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Sample records for encoded antigens recombinant

  1. Genomic polymorphism, recombination, and linkage disequilibrium in human major histocompatibility complex-encoded antigen-processing genes

    SciTech Connect

    van Endert, P.M.; Lopez, M.T.; Patel, S.D.; McDevitt, H.O. ); Monaco, J.J. )

    1992-12-01

    Recently, two subunits of a large cytosolic protease and two putative peptide transporter proteins were found to be encoded by genes within the class II region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). These genes have been suggested to be involved in the processing of antigenic proteins for presentation by MHC class I molecules. Because of the high degree of polymorphism in MHC genes, and previous evidence for both functional and polypeptide sequence polymorphism in the proteins encoded by the antigen-processing genes, we tested DNA from 27 consanguineous human cell lines for genomic polymorphism by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. These studies demonstrate a strong linkage disequilibrium between TAP1 and LMP2 RFLPs. Moreover, RFLPs, as well as a polymorphic stop codon in the telomeric TAP2 gene, appear to be in linkage disequilibrium with HLA-DR alleles and RFLPs in the HLA-DO gene. A high rate of recombination, however, seems to occur in the center of the complex, between the TAP1 and TAP2 genes.

  2. Immunogenicity of recombinant attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccine strains carrying a gene that encodes Eimeria tenella antigen SO7.

    PubMed

    Konjufca, Vjollca; Jenkins, Mark; Wang, Shifeng; Juarez-Rodriguez, Maria Dolores; Curtiss, Roy

    2008-12-01

    Recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccines against avian coccidiosis were developed to deliver Eimeria species antigens to the lymphoid tissues of chickens via the type 3 secretion system (T3SS) and the type 2 secretion system (T2SS) of Salmonella. For antigen delivery via the T3SS, the Eimeria tenella gene encoding sporozoite antigen SO7 was cloned downstream of the translocation domain of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium sopE gene in the parental pYA3868 and pYA3870 vectors to generate pYA4156 and pYA4157. Newly constructed T3SS vectors were introduced into host strain chi8879 (Delta phoP233 Delta sptP1033::xylE Delta asdA16), an attenuated derivative of the highly virulent UK-1 strain. The SopE-SO7 fusion protein was secreted by the T3SS of Salmonella. The vector pYA4184 was constructed for delivery of the SO7 antigen via the T2SS. The SO7 protein was toxic to Salmonella when larger amounts were synthesized; thus, the synthesis of this protein was placed under the control of the lacI repressor gene, whose expression in turn was dependent on the amount of available arabinose in the medium. The pYA4184 vector was introduced into host strain chi9242 (Delta phoP233 Delta asdA16 Delta araBAD23 Delta relA198::araC P(BAD) lacI TT [TT is the T4ipIII transcription terminator]). In addition to SO7, for immunization and challenge studies we used the EAMZ250 antigen of Eimeria acervulina, which was previously shown to confer partial protection against E. acervulina challenge when it was delivered via the T3SS. Immunization of chickens with a combination of the SO7 and EAMZ250 antigens delivered via the T3SS induced superior protection against challenge by E. acervulina. In contrast, chickens immunized with SO7 that was delivered via the T2SS of Salmonella were better protected from challenge by E. tenella.

  3. Construction and Characterization of a Triple-Recombinant Vaccinia Virus Encoding B7-1, Interleukin 12, and a Model Tumor Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Miles W.; Overwijk, Willem W.; Surman, Deborah R.; Tsung, Kangla; Moss, Bernard; Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Construction of recombinant viruses that can serve as vaccines for the treatment of experimental murine tumors has recently been achieved. The cooperative effects of immune system modulators, including cytokines such as interleukin 12 (IL-12) and costimulatory molecules such as B7-1, may be necessary for activation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Thus, we have explored the feasibility and the efficacy of inclusion of these immunomodulatory molecules in recombinant virus vaccines in an experimental antitumor model in mice that uses Escherichia coli β-galactosidase as a target antigen. Methods: We developed a “cassette” system in which three loci of the vaccinia virus genome were used for homologous recombination. A variety of recombinant vaccinia viruses were constructed, including one virus, vB7/β/IL-12, that contains the following five transgenes: murine B7-1, murine IL-12 subunit p35, murine IL-12 subunit p40, E. coli lacZ (encodes β-galactosidase, the model antigen), and E. coli gpt (xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase, a selection gene). The effects of the recombinant viruses on lung metastases and survival were tested in animals that had been given an intravenous injection of β-galactosidase-expressing murine colon carcinoma cells 3 days before they received the recombinant virus by intravenous inoculation. Results: Expression of functional B7-1 and IL-12 by virally infected cells was demonstrated in vitro. Lung tumor nodules (i.e., metastases) were reduced in mice by more than 95% after treatment with the virus vB7/β/IL-12; a further reduction in lung tumor nodules was observed when exogenous IL-12 was also given. Greatest survival of tumor-bearing mice was observed in those treated with viruses encoding β-galactosidase and B7-1 plus exogenous IL-12. Conclusion: This study shows the feasibility of constructing vaccinia viruses that express tumor antigens and multiple immune cofactors to create unique immunologic microenvironments that

  4. Induction of antigen-presenting capacity in tumor cells upon infection with non-replicating recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine MHC class II and costimulatory molecules.

    PubMed

    Marti, W R; Oertli, D; Meko, J B; Norton, J A; Tsung, K

    1997-01-15

    The possibility of inducing antigen-presenting capacity in cells normally lacking such capacity, currently represents a major goal in vaccine research. To address this issue we attempted to generate 'artificial' APC able to stimulate CD4+ T cell responses when tumor cells were infected with a single, recombinant, vaccinia virus (rVV) containing the two genes encoding murine MHC class II I-Ak and a third gene encoding the murine B7-1 (mB7-1) costimulatory molecule. To minimize the cytopathic effect and to improve safety, in view of possible in vivo applications, we made this rVV replication incompetent by Psoralen and long wave UV treatment. Tumor cells infected with rVV encoding I-Ak alone, pulsed with hen egg white lysozyme peptide (HEL46-61), induced IL-2 secretion by an antigen-specific T hybridoma. Tumor cells infected with the rVV encoding mB7-1 provided costimulation for activating resting CD4+ T cells in the presence of ConA. Tumor cells infected with the rVV encoding I-Ak and mB7-1, and pulsed with chicken ovotransferrin peptide (conalbumin133-145), induced a significantly higher response in a specific Th2 cell clone (D10.G4.1) as compared to cells infected with rVV encoding I-Ak molecules only. Thus, this replication incompetent rVV represents a safe, multiple gene, vector system able to confer in one single infection step effective APC capacity to non-professional APCs.

  5. Vaccination of mice against canine distemper virus-induced encephalitis with vaccinia virus recombinants encoding measles or canine distemper virus antigens.

    PubMed

    Wild, T F; Bernard, A; Spehner, D; Villeval, D; Drillien, R

    1993-01-01

    Measles and canine distemper are caused by serologically related viruses. Although dogs immunized with measles virus (MV) do not elicit canine distemper virus (CDV) neutralizing antibodies, they are protected against the fatal disease. To investigate the potential role of the MV antigens in protection against CDV, we have immunized mice with vaccinia virus (VV) recombinants expressing the MV haemagglutinin (HA), fusion (F), nucleoprotein (NP) and matrix (M) antigens and challenged them with CDV. A partial protection was observed with the VV recombinants expressing the F, NP and M antigens, but not the HA. In contrast, immunization with a VV recombinant expressing the CDV F protein completely protected mice from CDV. PMID:8470428

  6. Genes encoding homologous antigens in taeniid cestode parasites

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2013-01-01

    Recombinant vaccine antigens are being evaluated for their ability to protect livestock animals against cysticercosis and related parasitic infections. Practical use of some of these vaccines is expected to reduce parasite transmission, leading to a reduction in the incidence of neurocysticercosis and hydatid disease in humans. We recently showed that an antigen (TSOL16), expressed in Escherichia coli, confers high levels of protection against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs, which provides a strategy for control of T. solium parasite transmission. Here, we discuss the characteristics of this antigen that may affect the utility of TSOL16 and related antigens for development as recombinant vaccines. We also report that genes encoding antigens closely related to TSOL16 from T. solium also occur in other related species of parasites. These highly homologous antigens have the potential to be used as vaccines and may provide protection against related species of Taenia that cause infection in other hosts. PMID:23090389

  7. A recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara vaccine encoding Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) target antigens: a phase I trial in UK patients with EBV-positive cancer

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Graham S.; Jia, Hui; Harrington, Kevin; Lee, Lip Wai; Turner, James; Ladell, Kristin; Price, David A; Tanday, Manjit; Matthews, Jen; Roberts, Claudia; Edwards, Ceri; McGuigan, Lesley; Hartley, Andrew; Wilson, Steve; Hui, Edwin P.; Chan, Anthony T. C.; Rickinson, Alan B.; Steven, Neil M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is associated with several cancers in which the tumour cells express EBV antigens EBNA1 and LMP2. A therapeutic vaccine comprising a recombinant vaccinia virus, MVA-EL, was designed to boost immunity to these tumour antigens. A phase I trial was conducted to demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of MVA-EL across a range of doses. Experimental Design Sixteen patients in the United Kingdom (UK) with EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), received three intradermal vaccinations of MVA-EL at 3-weekly intervals at dose levels between 5×107 and 5×108 plaque forming units (pfu). Blood samples were taken at screening, after each vaccine cycle and during the post-vaccination period. T-cell responses were measured using IFNγ ELISpot assays with overlapping EBNA1/LMP2 peptide mixes or HLA-matched epitope peptides. Polychromatic flow cytometry was used to characterize functionally responsive T-cell populations. Results Vaccination was generally well-tolerated. Immunity increased after vaccination to at least one antigen in 8/14 patients (7/14, EBNA1; 6/14, LMP2), including recognition of epitopes that vary between EBV strains associated with different ethnic groups. Immunophenotypic analysis revealed that vaccination induced differentiation and functional diversification of responsive T-cell populations specific for EBNA1 and LMP2 within the CD4 and CD8 compartments respectively. Conclusions MVA-EL is safe and immunogenic across diverse ethnicities and thus suitable for use in trials against different EBV-positive cancers globally as well as in South East Asia where NPC is most common. The highest dose (5×108 pfu) is recommended for investigation in current phase IB and II trials. PMID:25124688

  8. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, John; Piddington, Chris S.; Kovacevich, Brian R.; Young, Kevin D.; Denome, Sylvia A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

  9. Recombinant DNA encoding a desulfurization biocatalyst

    DOEpatents

    Rambosek, J.; Piddington, C.S.; Kovacevich, B.R.; Young, K.D.; Denome, S.A.

    1994-10-18

    This invention relates to a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes which encode a biocatalyst capable of desulfurizing a fossil fuel which contains organic sulfur molecules. For example, the present invention encompasses a recombinant DNA molecule containing a gene or genes of a strain of Rhodococcus rhodochrous. 13 figs.

  10. Vaccination against ovine cysticercosis using a defined recombinant antigen.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K S; Harrison, G B; Lightowlers, M W; O'Hoy, K L; Cougle, W G; Dempster, R P; Lawrence, S B; Vinton, J G; Heath, D D; Rickard, M D

    1989-04-13

    Cysticercosis caused by larval tapeworms is a major public health problem and a cause of substantial economic losses in the farm-animal industries. Taenia ovis in sheep is a particularly important example. Immunity to reinfection with the larvae has a central role in regulating natural transmission of the parasites, and vaccination with antigens from the early larval oncosphere stage can induce complete protection against infection. As it is impractical to obtain enough oncospheres for a commercial vaccine against these tapeworms, an alternative approach is to use recombinant DNA methods to generate a cheap and plentiful supply of antigens. We report here the expression in Escherichia coli of complementary DNA encoding T. ovis antigens as fusion proteins with the Schistosoma japonicum glutathione S-transferase. Vaccination of sheep with these fusion proteins gave significant, although not complete, immunity against challenge infection with T. ovis eggs. Commercial development of a vaccine is being pursued.

  11. Active immunization with recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis protects mice against plague.

    PubMed Central

    Leary, S E; Williamson, E D; Griffin, K F; Russell, P; Eley, S M; Titball, R W

    1995-01-01

    The gene encoding V antigen from Yersinia pestis was cloned into the plasmid expression vector pGEX-5X-2. When electroporated into Escherichia coli JM109, the recombinant expressed V antigen as a stable fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase. The glutathione S-transferase-V fusion protein was isolated from recombinant E. coli and cleaved with factor Xa to yield purified V antigen as a stable product. Recombinant V antigen was inoculated intraperitoneally into mice and shown to induce a protective immune response against a subcutaneous challenge with 3.74 x 10(6) CFU of virulent Y. pestis. Protection correlated with the induction of a high titer of serum antibodies and a T-cell response specific for recombinant V antigen. These results indicate that V antigen should be a major component of an improved vaccine for plague. PMID:7622205

  12. Murine T-cell response to native and recombinant protein antigens of Rickettsia tsutsugamushi.

    PubMed Central

    Hickman, C J; Stover, C K; Joseph, S W; Oaks, E V

    1993-01-01

    A polyclonal T-cell line with TH1 characteristics was used to assess the murine cellular immune response to native and recombinant Rickettsia tsutsugamushi antigens. Proliferation of this T-cell line was observed in response to numerous native antigen fractions, which indicates that the murine T-helper-cell response is directed at multiple scrub typhus antigens with no apparent antigenic immunodominance. Subsequent analysis of recombinant R. tsutsugamushi antigens made it possible to identify a 47-kDa scrub typhus antigen (Sta47) that was stimulatory for the polyclonal T-cell line. Recombinant clones encoding 56-, 58-, and 110-kDa antigens (Sta56, Sta58, and Sta110, respectively) were unable to induce proliferation of this T-cell line. DNA sequence analysis of the cloned rickettsial insert encoding the Sta47 protein revealed the presence of four open reading frames potentially encoding proteins of 47, 30, 18, and 13 kDa. Analysis of sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis-separated and eluted fractions of lysates from the recombinant HB101(pRTS47B4.3) demonstrated that the fractions containing the 47-kDa protein as well as those containing proteins less than 18 kDa were stimulatory. Selected synthetic amphipathic peptides derived from the Sta47 antigen sequence identified a 20-amino-acid peptide that gave a 10-fold increase in T-cell proliferation over a control malarial peptide of similar length. Recognition of the 47-kDa antigen by a T-cell line with TH1 characteristics implicates this protein as one of potential importance in protection studies and future vaccine development. Images PMID:8478055

  13. Cloning and expression of genes encoding Haemophilus somnus antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Chikami, G; Yarnall, M; Smith, J; Guiney, D G

    1988-01-01

    A genomic library of Haemophilus somnus 2336, a virulent isolate from a calf with pneumonia (later used to reproduce H. somnus experimental pneumonia), was constructed in the cosmid vector pHC79. The gene bank in Escherichia coli DH1 was screened by filter immunoassay with convalescent-phase serum, which reacted with several outer membrane antigens of H. somnus. On Western blotting (immunoblotting) of immunoreactive colonies, five clones were found to express proteins which comigrated with H. somnus surface antigens. Three clones (DH1 pHS1, pHS3, and pHS4) expressed both a 120-kilodalton (kDa) antigen and a 76-kDa antigen, one clone (DH1 pHS2) expressed only the 76-kDa antigen, and the fifth clone (DH1 pHS5) expressed a 60-kDa antigen. The 120-kDa and 76-kDa antigens were found internally, whereas the 60-kDa protein was detected in the DH1 pHS5 culture supernatant as membrane blebs or insoluble protein. Both the H. somnus 120-kDa antigen and the recombinant 120-kDa antigen had immunoglobulin Fc-binding activity. Restriction endonuclease mapping demonstrated that the genomic DNA inserts of clones expressing the 76-kDa antigen shared a common 28.4-kilobase-pair region, and the three clones also expressing the 120-kDa antigen shared an additional 7.0-kilobase-pair region. The restriction endonuclease map of pHS5, which expressed the 60-kDa antigen, was not similar to the maps of the other four plasmids. Since these three H. somnus antigens reacted with protective convalescent-phase serum, the recombinants which express these proteins should be useful in further studies of protective immunity in bovine H. somnus disease. Images PMID:2843469

  14. [Immunoglobulin genes encoding antibodies directed to oncodevelopmental carbohydrate antigens].

    PubMed

    Zenita, K; Yago, K; Fujimoto, E; Kannagi, R

    1990-07-01

    We investigated the immunoglobulin genes which encode the variable region of the monoclonal antibodies directed to the onco-developmental carbohydrate antigens such SSEA-1, fucosyl SSEA-1, SSEA-3 and SSEA-4. The VH region of these antibodies was preferentially encoded by the gene members of the X24, VH7183 and Q52 families, the families which are known to be located at the 3'-end region of the murine germ line VH gene. This result is interesting particularly when considering that the members of the 3'-end VH families are known to be preferentially expressed in embryonic B lymphocytes by an intrinsic genetic program. The comparative study of the nucleic acid sequences of mRNAs encoding these antibodies and the sequences of the corresponding germ line VH genes disclosed that the sequences encoding the antibodies contain no mutation from the germ line VH genes, or contain only a few somatic mutations, which are thought to be insignificant for the reactivity of the antibodies to the nominal antigens. These results imply that some of the embryonic B lymphocytes that express the unmutated germ line VH genes of the 3'-end families can be reactive with embryonic carbohydrate antigens, albeit rearranged with appropriate D-JH gene segments, and coupled with proper light chains. The VH region of the syngenic monoclonal anti-idiotypic antibodies directed to these anti-carbohydrate antibodies were also encoded preferentially by the members of the 3'-end VH families. We propose here that a part of the virgin embryonic B lymphocytes, which express the antibody encoded by the gene members of the 3'-end VH families at the cell surface, will be stimulated by the embryonic carbohydrate antigens which are abundantly present in the internal milieu of the embryo. The clonally expanded B lymphocytes, in turn, will facilitate the proliferation of other populations of embryonic B lymphocytes expressing the corresponding anti-idiotypic antibodies, which are also encoded by the gene members

  15. Microbial antigenic variation mediated by homologous DNA recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vink, Cornelis; Rudenko, Gloria; Seifert, H. Steven

    2012-01-01

    Pathogenic microorganisms employ numerous molecular strategies in order to delay or circumvent recognition by the immune system of their host. One of the most widely used strategies of immune evasion is antigenic variation, in which immunogenic molecules expressed on the surface of a microorganism are continuously modified. As a consequence, the host is forced to constantly adapt its humoral immune response against this pathogen. An antigenic change thus provides the microorganism with an opportunity to persist and/or replicate within the host (population) for an extended period of time or to effectively infect a previously infected host. In most cases, antigenic variation is caused by genetic processes that lead to modification of the amino acid sequence of a particular antigen or to alterations in the expression of biosynthesis genes that induce changes in expression of a variant antigen. Here, we will review antigenic variation systems that rely on homologous DNA recombination and which are found in a wide range of cellular, human pathogens, including bacteria (such as Neisseria spp., Borrelia spp., Treponema pallidum and Mycoplasma spp.), fungi (like Pneumocystis carinii) and parasites (such as the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei). Specifically, the various DNA recombination-based antigenic variation systems will be discussed with a focus on the employed mechanisms of recombination, the DNA substrates, and the enzymatic machinery involved. PMID:22212019

  16. Subdominant Outer Membrane Antigens in Anaplasma marginale: Conservation, Antigenicity, and Protective Capacity Using Recombinant Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ducken, Deirdre R.; Brown, Wendy C.; Alperin, Debra C.; Brayton, Kelly A.; Reif, Kathryn E.; Turse, Joshua E.; Palmer, Guy H.; Noh, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne rickettsial pathogen of cattle with a worldwide distribution. Currently a safe and efficacious vaccine is unavailable. Outer membrane protein (OMP) extracts or a defined surface protein complex reproducibly induce protective immunity. However, there are several knowledge gaps limiting progress in vaccine development. First, are these OMPs conserved among the diversity of A. marginale strains circulating in endemic regions? Second, are the most highly conserved outer membrane proteins in the immunogens recognized by immunized and protected animals? Lastly, can this subset of OMPs recognized by antibody from protected vaccinates and conserved among strains recapitulate the protection of outer membrane vaccines? To address the first goal, genes encoding OMPs AM202, AM368, AM854, AM936, AM1041, and AM1096, major subdominant components of the outer membrane, were cloned and sequenced from geographically diverse strains and isolates. AM202, AM936, AM854, and AM1096 share 99.9 to 100% amino acid identity. AM1041 has 97.1 to 100% and AM368 has 98.3 to 99.9% amino acid identity. While all four of the most highly conserved OMPs were recognized by IgG from animals immunized with outer membranes, linked surface protein complexes, or unlinked surface protein complexes and shown to be protected from challenge, the highest titers and consistent recognition among vaccinates were to AM854 and AM936. Consequently, animals were immunized with recombinant AM854 and AM936 and challenged. Recombinant vaccinates and purified outer membrane vaccinates had similar IgG and IgG2 responses to both proteins. However, the recombinant vaccinates developed higher bacteremia after challenge as compared to adjuvant-only controls and outer membrane vaccinates. These results provide the first evidence that vaccination with specific antigens may exacerbate disease. Progressing from the protective capacity of outer membrane formulations to recombinant vaccines

  17. Serological diagnosis with recombinant N antigen for hantavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, Kumiko; Arikawa, Jiro

    2014-07-17

    Hantaviruses are causative agents of two rodent-borne zoonoses, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and nephropathia epidemica (NE) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. Serological examinations to detect hantavirus antibodies have been most widely used for surveillance among humans and rodent reservoirs. Here, we will review antigenic structure of nucleocapsid (N) protein of hantaviruses and application of recombinant N protein as diagnostic antigen for screening and serotyping.

  18. Plasmodium knowlesi Sporozoite Antigen: Expression by Infectious Recombinant Vaccinia Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Godson, G. Nigel; Nussenzweig, Victor; Nussenzweig, Ruth S.; Barnwell, John; Moss, Bernard

    1984-04-01

    The gene coding for the circumsporozoite antigen of the malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi was inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under the control of a defined vaccinia virus promoter. Cells infected with the recombinant virus synthesized polypeptides of 53,000 to 56,000 daltons that reacted with monoclonal antibody against the repeating epitope of the malaria protein. Furthermore, rabbits vaccinated with the recombinant virus produced antibodies that bound specifically to sporozoites. These data provide evidence for expression of a cloned malaria gene in mammalian cells and illustrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants as live malaria vaccines.

  19. Cysticercosis: identification and cloning of protective recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Manoutcharian, K; Rosas, G; Hernandez, M; Fragoso, G; Aluja, A; Villalobos, N; Rodarte, L F; Sciutto, E

    1996-04-01

    We describe the cloning and the evaluation of the protective capacity of 5 recombinant antigens expressed during the cysticercus stage of both Taenia crassiceps and Taenia solium. A cDNA library was constructed in bacteriophage lambda ZAP using mRNA isolated from larvae of T. crassiceps of the ORF strain. The recombinant phage library was screened with polyclonal antibodies against 56- and 74-kDa protective antigen fractions. This screening identified 13 recombinant clones, 5 of which were also strongly recognized by pooled sera from pigs experimentally infected with T. solium. The native antigens are proteins of 56 (clones KETcl, 4, 7) and 74 and 78 kDa (clones KETc11, 12) of T. crassiceps cysticerci. Vaccination experiments using these 5 recombinant clones against murine cysticercosis point to the relevance of KETcl, 4, 7, and 12 in host protection, whereas immunization with the clone KETc11 does not modify the parasite load in females and facilitates the parasitosis in males. We report here the DNA and the deduced amino acid sequence (100 amino acids) of the first protective antigen (KETc7) of potential interest for T. solium pig cysticercosis prevention.

  20. Recombinant antigens for immunodiagnosis of cystic echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Wen-Bao

    2004-01-01

    Three cDNAs, termed EpC1, TPxEg and EgG5, were isolated by immunoscreening from an Echinococcus granulosus cDNA library. The recombinant phages exhibited strong reactivity with sera from humans with confirmed cystic echinococcosis (CE) and with sera from mice infected with E. granulosus oncospheres. The cDNAs were subcloned into a pET vector, expressed as fusion proteins tagged with GST and affinity purified against the GST tag. Of the three recombinant proteins, EpC1 achieved the highest performance for serodiagnosis of CE in Western blot analysis using a panel of clinically defined human sera to initially address the sensitivity and specificity of the molecules. The protein yielded an overall sensitivity of 92.2% and specificity of 95.6%, levels unprecedented taking into account the large panel of 896 human sera that were tested. The strategy used may also prove suitable for improved immunodiagnosis of other parasitic infections. PMID:15188015

  1. Identification, expression, and immunogenicity of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus-encoded small viral capsid antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lin, S F; Sun, R; Heston, L; Gradoville, L; Shedd, D; Haglund, K; Rigsby, M; Miller, G

    1997-01-01

    We describe a recombinant antigen for use in serologic tests for antibodies to Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The cDNA for a small viral capsid antigen (sVCA) was identified by immunoscreening of a library prepared from the BC-1 body cavity lymphoma cell line induced into KSHV lytic gene expression by sodium butyrate. The cDNA specified a 170-amino-acid peptide with homology to small viral capsid proteins encoded by the BFRF3 gene of Epstein-Barr virus and the ORF65 gene of herpesvirus saimiri. KSHV sVCA was expressed from a 0.85-kb mRNA present late in lytic KSHV replication in BC-1 cells. This transcript was sensitive to phosphonoacetic acid and phosphonoformic acid, inhibitors of herpesvirus DNA replication. KSHV sVCA expressed in mammalian cells or Escherichia coli or translated in vitro was recognized as an antigen by antisera from KS patients. Rabbit antisera raised to KSHV sVCA expressed in E. coli detected a 22-kDa protein in KSHV-infected human B cells. Overexpressed KSHV sVCA purified from E. coli and used as an antigen in immunoblot screening assay did not cross-react with EBV BFRF3. Antibodies to sVCA were present in 89% of 47 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients with KS, in 20% of 54 HIV-positive patients without KS, but in none of 122 other patients including children born to HIV-seropositive mothers and patients with hemophilia, autoimmune disease, or nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Low-titer antibody was detected in three sera from 28 healthy subjects. Antibodies to recombinant sVCA correlate with KS in high-risk populations. Recombinant sVCA can be used to examine the seroepidemiology of infection with KSHV in the general population. PMID:9060668

  2. Antigenic structures stably expressed by recombinant TGEV-derived vectors.

    PubMed

    Becares, Martina; Sanchez, Carlos M; Sola, Isabel; Enjuanes, Luis; Zuñiga, Sonia

    2014-09-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are positive-stranded RNA viruses with potential as immunization vectors, expressing high levels of heterologous genes and eliciting both secretory and systemic immune responses. Nevertheless, its high recombination rate may result in the loss of the full-length foreign gene, limiting their use as vectors. Transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV) was engineered to express porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) small protein domains, as a strategy to improve heterologous gene stability. After serial passage in tissue cultures, stable expression of small PRRSV protein antigenic domains was achieved. Therefore, size reduction of the heterologous genes inserted in CoV-derived vectors led to the stable expression of antigenic domains. Immunization of piglets with these TGEV vectors led to partial protection against a challenge with a virulent PRRSV strain, as immunized animals showed reduced clinical signs and lung damage. Further improvement of TGEV-derived vectors will require the engineering of vectors with decreased recombination rate.

  3. Vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens reduces the susceptibility of sheep to infection with Taenia multiceps☆

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles; Vural, Gulay; Öncel, Taraneh; Varcasia, Antonio; Damian, Veronica; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Craig, Philip S.; Anderson, Garry A.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2008-01-01

    Taenia multiceps is a cestode parasite, the larval stage of which encysts in the brain of sheep, goats and cattle causing an often fatal condition. The parasite also causes zoonotic infections in humans. Homologues of the recombinant oncosphere vaccine antigens from Taenia ovis and other Taenia species were identified in T. multiceps. Sequencing of the associated T. multiceps genes and cloning of the encoding mRNA has revealed conserved features in the genes and proteins. The T. multiceps oncosphere proteins, designated Tm16 and Tm18, contain a predicted secretory signal and fibronectin type III domain. The recombinant Tm16 and Tm18 proteins were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins with GST. The antigens, formulated with Quil A adjuvant, were tested in a vaccine trial in sheep. The antigens stimulated immunity in sheep against challenge infection with T. multiceps eggs. Five of nine control sheep died due to a challenge infection with T. multiceps whereas none of 20 vaccinated animals died as a result of the parasite challenge (P = 0.001). In addition, vaccination with the Tm16 protein, or Tm16 plus Tm18, induced significant protection against the number of parasites encysting in the brain as a result of the challenge infection (P = 0.023, P = 0.015, respectively). No clear relationship was apparent between the level of specific serum antibody in vaccinated animals and either the presence or absence of parasites or the number of parasites that occurred in some of the vaccinated animals. We believe this study is the first description of recombinant vaccine-related investigations for T. multiceps. The recombinant oncosphere antigens identified may allow development of effective vaccination strategies against T. multiceps infection in sheep. They raise the potential for the development of a combined vaccine with the Echinococcus granulosus EG95 antigen for prevention of T. multiceps as well as preventing the transmission of cystic

  4. Enhanced production of recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens in Escherichia coli by replacement of low-usage codons.

    PubMed

    Lakey, D L; Voladri, R K; Edwards, K M; Hager, C; Samten, B; Wallis, R S; Barnes, P F; Kernodle, D S

    2000-01-01

    A major obstacle to development of subunit vaccines and diagnostic reagents for tuberculosis is the inability to produce large quantities of these proteins. To test the hypothesis that poor expression of some mycobacterial genes in Escherichia coli is due, in part, to the presence of low-usage E. coli codons, we used site-directed mutagenesis to convert low-usage codons to high-usage codons for the same amino acid in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genes for antigens 85A and 85B and superoxide dismutase. Replacement of five codons in the wild-type gene for antigen 85B increased recombinant protein production in E. coli 54-fold. The recombinant antigen elicited proliferation and gamma interferon production by lymphocytes from healthy tuberculin reactors and was recognized by monoclonal antibodies to native antigen 85, indicating that the recombinant antigen contained T-cell and B-cell epitopes. Northern blotting demonstrated only a 1.7- to 2.5-fold increase in antigen 85B mRNA, suggesting that the enhanced protein production was due primarily to enhanced efficiency of translation. Codon replacement in the genes encoding antigen 85A and superoxide dismutase yielded four- to sixfold increases in recombinant protein production, suggesting that this strategy may be generally applicable to overexpression of mycobacterial genes in E. coli. PMID:10603393

  5. Identification and characterization of a cDNA clone-encoding antigen of Eimeria acervulina.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huili; Xu, Lixin; Yan, Ruofeng; Song, Xiaokai; Tang, Fang; Wang, Song; Li, Xiangrui

    2012-11-01

    Eimeria spp. are the causative agents of coccidiosis, a major disease affecting the poultry industry. So far, only a few antigen genes of E. acervulina have been reported. In this study, a clone, named as cSZ-JN2, was identified from a cDNA expression library prepared from E. acervulina sporozoite stage with the ability to stimulate the chicken immune response. The sequence analysis showed that the open reading fragment (ORF) of cSZ-JN2 was 153 bp in size and encoded a predicted protein of 50 amino acids of Mr 5·3 kDa. BLASTN search revealed that cSZ-JN2 had no significant homology with the known genes of E. acervulina or any other organism (GenBank). The recombinant cSZ-JN2 antigen expressed in E. coli was recognized strongly by serum from chickens experimentally infected with E. acervulina. Immunofluorescence analysis using antibody against recombinant cSZ-JN2 indicated that this protein was expressed in sporozoite and merozoite developmental stages. Animal challenge experiments demonstrated that the recombinant protein of cSZ-JN2 and DNA vaccine carrying cSZ-JN2 could significantly increase the average body weight gains, decrease the mean lesion scores and the oocyst outputs of the immunized chickens and presented anti-coccidial indices of more than 165. All the above results suggested that the cSZ-JN2 was a novel E. acervulina antigen and could be an effective candidate for the development of a new vaccine against E. acervulina infection.

  6. Strategies to enhance immunogenicity of cDNA vaccine encoded antigens by modulation of antigen processing.

    PubMed

    Platteel, Anouk C M; Marit de Groot, A; Keller, Christin; Andersen, Peter; Ovaa, Huib; Kloetzel, Peter M; Mishto, Michele; Sijts, Alice J A M

    2016-09-30

    Most vaccines are based on protective humoral responses while for intracellular pathogens CD8(+) T cells are regularly needed to provide protection. However, poor processing efficiency of antigens is often a limiting factor in CD8(+) T cell priming, hampering vaccine efficacy. The multistage cDNA vaccine H56, encoding three secreted Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens, was used to test a complete strategy to enhance vaccine' immunogenicity. Potential CD8(+) T cell epitopes in H56 were predicted using the NetMHC3.4/ANN program. Mice were immunized with H56 cDNA using dermal DNA tattoo immunization and epitope candidates were tested for recognition by responding CD8(+) T cells in ex vivo assays. Seven novel CD8(+) T cell epitopes were identified. H56 immunogenicity could be substantially enhanced by two strategies: (i) fusion of the H56 sequence to cDNA of proteins that modify intracellular antigen processing or provide CD4(+) T cell help, (ii) by substitution of the epitope's hydrophobic C-terminal flanking residues for polar glutamic acid, which facilitated their proteasome-mediated generation. We conclude that this whole strategy of in silico prediction of potential CD8(+) T cell epitopes in novel antigens, followed by fusion to sequences with immunogenicity-enhancing properties or modification of epitope flanking sequences to improve proteasome-mediated processing, may be exploited to design novel vaccines against emerging or 'hard to treat' intracellular pathogens. PMID:27593157

  7. The humoral immune response to recombinant nucleocapsid antigen of canine distemper virus in dogs vaccinated with attenuated distemper virus or DNA encoding the nucleocapsid of wild-type virus.

    PubMed

    Griot-Wenk, M E; Cherpillod, P; Koch, A; Zurbriggen, R; Bruckner, L; Wittek, R; Zurbriggen, A

    2001-06-01

    This study compared the humoral immune response against the nucleocapsid-(N) protein of canine distemper virus (CDV) of dogs vaccinated with a multivalent vaccine against parvo-, adeno-, and parainfluenza virus and leptospira combined with either the attenuated CDV Onderstepoort strain (n = 15) or an expression plasmid containing the N-gene of CDV (n = 30). The vaccinations were applied intramuscularly three times at 2-week intervals beginning at the age of 6 weeks. None of the pre-immune sera recognized the recombinant N-protein, confirming the lack of maternal antibodies at this age. Immunization with DNA vaccine for CDV resulted in positive serum N-specific IgG response. However, their IgG (and IgA) titres were lower than those of CDV-vaccinated dogs. Likewise, DNA-vaccinated dogs did not show an IgM peak. There was no increase in N-specific serum IgE titres in either group. Serum titres to the other multivalent vaccine components were similar in both groups. PMID:11475904

  8. A recombinant vaccinia virus expressing human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA).

    PubMed

    Kaufman, H; Schlom, J; Kantor, J

    1991-07-30

    Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a 180-kDa glycoprotein expressed on most gastrointestinal carcinomas. A 2.4-kb cDNA clone, containing the complete coding sequence, was isolated from a human colon tumor cell library and inserted into a vaccinia virus genome. This newly developed construct was characterized by Southern blotting, DNA hybridization studies, and polymerase chain reaction analysis. The CEA gene was stably integrated into the vaccinia virus thymidine kinase gene. The recombinant was efficiently replicated upon serial passages in cell cultures and in animals. The recombinant virus expresses on the surface of infected cells a protein product recognized by a monoclonal antibody (COL-I) directed against CEA. Immunization of mice with the vaccinia construct elicited a humoral immune response against CEA. Pilot studies also showed that administration of the recombinant CEA vaccinia construct was able to greatly reduce the growth in mice of a syngeneic murine colon adenocarcinoma which had been transduced with the human CEA gene. The use of this new recombinant CEA vaccinia construct may thus provide an approach in the specific active immunotherapy of human GI cancer and other CEA expressing carcinoma types.

  9. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of immunoglobulin G reactive with a recombinant protein expressed from the gene encoding the 116-kilodalton protein of Mycoplasma pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Duffy, M F; Whithear, K G; Noormohammadi, A H; Markham, P F; Catton, M; Leydon, J; Browning, G F

    1999-04-01

    Serology remains the method of choice for laboratory diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. Currently available serological tests employ complex cellular fractions of M. pneumoniae as antigen. To improve the specificity of M. pneumoniae diagnosis, a recombinant protein was assessed as a serodiagnostic reagent. A panel of recombinant proteins were expressed from a cloned M. pneumoniae gene that encodes a 116-kDa surface protein antigen. The recombinant proteins were assessed for reactivity with patient sera and the most antigenic was further assessed for its serodiagnostic potential by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA based on the recombinant protein was equivalent in sensitivity to the commercial test (Serodia Myco II; Fujirebio Inc.) to which it was compared. Southern and Western blotting data suggested that the recombinant protein derived from the 116-kDa protein of M. pneumoniae could provide a species-specific diagnostic tool, although further assessment is required.

  10. [Comparative study of the antigenic and immunogenic properties of native and recombinant Marburg virus VP35 proteins].

    PubMed

    Sorokin, A V; Kazachinskaia, E I; Kachko, A V; Ivanova, A V; Bukreev, A A; Razumov, I A

    1999-01-01

    Antigenic structure of Marburg virus (MBG) VP35 was compared with that of the recombinant VP35 (f35) expressed in a prokaryotic system. For this purpose, a gene encoding the full-length VP35 was cloned in vector pQE31(QIAGEN) and expressed at about 70 mg/liter culture fluid in Escherichia coli JM103 as a recombinant fusion protein f35. BALB/c mice were immunized with soluble f35 or purified inactivated virions of MBG. Antibodies cross-reacting with VP35 and f35 antigens were detected by ELISA and Western Blot analysis in immune sera. Serum from a convalescent after Marburg disease and polyclonal antibodies from animals immunized with MBG recognized f35 and the MBG VP35. VP35 and its recombinant analog induced the production of specific antiviral antibodies in mice, which cross-reacted with the studied antigens. Competitive EIA showed that VP35 and f35 cross-inhibit the antigenic reactivity with polyclonal antibodies of immune sera. Antigenic structure of f35 protein corresponded to antigenic structure of MBG VP35 protein.

  11. Artificial antigen-presenting cells engineered by recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing antigen, MHC class II, and costimulatory molecules elicit proliferation of CD4+ lymphocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Oertli, D; Marti, W R; Norton, J A; Tsung, K

    1997-10-01

    The current study was designed to test the ability of recombinant Vaccinia virus (rVV) encoding essential components of an artificial antigen-presenting cell to activate antigen-specific T cells in vitro. We have constructed a set of rVV encoding separately or in combination a CD4+ T cell-specific epitope (the 133-145 peptide of chicken conalbumin), the MHC class II molecule I-Ak, and costimulatory molecules (mB7-1 and mB7-2). Cultured cells infected with rVV encoding both the antigen and the presenting MHC, but not either one alone, could activate cloned CD4+ T cells specific for the virus-encoded epitope. Additional co-expression of mB7-1 and mB7-2 resulted in further enhancement of T cell response. Thus, our rVV vector expressing four different foreign gene products elicited the highest proliferation rates of antigen-specific cloned T cells. PMID:9353162

  12. Recombinant Exon-Encoded Resilins for Elastomeric Biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Guokui; Rivkin, Amit; Lapidot, Shaul; Hu, Xiao; Arinus, Shira B.; Dgany, Or; Shoseyov, Oded; Kaplan, David L.

    2011-01-01

    Resilin is an elastomeric protein found in specialized regions of the cuticle of most insects, providing outstanding material properties including high resilience and fatigue lifetime for insect flight and jumping needs. Two exons (1 and 3) from the resilin gene in Drosophila melanogaster were cloned and the encoded proteins expressed as soluble products in Escherichia coli. A heat and salt precipitation method was used for efficient purification of the recombinant proteins. The proteins were solution cast from water and formed into rubber-like biomaterials via horseradish peroxidase-mediated cross-linking. Comparative studies of the two proteins expressed from the two different exons were investigated by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Circular Dichrosim (CD) for structural features. Little structural organization was found, suggesting structural order was not induced by the enzyme-mediateed dityrosine cross-links. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was used to study the elastomeric properties of the uncross-linked and cross-linked proteins. The protein from exon 1 exhibited 90% resilience in comparison to 63% for the protein from exon 3, and therefore may be the more critical domain for functional materials to mimic native resilin. Further, the cross-linking of the recombinant exon 1 via the citrate-modified photo-Fenton reaction was explored as an alternative dityrosine mediated polymerization method and resulted in both highly elastic and adhesive materials. The citrate-modified photo-Fenton system may be suitable for in-vivo applications of resilin biomaterials. PMID:21963157

  13. Development of an enzyme immunoassay using recombinant expressed antigen to detect hepatitis delta virus antibodies.

    PubMed

    Puig, J; Fields, H A

    1989-10-01

    Two generic enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed for detection of anti-hepatitis delta virus antibodies (anti-HD) and compared with a commercially available radioimmunoassay. Both generic assays were configured as blocking assays and used hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) derived from infected chimpanzee liver (EIA-1) or from Escherichia coli transformed with a plasmid containing an insert from within an open reading frame encoding HDAg (EIA-2). Absolute sensitivity was ascertained by endpoint titration, which demonstrated essentially identical endpoints for EIA-1 and EIA-2. The absolute sensitivities of the EIAs were approximately four times greater than that of the radioimmunoassay. Specificity and sensitivity were ascertained by testing a panel of 176 serum specimens by each assay. The specimens were selected to represent a panel composed of sera from individuals with or without markers of viral hepatitis as follows: (i) serologically confirmed by exclusion as posttransfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis; (ii) acute or chronic hepatitis B virus infection, positive for hepatitis B surface antigen; (iii) resolved hepatitis B virus infection, positive for anti-hepatitis B surface antigen; (iv) acute hepatitis A virus infection, positive for anti-hepatitis A virus immunoglobulin M; and (v) normal human sera. All three assays for anti-HD gave similar specificity and sensitivity values. In conclusion, the recombinant expressed HDAg can replace antigen derived from infected liver tissue as a diagnostic reagent used to configure an EIA for detection of anti-HD. Furthermore, the results suggest that the expressed antigen contains the important immunodominant epitope(s).

  14. Rapid titration of retroviral vectors encoding intracellular antigens by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Sladek, T L; Jacobberger, J W

    1990-06-01

    Flow cytometry was used to detect cells infected with retroviral vectors encoding both simian virus 40 large T antigen and G418 resistance after indirect immunofluorescence staining using a T-antigen-specific monoclonal antibody and a fluorescein-conjugated secondary antibody. Titers of viral stocks determined by flow cytometry were equivalent to those determined by quantitation of G418-resistant colonies.

  15. Production of recombinant botulism antigens: a review of expression systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, G M S G; Cunha, C E P; Salvarani, F M; Gonçalves, L A; Pires, P S; Conceição, F R; Lobato, F C F

    2014-08-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by intoxication with neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Despite their similar mechanism of action, the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified in eight serotypes (A to H). As to veterinary medicine, the impact of this disease is essentially economic, since different species of production animals can be affected, especially by BoNT/C and D. In human health, botulism is feared in a possible biological warfare, what would involve mainly the BoNT/A, B, E and F. In both cases, the most effective way to deal with botulism is through prevention, which involves vaccination. However, the current vaccines against this disease have several drawbacks on their process of production and, besides this, can be dangerous to producers since it requires certain level of biosafety. This way, recombinant vaccines have been shown to be a great alternative for the development of vaccines against both animal and human botulism. All BoNTs have a 50-kDa light chain (LC) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (HC). The latter one presents two domains of 50 kDa, called the N-terminal (HN) and C-terminal (HC) halves. Among these regions, the HC alone seem to confer the proper immune response against intoxication. Since innumerous studies describe the expression of these distinct regions using different systems, strategies, and protocols, it is difficult to define the best option for a viable vaccine production. Thereby, the present review describes the problematic of botulism and discusses the main advances for the viable production of vaccines for both human and veterinary medicine using recombinant antigens.

