdown is the main bottleneck in this process, although a variety of white-rot fungi, as well as bacteria, have been reported to degrade lignin by employing different enzymes and catabolic pathways. Here, recent investigations have expanded the range of natural biocatalysts involved in lignin degradation/modification and significant progress related to enzyme engineering and recombinant expression has been made. The present review is focused primarily on recent trends in ligninolytic green biotechnology to suggest the potential (industrial) application of ligninolytic enzymes. Future perspectives could include synergy between natural enzymes from different sources (as well as those obtained by protein engineering) and other pretreatment methods that may be required for optimal results in enzyme-based, environmentally friendly, technologies.

  14. Random-walk enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mak, Chi H.; Pham, Phuong; Afif, Samir A.; Goodman, Myron F.

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes that rely on random walk to search for substrate targets in a heterogeneously dispersed medium can leave behind complex spatial profiles of their catalyzed conversions. The catalytic signatures of these random-walk enzymes are the result of two coupled stochastic processes: scanning and catalysis. Here we develop analytical models to understand the conversion profiles produced by these enzymes, comparing an intrusive model, in which scanning and catalysis are tightly coupled, against a loosely coupled passive model. Diagrammatic theory and path-integral solutions of these models revealed clearly distinct predictions. Comparison to experimental data from catalyzed deaminations deposited on single-stranded DNA by the enzyme activation-induced deoxycytidine deaminase (AID) demonstrates that catalysis and diffusion are strongly intertwined, where the chemical conversions give rise to new stochastic trajectories that were absent if the substrate DNA was homogeneous. The C →U deamination profiles in both analytical predictions and experiments exhibit a strong contextual dependence, where the conversion rate of each target site is strongly contingent on the identities of other surrounding targets, with the intrusive model showing an excellent fit to the data. These methods can be applied to deduce sequence-dependent catalytic signatures of other DNA modification enzymes, with potential applications to cancer, gene regulation, and epigenetics.

  15. Efficient reverse time migration with amplitude encoding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jiangtao; Wang, Huazhong; Zhao, Lei; Shao, Yu; Wang, Meixia; Osen, Are

    2015-08-01

    Reverse time migration (RTM) is an accurate seismic imaging method for imaging the complex subsurface structure. Traditional common shot RTM suffers from low efficiency due to the large number of single shot gathers, especially for marine seismic data. Phase encoding is commonly used to reduce the computational cost of RTM. Phase encoding in the frequency domain is usually related to time shift in the time domain. Therefore, phase-encoding-based RTM needs time padding to avoid information loss which degrades the efficiency of the time-domain wavefield extrapolator. In this paper, an efficient time-domain RTM scheme based on the amplitude encoding is proposed. This scheme uses the orthogonal cosine basis as the encoding function, which has similar physical meaning to plane wave encoding (i.e. plane-wave components with different surface shooting angles). The proposed scheme can generate a qualified imaging result as well as common shot RTM but with less computational cost. Since this scheme does not need time padding, it is more efficient than the phase encoding schemes and can be conveniently implemented in the time domain. Numerical examples on the Sigsbee2a synthetic dataset demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method.

  16. Identification and characterization of genes encoding polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dioxygenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol dehydrogenase in Pseudomonas putida OUS82.

    PubMed Central

    Takizawa, N; Kaida, N; Torigoe, S; Moritani, T; Sawada, T; Satoh, S; Kiyohara, H

    1994-01-01

    Naphthalene and phenanthrene are transformed by enzymes encoded by the pah gene cluster of Pseudomonas putida OUS82. The pahA and pahB genes, which encode the first and second enzymes, dioxygenase and cis-dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, respectively, were identified and sequenced. The DNA sequences showed that pahA and pahB were clustered and that pahA consisted of four cistrons, pahAa, pahAb, pahAc, and pahAd, which encode ferredoxin reductase, ferredoxin, and two subunits of the iron-sulfur protein, respectively. PMID:8157615

  17. Marek’s disease virus encoded ribonucleotide reductase large subunit is essential for in vivo replication and plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Marek’s disease virus encodes a ribonucleotide reductase (RR) that consists of two subunits namely RR1 and RR2, both of which associate to form an active holoenzyme and both subunits are necessary for enzyme activity. It is an essential enzyme for the conversion of ribonucleotides to deoxyribonucleo...

  18. Encoding entanglement-assisted quantum stabilizer codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun-Jiang; Bai, Bao-Ming; Li, Zhuo; Peng, Jin-Ye; Xiao, He-Ling

    2012-02-01

    We address the problem of encoding entanglement-assisted (EA) quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) and of the corresponding complexity. We present an iterative algorithm from which a quantum circuit composed of CNOT, H, and S gates can be derived directly with complexity O(n2) to encode the qubits being sent. Moreover, we derive the number of each gate consumed in our algorithm according to which we can design EA QECCs with low encoding complexity. Another advantage brought by our algorithm is the easiness and efficiency of programming on classical computers.

  19. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  20. Programmable Pulse-Position-Modulation Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, David; Farr, William

    2006-01-01

    A programmable pulse-position-modulation (PPM) encoder has been designed for use in testing an optical communication link. The encoder includes a programmable state machine and an electronic code book that can be updated to accommodate different PPM coding schemes. The encoder includes a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) that is programmed to step through the stored state machine and code book and that drives a custom high-speed serializer circuit board that is capable of generating subnanosecond pulses. The stored state machine and code book can be updated by means of a simple text interface through the serial port of a personal computer.

  1. VLSI Reed-Solomon Encoder With Interleaver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, In-Shek; Deutsch, L. J.; Truong, Trieu-Kie; Reed, I. S.

    1990-01-01

    Size, weight, and susceptibility to burst errors reduced. Encoding system built on single very-large-scale integrated (VLSI) circuit chip produces (255,223) Reed-Solomon (RS) code with programmable interleaving up to depth of 5. (225,223) RS encoder includes new remainder-and-interleaver unit providing programmable interleaving of code words. Remainder-and-interleaver unit contains shift registers and modulo-2 adders. Signals on "turn" and "no-turn" lines control depth of interleaving. Based on E. R. Berlekamp's bit-serial multiplication algorithm for (225,223) RS encoder over Galois Field (2 to the 8th power).