  16. Production of recombinant botulism antigens: a review of expression systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, G M S G; Cunha, C E P; Salvarani, F M; Gonçalves, L A; Pires, P S; Conceição, F R; Lobato, F C F

    2014-08-01

    Botulism is a paralytic disease caused by intoxication with neurotoxins produced by Clostridium botulinum. Despite their similar mechanism of action, the botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are classified in eight serotypes (A to H). As to veterinary medicine, the impact of this disease is essentially economic, since different species of production animals can be affected, especially by BoNT/C and D. In human health, botulism is feared in a possible biological warfare, what would involve mainly the BoNT/A, B, E and F. In both cases, the most effective way to deal with botulism is through prevention, which involves vaccination. However, the current vaccines against this disease have several drawbacks on their process of production and, besides this, can be dangerous to producers since it requires certain level of biosafety. This way, recombinant vaccines have been shown to be a great alternative for the development of vaccines against both animal and human botulism. All BoNTs have a 50-kDa light chain (LC) and a 100-kDa heavy chain (HC). The latter one presents two domains of 50 kDa, called the N-terminal (HN) and C-terminal (HC) halves. Among these regions, the HC alone seem to confer the proper immune response against intoxication. Since innumerous studies describe the expression of these distinct regions using different systems, strategies, and protocols, it is difficult to define the best option for a viable vaccine production. Thereby, the present review describes the problematic of botulism and discusses the main advances for the viable production of vaccines for both human and veterinary medicine using recombinant antigens. PMID:24930432

  17. Evaluation of Recombinant SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3 Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Toxoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Khanaliha, Khadijeh; Kazemi, Bahram; Shahriari, Bahador; Bandehpour, Mojgan; Sharifniya, Zarin

    2014-01-01

    Serologic tests are widely accepted for diagnosing Toxoplasma gondii but purification and standardization of antigen needs to be improved. Recently, surface tachyzoite and bradyzoite antigens have become more attractive for this purpose. In this study, diagnostic usefulness of 3 recombinant antigens (SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3) were evaluated, and their efficacy was compared with the available commercial ELISA. The recombinant plasmids were transformed to JM109 strain of Escherichia coli, and the recombinants were expressed and purified. Recombinant SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3 antigens were evaluated using different groups of sera in an ELISA system, and the results were compared to those of a commercial IgG and IgM ELISA kit. The sensitivity and specificity of recombinant surface antigens for detection of anti-Toxoplasma IgG in comparison with commercially available ELISA were as follows: SAG1 (93.6% and 92.9%), SAG2 (100.0% and 89.4%), and SAG3 (95.4% and 91.2%), respectively. A high degree of agreement (96.9%) was observed between recombinant SAG2 and commercial ELISA in terms of detecting IgG anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. P22 had the best performance in detecting anti-Toxoplasma IgM in comparison with the other 2 recombinant antigens. Recombinant SAG1, SAG2, and SAG3 could all be used for diagnosis of IgG-specific antibodies against T. gondii. PMID:24850956

  18. DNA sequence of a gene encoding a BALB/c mouse Ld transplantation antigen.

    PubMed

    Moore, K W; Sher, B T; Sun, Y H; Eakle, K A; Hood, L

    1982-02-01

    The sequence of a gene, denoted 27.5, encoding a transplantation antigen for the BALB/c mouse has been determined. Gene transfer studies and comparison of the translated sequence with the partial amino acid sequence of the Ld transplantation antigen establish that gene 27.5 encodes an Ld polypeptide. A comparison of the gene 27.5 sequence with several complementary DNA sequences suggests that the BALB/c mouse may contain a number of closely related L-like genes. Gene 27.5 has eight exons that correlate with the structural domains of the transplantation antigen. PMID:7058332

  19. Vaccination against Taenia solium cysticercosis in pigs using native and recombinant oncosphere antigens.

    PubMed

    Plancarte, A; Flisser, A; Gauci, C G; Lightowlers, M W

    1999-04-01

    Pigs were immunised with antigens derived from Taenia solium oncospheres or with a pool of three recombinant antigens from Taenia ovis, and subsequently challenged with T. solium eggs. The native oncosphere antigens induced 83% protection against viable, and 89% protection against the total number of cysticerci established following the challenge infection. Immunisation with the recombinant T. ovis antigens induced 93% protection against the establishment of viable cysticerci, and 74% protection against the total number of cysticerci. These results, and those achieved elsewhere with Taenia saginata and T. ovis, support the possibility of developing a practical vaccine to assist in the control of transmission of T. solium through pigs.

  20. Induction of murine immune responses by DNA encoding a 23-kDa antigen of Cryptosporidium parvum.

    PubMed

    Ehigiator, Humphrey N; Romagnoli, Pablo; Priest, Jeffrey W; Secor, W Evan; Mead, Jan R

    2007-09-01

    Cp23 has been identified as one of the immunodominant antigens involved in the immune response to Cryptosporidium parvum infection. Thus, in this study, Cp23 antigen was investigated as a vaccine candidate using the DNA vaccine model in adult interleukin-12 (IL-12) knockout (KO) mice, which are susceptible to C. parvum infection. Our data show that subcutaneous immunization in the ear with DNA encoding Cp23 (Cp23-DNA) cloned into the pUMVCb4 vector induced a significant anti-Cp23 immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a antibody response and specific in vitro spleen cell proliferation to recombinant Cp23 as compared to control mice. Long-term memory responses were also detected after administration of the Cp23-DNA vaccine. Furthermore, Cp23-DNA vaccination induced a 50-60% reduction in oocysts shedding, indicating a partial protection against C. parvum infection in IL-12 KO mice. However, it is possible that this protective response was nonspecific because mice immunized with vector only also exhibited lower oocyst shedding than the naive controls. These results suggest that DNA encoding for immunodominant C. parvum antigens may provide an effective means of eliciting humoral and cellular responses and possibly in generating protective immunity against C. parvum infections in mammals.

  1. Recombinant anti-carcinoembryonic antigen antibodies for targeting cancer.

    PubMed

    Chester, K A; Mayer, A; Bhatia, J; Robson, L; Spencer, D I; Cooke, S P; Flynn, A A; Sharma, S K; Boxer, G; Pedley, R B; Begent, R H

    2000-01-01

    Antibodies can be used to target cancer therapies to malignant tissue; the approach is attractive because conventional treatments such as chemo- and radiotherapy are dose limited due to toxicity in normal tissues. Effective targeting relies on appropriate pharmacokinetics of antibody-based therapeutics, ideally showing maximum uptake and retention in tumor and rapid clearance from normal tissue. We have studied the factors influencing these dynamics for antibodies against carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). Protein engineering of anti-CEA antibodies, in vivo biodistribution models, and mathematical models have been employed to improve understanding of targeting parameters, define optimal characteristics for the antibody-based molecules employed, and develop new therapies for the clinic. Engineering antibodies to obtain the desired therapeutic characteristics is most readily achieved using recombinant antibody technology, and we have taken the approach of immunizing mice to provide high-affinity anti-CEA single-chain Fv antibodies (sFvs) from filamentous bacteriophage libraries. MFE-23, the most characterized of these sFvs, has been expressed in bacteria and purified in our laboratory for two clinical trials: a gamma camera imaging trial using 123I-MFE-23 and a radioimmunoguided surgery trial using 125I-MFE-23, where tumor deposits are detected by a hand-held probe during surgery. Both these trials showed that MFE-23 is safe and effective in localizing tumor deposits in patients with cancer. We are now developing fusion proteins that use the MFE-23 antibody to deliver a therapeutic moiety; MFE-23:: carboxypeptidase G2 (CPG2) targets the enzyme CPG2 for use in the antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy system and MFE::tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) aims to reduce sequestration and increase tumor concentrations of systemically administered TNFalpha.

  2. Protection against Taenia pisiformis larval infection induced by a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Yang, D Y; Xie, Y; Nong, X; Huang, X; Fu, Y; Gu, X B; Wang, S X; Peng, X R; Yang, G Y

    2014-02-13

    Taenia pisiformis larvae cause significant health problems to rabbits. At present, it is not known whether the recombinant antigen from the T. pisiformis oncosphere is able to confer protective immunity against T. pisiformis larval infection. The full-length cDNA was cloned into a pET32a (+) vector, and the recombinant protein was then expressed in BL21 (DE3) cells. Vaccination with the purified rTpUbc2 coupled with QuilA was carried out in New Zealand rabbits to evaluate the immunoprotective effect against T. pisiformis infection. The full-length open reading frame of the TpUbc2 gene was 444 bp, and encoded a 16.63-kDa protein. Finally, rTpUbc2 was used to evaluate the ability to induce immunoprotective responses in rabbits. A 79.3-90.8% reduction (P < 0.01) in the recovery of larvae was observed in the experimental group compared to the control group. Specific anti-rTpUbc2 antibodies from immunized rabbits had significantly higher levels of IgG (P < 0.01) compared to the control group; however, no significant difference in IgA levels was found between groups (P > 0.05). Our data support the use of rTpUbc2 as a potential candidate to develop a vaccine against T. pisiformis larvae.

  3. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Gauci, Charles G; Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-06-01

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis.

  4. Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens as tools for serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis: current status of studies.

    PubMed

    Holec-Gasior, Lucyna

    2013-09-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a parasitic protozoan which is the cause of toxoplasmosis. Although human toxoplasmosis in healthy adults is usually asymptomatic, serious disease can occur in the case of congenital infections and immunocompromised individuals. Furthermore, despite the exact recognition of its etiology, it still presents a diagnostic problem. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is mainly based on the results of serological tests detecting anti-T. gondii-specific antibodies in the patient's serum sample. The specificities and sensitivities of serology tests depend mostly on the diagnostic antigen(s) used. Most of the commercial serological kits currently available are based on Toxoplasma lysate antigens (TLAs). In recent years, many studies showed that recombinant antigenic proteins of T. gondii may be an alternative source of antigens which are very useful for the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. This article presents a review of current studies on the application and usefulness of different T. gondii recombinant antigens in serological tests for the diagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

  5. Generation of Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 Proteins of Bluetongue Virus.

    PubMed

    Marín-López, Alejandro; Ortego, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara (MVA) is employed widely as an experimental vaccine vector for its lack of replication in mammalian cells and high expression level of foreign/heterologous genes. Recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) are used as platforms for protein production as well as vectors to generate vaccines against a high number of infectious diseases and other pathologies. The portrait of the virus combines desirable elements such as high-level biological safety, the ability to activate appropriate innate immune mediators upon vaccination, and the capacity to deliver substantial amounts of heterologous antigens. Recombinant MVAs encoding proteins of bluetongue virus (BTV), an Orbivirus that infects domestic and wild ruminants transmitted by biting midges of the Culicoides species, are excellent vaccine candidates against this virus. In this chapter we describe the methods for the generation of rMVAs encoding VP2, NS1, and VP7 proteins of bluetongue virus as a model example for orbiviruses. The protocols included cover the cloning of VP2, NS1, and VP7 BTV-4 genes in a transfer plasmid, the construction of recombinant MVAs, the titration of virus working stocks and the protein expression analysis by immunofluorescence and radiolabeling of rMVA infected cells as well as virus purification.

  6. Redirected cellular cytotoxicity by infection of effector cells with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Paul, S; Bizouarne, N; Dott, K; Ruet, L; Dufour, P; Acres, R B; Kieny, M P

    2000-04-01

    Cytotoxicity is an important function of the immune system that results in the destruction of cellular targets by humoral and/or cellular mechanisms. We wanted to assess the possibility of targeting the lytic function of immune cells toward cancer cells, which express the gene coding for a known tumor antigen (Ag) (GA733-2/epithelial cell adhesion molecule), using a viral vector encoding a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for said tumor Ag (CO17-1A). To this end, we have constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the sequences corresponding to mAb CO17-1A, which recognizes a specific Ag (GA733-2) that is present on the surface of most gastrointestinal carcinomas. The recombinant vectors encoding either a secreted or membrane-anchored form of CO17-1A mAb were used to infect effector cells, which were subsequently assessed for their cytotoxic activity. The recombinant viruses were able to infect both granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated human macrophages and Ag-stimulated murine cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Infected granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-activated macrophages were found to be able to kill GA733-2-expressing tumor cells. Likewise, infected cytotoxic T lymphocytes, although conserving their original alloreactivity, gained the capability of killing GA733-2-expressing cancer cells. PMID:10811480

  7. Population structuring of multi-copy, antigen-encoding genes in Plasmodium falciparum

    PubMed Central

    Artzy-Randrup, Yael; Rorick, Mary M; Day, Karen; Chen, Donald; Dobson, Andrew P; Pascual, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    The coexistence of multiple independently circulating strains in pathogen populations that undergo sexual recombination is a central question of epidemiology with profound implications for control. An agent-based model is developed that extends earlier ‘strain theory’ by addressing the var gene family of Plasmodium falciparum. The model explicitly considers the extensive diversity of multi-copy genes that undergo antigenic variation via sequential, mutually exclusive expression. It tracks the dynamics of all unique var repertoires in a population of hosts, and shows that even under high levels of sexual recombination, strain competition mediated through cross-immunity structures the parasite population into a subset of coexisting dominant repertoires of var genes whose degree of antigenic overlap depends on transmission intensity. Empirical comparison of patterns of genetic variation at antigenic and neutral sites supports this role for immune selection in structuring parasite diversity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00093.001 PMID:23251784

  8. Recombinant K28 antigen in ELISA in the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis.

    PubMed

    Venturin, G L; Bragato, J P; Silva, K L O; de Lima, V M F

    2015-12-01

    Crude total antigen (CTA) from Leishmania infantum and recombinant antigen K39 (rK39) and recombinant antigen K28 (rK28) were compared using an ELISA for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL). Forty-two blood samples from healthy dogs from a nonendemic area and 80 blood samples from an endemic area for dogs with visceral leishmaniosis (VL), confirmed with positive parasitological tests for Leishmania spp., were used in an ELISA. The parasitological diagnosis was chosen as a gold standard. The ELISA with rK28 antigen showed sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%, high agreement with CTA and rK39, indicating that the rK28 antigen is useful for ELISA serological diagnosis of CVL.

  9. Use of Strep-tag II for rapid detection and purification of Mycobacterium tuberculosis recombinant antigens secreted by Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Julio C; Pimienta, Elsa; Rodríguez, Caridad; Anné, Jozef; Vallín, Carlos; Milanés, María T; King-Batsios, Emmanuel; Huygen, Kris; Van Mellaert, Lieve

    2013-09-01

    Recent results with respect to the secretory production of bio-active Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in Streptomyces have stimulated the further exploitation of this host as a bacterial cell factory. However, the rapid isolation of a recombinant protein by conventional procedures can be a restrictive step. A previous attempt to isolate recombinant antigens fused to the widely used 6His-tag was found to be relatively incompatible with secretory production in the Streptomyces host. As an alternative, the eight-residue Strep-tag® II (WSHPQFEK), displaying intrinsic binding affinity towards streptavidin, was evaluated for the secretory production of two M. tuberculosis immunodominant antigens in Streptomyces lividans and their subsequent downstream processing. Therefore, the genes ag85A (Rv3804c, encoding the mycolyl-transferase Ag85A) and Rv2626c (encoding hypoxic response protein 1), were equipped with a 3'-Strep-tag® II-encoding sequence and placed under control of the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi) transcriptional, translational and signal sequences. Strep-tagged Ag85A and Rv2626c proteins were detected in the spent medium of recombinant S. lividans cultures at 48h of growth, and purified using a Strep-Tactin Superflow® matrix. Recombinant Ag85A appeared as a 30-kDa protein of which the N-terminal amino acid sequence was identical to the expected one. Rv2626c was produced in two forms of 17 and 37kDa respectively, both with the same predicted N-terminal sequence, suggesting that the 37-kDa product is an Rv2626c dimer. The obtained results indicate that the Strep-tagII is proteolytically stable in Streptomyces and does not interfere with the membrane translocation of Ag85A and Rv2626c. A comparison of reactivity of serum from tuberculosis patients versus healthy persons by ELISA showed that both S. lividans-derived antigens were recognized by sera of individuals infected with M. tuberculosis, indicating that they remained

  10. A recombinant rabies virus encoding two copies of the glycoprotein gene confers protection in dogs against a virulent challenge.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaohui; Yang, Youtian; Sun, Zhaojin; Chen, Jing; Ai, Jun; Dun, Can; Fu, Zhen F; Niu, Xuefeng; Guo, Xiaofeng

    2014-01-01

    The rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G) is the principal antigen responsible for the induction of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) and is the major modality of protective immunity in animals. A recombinant RABV HEP-Flury strain was generated by reverse genetics to encode two copies of the G-gene (referred to as HEP-dG). The biological properties of HEP-dG were compared to those of the parental virus (HEP-Flury strain). The HEP-dG recombinant virus grew 100 times more efficiently in BHK-21 cell than the parental virus, yet the virulence of the dG recombinant virus in suckling mice was lower than the parental virus. The HEP-dG virus can improve the expression of G-gene mRNA and the G protein and produce more offspring viruses in cells. The amount of G protein revealed a positive relationship with immunogenicity in mice and dogs. The inactivated HEP-dG recombinant virus induced higher levels of VNA and conferred better protection against virulent RABV in mice and dogs than the inactivated parental virus and a commercial vaccine. The protective antibody persisted for at least 12 months. These data demonstrate that the HEP-dG is stable, induces a strong VNA response and confers protective immunity more effectively than the RABV HEP-Flury strain. HEP-dG could be a potential candidate in the development of novel inactivated rabies vaccines. PMID:24498294

  11. Improved Serodiagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis Using the New Recombinant 2B2t Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-González, Ana; Santivañez, Saúl; García, Héctor H.; Rodríguez, Silvia; Muñoz, Santiago; Ramos, Guillermo; Orduña, Antonio; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2012-01-01

    A standardized test for the serodiagnosis of human cystic echinococcosis (CE) is still needed, because of the low specificity and sensitivity of the currently available commercial tools and the lack of proper evaluation of the existing recombinant antigens. In a previous work, we defined the new ELISA-B2t diagnostic tool for the detection of specific IgGs in CE patients, which showed high sensitivity and specificity, and was useful in monitoring the clinical evolution of surgically treated CE patients. Nevertheless, this recombinant antigen gave rise to false-negative results in a percentage of CE patients. Therefore, in an attempt to improve its sensitivity, we constructed B2t-derived recombinant antigens with two, four and eight tandem repeat of B2t units, and tested them by ELISA on serum samples of CE patients and patients with related parasites. The best diagnostic values were obtained with the two tandem repeat 2B2t antigen. The influence of several clinical variables on the performance of the tests was also evaluated. Finally, the diagnostic performance of the 2B2t-ELISA was compared with that of an indirect haemagglutination commercial test. The 2B2t recombinant antigen performed better than the HF and B2t antigens, and the IHA commercial kit. Therefore, this new 2B2t-ELISA is a promising candidate test for the serodiagnosis of CE in clinical settings. PMID:22802975

  12. Multiple antigens of Yersinia pestis delivered by live recombinant attenuated Salmonella vaccine strains elicit protective immunity against plague.

    PubMed

    Sanapala, Shilpa; Rahav, Hannah; Patel, Hetal; Sun, Wei; Curtiss, Roy

    2016-05-01

    Based on our improved novel Salmonella vaccine delivery platform, we optimized the recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium vaccine (RASV) χ12094 to deliver multiple Yersinia pestis antigens. These included LcrV196 (amino acids, 131-326), Psn encoded on pYA5383 and F1 encoded in the chromosome, their synthesis did not cause adverse effects on bacterial growth. Oral immunization with χ12094(pYA5383) simultaneously stimulated high antibody titers to LcrV, Psn and F1 in mice and presented complete protection against both subcutaneous (s.c.) and intranasal (i.n.) challenges with high lethal doses of Y. pestis CO92. Moreover, no deaths or other disease symptoms were observed in SCID mice orally immunized with χ12094(pYA5383) over a 60-day period. Therefore, the trivalent S. typhimurium-based live vaccine shows promise for a next-generation plague vaccine. PMID:27060051

  13. An antigenic recombinant serine protease from Trichinella spiralis induces protective immunity in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Yao, Jian-ping; Pan, Ai-hua; Liu, Wei; Hu, Xu-chu; Wu, Zhong-dao; Zhou, Xing-wang

    2013-09-01

    In this study, we report the cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding a Trichinella serine protease gene (TspSP-1.3) from GenBank. The recombinant TspSP-1.3 protein (rTspSP-1.3) was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression system and purified with Ni-affinity chromatography. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that TspSP-1.3 was expressed at significantly higher levels in muscle larvae and adult worms than in newborn larvae. TspSP-1.3 was detected in excretory-secretory proteins of Trichinella spiralis with western blotting. Immunization with the rTspSP-1.3 antigen induced humoral immune responses, which manifested as elevated specific anti-rTspSP-1.3 IgG and IgE antibodies and a mixed Th1/Th2 response. To determine whether purified rTspSP-1.3 had good antigenicity and could be a vaccine candidate for the control of T. spiralis infection, we immunized BALB/c mice with rTspSP-1.3 and subsequently challenged the mice with T. spiralis larvae. The results showed that mice vaccinated with rTspSP-1.3 exhibited an average reduction in the muscle larvae burden of 39 % relative to the control group. These results suggest that TspSP-1.3 could be a novel vaccine candidate for controlling Trichinella infection. PMID:23828191

  14. Vaccination with a recombinant protein encoding the tumor-specific antigen NY-ESO-1 elicits an A2/157-165-specific CTL repertoire structurally distinct and of reduced tumor reactivity than that elicited by spontaneous immune responses to NY-ESO-1-expressing Tumors.

    PubMed

    Bioley, Gilles; Guillaume, Philippe; Luescher, Immanuel; Bhardwaj, Nina; Mears, Gregory; Old, Lloyd; Valmori, Danila; Ayyoub, Maha

    2009-01-01

    In a recent vaccination trial assessing the immunogenicity of an NY-ESO-1 (ESO) recombinant protein administered with Montanide and CpG, we have obtained evidence that this vaccine induces specific cytolytic T lymphocytes (CTL) in half of the patients. Most vaccine-induced CTLs were directed against epitopes located in the central part of the protein, between amino acids 81 and 110. This immunodominant region, however, is distinct from another ESO CTL region, 157-165, that is a frequent target of spontaneous CTL responses in A2+ patients bearing ESO tumors. In this study, we have investigated the CTL responses to ESO 157-165 in A2+ patients vaccinated with the recombinant protein. Our data indicate that after vaccination with the protein, CTL responses to ESO 157-165 are induced in some, but not all, A2+ patients. ESO 157-165-specific CTLs induced by vaccination with the ESO protein were functionally heterogeneous in terms of tumor recognition and often displayed decreased tumor reactivity as compared with ESO 157-165-specific CTLs isolated from patients with spontaneous immune responses to ESO. Remarkably, protein-induced CTLs used T-cell receptors similar to those previously isolated from patients vaccinated with synthetic ESO peptides (Vbeta4.1) and distinct from those used by highly tumor-reactive CTLs isolated from patients with spontaneous immune responses (Vbeta1.1, Vbeta8.1, and Vbeta13.1). Together, these results demonstrate that vaccination with the ESO protein elicits a repertoire of ESO 157-165-specific CTLs bearing T-cell receptors that are structurally distinct from those of CTLs found in spontaneous immune responses to the antigen and that are heterogeneous in terms of tumor reactivity, being often poorly tumor reactive.

  15. Genetic control of antibody responses induced by recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing a foreign antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Lagranderie, M; Lo-Man, R; Dériaud, E; Gicquel, B; Gheorghiu, M; Leclerc, C

    1997-01-01

    Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG expressing foreign antigens represents a promising candidate for the development of future vaccines and was shown in several experimental models to induce protective immunity against bacterial or parasitic infections. Innate resistance to BCG infection is under genetic control and could modify the immune responses induced against an antigen delivered by such engineered microorganisms. To investigate this question, we analyzed the immune responses of various inbred strains of mice to recombinant BCG expressing beta-galactosidase. These experiments demonstrated that BALB/c mice developed strong antibody responses against BCG expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of two different promoters. In contrast, C57BL/6, C3H, and CBA mice produced high anti-beta-galactosidase antibody titers only when immunized with recombinant BCG expressing beta-galactosidase under the control of the pblaF* promoter, which induced the production of high levels of this antigen. This difference in mouse responsiveness to recombinant BCG was not due to innate resistance to BCG infection, since similar immune responses were induced in Ity(r) and Ity(s) congenic strains of mice. In contrast, the analysis of anti-beta-galactosidase antibody responses of H-2 congenic mice in two different genetic backgrounds demonstrated that H-2 genes are involved in the immune responsiveness to beta-galactosidase delivered by recombinant BCG. Together, these results demonstrate that immune responses to an antigen delivered by recombinant BCG are under complex genetic influences which could play a crucial role in the efficiency of future recombinant BCG vaccines. PMID:9234754

  16. Overexpression and Enzymatic Assessment of Antigenic Fragments of Hyaluronidase Recombinant Protein From Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sadoogh Abbasian, Shabnam; Ghaznavi Rad, Ehsanollah; Akbari, Neda; Zolfaghari, Mohammad Reza; pakzad, Iraj; Abtahi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hyaluronidase catalyzes the hydrolysis of hyaluronan polymers to N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid. This enzyme is a dimer of identical subunits. Hyaluronidase has different pharmaceutical and medical applications. Previously, we produced a recombinant hyaluronidase antigenic fragment of Streptococcus pyogenes. Objectives: This study aimed to improve the protein production and purity of hyaluronidase recombinant protein from S. pyogenes. In addition, the enzymatic activity of this protein was investigated. Materials and Methods: The expression of hyaluronidase antigenic fragments was optimized using IPTG concentration, time of induction, temperature, culture, and absorbance of 0.6-0.8-1 at 600 nm. Afterwards, the expressed proteins were purified and the enzymatic activity was assessed by turbid metric method. Results: Data indicated that maximum protein is produced in OD = 0.8, 0.5 mM Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG), 37ºC, NB 1.5x, without glucose, incubated for overnight. The enzymatic activity of the recombinant protein was similar to the commercial form of hyaluronidase. Conclusions: The results showed that an antigenic fragment of the recombinant hyaluronidase protein from S. pyogenes has a considerable enzymatic activity. It can be suggested to use it for medical purposes. In addition, applications of bioinformatics software would facilitate the production of a smaller protein with same antigenic properties and enzymatic activity. PMID:25789122

  17. Infectious vaccinia virus recombinants that express hepatitis B virus surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Geoffrey L.; Mackett, Michael; Moss, Bernard

    1983-04-01

    Potential live vaccines against hepatitis B virus have been produced. The coding sequence for hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) has been inserted into the vaccinia virus genome under control of vaccinia virus early promoters. Cells infected with these vaccinia virus recombinants synthesize and excrete HBsAg and vaccinated rabbits rapidly produce antibodies to HBsAg.

  18. 5'-structural analysis of genes encoding polymorphic antigens of chemically induced tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Chen, Y.T.; Old, L.J.

    1987-06-01

    The authors have proposed that the distinct tumor rejection antigens of chemically induced sarcomas in inbred mice belong to a family of M/sub r/ 96,000 glycoproteins (gp96). An identical 14-amino acid sequence was found at the amino terminus of gp96 from two antigenically distinct BALB/c sarcomas. Oligonucleotide probes, end-labeled with (/sup 12/P)-ATP, derived from this sequence permitted isolation of 5' cDNA and genomic fragments coding for gp96. Three short exons interrupted by relatively long introns were identified at the 5' terminus of the gp96 gene. The first exon encodes a signal peptide, which is consistent with gp96 being a cell surface antigen. Southern blot analysis indicated that the gp96 family is encoded by a single gene, and 3-kilobase transcripts were detected in all normal and tumor cells tested. Nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences from 311 base pairs at the 5' terminus showed no homology with any know protein. The availability of molecular probes for the gp96 system permits analysis of the structural polymorphism of these antigens.

  19. Several recombinant capsid proteins of equine rhinitis a virus show potential as diagnostic antigens.

    PubMed

    Li, Fan; Stevenson, Rachel A; Crabb, Brendan S; Studdert, Michael J; Hartley, Carol A

    2005-06-01

    Equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV) is a significant pathogen of horses and is also closely related to Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Despite these facts, knowledge of the prevalence and importance of ERAV infections remains limited, largely due to the absence of a simple, robust diagnostic assay. In this study, we compared the antigenicities of recombinant full-length and fragmented ERAV capsid proteins expressed in Escherichia coli by using sera from experimentally infected and naturally exposed horses. We found that, from the range of antigens tested, recombinant proteins encompassing the C-terminal region of VP1, full-length VP2, and the N-terminal region of VP2 reacted specifically with antibodies present in sera from each of the five experimentally infected horses examined. Antibodies to epitopes on VP2 (both native and recombinant forms) persisted longer postinfection (>105 days) than antibodies specific for epitopes on other fragments. Our data also suggest that B-cell epitopes within the C terminus of VP1 and N terminus of VP2 contribute to a large proportion of the total reactivity of recombinant VP1 and VP2, respectively. Importantly, the reactivity of these VP1 and VP2 recombinant proteins in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) correlated well with the results from a range of native antigen-based serological assays using sera from 12 field horses. This study provides promising candidates for development of a diagnostic ERAV ELISA.

  20. Taenia saginata: vaccination against cysticercosis in cattle with recombinant oncosphere antigens.

    PubMed

    Lightowlers, M W; Rolfe, R; Gauci, C G

    1996-12-01

    Taenia saginata is a medically and economically important cestode parasite. Infection with the cysticercus larval stage in cattle causes economic loss in the beef meat industry. A practical vaccine to prevent infection with the parasite in cattle would be valuable and would assist in control of transmission of the parasite to humans, the obligate definitive host. Here we use recombinant DNA techniques to clone oncosphere antigens of T. saginata and use the recombinant antigens in vaccine trials in cattle. Vaccination with a combination of two antigens, designated TSA-9 and TSA-18, induced up to 99.8% protection against experimental challenge infection with T. saginata eggs. Operational characteristics of the vaccine will need to be defined, such as duration of immunity and protection of newborn calves. The vaccine has the potential to be used on a commercial scale for the control of bovine cysticercosis.

  1. Protection of pigs against Taenia solium cysticercosis by immunization with novel recombinant antigens

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, Charles G.; Jayashi, César M.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lackenby, Julia; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant antigens from the oncosphere stage of the parasite Taenia solium were expressed in Escherichia coli. The TSOL16, TSOL45-1A and TSOL45-1B recombinant antigens, each consisting of fibronectin type III (FnIII) domain S, were produced as fusion proteins with glutathione S-transferase (GST) and maltose binding protein (MBP). Groups of pigs were immunized twice with the GST fusions of the antigens and boosted a third time with the MBP fusions prior to receiving a challenge infection with T. solium eggs. The TSOL16 antigen was found to be capable of inducing high levels of immunity in pigs against a challenge infection with T. solium. Immunological investigations identified differences in immune responses in the pigs vaccinated with the various antigens. The results demonstrate that the TSOL16 antigen could be a valuable adjunct to current porcine vaccination approaches and may allow the further development of new vaccination strategies against T. solium cysticercosis. PMID:22521850

  2. Identification of the gene encoding the major latency-associated nuclear antigen of the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus.

    PubMed Central

    Kedes, D H; Lagunoff, M; Renne, R; Ganem, D

    1997-01-01

    Over 85% of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) are seropositive for antibodies to the latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) expressed in B cell lines infected with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The presence of antibodies to LANA strongly correlates with the risk of developing the disease. However, the identity of the protein(s) comprising LANA and the corresponding gene(s) has remained unclear. To identify potential latent gene candidates for LANA, we probed total RNA extracted from BCBL-1 cells (a B cell line latently infected with KSHV) using lambda clones that span the KSHV genome. One region encoding latent transcripts spanned KSHV open reading frames (orfs) 71 (K13), 72 (v-cyclin), and 73. Among these, however, only orf 73, when expressed in heterologous mammalian cell systems, reacted with KSHV antibody-positive human sera, resulting in a punctate nuclear staining pattern reminiscent of LANA in BCBL-1 cells. Furthermore, extracts from cells expressing the orf 73 protein product specifically blocked the binding of KS patient antibodies to LANA. Finally, seroreactivity with recombinant orf 73 protein exactly paralleled reactivity with classical LANA as expressed in BCBL-1 cells, both in KS patients and in other groups. Together, these data support the identification of KSHV orf 73 as the gene encoding the dominant immunogenic component of LANA. PMID:9366576

  3. Protection of gerbils from amebic liver abscess by immunization with a recombinant Entamoeba histolytica antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, T; Cieslak, P R; Stanley, S L

    1994-01-01

    Amebiasis, infection by the intestinal protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, is a leading parasitic cause of death. As a step in the development of a recombinant antigen vaccine to prevent E. histolytica infection, we looked at the ability of a recombinant version of the serine-rich E. histolytica protein (SREHP) to elicit a protective immune response against invasive amebic disease. Gerbils, a standard model for amebic liver abscess, were immunized with either a recombinant SREHP/maltose-binding protein (MBP) fusion, recombinant MBP alone, or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), all combined with complete Freund's adjuvant. In the first trial (group 1), gerbils received a primary and two booster immunizations intraperitoneally; in the second trial (group 2), gerbils were immunized by a single intradermal injection. SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in both groups produced antibody to native SHEHP and developed delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to recombinant SREHP. All gerbils were challenged by an intrahepatic injection with 5 x 10(4) virulent E. histolytica HM1-IMSS trophozoites. Complete protection from amebic liver abscess was seen in 64% of the SHEHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 1 and in 100% of the SREHP/MBP-immunized gerbils in group 2. There was no protection observed in MBP- or PBS-immunized gerbils in either group. Our results indicate that the SREHP molecule has potential as a vaccine to prevent amebic infection and demonstrate that successful vaccination of animals with recombinant E. histolytica antigen vaccines is possible. Images PMID:8132322

  4. Characterization of novel Leishmania infantum recombinant proteins encoded by genes from five families with distinct capacities for serodiagnosis of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Geraldo G S; Magalhães, Franklin B; Teixeira, Márcia C A; Pereira, Andrea M; Pinheiro, Cristiane G M; Santos, Lenita R; Nascimento, Marília B; Bedor, Cheila N G; Albuquerque, Alessandra L; dos-Santos, Washington L C; Gomes, Yara M; Moreira, Edson D; Brito, Maria E F; Pontes de Carvalho, Lain C; de Melo Neto, Osvaldo P

    2011-12-01

    To expand the available panel of recombinant proteins that can be useful for identifying Leishmania-infected dogs and for diagnosing human visceral leishmaniasis (VL), we selected recombinant antigens from L. infantum, cDNA, and genomic libraries by using pools of serum samples from infected dogs and humans. The selected DNA fragments encoded homologs of a cytoplasmic heat-shock protein 70, a kinesin, a polyubiquitin, and two novel hypothetical proteins. Histidine-tagged recombinant proteins were produced after subcloning these DNA fragments and evaluated by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with panels of canine and human serum samples. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with different recombinant proteins had different sensitivities (67.4-93.0% and 36.4-97.2%) and specificities (76.1-100% and 90.4-97.3%) when tested with serum samples from Leishmania-infected dogs and human patients with VL. Overall, no single recombinant antigen was sufficient to serodiagnosis all canine or human VL cases. PMID:22144438

  5. Eimeria acervulina: DNA cloning and characterization of recombinant sporozoite and merozoite antigens.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, M C; Lillehoj, H S; Dame, J B

    1988-06-01

    Genes encoding antigens of Eimeria acervulina were cloned from cDNA expression libraries prepared from the sporozoite and merozoite stages in order to examine humoral and cellular immune responses to this protozoan parasite. Two clones expressing surface antigens were characterized by DNA hybridization studies to identify homologous genomic DNA fragments. The proteins they encode were identified by 125I-labeling, immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and T-cell activation experiments. One, designated cSZ-1, encodes a 130-kDa beta-galactosidase fusion protein which represents a portion of a p240/p160 immunodominant sporozoite surface antigen. Immunofluorescence studies using anti-cSZ-1 sera and live or 1% paraformaldehyde-fixed E. acervulina sporozoites have confirmed this surface locale. Purified cSZ-1 fusion protein, which is not recognized by sera from E. acervulina-infected chickens, induced the activation of immune T lymphocytes in vitro. Another cDNA clone, designated cMZ-8, gives rise to a 150-kDa fusion protein and encodes a portion of a p250 immunodominant merozoite surface antigen. This was established by immunoblotting of 125I-labeled merozoite proteins with anti-cMZ-8 sera and immunofluorescence staining of live and 1% paraformaldehyde-fixed E. acervulina merozoites. Purified cMZ-8 is recognized by sera from E. acervulina-infected chickens and induces a significant activation of immune T lymphocytes in vitro.

  6. Use of MAG1 recombinant antigen for diagnosis of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans.

    PubMed

    Holec, Lucyna; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elzbieta; Gasior, Artur; Brillowska-Dabrowska, Anna; Kur, Józef

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the cloning, purification, and serological applications of matrix antigen MAG1 of Toxoplasma gondii. The expression system used allows the production of a large amount of T. gondii recombinant protein, which was assessed for its potential use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of T. gondii infection in humans. Serum samples from 117 patients with different stages of infection, along with 10 serum samples from seronegative patients obtained for routine diagnostic tests, were used. The results were compared with those of an ELISA that uses a native T. gondii antigen extract. The MAG1 antigen detected antibodies more frequently from the acute stage (97.3%) than from the chronic stage (7.5%) of toxoplasmosis. Hence, this antigen may be used as a tool for detection of T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies in persons with acute toxoplasmosis.

  7. Mitotic evolution of Plasmodium falciparum shows a stable core genome but recombination in antigen families.

    PubMed

    Bopp, Selina E R; Manary, Micah J; Bright, A Taylor; Johnston, Geoffrey L; Dharia, Neekesh V; Luna, Fabio L; McCormack, Susan; Plouffe, David; McNamara, Case W; Walker, John R; Fidock, David A; Denchi, Eros Lazzerini; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    Malaria parasites elude eradication attempts both within the human host and across nations. At the individual level, parasites evade the host immune responses through antigenic variation. At the global level, parasites escape drug pressure through single nucleotide variants and gene copy amplification events conferring drug resistance. Despite their importance to global health, the rates at which these genomic alterations emerge have not been determined. We studied the complete genomes of different Plasmodium falciparum clones that had been propagated asexually over one year in the presence and absence of drug pressure. A combination of whole-genome microarray analysis and next-generation deep resequencing (totaling 14 terabases) revealed a stable core genome with only 38 novel single nucleotide variants appearing in seventeen evolved clones (avg. 5.4 per clone). In clones exposed to atovaquone, we found cytochrome b mutations as well as an amplification event encompassing the P. falciparum multidrug resistance associated protein (mrp1) on chromosome 1. We observed 18 large-scale (>1 kb on average) deletions of telomere-proximal regions encoding multigene families, involved in immune evasion (9.5×10(-6) structural variants per base pair per generation). Six of these deletions were associated with chromosomal crossovers generated during mitosis. We found only minor differences in rates between genetically distinct strains and between parasites cultured in the presence or absence of drug. Using these derived mutation rates for P. falciparum (1.0-9.7×10(-9) mutations per base pair per generation), we can now model the frequency at which drug or immune resistance alleles will emerge under a well-defined set of assumptions. Further, the detection of mitotic recombination events in var gene families illustrates how multigene families can arise and change over time in P. falciparum. These results will help improve our understanding of how P. falciparum evolves to evade

  8. Distribution, gene sequence and expression in vivo of the plasmid encoded fimbrial antigen of Salmonella serotype Enteritidis.

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, M. J.; Allen-Vercoe, E.; Redstone, J. S.