  2. Pulse Vector-Excitation Speech Encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, Grant; Gersho, Allen

    1989-01-01

    Proposed pulse vector-excitation speech encoder (PVXC) encodes analog speech signals into digital representation for transmission or storage at rates below 5 kilobits per second. Produces high quality of reconstructed speech, but with less computation than required by comparable speech-encoding systems. Has some characteristics of multipulse linear predictive coding (MPLPC) and of code-excited linear prediction (CELP). System uses mathematical model of vocal tract in conjunction with set of excitation vectors and perceptually-based error criterion to synthesize natural-sounding speech.

  3. The nature of chemical innovation: new enzymes by evolution.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Frances H

    2015-11-01

    I describe how we direct the evolution of non-natural enzyme activities, using chemical intuition and information on structure and mechanism to guide us to the most promising reaction/enzyme systems. With synthetic reagents to generate new reactive intermediates and just a few amino acid substitutions to tune the active site, a cytochrome P450 can catalyze a variety of carbene and nitrene transfer reactions. The cyclopropanation, N-H insertion, C-H amination, sulfimidation, and aziridination reactions now demonstrated are all well known in chemical catalysis but have no counterparts in nature. The new enzymes are fully genetically encoded, assemble and function inside of cells, and can be optimized for different substrates, activities, and selectivities. We are learning how to use nature's innovation mechanisms to marry some of the synthetic chemists' favorite transformations with the exquisite selectivity and tunability of enzymes.

  4. Chemical and genomic evolution of enzyme-catalyzed reaction networks.

    PubMed

    Kanehisa, Minoru

    2013-09-02

    There is a tendency that a unit of enzyme genes in an operon-like structure in the prokaryotic genome encodes enzymes that catalyze a series of consecutive reactions in a metabolic pathway. Our recent analysis shows that this and other genomic units correspond to chemical units reflecting chemical logic of organic reactions. From all known metabolic pathways in the KEGG database we identified chemical units, called reaction modules, as the conserved sequences of chemical structure transformation patterns of small molecules. The extracted patterns suggest co-evolution of genomic units and chemical units. While the core of the metabolic network may have evolved with mechanisms involving individual enzymes and reactions, its extension may have been driven by modular units of enzymes and reactions. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Chitin-related enzymes in agro-biosciences.

    PubMed

    Arakane, Yasuyuki; Taira, Toki; Ohnuma, Takayuki; Fukamizo, Tamo

    2012-04-01

    Plants utilized for agricultural productions interact with insects, fungi, and bacteria under the field conditions, affecting thereby their productivity. Since chitin and its derivatives play important roles in the interactions between these organisms, chitin-related enzymes are effective tools or drug targets for controlling the interactions. Thus, the molecular biology, protein chemistry, and enzymology of the chitin-related enzymes have been intensively studied by many investigators. Identifications and classifications of the genes encoding chitin synthetases, chitinases, chitosanases, and chitin deacetylases in these organisms were conducted, and their physiological functions were defined by knockdown, knockout, or overexpression of the corresponding genes. Recombinant enzyme productions and mutation studies are also being conducted to understand their structure and function. All of these studies have opened the way to efficiently utilize these enzyme tools for enhancing the agricultural productions.

  6. Enzyme immunoassay for methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Aoki, K; Kuroiwa, Y

    1983-01-01

    A competitive enzyme immunoassay for methamphetamine with alkaline phosphatase labeled methamphetamine, Sepharose-antibody and p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrate was developed. The anti-methamphetamine antisera produced in rabbits by immunization with N-(4-aminobutyl) methamphetamine-BSA conjugate were specific for methamphetamine and showed low cross-reactivities with p-OH methamphetamine and amphetamine (metabolites of methamphetamine). The range of methamphetamine measurable by the enzyme immunoassay was 1 to 300 ng/tube. According to the assay, methamphetamine could be detected from urine and extract of hair.

  7. Evolution of enzyme superfamilies.

    PubMed

    Glasner, Margaret E; Gerlt, John A; Babbitt, Patricia C

    2006-10-01

    Enzyme evolution is often constrained by aspects of catalysis. Sets of homologous proteins that catalyze different overall reactions but share an aspect of catalysis, such as a common partial reaction, are called mechanistically diverse superfamilies. The common mechanistic steps and structural characteristics of several of these superfamilies, including the enolase, Nudix, amidohydrolase, and haloacid dehalogenase superfamilies have been characterized. In addition, studies of mechanistically diverse superfamilies are helping to elucidate mechanisms of functional diversification, such as catalytic promiscuity. Understanding how enzyme superfamilies evolve is vital for accurate genome annotation, predicting protein functions, and protein engineering.

  8. Entropy and Enzyme Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Åqvist, Johan; Kazemi, Masoud; Isaksen, Geir Villy; Brandsdal, Bjørn Olav

    2017-02-21

    The role played by entropy for the enormous rate enhancement achieved by enzymes has been debated for many decades. There are, for example, several confirmed cases where the activation free energy is reduced by around 10 kcal/mol due to entropic effects, corresponding to a rate enhancement of ∼10(7) compared to the uncatalyzed reaction. However, despite substantial efforts from both the experimental and theoretical side, no real consensus has been reached regarding the origin of such large entropic contributions to enzyme catalysis. Another remarkable instance of entropic effects is found in enzymes that are adapted by evolution to work at low temperatures, near the freezing point of water. These cold-adapted enzymes invariably show a more negative entropy and a lower enthalpy of activation than their mesophilic orthologs, which counteracts the exponential damping of reaction rates at lower temperature. The structural origin of this universal phenomenon has, however, remained elusive. The basic problem with connecting macroscopic thermodynamic quantities, such as activation entropy and enthalpy derived from Arrhenius plots, to the 3D protein structure is that the underlying detailed (microscopic) energetics is essentially inaccessible to experiment. Moreover, attempts to calculate entropy contributions by computer simulations have mostly focused only on substrate entropies, which do not provide the full picture. We have recently devised a new approach for accessing thermodynamic activation parameters of both enzyme and solution reactions from computer simulations, which turns out to be very successful. This method is analogous to the experimental Arrhenius plots and directly evaluates the temperature dependence of calculated reaction free energy profiles. Hence, by extensive molecular dynamics simulations and calculations of up to thousands of independent free energy profiles, we are able to extract activation parameters with sufficient precision for making

  9. [Micro fabricated enzyme battery].