    1996-01-01

    The pefA gene which encoded the serotype associated plasmid (SAP) mediated fimbrial major subunit antigen of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium shared genetic identity with 128 of 706 salmonella isolates as demonstrated by dot (colony) hybridization. Seventy-seven of 113 isolates of Typhimurium and individual isolates of serotypes Bovis-morbificans, Cholerae-suis and Enteritidis phage type 9b hybridized pefA strongly, whereas 48 isolates of Enteritidis hybridized pefA weakly and one Enteritidis isolate of phage type 14b failed to hybridize. Individual isolates of 294 serotypes and 247 individual isolates of serotype Dublin did not hybridize pefA. Southern hybridization of plasmids extracted from Enteritidis demonstrated that the pefA gene probe hybridized strongly an atypical SAP of 80 kb in size harboured by one Enteritidis isolate of phage-type 9b, whereas the typical SAP of 58 kb in size harboured by 48 Enteritidis isolates hybridized weakly. One Enteritidis isolate of phage type 14b which failed to hybridize pefA in dot (colony) hybridization experiments was demonstrated to be plasmid free. A cosmid library of Enteritidis phage type 4 expressed in Escherichia coli K12 was screened by hybridization for the presence of pef sequences. Recombinant clones which were deduced to harbour the entire pef operon elaborated a PEF-like fimbrial structure at the cell surface. The PEF-like fimbrial antigen was purified from one cosmid clone and used in western blot experiments with sera from chickens infected with Enteritidis phage-type 4. Seroconversion to the fimbrial antigen was observed which indicated that the Enteritidis PEF-like fimbrial structure was expressed at some stage during infection. Nucleotide sequence analysis demonstrated that the pefA alleles of Typhimurium and Enteritidis phage-type 4 shared 76% DNA nucleotide and 82% deduced amino acid sequence identity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8760946

  9. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S; Greenblatt, Jack F; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; Edwards, Aled M; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols. PMID:26437229

  10. Optimizing Production of Antigens and Fabs in the Context of Generating Recombinant Antibodies to Human Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Nan; Loppnau, Peter; Seitova, Alma; Ravichandran, Mani; Fenner, Maria; Jain, Harshika; Bhattacharya, Anandi; Hutchinson, Ashley; Paduch, Marcin; Lu, Vincent; Olszewski, Michal; Kossiakoff, Anthony A.; Dowdell, Evan; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei; Huang, Haiming; Nadeem, Vincent; Sidhu, Sachdev S.; Greenblatt, Jack F.; Marcon, Edyta; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Edwards, Aled M.; Gräslund, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    We developed and optimized a high-throughput project workflow to generate renewable recombinant antibodies to human proteins involved in epigenetic signalling. Three different strategies to produce phage display compatible protein antigens in bacterial systems were compared, and we found that in vivo biotinylation through the use of an Avi tag was the most productive method. Phage display selections were performed on 265 in vivo biotinylated antigen domains. High-affinity Fabs (<20nM) were obtained for 196. We constructed and optimized a new expression vector to produce in vivo biotinylated Fabs in E. coli. This increased average yields up to 10-fold, with an average yield of 4 mg/L. For 118 antigens, we identified Fabs that could immunoprecipitate their full-length endogenous targets from mammalian cell lysates. One Fab for each antigen was converted to a recombinant IgG and produced in mammalian cells, with an average yield of 15 mg/L. In summary, we have optimized each step of the pipeline to produce recombinant antibodies, significantly increasing both efficiency and yield, and also showed that these Fabs and IgGs can be generally useful for chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocols. PMID:26437229

  11. Vaccination with a cocktail of Ancylostoma ceylanicum recombinant antigens leads to worm burden reduction in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Wiśniewski, Marcin; Łapiński, Maciej; Daniłowicz-Luebert, Emilia; Jaros, Sławomir; Długosz, Ewa; Wędrychowicz, Halina

    2016-09-01

    Hookworms, a group to which Ancylostoma ceylanicum belongs, are gastrointestinal nematodes that infect more than 700 million people around the world. They are a leading cause of anemia in developing countries. In order to effectively prevent hookworm infections research is conducted to develop an effective vaccine using recombinant antigens of the parasite. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of the hosts' on protection against ancylostomiasis and the shaping of the humoral immune response among Syrian hamsters after immunization with a cocktail of five A. ceylanicum recombinant antigens. Ace-ASP-3, Ace-ASP-4, Ace-APR-1, Ace-MEP-6 and Ace-MEP-7 were obtained in the pET expression system. Immunization with a vaccine cocktail resulted in a 33.5% worm burden reduction. The immunogenicity of the recombinant proteins were determined using ELISA. Statistical analysis showed that vaccinated hamsters developed stronger humoral responses to four of five recombinant antigens (the exception being Ace-ASP-3) compared to hamsters from the control group. PMID:27447220

  12. Regulation of human peripheral blood monocyte DR antigen expression in vitro by lymphokines and recombinant interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Sztein, M B; Steeg, P S; Johnson, H M; Oppenheim, J J

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro regulation of adult human monocyte DR antigen expression was studied. Normally about 75% of freshly obtained human peripheral blood monocytes express DR antigens as determined by anti-DR and complement-mediated cytotoxicity assays. DR expression on monocytes in unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures persisted to variable degrees for up to 5 d of incubation. However, when the mononuclear cells were thoroughly depleted of nonadherent cells, cultured monocytes consistently exhibited progressively decreased DR expression over 2-5 d of incubation. Readdition of nonadherent cells to the adherent cell population prevented or delayed this decrease in monocyte DR antigen expression. Thus, monocyte DR expression diminished markedly during in vitro incubation; however, the presence of nonadherent cells somehow interfered with this process. In other experiments, peripheral adherent monocytes, which had been cultured for 2-3 d to reduce their DR expression, could be induced to reexpress DR antigens after 2 d of incubation with unpurified lymphokine-containing culture supernatants, recombinant human interferon-alpha, or recombinant human gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). The reinduction of DR expression on human monocytes by lymphokines was abrogated by an antiserum produced to the synthetic N-terminal amino acids of human IFN-gamma, indicating that IFN-gamma is the active mediator in the lymphokine-containing preparations. Monocytes cultured with lymphokines or recombinant interferons also could initiate a significantly greater mixed lymphocyte response than control monocytes. Thus, IFN-gamma-containing lymphokines and recombinant interferons are required to induce human monocyte DR expression and accessory cell capacity in vitro, since in their absence monocytes become DR antigen-deficient. Finally, incubation of unfractionated human mononuclear cells with anti-human IFN-gamma also promoted the loss of monocyte DR expression. These findings suggest

  13. Immunogenicity of DNA Vaccines Encoding Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Antigen Targeted to Dendritic Cells in Rhesus Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Nchinda, Godwin; Trumpfheller, Christine; Salazar, Andres M.; Töpfer, Katharina; Sauermann, Ulrike; Wagner, Ralf; Hannaman, Drew; Tenner-Racz, Klara; Racz, Paul; Stahl-Hennig, Christiane; Überla, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Background Targeting antigens encoded by DNA vaccines to dendritic cells (DCs) in the presence of adjuvants enhances their immunogenicity and efficacy in mice. Methodology/Principal Findings To explore the immunogenicity of this approach in non-human primates, we generated a single chain antibody to the antigen uptake receptor DEC-205 expressed on rhesus macaque DCs. DNA vaccines encoding this single chain antibody fused to the SIV capsid protein were delivered to six monkeys each by either intramuscular electroporation or conventional intramuscular injection co-injected or not with poly ICLC, a stabilized poly I: C analogue, as adjuvant. Antibodies to capsid were induced by the DC-targeting and non-targeting control DNA delivered by electroporation while conventional DNA immunization at a 10-fold higher dose of DNA failed to induce detectable humoral immune responses. Substantial cellular immune responses were also observed after DNA electroporation of both DNAs, but stronger responses were induced by the non-targeting vaccine. Conventional immunization with the DC-targeting DNA at a 10-fold higher dose did not give rise to substantial cellular immune responses, neither when co-injected with poly ICLC. Conclusions/Significance The study confirms the potent immunogenicity of DNA vaccines delivered by electroporation. Targeting the DNA via a single chain antibody to DEC-205 expressed by DCs, however, does not improve the immunogenicity of the antigens in non-human primates. PMID:22720025

  14. High Expression of Water-Soluble Recombinant Antigenic Domains of Toxoplasma gondii Secretory Organelles

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhaoshou; Ahn, Hye-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Recombinant antigenic proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are alternative source of antigens which are easily obtainable for serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis. In this study, highly antigenic secretory organellar proteins, dense granular GRA2 and GRA3, rhoptrial ROP2, and micronemal MIC2, were analyzed by bioinformatics approach to express as water-soluble forms of antigenic domains. The transmembrane region and disorder tendency of 4 secretory proteins were predicted to clone the genes into pGEX-4T-1 vector. Recombinant plasmids were transformed into BL21 (DE3) pLysS E. coli, and GST fusion proteins were expressed with IPTG. As a result, GST fusion proteins with GRA225-105, GRA339-138, ROP2324-561, and MIC21-284 domains had respectively higher value of IgG avidity. The rGST-GRA225-105 and rGST-GRA339-138 were soluble, while rGST-ROP2324-561 and rGST-MIC21-284 were not. GRA231-71, intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of GRA2, was used as a linker to enhance the solubility. The rGST-GRA231-71-ROP2324-561, a chimeric protein, appeared to be soluble. Moreover, rGST-GRA231-71-MIC21-284 was also soluble and had higher IgG avidity comparing to rGST-MIC21-284. These 4 highly expressed and water-soluble recombinant antigenic proteins may be promising candidates to improve the serodiagnosis of toxoplasmosis in addition to the major surface antigen of SAG1. PMID:25246715

  15. Successful Interference with Cellular Immune Responses to Immunogenic Proteins Encoded by Recombinant Viral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Sarukhan, Adelaida; Camugli, Sabine; Gjata, Bernard; von Boehmer, Harald; Danos, Olivier; Jooss, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Vectors derived from the adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been successfully used for the long-term expression of therapeutic genes in animal models and patients. One of the major advantages of these vectors is the absence of deleterious immune responses following gene transfer. However, AAV vectors, when used in vaccination studies, can result in efficient humoral and cellular responses against the transgene product. It is therefore important to understand the factors which influence the establishment of these immune responses in order to design safe and efficient procedures for AAV-based gene therapies. We have compared T-cell activation against a strongly immunogenic protein, the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA), which is synthesized in skeletal muscle following gene transfer with an adenovirus (Ad) or an AAV vector. In both cases, cellular immune responses resulted in the elimination of transduced muscle fibers within 4 weeks. However, the kinetics of CD4+ T-cell activation were markedly delayed when AAV vectors were used. Upon recombinant Ad (rAd) gene transfer, T cells were activated both by direct transduction of dendritic cells and by cross-presentation of the transgene product, while upon rAAV gene transfer T cells were only activated by the latter mechanism. These results suggested that activation of the immune system by the transgene product following rAAV-mediated gene transfer might be easier to control than that following rAd-mediated gene transfer. Therefore, we tested protocols aimed at interfering with either antigen presentation by blocking the CD40/CD40L pathway or with the T-cell response by inducing transgene-specific tolerance. Long-term expression of the AAV-HA was achieved in both cases, whereas immune responses against Ad-HA could not be prevented. These data clearly underline the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which vector-encoded proteins are recognized by the immune system in order to specifically interfere with them and

  16. A new MIC1-MAG1 recombinant chimeric antigen can be used instead of the Toxoplasma gondii lysate antigen in serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Drapała, Dorota; Lautenbach, Dariusz; Kur, Józef

    2012-01-01

    This study presents an evaluation of the MIC1 (microneme protein 1)-MAG1 (matrix antigen 1) Toxoplasma gondii recombinant chimeric antigen for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis for the first time. The recombinant MIC1-MAG1 antigen was obtained as a fusion protein containing His tags at the N- and C-terminal ends using an Escherichia coli expression system. After purification by metal affinity chromatography, the chimeric protein was tested for usefulness in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G (IgG). One hundred ten sera from patients at different stages of infection and 40 sera from seronegative patients were examined. The results obtained for the MIC1-MAG1 chimeric antigen were compared with those of IgG ELISAs using a Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA), a combination of recombinant antigens (rMIC1ex2-rMAG1) and single recombinant proteins (rMIC1ex2 and rMAG1). The sensitivity of the IgG ELISA calculated from all of the positive serum samples was similar for the MIC1-MAG1 chimeric antigen (90.8%) and the TLA (91.8%), whereas the sensitivities of the other antigenic samples used were definitely lower, at 69.1% for the mixture of antigens, 75.5% for the rMIC1ex2, and 60% for rMAG1. This study demonstrates that the MIC1-MAG1 recombinant chimeric antigen can be used instead of the TLA in the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

  17. Crystal structures of two active proliferating cell nuclear antigens (PCNAs) encoded by Thermococcus kodakaraensis

    PubMed Central

    Ladner, Jane E.; Pan, Miao; Hurwitz, Jerard; Kelman, Zvi

    2011-01-01

    Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is a ring-shaped protein that encircles duplex DNA and plays an essential role in many DNA metabolic processes in archaea and eukarya. The eukaryotic and euryarchaea genomes contain a single gene encoding for PCNA. Interestingly, the genome of the euryarchaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis contains two PCNA-encoding genes (TK0535 and TK0582), making it unique among the euryarchaea kingdom. It is shown here that the two T. kodakaraensis PCNA proteins support processive DNA synthesis by the polymerase. Both proteins form trimeric structures with characteristics similar to those of other archaeal and eukaryal PCNA proteins. One of the notable differences between the TK0535 and TK0582 rings is that the interfaces are different, resulting in different stabilities for the two trimers. The possible implications of these observations for PCNA functions are discussed. PMID:21270332

  18. Molecular cloning of Phaseolus vulgaris cDNA encoding proliferating cell nuclear antigen.

    PubMed

    Strzalka, Wojciech; Ziemienowicz, Alicja

    2007-02-01

    A cDNA fragment encoding a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) was isolated using rapid amplification of cDNA 3' end (3' RACE) method, cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide sequence of this clone contains an open reading frame of 798 nucleotides encoding a protein of 265 amino acids. Alignment of the common bean PCNA predicted sequence shows its high degree of identity with PCNA from other plant species. Analysis of PCNA content in the germinating embryos of common bean showed a decrease in the protein level after 60h of germination. Moreover, PCNA was not detected in the tested plant organs (root, stem, leaf and flower). The presence of PCNA in the germinating seeds and its absence from mature plants suggests that this protein plays a crucial role during early stages of plant development.

  19. Whole-genome analysis of genetic recombination of hepatitis delta virus: molecular domain in delta antigen determining trans-activating efficiency.

    PubMed

    Chao, Mei; Lin, Chia-Chi; Lin, Feng-Ming; Li, Hsin-Pai; Iang, Shan-Bei

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is the only animal RNA virus that has an unbranched rod-like genome with ribozyme activity and is replicated by host RNA polymerase. HDV RNA recombination was previously demonstrated in patients and in cultured cells by analysis of a region corresponding to the C terminus of the delta antigen (HDAg), the only viral-encoded protein. Here, a whole-genome recombination map of HDV was constructed using an experimental system in which two HDV-1 sequences were co-transfected into cultured cells and the recombinants were analysed by sequencing of cloned reverse transcription-PCR products. Fifty homologous recombinants with 60 crossovers mapping to 22 junctions were identified from 200 analysed clones. Small HDAg chimeras harbouring a junction newly detected in the recombination map were then constructed. The results further indicated that the genome-replication level of HDV was sensitive to the sixth amino acid within the N-terminal 22 aa of HDAg. Therefore, the recombination map established in this study provided a tool for not only understanding HDV RNA recombination, but also elucidating the related mechanisms, such as molecular elements responsible for the trans-activation levels of the small HDAg.

  20. A set of recombinant antigens from Echinococcus granulosus with potential for use in the immunodiagnosis of human cystic hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    VIRGINIO, V G; HERNÁNDEZ, A; ROTT, M B; MONTEIRO, K M; ZANDONAI, A F; NIETO, A; ZAHA, A; FERREIRA, H B

    2003-01-01

    Several recombinant clones expressing antigens from Echinococcus granulosus were isolated previously from a parasite cDNA library using cystic hydatid disease (CHD) patients’ sera or rabbit hyperimmune antiserum against a lipoproteic fraction from bovine cyst fluid. Six of these antigens were expressed in Escherichia coli and the purified recombinant proteins were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for specific IgG with a panel of sera from patients with surgically confirmed (n = 58) or immunologically diagnosed (n = 71) CHD. Sera from clinically normal individuals (n = 203) and sera from individuals with other helminthic infections (n = 65) were assayed for the assessment of specificity. A cut-off value was determined by receiver-operating-characteristic plots for each antigen. A recombinant antigen B subunit (AgB8/2) presented the highest sensitivity (93·1%), considering the group of sera from patients with CHD surgically confirmed, and specificity (99·5%) and is proposed as the basis for an immunodiagnostic test. The other recombinant antigens tested presented sensitivities between 58·6% and 89·7%, and three of them were considered of complementary value. In subclass-specific ELISA, different IgG isotypes showed dominance in the response for each of the recombinant antigens. There was a clear predominance of IgG4 response for all antigens tested, indicating that this would be the subclass of choice to be assessed for these recombinant proteins. PMID:12699422

  1. Stable Expression of Lentiviral Antigens by Quality-Controlled Recombinant Mycobacterium bovis BCG Vectors.

    PubMed

    Hart, Bryan E; Asrican, Rose; Lim, So-Yon; Sixsmith, Jaimie D; Lukose, Regy; Souther, Sommer J R; Rayasam, Swati D G; Saelens, Joseph W; Chen, Ching-Ju; Seay, Sarah A; Berney-Meyer, Linda; Magtanong, Leslie; Vermeul, Kim; Pajanirassa, Priyadharshini; Jimenez, Amanda E; Ng, Tony W; Tobin, David M; Porcelli, Steven A; Larsen, Michelle H; Schmitz, Joern E; Haynes, Barton F; Jacobs, William R; Lee, Sunhee; Frothingham, Richard

    2015-07-01

    The well-established safety profile of the tuberculosis vaccine strain, Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG), makes it an attractive vehicle for heterologous expression of antigens from clinically relevant pathogens. However, successful generation of recombinant BCG strains possessing consistent insert expression has encountered challenges in stability. Here, we describe a method for the development of large recombinant BCG accession lots which stably express the lentiviral antigens, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) gp120 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) Gag, using selectable leucine auxotrophic complementation. Successful establishment of vaccine stability stems from stringent quality control criteria which not only screen for highly stable complemented BCG ΔleuCD transformants but also thoroughly characterize postproduction quality. These parameters include consistent production of correctly sized antigen, retention of sequence-pure plasmid DNA, freeze-thaw recovery, enumeration of CFU, and assessment of cellular aggregates. Importantly, these quality assurance procedures were indicative of overall vaccine stability, were predictive for successful antigen expression in subsequent passaging both in vitro and in vivo, and correlated with induction of immune responses in murine models. This study has yielded a quality-controlled BCG ΔleuCD vaccine expressing HIV gp120 that retained stable full-length expression after 10(24)-fold amplification in vitro and following 60 days of growth in mice. A second vaccine lot expressed full-length SIV Gag for >10(68)-fold amplification in vitro and induced potent antigen-specific T cell populations in vaccinated mice. Production of large, well-defined recombinant BCG ΔleuCD lots can allow confidence that vaccine materials for immunogenicity and protection studies are not negatively affected by instability or differences between freshly grown production batches. PMID:25924766

  2. Production and immunological characterization of a recombinant subunit of a Loa loa polyprotein antigen.

    PubMed

    Azzibrouck, G Blampain; Akue, J P; Lenoble, D Richard

    2010-06-01

    Diagnosis of loiasis and analysis of the specific immune response are limited by a paucity of parasite material. To circumvent this problem, a Loa loa antigen has been expressed in a prokaryote vector (pTrcHis). Immunization of Balb/c mice with this soluble recombinant protein produced a strong antibody response, with antibodies recognizing 2 major bands of 38 and 20 kDa in a native crude extract of Loa loa adult worms and microfilariae on Western blots. The target molecule was located mainly in the hypodermis and cuticle of the adult worm. Analysis of human IgG subclasses against this antigen by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) showed IgG1, IgG2 and IgG3 but not IgG4 reactivity. IgG2 against this recombinant antigen was 100% specific for loiasis when tested against samples from European donor individuals. The same IgG2 antibodies showed 91% specificity for loiasis by comparison with Wuchereria bancrofti, Onchocerca volvulus, Mansonnella perstans and other helminth infections. Furthermore, the IgG2 antibody level correlated with the density of Loa loa microfilariae (r=0.400; P=0.02). This recombinant 15r3 molecule and specific IgG2 assay may be useful for monitoring control programmes. PMID:20441677

  3. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment. PMID:26297626

  4. Antigenic assessment of a recombinant human CD90 protein expressed in prokaryotic expression system.

    PubMed

    Yousefi-Rad, Narges; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Behdani, Mahdi; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Motamedi-Rad, Mahdieh; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi

    2015-12-01

    Cluster of Differentiation 90 (CD90, Thy-1) has been proposed as one of the most important biomarkers in several cancer cells including cancer stem cells (CSCs). CD90 is considered as a potential normal stem cell and CSCs biomarker and also has been identified in lung cancer stem cells, hepatocellular carcinoma cells and high-grade gliomas. Using eukaryotic host systems involves complex procedures and frequently results in low protein yields. The expression of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli is comparatively easier than eukaryotic host cells. The potential of large scale production of recombinant protein has made this system an economic production platform. In this study we expressed the extra-membrane domain of human CD90 (exCD90) antigen (Gln15-Cys130) in E. coli expression host cells. The epitope integrity of purified recombinant antigen was confirmed by antibody-antigen interaction using 5E10 anti-CD90 monoclonal antibody and binding study through ELISA and florescent staining of CD90(+) cells in a flow cytometry experiment.

  5. Recombinant expression and antigenic properties of a 32-kilodalton extracellular alkaline protease, representing a possible virulence factor from Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed Central

    Moser, M; Menz, G; Blaser, K; Crameri, R

    1994-01-01

    A 32-kDa nonglycosylated alkaline protease (EC 3.4.1.14) with elastolytic activity, secreted by the opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus ATCC 42202, is suggested to be a virulence factor of this fungus. The enzyme is a serine protease of the subtilisin family, and its cDNA nucleotide sequence has recently been reported. We have cloned the cDNA encoding the mature protease into a high-level Escherichia coli expression plasmid and produced the recombinant protease as a fusion protein with a six-adjacent-histidine affinity tag at the carboxy terminus. Subsequently, the recombinant protease was purified to homogeneity, with affinity chromatography yielding 30 to 40 mg of recombinant protease per liter of E. coli culture. Refolded recombinant protease, in comparison with native protease, demonstrated weak enzymatic activity but similar immunochemical characteristics as analyzed by antigen-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), competition ELISA, and immunoblotting assays. To assess the allergenic potential of the protease, sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and sera from healthy control individuals were analyzed by ELISA and immunoblotting techniques. Sera from patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis did not have protease-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies and, remarkably, did not show significantly elevated protease-specific IgG antibody levels compared with those in sera from healthy control individuals. This suggests that the alkaline protease from A. fumigatus does not elicit IgE antibodies and has weak immunogenicity, a property which may explain fungus persistence in allergic individuals. Images PMID:8112866

  6. Induction of protection against porcine cysticercosis by vaccination with recombinant oncosphere antigens.

    PubMed

    Flisser, Ana; Gauci, Charles G; Zoli, André; Martinez-Ocaña, Joel; Garza-Rodriguez, Adriana; Dominguez-Alpizar, Jose Luis; Maravilla, Pablo; Rodriguez-Canul, Rossana; Avila, Guillermina; Aguilar-Vega, Laura; Kyngdon, Craig; Geerts, Stanny; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2004-09-01

    Two recombinant Taenia solium oncosphere antigens, designated TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A, were investigated as vaccines to prevent transmission of the zoonotic disease cysticercosis through pigs. Both antigens were effective in inducing very high levels of protection (up to 100%) in three independent vaccine trials in pigs against experimental challenge infection with T. solium eggs, which were undertaken in Mexico and Cameroon. This is the highest level of protection that has been achieved against T. solium infection in pigs by vaccination with a defined antigen. TSOL18 and TSOL45-1A provide the basis for development of a highly effective practical vaccine that could assist in the control and, potentially, the eradication of human neurocysticercosis.

  7. Vaccination of horses against strangles using recombinant antigens from Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    Waller, Andrew; Flock, Margareta; Smith, Ken; Robinson, Carl; Mitchell, Zoe; Karlström, Asa; Lannergård, Jonas; Bergman, Rune; Guss, Bengt; Flock, Jan-Ingmar

    2007-05-01

    Strangles is an upper respiratory tract infection in horses, which is highly contagious and one of the more costly diseases of the horse. Three recombinant antigens were used to vaccinate horses, which were then experimentally challenged with Streptococcus equi, the causative agent for strangles. The vaccinated horses showed significantly reduced bacterial growth (p=0.02) and nasal discharge (p=0.0004), a typical symptom of strangles. Other clinical signs of strangles were also reduced and at post mortem examination, lower rate of empyaema or scarring of the guttural pouches was found in the vaccinated group (p=0.01). The antigens used were EAG (alpha2-macroglobulin, albumin, and IgG-binding protein), CNE (a collagen-binding protein), and SclC (a collagen-like protein). The adjuvant used was Abisco, a saponin derived matrix. No adverse effects were observed following vaccination with the antigens and adjuvant.

  8. Chemical inactivation of recombinant vaccinia viruses and the effects on antigenicity and immunogenicity of recombinant simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hulskotte, E G; Dings, M E; Norley, S G; Osterhaus, A D

    1997-12-01

    The efficiency of paraformaldehyde (PFA) and binary ethylenimine (BEI) in inactivating recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV), present in baby hamster kidney cells expressing simian immunodeficiency virus envelope glycoproteins (SIV-Env), was measured in a series of inactivation studies. Both compounds were shown to be effective in reducing rVV titres. The use of standard 3-day titration assays proved to be inadequate to measure PFA inactivation, since upon prolonged incubation, residual rVV infectivity was detected in cultures negative at 3 days. Different procedures using PFA or BEI were selected to assess their influence on the antigenicity and immunogenicity or rVV expressed SIV-Env. Antigenicity, as defined by the ability to react with a panel of monoclonal antibodies recognizing major antigenic sites, and immunogenicity, as defined by the ability to induce SIV envelope specific and virus neutralizing serum antibodies in rats, proved to be preserved after either inactivation procedure. These data show that both protocols using PFA or BEI can be used successfully as part of the procedures to remove residual rVV infectivity.

  9. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV–LACK, rCDV–TSA, and rCDV–LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV–LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV–TSA- and rCDV–LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV–LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  10. Efficacy of Recombinant Canine Distemper Virus Expressing Leishmania Antigen against Leishmania Challenge in Dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Ryuichi; Kooriyama, Takanori; Yoneda, Misako; Takenaka, Akiko; Doki, Miho; Goto, Yasuyuki; Sanjoba, Chizu; Endo, Yasuyuki; Fujiyuki, Tomoko; Sugai, Akihiro; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko; Matsumoto, Yoshitsugu; Sato, Hiroki; Kai, Chieko

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccination confers long-term protection against CDV reinfection. To investigate the utility of CDV as a polyvalent vaccine vector for Leishmania, we generated recombinant CDVs, based on an avirulent Yanaka strain, that expressed Leishmania antigens: LACK, TSA, or LmSTI1 (rCDV-LACK, rCDV-TSA, and rCDV-LmSTI1, respectively). Dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK were protected against challenge with lethal doses of virulent CDV, in the same way as the parental Yanaka strain. To evaluate the protective effects of the recombinant CDVs against cutaneous leishmaniasis in dogs, dogs were immunized with one recombinant CDV or a cocktail of three recombinant CDVs, before intradermal challenge (in the ears) with infective-stage promastigotes of Leishmania major. Unvaccinated dogs showed increased nodules with ulcer formation after 3 weeks, whereas dogs immunized with rCDV-LACK showed markedly smaller nodules without ulceration. Although the rCDV-TSA- and rCDV-LmSTI1-immunized dogs showed little protection against L. major, the cocktail of three recombinant CDVs more effectively suppressed the progression of nodule formation than immunization with rCDV-LACK alone. These results indicate that recombinant CDV is suitable for use as a polyvalent live attenuated vaccine for protection against both CDV and L. major infections in dogs. PMID:26162094

  11. Vaccination against Anthrax with Attenuated Recombinant Strains of Bacillus anthracis That Produce Protective Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, John P.; Friedlander, Arthur M.

    1999-01-01

    The protective efficacy of several live, recombinant anthrax vaccines given in a single-dose regimen was assessed with Hartley guinea pigs. These live vaccines were created by transforming ΔANR and ΔSterne, two nonencapsulated, nontoxinogenic strains of Bacillus anthracis, with four different recombinant plasmids that express the anthrax protective antigen (PA) protein to various degrees. This enabled us to assess the effect of the chromosomal background of the strain, as well as the amount of PA produced, on protective efficacy. There were no significant strain-related effects on PA production in vitro, plasmid stability in vivo, survival of the immunizing strain in the host, or protective efficacy of the immunizing infection. The protective efficacy of the live, recombinant anthrax vaccine strains correlated with the anti-PA antibody titers they elicited in vivo and the level of PA they produced in vitro. PMID:9916059

  12. Native surface association of a recombinant 38-kilodalton Treponema pallidum antigen isolated from the Escherichia coli outer membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Fehniger, T E; Radolf, J D; Walfield, A M; Cunningham, T M; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1986-01-01

    A recombinant plasmid designated pAW305, containing a 6-kilobase insert of Treponema pallidum DNA, directed the expression of a 38-kilodalton (kDa) treponemal antigen in Escherichia coli. The 38-kDa antigen copurified with the outer membrane fraction of the E. coli cell envelope after treatment with nonionic detergents or sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Rabbits immunized with the recombinant 38-kDa antigen developed antibodies which reacted specifically with a 38-kDa T. pallidum antigen on immunoblots, and 38-kDa antisera specifically immobilized T. pallidum in a complement-dependent manner in the T. pallidum immobilization test. Antisera to the 38-kDa recombinant antigen were also used to demonstrate its native surface association on T. pallidum by immunoelectron microscopy. Images PMID:3516880

  13. A human endogenous retroviral sequence encoding an antigen recognized on melanoma by cytolytic T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Schiavetti, Francesca; Thonnard, Joëlle; Colau, Didier; Boon, Thierry; Coulie, Pierre G

    2002-10-01

    We have identified a gene encoding an antigen recognized by cytolytic T lymphocytes on the autologous tumor cells of a melanoma patient, AVL3. The gene shows homologies with members of the HERV-K family of human endogenous retroviruses, and it was provisionally named HERV-K-MEL. It contains many mutations that disrupt the open reading frames coding for all of the viral proteins. The HERV-K-MEL gene is not expressed in normal tissues with the exception of testis and some skin samples. It is expressed in most samples of cutaneous and ocular melanoma. It is also expressed in a majority of naevi and in a minority of carcinomas and sarcomas. The antigenic peptide, presented by HLA-A2 molecules, is encoded by a very short open reading frame present in the env region of a spliced HERV-K-MEL transcript. Anti-HERV.A2 CTLp could not be detected in the blood of three individuals without cancer but were present at a frequency of 3 x 10(-5) among blood CD8 T cells in patient AVL3 and 6 x 10(-7) in another HLA-A2 melanoma patient whose tumor expressed HERV-K-MEL. Anti-HERV.A2 CTL clones derived from each patient lysed melanoma cells. Analysis of T-cell receptor beta chain sequences indicated that the anti-HERV.A2 CTL population was oligoclonal in patient AVL3 and probably monoclonal in the other patient. These results suggest that HERV-K-MEL is a source of antigens that are targeted by CTLs in melanoma patients and could therefore be used for vaccination.

  14. Serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis: use of recombinant antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.

    PubMed Central

    Magnarelli, L A; Flavell, R A; Padula, S J; Anderson, J F; Fikrig, E

    1997-01-01

    Serum samples from dogs and equids suspected of having canine or equine borreliosis, respectively, were analyzed in polyvalent enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with whole-cell or recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto. Purified preparations of recombinant antigens included outer surface protein A (OspA), OspB, OspC, OspE, OspF, and p41-G (a fragment of flagellin). Of the 36 dog sera that reacted positively to whole-cell antigen, 32 (88.9%) contained antibodies to one or more recombinant antigens. Reactivities to OspF (88.9% positive) and p41-G (75% positive) were most prevalent. In analyses of 30 equid sera positive in an ELISA with whole cells, 24 (80%) contained antibodies to one or more recombinant antigens. Seropositivities in ELISAs with p41-G (50% positive) and OspF (46.7% positive) were more than twofold greater than in ELISAs with OspA, OspB, or OspC (10 to 20% positive). In parallel tests of eight canine and three equine sera, there was good agreement in results of Western blot (immunoblot) analyses and ELISAs. Although dog and equid sera with antibodies to whole-cell B. burgdorferi frequently reacted positively to one or more recombinant antigens, the inclusion of OspF and p41-G antigens in ELISAs was most useful in the serologic diagnosis of canine and equine borreliosis. PMID:8968901

  15. Soluble recombinant merozoite surface antigen-142kDa of Plasmodium vivax: An improved diagnostic antigen for vivax malaria.

    PubMed

    Mirahmadi, Hadi; Fallahi, Shirzad; Seyyed Tabaei, Seyyed Javad

    2016-04-01

    Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), as a serological test, can be a beneficial tool for epidemiological studies by screening blood donors and diagnosis of specific antibodies from Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax) infected cases. Since P. vivax cannot easily be acquired in vitro, ELISA assays using total or semi-purified antigens are seldom used. On the basis of this restriction, we examined whether recombinant protein 42 kDa related to C-terminal region of the merozoite surface antigen-1 of P. vivax (MSA-1(42)) could be suitable for serological detection of vivax malaria infection. Purified recombinant protein produced in Escherichia coli (E. coli) (GST-MSA-1(42)) was examined for its ability to bind to IgG antibodies of individuals with patent P. vivax infection. The method was tested with 262 serum samples collected from individuals living in the south and southeastern regions of Iran where malaria is endemic. Samples exposed to Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) infection and patients with other infectious disease (toxoplasmosis, Leishmania infantum infection, echinococcosis and FUO (fever with unknown origin)) except for P. falciparum were residing in non- malaria endemic areas in Iran. Generally, the sensitivity of ELISA evaluated with sera from naturally infected individuals was 86.9%. The specificity value of the ELISA determined with sera from healthy individuals and from individuals with other infectious diseases was 94.05%. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) provided, and the diagnostic efficiency of anti-rPvMSA-1(42) antibody using indirect ELISA were determined 93.58, 87.77 and 91.06% respectively. Our study demonstrated that, because MSA-1(42) kDa contains both the 33 and 19 kDa fragments in its structure, it can serve as the basis for the development of a sensitive serological test which can be used for epidemiological studies, screening blood donors and diagnosis of P. vivax malaria. PMID:26851675

  16. Experimental studies of a vaccine formulation of recombinant human VEGF antigen with aluminum phosphate.

    PubMed

    Pérez Sánchez, Lincidio; Morera Díaz, Yanelys; Bequet-Romero, Mónica; Ramses Hernández, Gerardo; Rodríguez, Yadira; Castro Velazco, Jorge; Puente Pérez, Pedro; Ayala Avila, Marta; Gavilondo, Jorge V

    2015-01-01

    CIGB-247 is a cancer vaccine that is a formulation of a recombinant protein antigen representative of the human vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) with a bacterially-derived adjuvant (VSSP). The vaccine has shown an excellent safety profile in mice, rats, rabbits, not-human primates and in recent clinical trials in cancer patients. Response to the vaccine is characterized by specific antibody titers that neutralize VEGF/VEGFR2 binding and a cytotoxic tumor-specific response. To expand our present anti-VEGF active immunotherapy strategies, we have now studied in mice and non-human primates the effects of vaccination with a formulation of our recombinant VEGF antigen and aluminum phosphate adjuvant (hereafter denominated CIGB-247-A). Administered bi-weekly, CIGB-247-A produces high titers of anti-VEGF IgG blocking antibodies in 2 mice strains. Particularly in BALB/c, the treatment impaired subcutaneous F3II mammary tumor growth and reduced the number of spontaneous lung macro metastases, increasing animals' survival. Spleen cells from specifically immunized mice directly killed F3II tumor cells in vitro. CIGB-247-A also showed to be immunogenic in non-human primates, which developed anti-VEGF blocking antibodies and the ability for specific direct cell cytotoxic responses, all without impairing the healing of deep skin wounds or other side effect. Our results support consideration of aluminum phosphate as a suitable adjuvant for the development of new vaccine formulations using VEGF as antigen.

  17. Cryptocaryon irritans recombinant proteins as potential antigens for sero-surveillance of cryptocaryonosis.

    PubMed

    Lokanathan, Y; Mohd-Adnan, A; Kua, B-C; Nathan, S

    2016-09-01

    Cryptocaryonosis is a major problem for mariculture, and the absence of suitable sero-surveillance tools for the detection of cryptocaryonosis makes it difficult to screen Cryptocaryon irritans-infected fish, particularly asymptomatic fish. In this study, we proposed a serum-based assay using selected C. irritans proteins to screen infected and asymptomatic fish. Eight highly expressed genes were chosen from an earlier study on C. irritans expressed sequence tags and ciliate glutamine codons were converted to universal glutamine codons. The chemically synthesized C. irritans genes were then expressed in an Escherichia coli expression host under optimized conditions. Five C. irritans proteins were successfully expressed in E. coli and purified by affinity chromatography. These proteins were used as antigens in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to screen sera from experimentally immunized fish and naturally infected fish. Sera from both categories of fish reacted equally well with the expressed C. irritans recombinant proteins as well as with sonicated theronts. This study demonstrated the utility of producing ciliate recombinant proteins in a heterologous expression host. An ELISA was successfully developed to diagnose infected and asymptomatic fish using the recombinant proteins as antigens. PMID:27086498

  18. Comparison of Z and R3 antigen expression and of genes encoding other antigenic markers in invasive human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae strains from Norway.

    PubMed

    Maeland, Johan A; Radtke, Andreas

    2013-12-27

    Streptococcus agalactiae (GBS) may cause a variety of infectious diseases in humans caused by human GBS and mastitis in cattle caused by bovine GBS. Over the last few years molecular testing has provided evidence that human and bovine GBS have evolved along diverse phylogenetic lines. In the present study 173 invasive human GBS strains and 52 invasive bovine strains were tested for altogether 18 strain-variable and surface-localized antigenic markers including all 10 capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and proteins including Cβ, the alpha-like proteins, R3 and the recently described Z1 and Z2 antigens. PCR was used to detect encoding genes and antibody-based methods to detect expression of antigens. Thirteen of the 18 markers were detected in isolates of both strain categories. Seven of the ten CPS antigens were detected in both groups with types III and V predominating in the human GBS strains, types IV and V in the bovine isolates. Z1, Z2 and/or R3 expression and the genes encoding Cβ, Cα, Alp1, Alp2/3 or R4 (Rib) were detected in both groups. Protein antigen-CPS associations well known for human strains were essentially the same in the bovine isolates. The results show that in spite of evolution along different lines, human and bovine GBS share a variety of surface-exposed antigenic markers, substantiating close relationship between the two GBS subpopulations. PMID:24120184

  19. Detection of Leptospira-Specific Antibodies Using a Recombinant Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Halsey, Eric S.; Guevara, Carolina; Canal, Enrique; Hall, Eric; Maves, Ryan; Tilley, Drake H.; Kochel, Tadeusz J.; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2013-01-01

    We produced three highly purified recombinant antigens rLipL32, rLipL41, and rLigA-Rep (leptospiral immunoglobulin-like A repeat region) for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The performance of these recombinant antigens was evaluated using 121 human sera. Among them, 63 sera were microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-confirmed positive sera from febrile patients in Peru, 22 sera were indigenous MAT-negative febrile patient sera, and 36 sera were from patients with other febrile diseases from Southeast Asia, where leptospirosis is also endemic. Combining the results of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG detection from these three antigens, the overall sensitivity is close to 90% based on the MAT. These results suggest that an ELISA using multiple recombinant antigens may be used as an alternative method for the detection of Leptospira-specific antibodies. PMID:24166046

  20. Characterisation of antibody responses in pigs induced by recombinant oncosphere antigens from Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Gonzalez, Armando E; Castillo Neyra, Ricardo; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-12-14

    Recombinant antigens cloned from the oncosphere life cycle stage of the cestode parasite Taenia solium (T. solium) have been proven to be effective as vaccines for protecting pigs against infections with T. solium. Previous studies have defined three different host protective oncosphere antigens, TSOL18, TSOL16 and TSOL45. In this study, we evaluated the potential for combining the antigens TSOL16 and TSOL18 as a practical vaccine. Firstly, in a laboratory trial, we compared the immunogenicity of the combined antigens (TSOL16/18) versus the immunogenicity of the antigens separately. Secondly, in a field trial, we tested the ability of the TSOL16/18 vaccine to induce detectable antibody responses in animals living under environmental stress and traditionally reared in areas where T. solium cysticercosis is endemic; and finally, we characterised the immune response of the study population. Pigs of 8-16 weeks of age were vaccinated with 200 μg each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg of Quil-A. Specific total IgG, IgG(1) and IgG(2) antibody responses induced by TSOL16 and TSOL18 were determined with ELISA. The immunogenicity of both antigens was retained in the combined TSOL16/18 vaccine. The combined vaccine TSOL16/18 induced detectable specific anti-TSOL18 antibody responses in 100% (113/113) and specific anti-TSOL16 in 99% (112/113) of the vaccinated animals measured at 2 weeks following the booster vaccination. From the two IgG antibody subtypes analysed we found there was stronger response to IgG(2).

  1. Superior efficacy of secreted over somatic antigen display in recombinant Salmonella vaccine induced protection against listeriosis.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, J; Gentschev, I; Miko, D; Welzel, M; Ladel, C; Goebel, W; Kaufmann, S H

    1996-01-01

    Vaccination provides the most potent measure against infectious disease, and recombinant (r) viable vaccines expressing defined pathogen-derived antigens represent powerful candidates for future vaccination strategies. In a new approach we constructed r-aroA- Salmonella typhimurium displaying p60 or listeriolysin (Hly) antigen of Listeria monocytogenes in secreted or somatic form in the host cell. Vaccination of mice with r-aroA- S. typhimurium induced protection against the intracellular pathogen L. monocytogenes only with secreted and not with somatic antigen. Secreted Hly was slightly more potent in inducing protective immunity than secreted p60. Both r-aroA- S. typhimurium secreting p60 in the endosome and r-aroA- S. typhimurium secreting Hly in the cytosol induced protective CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells suggesting CD8+ T-cell stimulation independent from intracellular residence of r-aroA- S. typhimurium carriers. Hence, not only the type of antigen but also its display by the r-carrier within the host cell critically influences vaccine efficacy. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8643654

  2. Antigenic composition and immunoreactivity differences between HEV recombinant capsid proteins generated from different genotypes.

    PubMed

    Behloul, Nouredine; Wen, Jiyue; Dai, Xing; Dong, Chen; Meng, Jihong

    2015-08-01

    Appreciable variability has been observed in hepatitis E virus (HEV) serological diagnostics. Four recombinant proteins (p166s) were generated from position 452 to 617 aa of ORF2 of different HEV genotypes and used in an indirect ELISA to detect anti-HEV IgMs and IgGs in serially diluted sera of patients infected with different HEV genotypes (genotype 1, n=15; genotype 3, n=12; genotype 4, n=17). To evaluate the differences at a conformational level, 3D-structure models of p166s were predicted, and different bioinformatics tools were used to analyze the antigenic composition. With both anti-HEV IgMs and IgGs antibodies, there was a considerable variability between the four antigens immunoreactivities. In silico results revealed the region 483-533 aa with the highest antigenic potential and contains six key aa at positions 488, 489, 512, 533, 483 and 530. This immunoreactivity variation could affect diagnosis results and seroprevalence estimations and the identification in silico of a region highly antigenic would guide the development of efficient serological assays and epitope-based vaccines. PMID:26122075

  3. Amino acid sequence heterogeneity of the chromosomal encoded Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato major antigen P100.

    PubMed

    Fellinger, W; Farencena, A; Redl, B; Sambri, V; Cevenini, R; Stöffler, G

    1995-04-01

    The entire nucleotide sequence of the chromosomal encoded major antigen p100 of the European Borrelia garinii isolate B29 was determined and the deduced amino acid sequence was compared to the homologous antigen p83 of the North American Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain B31 and the p100 of the European Borrelia afzelii (group VS461) strain PKo. p100 of strain B29 shows 87% amino acid sequence identity to strain B31 and 79.2% to strain PKo, p100 of strain B31 and PKo shows 62.5% identity to each other. In addition, partial nucleotide sequences of the most heterogeneous region of the p100 gene of two other Borrelia garinii isolates (PBi and VS286) have been determined and the deduced amino acid sequences were compared with all p100 of Borrelia garinii published so far. We found an amino acid sequence identity between 88.6 and 100% within the same genospecies. The N-terminal part of the p100 proteins is highly conserved whereas a striking heterogeneous region within the C-terminal part of the proteins was observed.