    PubMed

    Sasaki, S; Karube, I

    1996-10-01

    Although various work has been done in the field of implantable micro actuators such as artificial organs and micro surgery robots, a suitable electric power supply for these is yet to be developed. For this purpose a micro fabricated enzyme fuel cell was developed which uses glucose contained in the human body as a fuel. In order to obtain enough voltage each cell was formed as part of a serial array on a silicon wafer. Glucose solution enters the cells by a capillary effect. In this article fuel cells already developed using biocatalysts are described, and the future possibility of a micro fabricated enzyme battery is discussed.

  10. Cloning of Salmonella typhimurium DNA encoding mutagenic DNA repair

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, S.M.; Sedgwick, S.G. )

    1989-11-01

    Mutagenic DNA repair in Escherichia coli is encoded by the umuDC operon. Salmonella typhimurium DNA which has homology with E. coli umuC and is able to complement E. coli umuC122::Tn5 and umuC36 mutations has been cloned. Complementation of umuD44 mutants and hybridization with E. coli umuD also occurred, but these activities were much weaker than with umuC. Restriction enzyme mapping indicated that the composition of the cloned fragment is different from the E. coli umuDC operon. Therefore, a umu-like function of S. typhimurium has been found; the phenotype of this function is weaker than that of its E. coli counterpart, which is consistent with the weak mutagenic response of S. typhimurium to UV compared with the response in E. coli.

  11. Genetically encoding lysine modifications on histone H4.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Bryan J; Hahn, Liljan E; Heitmüller, Svenja; Frauendorf, Holm; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H; Neumann, Heinz

    2015-04-17

    Post-translational modifications of proteins are important modulators of protein function. In order to identify the specific consequences of individual modifications, general methods are required for homogeneous production of modified proteins. The direct installation of modified amino acids by genetic code expansion facilitates the production of such proteins independent of the knowledge and availability of the enzymes naturally responsible for the modification. The production of recombinant histone H4 with genetically encoded modifications has proven notoriously difficult in the past. Here, we present a general strategy to produce histone H4 with acetylation, propionylation, butyrylation, and crotonylation on lysine residues. We produce homogeneous histone H4 containing up to four simultaneous acetylations to analyze the impact of the modifications on chromatin array compaction. Furthermore, we explore the ability of antibodies to discriminate between alternative lysine acylations by incorporating these modifications in recombinant histone H4.

  12. Method of generating ploynucleotides encoding enhanced folding variants

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Kiss, Csaba; Waldo, Geoffrey S.

    2017-05-02

    The invention provides directed evolution methods for improving the folding, solubility and stability (including thermostability) characteristics of polypeptides. In one aspect, the invention provides a method for generating folding and stability-enhanced variants of proteins, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins, chromophoric proteins and enzymes. In another aspect, the invention provides methods for generating thermostable variants of a target protein or polypeptide via an internal destabilization baiting strategy. Internally destabilization a protein of interest is achieved by inserting a heterologous, folding-destabilizing sequence (folding interference domain) within DNA encoding the protein of interest, evolving the protein sequences adjacent to the heterologous insertion to overcome the destabilization (using any number of mutagenesis methods), thereby creating a library of variants. The variants in the library are expressed, and those with enhanced folding characteristics selected.

  13. An Integrated Microfluidic Processor for DNA-Encoded Combinatorial Library Functional Screening

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    DNA-encoded synthesis is rekindling interest in combinatorial compound libraries for drug discovery and in technology for automated and quantitative library screening. Here, we disclose a microfluidic circuit that enables functional screens of DNA-encoded compound beads. The device carries out library bead distribution into picoliter-scale assay reagent droplets, photochemical cleavage of compound from the bead, assay incubation, laser-induced fluorescence-based assay detection, and fluorescence-activated droplet sorting to isolate hits. DNA-encoded compound beads (10-μm diameter) displaying a photocleavable positive control inhibitor pepstatin A were mixed (1920 beads, 729 encoding sequences) with negative control beads (58 000 beads, 1728 encoding sequences) and screened for cathepsin D inhibition using a biochemical enzyme activity assay. The circuit sorted 1518 hit droplets for collection following 18 min incubation over a 240 min analysis. Visual inspection of a subset of droplets (1188 droplets) yielded a 24% false discovery rate (1166 pepstatin A beads; 366 negative control beads). Using template barcoding strategies, it was possible to count hit collection beads (1863) using next-generation sequencing data. Bead-specific barcodes enabled replicate counting, and the false discovery rate was reduced to 2.6% by only considering hit-encoding sequences that were observed on >2 beads. This work represents a complete distributable small molecule discovery platform, from microfluidic miniaturized automation to ultrahigh-throughput hit deconvolution by sequencing. PMID:28199790

  14. An Integrated Microfluidic Processor for DNA-Encoded Combinatorial Library Functional Screening.

    PubMed

    MacConnell, Andrew B; Price, Alexander K; Paegel, Brian M

    2017-03-13

    DNA-encoded synthesis is rekindling interest in combinatorial compound libraries for drug discovery and in technology for automated and quantitative library screening. Here, we disclose a microfluidic circuit that enables functional screens of DNA-encoded compound beads. The device carries out library bead distribution into picoliter-scale assay reagent droplets, photochemical cleavage of compound from the bead, assay incubation, laser-induced fluorescence-based assay detection, and fluorescence-activated droplet sorting to isolate hits. DNA-encoded compound beads (10-μm diameter) displaying a photocleavable positive control inhibitor pepstatin A were mixed (1920 beads, 729 encoding sequences) with negative control beads (58 000 beads, 1728 encoding sequences) and screened for cathepsin D inhibition using a biochemical enzyme activity assay. The circuit sorted 1518 hit droplets for collection following 18 min incubation over a 240 min analysis. Visual inspection of a subset of droplets (1188 droplets) yielded a 24% false discovery rate (1166 pepstatin A beads; 366 negative control beads). Using template barcoding strategies, it was possible to count hit collection beads (1863) using next-generation sequencing data. Bead-specific barcodes enabled replicate counting, and the false discovery rate was reduced to 2.6% by only considering hit-encoding sequences that were observed on >2 beads. This work represents a complete distributable small molecule discovery platform, from microfluidic miniaturized automation to ultrahigh-throughput hit deconvolution by sequencing.

  15. Testis-specific expression of a functional retroposon encoding glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Hendriksen, P.J.M. |; Hoogerbrugge, J.W.; Baarends, W.M.

    1997-05-01

    The X-chromosomal gene glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6pd) is known to be expressed in most cell types of mammalian species. In the mouse, we have detected a novel gene, designated G6pd-2, encoding a G6PD isoenzyme. G6pd-2 does not contain introns and appears to represent a retroposed gene. This gene is uniquely transcribed in postmeiotic spermatogenic cells in which the X-encoded G6pd gene is not transcribed. Expression of the G6pd-2 sequence in a bacterial system showed that the encoded product is an active enzyme. Zymogramic analysis demonstrated that recombinant G6PD-2, but not recombinant G6PD-1 (the X-chromosome-encoded G6PD), formed tetramers under reducing conditions. Under the same conditions, G6PD tetramers were also found in extracts of spermatids and spermatozoa, indicating the presence of G6pd-2-encoded isoenzyme in these cell types. G6pd-2 is one of the very few known expressed retroposons encoding a functional protein, and the presence of this gene is probably related to X chromosome inactivation during spermatogenesis. 62 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Recombinant hyperthermophilic enzyme expression in plants: a novel approach for lignocellulose digestion.

    PubMed

    Mir, Bilal Ahmad; Mewalal, Ritesh; Mizrachi, Eshchar; Myburg, Alexander A; Cowan, Don A

    2014-05-01

    Plant biomass, as an abundant renewable carbon source, is a promising alternative to fossil fuels. However, the enzymes most commonly used for depolymerization of lignocellulosic biomass are expensive, and the development of cost-effective alternative conversion technologies would be desirable. One possible option is the heterologous expression of genes encoding lignocellulose-digesting enzymes in plant tissues. To overcome simultaneously issues of toxicity and incompatibility with high-temperature steam explosion processes, the use of heterologous genes encoding hyperthermophilic enzymes may be an attractive alternative. This approach could reduce the need for exogenous enzyme additions prior to fermentation, reducing the cost of the complete processing operation. This review highlights recent advances and future prospects for using hyperthermophilic enzymes in the biofuels industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Chemical Space of DNA-Encoded Libraries.

    PubMed

    Franzini, Raphael M; Randolph, Cassie

    2016-07-28

    In recent years, DNA-encoded chemical libraries (DECLs) have attracted considerable attention as a potential discovery tool in drug development. Screening encoded libraries may offer advantages over conventional hit discovery approaches and has the potential to complement such methods in pharmaceutical research. As a result of the increased application of encoded libraries in drug discovery, a growing number of hit compounds are emerging in scientific literature. In this review we evaluate reported encoded library-derived structures and identify general trends of these compounds in relation to library design parameters. We in particular emphasize the combinatorial nature of these libraries. Generally, the reported molecules demonstrate the ability of this technology to afford hits suitable for further lead development, and on the basis of them, we derive guidelines for DECL design.

  18. Optimal stimulus encoders for natural tasks

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Wilson S.; Najemnik, Jiri; Ing, Almon D.

    2010-01-01

    Determining the features of natural stimuli that are most useful for specific natural tasks is critical for understanding perceptual systems. A new approach is described that involves finding the optimal encoder for the natural task of interest, given a relatively small population of noisy “neurons” between the encoder and decoder. The optimal encoder, which necessarily specifies the most useful features, is found by maximizing accuracy in the natural task, where the decoder is the Bayesian ideal observer operating on the population responses. The approach is illustrated for a patch identification task, where the goal is to identify patches of natural image, and for a foreground identification task, where the goal is to identify which side of a natural surface boundary belongs to the foreground object. The optimal features (receptive fields) are intuitive and perform well in the two tasks. The approach also provides insight into general principles of neural encoding and decoding. PMID:20055550

  19. A multifunctional rotary photoelectric encoder management system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zunzhong; Ying, Yibin

    2005-11-01

    The rotary photoelectric encoder can be used in many fields, such as robot research, fruit assembly lines, and so on. If there have many photoelectric encoders in one system, it's difficult to manage them and acquire the right pulse number. So it's important to design a multifunctional management system. It includes a powerful microchip with high processing speed, assuring the acquisition precision of rotary pulse. It uses a special method to judge the rotary direction and will be competent for many occasions which rotary direction changes quickly. Considering encoder data transmission, the management system provides a serial port using RS-485 protocol to transmit current pulse data and rotary direction. It allows linking a maximum of 100 management systems using only two communication lines to up-systems and also configing the encoder counting pattern locally (using the keyboard) or remotely (through the computer).

  20. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2013-09-24

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  1. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-10-14

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase II. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the variants.

  2. Cellobiohydrolase variants and polynucleotides encoding the same

    DOEpatents

    Wogulis, Mark

    2014-09-09

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent cellobiohydrolase. The present invention also relates to polynucleotides encoding the cellobiohydrolase variants; nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the polynucleotides; and methods of using the cellobiohydrolase variants.

  3. Giant Virus Megavirus chilensis Encodes the Biosynthetic Pathway for Uncommon Acetamido Sugars*

    PubMed Central

    Piacente, Francesco; De Castro, Cristina; Jeudy, Sandra; Molinaro, Antonio; Salis, Annalisa; Damonte, Gianluca; Bernardi, Cinzia; Abergel, Chantal; Tonetti, Michela G.