  4. mTOR inhibition improves antitumor effects of vaccination with antigen-encoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Diken, Mustafa; Kreiter, Sebastian; Vascotto, Fulvia; Selmi, Abderraouf; Attig, Sebastian; Diekmann, Jan; Huber, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Sahin, Ugur

    2013-12-01

    Vaccination with in vitro transcribed RNA encoding tumor antigens is an emerging approach in cancer immunotherapy. Attempting to further improve RNA vaccine efficacy, we have explored combining RNA with immunomodulators such as rapamycin. Rapamycin, the inhibitor of mTOR, was used originally for immunosuppression. Recent reports in mouse systems, however, suggest that mTOR inhibition may enhance the formation and differentiation of the memory CD8(+) T-cell pool. Because memory T-cell formation is critical to the outcome of vaccination approaches, we studied the impact of rapamycin on the in vivo primed RNA vaccine-induced immune response using the chicken ovalbumin-expressing B16 melanoma model in C57BL/6 mice. Our data show that treatment with rapamycin at the effector-to-memory transition phase skews the vaccine-induced immune response toward the formation of a quantitatively and qualitatively superior memory pool and results in a better recall response. Tumor-infiltrating immune cells from these mice display a favorable ratio of effector versus suppressor cell populations. Survival of mice treated with the combined regimen of RNA vaccination with rapamycin is significantly longer (91.5 days) than that in the control groups receiving only one of these compounds (32 and 46 days, respectively). Our findings indicate that rapamycin enhances therapeutic efficacy of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells induced by RNA vaccination, and we propose further clinical exploration of rapamycin as a component of immunotherapeutic regimens. PMID:24778131

  5. Evaluation of liver fluke recombinant cathepsin B-1 protease as a serodiagnostic antigen for human opisthorchiasis.

    PubMed

    Sripa, Jittiyawadee; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Loukas, Alex; Kaewkes, Sasithorn; Laha, Thewarach

    2012-03-01

    A cathepsin B-like cysteine protease belonging to family C1 is abundantly expressed in the transcriptome and proteome of the carcinogenic liver fluke of humans, Opisthorchis viverrini. This enzyme is present in excretory/secretory (ES) products released by parasites cultured in vitro. This study evaluated the performance of recombinant O. viverrini cathepsin B1 (rOv-CB-1) as an antigen for immunodiagnosis of opisthorchiasis. The full length Ov-CB-1 cDNA was cloned and recombinant protein was produced in catalytically active form in Pichia pastoris. The recombinant Ov-CB-1 (rOv-CB-1) was affinity purified via nickel-NTA chromatography and tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) with human sera from an opisthorchiasis endemic area. Sera from egg-positive O. viverrini infections produced a strong IgG antibody response to rOv-CB-1 both in ELISA and immunoblot analysis. The sensitivity and specificity of the ELISA test was 67% and 81%, respectively. These findings support the feasibility of using recombinant Ov-CB-1 in ELISA for the serodiagnosis of human opisthorchiasis. PMID:21704728

  6. Delivery of Echinococcus granulosus antigen EG95 to mice and sheep using recombinant vaccinia virus.

    PubMed

    Dutton, S; Fleming, S B; Ueda, N; Heath, D D; Hibma, M H; Mercer, A A

    2012-06-01

    The tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus is the causative agent of hydatid disease and affects sheep, cattle, dogs and humans worldwide. It has a two-stage life cycle existing as worms in the gut of infected dogs (definitive host) and as cysts in herbivores and humans (intermediate host). The disease is debilitating and can be life threatening where the cysts interfere with organ function. Interruption of the hydatid life cycle in the intermediate host by vaccination may be a way to control the disease, and a protective oncosphere antigen EG95 has been shown to protect animals against challenge with E. granulosus eggs. We explored the use of recombinant vaccinia virus as a delivery vehicle for EG95. Mice and sheep were immunized with the recombinant vector, and the result monitored at the circulating antibody level. In addition, sera from immunized mice were assayed for the ability to kill E. granulosus oncospheres in vitro. Mice immunized once intranasally developed effective oncosphere-killing antibody by day 42 post-infection. Antibody responses and oncosphere killing were correlated and were significantly enhanced by boosting mice with either EG95 protein or recombinant vector. Sheep antibody responses to the recombinant vector or to EG95 protein mirrored those in mice.

  7. Transfection, expression, and DNA sequence of a gene encoding a BoLA-A11 antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Sawhney, S.M.S.; Hasima, N.N.; Glass, E.J.; Al-Murrani, S.W.K.; Nichani, A.K.; Spooner, R.L.; Williams, J.L.; Russell, G.C.

    1995-02-01

    Cattle major histocompatibility complex [(MHC) (BoLA)] class I molecules are heterodimeric glycoproteins which present endogenous antigenic peptides to CD8{sup +} T lymphocytes, initiating a cellular immune response. The MHC-encoded heavy chains are highly polymorphic and, in cattle, have been characterized mainly by using allo-antisera raised by reciprocal calf/dam immunizations. This has enabled the identification of about 50 serlogical specificities, most of which behave as alleles of a single highly polymorphic class I locus. However, evidence from biochemical and molecular biological studies suggest that more than one BoLA class I locus is expressed. These loci are apparently in linkage disequilibrium, making them difficult to distinguish by conventional methods. In order to investigate the expression and function of individual class I locus products, we are correlating BoLA class I gene sequences with the expressed products by the transfection and characterization of genomic class I clones. Shotgun transfection and expression of BoLA class I molecules has been described previously, but the genes involved were not isolated. In this paper we report the isolation, DNA sequencing, transfection, and expression of a genomic clone encoding a BoLA-A11 determinant from an animal expressing A10 and A11 serological specificities. 23 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Isolation, identification, and characterization of clones encoding antigens responsible for peanut hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Burks, A W; Cockrell, G; Stanley, J S; Helm, R M; Bannon, G A

    1995-01-01

    Peanut allergy is a significant health problem because of the frequency, the potential severity, and the chronicity of the allergic sensitivity. Serum IgE from patients with documented peanut hypersensitivity reactions and a peanut cDNA expression library were used to identify clones that encode peanut allergens. One of the major peanut allergens, Ara h I, was selected from these clones using Ara h I-specific oligonucleotides and polymerase chain reaction technology. The Ara h I clone identified a 2.3-kb mRNA species on a Northern blot containing peanut poly A+RNA. DNA sequence analysis of the cloned inserts revealed that the Ara h I allergen has significant homology with the vicilin seed storage protein family found in most higher plants. The isolation of the Ara h I clones allowed the synthesis of this protein in Escherichia coli cells and subsequent recognition of this recombinant protein in immunoblot analysis using serum IgE from patients with peanut hypersensitivity. With the production of the recombinant peanut protein it will now be possible to address the pathophysiologic and immunologic mechanisms regarding peanut hypersensitivity reactions specifically and food hypersensitivity in general.

  9. Analysis of the intrathecal immune response in neuroborreliosis to a sonicate antigen and three recombinant antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, R; Rauer, S

    1998-03-01

    The intrathecal synthesis of borrelial-specific IgM- and IgG-antibodies was studied in 67 patients with neuroborreliosis and in 14 patients with neurosyphilis (controls). Antibody concentrations in serum and in the cerebrospinal fluid were determined by an enzyme immunoassay (EIA) using, as antigens, a sonicate of Borrelia burgdorferi, the recombinant 14 kDa flagellin fragment, the outer surface protein C (22 kDa), and the high molecular mass protein p83 (83 kDa). In the sonicate EIA, IgG- and/or IgM-antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi in serum were detected in all patients with neuroborreliosis and in 71% of patients with neurosyphilis. Intrathecal synthesis of borrelial-specific IgG- and/or IgM-antibodies was demonstrated in 82% of patients with neuroborreliosis and in 71% of patients with neurosyphilis. Immunoglobulin G- and/or IgM-antibodies in serum against any of the recombinant antigens were detected in 92% of patients with neuroborreliosis and in none of those with neurosyphilis. Intrathecal synthesis of IgG- and/or IgM-antibodies to individual recombinant antigens was demonstrated in 67% of patients with neuroborreliosis and in none of those with neurosyphilis. The sensitivity of the recombinant antigens in serum was almost equal to that of the sonicate EIA, whereas the recombinant antigens were clearly less sensitive in the estimation of the intrathecal specific immune response. It was concluded that in suspected cases of neuroborreliosis, the estimation of high specific antibodies in the recombinant EIA will be helpful in confirming the diagnosis.

  10. Application of purified recombinant antigenic spike fragments to the diagnosis of avian infectious bronchitis virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kuan-Hsun; Lin, Chuen-Fu; Chiou, Shyan-Song; Hsu, Ai-Ping; Lee, Min-Shiuh; Chang, Chao-Chin; Chang, Tien-Jye; Shien, Jui-Hung; Hsu, Wei-Li

    2012-07-01

    The spike (S) protein, containing two subunits, S1 and S2, is the major immunity-eliciting antigen of avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a highly contagious disease of chickens. Several immunogenic regions, mainly located within the S1 subunit, have been identified. Nonetheless, these immune-dominant regions were defined using selected monoclonal antibodies or using a short peptide approach that involves only certain limited regions of the S protein. In addition, some immune-dominant regions are located in hypervariable regions (HVRs) which are not present in all serotypes. Hence, the aim of this study was to determine a broader range of antigenic regions that have strong antibody eliciting ability; these could then be applied for development of an IBV-diagnostic tool. Initially, the S1 and part of the S2 subunit protein (24-567 amino acids) were expressed as five fragments in prokaryotic system. The antigenicity was confirmed using IBV immunized sera. Performance of the S subfragments was evaluated by ELISA using a panel of field chicken sera with known IBV titres determined by a commercial kit. This indicated that, among the five antigenic recombinant proteins, the region S-E showed the highest specificity and sensitivity, namely 95.38 % and 96.29 %, respectively. The κ value for the in-house ELISA using the S-E fragment compared to a commercial kit was 0.9172, indicating a high agreement between these two methods. As region S-E harbors strong immunogenicity within the spike protein, it has the potential to be exploited as an antigen when developing a cost-effective ELISA-based diagnosis tool.

  11. Expression, purification, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a recombinant Tc24 antigen as a vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Campos, Viridiana; Martinez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Ortega-López, Jaime; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-08-26

    The Tc24 calcium binding protein from the flagellar pocket of Trypanosoma cruzi is under evaluation as a candidate vaccine antigen against Chagas disease. Previously, a DNA vaccine encoding Tc24 was shown to be an effective vaccine (both as a preventive and therapeutic intervention) in mice and dogs, as evidenced by reductions in T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as reduced cardiac inflammation and increased host survival. Here we developed a suitable platform for the large scale production of recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) and show that when rTc24 is combined with a monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant, the formulated vaccine induces a Th1-biased immune response in mice, comprised of elevated IgG2a antibody levels and interferon-gamma levels from splenocytes, compared to controls. These immune responses also resulted in statistically significant decreased T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as increased survival following T. cruzi challenge infections, compared to controls. Partial protective efficacy was shown regardless of whether the antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli or in yeast (Pichia pastoris). While mouse vaccinations will require further modifications in order to optimize protective efficacy, such studies provide a basis for further evaluations of vaccines comprised of rTc24, together with alternative adjuvants and additional recombinant antigens. PMID:26192358

  12. Expression, purification, immunogenicity, and protective efficacy of a recombinant Tc24 antigen as a vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Campos, Viridiana; Martinez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Seid, Christopher A; Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Kwityn, Cliff; Hammond, Molly; Ortega-López, Jaime; Zhan, Bin; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-08-26

    The Tc24 calcium binding protein from the flagellar pocket of Trypanosoma cruzi is under evaluation as a candidate vaccine antigen against Chagas disease. Previously, a DNA vaccine encoding Tc24 was shown to be an effective vaccine (both as a preventive and therapeutic intervention) in mice and dogs, as evidenced by reductions in T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as reduced cardiac inflammation and increased host survival. Here we developed a suitable platform for the large scale production of recombinant Tc24 (rTc24) and show that when rTc24 is combined with a monophosphoryl-lipid A (MPLA) adjuvant, the formulated vaccine induces a Th1-biased immune response in mice, comprised of elevated IgG2a antibody levels and interferon-gamma levels from splenocytes, compared to controls. These immune responses also resulted in statistically significant decreased T. cruzi parasitemia and cardiac amastigotes, as well as increased survival following T. cruzi challenge infections, compared to controls. Partial protective efficacy was shown regardless of whether the antigen was expressed in Escherichia coli or in yeast (Pichia pastoris). While mouse vaccinations will require further modifications in order to optimize protective efficacy, such studies provide a basis for further evaluations of vaccines comprised of rTc24, together with alternative adjuvants and additional recombinant antigens.

  13. Detection of Q Fever Specific Antibodies Using Recombinant Antigen in ELISA with Peroxidase Based Signal Amplification

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hua-Wei; Zhang, Zhiwen; Glennon, Erin; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the accepted method for Q fever serodiagnosis is indirect immunofluorescent antibody assay (IFA) using the whole cell antigen. In this study, we prepared the recombinant antigen of the 27-kDa outer membrane protein (Com1) which has been shown to be recognized by Q fever patient sera. The performance of recombinant Com1 was evaluated in ELISA by IFA confirmed serum samples. Due to the low titers of IgG and IgM in Q fever patients, the standard ELISA signals were further amplified by using biotinylated anti-human IgG or IgM plus streptavidin-HRP polymer. The modified ELISA can detect 88% (29 out of 33) of Q fever patient sera collected from Marines deployed to Iraq. Less than 5% (5 out of 156) of the sera from patients with other febrile diseases reacted with the Com1. These results suggest that the modified ELISA using Com1 may have the potential to improve the detection of Q fever specific antibodies. PMID:26904739

  14. Novel Recombinant Hepatitis B Virus Vectors Efficiently Deliver Protein and RNA Encoding Genes into Primary Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ran; Bai, Weiya; Zhai, Jianwei; Liu, Wei; Li, Xinyan; Zhang, Jiming; Cui, Xiaoxian; Zhao, Xue; Ye, Xiaoli; Deng, Qiang; Tiollais, Pierre; Wen, Yumei

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) has extremely restricted host and hepatocyte tropism. HBV-based vectors could form the basis of novel therapies for chronic hepatitis B and other liver diseases and would also be invaluable for the study of HBV infection. Previous attempts at developing HBV-based vectors encountered low yields of recombinant viruses and/or lack of sufficient infectivity/cargo gene expression in primary hepatocytes, which hampered follow-up applications. In this work, we constructed a novel vector based on a naturally occurring, highly replicative HBV mutant with a 207-bp deletion in the preS1/polymerase spacer region. By applying a novel insertion strategy that preserves the continuity of the polymerase open reading frame (ORF), recombinant HBV (rHBV) carrying protein or small interfering RNA (siRNA) genes were obtained that replicated and were packaged efficiently in cultured hepatocytes. We demonstrated that rHBV expressing a fluorescent reporter (DsRed) is highly infective in primary tree shrew hepatocytes, and rHBV expressing HBV-targeting siRNA successfully inhibited antigen expression from coinfected wild-type HBV. This novel HBV vector will be a powerful tool for hepatocyte-targeting gene delivery, as well as the study of HBV infection. PMID:23552416

  15. Differential roles of homologous recombination pathways in Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilin antigenic variation, DNA transformation and DNA repair.

    PubMed

    Mehr, I J; Seifert, H S

    1998-11-01

    Neisseria gonorrhoeae (Gc) pili undergo antigenic variation when the amino acid sequence of the pilin protein is changed, aiding in immune avoidance and altering pilus expression. Pilin antigenic variation occurs by RecA-dependent unidirectional transfer of DNA sequences from a silent pilin locus to the expressed pilin gene through high-frequency recombination events that occur at limited regions of homology. We show that the Gc recQ and recO genes are essential for pilin antigenic and phase variation and DNA repair but are not involved in natural DNA transformation. This suggests that a RecF-like pathway of recombination exists in Gc. In addition, mutations in the Gc recB, recC or recD genes revealed that a Gc RecBCD pathway also exists and is involved in DNA transformation and DNA repair but not in pilin antigenic variation. PMID:10094619

  16. Characterization of the gene encoding the polymorphic immunodominant molecule, a neutralizing antigen of Theileria parva

    SciTech Connect

    Toye, P.G.; Metzelaar, M.J.; Wijngaard, P.L.J.

    1995-08-01

    Theileria parva, a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite related to Plasmodium spp., causes the disease East Coast fever, an acute and usually fatal lymphoproliferative disorder of cattle in Africa. Previous studies using sera from cattle that have survived infection identified a polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that is expressed by both the infective sporozoite stage of the parasite and the intracellular schizont. Here we show that mAb specific for the PIM Ag can inhibit sporozoite invasion of lymphocytes in vitro. A cDNA clone encoding the PIM Ag of the T. parva (Muguga) stock was obtained by using these mAb in a novel eukaryotic expression cloning system that allows isolation of cDNA encoding cytoplasmic or surface Ags. To establish the molecular basis of the polymorphism of PIM, the cDNA of the PIM Ag from a buffalo-derived T. parva stock was isolated and its sequence was compared with that of the cattle-derived Muguga PIM. The two cDNAs showed considerable identity in both the 5{prime} and 3{prime} regions, but there was substantial sequence divergence in the central regions. Several types of repeated sequences were identified in the variant regions. In the Muguga form of the molecule, there were five tandem repeats of the tetrapeptide, QPEP, that were shown, by transfection of a deleted version of the PIM gene, not to react with several anti-PIM mAbs. By isolating and sequencing the genomic version of the gene, we identified two small introns in the 3{prime} region of the gene. Finally, we showed that polyclonal rat Abs against recombinant PIM neutralize sporozoite infectivity in vitro, suggesting that the PIM Ag should be evaluated for its capacity to immunize cattle against East Coast Fever.

  17. Protection of Mice from Fatal Measles Encephalitis by Vaccination with Vaccinia Virus Recombinants Encoding Either the Hemagglutinin or the Fusion Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drillien, Robert; Spehner, Daniele; Kirn, Andre; Giraudon, Pascale; Buckland, Robin; Wild, Fabian; Lecocq, Jean-Pierre

    1988-02-01

    Vaccinia virus recombinants encoding the hemagglutinin or fusion protein of measles virus have been constructed. Infection of cell cultures with the recombinants led to the synthesis of authentic measles proteins as judged by their electrophoretic mobility, recognition by antibodies, glycosylation, proteolytic cleavage, and presentation on the cell surface. Mice vaccinated with a single dose of the recombinant encoding the hemagglutinin protein developed antibodies capable of both inhibiting hemagglutination activity and neutralizing measles virus, whereas animals vaccinated with the recombinant encoding the fusion protein developed measles neutralizing antibodies. Mice vaccinated with either of the recombinants resisted a normally lethal intracerebral inoculation of a cell-associated measles virus subacute sclerosing panencephalitis strain.

  18. Coevolution between Nuclear-Encoded DNA Replication, Recombination, and Repair Genes and Plastid Genome Complexity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Ruhlman, Tracey A.; Sabir, Jamal S. M.; Blazier, John Chris; Weng, Mao-Lun; Park, Seongjun; Jansen, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of DNA replication, recombination, and repair (DNA-RRR) systems has been hypothesized to cause highly elevated nucleotide substitution rates and genome rearrangements in the plastids of angiosperms, but this theory remains untested. To investigate nuclear–plastid genome (plastome) coevolution in Geraniaceae, four different measures of plastome complexity (rearrangements, repeats, nucleotide insertions/deletions, and substitution rates) were evaluated along with substitution rates of 12 nuclear-encoded, plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes from 27 Geraniales species. Significant correlations were detected for nonsynonymous (dN) but not synonymous (dS) substitution rates for three DNA-RRR genes (uvrB/C, why1, and gyrA) supporting a role for these genes in accelerated plastid genome evolution in Geraniaceae. Furthermore, correlation between dN of uvrB/C and plastome complexity suggests the presence of nucleotide excision repair system in plastids. Significant correlations were also detected between plastome complexity and 13 of the 90 nuclear-encoded organelle-targeted genes investigated. Comparisons revealed significant acceleration of dN in plastid-targeted genes of Geraniales relative to Brassicales suggesting this correlation may be an artifact of elevated rates in this gene set in Geraniaceae. Correlation between dN of plastid-targeted DNA-RRR genes and plastome complexity supports the hypothesis that the aberrant patterns in angiosperm plastome evolution could be caused by dysfunction in DNA-RRR systems. PMID:26893456

  19. Vaccination with a recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing a tumor antigen breaks immune tolerance and elicits therapeutic antitumor responses

    PubMed Central

    Wansley, Elizabeth K.; Chakraborty, Mala; Hance, Kenneth W.; Bernstein, Michael B.; Boehm, Amanda L.; Guo, Zhimin; Quick, Deborah; Franzusoff, Alex; Greiner, John W.; Schlom, Jeffrey; Hodge, James W.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a nonpathogenic yeast, has previously been used as a vehicle to elicit immune responses to foreign antigens, and tumor-associated antigens, and has been shown to reduce tumorburden in mice. Studies were designed to determine if vaccination of human carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)-transgenic mice (where CEA is a self-antigen) with a recombinant S. cerevisiae construct expressing human CEA (yeast-CEA) elicits CEA-specific T-cell responses and antitumor activity. Experimental Design CEA-transgenic mice were vaccinated with yeast-CEA, and CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses were assessed after one and multiple administrations or vaccinations at multiple sites per administration. Antitumor activity was determined by tumor growth and overall survival in both pulmonary metastasis and subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models. Results These studies demonstrate that recombinant yeast can break tolerance and that a) yeast-CEA constructs elicit both CEA-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses; b) repeated yeast-CEA administration causes increased antigen-specific T-cell responses after each vaccination; c) vaccination with yeast-CEA at multiple sites induces a greater T-cell response than the same dose given at a single site; d) tumor-bearing mice vaccinated with yeast-CEA show a reduction in tumor burden and increased overall survival compared to mock-treated or control yeast-vaccinated mice in both pulmonary metastasis and subcutaneous pancreatic tumor models. Conclusions Vaccination with a heat-killed recombinant yeast expressing the tumor-associated antigen CEA induces CEA-specific immune responses, reduces tumor burden, and extends overall survival in CEA-transgenic mice. These studies thus form the rationale for the incorporation of recombinant yeast-CEA and other recombinant yeast constructs in cancer immunotherapy protocols. PMID:18594015

  20. Comparison of Recombinant Trypanosoma cruzi Peptide Mixtures versus Multiepitope Chimeric Proteins as Sensitizing Antigens for Immunodiagnosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Camussone, Cecilia; Gonzalez, Verónica; Belluzo, María S.; Pujato, Nazarena; Ribone, María E.; Lagier, Claudia M.; Marcipar, Iván S.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the best strategy to display antigens (Ags) on immunochemical devices to improve test selectivity and sensitivity. We comparatively evaluated five Trypanosoma cruzi antigenic recombinant peptides, chose the three more sensitive ones, built up chimeras bearing these selected Ags, and systematically compared by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay the performance of the assortments of those peptides with that of the multiepitope constructions bearing all those peptides lineally fused. The better-performing Ags that were compared included peptides homologous to the previously described T. cruzi flagellar repetitive Ag (here named RP1), shed acute-phase Ag (RP2), B13 (RP5), and the chimeric recombinant proteins CP1 and CP2, bearing repetitions of RP1-RP2 and RP1-RP2-RP5, respectively. The diagnostic performances of these Ags were assessed for discrimination efficiency by the formula +OD/cutoff value (where +OD is the mean optical density value of the positive serum samples tested), in comparison with each other either alone, in mixtures, or as peptide-fused chimeras and with total parasite homogenate (TPH). The discrimination efficiency values obtained for CP1 and CP2 were 25% and 52% higher, respectively, than those of their individual-Ag mixtures. CP2 was the only Ag that showed enhanced discrimination efficiency between Chagas' disease-positive and -negative samples, compared with TPH. This study highlights the convenience of performing immunochemical assays using hybrid, single-molecule, chimeric Ags instead of peptide mixtures. CP2 preliminary tests rendered 98.6% sensitivity when evaluated with a 141-Chagas' disease-positive serum sample panel and 99.4% specificity when assessed with a 164-Chagas' disease-negative serum sample panel containing 15 samples from individuals infected with Leishmania spp. PMID:19339486

  1. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jayashi, César M; Kyngdon, Craig T; Gauci, Charles G; Gonzalez, Armando E; Lightowlers, Marshall W

    2012-09-10

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n=137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 μg of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p<0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16-TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans.

  2. Successful immunization of naturally reared pigs against porcine cysticercosis with a recombinant oncosphere antigen vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Jayashi, César M.; Kyngdon, Craig T.; Gauci, Charles G.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Lightowlers, Marshall W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes cysticercosis in pigs and taeniasis and neurocysticercosis in humans. Oncosphere antigens have proven to be effective as vaccines to protect pigs against an experimental infection with T. solium. A pair-matched vaccination trial field, using a combination of two recombinant antigens, TSOL16 and TSOL18, was undertaken in rural villages of Peru to evaluate the efficacy of this vaccine under natural conditions. Pairs of pigs (n = 137) comprising one vaccinated and one control animal, were allocated to local villagers. Animals received two vaccinations with 200 μg of each of TSOL16 and TSOL18, plus 5 mg Quil-A. Necropsies were performed 7 months after the animals were distributed to the farmers. Vaccination reduced 99.7% and 99.9% (p < 0.01) the total number of cysts and the number of viable cysts, respectively. Immunization with the TSOL16–TSOL18 vaccines has the potential to control T. solium transmission in areas where the disease is endemic, reducing the source for tapeworm infections in humans. PMID:22541797

  3. Immunological characterization of two major secreted forms of recombinant hepatitis B virus e antigens.

    PubMed

    Hwang, G Y; Wang, J C; Wu, C C

    1999-02-01

    Plasmids containing PCR-amplified hepatitis B virus e antigen (HBeAg) genes (HBeAg-MV and HBeAg-SV) were constructed and expressed in E. coli strain DH5alpha. The induced intracellular glutathione S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins of HBeAg-MV and HBeAg-SV were recovered and purified from bacterial lysates by affinity chromatography with glutathione-sepharose beads. The HBeAg-MV protein contained an additional 19 amino acids at its amino terminus. These two proteins were specifically cleaved from GST by the protease factor Xa and recognized by a monoclonal antibody against HBeAg. HBeAg-MV and HBeAg-SV were found to be the two major components of the post-modified HBcAg during viral infection. The antigenic specificities of the fusion and purified HBeAgs (factor Xa-digested) were confirmed by the Abbott HBe enzyme immunoassay (EIA) detection system. Sera from patients with confirmed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specifically reacted only with HBeAg moiety of fusion proteins. HCC sera bound more strongly to the HBeAg-SV protein than to the HBeAg-MV one. This indicates that HBeAg-SV is either more antigenic than -MV or is the major target protein for the elicitation of antibody production after HBV infection. Thus, the two recombinant HBeAgs expressed and obtained in this study are appropriate immunological agents for the diagnostic detection of hepatitis B virus infection in humans.

  4. Expression and purification of recombinant active prostate-specific antigen from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sujin; Lee, Seong-Wook

    2007-05-01

    Human prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a 33 kDa serine protease with comprehensive homology to glandular kallikrein, is secreted from prostatic tissue into the seminal fluid and enters into the circulation. The level of PSA increases in the serum of patients with prostatic cancer and hence is widely employed as a marker of the disease status. In particular, an enzymatically active PSA that is a form cleaved at the N-terminal seven-amino-acids prosequence, APLILSR, of proPSA may play an important roll in the progression of prostate cancer. Thus, the presence of the active form would selectively discriminate the cancer from benign prostatic hyperplasia. In this study, we developed a convenient purification method for the acquisition of active PSA and proPSA. Recombinant proPSA and active PSA were expressed directly in Escherichia coli, easily and efficiently isolated from inclusion bodies, refolded, and purified. Moreover, the enzymatic activity of the recombinant active PSA was confirmed as serine protease using chromogenic chymotrypsin substrate. This purified active PSA could be further applied to scrutinize the biological or conformational characteristics of the protein and to develop specific diagnostic and/or therapeutic agents against prostate cancer.

  5. Analysis of antibody response in human dengue patients from the Mexican coast using recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Lazaro-Olán, L; Mellado-Sánchez, G; García-Cordero, J; Escobar-Gutiérrez, A; Santos-Argumedo, L; Gutiérrez-Castañeda, B; Cedillo-Barrón, L

    2008-01-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of using recombinant dengue proteins to discriminate between acute dengue infections versus uninfected dengue samples. Dengue virus proteins E, NS1, NS3, and NS4B were cloned as fusion proteins and expressed in Escherichia coli. Recombinant products were tested in 100 serum samples obtained from acute dengue fever cases collected from 3 states of Mexico where dengue is endemic. Sera from 75 healthy individuals living in nonendemic areas for dengue were used as a control group. In sera from the dengue patients group, antibody responses to E protein were demonstrated in 91% of cases and NS1 protein was recognized to various extents (99%) within the first 7 days of infection. The antibody responses to NS3 and NS4B were frequently of low magnitude. Consistent negative antibody responses to all proteins were found in sera from the control group. These data suggest that the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-dengue fusion proteins may be feasible antigens for a sensitive and specific serological assay.

  6. High cytokine production and effective antitumor activity of a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding murine interleukin 12.

    PubMed

    Meko, J B; Yim, J H; Tsung, K; Norton, J A

    1995-11-01

    We have constructed a recombinant vaccinia virus (recVV), vKT0334 mIL-12, containing the genes encoding the p35 and p40 subunits of murine interleukin-12 (mIL-12). In vitro experiments demonstrated that vKT0334 mIL-12 efficiently infected a variety of murine and human tumor cell lines and produced very high amounts (1.5 micrograms/10(6) cells/24 h) of biologically active mIL-12. Mice injected s.c. with 10(6) MCA 105 sarcoma cells, followed by injection at the same site with saline or a control recVV, vKT033, containing no mIL-12 genes, all developed progressively growing tumor, whereas 60% of animals injected with vKT0334 mIL-12 remained tumor free (P < 0.0005). Furthermore, tumor growth was significantly reduced in the remaining mice treated with vKT0334 mIL-12 that did develop tumor compared with mice treated with vKT033 (P < 0.03) or saline (P < 0.0001). We conclude that recVV expressing high levels of mIL-12 offers an effective in vivo method of cytokine gene delivery and expression in tumors with subsequent antitumor effect.

  7. Protective immunity evoked against anthrax lethal toxin after a single intramuscular administration of an adenovirus-based vaccine encoding humanized protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yadi; Hackett, Neil R; Boyer, Julie L; Crystal, Ronald G

    2003-11-20

    Because of the need to develop a vaccine to rapidly protect the civilian population in response to a bioterrorism attack with Bacillus anthracis, we designed AdsechPA, a replication-deficient human serotype 5 adenovirus encoding B. anthracis protective antigen (PA) with codons optimized for expression in mammalian cells. With a single intramuscular administration to mice of 10(9) particle units of AdsechPA, a dose that can be scaled to human use, anti-PA antibodies were evoked more rapidly and at a higher level than with a single administration of the new U.S. military recombinant PA/Alhydrogel vaccine. Importantly, AdsechPA afforded approximately 2.7-fold more protection than the recombinant PA vaccine against B. anthracis lethal toxin challenge 4 weeks after a single vaccination. Even at 11 days postvaccination, AdsechPA provided some survival benefit, whereas the rPA/Alhydrogel vaccine provided none. In the context that equivalent human doses of Ad vectors have already been demonstrated to be safe in humans, a single administration of AdsechPA may provide the means to rapidly protect the civilian population against B. anthracis in response to a bioterrorism attack.

  8. Recombinant Salivary Proteins of Phlebotomus orientalis are Suitable Antigens to Measure Exposure of Domestic Animals to Sand Fly Bites

    PubMed Central

    Sima, Michal; Ferencova, Blanka; Warburg, Alon; Rohousova, Iva; Volf, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Background Certain salivary proteins of phlebotomine sand flies injected into the host skin during blood-feeding are highly antigenic and elicit strong antibody-mediated immune responses in repeatedly-exposed hosts. These antibodies can be measured by enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assays (ELISAs) using salivary gland homogenates (SGHs) as the source of antigens and serve as a markers for exposure to biting sand flies. Large-scale screening for anti-sand fly saliva antibodies requires replacement of SGH with recombinant salivary proteins. In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis is the main vector of Leishmania donovani, a trypanosomatid parasite causing visceral leishmaniasis. We tested recombinant salivary proteins derived from Ph. orientalis saliva to study exposure of domestic animals to this sand fly species. Methodology/Principal Findings Antigenic salivary proteins from Ph. orientalis were identified by immunoblot and mass spectrometry. Recombinant apyrase rPorSP15, yellow-related protein rPorSP24, ParSP25-like protein rPorSP65, D7-related protein rPorSP67, and antigen 5-related protein rPorSP76 were tested using ELISA with sera of domestic animals from L. donovani foci in Ethiopia where Ph. orientalis is present. Our results highlighted recombinant yellow-related protein rPorSP24 as the most promising antigen, displaying a high positive correlation coefficient as well as good sensitivity and specificity when compared to SGH. This recombinant protein was the most suitable one for testing sera of dogs, sheep, and goats. In addition, a different antigen, rPorSP65 was found efficacious for testing canine sera. Conclusions/Significance Recombinant salivary proteins of Ph. orientalis, specifically rPorSP24, were shown to successfully substitute SGH in serological experiments to measure exposure of domestic animals to Ph. orientalis, the vector of L. donovani. The results suggest that rPorSP24 might be a suitable antigen for detecting anti-Ph. orientalis antibody

  9. Characterization of a specific Mycobacterium paratuberculosis recombinant clone expressing 35,000-molecular-weight antigen and reactivity with sera from animals with clinical and subclinical Johne's disease.

    PubMed Central

    El-Zaatari, F A; Naser, S A; Graham, D Y

    1997-01-01

    Johne's disease is a chronic enteritis of ruminants associated with enormous worldwide economic losses for the dairy cow- and goat-rearing industries. Management limitations and eradication programs for this disease have been hampered by the lack of a simple and specific diagnostic test for the detection of subclinical cases. We used a recombinant clone expressing a 35,000-molecular-weight Mycobacterium paratuberculosis antigen (p35 antigen) from a previously constructed expression library of M. paratuberculosis in Escherichia coli. The DNA fragment encoding the p35 gene hybridized only to DNA from Mycobacterium avium complex, but not to DNAs from other mycobacteria and nonmycobacterial organisms. The seroreactivity of p35 was evaluated by immunoblotting against 57 reference serum samples obtained from infected and uninfected animals. p35 was recognized by sera from 100% of animals with advanced Johne's disease (clinical stage) (12 cattle, 2 goats, and 2 sheep) and by sera from 75% of 20 cattle with early infection (subclinical stage). None of the sera from 15 M. paratuberculosis-free cows, 3 Mycobacterium bovis BCG-infected tuberculous cattle, or 3 cows artificially inoculated with multiple doses of viable M. paratuberculosis reacted with p35. The overall sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value were 86, 100, 100, and 75%, respectively. The accuracy of p35 immunoblotting was superior to those of commercially available diagnostic tests for Johne's disease. These results suggest that the p35 recombinant protein has potential for use in the serodiagnosis of animals with Johne's disease at all stages of infection. The DNA fragment encoding p35 may also serve as a probe for identification of M. avium complex infection. PMID:9196196

  10. Development of a Recombinant Antigen for Antibody-Based Diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis Infection in Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Brank, Marion; Le Grand, Dominique; Poumarat, François; Bezille, Pierre; Rosengarten, Renate; Citti, Christine

    1999-01-01

    Mycoplasma bovis induces various clinical manifestations in cattle, such as mastitis, arthritis, and pneumonia. We have evaluated the immunoreactivity of three variable surface proteins (Vsps) of M. bovis, namely VspA, VspB, and VspC, with sera collected from herds with mycoplasmosis or from cattle experimentally infected with M. bovis. Western blot analysis revealed that the Vsps are the predominant antigens recognized by the host humoral response during M. bovis infection. The immunoreactivity of VspA, VspB, and VspC with host antibodies was independent of the clinical manifestations, the geographical origin of the M. bovis isolates, the mode of infection, and the animal’s history. Moreover, the results showed that Vsp-specific host antibodies can be detected about 10 days after experimental infection and for up to several months. The full-length or truncated versions of the VspA product were overexpressed in Escherichia coli as fusion proteins (FP-VspA). Recombinant products showed strong immunoreactivity with the Vsp-specific monoclonal antibodies 1A1 and 1E5, with the corresponding epitopes localized at the VspA N-terminal and C-terminal ends, respectively. Anti-M. bovis sera of cattle naturally or experimentally infected also strongly recognized the full-length FP-VspA. The seroreactivity of sera collected from cattle between 6 and 10 days after experimental infection was weaker with truncated versions of VspA lacking the 1E5 epitope than with the full-length VspA or the truncated versions lacking the 1A1 epitope. Overall, the results indicate that the Vsps, despite their inter- and intraclonal variability, may be applied as target antigens in serodiagnostic assays for epidemiological studies. PMID:10548577

  11. Development of Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen based assays for immunodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rascoe, Lisa N; Price, Courtney; Shin, Sun Hee; McAuliffe, Isabel; Priest, Jeffrey W; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-04-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a widely distributed parasite that infects 30 to 100 million people worldwide. In the United States strongyloidiasis is recognized as an important infection in immigrants and refugees. Public health and commercial reference laboratories need a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to identify and treat cases and to prevent transmission. The recognized laboratory test of choice for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is detection of disease specific antibodies, most commonly using a crude parasite extract for detection of IgG antibodies. Recently, a luciferase tagged recombinant protein of S. stercoralis, Ss-NIE-1, has been used in a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) to detect IgG and IgG4 specific antibodies. To promote wider adoption of immunoassays for strongyloidiasis, we used the Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen without the luciferase tag and developed ELISA and fluorescent bead (Luminex) assays to detect S. stercoralis specific IgG4. We evaluated the assays using well-characterized sera from persons with or without presumed strongyloidiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA were 95% and 93%, respectively. For the IgG4 Luminex assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 95%, respectively. Specific IgG4 antibody decreased after treatment in a manner that was similar to the decrease of specific IgG measured in the crude IgG ELISA. The sensitivities of the Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA and Luminex assays were comparable to the crude IgG ELISA but with improved specificities. However, the Ss-NIE-1 based assays are not dependent on native parasite materials and can be performed using widely available laboratory equipment. In conclusion, these newly developed Ss-NIE-1 based immunoassays can be readily adopted by public health and commercial reference laboratories for routine screening and clinical diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in refugees and immigrants in the United States.

  12. Toxoplasma gondii: Recombinant GRA5 antigen for detection of immunoglobulin G antibodies using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Holec-Gasior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef

    2010-03-01

    In this study, for the first time, the evaluation of Toxoplasma gondii full-length recombinant GRA5 antigen for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis is shown. The recombinant GRA5 antigen as a fusion protein containing His-tag at both terminals was obtained using an Escherichia coli expression system. The usefulness of rGRA5 for the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in an ELISA was tested on a total of 189 sera from patients with different stages of the infection and 31 sera from sero-negative individuals, obtained during routine diagnostic tests. Anti-GRA5 IgG antibodies were detected in 70.9% of all seropositive serum samples. This result was comparable to ELISA using a Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) and six combinations of recombinant antigens. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA calculated from all positive serum samples was similar for TLA (94.2%), rMAG1+rSAG1+rGRA5 (92.6%), rGRA2+rSAG1+rGRA5 (93.1%) and rROP1+rSAG1+rGRA5 (94.2%) cocktails, whereas the sensitivity of cocktails without rGRA5 antigens was lower giving 82.0%, 86.2% and 87.8%, respectively. Thus, the present study showed that the full-length rGRA5 is suitable for use as a component of an antigen cocktail for the detection of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies.

  13. Evaluation of Recombinant Leptospira Antigen-Based Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays for the Serodiagnosis of Leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    Flannery, Brendan; Costa, Dirceu; Carvalho, Fernanda Pinheiro; Guerreiro, Hygia; Matsunaga, James; Da Silva, Emilson Domingos; Ferreira, Antonio Gomes Pinto; Riley, Lee W.; Reis, Mitermayer G.; Haake, David A.; Ko, Albert I.

    2001-01-01

    There is an urgent need for development of new serodiagnostic strategies for leptospirosis, an emerging zoonosis with worldwide distribution. We have evaluated the diagnostic utility of five recombinant antigens in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. Sera from 50 healthy residents of a high-incidence region were used to determine cutoff values for 96% specificity. In paired sera from 50 cases of leptospirosis confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test, immunoglobulin G (IgG) but not IgM reacted with the recombinant leptospiral proteins. The recombinant LipL32 IgG ELISA had the highest sensitivities in the acute (56%) and convalescent (94%) phases of leptospirosis. ELISAs based on recombinant OmpL1, LipL41, and Hsp58 had sensitivities of 16, 24, and 18% during the acute phase and 72, 44, and 32% during convalescence, respectively. Compared to sera from healthy individuals, patient sera did not react significantly with recombinant LipL36 (P > 0.05). Recombinant LipL32 IgG ELISA demonstrated 95% specificity among 100 healthy individuals, and specificities ranging from 90 to 97% among 30 dengue patients, 30 hepatitis patients, and 16 patients with diseases initially thought to be leptospirosis. Among 39 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory test-positive individuals and 30 Lyme disease patients, 13 and 23% of sera, respectively, reacted positively with the rLipL32 antigen. These findings indicate that rLipL32 may be an useful antigen for the serodiagnosis of leptospirosis. PMID:11526167

  14. Small-angle neutron scattering study of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, M.; Ito, Y.; Kameyama, K.; Imai, M.; Ishikawa, N.; Takagi, T.

    1995-02-01

    The overall and internal structure of recombinant yeast-derived human hepatitis B virus surface antigen vaccine particles was investigated by small-angle neutron scattering using the contrast variation method. The vaccine is a nearly spherical particle, and its contrast-matching point was determined to be at about 24% D 2O content, indicating that a large part of the vaccine particle is occupied by lipids and carbohydrates from the yeast. The Stuhrmann plot suggests that the surface antigens exist predominantly in the peripheral region of the particle, which is favorable to the induction of anti-virus antibodies.

  15. A recombinant vaccine expressing a mammalian Mycobacterium sp. antigen is immunostimulatory but not protective in striped bass.

    PubMed

    Pasnik, David J; Vemulapalli, Ramesh; Smith, Stephen A; Schurig, Gerhardt G

    2003-09-15

    A recombinant vaccine was constructed for piscine mycobacteriosis utilizing a Brucella abortus strain RB51 vector expressing a mammalian Mycobacterium sp. 85A antigen. Juvenile striped bass were inoculated with the resulting construct at doses equivalent to 10(6), 10(7), 10(8), 10(9), and 10(10) colony-forming units/fish. Blood and tissue samples from these fish demonstrated significant specific humoral and cell-mediated immune responses towards the 85A antigen in a dose-dependent manner. However, survival studies determined that inoculated fish failed to demonstrate cross-protective responses after live Mycobacterium marinum challenge 70 days post-inoculation.

  16. Antigenic Characterization of Recombinant Hemagglutinin Proteins Derived from Different Avian Influenza Virus Subtypes

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Matthias; Renzullo, Sandra; Brooks, Roxann; Ruggli, Nicolas; Hofmann, Martin A.

    2010-01-01

    Since the advent of highly pathogenic variants of avian influenza virus (HPAIV), the main focus of avian influenza research has been the characterization and detection of HPAIV hemagglutinin (HA) from H5 and H7 subtypes. However, due to the high mutation and reassortation rate of influenza viruses, in theory any influenza strain may acquire increased pathogenicity irrespective of its subtype. A comprehensive antigenic characterization of influenza viruses encompassing all 16 HA and 9 neuraminidase subtypes will provide information useful for the design of differential diagnostic tools, and possibly, vaccines. We have expressed recombinant HA proteins from 3 different influenza virus HA subtypes in the baculovirus system. These proteins were used to generate polyclonal rabbit antisera, which were subsequently employed in epitope scanning analysis using peptide libraries spanning the entire HA. Here, we report the identification and characterization of linear, HA subtype-specific as well as inter subtype-conserved epitopes along the HA proteins. Selected subtype-specific epitopes were shown to be suitable for the differentiation of anti-HA antibodies in an ELISA. PMID:20140098

  17. Recombinant UL30 antigen-based single serum dilution ELISA for detection of duck viral enteritis.

    PubMed

    Aravind, S; Patil, B R; Dey, Sohini; Mohan, C Madhan

    2012-11-01

    A recombinant UL30 antigen-based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure specific antibody in the sera of ducks against duck enteritis virus (DEV). The partial UL30 gene of DEV was cloned, expressed, purified and tested for its diagnostic use by designing a single serum dilution enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay (ELISA). A total of 226 duck sera samples were tested using the assay. A linear relationship was found between the predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding serum titres observed as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to determine a standard curve from which an equation was derived which demonstrated this correlation. The equation was then used to convert the corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution directly into the predicted ELISA antibody titres. The assay proved to be specific, sensitive and accurate as compared to the virus neutralization test with a specificity, sensitivity and accuracy being 96%, 95% and 95% respectively.