    2014-01-01

    Giant viruses mimicking microbes, by the sizes of their particles and the heavily glycosylated fibrils surrounding their capsids, infect Acanthamoeba sp., which are ubiquitous unicellular eukaryotes. The glycans on fibrils are produced by virally encoded enzymes, organized in gene clusters. Like Mimivirus, Megavirus glycans are mainly composed of virally synthesized N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc). They also contain N-acetylrhamnosamine (RhaNAc), a rare sugar; the enzymes involved in its synthesis are encoded by a gene cluster specific to Megavirus close relatives. We combined activity assays on two enzymes of the pathway with mass spectrometry and NMR studies to characterize their specificities. Mg534 is a 4,6-dehydratase 5-epimerase; its three-dimensional structure suggests that it belongs to a third subfamily of inverting dehydratases. Mg535, next in the pathway, is a bifunctional 3-epimerase 4-reductase. The sequential activity of the two enzymes leads to the formation of UDP-l-RhaNAc. This study is another example of giant viruses performing their glycan synthesis using enzymes different from their cellular counterparts, raising again the question of the origin of these pathways. PMID:25035429

  4. Clustering of polarization-encoded images.

    PubMed

    Zallat, Jihad; Collet, Christophe; Takakura, Yoshitate

    2004-01-10

    Polarization-encoded imaging consists of the distributed measurements of polarization parameters for each pixel of an image. We address clustering of multidimensional polarization-encoded images. The spatial coherence of polarization information is considered. Two methods of analysis are proposed: polarization contrast enhancement and a more-sophisticated image-processing algorithm based on a Markovian model. The proposed algorithms are applied and validated with two different Mueller images acquired by a fully polarimetric imaging system.

  5. A Manual for Encoding Probability Distributions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-09-01

    summary of the most significant information contained in the report. If the report contains a significant bibliography or literature survey, mention it...probability distri- bution. Some terms in the literature that are used synonymously to Encoding: Assessment, Assignment (used for single events in this...sessions conducted as parts of practical decision analyses as well as on experimental evidence in the literature . Probability encoding can be applied

  6. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  7. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  8. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata

    PubMed Central

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. Materials and Methods: We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. Results: We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. Conclusions: All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs. PMID:21969921

  9. Using XML to encode TMA DES metadata.

    PubMed

    Lyttleton, Oliver; Wright, Alexander; Treanor, Darren; Lewis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The Tissue Microarray Data Exchange Specification (TMA DES) is an XML specification for encoding TMA experiment data. While TMA DES data is encoded in XML, the files that describe its syntax, structure, and semantics are not. The DTD format is used to describe the syntax and structure of TMA DES, and the ISO 11179 format is used to define the semantics of TMA DES. However, XML Schema can be used in place of DTDs, and another XML encoded format, RDF, can be used in place of ISO 11179. Encoding all TMA DES data and metadata in XML would simplify the development and usage of programs which validate and parse TMA DES data. XML Schema has advantages over DTDs such as support for data types, and a more powerful means of specifying constraints on data values. An advantage of RDF encoded in XML over ISO 11179 is that XML defines rules for encoding data, whereas ISO 11179 does not. We created an XML Schema version of the TMA DES DTD. We wrote a program that converted ISO 11179 definitions to RDF encoded in XML, and used it to convert the TMA DES ISO 11179 definitions to RDF. We validated a sample TMA DES XML file that was supplied with the publication that originally specified TMA DES using our XML Schema. We successfully validated the RDF produced by our ISO 11179 converter with the W3C RDF validation service. All TMA DES data could be encoded using XML, which simplifies its processing. XML Schema allows datatypes and valid value ranges to be specified for CDEs, which enables a wider range of error checking to be performed using XML Schemas than could be performed using DTDs.

  10. Synthetic Helizyme Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-18

    Enzymes START DATE: 1 August 1986; END DATE: 31 July 1989 RESEARCH OBSCTE: The goal of this project as to design, synthesize and test totally new...the peptide from the resin by HF. Coupling reactions were monitored at nearly all steps using qualitative and quantitative ninhydrin reactions

  11. Amperometric Enzyme Electrodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-01

    and C. Lyons. "Electrode systems for continuous monitoring in cardiomuscula murgery," Ann. NY Acad. Sci.. 102 (1962). 20-45. [6]. 1. J. Updike mid G...Chemistry, John Wiley & Sons: New York (1980). 197-236. [2]. L D. Mell and J. T. Maloy, "A Model for the Amperometric Enzyme Electrode Obtained through

  12. Quorum quenching enzymes.

    PubMed

    Fetzner, Susanne

    2015-05-10

    Bacteria use cell-to-cell communication systems based on chemical signal molecules to coordinate their behavior within the population. These quorum sensing systems are potential targets for antivirulence therapies, because many bacterial pathogens control the expression of virulence factors via quorum sensing networks. Since biofilm maturation is also usually influenced by quorum sensing, quenching these systems may contribute to combat biofouling. One possibility to interfere with quorum sensing is signal inactivation by enzymatic degradation or modification. Such quorum quenching enzymes are wide-spread in the bacterial world and have also been found in eukaryotes. Lactonases and acylases that hydrolyze N-acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) signaling molecules have been investigated most intensively, however, different oxidoreductases active toward AHLs or 2-alkyl-4(1H)-quinolone signals as well as other signal-converting enzymes have been described. Several approaches have been assessed which aim at alleviating virulence, or biofilm formation, by reducing the signal concentration in the bacterial environment. These involve the application or stimulation of signal-degrading bacteria as biocontrol agents in the protection of crop plants against soft-rot disease, the use of signal-degrading bacteria as probiotics in aquaculture, and the immobilization or entrapment of quorum quenching enzymes or bacteria to control biofouling in membrane bioreactors. While most approaches to use quorum quenching as antivirulence strategy are still in the research phase, the growing number of organisms and enzymes known to interfere with quorum sensing opens up new perspectives for the development of innovative antibacterial strategies.