  18. Thermal Aggregation of Recombinant Protective Antigen: Aggregate Morphology and Growth Rate

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Daniel J.; Miller, Aline F.

    2013-01-01

    The thermal aggregation of the biopharmaceutical protein recombinant protective antigen (rPA) has been explored, and the associated kinetics and thermodynamic parameters have been extracted using optical and environmental scanning electron microscopies (ESEMs) and ultraviolet light scattering spectroscopy (UV-LSS). Visual observations and turbidity measurements provided an overall picture of the aggregation process, suggesting a two-step mechanism. Microscopy was used to examine the structure of aggregates, revealing an open morphology formed by the clustering of the microscopic aggregate particles. UV-LSS was used and developed to elucidate the growth rate of these particles, which formed in the first stage of the aggregation process. Their growth rate is observed to be high initially, before falling to converge on a final size that correlates with the ESEM data. The results suggest that the particle growth rate is limited by rPA monomer concentration, and by obtaining data over a range of incubation temperatures, an approach was developed to model the aggregation kinetics and extract the rate constants and the temperature dependence of aggregation. In doing so, we quantified the susceptibility of rPA aggregation under different temperature and environmental conditions and moreover demonstrated a novel use of UV spectrometry to monitor the particle aggregation quantitatively, in situ, in a nondestructive and time-resolved manner. PMID:23476645

  19. Evaluation of three recombinant multi-antigenic vaccines composed of surface and secretory antigens of Toxoplasma gondii in murine models of experimental toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Dziadek, Bozena; Gatkowska, Justyna; Brzostek, Anna; Dziadek, Jaroslaw; Dzitko, Katarzyna; Grzybowski, Marcin; Dlugonska, Henryka

    2011-01-17

    The great clinical and economical impact of Toxoplasma gondii infections makes the development of an effective vaccine for controlling toxoplasmosis an extremely important aim. In the presented study, we evaluate the protective and immunogenic properties of three recombinant subunit vaccines composed of rROP2+rGRA4+rSAG1, rROP2+rROP4+rGRA4 and rROP2+rROP4+rSAG1 proteins of T. gondii in an experimental toxoplasmosis model in the C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mouse strains. All three recombinant vaccines induced partial protection as measured by the reduction of brain cyst burden following challenge with five tissue cysts of the low virulence DX T. gondii strain. The level of protection was dependent on the antigen composition of the vaccine and the genetic background of the laboratory animals. The strongest protection against chronic toxoplasmosis was induced in both C3H/HeJ and C57BL/6 mice by the mixture of rhoptry proteins rROP2 and rROP4 combined with tachyzoite major protein rSAG1. The average parasite burden in these groups of mice was reduced by 71% and 90%, respectively, compared to non-vaccinated mice. The observed protective effect was related to the vaccine-induced cellular and humoral immune responses, as measured by the antigen-induced release of the Th1 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-2, the antigen-stimulated proliferation of spleen cells of vaccinated animals in comparison to control animals and the development of systemic antigen-specific IgG1 and IgG2a (C3H/HeJ) or IgG2c (C57BL/6) antibodies. Our studies show that recombinant rROP2, rROP4, rGRA4 and rSAG1 antigens may be promising candidates for a subunit vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the ideal composition of vaccine antigens can be equally effective in mice with different genetic backgrounds and variable levels of innate resistance to toxoplasmosis, resulting in strong protection against T. gondii invasion.

  20. Local production of tumor necrosis factor encoded by recombinant vaccinia virus is effective in controlling viral replication in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Sambhi, S K; Kohonen-Corish, M R; Ramshaw, I A

    1991-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-alpha. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-alpha during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo. Images PMID:2023951

  1. Local Production of Tumor Necrosis Factor Encoded by Recombinant Vaccinia Virus is Effective in Controlling Viral Replication in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sambhi, Sharan K.; Kohonen-Corish, Maija R. J.; Ramshaw, Ian A.

    1991-05-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic effects on a wide variety of cell types. In vitro studies have demonstrated that TNF has antiviral properties and is induced in response to viral infections. However, a role for TNF in the antiviral immune response of the host has yet to be demonstrated. Here we describe the construction of and studies using a recombinant vaccinia virus that encodes the gene for murine TNF-α. By comparing the replication of and immune responses elicited by the TNF-encoding virus to a similarly constructed control virus, we hoped to observe immunobiological effects of TNF in the host. The in vivo experiments with this recombinant virus demonstrate that the localized production of TNF-α during a viral infection leads to the rapid and efficient clearance of the virus in normal mice and attenuates the otherwise lethal pathogenicity of the virus in immunodeficient animals. This attenuation occurs early in the infection (by postinfection hour 24) and is not due to the enhancement of cellular or antibody responses by the vaccinia virus-encoded TNF. This evidence suggests that attenuation of the recombinant virus is due to a direct antiviral effect of TNF on cells at the site of infection. Therefore, these results support the suggestion that TNF produced by immune cells may be an important effector mechanism of viral clearance in vivo.

  2. A Recombinant Raccoon Poxvirus Vaccine Expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and Truncated V Antigens Protects Animals against Lethal Plague.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Kingstad-Bakke, Brock; Berlier, Willy; Osorio, Jorge E

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas. PMID:26344891

  3. A recombinant raccoon poxvirus vaccine expressing both Yersinia pestis F1 and truncated V antigens protects animals against lethal plague.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, Tonie E.; Kingstad-Bakke, B; Berlier, W; Osorio, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    In previous studies, we demonstrated in mice and prairie dogs that simultaneous administration of two recombinant raccoon poxviruses (rRCN) expressing Yersinia pestis antigens (F1 and V307-a truncated version of the V protein) provided superior protection against plague challenge compared to individual single antigen constructs. To reduce costs of vaccine production and facilitate implementation of a sylvatic plague vaccine (SPV) control program for prairie dogs, a dual antigen construct is more desirable. Here we report the construction and characterization of a novel RCN-vectored vaccine that simultaneously expresses both F1 and V307 antigens. This dual antigen vaccine provided similar levels of protection against plague in both mice and prairie dogs as compared to simultaneous administration of the two single antigen constructs and was also shown to protect mice against an F1 negative strain of Y. pestis.. The equivalent safety, immunogenicity and efficacy profile of the dual RCN-F1/V307 construct warrants further evaluation in field efficacy studies in sylvatic plague endemic areas.

  4. Recombinant glycoprotein E produced in mammalian cells in large-scale as an antigen for varicella-zoster-virus serology.

    PubMed

    Thomsson, Elisabeth; Persson, Linn; Grahn, Anna; Snäll, Johanna; Ekblad, Maria; Brunhage, Eva; Svensson, Frida; Jern, Christina; Hansson, Gunnar C; Bäckström, Malin; Bergström, Tomas

    2011-07-01

    A recombinant glycoprotein E (gE) from varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was generated and produced in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, in the development of a specific antigen for analysis of IgG antibodies to VZV. Several stable gE-secreting clones were established and one clone was adapted to growth in serum-free suspension culture. When the cells were cultured in a perfusion bioreactor, gE was secreted into the medium, from where it could be easily purified. The recombinant gE was then evaluated as a serological antigen in ELISA. When compared to a conventional whole virus antigen, the VZV gE showed similar results in ELISA-based seroprevalence studies of 854 samples derived from blood donors, students, ischemic stroke patients and their controls, including samples with border-line results in previous analyses. Eight samples (0.9%) were discordant, all being IgG-negative by the VZV gE ELISA and positive by the whole virus ELISA. The sensitivity and specificity of the VZV gE ELISA were 99.9% and 100%, respectively, compared to 100% and 88.9% for the VZV whole virus ELISA. The elderly subjects showed similar reactivities to both antigens, while VZV gE gave lower signals in the younger cohorts, suggesting that antibodies to gE may increase with age. It was concluded that the recombinant VZV gE from CHO cells was suitable as a serological antigen for the detection of IgG antibodies specific for VZV.

  5. Functional Recombinant Extra Membrane Loop of Human CD20, an Alternative of the Full Length CD20 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Anbouhi, Mahdi Habibi; Baraz, Aida Feiz; Bouzari, Saeid; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Khanahmad, Hossein; Golkar, Majid; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Behdani, Mahdi; Najafabadi, Ali Jahanian; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Background: Targeting of CD20 antigen with monoclonal antibodies has become the mainstay in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and immunotherapeutic depletion of malignant B cells. Accessibility of antigen is one of the crucial factors in development of monoclonal antibodies against this antigen. One major problem in expression of full length CD20 is aggregation and misfolding. Therefore, production of an alternative polypeptide is easer and favorable comparing to that of a full length transmembrane protein CD20. Methods: In this study, we expressed the extra membrane loop of hCD20 (exCD20) consisting of a non-glycosylated 47-amino acids region. The exCD20 coding sequence was amplified by PCR and cloned in pET32a(+) expression vector. The desired protein was expressed in fusion with thioredoxin and 6× His tag in E. coli Origami strain. ELISA and Western-blotting data were performed to indicate the functionality of this protein. Results: We have obtained the exCD20 recombinant protein which can be detected in ELISA and Western-blot experiments. This recombinant fusion protein was soluble and stable without aggregation and misfolding problems. Conclusion: The recombinant extra membrane loop of human CD20 protein in fusion with thioredoxin (exCD20) can be used in function assays and some applications such as ELISA, immuneblotting, affinity purification, immunization, screening, and development of anti-CD20 antibodies. PMID:23023212

  6. Recombinant gp19 as a potential antigen for detecting anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies in dog sera.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rômulo Silva de; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Gonçales, Relber Aguiar; Lara, Ana Paula de Souza Stori de; Avila, Luciana Farias da Costa de; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2015-01-01

    The canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, caused by Ehrlichia canis, is endemic in several regions of Brazil. Some serological diagnostic techniques using immunodominant proteins of E. canis as antigens are available, but their specificities and sensitivities are questionable. Based on this, the objective of this study was to test the antigenic potential of the recombinant gp19 protein (rGP19) for subsequent use in diagnostic tests. The rGP19 expressed in the Escherichia coli strain BL21 (DE3) C41 was recognized in the sera from experimentally infected dogs using ELISA and Western blotting. Thus, it was possible to obtain a promising antigen with the ability to differentiate between E. canis-positive and -negative animals, even 1 week after infection. PMID:26291145

  7. Antigenicity of Recombinant Maltose Binding Protein-Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis Fusion Proteins with and without Factor Xa Cleaving

    PubMed Central

    Begg, Douglas J.; Purdie, Auriol C.; Bannantine, John P.; Whittington, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis causes Johne's disease (JD) in ruminants. Proteomic studies have shown that M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis expresses certain proteins when exposed to in vitro physiological stress conditions similar to the conditions experienced within a host during natural infection. Such proteins are hypothesized to be expressed in vivo, are recognized by the host immune system, and may be of potential use in the diagnosis of JD. In this study, 50 recombinant maltose binding protein (MBP)-M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis fusion proteins were evaluated using serum samples from sheep infected with M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis, and 29 (58%) were found to be antigenic. Among 50 fusion proteins, 10 were evaluated in MBP fusion and factor Xa-cleaved forms. A total of 31 proteins (62%) were found to be antigenic in either MBP fusion or factor Xa-cleaved forms. Antigenicity after cleavage and removal of the MBP tag was marginally enhanced. PMID:24132604

  8. Effects of solution conditions and surface chemistry on the adsorption of three recombinant botulinum neurotoxin antigens to aluminum salt adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Vessely, Christina; Estey, Tia; Randolph, Theodore W; Henderson, Ian; Nayar, Rajiv; Carpenter, John F

    2007-09-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is a biological warfare threat. Protein antigens have been developed against the seven major BoNT serotypes for the development of a recombinant protein vaccine. This study is an evaluation of adsorption profiles for three of the recombinant protein antigens to aluminum salt adjuvants in the development of a trivalent vaccine against BoNT. Adsorption profiles were obtained over a range of protein concentrations. The results document that charge-charge interactions dominate the adsorption of antigen to adjuvant. Optimal conditions for adsorption were determined. However, potency studies and solution stability studies indicated the necessity of using aluminum hydroxide adjuvant at low pH. To improve the adsorption profiles to AlOH adjuvant, phosphate ions were introduced into the adsorption buffers. The resulting change in the adjuvant chemistry led to an improvement of adsorption of the BoNT antigens to aluminum hydroxide adjuvant while maintaining potency. Competitive adsorption profiles were also determined, and showed changes in maximum adsorption from mixed solutions compared to adsorption from individual protein solutions. The adsorption profiles for each protein varied due to differences in adsorption mechanism and affinity for the adjuvant surface. These results emphasize the importance of evaluating competitive adsorption in the development of multivalent vaccine products. PMID:17518359

  9. Development of Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen based assays for immunodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis.

    PubMed

    Rascoe, Lisa N; Price, Courtney; Shin, Sun Hee; McAuliffe, Isabel; Priest, Jeffrey W; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-04-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a widely distributed parasite that infects 30 to 100 million people worldwide. In the United States strongyloidiasis is recognized as an important infection in immigrants and refugees. Public health and commercial reference laboratories need a simple and reliable method for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis to identify and treat cases and to prevent transmission. The recognized laboratory test of choice for diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is detection of disease specific antibodies, most commonly using a crude parasite extract for detection of IgG antibodies. Recently, a luciferase tagged recombinant protein of S. stercoralis, Ss-NIE-1, has been used in a luciferase immunoprecipitation system (LIPS) to detect IgG and IgG4 specific antibodies. To promote wider adoption of immunoassays for strongyloidiasis, we used the Ss-NIE-1 recombinant antigen without the luciferase tag and developed ELISA and fluorescent bead (Luminex) assays to detect S. stercoralis specific IgG4. We evaluated the assays using well-characterized sera from persons with or without presumed strongyloidiasis. The sensitivity and specificity of Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA were 95% and 93%, respectively. For the IgG4 Luminex assay, the sensitivity and specificity were 93% and 95%, respectively. Specific IgG4 antibody decreased after treatment in a manner that was similar to the decrease of specific IgG measured in the crude IgG ELISA. The sensitivities of the Ss-NIE-1 IgG4 ELISA and Luminex assays were comparable to the crude IgG ELISA but with improved specificities. However, the Ss-NIE-1 based assays are not dependent on native parasite materials and can be performed using widely available laboratory equipment. In conclusion, these newly developed Ss-NIE-1 based immunoassays can be readily adopted by public health and commercial reference laboratories for routine screening and clinical diagnosis of S. stercoralis infection in refugees and immigrants in the United States. PMID

  10. Prevention and Immunotherapy of Secondary Murine Alveolar Echinococcosis Employing Recombinant EmP29 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Boubaker, Ghalia; Hemphill, Andrew; Huber, Cristina Olivia; Spiliotis, Markus; Babba, Hamouda; Gottstein, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is caused by infection with the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis. An increasing understanding of immunological events that account for the metacestode survival in human and murine AE infection prompted us to undertake explorative experiments tackling the potential of novel preventive and/or immunotherapeutic measures. In this study, the immunoprotective and immunotherapeutic ability of recombinant EmP29 antigen (rEmP29) was assessed in mice that were intraperitoneally infected with E. multilocularis metacestodes. For vaccination, three intraperitoneal injections with 20μg rEmP29 emulsified in saponin adjuvants were applied over 6 weeks. 2 weeks after the last boost, mice were infected, and at 90 days post-infection, rEmP29-vaccinated mice exhibited a median parasite weight that was reduced by 75% and 59% when compared to NaCl- or saponin–treated control mice, respectively. For immunotherapeutical application, the rEmP29 (20μg) vaccine was administered to experimentally infected mice, starting at 1 month post-infection, three times with 2 weeks intervals. Mice undergoing rEmP29 immunotherapy exhibited a median parasite load that was reduced by 53% and 49% when compared to NaCl- and saponin–treated control mice, respectively. Upon analysis of spleen cells, both, vaccination and treatment with rEmP29, resulted in low ratios of Th2/Th1 (IL-4/IFN-γ) cytokine mRNA and low levels of mRNA coding for IL-10 and IL-2. These results suggest that reduction of the immunosuppressive environment takes place in vaccinated as well as immunotreated mice, and a shift towards a Th1 type of immune response may be responsible for the observed increased restriction of parasite growth. The present study provides the first evidence that active immunotherapy may present a sustainable route for the control of AE. PMID:26053794

  11. Temperature-mediated recombinant anthrax protective antigen aggregate development: Implications for toxin formation and immunogenicity.

    PubMed

    Amador-Molina, Juan C; Valerdi-Madrigal, Esther D; Domínguez-Castillo, Rocío I; Sirota, Lev A; Arciniega, Juan L

    2016-07-29

    Anthrax vaccines containing recombinant PA (rPA) as the only antigen face a stability issue: rPA forms aggregates in solution after exposure to temperatures ⩾40°C, thus losing its ability to form lethal toxin (LeTx) with Lethal Factor. To study rPA aggregation's impact on immune response, we subjected rPA to several time and temperature combinations. rPA treated at 50°C for 30min formed high mass aggregates when analyzed by gel electrophoresis and failed to form LeTx as measured by a macrophage lysis assay (MLA). Aggregated rPA-formed LeTx was about 30 times less active than LeTx containing native rPA. Mice immunized with heat-treated rPA combined with Al(OH)3 developed antibody titers about 49 times lower than mice immunized with native rPA, as measured by a Toxicity Neutralization Assay (TNA). Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) of the same immune sera showed anti-rPA titers only 2-7 times lower than titers elicited by native rPA. Thus, rPA's ability to form LeTx correlates with its production of neutralizing antibodies, and aggregation significantly impairs the protein's antibody response. However, while these findings suggest MLA has some value as an in-process quality test for rPA in new anthrax vaccines, they also confirm the superiority of TNA for use in vaccine potency. PMID:27364097

  12. Potential of recombinant inorganic pyrophosphatase antigen as a new vaccine candidate against Baylisascaris schroederi in mice.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yue; Chen, Sijie; Yan, Yubo; Zhang, Zhihe; Li, Desheng; Yu, Hua; Wang, Chengdong; Nong, Xiang; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi is an important cause of death for wild and captive giant pandas. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) are critical for development and molting in nematode parasites and represent potential targets for vaccination. Here, a new PPase homologue, Bsc-PYP-1, from B. schroederi was identified and characterized, and its potential as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a mouse challenge model. Sequence alignment of PPases from nematode parasites and other organisms show that Bsc-PYP-1 is a nematode-specific member of the family I soluble PPases. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong localization of native Bsc-PYP-1 to the body wall, gut epithelium, ovary and uterus of adult female worms. Additionally, Bsc-PYP-1 homologues were found in roundworms infecting humans (Ascaris lumbricoides), swine (Ascaris suum) and dogs (Toxocara canis). In two vaccine trials, recombinant Bsc-PYP-1 (rBsc-PYP-1) formulated with Freund complete adjuvant induced significantly high antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G but no IgE or IgM responses. Analysis of IgG-subclass profiles revealed a greater increase of IgG1 than IgG2a. Splenocytes from rBsc-PYP-1/FCA-immunized mice secreted low levels of T helper (Th)1-type cytokines, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, while producing significantly high levels of IL-10 and significantly elevated levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokines) after stimulation with rBsc-PYP-1 in vitro. Finally, vaccinated mice had 69.02-71.15% reductions (in 2 experiments) in larval recovery 7 days post-challenge (dpc) and 80% survival at 80 dpc. These results suggest that Th2-mediated immunity elicited by rBsc-PYP-1 provides protection against B. schroederi, and the findings should contribute to further development of Bsc-PYP-1 as a candidate vaccine against baylisascariasis. PMID:24090087

  13. Recombinative events of the T cell antigen receptor delta gene in peripheral T cell lymphomas.

    PubMed Central

    Kanavaros, P; Farcet, J P; Gaulard, P; Haioun, C; Divine, M; Le Couedic, J P; Lefranc, M P; Reyes, F

    1991-01-01

    Recombinative events of the T cell antigen receptor (TCR) delta-chain gene were studied in 37 cases of peripheral T cell lymphoma (PTCL) and related to their clinical presentation and the expression of the alpha beta or gamma delta heterodimers as determined by immunostaining of frozen tissue samples. There were 22 cases of alpha beta, 5 cases of gamma delta, and 10 cases of silent TCR expressing neither the alpha beta nor gamma delta TCR. 5 different probes were used to examine the delta locus. The 22 cases of alpha beta PTCL displayed biallelic and monoallelic deletions; a monoallelic V delta 1 J delta 1 rearrangement was observed in 1 case and a monoallelic germ line configuration in 7 cases. The 5 cases of gamma delta PTCL displayed biallelic rearrangements: the productive rearrangements could be ascribed to V delta 1J delta 1 joining in 3 cases and VJ delta 1 joining in 2 cases according to the combined pattern of DNA hybridization with the appropriate probes and of cell reactivity with the TCR delta-1, delta TCS-1, and anti-V delta 2 monoclonal antibodies. In the VJ delta 1 joining, the rearranged V segments were located between V delta 1 and V delta 2. Interestingly, in the third group of 10 cases of silent PTCL, 5 cases were found to have a TCR gene configuration identical to that in the TCR alpha beta PTCL, as demonstrated by biallelic delta gene deletion. These 5 cases were CD3 positive. The 5 remaining cases showed a monoallelic delta gene rearrangement with a monoallelic germ line configuration in 4 and a monoallelic deletion in 1. Four of these cases were CD3 negative, which was consistent with an immature genotype the TCR commitent of which could not be ascertained. Finally, TCR gamma delta PTCL consisted of a distinct clinical morphological and molecular entity whereas TCR alpha beta and silent PTCL had a similar presentation. Images PMID:1991851

  14. Potential of recombinant inorganic pyrophosphatase antigen as a new vaccine candidate against Baylisascaris schroederi in mice

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The intestinal nematode Baylisascaris schroederi is an important cause of death for wild and captive giant pandas. Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPases) are critical for development and molting in nematode parasites and represent potential targets for vaccination. Here, a new PPase homologue, Bsc-PYP-1, from B. schroederi was identified and characterized, and its potential as a vaccine candidate was evaluated in a mouse challenge model. Sequence alignment of PPases from nematode parasites and other organisms show that Bsc-PYP-1 is a nematode-specific member of the family I soluble PPases. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong localization of native Bsc-PYP-1 to the body wall, gut epithelium, ovary and uterus of adult female worms. Additionally, Bsc-PYP-1 homologues were found in roundworms infecting humans (Ascaris lumbricoides), swine (Ascaris suum) and dogs (Toxocara canis). In two vaccine trials, recombinant Bsc-PYP-1 (rBsc-PYP-1) formulated with Freund complete adjuvant induced significantly high antigen-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G but no IgE or IgM responses. Analysis of IgG-subclass profiles revealed a greater increase of IgG1 than IgG2a. Splenocytes from rBsc-PYP-1/FCA-immunized mice secreted low levels of T helper (Th)1-type cytokines, interferon-γ and interleukin (IL)-2, while producing significantly high levels of IL-10 and significantly elevated levels of IL-4 (Th2 cytokines) after stimulation with rBsc-PYP-1 in vitro. Finally, vaccinated mice had 69.02–71.15% reductions (in 2 experiments) in larval recovery 7 days post-challenge (dpc) and 80% survival at 80 dpc. These results suggest that Th2-mediated immunity elicited by rBsc-PYP-1 provides protection against B. schroederi, and the findings should contribute to further development of Bsc-PYP-1 as a candidate vaccine against baylisascariasis. PMID:24090087

  15. Development of a new DNA vaccine based on mycobacterial ESAT-6 antigen delivered by recombinant invasive Lactococcus lactis FnBPA+.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Vanessa Bastos; Saraiva, Tessália Diniz Luerce; Souza, Bianca Mendes; Zurita-Turk, Meritxell; Azevedo, Marcela Santiago Pacheco; De Castro, Camila Prósperi; Mancha-Agresti, Pamela; Dos Santos, Janete Soares Coelho; Santos, Ana Cristina Gomes; Faria, Ana Maria Caetano; Leclercq, Sophie; Azevedo, Vasco; Miyoshi, Anderson

    2015-02-01

    The use of the food-grade bacterium Lactococcus lactis as a vehicle for the oral delivery of DNA vaccine plasmids constitutes a promising strategy for vaccination. The delivery of DNA plasmids into eukaryotic cells is of critical importance for subsequent DNA expression and effectiveness of the vaccine. In this context, the use of the recombinant invasive L. lactis FnBPA+ (fibronectin-binding protein A) strain for the oral delivery of the eukaryotic expression vector vaccination using lactic acid bacteria (pValac), coding for the 6-kDa early secreted antigenic target (ESAT-6) gene of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, could represent a new DNA vaccine strategy against tuberculosis. To this end, the ESAT-6 sequence was cloned into the pValac vector; the L. lactis fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA)+ (pValac:ESAT-6) strain was obtained, and its immunological profile was checked in BALB/c mice. This strain was able to significantly increase interferon gamma (IFN-γ) production in spleen cells, showing a systemic T helper 1 (Th1) cell response. The mice also showed a significant increase in specific secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA) production in colon tissue and fecal extracts. Thus, this is the first time that L. lactis has been used to deliver a plasmid DNA harboring a gene that encodes an antigen against tuberculosis through mucous membranes. PMID:25503506

  16. Genetic diversity and population structure of genes encoding vaccine candidate antigens of Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A major concern in malaria vaccine development is genetic polymorphisms typically observed among Plasmodium isolates in different geographical areas across the world. Highly polymorphic regions have been observed in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax antigenic surface proteins such as Circumsporozoite protein (CSP), Duffy-binding protein (DBP), Merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1), Apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and Thrombospondin related anonymous protein (TRAP). Methods Genetic variability was assessed in important polymorphic regions of various vaccine candidate antigens in P. vivax among 106 isolates from the Amazon Region of Loreto, Peru. In addition, genetic diversity determined in Peruvian isolates was compared to population studies from various geographical locations worldwide. Results The structured diversity found in P. vivax populations did not show a geographic pattern and haplotypes from all gene candidates were distributed worldwide. In addition, evidence of balancing selection was found in polymorphic regions of the trap, dbp and ama-1 genes. Conclusions It is important to have a good representation of the haplotypes circulating worldwide when implementing a vaccine, regardless of the geographic region of deployment since selective pressure plays an important role in structuring antigen diversity. PMID:22417572

  17. Evaluation of protective potential of Yersinia pestis outer membrane protein antigens as possible candidates for a new-generation recombinant plague vaccine.

    PubMed

    Erova, Tatiana E; Rosenzweig, Jason A; Sha, Jian; Suarez, Giovanni; Sierra, Johanna C; Kirtley, Michelle L; van Lier, Christina J; Telepnev, Maxim V; Motin, Vladimir L; Chopra, Ashok K

    2013-02-01

    Plague caused by Yersinia pestis manifests itself in bubonic, septicemic, and pneumonic forms. Although the U.S. Food and Drug Administration recently approved levofloxacin, there is no approved human vaccine against plague. The capsular antigen F1 and the low-calcium-response V antigen (LcrV) of Y. pestis represent excellent vaccine candidates; however, the inability of the immune responses to F1 and LcrV to provide protection against Y. pestis F1(-) strains or those which harbor variants of LcrV is a significant concern. Here, we show that the passive transfer of hyperimmune sera from rats infected with the plague bacterium and rescued by levofloxacin protected naive animals against pneumonic plague. Furthermore, 10 to 12 protein bands from wild-type (WT) Y. pestis CO92 reacted with the aforementioned hyperimmune sera upon Western blot analysis. Based on mass spectrometric analysis, four of these proteins were identified as attachment invasion locus (Ail/OmpX), plasminogen-activating protease (Pla), outer membrane protein A (OmpA), and F1. The genes encoding these proteins were cloned, and the recombinant proteins purified from Escherichia coli for immunization purposes before challenging mice and rats with either the F1(-) mutant or WT CO92 in bubonic and pneumonic plague models. Although antibodies to Ail and OmpA protected mice against bubonic plague when challenged with the F1(-) CO92 strain, Pla antibodies were protective against pneumonic plague. In the rat model, antibodies to Ail provided protection only against pneumonic plague after WT CO92 challenge. Together, the addition of Y. pestis outer membrane proteins to a new-generation recombinant vaccine could provide protection against a wide variety of Y. pestis strains.

  18. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Lülf, Anna; Marr, Lisa; Jany, Sylvia; Deeg, Cornelia A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells non-permissive for MVA replication. Prime-boost immunizations in BALB/c mice readily induced circulating serum antibodies binding to recombinant WNV E protein and neutralizing WNV in tissue culture infections. Vaccinations in HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice elicited WNV E-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Moreover, the MVA-WNV candidate vaccines protected C57BL/6 mice against lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV infection and induced heterologous neutralizing antibodies. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate these recombinant MVA-WNV vaccines in other preclinical models and use them as candidate vaccine in humans. PMID:26939903

  19. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara candidate vaccines delivering West Nile virus envelope antigens.

    PubMed

    Volz, Asisa; Lim, Stephanie; Kaserer, Martina; Lülf, Anna; Marr, Lisa; Jany, Sylvia; Deeg, Cornelia A; Pijlman, Gorben P; Koraka, Penelope; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Martina, Byron E; Sutter, Gerd

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) cycles between insects and wild birds, and is transmitted via mosquito vectors to horses and humans, potentially causing severe neuroinvasive disease. Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is an advanced viral vector for developing new recombinant vaccines against infectious diseases and cancer. Here, we generated and evaluated recombinant MVA candidate vaccines that deliver WNV envelope (E) antigens and fulfil all the requirements to proceed to clinical testing in humans. Infections of human and equine cell cultures with recombinant MVA demonstrated efficient synthesis and secretion of WNV envelope proteins in mammalian cells non-permissive for MVA replication. Prime-boost immunizations in BALB/c mice readily induced circulating serum antibodies binding to recombinant WNV E protein and neutralizing WNV in tissue culture infections. Vaccinations in HLA-A2.1-/HLA-DR1-transgenic H-2 class I-/class II-knockout mice elicited WNV E-specific CD8+ T cell responses. Moreover, the MVA-WNV candidate vaccines protected C57BL/6 mice against lineage 1 and lineage 2 WNV infection and induced heterologous neutralizing antibodies. Thus, further studies are warranted to evaluate these recombinant MVA-WNV vaccines in other preclinical models and use them as candidate vaccine in humans.

  20. Expression and refolding of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis: A model for high-throughput screening of antigenic recombinant protein refolding.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban Enrique; Cairó, Fabián Martín; Pettinari, María Julia

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is a well known and relevant immunogenic protein that is the basis for both anthrax vaccines and diagnostic methods. Properly folded antigenic PA is necessary for these applications. In this study a high level of PA was obtained in recombinant Escherichia coli. The protein was initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, which facilitated its efficient purification by simple washing steps; however, it could not be recognized by specific antibodies. Refolding conditions were subsequently analyzed in a high-throughput manner that enabled nearly a hundred different conditions to be tested simultaneously. The recovery of the ability of PA to be recognized by antibodies was screened by dot blot using a coefficient that provided a measure of properly refolded protein levels with a high degree of discrimination. The best refolding conditions resulted in a tenfold increase in the intensity of the dot blot compared to the control. The only refolding additive that consistently yielded good results was L-arginine. The statistical analysis identified both cooperative and negative interactions between the different refolding additives. The high-throughput approach described in this study that enabled overproduction, purification and refolding of PA in a simple and straightforward manner, can be potentially useful for the rapid screening of adequate refolding conditions for other overexpressed antigenic proteins. PMID:26777581

  1. Expression and refolding of the protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis: A model for high-throughput screening of antigenic recombinant protein refolding.

    PubMed

    Pavan, María Elisa; Pavan, Esteban Enrique; Cairó, Fabián Martín; Pettinari, María Julia

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) is a well known and relevant immunogenic protein that is the basis for both anthrax vaccines and diagnostic methods. Properly folded antigenic PA is necessary for these applications. In this study a high level of PA was obtained in recombinant Escherichia coli. The protein was initially accumulated in inclusion bodies, which facilitated its efficient purification by simple washing steps; however, it could not be recognized by specific antibodies. Refolding conditions were subsequently analyzed in a high-throughput manner that enabled nearly a hundred different conditions to be tested simultaneously. The recovery of the ability of PA to be recognized by antibodies was screened by dot blot using a coefficient that provided a measure of properly refolded protein levels with a high degree of discrimination. The best refolding conditions resulted in a tenfold increase in the intensity of the dot blot compared to the control. The only refolding additive that consistently yielded good results was L-arginine. The statistical analysis identified both cooperative and negative interactions between the different refolding additives. The high-throughput approach described in this study that enabled overproduction, purification and refolding of PA in a simple and straightforward manner, can be potentially useful for the rapid screening of adequate refolding conditions for other overexpressed antigenic proteins.

  2. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested.

  3. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bassi, Maria R.; Larsen, Mads A. B.; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R.; Christensen, Jan P.

    2016-01-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested. PMID:26886513

  4. Vaccination with Replication Deficient Adenovectors Encoding YF-17D Antigens Induces Long-Lasting Protection from Severe Yellow Fever Virus Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Bassi, Maria R; Larsen, Mads A B; Kongsgaard, Michael; Rasmussen, Michael; Buus, Søren; Stryhn, Anette; Thomsen, Allan R; Christensen, Jan P

    2016-02-01

    The live attenuated yellow fever vaccine (YF-17D) has been successfully used for more than 70 years. It is generally considered a safe vaccine, however, recent reports of serious adverse events following vaccination have raised concerns and led to suggestions that even safer YF vaccines should be developed. Replication deficient adenoviruses (Ad) have been widely evaluated as recombinant vectors, particularly in the context of prophylactic vaccination against viral infections in which induction of CD8+ T-cell mediated immunity is crucial, but potent antibody responses may also be elicited using these vectors. In this study, we present two adenobased vectors targeting non-structural and structural YF antigens and characterize their immunological properties. We report that a single immunization with an Ad-vector encoding the non-structural protein 3 from YF-17D could elicit a strong CD8+ T-cell response, which afforded a high degree of protection from subsequent intracranial challenge of vaccinated mice. However, full protection was only observed using a vector encoding the structural proteins from YF-17D. This vector elicited virus-specific CD8+ T cells as well as neutralizing antibodies, and both components were shown to be important for protection thus mimicking the situation recently uncovered in YF-17D vaccinated mice. Considering that Ad-vectors are very safe, easy to produce and highly immunogenic in humans, our data indicate that a replication deficient adenovector-based YF vaccine may represent a safe and efficient alternative to the classical live attenuated YF vaccine and should be further tested. PMID:26886513

  5. Immune responses to a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium strain expressing a Taenia solium oncosphere antigen TSOL18.

    PubMed

    Ding, Juntao; Zheng, Yadong; Wang, Ying; Dou, Yongxi; Chen, Xiaoyu; Zhu, Xueliang; Wang, Shuai; Zhang, Shaohua; Liu, Zhenyong; Hou, Junling; Zhai, Junjun; Yan, Hongbin; Luo, Xuenong; Cai, Xuepeng

    2013-01-01

    A tapeworm, Taenia solium, remains a great threat to human health, particularly in developing countries. The life cycle of T. solium is thought to be terminated via vaccination of intermediate hosts. In this study, we constructed a recombinant attenuated Salmonella typhimurium live vaccine strain χ4558 expressing a TSOL18 antigen. SDS-PAGE and Western blot confirmed the expression of the interest protein and its antigenic property. The recombinant strain stably propagated in vitro, of which the growth was not reversely influenced by TSOL18 protein expressed. It was also shown that mice survived 10(12) CFU of S. typhimurium χ4558, while all mice infected with 10(7) CFU of the wild-type died within five days. The mouse experiment indicated that vaccine strain χ4558 induced a high titer of specific antibody for a long time. In contrast to the controls, the vaccinated mice had an obvious augment of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes and the percentage of helper CD4(+)/CD8(+) T lymphocytes was significantly increased (p<0.01). After oral administration, S. typhimurium χ4558 was first colonized mainly in the Peyer's patches and then predominantly in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleens in the vaccinated mice. In addition, the high levels of specific anti-TSOL18 antibodies were also observed in pigs administrated with S. typhimurium χ4558. Collectively, these results demonstrate the possibility of use of an attenuated S. typhimurium strain as a vector to deliver protective antigens of T. solium.

  6. Comparison of the structural stability and dynamic properties of recombinant anthrax protective antigen and its 2-fluorohistidine-labeled analogue.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lei; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Andra, Kiran K; Thakkar, Santosh V; Volkin, David B; Bann, James G; Middaugh, C Russell

    2012-11-01

    Protective antigen (PA) is the primary protein antigenic component of both the currently used anthrax vaccine and related recombinant vaccines under development. An analogue of recombinant PA (2-FHis rPA) has been recently shown to block the key steps of pore formation in the process of inducing cytotoxicity in cells, and thus can potentially be used as an antitoxin or a vaccine. This rPA analogue was produced by fermentation to incorporate the unnatural amino acid 2-fluorohistidine (2-FHis). In this study, the effects of 2-FHis labeling on rPA antigen's conformational stability and dynamic properties were investigated by various biophysical techniques. Temperature/pH stability profiles of rPA and 2-FHis rPA were analyzed by the empirical phase diagram (EPD) approach, and physical stability differences between them were identified. Results showed that rPA and 2-FHis rPA had similar stability at pH 7-8. With decreasing solution pH, however, 2-FHis rPA was found to be more stable. Dynamic sensitive measurements of the two proteins at pH 5 found that 2-FHis rPA was more dynamic and/or differentially hydrated under acidic pH conditions. The biophysical characterization and stability data provide information useful for the potential development of 2-FHis rPA as a more stable rPA vaccine candidate. PMID:22911632

  7. Cloning and characterization of multigenes encoding the immunodominant 30-kilodalton major outer membrane proteins of Ehrlichia canis and application of the recombinant protein for serodiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, N; Unver, A; Zhi, N; Rikihisa, Y

    1998-09-01

    A 30-kDa major outer membrane protein of Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is the major antigen recognized by both naturally and experimentally infected dog sera. The protein cross-reacts with a serum against a recombinant 28-kDa protein (rP28), one of the outer membrane proteins of a gene (omp-1) family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Two DNA fragments of E. canis were amplified by PCR with two primer pairs based on the sequences of E. chaffeensis omp-1 genes, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment contained a partial 30-kDa protein gene of E. canis. Genomic Southern blot analysis with the partial gene probes revealed the presence of multiple copies of these genes in the E. canis genome. Three copies of the entire gene (p30, p30-1, and p30a) were cloned and sequenced from the E. canis genomic DNA. The open reading frames of the two copies (p30 and p30-1) were tandemly arranged with an intergenic space. The three copies were similar but not identical and contained a semivariable region and three hypervariable regions in the protein molecules. The following genes homologous to three E. canis 30-kDa protein genes and the E. chaffeensis omp-1 family were identified in the closely related rickettsiae: wsp from Wolbachia sp. , p44 from the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, msp-2 and msp-4 from Anaplasma marginale, and map-1 from Cowdria ruminantium. Phylogenetic analysis among the three E. canis 30-kDa proteins and the major surface proteins of the rickettsiae revealed that these proteins are divided into four clusters and the two E. canis 30-kDa proteins are closely related but that the third 30-kDa protein is not. The p30 gene was expressed as a fusion protein, and the antibody to the recombinant protein (rP30) was raised in a mouse. The antibody reacted with rP30 and a 30-kDa protein of purified E. canis. Twenty-nine indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA)-positive dog plasma specimens strongly recognized the rP30 of E. canis. To evaluate whether the r

  8. The optimal mixture of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, P22, ROP1) for diagnosis of ovine toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Kur, Józef

    2014-12-15

    Toxoplasmosis, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, is the major parasitic disease affecting sheep. Infection not only results in significant reproductive losses in these animals, but has public health implications since consumption of infected meat can facilitate zoonotic transmission. Although several serological tests are currently used for diagnosis of ovine toxoplasmosis, production of reliable reagents is a constraint and therefore there is a need to develop new diagnostic tools. In this paper, we assess for the first time, the preliminary diagnostic utility of 19 T. gondii recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA2ex2, GRA4, GRA5, GRA6, GRA9, SAG1, SAG4, BSR4, P22, ROP1, P36, MIC1ex2, MIC1ex34, MIC3, MAG1, BAG1, LDH1, and LDH2) in immunoglobulin G (IgG) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (IgG ELISAs). Following an initial evaluation, eight recombinant antigens (GRA1, GRA9, SAG1, SAG4, P22, MIC1ex2, MIC3, ROP1) were chosen for subsequent testing and comparison against the native Toxoplasma lysate antigen (TLA) in IgG ELISAs using 88 sera from naturally infected sheep and 20 sera from healthy animals. The reactivity of these antigens was variable with the best results for GRA1, P22, ROP1 and TLA. High sensitivity and specificity (100%) was noted for GRA1, ROP1 and TLA; P22 showed a slightly lower sensitivity (98.9%) but the same high specificity (100%). Four different combinations of these antigens (M1: GRA1+ROP1; M2: GRA1+P22; M3: P22+ROP1; M4: GRA1+P22+ROP1) were tested against the same pool of ovine sera; all IgG-positive serum samples were detected by all of the mixtures. However, the most effective for diagnosis of toxoplasmosis in sheep, based on the highest absorbance values, was the mixture M4 containing three proteins. High sensitivity and specificity (100%) was observed from tests containing either M4 or TLA antigens with a new pool of sera (93 seropositive and 35 seronegative). Thus, the present study shows that a cocktail of GRA1+P22+ROP1 recombinant proteins can be

  9. Construction of adenovirus vectors encoding the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Fang; Qi, Bing; Tu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Lian; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To construct adenovirus vectors of lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology to further understand the role of lumican gene in myopia. METHODS Gateway recombinant cloning technology was used to construct adenovirus vectors. The wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) forms of the lumican gene were synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lumican cDNA fragments were purified and ligated into the adenovirus shuttle vector pDown-multiple cloning site (MCS)-/internal ribozyme entry site (IRES)/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Then the desired DNA fragments were integrated into the destination vector pAV.Des1d yielding the final expression constructs pAV.Ex1d-cytomegalovirus (CMV)>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES /EGFP, respectively. RESULTS The adenovirus plasmids pAV.Ex1d-CMV>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES/EGFP were successfully constructed by gateway recombinant cloning technology. Positive clones identified by PCR and sequencing were selected and packaged into recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells. CONCLUSION We construct adenovirus vectors containing the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology, which provides a basis for investigating the role of lumican gene in the pathogenesis of high myopia. PMID:27672590

  10. Construction of adenovirus vectors encoding the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gui-Fang; Qi, Bing; Tu, Lei-Lei; Liu, Lian; Yu, Guo-Cheng; Zhong, Jing-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    AIM To construct adenovirus vectors of lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology to further understand the role of lumican gene in myopia. METHODS Gateway recombinant cloning technology was used to construct adenovirus vectors. The wild-type (wt) and mutant (mut) forms of the lumican gene were synthesized and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The lumican cDNA fragments were purified and ligated into the adenovirus shuttle vector pDown-multiple cloning site (MCS)-/internal ribozyme entry site (IRES)/enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Then the desired DNA fragments were integrated into the destination vector pAV.Des1d yielding the final expression constructs pAV.Ex1d-cytomegalovirus (CMV)>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES /EGFP, respectively. RESULTS The adenovirus plasmids pAV.Ex1d-CMV>wt-lumican/IRES/EGFP and pAV.Ex1d-CMV>mut-lumican/IRES/EGFP were successfully constructed by gateway recombinant cloning technology. Positive clones identified by PCR and sequencing were selected and packaged into recombinant adenovirus in HEK293 cells. CONCLUSION We construct adenovirus vectors containing the lumican gene by gateway recombinant cloning technology, which provides a basis for investigating the role of lumican gene in the pathogenesis of high myopia.