  13. Photoperiodism and Enzyme Activity

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Orlando; Morel, Claudine

    1974-01-01

    Metabolic readjustments after a change from long days to short days appear, in Kalanchoe blossfeldiana, to be achieved through the operation of two main mechanisms: variation in enzyme capacity, and circadian rhythmicity. After a lag time, capacity in phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and capacity in aspartate aminotransferase increase exponentially and appear to be allometrically linked during 50 to 60 short days; then a sudden fall takes place in the activity of the former. Malic enzyme and alanine aminotransferase behave differently. Thus, the operation of the two sections of the pathway (before and after the malate step) give rise to a continuously changing functional compartmentation in the pathway. Circadian rhythmicity, on the other hand, produces time compartmentation through phase shifts and variation in amplitude, independently for each enzyme. These characteristics suggest that the operation of a so-called biological clock would be involved. We propose the hypothesis that feedback regulation would be more accurate and efficient when applied to an already oscillating, clock-controlled enzyme system. PMID:16658749

  14. Cold-Adapted Enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georlette, D.; Bentahir, M.; Claverie, P.; Collins, T.; D'amico, S.; Delille, D.; Feller, G.; Gratia, E.; Hoyoux, A.; Lonhienne, T.; Meuwis, M.-a.; Zecchinon, L.; Gerday, Ch.

    In the last few years, increased attention has been focused on enzymes produced by cold-adapted micro-organisms. It has emerged that psychrophilic enzymes represent an extremely powerful tool in both protein folding investigations and for biotechnological purposes. Such enzymes are characterised by an increased thermosensitivity and, most of them, by a higher catalytic efficiency at low and moderate temperatures, when compared to their mesophilic counterparts. The high thermosensitivity probably originates from an increased flexibility of either a selected area of the molecular edifice or the overall protein structure, providing enhanced abilities to undergo conformational changes during catalysis at low temperatures. Structure modelling and recent crystallographic data have allowed to elucidate the structural parameters that could be involved in this higher resilience. It was demonstrated that each psychrophilic enzyme adopts its own adaptive strategy. It appears, moreover, that there is a continuum in the strategy of protein adaptation to temperature, as the previously mentioned structural parameters are implicated in the stability of thermophilic proteins. Additional 3D crystal structures, site-directed and random mutagenesis experiments should now be undertaken to further investigate the stability-flexibility-activity relationship.

  15. Toying with Enzyme Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Debbie

    1998-01-01

    Describes a set of manipulatives that are used to establish a secure understanding of the concepts related to the environmental factors that affect the activities of enzymes. Includes a description of the model components and procedures for construction of the model. (DDR)

  16. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses

    PubMed Central

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L.; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca2+ pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca2+ pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca2+ pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca2+ pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a 32P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca2+, thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca2+-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus. PMID:20573858

  17. A functional calcium-transporting ATPase encoded by chlorella viruses.

    PubMed

    Bonza, Maria Cristina; Martin, Holger; Kang, Ming; Lewis, Gentry; Greiner, Timo; Giacometti, Sonia; Van Etten, James L; De Michelis, Maria Ida; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2010-10-01

    Calcium-transporting ATPases (Ca(2+) pumps) are major players in maintaining calcium homeostasis in the cell and have been detected in all cellular organisms. Here, we report the identification of two putative Ca(2+) pumps, M535L and C785L, encoded by chlorella viruses MT325 and AR158, respectively, and the functional characterization of M535L. Phylogenetic and sequence analyses place the viral proteins in group IIB of P-type ATPases even though they lack a typical feature of this class, a calmodulin-binding domain. A Ca(2+) pump gene is present in 45 of 47 viruses tested and is transcribed during virus infection. Complementation analysis of the triple yeast mutant K616 confirmed that M535L transports calcium ions and, unusually for group IIB pumps, also manganese ions. In vitro assays show basal ATPase activity. This activity is inhibited by vanadate, but, unlike that of other Ca(2+) pumps, is not significantly stimulated by either calcium or manganese. The enzyme forms a (32)P-phosphorylated intermediate, which is inhibited by vanadate and not stimulated by the transported substrate Ca(2+), thus confirming the peculiar properties of this viral pump. To our knowledge this is the first report of a functional P-type Ca(2+)-transporting ATPase encoded by a virus.

  18. Application of a hierarchical enzyme classification method reveals the role of gut microbiome in human metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Enzymes are known as the molecular machines that drive the metabolism of an organism; hence identification of the full enzyme complement of an organism is essential to build the metabolic blueprint of that species as well as to understand the interplay of multiple species in an ecosystem. Experimental characterization of the enzymatic reactions of all enzymes in a genome is a tedious and expensive task. The problem is more pronounced in the metagenomic samples where even the species are not adequately cultured or characterized. Enzymes encoded by the gut microbiota play an essential role in the host metabolism; thus, warranting the need to accurately identify and annotate the full enzyme complements of species in the genomic and metagenomic projects. To fulfill this need, we develop and apply a method called ECemble, an ensemble approach to identify enzymes and enzyme classes and study the human gut metabolic pathways. Results ECemble method uses an ensemble of machine-learning methods to accurately model and predict enzymes from protein sequences and also identifies the enzyme classes and subclasses at the finest resolution. A tenfold cross-validation result shows accuracy between 97 and 99% at different levels in the hierarchy of enzyme classification, which is superior to comparable methods. We applied ECemble to predict the entire complements of enzymes from ten sequenced proteomes including the human proteome. We also applied this method to predict enzymes encoded by the human gut microbiome from gut metagenomic samples, and to study the role played by the microbe-derived enzymes in the human metabolism. After mapping the known and predicted enzymes to canonical human pathways, we identified 48 pathways that have at least one bacteria-encoded enzyme, which demonstrates the complementary role of gut microbiome in human gut metabolism. These pathways are primarily involved in metabolizing dietary nutrients such as carbohydrates, amino acids, lipids

  19. Structure and function of a cyanophage-encoded peptide deformylase

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Jeremy A; Lorimer, Don; Youle, Merry; Witte, Pam; Craig, Tim; Abendroth, Jan; Rohwer, Forest; Edwards, Robert A; Segall, Anca M; Burgin, Alex B