  11. Induction of antigen-specific Th1-type immune responses by gamma-irradiated recombinant Brucella abortus RB51.

    PubMed

    Sanakkayala, Neelima; Sokolovska, Anna; Gulani, Jatinder; Hogenesch, Harm; Sriranganathan, Nammalwar; Boyle, Stephen M; Schurig, Gerhardt G; Vemulapalli, Ramesh

    2005-12-01

    Brucella abortus strain RB51 is an attenuated rough mutant used as the live vaccine against bovine brucellosis in the United States and other countries. We previously reported the development of strain RB51 as a bacterial vaccine vector for inducing Th1-type immune responses against heterologous proteins. Because safety concerns may preclude the use of strain RB51-based recombinant live vaccines, we explored the ability of a gamma-irradiated recombinant RB51 strain to induce heterologous antigen-specific immune responses in BALB/c mice. Exposure of strain RB51G/LacZ expressing Escherichia coli beta-galactosidase to a minimum of 300 kilorads of gamma radiation resulted in complete loss of replicative ability. These bacteria, however, remained metabolically active and continued to synthesize beta-galactosidase. A single intraperitoneal inoculation of mice with 10(9) CFU equivalents of gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ induced a beta-galactosidase-specific Th1-type immune response. Though no obvious differences were detected in immune responses to B. abortus-specific antigens, mice vaccinated with gamma-irradiated, but not heat-killed, RB51G/LacZ developed significant protection against challenge with virulent B. abortus. In vitro experiments indicated that gamma-irradiated and heat-killed RB51G/LacZ induced maturation of dendritic cells; however, stimulation with gamma-irradiated bacteria resulted in more interleukin-12 secretion. These results suggest that recombinant RB51 strains exposed to an appropriate minimum dose of gamma radiation are unable to replicate but retain their ability to stimulate Th1 immune responses against the heterologous antigens and confer protection against B. abortus challenge in mice.

  12. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Dina A.; Scarff, Jennifer M.; Garcia, Preston P.; Cassidy, Sara K. B.; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M.; Inzana, Thomas J.; Goldberg, Joanna B.

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine. PMID:26148026

  13. Recombinant Salmonella Expressing Burkholderia mallei LPS O Antigen Provides Protection in a Murine Model of Melioidosis and Glanders.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Dina A; Scarff, Jennifer M; Garcia, Preston P; Cassidy, Sara K B; DiGiandomenico, Antonio; Waag, David M; Inzana, Thomas J; Goldberg, Joanna B

    2015-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei are the etiologic agents of melioidosis and glanders, respectively. These bacteria are highly infectious via the respiratory route and can cause severe and often fatal diseases in humans and animals. Both species are considered potential agents of biological warfare; they are classified as category B priority pathogens. Currently there are no human or veterinary vaccines available against these pathogens. Consequently efforts are directed towards the development of an efficacious and safe vaccine. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is an immunodominant antigen and potent stimulator of host immune responses. B. mallei express LPS that is structurally similar to that expressed by B. pseudomallei, suggesting the possibility of constructing a single protective vaccine against melioidosis and glanders. Previous studies of others have shown that antibodies against B. mallei or B. pseudomallei LPS partially protect mice against subsequent lethal virulent Burkholderia challenge. In this study, we evaluated the protective efficacy of recombinant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen against lethal intranasal infection with Burkholderia thailandensis, a surrogate for biothreat Burkholderia spp. in a murine model that mimics melioidosis and glanders. All vaccine-immunized mice developed a specific antibody response to B. mallei and B. pseudomallei O antigen and to B. thailandensis and were significantly protected against challenge with a lethal dose of B. thailandensis. These results suggest that live-attenuated SL3261 expressing B. mallei O antigen is a promising platform for developing a safe and effective vaccine.

  14. Expressions of recombinant venom allergen, antigen 5 of yellowjacket (Vespula vulgaris) and paper wasp (Polistes annularis), in bacteria or yeast.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, R I; Lu, G; King, T P

    1999-08-01

    Antigen 5 is a major allergen of vespid venom. It has partial sequence identity with proteins from diverse sources. The biologic function of Ag 5 and its related proteins is not known. We are interested in the expression of Ag 5 with the native conformation of the natural protein since its B cell epitopes are mainly of the discontinuous type. When expressed in bacteria, recombinant Ag 5 formed an insoluble intracellular product, and it did not translocate from cytoplasm to periplasm by the addition of a pelB leader sequence to the cloned protein. When expressed in yeast Pichia pastoris, Ag 5 was secreted because the cloned protein contained a yeast alpha signal leader sequence. Recombinant Ag 5 from yeast was shown to have the native structure of the natural protein and the recombinant Ag 5 from bacteria did not. This was shown by comparison of their solubility, electrophoretic behavior, disulfide bond content, CD spectrum, and binding of IgE antibodies from allergic patients and IgG antibodies from mice immunized with natural Ag 5 or recombinant Ag 5s from yeast or bacteria. These studies were made with Ag 5s from yellowjacket (Vespula vulgaris) and paper wasp (Polistes annularis). PMID:10425162

  15. Cloning and Characterization of PRA1, a Gene Encoding a Novel pH-Regulated Antigen of Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Sentandreu, Maria; Elorza, M. Victoria; Sentandreu, Rafael; Fonzi, William A.

    1998-01-01

    Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen of humans. The cell wall of the organism defines the interface between the pathogen and host tissues and is likely to play an essential and pivotal role in the host-pathogen interaction. The components of the cell wall critical to this interaction are undefined. Immunoscreening of a lambda expression library with sera raised against mycelial cell walls of C. albicans was used to identify genes encoding cell surface proteins. One of the positive clones represented a candidal gene that was differentially expressed in response to changes in the pH of the culture medium. Maximal expression occurred at neutral pH, with no expression detected below pH 6.0. On the basis of the expression pattern, the corresponding gene was designated PRA1, for pH-regulated antigen. The protein predicted from the nucleotide sequence was 299 amino acids long with motifs characteristic of secreted glycoproteins. The predicted surface localization and N glycosylation of the protein were directly demonstrated by cell fractionation and immunoblot analysis. Deletion of the gene imparted a temperature-dependent defect in hypha formation, indicating a role in morphogenesis. The PRA1 protein was homologous to surface antigens of Aspergillus spp. which react with serum from aspergillosis patients, suggesting that the PRA1 protein may have a role in the host-parasite interaction during candidal infection. PMID:9440517

  16. Gene Encoding Duffy Antigen/Receptor for Chemokines Is Associated with Asthma and IgE in Three Populations

    PubMed Central

    Vergara, Candelaria; Tsai, Yuhjung J.; Grant, Audrey V.; Rafaels, Nicholas; Gao, Li; Hand, Tracey; Stockton, Maria; Campbell, Monica; Mercado, Dilia; Faruque, Mezbah; Dunston, Georgia; Beaty, Terri H.; Oliveira, Ricardo Riccio; Ponte, Eduardo V.; Cruz, Alvaro A.; Carvalho, Edgar; Araujo, Maria Ilma; Watson, Harold; Schleimer, Robert P.; Caraballo, Luis; Nickel, Renate G.; Mathias, Rasika A.; Barnes, Kathleen C.

    2008-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma prevalence and severity are high among underserved minorities, including those of African descent. The Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines is the receptor for Plasmodium vivax on erythrocytes and functions as a chemokine-clearing receptor. Unlike European populations, decreased expression of the receptor on erythrocytes is common among populations of African descent, and results from a functional T-46C polymorphism (rs2814778) in the promoter. This variant provides an evolutionary advantage in malaria-endemic regions, because Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines-negative erythrocytes are more resistant to infection by P. vivax. Objectives: To determine the role of the rs2814778 polymorphism in asthma and atopy as measured by total serum IgE levels among four populations of African descent (African Caribbean, African American, Brazilian, and Colombian) and a European American population. Methods: Family-based association tests were performed in each of the five populations to test for association between the rs2814778 polymorphism and asthma or total IgE concentration. Measurements and Main Results: Asthma was significantly associated with the rs2814778 polymorphism in the African Caribbean, Colombian, and Brazilian families (P < 0.05). High total IgE levels were associated with this variant in African Caribbean and Colombian families (P < 0.05). The variant allele was not polymorphic among European Americans. Conclusions: Susceptibility to asthma and atopy among certain populations of African descent is influenced by a functional polymorphism in the gene encoding Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines. This genetic variant, which confers resistance to malarial parasitic infection, may also partially explain ethnic differences in morbidity of asthma. PMID:18827265

  17. Vaccination with minigenes encoding for novel 'self' antigens are effective in DNA-vaccination against neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Huebener, N; Lange, B; Lemmel, C; Rammensee, H G; Strandsby, A; Wenkel, J; Jikai, J; Zeng, Y; Gaedicke, G; Lode, H N

    2003-07-18

    The induction of T-cell mediated immunity against neuroblastoma is a challenge due to poor immunogenicity of this malignancy. Here, we demonstrate the induction of protective immunity in a syngeneic murine neuroblastoma model following vaccination with minigenes comprising of three novel natural MHC class I ligands. First, after immunoprecipitation of MHC class I from NXS2 cells, peptides were eluted and examined in tandem-MS analysis which lead to the identification of three novel natural MHC class I peptide ligands, TEALPVKLI from ribonucleotide reductase M2, NEYIMSLI from Ser/Thr protein phosphatase 2A and FEMVSTLI with unknown origin. Second, we constructed two different minigenes, one encoding for the three novel epitopes and the second for three known mTH derived epitopes with high predicted binding affinity to MHC class I by cloning them into the mammalian expression vector pCMV-3FUB. This lead to constructs with an ubiquitin-tag upstream the inserted epitopes in order to facilitate proteasomal degradation. Furthermore the epitopes were separated by a spacer peptide (AAY), which proved to be a preferential proteasome cleavage site. Third, we demonstrate the induction of protective immunity against neuroblastoma using an attenuated strain of Salmonella typhimurium as a carrier harboring pCMV 3FUb vectors encoding for the two minigenes. These findings establish proof of concept that disruption of self tolerance against neuroblastoma associated epitopes may be an effective adjuvant therapeutic strategy.

  18. Antibody directed to a synthetic peptide encoding the NH2-terminal 16 amino acids of the adenovirus type 2 E1B-53K tumor antigen recognizes the E1B-20K tumor antigen.

    PubMed

    Lucher, L A; Brackmann, K H; Symington, J S; Green, M

    1984-01-15

    A peptide, H2N-Glu-Arg-Arg-Asn-Pro-Ser-Glu-Arg-Gly-Val-Pro-Ala-Gly-Phe-Ser-Gly-(Cys )COOH, containing the amino acid sequence at the NH2 terminus of the adenovirus type 2 (Ad2) E1B-coded large T antigen (E1B-53K) has been synthesized. Anti-peptide antibody was generated in rabbits and used to immunoprecipitate Ad T antigens from Ad2 early infected cell extracts. In addition to the expected E1B-53K T antigen, anti-peptide antibody precipitated the Ad2 E1B-20K T antigen that was previously shown to be related to E1B-53K (M. Green, K.H. Brackmann, M.A. Cartas, and T. Matsuo, J. Virol. 42, 30-41, 1982). Anti-peptide prepared against the COOH terminus of the E1B-53K T antigen or against the NH2 terminus of the E1B-19K T antigen did not precipitate the E1B-20K T antigen. These data suggest that the Ad2 E1B-20K T antigen initiates translation at nucleotide 2016 in reading frame 3, as does E1B-53K. The viral mRNA that encodes the E1B-20K T antigen has not been identified.

  19. The generation and analyses of a novel combination of recombinant adenovirus vaccines targeting three tumor antigens as an immunotherapeutic

    PubMed Central

    Gabitzsch, Elizabeth S.; Tsang, Kwong Yok; Palena, Claudia; David, Justin M.; Fantini, Massimo; Kwilas, Anna; Rice, Adrian E.; Latchman, Yvette; Hodge, James W.; Gulley, James L.; Madan, Ravi A.; Heery, Christopher R.; Balint, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Phenotypic heterogeneity of human carcinoma lesions, including heterogeneity in expression of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs), is a well-established phenomenon. Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), MUC1, and brachyury are diverse TAAs, each of which is expressed on a wide range of human tumors. We have previously reported on a novel adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) vector gene delivery platform (Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]) in which regions of the early 1 (E1), early 2 (E2b), and early 3 (E3) genes have been deleted. The unique deletions in this platform result in a dramatic decrease in late gene expression, leading to a marked reduction in host immune response to the vector. Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA vaccine (ETBX-011) has been employed in clinical studies as an active vaccine to induce immune responses to CEA in metastatic colorectal cancer patients. We report here the development of novel recombinant Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-brachyury and-MUC1 vaccine constructs, each capable of activating antigen-specific human T cells in vitro and inducing antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in vaccinated mice. We also describe the use of a combination of the three vaccines (designated Tri-Ad5) of Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-CEA, Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-brachyury and Ad5 [E1-, E2b-]-MUC1, and demonstrate that there is minimal to no “antigenic competition” in in vitro studies of human dendritic cells, or in murine vaccination studies. The studies reported herein support the rationale for the application of Tri-Ad5 as a therapeutic modality to induce immune responses to a diverse range of human TAAs for potential clinical studies. PMID:26374823

  20. Homologous recombination enhancement conferred by the Z-DNA motif d(TG)30 is abrogated by simian virus 40 T antigen binding to adjacent DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Wahls, W P; Moore, P D

    1990-02-01

    The Z-DNA motif polydeoxythymidylic-guanylic [d(TG)].polydeoxyadenylic-cytidylic acid [d(AC)], present throughout eucaryotic genomes, is capable of readily forming left-handed Z-DNA in vitro and has been shown to promote homologous recombination. The effects of simian virus 40 T-antigen-dependent substrate replication upon the stimulation of recombination conferred by the Z-DNA motif d(TG)30 were analyzed. Presence of d(TG)30 adjacent to a T-antigen-binding site I can stimulate homologous recombination between nonreplicating plasmids, providing that T antigen is absent, in both simian CV-1 cells and human EJ cells (W. P. Wahls, L. J. Wallace, and P. D. Moore, Mol. Cell. Biol. 10:785-793). It has also been shown elsewhere that the presence of d(TG)n not adjacent to the T-antigen-binding site can stimulate homologous recombination in simian virus 40 molecules replicating in the presence of T antigen (P. Bullock, J. Miller, and M. Botchan, Mol. Cell. Biol. 6:3948-3953, 1986). However, it is demonstrated here that d(TG)30 nine base pairs distant from a T-antigen-binding site bound with T antigen does not stimulate recombination between either replicating or nonreplicating substrates in somatic cells. The bound T antigen either prevents the d(TG)30 sequence from acquiring a recombinogenic configuration (such as left-handed Z-DNA), or it prevents the interaction of recombinase proteins with the sequence by stearic hindrance. PMID:2153923

  1. Recombinant Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum Ecto-Nucleoside Triphosphate Diphosphohydrolase NTPDase-2 as a new antigen in canine visceral leishmaniasis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Ronny Francisco; Dos Santos, Yaro Luciolo; de Souza Vasconcellos, Raphael; Borges-Pereira, Lucas; Caldas, Ivo Santana; de Almeida, Márcia Rogéria; Bahia, Maria Terezinha; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel

    2013-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important public health concern. In the epidemiological context of human visceral leishmaniasis, dogs are considered the main reservoir of Leishmania parasites; therefore, dogs must be epidemiologically monitored constantly in endemic areas. Furthermore, dog to human transmission has been correlated with emerging urbanization and increasing rates of leishmaniasis infection worldwide. Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (L. chagasi) is the etiologic agent of visceral leishmaniasis in the New World. In this work, a new L. (L.) infantum (L. chagasi) recombinant antigen, named ATP diphosphohydrolase (rLic-NTPDase-2), intended for use in the immunodiagnosis of CVL was produced and validated. The extracellular domain of ATP diphosphohydrolase was cloned and expressed in the pET21b-Escherichia coli expression system. Indirect ELISA assays were used to detect the purified rLic-NTPDase-2 antigen using a standard canine sera library. This library contained CVL-positive samples, leishmaniasis-negative samples and samples from Trypanosoma cruzi-infected dogs. The results show a high sensitivity of 100% (95% CI=92.60-100.0%) and a high specificity of 100% (95% CI=86.77-100.0%), with a high degree of confidence (k=1). These findings demonstrate the potential use of this recombinant protein in immune diagnosis of canine leishmaniasis and open the possibility of its application to other diagnostic approaches, such as immunochromatography fast lateral flow assays and human leishmaniasis diagnosis. PMID:23022017

  2. Dot-ELISA Rapid Test Using Recombinant 56-kDa Protein Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Scrub Typhus.

    PubMed

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Huber, Erin; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Grieco, John; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Kityapan, Manerat; Lewis, Michael; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2015-05-01

    We developed a rapid dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using the combination of recombinant 56-kDa protein antigens that exhibited broad reactivity with serum antibodies against the four most prevalent strains (Karp, Kato, Gilliam, and TA763) of Orientia tsutsugamushi. The assay is rapid (30 minutes), and can be done at room temperature, and results can be read by the naked eye. Only a simple shaker is required to wash the membrane. Sera from 338 patients suspected of being ill with scrub typhus from rural hospitals around Thailand were tested using this dot-ELISA. Seventy-five (22.2%) patients were found to be positive. The sensitivity and specificity of dot-ELISA were determined using the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) test as the gold standard, with the cutoff titer of immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate M (IgM)/G (IgG) greater than 1:400/1:400. The dot-ELISA had a sensitivity of 98.5%, a specificity of 96.3%, a positive predictive value of 86.7%, and a negative predictive value of 99.6% for the acute-phase specimens. The results indicate that dot-ELISA rapid test using recombinant 56-kDa protein antigen was comparable with the IFA test and may be very useful for the diagnosis of scrub typhus in rural hospitals, where IFA is not available.

  3. Development and Clinical Evaluation of a Rapid Serodiagnostic Test for Toxoplasmosis of Cats Using Recombinant SAG1 Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Chom-Kyu; Jeong, Wooseog; Kim, Hak-Yong; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Ryu, Jeong-Eun; Ko, A-Ra; Kim, Yong-Joo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Yang, Zhaoshou

    2011-01-01

    Rapid serodiagnostic methods for Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats are urgently needed for effective control of transmission routes toward human infections. In this work, 4 recombinant T. gondii antigens (SAG1, SAG2, GRA3, and GRA6) were produced and tested for the development of rapid diagnostic test (RDT). The proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity-purified, and applied onto the nitrocellulose membrane of the test strip. The recombinant SAG1 (rSAG1) showed the strongest antigenic activity and highest specificity among them. We also performed clinical evaluation of the rSAG1-loaded RDT in 182 cat sera (55 household and 127 stray cats). The kit showed 0.88 of kappa value comparing with a commercialized ELISA kit, which indicated a significant correlation between rSAG1-loaded RDT and the ELISA kit. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were 100% (23/23) and 99.4% (158/159), respectively. The rSAG1-loaded RDT is rapid, easy to use, and highly accurate. Thus, it would be a suitable diagnostic tool for rapid detection of antibodies in T. gondii-infected cats under field conditions. PMID:22072819

  4. Dot-ELISA Rapid Test Using Recombinant 56-kDa Protein Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Scrub Typhus

    PubMed Central

    Rodkvamtook, Wuttikon; Zhang, Zhiwen; Chao, Chien-Chung; Huber, Erin; Bodhidatta, Dharadhida; Gaywee, Jariyanart; Grieco, John; Sirisopana, Narongrid; Kityapan, Manerat; Lewis, Michael; Ching, Wei-Mei

    2015-01-01

    We developed a rapid dot–enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA) using the combination of recombinant 56-kDa protein antigens that exhibited broad reactivity with serum antibodies against the four most prevalent strains (Karp, Kato, Gilliam, and TA763) of Orientia tsutsugamushi. The assay is rapid (30 minutes), and can be done at room temperature, and results can be read by the naked eye. Only a simple shaker is required to wash the membrane. Sera from 338 patients suspected of being ill with scrub typhus from rural hospitals around Thailand were tested using this dot-ELISA. Seventy-five (22.2%) patients were found to be positive. The sensitivity and specificity of dot-ELISA were determined using the indirect immunofluorescent assay (IFA) test as the gold standard, with the cutoff titer of immunoglobulin peroxidase conjugate M (IgM)/G (IgG) greater than 1:400/1:400. The dot-ELISA had a sensitivity of 98.5%, a specificity of 96.3%, a positive predictive value of 86.7%, and a negative predictive value of 99.6% for the acute-phase specimens. The results indicate that dot-ELISA rapid test using recombinant 56-kDa protein antigen was comparable with the IFA test and may be very useful for the diagnosis of scrub typhus in rural hospitals, where IFA is not available. PMID:25802430

  5. Development and clinical evaluation of a rapid serodiagnostic test for toxoplasmosis of cats using recombinant SAG1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Chong, Chom-Kyu; Jeong, Wooseog; Kim, Hak-Yong; An, Dong-Jun; Jeoung, Hye-Young; Ryu, Jeong-Eun; Ko, A-Ra; Kim, Yong-Joo; Hong, Sung-Jong; Yang, Zhaoshou; Nam, Ho-Woo

    2011-09-01

    Rapid serodiagnostic methods for Toxoplasma gondii infection in cats are urgently needed for effective control of transmission routes toward human infections. In this work, 4 recombinant T. gondii antigens (SAG1, SAG2, GRA3, and GRA6) were produced and tested for the development of rapid diagnostic test (RDT). The proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli, affinity-purified, and applied onto the nitrocellulose membrane of the test strip. The recombinant SAG1 (rSAG1) showed the strongest antigenic activity and highest specificity among them. We also performed clinical evaluation of the rSAG1-loaded RDT in 182 cat sera (55 household and 127 stray cats). The kit showed 0.88 of kappa value comparing with a commercialized ELISA kit, which indicated a significant correlation between rSAG1-loaded RDT and the ELISA kit. The overall sensitivity and specificity of the RDT were 100% (23/23) and 99.4% (158/159), respectively. The rSAG1-loaded RDT is rapid, easy to use, and highly accurate. Thus, it would be a suitable diagnostic tool for rapid detection of antibodies in T. gondii-infected cats under field conditions. PMID:22072819

  6. Production of antigens in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: green microalgae as a novel source of recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Fuhrmann, Markus

    2004-01-01

    Recombinant small-scale proteins are produced in a number of systems, from bacteria like Escherichia coli, through lower eukaryotes like baker's yeast, up to mammalian cell cultures. However, the need for safe and cheap sources of large amounts of recombinant proteins for different purposes, including material sciences, diagnostics, and, of course, medical therapy, has forced the development of alternative production systems. Green microalgae are cheap and easily grown and offer a high protein content, which would seem to make them ideal hosts for the large-scale sustainable production of recombinant proteins in the future. In selected species, recombinant DNA can be introduced into the genomes of the nucleus, the chloroplast, and even the mitochondria, and thus the system offers both prokaryotic (chloroplast, mitochondria) and eukaryotic translation systems for a tailored expression of virtually any protein.

  7. Vaccination Using Recombinants Influenza and Adenoviruses Encoding Amastigote Surface Protein-2 Are Highly Effective on Protection against Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Barbosa, Rafael Polidoro Alves; Filho, Bruno Galvão; dos Santos, Luara Isabela; Junior, Policarpo Ademar Sales; Marques, Pedro Elias; Pereira, Rafaela Vaz Sousa; Cara, Denise Carmona; Bruña-Romero, Oscar; Rodrigues, Maurício Martins; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Machado, Alexandre Vieira

    2013-01-01

    In the present study we evaluated the protection raised by immunization with recombinant influenza viruses carrying sequences coding for polypeptides corresponding to medial and carboxi-terminal moieties of Trypanosoma cruzi ´s amastigote surface protein 2 (ASP2). Those viruses were used in sequential immunization with recombinant adenovirus (heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol) encoding the complete sequence of ASP2 (Ad-ASP2) in two mouse strains (C57BL/6 and C3H/He). The CD8 effector response elicited by this protocol was comparable to that observed in mice immunized twice with Ad-ASP2 and more robust than that observed in mice that were immunized once with Ad-ASP2. Whereas a single immunization with Ad-ASP2 sufficed to completely protect C57BL/6 mice, a higher survival rate was observed in C3H/He mice that were primed with recombinant influenza virus and boosted with Ad-ASP2 after being challenged with T. cruzi. Analyzing the phenotype of CD8+ T cells obtained from spleen of vaccinated C3H/He mice we observed that heterologous prime-boost immunization protocol elicited more CD8+ T cells specific for the immunodominant epitope as well as a higher number of CD8+ T cells producing TNF-α and IFN-γ and a higher mobilization of surface marker CD107a. Taken together, our results suggest that immunodominant subpopulations of CD8+ T elicited after immunization could be directly related to degree of protection achieved by different immunization protocols using different viral vectors. Overall, these results demonstrated the usefulness of recombinant influenza viruses in immunization protocols against Chagas Disease. PMID:23637908

  8. Frequent Homologous Recombination Events in Mycobacterium tuberculosis PE/PPE Multigene Families: Potential Role in Antigenic Variability▿ † ‡

    PubMed Central

    Karboul, Anis; Mazza, Alberto; Gey van Pittius, Nicolaas C.; Ho, John L.; Brousseau, Roland; Mardassi, Helmi

    2008-01-01

    The PE and PPE (PE/PPE) multigene families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis are particularly GC-rich and share extensive homologous repetitive sequences. We hypothesized that they may undergo homologous recombination events, a mechanism rarely described in the natural evolution of mycobacteria. To test our hypothesis, we developed a specific oligonucleotide-based microarray targeting nearly all of the PE/PPE genes, aimed at detecting signals for homologous recombination. Such a microarray has never before been reported due to the multiplicity and highly repetitive and homologous nature of these sequences. Application of the microarray to a collection of M. tuberculosis clinical isolates (n = 33) representing prevalent spoligotype strain families in Tunisia allowed successful detection of six deleted genomic regions involving a total of two PE and seven PPE genes. Some of these deleted genes are known to be immunodominant or involved in virulence. The four precisely determined deletions were flanked by 400- to 500-bp stretches of nearly identical sequences lying mainly at the conserved N-terminal region of the PE/PPE genes. These highly homologous sequences thus serve as substrates to mediate both intergenic and intragenic homologous recombination events, indicating an important function in generating strain variation. Importantly, all recombination events yielded a new in-frame fusion chimeric gene. Hence, homologous recombination within and between PE/PPE genes likely increased their antigenic variability, which may have profound implications in pathogenicity and/or host adaptation. The finding of high prevalence (∼45% and ∼58%) for at least two of the genomic deletions suggests that they likely confer advantageous biological attributes. PMID:18820012

  9. Recombinant Forms of Leishmania amazonensis Excreted/Secreted Promastigote Surface Antigen (PSA) Induce Protective Immune Responses in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Petitdidier, Elodie; Pagniez, Julie; Papierok, Gérard; Vincendeau, Philippe; Lemesre, Jean-Loup; Bras-Gonçalves, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Preventive vaccination is a highly promising strategy for interrupting leishmaniasis transmission that can, additionally, contribute to elimination. A vaccine formulation based on naturally excreted secreted (ES) antigens was prepared from L. infantum promastigote culture supernatant. This vaccine achieved successful results in Phase III trials and was licensed and marketed as CaniLeish. We recently showed that newly identified ES promastigote surface antigen (PSA), from both viable promastigotes and axenically-grown amastigotes, represented the major constituent and the highly immunogenic antigen of L. infantum and L. amazonensis ES products. We report here that three immunizations with either the recombinant ES LaPSA-38S (rPSA) or its carboxy terminal part LaPSA-12S (Cter-rPSA), combined with QA-21 as adjuvant, confer high levels of protection in naive L. infantum-infected Beagle dogs, as checked by bone marrow parasite absence in respectively 78.8% and 80% of vaccinated dogs at 6 months post-challenge. The parasite burden in infected vaccinated dogs was significantly reduced compared to placebo group, as measured by q-PCR. Moreover, our results reveal humoral and cellular immune response clear-cut differences between vaccinated and control dogs. An early increase in specific IgG2 antibodies was observed in rPSA/QA-21- and Cter-rPSA/QA-21-immunized dogs only. They were found functionally active in vitro and were highly correlated with vaccine protection. In vaccinated protected dogs, IFN-γ and NO productions, as well as anti-leishmanial macrophage activity, were increased. These data strongly suggest that ES PSA or its carboxy-terminal part, in recombinant forms, induce protection in a canine model of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis by inducing a Th1-dominant immune response and an appropriate specific antibody response. These data suggest that they could be considered as important active components in vaccine candidates. PMID:27223609

  10. A multicentric evaluation of the recombinant Leishmania infantum antigen-based immunochromatographic assay for the serodiagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a serious public health challenge in Brazil and dogs are considered to be the main urban reservoir of the causative agent. The culling of animals to control VL in some countries makes the accurate diagnosis of canine VL (CVL) essential. Recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B were selected from a cDNA library of Leishmania infantum amastigotes due to their strong potential as candidates in diagnostic testing for CVL. The present multicentric study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of a prototype test using these antigens (DPP rLci1A/rLci2B) against 154 sera obtained from symptomatic dogs within three endemic areas of VL in Brazil. The specificity was evaluated using 40 serum samples from negative dogs and dogs infected with other pathogens. Sensitivity and specificity rates of DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype were compared to rates from other diagnostic tests currently in use by the Brazilian Ministry of Health, including DPP®LVC, EIE®LVC. Findings DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype offered similar performance to that offered by DPP®LVC rapid test, as follows: sensitivity of 87% (CI 81–91) and 88% (CI 82–93) and specificity of 100% (CI 91–100) and 97% (CI 87–100), respectively for DPP rLci1A/rLci2B and DPP®LVC. When results of these two tests were considered concomitantly, sensitivity increased to 93.5% (CI 89–96). Conclusions The recombinant antigens rLci1A and rLci2B represent promising candidates for use in a multi-antigen rapid test for CVL. The inclusion of novel antigens to the DPP rLci1A/rLci2B prototype model could offer additionally enhanced sensitivity to detect animals infected by L. infantum. PMID:24684857

  11. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.

    1990-01-01

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252.

  12. Recombinant plasmids for encoding restriction enzymes DpnI and DpnII of Streptococcus pneumontae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.

    1990-10-02

    Chromosomal DNA cassettes containing genes encoding either the DpnI or DpnII restriction endonucleases from Streptococcus pneumoniae are cloned into a streptococcal vector, pLS101. Large amounts of the restriction enzymes are produced by cells containing the multicopy plasmids, pLS202 and pLS207, and their derivatives pLS201, pLS211, pLS217, pLS251 and pLS252. 9 figs.

  13. Protection against murine listeriosis by an attenuated recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain that secretes the naturally somatic antigen superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Hess, J; Dietrich, G; Gentschev, I; Miko, D; Goebel, W; Kaufmann, S H

    1997-04-01

    A recombinant (r)-Salmonella typhimurium aroA vaccine strain was constructed which secretes the naturally somatic protein of Listeria monocytogenes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the HlyB/HlyD/TolC export machinery. Vaccine efficacy of the SOD-bearing carrier strain was compared with that of the p60-secreting construct, S. typhimurium p60s (J. Hess, I. Gentschev, D. Miko, M. Welzel, C. Ladel, W. Goebel, and S. H. E. Kaufmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1458-1463, 1996). Vaccination of mice with both constructs induced protection against a lethal challenge with the intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. While the somatic listerial antigen, SOD, is immunologically uncharacterized, the naturally secreted protein of L. monocytogenes, p60, is known to be highly immunogenic. Our data emphasize the high vaccine potential of r-Salmonella constructs secreting antigens of somatic or secreted origin. Moreover, they suggest that the HlyB/HlyD/TolC-based antigen delivery system with attenuated Salmonella spp. as the carrier is capable of potentiating the immune response against foreign proteins independent from their immunogenicity in and display by the natural host. PMID:9119463

  14. Protection against murine listeriosis by an attenuated recombinant Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain that secretes the naturally somatic antigen superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed

    Hess, J; Dietrich, G; Gentschev, I; Miko, D; Goebel, W; Kaufmann, S H

    1997-04-01

    A recombinant (r)-Salmonella typhimurium aroA vaccine strain was constructed which secretes the naturally somatic protein of Listeria monocytogenes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), by the HlyB/HlyD/TolC export machinery. Vaccine efficacy of the SOD-bearing carrier strain was compared with that of the p60-secreting construct, S. typhimurium p60s (J. Hess, I. Gentschev, D. Miko, M. Welzel, C. Ladel, W. Goebel, and S. H. E. Kaufmann, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93:1458-1463, 1996). Vaccination of mice with both constructs induced protection against a lethal challenge with the intracellular pathogen, L. monocytogenes. While the somatic listerial antigen, SOD, is immunologically uncharacterized, the naturally secreted protein of L. monocytogenes, p60, is known to be highly immunogenic. Our data emphasize the high vaccine potential of r-Salmonella constructs secreting antigens of somatic or secreted origin. Moreover, they suggest that the HlyB/HlyD/TolC-based antigen delivery system with attenuated Salmonella spp. as the carrier is capable of potentiating the immune response against foreign proteins independent from their immunogenicity in and display by the natural host.

  15. Production of Toxocara cati TES-120 Recombinant Antigen and Comparison with its T. canis Homolog for Serodiagnosis of Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Zahabiun, Farzaneh; Sadjjadi, Seyed Mahmoud; Yunus, Muhammad Hafiznur; Rahumatullah, Anizah; Moghaddam, Mohammad Hosein Falaki; Saidin, Syazwan; Noordin, Rahmah

    2015-01-01

    Toxocariasis is a cosmopolitan zoonotic disease caused by the infective larvae of Toxocara canis and T. cati. Diagnosis in humans is usually based on clinical symptoms and serology. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits using T. canis excretory–secretory (TES) larval antigens are commonly used for serodiagnosis. Differences in the antigens of the two Toxocara species may influence the diagnostic sensitivity of the test. In this study, T. cati recombinant TES-120 (rTES-120) was cloned, expressed, and compared with its T. canis homolog in an IgG4-western blot. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of T. cati rTES-120 were 70% (33/47) and 100% (39/39), respectively. T. canis rTES-120 showed 57.4% sensitivity and 94.4% specificity. When the results of assays using rTES-120 of both species were considered, the diagnostic sensitivity was 76%. This study shows that using antigens from both Toxocara species may improve the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis. PMID:26033026

  16. Regeneration of recombinant antigen microarrays for the automated monitoring of antibodies against zoonotic pathogens in swine sera.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Verena K; Kober, Catharina; Niessner, Reinhard; Seidel, Michael

    2015-01-23

    The ability to regenerate immobilized proteins like recombinant antigens (rAgs) on surfaces is an unsolved problem for flow-based immunoassays on microarray analysis systems. The regeneration on microarray chip surfaces is achieved by changing the protein structures and desorption of antibodies. Afterwards, reactivation of immobilized protein antigens is necessary for reconstitution processes. Any backfolding should be managed in a way that antibodies are able to detect the protein antigens in the next measurement cycle. The regeneration of rAg microarrays was examined for the first time on the MCR3 flow-based chemiluminescence (CL) microarray analysis platform. The aim was to reuse rAg microarray chips in order to reduce the screening effort and costs. An antibody capturing format was used to detect antibodies against zoonotic pathogens in sera of slaughtered pigs. Different denaturation and reactivation buffers were tested. Acidic glycine-SDS buffer (pH 2.5) and 8 M guanidinium hydrochloride showed the best results in respect of denaturation efficiencies. The highest CL signals after regeneration were achieved with a carbonate buffer containing 10 mM DTT and 0.1% BSA for reactivation. Antibodies against Yersinia spp. and hepatitis E virus (HEV) were detected in swine sera on one immunochip over 4 days and 25 measurement cycles. Each cycle took 10 min for detection and regeneration. By using the rAg microarray chip, a fast and automated screening of antibodies against pathogens in sera of slaughtered pigs would be possible for zoonosis monitoring.

  17. Application of a Fas Ligand Encoding a Recombinant Adenovirus Vector for Prolongation of Transgene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huang-Ge; Bilbao, Guadalupe; Zhou, Tong; Contreras, Juan Luis; Gómez-Navarro, Jesús; Feng, Meizhen; Saito, Izumu; Mountz, John D.; Curiel, David T.

    1998-01-01

    An adenovirus vector encoding murine Fas ligand (mFasL) under an inducible control was derived. In vivo ectopic expression of mFasL in murine livers induced an inflammatory cellular infiltration. Furthermore, ectopic expression of mFasL by myocytes did not allow prolonged vector-mediated transgene expression. Thus, ectopic expression of functional mFasL in vector-transduced cells does not appear to confer, by itself, an immunoprivileged site sufficient to mitigate adenovirus vector immunogenicity. PMID:9499110

  18. Identification and characterization of novel recombinant vaccine antigens for immunization against genital Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Coler, Rhea N.; Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francois; Probst, Peter; Barth, Brenda; Ovendale, Pamela; Fang, Hang; Alderson, Mark; Lobet, Yves; Cohen, Joe; Mettens, Pascal; Reed, Steven G.

    2009-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis infection is the most common sexually transmitted bacterial infection worldwide with over 91 million cases estimated annually. An effective subunit vaccine against Chlamydia may require a multivalent subunit cocktail of antigens in a single formulation for broad coverage of a heterogeneous MHC population. Herein we describe the identification by CD4+ and CD8+ T cell expression cloning, serological expression cloning, and an in silico analysis of the C. trachomatis genome, of novel C. trachomatis antigens. These antigens elicited human CD4+ T cell responses, and a subset proved to be immunogenic and protective when administered as immunoprophylactic vaccines against C. trachomatis challenge. Candidate vaccines consisting of the prioritized C. trachomatis antigens adjuvanted in GSK proprietary AS01B adjuvant were prioritized based on induction of solid protection against challenge in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice with C. trachomatis. Some of the vaccines prevented bacterial shedding and colonization of the upper genital tract to varying degrees by mechanisms that may include CD4+ T cells. PMID:19281568

  19. Phosphorylation in vitro of Escherichia coli-produced 235R and 266R tumor antigens encoded by human adenovirus type 12 early transformation region 1A.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Loewenstein, P M; Green, M

    1985-01-01

    The tumor (T) antigens encoded by the human adenovirus early transforming region 1A (E1A) are gene regulatory proteins whose functions can immortalize cells. We have recently described the synthesis in Escherichia coli and the purification of the complete T antigens encoded by the adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) E1A 12S mRNA (235-residue [235R] T antigen) and 13S mRNA (266R T antigen). In this study, we show that the Ad12 E1A T antigens are extensively phosphorylated in Ad12-infected mammalian cells but are not phosphorylated in E. coli. Inasmuch as posttranslational phosphorylation at specific amino acid sites may be important for biological activity, we have studied the phosphorylation of the E. coli-produced T antigens in vitro by using a kinase activity isolated from cultured human KB cells. The kinase was purified about 300-fold and appears to be a cyclic AMP-independent, Ca2+-independent protein kinase requiring only ATP and Mg2+ for activity. To determine which amino acids are phosphorylated and whether phosphorylation in vitro occurs at the same amino acid sites that are phosphorylated in vivo, the Ad12 E1A T-antigen species synthesized by infected cells were metabolically labeled with 32Pi and compared with the E. coli-produced E1A T antigens labeled in vitro with [gamma-32P]ATP by using the partially purified kinase. Partial V8 proteolysis analysis gave similar patterns for in vivo- and in vitro-phosphorylated T antigen. Two-dimensional maps of tryptic phosphopeptides and of chymotryptic phosphopeptides suggested that mainly the same amino acid sites are phosphorylated in vitro and in vivo and that phosphorylation occurred at multiple sites distributed throughout the T-antigen molecule. Serine was the only amino acid that was phosphorylated both in vivo and in vitro, and, surprisingly, most serines appeared to be phosphorylated. The feasibility of faithfully phosphorylating T antigens in vitro suggests that the E. coli-produced Ad12 E1A 235R and 266R T antigens

  20. Antigenic Profiles of Recombinant Proteins from Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis in Sheep with Johne's Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to improve the ELISA test to detect Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis have been explored over several years. Previously, selected recombinant proteins of M. avium subspecies paratuberculosis were found to be immunogenic in cattle with Johne’s disease. In the present study, antibo...

  1. Enhancement of the priming efficacy of DNA vaccines encoding dendritic cell-targeted antigens by synergistic toll-like receptor ligands

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Claudius; Tenbusch, Matthias; Nchinda, Godwin; Temchura, Vladimir; Nabi, Ghulam; Stone, Geoffrey W; Kornbluth, Richard S; Überla, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    Background Targeting of protein antigens to dendritic cells (DC) via the DEC205 receptor enhances presentation of antigen-derived peptides on MHC-I and MHC-II molecules and, in the presence of costimulatory signals, antigen-specific immune responses. The immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccination can also be enhanced by fusing the encoded antigen to single chain antibodies directed against DEC205. To further improve this strategy, we evaluated different toll-like receptor ligands (TLR) and CD40 ligands (CD40L) as adjuvants for DNA vaccines encoding a DEC205-single-chain antibody fused to the ovalbumin model antigen or HIV-1 Gag and assessed the priming efficacy of DNA in a DNA prime adenoviral vector boost immunization regimen. Results Mice were primed with the adjuvanted DEC-205 targeted DNA vaccines and boosted with adenoviral vectors encoding the same antigens. CD8+ T cell responses were determined after the adenoviral booster immunization, to determine how well the different DNA immunization regimens prime for the adenoviral boost. In the absence of adjuvants, targeting of DNA-encoded ovalbumin to DCs suppressed CD8+ T-cell responses after the adenoviral booster immunization. CD8+ T-cell responses to the DEC205 targeted DNA vaccines increased only slightly by adding either the TLR-9 ligand CpG, the TLR-3 ligand Poly I:C, or CD40 ligand expression plasmids. However, the combination of both TLR-ligands led to a strong enhancement of CD8+ T-cell responses compared to a non-targeted DNA vaccine. This finding was confirmed using HIV Gag as antigen. Conclusion Although DNA prime adenoviral vector boost immunizations belong to the strongest inducers of cytotoxic T cell responses in different animal models and humans, the CD8+ T cell responses can be further improved by targeting the DNA encoded antigen to DEC205 in the presence of synergistic TLR ligands CpG and Poly I:C. PMID:19650904

  2. Evaluation of recombinant Neospora caninum antigens purified from silkworm larvae for the protection of N. caninum infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Mai; Otsuki, Takahiro; Itagaki, Kohei; Kato, Tatsuya; Kohsaka, Tetsuya; Matsumoto, Yumino; Ike, Kazunori; Park, Enoch Y

    2015-12-01

    Three antigens (NcSAG1, NcSRS2 and NcMIC3) from Neospora caninum were expressed using the BmNPV bacmid system in silkworm larvae and purified from the hemolymph. From 20 silkworm larvae, 1.5, 1.2 and 1.4 mg of purified recombinant NcSAG1, NcSRS2 and NcMIC3 were obtained, respectively. When each purified recombinant antigen was immunized with Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA) to mice, recombinant NcSAG1 induced a Th2 immune response in immunized mice and produced a SAG1-specific antibody. In the experiment where NcSAG1-immunized mice were challenged with N. caninum, the cerebral N. caninum burden was significantly reduced compared with that of either the FIA- or PBS-immunized mice. Recombinant NcSRS2 or NcMIC3 induced both Th1 and Th2 immune responses, but NcMIC3-immunization did not induce significant production of NcMIC3-specific antibodies. These results suggest that the silkworm can produce recombinant antigens of N. caninum, which can be used as a recombinant vaccine against N. caninum.