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriophages encode auxiliary metabolic genes that support more efficient phage replication. For example, cyanophages carry several genes to maintain host photosynthesis throughout infection, shuttling the energy and reducing power generated away from carbon fixation and into anabolic pathways. Photodamage to the D1/D2 proteins at the core of photosystem II necessitates their continual replacement. Synthesis of functional proteins in bacteria requires co-translational removal of the N-terminal formyl group by a peptide deformylase (PDF). Analysis of marine metagenomes to identify phage-encoded homologs of known metabolic genes found that marine phages carry PDF genes, suggesting that their expression during infection might benefit phage replication. We identified a PDF homolog in the genome of Synechococcus cyanophage S-SSM7. Sequence analysis confirmed that it possesses the three absolutely conserved motifs that form the active site in PDF metalloproteases. Phylogenetic analysis placed it within the Type 1B subclass, most closely related to the Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF, but lacking the C-terminal α-helix characteristic of that group. PDF proteins from this phage and from Synechococcus elongatus were expressed and characterized. The phage PDF is the more active enzyme and deformylates the N-terminal tetrapeptides from D1 proteins more efficiently than those from ribosomal proteins. Solution of the X-ray/crystal structures of those two PDFs to 1.95 Å resolution revealed active sites identical to that of the Type 1B Arabidopsis chloroplast PDF. Taken together, these findings show that many cyanophages encode a PDF with a D1 substrate preference that adds to the repertoire of genes used by phages to maintain photosynthetic activities. PMID:23407310

  20. Computational enzyme design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolon, Daniel N.

    2002-08-01

    The long-term objective of computational enzyme design is the ability to generate efficient protein catalysts for any chemical reaction. This thesis develops and experimentally validates a general computational approach for the design of enzymes with novel function. In order to include catalytic mechanism in protein design, a high-energy state (HES) rotamer (side chain representation) was constructed. In this rotamer, substrate atoms are in a HES. In addition, at least one amino acid side chain is positioned to interact favorably with substrate atoms in their HES and facilitate the reaction. Including an amino acid side chain in the HES rotamer automatically positions substrate relative to a protein scaffold and allows protein design algorithms to search for sequences capable of interacting favorably with the substrate. Because chemical similarity exists between the transition state and the high-energy state, optimizing the protein sequence to interact favorably with the HES rotamer should lead to transition state stabilization. In addition, the HES rotamer model focuses the subsequent computational active site design on a relevant phase space where an amino acid is capable of interacting in a catalytically active geometry with substrate. Using a HES rotamer model of the histidine mediated nucleophilic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate, the catalytically inert 108 residue E. coli thioredoxin as a scaffold, and the ORBIT protein design software to compute sequences, an active site scan identified two promising active site designs. Experimentally, both candidate ?protozymes? demonstrated catalytic activity significantly above background. In addition, the rate enhancement of one of these ?protozymes? was the same order of magnitude as the first catalytic antibodies. Because polar groups are frequently buried at enzyme-substrate interfaces, improved modeling of buried polar interactions may benefit enzyme design. By studying native protein structures, rules have been

  1. Neurally Encoding Time for Olfactory Navigation

    PubMed Central

    Park, In Jun; Hein, Andrew M.; Bobkov, Yuriy V.; Reidenbach, Matthew A.; Ache, Barry W.; Principe, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurately encoding time is one of the fundamental challenges faced by the nervous system in mediating behavior. We recently reported that some animals have a specialized population of rhythmically active neurons in their olfactory organs with the potential to peripherally encode temporal information about odor encounters. If these neurons do indeed encode the timing of odor arrivals, it should be possible to demonstrate that this capacity has some functional significance. Here we show how this sensory input can profoundly influence an animal’s ability to locate the source of odor cues in realistic turbulent environments—a common task faced by species that rely on olfactory cues for navigation. Using detailed data from a turbulent plume created in the laboratory, we reconstruct the spatiotemporal behavior of a real odor field. We use recurrence theory to show that information about position relative to the source of the odor plume is embedded in the timing between odor pulses. Then, using a parameterized computational model, we show how an animal can use populations of rhythmically active neurons to capture and encode this temporal information in real time, and use it to efficiently navigate to an odor source. Our results demonstrate that the capacity to accurately encode temporal information about sensory cues may be crucial for efficient olfactory navigation. More generally, our results suggest a mechanism for extracting and encoding temporal information from the sensory environment that could have broad utility for neural information processing. PMID:26730727

  2. Peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, P A; Chen, W W; Harris, C J; Hoefler, G; Hoefler, S; Blake, D C; Balfe, A; Kelley, R I; Moser, A B; Beard, M E

    1989-01-01

    Peroxisomal function was evaluated in a male infant with clinical features of neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. Very long chain fatty acid levels were elevated in both plasma and fibroblasts, and beta-oxidation of very long chain fatty acids in cultured fibroblasts was significantly impaired. Although the level of the bile acid intermediate trihydroxycoprostanoic acid was slightly elevated in plasma, phytanic acid and L-pipecolic acid levels were normal, as was plasmalogen synthesis in cultured fibroblasts. The latter three parameters distinguish this case from classical neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy. In addition, electron microscopy and catalase subcellular distribution studies revealed that, in contrast to neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, peroxisomes were present in the patient's tissues. Immunoblot studies of peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes revealed that the bifunctional enzyme (enoyl-CoA hydratase/3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase) was deficient in postmortem liver samples, whereas acyl-CoA oxidase and the mature form of beta-ketothiolase were present. Density gradient centrifugation of fibroblast homogenates confirmed that intact peroxisomes were present. Immunoblots of fibroblasts peroxisomal fractions showed that they contained acyl-CoA oxidase and beta-ketothiolase, but bifunctional enzyme was not detected. Northern analysis, however, revealed that mRNA coding for the bifunctional enzyme was present in the patient's fibroblasts. These results indicate that the primary biochemical defect in this patient is a deficiency of peroxisomal bifunctional enzyme. It is of interest that the phenotype of this patient resembled neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy and would not have been distinguished from this disorder by clinical study alone. Images PMID:2921319

  3. The Enzyme Function Initiative†

    PubMed Central

    Gerlt, John A.; Allen, Karen N.; Almo, Steven C.; Armstrong, Richard N.; Babbitt, Patricia C.; Cronan, John E.; Dunaway-Mariano, Debra; Imker, Heidi J.; Jacobson, Matthew P.; Minor, Wladek; Poulter, C. Dale; Raushel, Frank M.; Sali, Andrej; Shoichet, Brian K.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-01-01

    The Enzyme Function Initiative (EFI) was recently established to address the challenge of assigning reliable functions to enzymes discovered in bacterial genome projects; in this Current Topic we review the structure and operations of the EFI. The EFI includes the Superfamily/Genome, Protein, Structure, Computation, and Data/Dissemination Cores that provide the infrastructure for reliably predicting the in vitro functions of unknown enzymes. The initial targets for functional assignment are selected from five functionally diverse superfamilies (amidohydrolase, enolase, glutathione transferase, haloalkanoic acid dehalogenase, and isoprenoid synthase), with five superfamily-specific Bridging Projects experimentally testing the predicted in vitro enzymatic activities. The EFI also includes the Microbiology Core that evaluates the in vivo context of in vitro enzymatic functions and confirms the functional predictions of the EFI. The deliverables of the EFI to the scientific community include: 1) development of a large-scale, multidisciplinary sequence/structure-based strategy for functional assignment of unknown enzymes discovered in genome projects (target selection, protein production, structure determination, computation, experimental enzymology, microbiology, and structure-based annotation); 2) dissemination of the strategy to the community via publications, collaborations, workshops, and symposia; 3) computational and bioinformatic tools for using the strategy; 4) provision of experimental protocols and/or reagents for enzyme production and characterization; and 5) dissemination of data via the EFI’s website, enzymefunction.org. The realization of multidisciplinary strategies for functional assignment will begin to define the full metabolic diversity that exists in nature and will impact basic biochemical and evolutionary understanding, as well as a wide range of applications of central importance to industrial, medicinal and pharmaceutical efforts. PMID

  4. Bacteriophage-encoded lytic enzymes control growth of contaminating Lactobacillus found in fuel ethanol fermentations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Reduced yields of ethanol due to bacterial contamination in fermentation cultures weakens the economics of biofuel production. Lactic acid bacteria are considered the most problematic, and surveys of commercial fuel ethanol facilities have found that species of Lactobacillus are predomin...

  5. Organization and control of genes encoding catabolic enzymes in Rhizobiaceae. Progress report, March 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Parke, D.; Ornston, L.N.

    1993-03-01

    Rhizobiaceae, a diverse bacterial group comprising rhizobia and agrobacteria, symbiotic partnership with plants form nitrogen-fixing nodules on plant roots or are plant pathogens. Phenolic compounds produced by plants serve as inducers of rhizobial nodulation genes and agrobacterial virulence genes reflect their capacity to utilize numerous aromatics, including phenolics, as a source of carbon and energy. In many microbes the aerobic degradation of numerous aromatic compounds to tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates is achieved by the {beta}-ketoadipate pathway. Our initial studies focused on the organization and regulation of the ketoadipate pathway in Agrobacterium tumefaciens. We have cloned, identified and characterized a novel regulatory gene that modulates expression of an adjacent pca (protocatechuate) structural gene, pcaD. Regulation of pcaD is mediated by the regulatory gene, termed pcaQ, in concert with the intermediate {beta}-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate. {beta}-carboxy-cis,cismuconate is an unstable chemical, not marketed commercially, and it is unlikely to permeate Escherichia coli cells if supplied in media. Because of these factors, characterization of pcaQ in E. coli required an in vivo delivery system for {beta}-carboxycis,cis-muconate. This was accomplished by designing an E. coli strain that expressed an Acinetobacter calcoaceticus pcaA gene for conversion of protocatechuate to {beta}-carboxy-cis,cis-muconate.

  6. Methods for the Isolation of Genes Encoding Novel PHA Metabolism Enzymes from Complex Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jiujun; Nordeste, Ricardo; Trainer, Maria A; Charles, Trevor C

    2017-01-01

    Development of different PHAs as alternatives to petrochemically derived plastics can be facilitated by mining metagenomic libraries for diverse PHA cycle genes that might be useful for synthesis of bio-plastics. The specific phenotypes associated with mutations of the PHA synthesis pathway genes in Sinorhizobium meliloti and Pseudomonas putida, allows the use of powerful selection and screening tools to identify complementing novel PHA synthesis genes. Identification of novel genes through their function rather than sequence facilitates the functional proteins that may otherwise have been excluded through sequence-only screening methodology. We present here methods that we have developed for the isolation of clones expressing novel PHA metabolism genes from metagenomic libraries.

  7. Cloning and Expression Analysis of MEP Pathway Enzyme-encoding Genes in Osmanthus fragrans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Li, Huogeng; Yang, Xiulian; Gu, Chunsun; Mu, Hongna; Yue, Yuanzheng; Wang, Lianggui

    2016-01-01

    The 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of many crucial secondary metabolites, such as carotenoids, monoterpenes, plastoquinone, and tocopherols. In this study, we isolated and identified 10 MEP pathway genes in the important aromatic plant sweet osmanthus (Osmanthus fragrans). Multiple sequence alignments revealed that 10 MEP pathway genes shared high identities with other reported proteins. The genes showed distinctive expression profiles in various tissues, or at different flower stages and diel time points. The qRT-PCR results demonstrated that these genes were highly expressed in inflorescences, which suggested a tissue-specific transcript pattern. Our results also showed that OfDXS1, OfDXS2, and OfHDR1 had a clear diurnal oscillation pattern. The isolation and expression analysis provides a strong foundation for further research on the MEP pathway involved in gene function and molecular evolution, and improves our understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying this pathway in plants. PMID:27690108

  8. Purine utilization by Klebsiella oxytoca M5al: genes for ring-oxidizing and -opening enzymes.

    PubMed

    Pope, Scott D; Chen, Li-Ling; Stewart, Valley

    2009-02-01

    The enterobacterium Klebsiella oxytoca uses a variety of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources, including purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. We have identified a 23-gene cluster that encodes the enzymes for utilizing purines as the sole nitrogen source. Growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined with sequence comparisons, reveal functions for the products of these genes. Here, we report our characterization o