  3. Cloning, sequencing, and expression of the gene encoding amylopullulanase from Pyrococcus furiosus and biochemical characterization of the recombinant enzyme.

    PubMed

    Dong, G; Vieille, C; Zeikus, J G

    1997-09-01

    The gene encoding the Pyrococcus furiosus hyperthermophilic amylopullulanase (APU) was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene encoded a single 827-residue polypeptide with a 26-residue signal peptide. The protein sequence had very low homology (17 to 21% identity) with other APUs and enzymes of the alpha-amylase family. In particular, none of the consensus regions present in the alpha-amylase family could be identified. P. furiosus APU showed similarity to three proteins, including the P. furiosus intracellular alpha-amylase and Dictyoglomus thermophilum alpha-amylase A. The mature protein had a molecular weight of 89,000. The recombinant P. furiosus APU remained folded after denaturation at temperatures of < or = 70 degrees C and showed an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Denaturating temperatures of above 100 degrees C were required for complete unfolding. The enzyme was extremely thermostable, with an optimal activity at 105 degrees C and pH 5.5. Ca2+ increased the enzyme activity, thermostability, and substrate affinity. The enzyme was highly resistant to chemical denaturing reagents, and its activity increased up to twofold in the presence of surfactants.

  4. Sequence Analysis of the Gene Encoding Amylosucrase from Neisseria polysaccharea and Characterization of the Recombinant Enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Potocki De Montalk, G.; Remaud-Simeon, M.; Willemot, R. M.; Planchot, V.; Monsan, P.

    1999-01-01

    The Neisseria polysaccharea gene encoding amylosucrase was subcloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Sequencing revealed that the deduced amino acid sequence differs significantly from that previously published. Comparison of the sequence with that of enzymes of the α-amylase family predicted a (β/α)8-barrel domain. Six of the eight highly conserved regions in amylolytic enzymes are present in amylosucrase. Among them, four constitute the active site in α-amylases. These sites were also conserved in the sequence of glucosyltransferases and dextransucrases. Nevertheless, the evolutionary tree does not show strong homology between them. The amylosucrase was purified by affinity chromatography between fusion protein glutathione S-transferase–amylosucrase and glutathione-Sepharose 4B. The pure enzyme linearly elongated some branched chains of glycogen, to an average degree of polymerization of 75. PMID:9882648

  5. Dendritic cells loaded with mRNA encoding full-length tumor antigens prime CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Van Nuffel, An M T; Benteyn, Daphné; Wilgenhof, Sofie; Pierret, Lauranne; Corthals, Jurgen; Heirman, Carlo; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Coulie, Pierre G; Neyns, Bart; Thielemans, Kris; Bonehill, Aude

    2012-05-01

    It is generally thought that dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with full-length tumor antigen could improve immunotherapy by stimulating broad T-cell responses and by allowing treatment irrespective of the patient's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. To investigate this, we determined the specificity of T cells from melanoma patients treated with DCs loaded with mRNA encoding a full-length tumor antigen fused to a signal peptide and an HLA class II sorting signal, allowing presentation in HLA class I and II. In delayed-type hypersensitive (DTH)-biopsies and blood, we found functional CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells recognizing novel treatment-antigen-derived epitopes, presented by several HLA types. Additionally, we identified a CD8(+) response specific for the signal peptide incorporated to elicit presentation by HLA class II and a CD4(+) response specific for the fusion region of the signal peptide and one of the antigens. This demonstrates that the fusion proteins contain newly created immunogenic sequences and provides evidence that ex vivo-generated mRNA-modified DCs can induce effector CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells from the naive T-cell repertoire of melanoma patients. Thus, this work provides definitive proof that DCs presenting the full antigenic spectrum of tumor antigens can induce T cells specific for novel epitopes and can be administered to patients irrespective of their HLA type.

  6. Dendritic Cells Loaded With mRNA Encoding Full-length Tumor Antigens Prime CD4+ and CD8+ T Cells in Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Van Nuffel, An MT; Benteyn, Daphné; Wilgenhof, Sofie; Pierret, Lauranne; Corthals, Jurgen; Heirman, Carlo; van der Bruggen, Pierre; Coulie, Pierre G; Neyns, Bart; Thielemans, Kris; Bonehill, Aude

    2012-01-01

    It is generally thought that dendritic cells (DCs) loaded with full-length tumor antigen could improve immunotherapy by stimulating broad T-cell responses and by allowing treatment irrespective of the patient's human leukocyte antigen (HLA) type. To investigate this, we determined the specificity of T cells from melanoma patients treated with DCs loaded with mRNA encoding a full-length tumor antigen fused to a signal peptide and an HLA class II sorting signal, allowing presentation in HLA class I and II. In delayed-type hypersensitive (DTH)-biopsies and blood, we found functional CD8+ and CD4+ T cells recognizing novel treatment-antigen-derived epitopes, presented by several HLA types. Additionally, we identified a CD8+ response specific for the signal peptide incorporated to elicit presentation by HLA class II and a CD4+ response specific for the fusion region of the signal peptide and one of the antigens. This demonstrates that the fusion proteins contain newly created immunogenic sequences and provides evidence that ex vivo-generated mRNA-modified DCs can induce effector CD8+ and CD4+ T cells from the naive T-cell repertoire of melanoma patients. Thus, this work provides definitive proof that DCs presenting the full antigenic spectrum of tumor antigens can induce T cells specific for novel epitopes and can be administered to patients irrespective of their HLA type. PMID:22371843

  7. Pro-recombination Role of Srs2 Protein Requires SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier) but Is Independent of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) Interaction.

    PubMed

    Kolesar, Peter; Altmannova, Veronika; Silva, Sonia; Lisby, Michael; Krejci, Lumir

    2016-04-01

    Srs2 plays many roles in DNA repair, the proper regulation and coordination of which is essential. Post-translational modification by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO) is one such possible mechanism. Here, we investigate the role of SUMO in Srs2 regulation and show that the SUMO-interacting motif (SIM) of Srs2 is important for the interaction with several recombination factors. Lack of SIM, but not proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-interacting motif (PIM), leads to increased cell death under circumstances requiring homologous recombination for DNA repair. Simultaneous mutation of SIM in asrs2ΔPIMstrain leads to a decrease in recombination, indicating a pro-recombination role of SUMO. Thus SIM has an ambivalent function in Srs2 regulation; it not only mediates interaction with SUMO-PCNA to promote the anti-recombination function but it also plays a PCNA-independent pro-recombination role, probably by stimulating the formation of recombination complexes. The fact that deletion of PIM suppresses the phenotypes of Srs2 lacking SIM suggests that proper balance between the anti-recombination PCNA-bound and pro-recombination pools of Srs2 is crucial. Notably, sumoylation of Srs2 itself specifically stimulates recombination at the rDNA locus.

  8. Poly-ε-caprolactone/Chitosan and Chitosan Particles: Two Recombinant Antigen Delivery Systems for Intranasal Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Jesus, Sandra; Soares, Edna; Borges, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Several evidences converge on the idea that among the mucosal administration routes, the nasal mucosa is the most attractive site for the delivery of vaccines. Mucoadhesive particulate adjuvants should be able to increase the residence time of antigens in nasal cavity in order to increase their probability of being taken up by nasopharynx-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) cells and subsequently to initiate the innate and adaptive immune response. Focusing on chitosan, a mucoadhesive biopolymer, we describe in this chapter a method to prepare antigen loaded chitosan nanoparticles and a second method to prepare antigen loaded poly-ε-caprolactone/chitosan nanoparticles. Additionally the methodology for the assessment of mucoadhesivity of the delivery system is also described. The two critical procedures in mice intranasal immunization experiments include challenges in the intranasal administration itself due to the small mouse nose, and the other is related with the collection of mucosal secretions to assess the sIgA. The techniques are difficult to perform without advanced training. Therefore, protocols followed in our laboratory, as well as some tips, are described in this chapter.

  9. Recombinant expression of Taenia solium TS14 antigen and its utilization for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcia Ramos Monteiro; Maia, Antônio Augusto Mendes; Espíndola, Noeli Maria; Machado, Luís dos Ramos; Vaz, Adelaide José; Henrique-Silva, Flávio

    2006-12-01

    In order to evaluate the potential use of TS14 antigen in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for immunodiagnosis of neurocysticercosis (NC), its open reading frame (ORF) was amplified by RT-PCR from mRNA isolated from Taenia solium cysticerci. The ORF was subcloned into the expression vector pET-28a, and was used to transform Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells to produce TS14 antigen. The His-tagged expressed protein was purified on a nickel affinity column. Using the HISTS14 as antigen, ELISA was positive for 100% of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and 97% of serum samples from NC patients. No positive results were observed with sera and CSF samples from control groups. Cross-reactivity with sera from patients with schistosomiasis and Chagas' disease was not observed. Serum samples from patients with taeniasis were evaluated and 2 of 13 cases showed reactivity in this assay. Our data indicate the usefulness of HISTS14 in ELISA for an accurate and rapid assay for diagnosis of NC and seroepidemiological studies.

  10. A functional recombinant single-chain T cell receptor fragment capable of selectively targeting antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Epel, Malka; Ellenhorn, Joshua D; Diamond, Don J; Reiter, Yoram

    2002-11-01

    Specificity in the immune system is dictated and regulated by specific recognition of peptide/major histocompatibility complexes (MHC) by the T cell receptor (TCR). Such peptide/MHC complexes are a desirable target for novel approaches in immunotherapy because of their highly restricted fine specificity. Recently a potent anti-human p53 CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) response has been developed in HLA-A2 transgenic mice after immunization with peptides corresponding to HLA-A2 motifs from human p53. An alpha/beta T-cell receptor was cloned from such CTL which exhibited a moderately high affinity to the human p53(149-157) peptide. In this report, we investigated the possibility of using a recombinant tumor-specific TCR for antigen-specific elimination of cells that express the specific MHC-peptide complex. To this end, we constructed a functional single-chain Fv fragment from the cloned TCR and fused it to a very potent cytotoxic molecule, a truncated form of Pseudomonas exotoxin A (PE38). The p53 TCR scFv-P38 fusion protein was generated by in vitro refolding from bacterially-expressed inclusion bodies, and was found to be functional by its ability to bind antigen-presenting cells (APC) which express the specific p53-derived peptide. Moreover, we have shown that the p53-specific TCR scFv-PE38 molecule specifically kills APC in a peptide-dependent manner. These results represent the first time that a TCR-derived recombinant single-chain Fv fragment has been used as a targeting moiety to deliver a cytotoxic effector molecule to cells and has been able to mediate the efficient killing of the particular cell population that expresses the specific MHC/peptide complex. Similarly to antibody-based targeting approaches, TCR with tumor cell specificity represent attractive candidates for generating new, very specific targeting moieties for various modes of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:12384808

  11. Diagnostic value of the recombinant tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r for surra in water buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thu-Thuy; Zhou, Mo; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Nguyen, Quoc Doanh; Nguyen, Viet Khong; Goto, Yasuyuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiko; Kawazu, Shin-ichiro; Inoue, Noboru

    2014-03-17

    Trypanosoma evansi infection, or surra, is currently affecting various species of animals, especially water buffaloes. Since diagnosis is an important aspect of surra control, development of novel diagnostic antigens is of interest to implement and improve the currently utilized methods. Our study evaluated the tandem repeat antigen TeGM6-4r in T. evansi antibody detection in water buffaloes. TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was performed with 20 positive and 8 negative controls and 484 field samples from water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam. To examine cross-reactivity, sera from Japanese cattle that had been experimentally infected with Theileria orientalis (n=10), Babesia bovis (n=3), Babesia bigemina (n=7) and Trypanosoma theileri (n=59) were included in the study. The sensitivity of the test was 80%. TeGM6-4r did not react with Theileria or Babesia infected sera, however it showed cross reactivity with 11/59 T. theileri infected samples. The reference test, CATT/T. evansi also reacted with 3/59 T. theileri infected sera. The lysate antigen-based ELISA reacted with 4/59 T. theileri, 9/10 Theileria and 3/10 Babesia infected sera. In contrast, TeGM6-4r-based ELISA was 86.3% sensitive and 58.3% specific in the screening of field samples. The average seroprevalence of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes in Northern Vietnam was 27.1% by CATT/T. evansi and 53.7% by TeGM6-4r. Seroprevalence in the five surveyed provinces ranged from 17.4% to 39.8% in the reference test, and 47.3% to 67.3% in the recombinant antigen based test. The finding indicated that the disease is still widely endemic in the area and that surveillance programs need to be carried out regularly to better control surra. We proposed TeGM6-4r as a useful serodiagnostic antigen for the detection and epidemiological surveillance of T. evansi infection among water buffaloes.

  12. Detection of prostate specific antigen based on electrocatalytic platinum nanoparticles conjugated to a recombinant scFv antibody.

    PubMed

    Spain, Elaine; Gilgunn, Sarah; Sharma, Shikha; Adamson, Kellie; Carthy, Eadaoin; O'Kennedy, Richard; Forster, Robert J

    2016-03-15

    Highly sensitive and label free detection of prostate specific antigen (PSA) still remains a challenge in prostate cancer diagnosis. In this paper, we propose a sensitive electrochemical immunosensor based on electrocatalytic platinum nanoparticles conjugated to a recombinant scFv antibody. Gold disc electrodes functionalised with a l-Cysteine (Cys) self-assembled monolayer (SAM) were used to covalently bind PSA specific monoclonal antibody (anti-PSA) using N-ethyl-N'-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide and N-hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) chemistry. Immunosensing was completed using sandwich-type immunoreaction of the PSA-antigen (1-30 ng/mL) between anti-PSA immobilized on the l-Cys modified electrode using label free electrochemical impedance (EIS) technique. Furthermore, highly specific in-house generated scFv fragments as receptor proteins were utilised for one step site-directed immobilisation on the surface of platinum nanoparticles (PtNPs). To improve the sensitivity of the immunoassay, these scFV labelled electrocatalytic PtNPs were then used for covalent hybridisation to the PSA modified electrode and then applied in a hybridisation assay to determine the concentration of the PSA by measuring the faradaic current associated with reduction of peroxide in solution. Semi-log plots of the PSA concentration vs. faradaic current are linear from 1 to 30 ng/mL and pM concentrations can be detected without the need for molecular, e.g., PCR or NASBA, amplification. PMID:26513282

  13. Specific immune response and pathological findings in BALB/c mice inoculated with recombinant BCG expressing HIV-1 antigen.

    PubMed

    Wiriyarat, Witthawat; Sukpanichnant, Sanya; Sittisombut, Nopporn; Balachandra, Kruavon; Promkhatkaew, Duanthanorm; Butraporn, Raywadee; Sutthent, Ruengpung; Boonlong, Jotika; Matsuo, Kazuhiro; Honda, Mitsuo; Warachit, Paijit; Puthavathana, Pilaipan

    2005-03-01

    Recombinant BCGs (rBCGs) containing extrachromosomal plasmids with different HIV-1 insert sequences: nef, env (V3J1 and E9Q), gag p17 or whole gag p55 were evaluated for their immunogenicity, safety and persistent infection in BALB/c mice. Animal injected with, rBCG-plJKV3J1, rBCG-pSO gag p17 or rBCG-pSO gag p55 could elicit lymphocyte proliferation as tested by specific HIV-1 peptides or protein antigen. Inoculation with various concentration of rBCG-pSO gag p55 generated satisfactory specific lymphocyte proliferation in dose escalation trials. The rBCG-pSO gag p55 recovered from spleen tissues at different time interval post-inoculation could express the HIV protein as determined by ELISA p24 antigen detection kit. This result indicated that the extrachromosomal plasmid was stable and capable to express Gag protein. It was also demonstrated that rBCGs did not cause serious pathological change in the inoculated animals. The present study suggested the role of BCG as a potential vehicle for using in HIV vaccine development.

  14. Latex-protein complexes from an acute phase recombinant antigen of Toxoplasma gondii for the diagnosis of recently acquired toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Peretti, Leandro E; Gonzalez, Verónica D G; Marcipar, Iván S; Gugliotta, Luis M

    2014-08-01

    The synthesis and characterization of latex-protein complexes (LPC), from the acute phase recombinant antigen P35 (P35Ag) of Toxoplasma gondii and "core-shell" carboxylated or polystyrene (PS) latexes (of different sizes and charge densities) are considered, with the aim of producing immunoagglutination reagents able to detect recently acquired toxoplasmosis. Physical adsorption (PA) and chemical coupling (CC) of P35Ag onto latex particles at different pH were investigated. Greater amounts of adsorbed protein were obtained on PS latexes than on carboxylated latexes, indicating that hydrophobic forces govern the interactions between the protein and the particle surface. In the CC experiments, the highest amount of bound protein was obtained at pH 6, near the isoelectric point of the protein (IP=6.27). At this pH, it decreased both the repulsion between particle surface and protein, and the repulsion between neighboring molecules. The LPC were characterized and the antigenicity of the P35Ag protein coupled on the particles surface was evaluated by Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). Results from ELISA showed that the P35Ag coupled to the latex particles surface was not affected during the particles sensitization by PA and CC and the produced LPC were able to recognize specific anti-P35Ag antibodies present in the acute phase of the disease.

  15. Production of a Recombinant Dengue Virus 2 NS5 Protein and Potential Use as a Vaccine Antigen.

    PubMed

    Alves, Rúbens Prince Dos Santos; Pereira, Lennon Ramos; Fabris, Denicar Lina Nascimento; Salvador, Felipe Scassi; Santos, Robert Andreata; Zanotto, Paolo Marinho de Andrade; Romano, Camila Malta; Amorim, Jaime Henrique; Ferreira, Luís Carlos de Souza

    2016-06-01

    Dengue fever is caused by any of the four known dengue virus serotypes (DENV1 to DENV4) that affect millions of people worldwide, causing a significant number of deaths. There are vaccines based on chimeric viruses, but they still are not in clinical use. Anti-DENV vaccine strategies based on nonstructural proteins are promising alternatives to those based on whole virus or structural proteins. The DENV nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) is the main target of anti-DENV T cell-based immune responses in humans. In this study, we purified a soluble recombinant form of DENV2 NS5 expressed in Escherichia coli at large amounts and high purity after optimization of expression conditions and purification steps. The purified DENV2 NS5 was recognized by serum from DENV1-, DENV2-, DENV3-, or DENV4-infected patients in an epitope-conformation-dependent manner. In addition, immunization of BALB/c mice with NS5 induced high levels of NS5-specific antibodies and expansion of gamma interferon- and tumor necrosis factor alpha-producing T cells. Moreover, mice immunized with purified NS5 were partially protected from lethal challenges with the DENV2 NGC strain and with a clinical isolate (JHA1). These results indicate that the recombinant NS5 protein preserves immunological determinants of the native protein and is a promising vaccine antigen capable of inducing protective immune responses. PMID:27030586

  16. Construction of Recombinant Baculoviruses Expressing Infectious Bursal Disease Virus Main Protective Antigen and Their Immune Effects on Chickens.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jingping; An, Qi; Song, Shanshan; Gao, Dongni; Ping, Wenxiang

    2015-01-01

    In order to overcome the limitations of conventional vaccines for infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV), we constructed recombinant dual expression system baculoviruses with VP2 and VP2/4/3, the main protective antigens of IBDV. We compared the immune effects of the baculoviruses in avian cells and detected their control effects on chickens with infectious bursal disease. We used Western blot analysis to measure VP2 protein and VP2/4/3 polyprotein expression in avian cells infected using the Bac-to-Bac baculovirus expression system. The recombinant baculoviruses were used to vaccinate specific pathogen-free chickens, which produced specific protective antibodies and strong cellular immune responses. The results of the virus challenge experiment revealed that the protective efficiency of VP2 and VP2/4/3 virus vaccines were 95.8% and 100%, respectively, both of which were higher than the vaccine group (87.5%), and significantly higher than the control group (50%). The results demonstrated that the immune effect of BV-S-ITRs-VP2/4/3 was superior to that of BV-S-ITRs-VP2. Compared with traditional attenuated vaccine and genetically engineered live vector vaccine, the dual expression viral vector vaccine has good bio-safety. The results of this study provide a foundation for the further development of poultry vaccines, in addition to providing a useful reference for developing non-replicating live vaccines against other viral diseases. PMID:26167907

  17. Infection with an H2 recombinant herpes simplex virus vector results in expression of MHC class I antigens on the surfaces of human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and mouse sensory neurons in vivo.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, A; Simmons, A; Efstathiou, S; Pereira, R A

    2000-10-01

    The majority of neurons in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected murine sensory ganglia are transiently induced to express MHC-I antigens at the cell surface, whereas only a minority are themselves productively infected. The aim of the current work was to determine whether MHC-I antigens can be expressed on the surfaces of infected neurons in addition to their uninfected neighbours. To address this aim a recombinant HSV type 1 strain, S-130, was used to deliver a mouse H2K(d) gene, under control of the HCMV IE-1 promoter/enhancer, into human neuroblastoma cells in vitro and mouse primary sensory neurons in vivo. S-130 expressed H2K(d) antigens on the surfaces of IMR-32 cells, a human neuroblastoma cell line that expresses very low levels of MHC-I constitutively. In K562 cells, which do not express MHC-I constitutively, H2K(d) and beta(2)-microglobulin (beta(2)m) were shown to be co-expressed at the cell surface following S-130 infection. This observation was taken as evidence that class I heavy chain (alphaC) molecules encoded by the expression cassette in the HSV genome were transported to the cell surface as stable complexes with beta(2)m. Significantly, after introduction of S-130 into flank skin, H2K(d) antigens were detected on the surfaces of primary sensory neurons in ganglia innervating the inoculation site. Our data show that HSV-infected murine primary sensory neurons and human neuroblastoma cells are capable of expressing cell-surface MHC-I molecules encoded by a transgene. From this, we infer that up-regulation of alphaC expression is, in principle, sufficient to overcome potential impediments to neuronal cell surface expression of MHC-I complexes.

  18. Construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment against Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamatchi, R; Charumathi, J; Ravishankaran, R; Kaliraj, P; Meenakshisundaram, S

    2016-01-01

    Global programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF) require mapping, monitoring and evaluation using filarial antigen diagnostic kits. To meet this objective, a functional single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) specific for filarial Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 (Wb-SXP-1) antigen was constructed for the diagnosis of active filarial infection, an alternative to the production of complete antibodies using hybridomas. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the variable light chain (kappa) (Vκ) genes were amplified from the mouse hybridoma cell line and were linked together with a flexible linker by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv construct (Vκ-Linker-VH) was expressed as a fusion protein with N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) without the addition of reducing agents. Immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyse the antigen binding affinity of purified ScFv. The purified ScFv was found to recognize recombinant and native Wb-SXP-1 antigen in microfilariae (Mf)-positive patient sera. The affinity of ScFv was comparable with that of the monoclonal antibody. The development of recombinant ScFv to replace monoclonal antibody for detection of filarial antigen was achieved. The recombinant ScFv was purified, on-column refolded and its detection ability validated using field samples.

  19. Construction and bacterial expression of a recombinant single-chain antibody fragment against Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 antigen for the diagnosis of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Kamatchi, R; Charumathi, J; Ravishankaran, R; Kaliraj, P; Meenakshisundaram, S

    2016-01-01

    Global programmes to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (GPELF) require mapping, monitoring and evaluation using filarial antigen diagnostic kits. To meet this objective, a functional single-chain fragment variable (ScFv) specific for filarial Wuchereria bancrofti SXP-1 (Wb-SXP-1) antigen was constructed for the diagnosis of active filarial infection, an alternative to the production of complete antibodies using hybridomas. The variable heavy chain (VH) and the variable light chain (kappa) (Vκ) genes were amplified from the mouse hybridoma cell line and were linked together with a flexible linker by overlap extension polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The ScFv construct (Vκ-Linker-VH) was expressed as a fusion protein with N-terminal His tag in Escherichia coli and purified using immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC) without the addition of reducing agents. Immunoblotting and sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to analyse the antigen binding affinity of purified ScFv. The purified ScFv was found to recognize recombinant and native Wb-SXP-1 antigen in microfilariae (Mf)-positive patient sera. The affinity of ScFv was comparable with that of the monoclonal antibody. The development of recombinant ScFv to replace monoclonal antibody for detection of filarial antigen was achieved. The recombinant ScFv was purified, on-column refolded and its detection ability validated using field samples. PMID:26693887

  20. Evolutionary genetics and vector adaptation of recombinant viruses of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex provides new insights into alphavirus diversity and host switching

    PubMed Central

    Allison, Andrew B.; Stallknecht, David E.; Holmes, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), Highlands J virus (HJV), and Fort Morgan virus (FMV) are the sole representatives of the WEE antigenic complex of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, that are endemic to North America. All three viruses have their ancestry in a recombination event involving eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and a Sindbis (SIN)-like virus that gave rise to a chimeric alphavirus that subsequently diversified into the present-day WEEV, HJV, and FMV. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary relationships among these recombinant-origin viruses, including the description of a nsP4 polymerase mutation in FMV that allows it to circumvent the host range barrier to Asian tiger mosquito cells, a vector species that is normally refractory to infection. Notably, we also provide evidence that the recombination event that gave rise to these three WEEV antigenic complex viruses may have occurred in North America. PMID:25463613

  1. Evolutionary genetics and vector adaptation of recombinant viruses of the western equine encephalitis antigenic complex provides new insights into alphavirus diversity and host switching.

    PubMed

    Allison, Andrew B; Stallknecht, David E; Holmes, Edward C

    2015-01-01

    Western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV), Highlands J virus (HJV), and Fort Morgan virus (FMV) are the sole representatives of the WEE antigenic complex of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae, that are endemic to North America. All three viruses have their ancestry in a recombination event involving eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and a Sindbis (SIN)-like virus that gave rise to a chimeric alphavirus that subsequently diversified into the present-day WEEV, HJV, and FMV. Here, we present a comparative analysis of the genetic, ecological, and evolutionary relationships among these recombinant-origin viruses, including the description of a nsP4 polymerase mutation in FMV that allows it to circumvent the host range barrier to Asian tiger mosquito cells, a vector species that is normally refractory to infection. Notably, we also provide evidence that the recombination event that gave rise to these three WEEV antigenic complex viruses may have occurred in North America.

  2. Immunization against HTLV-I with chitosan and tri-methylchitosan nanoparticles loaded with recombinant env23 and env13 antigens of envelope protein gp46.

    PubMed

    Amirnasr, Maryam; Fallah Tafti, Tannan; Sankian, Mojtaba; Rezaei, Abdorrahim; Tafaghodi, Mohsen

    2016-08-01

    To prevent the spread of HTLV-I (Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1), a safe and effective vaccine is required. To increase immune responses against the peptide antigens can be potentiated with polymer-based nanoparticles, like chitosan (CHT) and trimethylchitosan (TMC), as delivery system/adjuvant. CHT and TMC nanoparticles loaded with recombinant proteins (env23 & env13) of gp46 were prepared by direct coating of antigens with positively charged polymers. The size of CHT and TMC nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with each antigen was about 400 nm. The physical stability of NPs was followed for 4 weeks. Both formulations showed to be stable for about 15 days. The immunogenicity of NPs loaded with antigens was studied after nasal and subcutaneous immunization in mice. Three immunizations (7.5 μg antigen) were performed with 2 weeks intervals. Two weeks after the last booster dose, sera IgG subtypes were measured. After subcutaneous administration, for both nanoparticulate antigens, serum IgG1 and IgGtotal levels were higher than antigen solution (P < 0.001). After nasal administration, for env23, IgG2a levels and IgG2a/IgG1 ratio was significantly higher than groups with subcutaneous administration (P < 0.001). Both nanoparticles showed good immunoadjuvant potential. Env23 antigen was a better candidate for vaccination against HTLV-I, as it induced higher cellular immune responses, compared with env13. PMID:27235335

  3. Immunoblot Assay Using Recombinant Antigens as a Supplemental Test To Confirm the Presence of Antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi▿

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Kevin Y.; Chang, Chi-Deu; Salbilla, Vince A.; Kirchhoff, Louis V.; Leiby, David A.; Schochetman, Gerald; Shah, Dinesh O.

    2007-01-01

    The diagnosis of chronic Chagas' disease is generally made by detecting antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. Most conventional serological tests are based on lysates of whole parasites or semipurified antigen fractions from T. cruzi epimastigotes grown in culture. The occurrence of inconclusive and false-positive results has been a persistent problem with the conventional assays, and there is no universally accepted gold standard for confirmation of positive test results. We describe here an immunoblot assay for detecting antibodies to T. cruzi in which four chimeric recombinant antigens (rAgs), designated FP3, FP6, FP10, and TcF, are used as target antigens. Each of these rAgs is composed of several antigenically distinct regions and includes repetitive as well as nonrepetitive sequences. Each rAg is coated as a discrete line on a nitrocellulose strip. Assay sensitivity was assessed by testing 345 specimens known to be positive for antibodies to T. cruzi. All 345 of these samples showed two to four reactive test bands in addition to the three on-board control bands that are on each strip. Assay specificity was determined by testing 500 specimens from random U.S. blood donors, all of which gave negative results. Based on the results obtained in this study, we propose the following scheme for interpretation of test results: (i) no bands or a single test band = a negative result; (ii) two or more test bands with at least one band showing intensity of 1+ or higher = a positive result; and (iii) multiple faint test bands (±) = indeterminate result. Based on this scheme, the prototype immunoblot assay showed sensitivity of 100% (n = 345) and specificity of 100% (n = 500). Additionally, all 269 potentially cross-reacting and T. cruzi antibody-negative specimens tested negative in our immunoblot assay. The rAg-based immunoblot assay has potential as a supplemental test for confirming the presence of antibodies to T. cruzi in blood specimens and for identifying false

  4. Evaluation of Selected Borrelia burgdorferi lp54 Plasmid-Encoded Gene Products Expressed during Mammalian Infection as Antigens To Improve Serodiagnostic Testing for Early Lyme Disease.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Zachary P; Crew, Rebecca M; Brandt, Kevin S; Ullmann, Amy J; Schriefer, Martin E; Molins, Claudia R; Gilmore, Robert D

    2015-11-01

    Laboratory testing for the diagnosis of Lyme disease is performed primarily by serologic assays and is accurate for detection beyond the acute stage of the infection. Serodiagnostic assays to detect the early stages of infection, however, are limited in their sensitivity, and improvement is warranted. We analyzed a series of Borrelia burgdorferi proteins known to be induced within feeding ticks and/or during mammalian infection for their utility as serodiagnostic markers against a comprehensive panel of Lyme disease patient serum samples. The antigens were assayed for IgM and IgG reactivity in line immunoblots and separately by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), with a focus on reactivity against early Lyme disease with erythema migrans (EM), early disseminated Lyme neuroborreliosis, and early Lyme carditis patient serum samples. By IgM immunoblotting, we found that recombinant proteins BBA65, BBA70, and BBA73 reacted with early Lyme EM samples at levels comparable to those of the OspC antigen used in the current IgM blotting criteria. Additionally, these proteins reacted with serum samples from patients with early neuroborreliosis and early carditis, suggesting value in detecting early stages of this disease progression. We also found serological reactivity against recombinant proteins BBA69 and BBA73 with early-Lyme-disease samples using IgG immunoblotting and ELISA. Significantly, some samples that had been scored negative by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-recommended 2-tiered testing algorithm demonstrated positive reactivity to one or more of the antigens by IgM/IgG immunoblot and ELISA. These results suggest that incorporating additional in vivo-expressed antigens into the current IgM/IgG immunoblotting tier in a recombinant protein platform assay may improve the performance of early-Lyme-disease serologic testing.

  5. In vivo gene therapy of murine melanoma mediated by recombinant vaccinia virus encoding human IL-2 gene.

    PubMed

    Wan, T; Cao, X; Ju, D; Aces, B

    1997-04-01

    Direct gene transfer into somatic tissue iii vivo is a developing technology with potential application for cancer gene therapy. In this study, recombinant vaccinia virus encoding human IL-2 gene (rVV-IL-2) was used as a candidate vector in mediating iii vivo gene therapy. After rVV-IL-2 was expanded in VERO cells for 72 h, high titer (10(8)-10(10) PFU/ml) rVV-IL-2 were harvested. When 10(6) murine melanoma cells (F16-F10) were infected with rVV-IL-2, about 200 U/ml IL-2 activity was detected in the supernatants at 8 h, and the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and MHC-I expressions on the melanoma cells were observed. The treatment of murine melanoma model by local injection of rVV-IL-2 into the tumor site showed that rVV-IL-2 transfection significantly inhibited the tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice. The splenocytes from rVV-IL-2 treated mice showed higher cytotoxicities of NK, LAK and CTL in comparison with those from the controls. These results suggest that in vivo transfection mediated by rVV-IL-2 has potential effectiveness in enhancing host immunity and would be a useful approach to cancer gene therapy. PMID:21533434

  6. Using promoter libraries to reduce metabolic burden due to plasmid-encoded proteins in recombinant Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Pasini, Martina; Fernández-Castané, Alfred; Jaramillo, Alfonso; de Mas, Carles; Caminal, Gloria; Ferrer, Pau

    2016-01-25

    The over-expression of proteins in recombinant host cells often requires a significant amount of resources causing an increase in the metabolic load for the host. This results in a variety of physiological responses leading to altered growth parameters, including growth inhibition or activation of secondary metabolism pathways. Moreover, the expression of other plasmid-encoded genes such as antibiotic resistance genes or repressor proteins may also alter growth kinetics. In this work, we have developed a second-generation system suitable for Escherichia coli expression with an antibiotic-free plasmid maintenance mechanism based on a glycine auxotrophic marker (glyA). Metabolic burden related to plasmid maintenance and heterologous protein expression was minimized by tuning the expression levels of the repressor protein (LacI) and glyA using a library of promoters and applying synthetic biology tools that allow the rapid construction of vectors. The engineered antibiotic-free expression system was applied to the L-fuculose phosphate aldolase (FucA) over-production, showing an increase in production up to 3.8-fold in terms of FucA yield (mg g(-1)DCW) and 4.5-fold in terms of FucA activity (AU g(-1)DCW) compared to previous expression. Moreover, acetic acid production was reduced to 50%, expressed as gAc gDCW(-1). Our results showed that the aforementioned approaches are of paramount importance in order to increment the protein production in terms of mass and activity.

  7. Recombinant 46-kilodalton surface antigen (P46) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae expressed in Escherichia coli can be used for early specific diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Futo, S; Seto, Y; Okada, M; Sato, S; Suzuki, T; Kawai, K; Imada, Y; Mori, Y

    1995-03-01

    The 46-kDa surface antigen (P46) is the early and species-specific immunogenic protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Three TGA codons encoding tryptophan in the P46 gene were replaced with TGG by an in vitro mutagenesis technique. The mutated P46 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli by using the chelating peptide tag system. The purified recombinant P46 was successfully used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae in swine serum. It did not cross-react with sera from swine infected with Mycoplasma flocculate, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, or Mycoplasma hyosynoviae. With this method, mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine was detectable within 2 weeks after infection. PMID:7751376

  8. Recombinant 46-kilodalton surface antigen (P46) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae expressed in Escherichia coli can be used for early specific diagnosis of mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed Central

    Futo, S; Seto, Y; Okada, M; Sato, S; Suzuki, T; Kawai, K; Imada, Y; Mori, Y

    1995-01-01

    The 46-kDa surface antigen (P46) is the early and species-specific immunogenic protein of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Three TGA codons encoding tryptophan in the P46 gene were replaced with TGG by an in vitro mutagenesis technique. The mutated P46 gene was expressed in Escherichia coli by using the chelating peptide tag system. The purified recombinant P46 was successfully used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae in swine serum. It did not cross-react with sera from swine infected with Mycoplasma flocculate, Mycoplasma hyorhinis, or Mycoplasma hyosynoviae. With this method, mycoplasmal pneumonia of swine was detectable within 2 weeks after infection. PMID:7751376

  9. Recombinant Adenovirus Delivery of Calreticulin–ESAT-6 Produces an Antigen-Specific Immune Response but no Protection Against a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Esparza-González, S. C.; Troy, A.; Troudt, J.; Loera-Arias, M. J.; Villatoro-Hernández, J.; Torres-López, E.; Ancer-Rodríguez, J.; Gutiérrez-Puente, Y.; Muñoz-Maldonado, G.; Saucedo-Cárdenas, O.; Montes-de-Oca-Luna, R.; Izzo, A.

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus Calmette–Guerin (BCG) has failed to efficaciously control the worldwide spread of the disease. New vaccine development targets virulence antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that are deleted in Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Immunization with ESAT-6 and CFP10 provides protection against M. tuberculosis in a murine infection model. Further, previous studies have shown that calreticulin increases the cell-mediated immune responses to antigens. Therefore, to test whether calreticulin enhances the immune response against M. tuberculosis antigens, we fused ESAT-6 to calreticulin and constructed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus to express the resulting fusion protein (AdCRT–ESAT-6). The adjuvant effect of calreticulin was assayed by measuring cytokine responses specific to ESAT-6. Recombinant adenovirus expressing the fusion protein produced higher levels of interferon-γ and tumour necrosis factor-α in response to ESAT-6. This immune response was not improved by the addition of CFP-10 to the CRT-ESAT-6 fusion protein (AdCRT–ESAT-6–CFP10). Mice immunized with these recombinant adenoviruses did not decrease the mycobacterial burden after low-dose aerosol infection with M. tuberculosis. We conclude that calreticulin can be used as an adjuvant to enhance the immune response against mycobacterial antigens, but it is not enough to protect against tuberculosis. PMID:22010821

  10. Immune response and functional role of antibodies raised in heifers against a Staphylococcus aureus CP5 lysate and recombinant antigens vaccine formulated with Iscom Matrix adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Camussone, C M; Pujato, N; Renna, M S; Veaute, C M; Morein, B; Marcipar, I S; Calvinho, L F

    2014-12-15

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most frequently isolated pathogen from bovine intramammary infections worldwide. Commercially available vaccines for mastitis control are composed either of S. aureus lysates or inactivated whole-cells formulated with traditional adjuvants. We recently showed the ability of a S. aureus CP5 lysate vaccine adjuvanted with Iscom Matrix to generate a longer lasting specific antibody response in blood and milk, with improved opsonic capacity, compared with a S. aureus CP5 whole-cell formulation. The aim of the present study was to obtain an experimental immunogen composed of lysed cells of a CP5 S. aureus strain supplemented with recombinant clumping factor A, fibronectin binding protein A and β-toxin formulated with Iscom Matrix, characterize the immune response generated when immunizing pregnant heifers and assess the functional role of antibodies raised against this immunogen in experimental models. Both a lysate vaccine and a lysate+recombinant antigens vaccine elicited antibodies that promoted neutrophil phagocytosis and inhibited internalization into mammary epithelial cells, in vitro. Incorporation of defined antigenic molecules to the lysate formulation elicited a strong specific humoral immune response against both lysate and recombinant antigens and was associated with higher expression of regulatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines. In addition, antibodies were efficient for blocking S. aureus binding to bovine fibrinogen and fibronectin, and neutralizing β-toxin effect in vitro, placing these antigens as candidates to be included in a formulation directed to prevent staphylococcal bovine mastitis. PMID:25454469

  11. Evaluation of a New Immunochromatographic Test Using Recombinant Antigen B8/1 for Diagnosis of Cystic Echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Mary L.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Sako, Yashuito; Nkouawa, Agathe; Kobayashi, Yukuharu; Sotomayor, Alfredo L.; Peralta, Julio E.; Valcarcel, Maria; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.; Ito, Akira

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis (CE) is based on the identification of the cyst(s) by imaging, using immunodiagnostic tests mainly as complementary tools in clinical settings. Among the antigens used for immunodiagnosis, previous studies described a good performance of the recombinant antigen B8/1 (rAgB) in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format; however, in remote parts of areas where the disease is endemic, the implementation of an ELISA is difficult, so a more simple, rapid, and reliable method such as the immunochromatographic test (ICT) is required. In this study, using a set of 50 serum samples from patients with surgically confirmed CE, we compared the performance of an ICT and that of an ELISA using the rAgB. The overall sensitivities of ICT and ELISA were not statistically different (78% versus 72%; P = 0.36). The overall agreement between both tests was moderate (κ = 0.41; P < 0.01). Concordance between ICT and ELISA was substantial or almost perfect for patients with liver involvement (κ = 0.65; P < 0.001) and patients with more than one hydatid cyst (κ = 0.82; P < 0.001), respectively. Moreover, specificity analysis using a total of 88 serum samples from healthy individuals (n = 20) and patients (n = 68) with other parasitic infections revealed that ICT had a specificity of 89.8%. ICT and ELISA had similar performance for the detection of specific antibodies to E. granulosus, and ICT had a high specificity, opening the possibility of using ICT as a screening tool in rural settings. PMID:26447116

  12. Expression of the Escherichia coli K5 capsular antigen: immunoelectron microscopic and biochemical studies with recombinant E. coli.

    PubMed Central

    Kröncke, K D; Boulnois, G; Roberts, I; Bitter-Suermann, D; Golecki, J R; Jann, B; Jann, K

    1990-01-01

    The capsular K5 polysaccharide, a representative of group II capsular antigens of Escherichia coli, has been cloned previously, and three gene regions responsible for polymerization and surface expression have been defined (I. S. Roberts, R. Mountford, R. Hodge, K. B. Jann, and G. J. Boulnois, J. Bacteriol. 170:1305-1310, 1988). In this report, we describe the immunoelectron microscopic analysis of recombinant bacteria expressing the K5 antigen and of mutants defective in either region 1 or region 3 gene functions, as well as the biochemical analysis of the K5 capsular polysaccharide. Whereas the K5 clone expressed the K5 polysaccharide as a well-developed capsule in about 25% of its population, no capsule was observed in whole mount preparations and ultrathin sections of the expression mutants. Immunogold labeling of sections from the region 3 mutant revealed the capsular K5 polysaccharide in the cytoplasm. With the region 1 mutant, the capsular polysaccharide appeared associated with the cell membrane, and, unlike the region 3 mutant polysaccharide, the capsular polysaccharide could be detected in the periplasm after plasmolysis of the bacteria. Polysaccharides were isolated from the homogenized mutants with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide. The polysaccharide from the region 1 mutant had the same size as that isolated from the capsule of the original K5 clone, and both polysaccharides were substituted with phosphatidic acid. The polysaccharide from the region 3 mutant was smaller and was not substituted with phosphatidic acid. These results prompt us to postulate that gene region 3 products are involved in the translocation of the capsular polysaccharide across the cytoplasmic membrane and that region 1 directs the transport of the lipid-substituted capsular polysaccharide through the periplasm and across the outer membrane. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 6 PMID:2404935

  13. Ultraviolet-irradiated vaccinia virus recombinants, exposing HIV-envelope on their outer membrane, induce antibodies against this antigen in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Loewinger, M; Katz, E

    2002-01-01

    The construction and isolation of recombinants of vaccinia virus (IHD-J strain), bearing on their outer membrane a chimeric protein consisting of the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of vaccinia B5R protein and the external domain of HIV envelope, has been previously described by us. The present study aimed to investigate the potential use of such recombinants as a vaccine, following inactivation of their infectivity by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. The minimal dose of UV irradiation, required for the complete inactivation of the infectivity of these recombinants, was determined. Injections of rabbits with the irradiated noninfectious recombinant viruses successfully induced specific antibodies against the HIV envelope antigen, in addition to those against the poxvirus. PMID:12479396

  14. Isolation of a cDNA encoding the alpha-subunit of CAAX-prenyltransferases from Catharanthus roseus and the expression of the active recombinant protein farnesyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Courdavault, Vincent; Burlat, Vincent; St-Pierre, Benoit; Gantet, Pascal; Giglioli-Guivarc'h, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    Crfta/ggt_Ia (AF525030), a cDNA encoding the ?-subunit of the two types of CaaX-prenyltransferase (CaaX-PTase), i.e. protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) and type I protein geranylgeranyltransferase, was cloned from Catharanthus roseus via a PCR strategy. Crfta/ggt_Ia is 1381-bp long and bears a 999-bp open reading frame encoding a protein of 332 residues (FTA) that shares 66% identity with its Lycopersicon esculentum orthologue. Southern blot analysis revealed that FTA is encoded by a single gene copy per haploid genome. Co-expression of Crfta/ggt_Ia and Crftb encoding the beta-subunit of PFT yielded purified active recombinant PFT. This enzyme is able to prenylate proteins from C. roseus, and could be used as a potent tool for prenylated protein identification.

  15. Development and evaluation of a sensitive and specific assay for diagnosis of human toxocariasis by use of three recombinant antigens (TES-26, TES-30USM, and TES-120).

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Suharni; Azmi, Norhaida Che; Noordin, Rahmah

    2009-06-01

    Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serologic tests that use Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigen to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the larvae. In general, however, these assays do not have adequate specificity for use in countries in which other soil-transmitted helminths are endemic. The use of recombinant antigens in these assays, however, is promising for improving the specificity of the diagnosis of toxocariasis. Toward this goal, we developed an IgG4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) involving three recombinant antigens: rTES-30USM (previously produced), rTES-26, and rTES-120. The latter two antigens were produced by reverse transcription-PCR cloning; subcloned into glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged and His-tagged prokaryotic expression vectors, respectively; and expressed in Escherichia coli. The recombinant proteins were subsequently purified by affinity chromatography using GST and His-Trap resins. The diagnostic potential of each purified recombinant antigen was tested with various immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgM, and IgE) and IgG subclasses. The IgG4 ELISA was determined to have the highest specificity and was further evaluated using a panel of serum samples. The rTES-26 IgG4 ELISA showed 80.0% (24/30 samples positive) sensitivity, and both the rTES-30USM IgG4 ELISA and rTES-120 IgG4 ELISA had 93.0% (28/30) sensitivity. Combined use of rTES-120 and rTES-30 IgG4 ELISA for the diagnosis of toxocariasis provided 100% sensitivity. The specificities of rTES-26, rTES-30USM, and rTES-120 antigens were 96.2%, 93.9%, and 92.0%, respectively. These results indicate that the development of a diagnostic test using the three recombinant antigens will allow for more-accurate detection of toxocariasis.

  16. Conservation of antigen components from two recombinant hybrid proteins protective against malaria.

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, B; Nau, U; Hundt, E

    1993-01-01

    Recently, we have shown that two hybrid proteins carrying partial sequences of the blood-stage antigens SERP, HRPII, and MSAI from Plasmodium falciparum confer protective immunity on Aotus monkeys against an experimental parasite infection (B. Knapp, E. Hundt, B. Enders, and H. A. Küpper, Infect. Immun. 60:2397-2401, 1992). The malarial components of the hybrid proteins consist of amino acid residues 630 to 892 of SERP, amino acid residues 146 to 260 of MSAI, and the 189 C-terminal residues of HRPII. We have studied the diversity of these protein regions in field isolates of P. falciparum. Genomic DNA was extracted from the blood of six donors from two different areas where malaria is endemic. The gene regions of SERP and MSAI coding for the corresponding sequences of the protective hybrid proteins and the exon II region of the HRPII gene were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and sequenced. All three regions were found to be highly conserved. In the 262-amino-acid fragment of SERP, one single conservative amino acid substitution was found. The exon II region of HRPII showed only a slight variability in number and arrangement of the repeat units. The 115-amino-acid fragment of MSAI which is located within an N-terminal region known to be conserved among different parasite strains was shown to be the most variable among the vaccine components: amino acid substitutions were found in 14 different positions of this MSAI region when both laboratory strains and field isolates were compared. PMID:8432609

  17. Use of dried blood spots to define antibody response to the Strongyloides stercoralis recombinant antigen NIE.

    PubMed

    Mounsey, Kate; Kearns, Therese; Rampton, Melanie; Llewellyn, Stacey; King, Mallory; Holt, Deborah; Currie, Bart J; Andrews, Ross; Nutman, Thomas; McCarthy, James

    2014-10-01

    An approach to improve the diagnosis of Strongyloides stercoralis infection is the use of serologic assays utilising the NIE antigen from S. stercoralis, with good diagnostic sensitivity and excellent specificity reported. Detection of antibody eluted from dried blood spots (DBS) has shown utility in large-scale seroepidemiological studies for a range of conditions and is appealing for use with children where sample collection is difficult. We adapted an existing NIE-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the testing of strongyloides antibody response on DBS, and evaluated it in a population screening and mass drug administration programme (MDA) for strongyloidiasis conducted in an Australian indigenous community. Study participants were treated with 200 μg/kg ivermectin (>15 kg) or 3× 400 mg albendazole (<15kg). The sensitivity of the NIE DBS-ELISA was determined by receiver operator characteristic (ROC) analysis to be 85.7%. A total of 214 DBS were collected from 184 participants across two screening and MDA encounters. A total of 27 of 164 participants (16.5%) tested positive for S. stercoralis NIE-DBS prior to MDA treatment, and 6 of 50 participants (12.0%) tested positive after treatment. These prevalence values are similar to those documented by standard serology in the same community. For 30 participants where a DBS was collected at both MDA 1 and 2, a significant decline in ELISA values was evident post treatment (0.12-0.02, p=0.0012). These results are in agreement with previous studies documenting the high seroprevalence of S. stercoralis in remote Australian Indigenous communities, and suggest that collection of dried blood spots may be a useful approach for field diagnosis of S. stercoralis seroprevalence.

  18. [Site-directed mutagensis of the major antigen E2 gene of CSFV, its high level expression in Escherichia coli and the immunonicity of recombinant E2 protein].

    PubMed

    Yu, Xing-Long; Tu, Chang-Chun; Xu, Xing-Ran; Zhang, Mao-Lin; Chen, Yi-Xiang; Liu, Bo-Hua

    2003-07-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV), an enveloped positive-stranded RNA virus in the genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, is the causative agent of a highly contagious swine disease characterized by symptoms of hemorrhagic fever and immune depression, usually leading to substantial economic losses. The serological methods for detection of CSFV antibody such as ELISA are important means for the diagnosis of CSFV and immune surveillance. It is difficult to obtain CSFV antigen with high quality using traditional method because its titration titer is low in cell culture. CSFV has four structural protein named C, E0, El and E2. The E2 protein contains major antigenic determinants that are conserved between different CSFV strains and involved in neutralization by antibodies. So recombinant E2 protein can be developed as an alternative to the intact viral antigen. So far, CSFV E2 have not been expressed in E. coli with high level. Many factors, such as the secondary structure, the stability of 5' and 3' terminus of gene, the location of SD sequence and the bias of codes, are involved in the expressing level of foreign gene in E. coli . In this study, two sites of the E2 gene sequence were confirmed to be detrimental to its expression efficiency in E. coli through the computer-aided analysis. So they were mutated using recombinant PCR without changing the amino acids sequence of CSFV E2 gene. A plasmid was constructed by inserting the mutated E2 gene into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a(+) and named pETE2. The E. coli competent host BL21 (DE3)lysS transformed with pETE2 could express the E2 gene at high level, amounting to 28% of the total protein of the induced recombinant bacteria at the presence of IPTG. Except the hydrophobic transmembrane domain at C terminus, the recombinant E2 protein includes the total aa sequence. So it contains all the potential linear antigen epitopes of E2 protein because hydrophobic aa region can not form epitope. The

  19. Plasmid-encoded production of coli surface-associated antigen 1 (CS1) in a strain of Escherichia coli serotype O139.H28.

    PubMed

    Willshaw, G A; Smith, H R; McConnell, M M; Gaastra, W; Thomas, A; Hibberd, M; Rowe, B

    1990-07-01

    Production of coli surface-associated antigen 1 (CS1) by Escherichia coli strain E24377 of serotype O139.H28 was controlled by a plasmid that also encoded heat stable and heat labile enterotoxins and CS3. The presence of a regulatory sequence was detected on this plasmid by hybridization with the cfaD gene that regulates expression of colonization factor antigen I fimbriae and is at least 96% homologous with the rns sequence controlling production of CS1 or CS2 fimbriae by strains of serotype O6.H16 of appropriate biotype. A separate plasmid, pDEP20, carrying the structural genes for CS1 synthesis was identified and transformed into E. coli strain HB101 or a derivative of strain E24377 without large plasmids. Transformants carrying pDEP20 did not produce CS1 fimbrial antigen, but antigen expression was obtained when a cloned cfaD gene or a wild-type plasmid carrying the rns sequence was introduced. Transposon mutagenesis with Tn1000 identified a 3.7 kbp region of pDEP20 essential for production of CS1 fimbriae. Genes encoding production of CS1 fimbriae were cloned on a 9.9 kbp BamHI fragment and were expressed in the presence of the cfaD sequence. A strain producing both CS1 and CS2 antigens was constructed by introduction of the cloned cfaD gene into a strain of serotype O6.H16 biotype C carrying plasmid pDEP20.

  20. Structural characterization of the N-glycans of a recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen derived from yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, C.C.Y.; Miller, W.J.; Kubek, D.J. ); Strang, A.M.; van Halbeek, H. ); Piesecki, S.J.; Alhadeff, J.A. )

    1992-01-14

    The N-glycans of purified recombinant middle surface protein (preS2+S) from hepatitis B virus, a candidate vaccine antigen expressed in a mnn9 mutant strain of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have been characterized structurally. The glycans were released by N-glycanase treatment, isolated by size-exclusion chromatography on Sephadex G-50 and Bio-Gel P-4 columns, and analyzed by 500-MHz {sup 1}H NMR spectroscopy and fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry. The mixture of oligosaccharides was fractionated by HPLC, the major subfractions were isolated, and their carbohydrate compositions were determined by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection. The combined results suggest that high-mannose oligosaccharides account for all the N-glycans released from preS2+S: structures include Man{sub 7}GlcNAc{sub 2}, Man{sub 8}GlcNAc{sub 2} isomers in the ratios of 3:6:1. Approximately 80% of the oligosaccharides contain the C2, C6-branched trimannosyl structural element typical of yeast high-mannose oligosaccharides but not usually found in high-mannose oligosaccharides in animal glycoproteins.

  1. Advax-adjuvanted recombinant protective antigen provides protection against inhalational anthrax that is further enhanced by addition of murabutide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Feinen, Brandon; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Verma, Anita; Merkel, Tod J

    2014-04-01

    Subunit vaccines against anthrax based on recombinant protective antigen (PA) potentially offer more consistent and less reactogenic anthrax vaccines but require adjuvants to achieve optimal immunogenicity. This study sought to determine in a murine model of pulmonary anthrax infection whether the polysaccharide adjuvant Advax or the innate immune adjuvant murabutide alone or together could enhance PA immunogenicity by comparison to an alum adjuvant. A single immunization with PA plus Advax adjuvant afforded significantly greater protection against aerosolized Bacillus anthracis Sterne strain 7702 than three immunizations with PA alone. Murabutide had a weaker adjuvant effect than Advax when used alone, but when murabutide was formulated together with Advax, an additive effect on immunogenicity and protection was observed, with complete protection after just two doses. The combined adjuvant formulation stimulated a robust, long-lasting B-cell memory response that protected mice against an aerosol challenge 18 months postimmunization with acceleration of the kinetics of the anamnestic IgG response to B. anthracis as reflected by ∼4-fold-higher anti-PA IgG titers by day 2 postchallenge versus mice that received PA with Alhydrogel. In addition, the combination of Advax plus murabutide induced approximately 3-fold-less inflammation than Alhydrogel as measured by in vivo imaging of cathepsin cleavage resulting from injection of ProSense 750. Thus, the combination of Advax and murabutide provided enhanced protection against inhalational anthrax with reduced localized inflammation, making this a promising next-generation anthrax vaccine adjuvanting strategy.

  2. Optimal attenuation of a PR8-derived mouse pathogenic H5N1 recombinant virus for testing antigenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Il-Hwan; Kwon, Hyuk-Joon; Park, Jae-Keun; Song, Chang-Seon; Kim, Jae-Hong

    2015-11-17

    The PR8-based reverse genetics vector system is widely used to generate commercial vaccine strains, but the pathogenicity of PR8-derived recombinant viruses in mice hinders further immunological studies. In the present study, we generated PR8-derived H5N1 recombinant viruses, in which haemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) originated from a mouse-pathogenic H5N1 low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV), and the non-structural proteins (NS) and polymerase basic protein 2 (PB2) originated from different H9N2 LPAIVs. In contrast to the control H5N1 recombinant virus, harboring six internal genes from PR8, the NS and PB2 recombinant viruses did not cause body weight loss in mice. However, the NS recombinant virus replicated in the lungs of mice. It was more immunogenic than the PB2 recombinant virus to protect efficiently against a lethal challenge of a H5N1 highly pathogenic AIV with 89 and 88% amino acid identity in HA and NA, respectively. Therefore, the NS gene may be useful for generating nonpathogenic and immunogenic PR8-derived recombinant viruses for studies of antigenicity and protective efficacy in mice.

  3. Expression and characterization of a recombinant kinesin antigen from an old Indian strain (DD8) of Leishmania donovani and comparing it with a commercially available antigen from a newly isolated (KE16) strain of L. donovani.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Ramu; Dey, Ayan; Sharma, Pawan; Singh, Sarman

    2008-05-01

    Recently we had prepared a recombinant antigen (Ld-rKE16) from a newly isolated Indian strain of Leishmania donovani (MHOM/IN/KE16/1998) with high sensitivity and specificity and the same has been commercialized. While comparing the sequence data of kinesin gene of this (KE16) strain and its expressed protein with another commercially available recombinant antigen (Lc-rK39) from kinesin gene of L. chagasi we found significant genetic and amino acid variations. This prompted us to undertake the present study to unravel whether the kinesin gene and its expressed protein from another old but Indian isolate of L. donovani (MHOM/IN/DD8/1968) had any genetic and amino acid heterogeneity. Sequencing of the kinesin gene revealed that the kinesin gene of DD8 strain is 3016bp long and has immunodominant region consisting of 4.8 tandem repeats, 117 base pairs each. Further blast analysis of the immunodominant regions of 5 strains of L. donovani revealed that it has only 79% homology with L. chagasi, and 80% homology with L. infantum; while it had 82% homology with Sudan strain of L. donovani, 82% with another (Morena) strain of Indian L. donovani but highest homology of 83% with L. donovani KE16 strain of India. We also evaluated the diagnostic potential of the recombinant DD8 antigen (Ld-rDD8) and compared the results with that of Ld-rKE16. The study revealed that Ld-rKDD8 antigen was less sensitive and specific as compared to rKE16 antigen for the diagnosis of visceral and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. This was probably due to prolong in vitro culture maintenance of the DD8 strain. PMID:18374635

  4. Two amino acid substitutions in apolipoprotein B are in complete allelic association with the antigen group (x/y) polymorphism: Evidence for little recombination in the 3 prime end of the human gene

    SciTech Connect

    Dunning, A.M.; Renges, H.H.; Xu, Chunfang; Peacock, R.; Humphries, S.E.; Talmud, P.; Laxer, G. ); Brasseur, R. ); Tikkanen, M.J. ); Buetler, R. ); Saha, N. ); Hamsten, A. ); Rosseneu, M. )

    1992-01-01

    The authors report the identification of an A-to-G base change, in exon 29 of the apolipoprotein B (apo B) gene, that results in the substitution of serine for asparagine at residue 4,311 of mature apo B100. In a recent publication, Huang et al. have reported a C-to-T base change in exon 26 that causes the substitution of leucine for proline at residue 2712 of apo B. The authors have found complete linkage disequilibrium between the alleles at both these sites and an immunochemical polymorphism of LDL designated antigen group (x/y) (Ag(x/y)) in a sample of 118 Finnish individuals. This implies that either one of these substitutions - or both of them combined - could be the molecular basis of the Ag(x/y) antigenic determinants, with the allele encoding serine{sub 4311} plus leucine{sub 2,712} representing the Ag(x) epitope, and that encoding asparagine{sub 4,311} plus proline{sub 2,712} the Ag(y) epitope. In a sample of 90 healthy Swedish individuals the Leu{sub 2,712}/Ser{sub 4,311} allele is associated both with reduced serum levels of LDL cholesterol and apo B and with raised levels of HDL. They have also genotyped 523 individuals from European, Asian, Chinese, and Afro-Caribbean populations and have found complete association between the sites encoding residues 2,712 and 4,311 in all of these samples, although there are large allele frequency differences between these populations. Taken together, these data suggest that, since the divergence of the major ethnic groups, there has been little or no recombination in the 3' end of the human apo B gene.

  5. Cloning, expression analysis and recombinant expression of a gene encoding a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein from tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chengsheng; Feng, Chao; Wang, Jing; Kong, Fanyu; Sun, Wenxiu; Wang, Fenglong

    2016-05-01

    Polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (PGIPs) are major defensive proteins produced by plant cell walls that play a crucial role in pathogen resistance by reducing polygalacturonase (PG) activity. In the present study, a novel PGIP gene was isolated from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), hereafter referred as NtPGIP. A full-length NtPGIP cDNA of 1,412 bp with a 186 bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), and 209 bp 3'-UTR was cloned from tobacco, NtPGIP is predicted to encode a protein of 338 amino acids. The NtPGIP sequence from genomic DNA showed no introns and sequence alignments of NtPGIP's deduced amino acid sequence showed high homology with known PGIPs from other plant species. Moreover, the putative NtPGIP protein was closely clustered with several Solanaceae PGIPs. Further, the expression profile of NtPGIP was examined in tobacco leaves following stimulation with the oomycete Phytophthora nicotianae and other stressors, including salicylic acid (SA), abscisic acid (ABA), salt, and cold treatment. The results showed that all of the treatments up-regulated the expression of NtPGIP at different times. To understand the biochemical activity of NtPGIP gene, a full-length NtPGIP cDNA sequence was subcloned into a pET28a vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 (DE3). Recombinant proteins were successfully induced by 1.0 nmol/L IPTG and the purified proteins effectively inhibited Phytophthora capsici PG activity. The results of this study suggest that NtPGIP may be a new candidate gene with properties that could be exploited in plant breeding. PMID:27441281

  6. Generation of Recombinant Monoclonal Antibodies from Immunised Mice and Rabbits via Flow Cytometry and Sorting of Antigen-Specific IgG+ Memory B Cells

    PubMed Central

    Starkie, Dale. O; Compson, Joanne E.; Rapecki, Stephen; Lightwood, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Single B cell screening strategies, which avoid both hybridoma fusion and combinatorial display, have emerged as important technologies for efficiently sampling the natural antibody repertoire of immunized animals and humans. Having access to a range of methods to interrogate different B cell subsets provides an attractive option to ensure large and diverse panels of high quality antibody are produced. The generation of multiple antibodies and having the ability to find rare B cell clones producing IgG with unique and desirable characteristics facilitates the identification of fit-for-purpose molecules that can be developed into therapeutic agents or research reagents. Here, we describe a multi-parameter flow cytometry single-cell sorting technique for the generation of antigen-specific recombinant monoclonal antibodies from single IgG+ memory B cells. Both mouse splenocytes and rabbit PBMC from immunised animals were used as a source of B cells. Reagents staining both B cells and other unwanted cell types enabled efficient identification of class-switched IgG+ memory B cells. Concurrent staining with antigen labelled separately with two spectrally-distinct fluorophores enabled antigen-specific B cells to be identified, i.e. those which bind to both antigen conjugates (double-positive). These cells were then typically sorted at one cell per well using FACS directly into a 96-well plate containing reverse transcriptase reaction mix. Following production of cDNA, PCR was performed to amplify cognate heavy and light chain variable region genes and generate transcriptionally-active PCR (TAP) fragments. These linear expression cassettes were then used directly in a mammalian cell transfection to generate recombinant antibody for further testing. We were able to successfully generate antigen-specific recombinant antibodies from both the rabbit and mouse IgG+ memory B cell subset within one week. This included the generation of an anti-TNFR2 blocking antibody from mice

  7. Biophysical and formulation studies of the Schistosoma mansoni TSP-2 extracellular domain recombinant protein, a lead vaccine candidate antigen for intestinal schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Weiqiang; Curti, Elena; Rezende, Wanderson C; Kwityn, Clifford; Zhan, Bin; Gillespie, Portia; Plieskatt, Jordan; Joshi, Sangeeta B.; Volkin, David B.; Hotez, Peter J; Middaugh, C Russell; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2013-01-01

    A candidate vaccine to prevent human schistosomiasis is under development. The vaccine is comprised of a recombinant 9 kDa antigen protein corresponding to the large extracellular domain of a tetraspanin surface antigen protein of Schistosoma mansoni, Sm-TSP-2. Here, we describe the biophysical profile of the purified, recombinant Sm-TSP-2 produced in the yeast PichiaPink™, which in preclinical studies in mice was shown to be an effective vaccine against intestinal schistosomiasis. Biophysical techniques including circular dichroism, intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and light scattering were employed to generate an empirical phase diagram, a color based map of the physical stability of the vaccine antigen over a wide range of temperatures and pH. From these studies a pH range of 6.0–8.0 was determined to be optimal for maintaining the stability and conformation of the protein at temperatures up to 25 °C. Sorbitol, sucrose and trehalose were selected as excipients that prevented physical degradation during storage. The studies described here provide guidance for maximizing the stability of soluble recombinant Sm-TSP-2 in preparation of its further development as a vaccine. PMID:23880663

  8. Characterization of the Aspergillus nidulans aspnd1 gene demonstrates that the ASPND1 antigen, which it encodes, and several Aspergillus fumigatus immunodominant antigens belong to the same family.

    PubMed Central

    Calera, J A; Ovejero, M C; López-Medrano, R; Segurado, M; Puente, P; Leal, F

    1997-01-01

    For the first time, an immunodominant Aspergillus nidulans antigen (ASPND1) consistently reactive with serum samples from aspergilloma patients has been purified and characterized, and its coding gene (aspnd1) has been cloned and sequenced. ASPND1 is a glycoprotein with four N-glycosidically-bound sugar chains (around 2.1 kDa each) which are not necessary for reactivity with immune human sera. The polypeptide part is synthesized as a 277-amino-acid precursor of 30.6 kDa that after cleavage of a putative signal peptide of 16 amino acids, affords a mature protein of 261 amino acids with a molecular mass of 29 kDa and a pI of 4.24 (as deduced from the sequence). The ASPND1 protein is 53.1% identical to the AspfII allergen from Aspergillus fumigatus and 48% identical to an unpublished Candida albicans antigen. All of the cysteine residues and most of the glycosylation sites are perfectly conserved in the three proteins, suggesting a similar but yet unknown function. Analysis of the primary structure of the ASPND1 coding gene (aspnd1) has allowed the establishment of a clear relationship between several previously reported A. fumigatus and A. nidulans immunodominant antigens. PMID:9119471

  9. The use of halloysite clay and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for recombinant LipL32 antigen delivery enhanced the IgG response

    PubMed Central

    Hartwig, Daiane D; Bacelo, Kátia L; Oliveira, Thaís L; Schuch, Rodrigo; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago; Rodrigues, Oscar; Hartleben, Cláudia P; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2015-01-01

    We studied the feasibility of using halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses against a recombinant LipL32 protein (rLipL32). Immunisation using the HNTs or COOH-MWCNTs significantly increased the rLipL32-specific IgG antibody titres (p < 0.05) of Golden Syrian hamsters. None of the vaccines tested conferred protection against a challenge using a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain. These results demonstrated that nanotubes can be used as antigen carriers for delivery in hosts and the induction of a humoral immune response against purified leptospiral antigens used in subunit vaccine preparations. PMID:25742273

  10. The use of halloysite clay and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes for recombinant LipL32 antigen delivery enhanced the IgG response.

    PubMed

    Hartwig, Daiane D; Bacelo, Kátia L; Oliveira, Thaís L; Schuch, Rodrigo; Seixas, Fabiana K; Collares, Tiago; Rodrigues, Oscar; Hartleben, Cláudia P; Dellagostin, Odir A

    2015-02-01

    We studied the feasibility of using halloysite clay nanotubes (HNTs) and carboxyl-functionalised multi-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-MWCNTs) as antigen carriers to improve immune responses against a recombinant LipL32 protein (rLipL32). Immunisation using the HNTs or COOH-MWCNTs significantly increased the rLipL32-specific IgG antibody titres (p < 0.05) of Golden Syrian hamsters. None of the vaccines tested conferred protection against a challenge using a virulent Leptospira interrogans strain. These results demonstrated that nanotubes can be used as antigen carriers for delivery in hosts and the induction of a humoral immune response against purified leptospiral antigens used in subunit vaccine preparations.

  11. Vaccination with recombinant Parasite Surface Antigen 2 from Leishmania major induces a Th1 type of immune response but does not protect against infection.

    PubMed

    Sjölander, A; Baldwin, T M; Curtis, J M; Bengtsson, K L; Handman, E

    1998-12-01

    Vaccination with the native Parasite Surface Antigen 2 of Leishmania major with Corynebacterium parvum as adjuvant protects mice from leishmaniasis through a Th1 mediated response. Here we show that vaccination with a recombinant form of this protein, purified from Escherichia coli and administered in iscoms or with C. parvum as adjuvant, does not induce protective immunity despite the induction of Th1 responses. The results suggest that protective immunity depends on the ability of the vaccinating antigen to induce Th1-like T cells with ability to be recalled by infection. Therefore, the conformation of antigens may play a more major role for the induction of T cell mediated immunity than originally considered. PMID:9796067

  12. Trypanosoma brucei BRCA2 acts in antigenic variation and has undergone a recent expansion in BRC repeat number that is important during homologous recombination.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Claire L; McCulloch, Richard

    2008-06-01

    Antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei has selected for the evolution of a massive archive of silent Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes, which are activated by recombination into specialized expression sites. Such VSG switching can occur at rates substantially higher than background mutation and is dependent on homologous recombination, a core DNA repair reaction. A key regulator of homologous recombination is BRCA2, a protein that binds RAD51, the enzyme responsible for DNA strand exchange. Here, we show that T. brucei BRCA2 has undergone a recent, striking expansion in the number of BRC repeats, a sequence element that mediates interaction with RAD51. T. brucei BRCA2 mutants are shown to be significantly impaired in antigenic variation and display genome instability. By generating BRCA2 variants with reduced BRC repeat numbers, we show that the BRC expansion is crucial in determining the efficiency of T. brucei homologous recombination and RAD51 localization. Remarkably, however, this appears not to be a major determinant of the activation of at least some VSG genes.

  13. Immunoreactivity Analysis of Toxoplasma gondii Recombinant Antigen rSAG3 in Sera from Immunized BALB/c Mice and Toxoplasmosis Patients

    PubMed Central

    MOTAZEDIAN, Mohammad Hossein; KAZEMI, Bahram; SHAHRIARI, Bahador; BANDEHPOUR, Mojgan; KHANALIHA, Khadijeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The coccidian protozoa Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of humans and other warm-blooded animals. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis is of considerable medical importance for human, especially pregnant women and immunocompromised individuals. The apply of an Escherichia coli recombinant antigen(s) would be significantly useful in developing standardization of the diagnostic tests and reducing their costs. In this study, immunoreactivity of recombinant SAG3 against sera from immunized mice and human anti-T. gondii IgG positive patients was evaluated by western-blotting and enzyme immunoassay (EIA) in Department of Parasitology and Mycology, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: Three inbreed BALB/c female mice were obtained. Two mice were injected with rSAG3 and one was remained untreated, as control. Sera from immunized mice and also pooled sera from IgG positive toxoplasmosis cases were evaluated with western-blotting. IgG antibody responses to recombinant SAG3 was measured by indirect ELISA against the negative control group. Results: The rSAG3 protein reacted with sera of immunized mice and sera from patients with anti-Toxoplasma IgG antibodies in western-blot analysis. The result of ELISA showed that, there was marked differences in the absorbance values between the recombinant SAG3 immunized mice and control group. Conclusion: The rSAG3 showed IgG reactivity with sera from immunized mice and anti-Toxoplasma IgG patients. PMID:27516998

  14. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14

    PubMed Central

    Weil, Gary J.; Curtis, Kurt C.; Fischer, Peter U.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Lammie, Patrick J.; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D.; Brattig., Norbert W.

    2010-01-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance. PMID:20430004

  15. Evaluation of recombinant Bhlp29.7 as an ELISA antigen for detecting pig herds with swine dysentery.

    PubMed

    La, Tom; Phillips, Nyree D; Hampson, David J

    2009-01-01

    Swine dysentery (SD) results from infection of the porcine large intestine with the anaerobic intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira hyodysenteriae. Diagnosis of SD traditionally has relied on detecting the spirochaete in the faeces of acutely affected pigs. To date simple and reliable serological assays that can be applied as a diagnostic tool at the herd level have not been available. In the current study a recombinant histidine tagged 29.7 kDa lipoprotein of B. hyodysenteriae (His6-Bhlp29.7) was used as an ELISA plate-coating antigen. Sera (n=1121) from slaughter-aged pigs on 19 farms were tested in this ELISA. Following optimization of the ELISA conditions using hyperimmune control sera, a set of 464 sera from slaughter-aged pigs from five herds where SD did not occur was tested. From these results a suitable cut-off value for herd negativity was defined as the mean optical density reading plus three standard deviations. Testing of 337 pig sera from six farms with SD then showed that the sensitivity of the test at the herd level was 100%, with all six farms having one or more serum samples exceeding the cut-off value for negativity. Finally, 320 sera from eight herds suspected of having SD were examined. Four of these herds were shown to have pigs with titres consistent with SD. The true health status of the other four herds that were serologically negative could not be confirmed. In conclusion, when used on sets of 40 sera from slaughter-aged pigs the His6-Bhlp29.7 ELISA as established proved to be a useful adjunct to the diagnosis of SD at the herd level.

  16. Cloning, expression and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Haemaphysalis concinna Hc-23 antigen in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bian, Yao; Chen, Weizhong; Yang, Guangyou; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Sun, Jiagang; Li, Kaijun; Wei, Hong

    2011-01-29

    Haemaphysalis concinna is wide spread in China, and negatively impacted on husbandry production and then resulted in severe economic losses. Methods available for the control of ticks are mainly based on chemotherapy. However, this approach is associated with a number of disadvantages; searching for alternative tick control measures is necessary and vaccination is one of the best control strategies. Through H. concinna Hc-23 gene PCR amplification, cloning and sequencing, sequence analysis showed that Hc-23 genes could be amplified in nymphal, larvae and adult ticks. BLAST analysis suggested that Hc-23 gene was 99.83% homology with P27/30 of Chinese strains H. longicornis, and 99.67% with Japanese strains, but 88.06% with Rhipicephalus tick troponin I gene. The recombinant Hc23 expressed in BL21(DE3) with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA) was used to immunize 6 rabbits, then another 6 were immunized with PBS and 6 with control FCA (as control) were challenge-infested with ticks at different developmental stages of the same specie. The result showed that ticks that fed on rHc23-immunized rabbits were observed to feed longer compared to the control (P ≤ 0.05), the engorged body weights of ticks feeding on rHc23-immunized rabbits were lighter than the control (P ≤ 0.05), and an apparent reduction in laying amount was observed for adult ticks fed on rHc23-immunized rabbits (P ≤ 0.05). These results demonstrated that the Hc-23 protein might be a useful vaccine candidate antigen for biological control of ticks. PMID:21130192

  17. Immunoprophylaxis of Punta Toro Virus (Phlebovirus, Bunyaviridae) Infection in Hamsters with Recombinant Eimeria Profilin-Like Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Gowen, Brian B.; Judge, John W.; Wong, Min-Hui; Jung, Kie-Hoon; Aylsworth, Charles F.; Melby, Peter C.; Rosenberg, Barnett; Morrey, John D.

    2008-01-01

    Recombinant Eimeria antigen (rEA) has been shown to have potent anticancer and antiviral activity in respective mouse disease models, presumably through robust immune stimulation that occurs via TLR11, a pattern recognition receptor that recognizes profilin-like proteins expressed on apicomplexan protozoans. Comparable immunostimulatory activity in other species has yet to be demonstrated. Since rEA is known to be highly effective in treating Punta Toro virus (PTV) infection in mice, its ability to elicit protective immunity in the hamster PTV infection model was investigated. rEA was given alone, or in combination with IL-18 or IL-2, and virally challenged hamsters were observed for mortality. Cytokine transcript profiles for IL-12p40, IL-21, IFN-γ and TNF-α were assessed to evaluate the induction of these inflammatory mediators known to be induced in mice following exposure to rEA. A dose of 100 μg of rEA, given once 4 h prior to viral challenge, and a second time on day 3 of the infection, was found to be the most effective prophylactic therapy protecting 60% of treated hamsters from mortality, compared to only 5–10% observed in animals receiving placebo. Increased expression of IFN-γ and IL-12p40 was evident following treatment with rEA. The data suggest that rEA does induce host antiviral responses in hamsters that result in significant protection from death, although determining the most appropriate dose for intervention in other species, including humans, will likely be challenging. PMID:18550012

  18. A multicenter evaluation of a new antibody test kit for lymphatic filariasis employing recombinant Brugia malayi antigen Bm-14.

    PubMed

    Weil, Gary J; Curtis, Kurt C; Fischer, Peter U; Won, Kimberly Y; Lammie, Patrick J; Joseph, Hayley; Melrose, Wayne D; Brattig, Norbert W

    2011-09-01

    Antibody tests are useful for mapping the distribution of lymphatic filariasis (LF) in countries and regions and for monitoring progress in elimination programs based on mass drug administration (MDA). Prior antibody tests have suffered from poor sensitivity and/or specificity or from a lack of standardization. We conducted a multicenter evaluation of a new commercial ELISA that detects IgG4 antibodies to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14. Four laboratories tested a shared panel of coded serum or plasma samples that included 55 samples from people with microfilaremic Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia infections and 26 control samples. Qualitative results were identical in all four test sites. In addition, each laboratory tested samples from their own serum banks. The test detected antibodies in 32 of 36 samples (91%) from people with Brugian filariasis and in 96 of 98 samples (98%) from people with Bancroftian filariasis. Specificity testing showed that many serum or plasma samples from patients with other filarial infections such as onchocerciasis had positive antibody tests. Specificity was otherwise excellent, although 3 of 30 samples from patients with ascariasis and 4 of 51 with strongyloidiasis had positive antibody tests; it is likely that some or all of these people had previously lived in filariasis-endemic areas. Antibody test results obtained with eluates from blood dried on filter paper were similar to those obtained with plasma tested at the same dilution. This test may be helpful for diagnosing LF in patients with clinical signs of filariasis. It may also be a useful tool for use in LF endemic countries to monitor the progress of filariasis elimination programs and for post-MDA surveillance.

  19. Efficient generation and rapid isolation via stoplight recombination of Herpes simplex viruses expressing model antigenic and immunological epitopes.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Rebecca L; Ramsay, Alistair J; Foster, Timothy P

    2012-01-01

    Generation and isolation of recombinant herpesviruses by traditional homologous recombination methods can be a tedious, time-consuming process. Therefore, a novel stoplight recombination selection method was developed that facilitated rapid identification and purification of recombinant viruses expressing fusions of immunological epitopes with EGFP. This "traffic-light" approach provided a visual indication of the presence and purity of recombinant HSV-1 isolates by producing three identifying signals: (1) red fluorescence indicates non-recombinant viruses that should be avoided; (2) yellow fluorescence indicates cells co-infected with non-recombinant and recombinant viruses that are chosen with caution; (3) green fluorescence indicates pure recombinant isolates and to proceed with preparation of viral stocks. Adaptability of this system was demonstrated by creating three recombinant viruses that expressed model immunological epitopes. Diagnostic PCR established that the fluorescent stoplight indicators were effective at differentiating between the presence of background virus contamination and pure recombinant viruses specifying immunological epitopes. This enabled isolation of pure recombinant viral stocks that exhibited wildtype-like viral replication and cell-to-cell spread following three rounds of plaque purification. Expression of specific immunological epitopes was confirmed by western analysis, and the utility of these viruses for examining host immune responses to HSV-1 was determined by a functional T cell assay.

  20. Development of a single-antigen magnetic bead assay (SAMBA) for the sensitive detection of HPA-1a alloantibodies using tag-engineered recombinant soluble β3 integrin.

    PubMed

    Skaik, Younis; Battermann, Anja; Hiller, Oliver; Meyer, Oliver; Figueiredo, Constanca; Salama, Abdulgabar; Blasczyk, Rainer

    2013-05-31

    Timely and accurate testing for human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) alloantibodies is vital for clinical diagnosis of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (NAIT). Current antigen-specific assays used for the detection of HPA-1 alloantibodies are technically very complex and cumbersome for most diagnostic laboratories. Hence, we designed and applied recombinant soluble (rs) β3 integrins displaying HPA-1a or HPA-1b epitopes for the development of a single-antigen magnetic bead assay (SAMBA). Soluble HPA-1a and HPA-1b were produced recombinantly in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells and differentially tagged. The recombinant soluble proteins were then immobilized onto paramagnetic beads and used for analysis of HPA-1 alloantibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HPA-1a serum samples (n=7) from NAIT patients, inert sera and sera containing non-HPA-1a antibodies were used to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the SAMBA. Fusion of V5-His or GS-SBP-His tags to the rsβ3 integrins resulted in high-yield expression. SAMBA was able to detect all HPA-1a and -1b alloantibodies recognized by monoclonal antibody-specific immobilization of platelet antigens assay (MAIPA). No cross-reactions between the sera were observed. Two out of seven of the HPA-1a alloantibody-containing sera demonstrated weak to moderate reactivity in MAIPA but strong signals in SAMBA. SAMBA provides a very reliable method for the detection of HPA-1 antibodies with high specificity and sensitivity. This simple and rapid assay can be adapted for use in any routine laboratory and can be potentially adapted for use on automated systems. PMID:23454035

  1. Application of synthetic 8-kD and recombinant GP50 antigens in the diagnosis of neurocysticercosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Edneia C; Scheel, Christina M; Vaz, Adelaide J; Machado, Luis R; Livramento, José A; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Tsang, Victor C W; Hancock, Kathy

    2005-03-01

    The gold standard serodiagnostic assay for cysticercosis and neurocysticercosis, diseases caused by the metacestode of Taenia solium, uses lentil lectin-purified glycoprotein (LLGP) in a Western blot assay. We tested two antigens derived from LLGP, synthetic TS18var1 (sTS18var1) and recombinant GP50 antigen (rGP50), in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. The sensitivity for serum and CSF was 94.7% and 100% for rGP50 and 90.4% and 90.2% for sTS18var1, respectively. The specificity for serum and CSF samples was 93.8% and 100% for rGP50 and 90.3% and 98.0% for sTS18var1, respectively. The use of these antigens individually or combined as a diagnostic antigen cocktail eliminates the need for purification of antigens from parasite material and offers the advantage of using a simple and quantitative ELISA format.

  2. Novel meningococcal 4CMenB vaccine antigens - prevalence and polymorphisms of the encoding genes in Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

    PubMed

    Hadad, Ronza; Jacobsson, Susanne; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Fredlund, Hans; Olcén, Per; Unemo, Magnus

    2012-09-01

    The first cross-protective Neisseria meningitidis vaccine (focus on serogroup B), the protein-based 4 component meningococcus serogroup B (4CMenB), includes the New Zealand outer membrane vesicle and three main genome-derived neisserial antigens (GNAs). These GNAs are fHbp (fused to GNA2091), NHBA (fused to GNA1030) and NadA. In this study, the prevalence and polymorphisms of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the 4CMenB antigens in a temporally and geographically diverse collection of N. gonorrhoeae isolates (n = 111) were investigated. All the examined GNA genes, except the nadA gene, were present in all gonococcal isolates. However, 25 isolates contained premature stop codons in the fHbp gene and/or the nhba gene, resulting in truncated proteins. Compared with the 4CMenB antigen sequences in reference strain MC58, the gonococcal strains displayed 67.0-95.4% and 60.9-94.9% identity in nucleotide sequence and amino acid sequence, respectively, in the equivalent GNA antigens. The absence of NadA, lack of universal expression of fHbp and NHBA and the uncertainty regarding the surface exposure of fHbp as well as the function of NHBA in N. gonorrhoeae will likely limit the use of the identical 4CMenB antigens in a gonococcal vaccine. However, possible cross-immunity of 4CMenB with gonococci and expression and function of the equivalent gonococcal GNAs, as well as of more appropriate GNAs for a gonococcal vaccine, need to be further examined. PMID:22882265

  3. Evaluation of an IgE ELISA with Culicoides spp. extracts and recombinant salivary antigens for diagnosis of insect bite hypersensitivity in Warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Peeters, L M; Janssens, S; Goddeeris, B M; De Keyser, K; Wilson, A D; Kaufmann, C; Schaffartzik, A; Marti, E; Buys, N

    2013-10-01

    Insect bite hypersensitivity (IBH) in horses represents an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to salivary antigens from biting midges (Culicoides spp.). The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the performances of IgE ELISAs using recombinant Culicoides spp. Obsoletus group salivary gland antigens or crude whole body extracts ('ObsWBE'), C. nubeculosus recombinant proteins (Culn1, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8 and 10) and Obsoletus group recombinant proteins (Culo1 and 2). IgE levels were measured in plasma of 343 Warmblood horses classified as IBH-affected (n=167) and IBH-unaffected (n=176) according to the owners' descriptions. IBH-affected horses were subdivided based on the severity of their clinical signs at sampling and whether or not their IBH history was considered to be classical. The accuracies of the tests increased when clinical signs at sampling were more pronounced or when the IBH history could be considered as classical. A combination of IgE levels against the three best performing Culicoides spp. recombinant proteins (Culn4, Culo1 and Culo2) and ObsWBE resulted in the best performing test. When IBH-affected horses showing a classical history of the disease and severe clinical signs were compared with IBH-unaffected horses, the Youden's index at the optimal cut-off for the three tests in combination was 0.67. This optimal cut-off had a sensitivity of 70%, a specificity of 97% and a total accuracy of 92%. The performance of the IgE ELISA was affected by the severity of IBH clinical signs at sampling and was improved when IgE levels against several recombinant proteins were combined.

  4. Enhanced and durable protective immune responses induced by a cocktail of recombinant BCG strains expressing antigens of multistage of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jinping; Teng, Xindong; Yuan, Xuefeng; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Chunwei; Yue, Tingting; Zhou, Lei; Li, Jianrong; Fan, Xionglin

    2015-08-01

    Although Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine confers protection from Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children, its immune protection gradually wanes over time, and consequently leads to an inability to prevent the reactivation of latent infection of M. tuberculosis. Therefore, improving BCG for better control of tuberculosis (TB) is urgently needed. We thus hypothesized that recombinant BCG overexpressing immunodominant antigens expressed at different growth stages of M. tuberculosis could provide a more comprehensive protection against primary and latent M. tuberculosis infection. Here, a novel cocktail of recombinant BCG (rBCG) strains, namely ABX, was produced by combining rBCG::85A, rBCG::85B, and rBCG::X, which overexpressed respective multistage antigens Ag85A, Ag85B, and HspX of M. tuberculosis. Our results showed that ABX was able to induce a stronger immune protection than individual rBCGs or BCG against primary TB infection in C57BL/6 mice. Mechanistically, the immune protection was attributed to stronger antigen-specific CD4(+) Th1 responses, higher numbers of IFN-γ(+) CD4(+) TEM and IL-2(+) CD8(+) TCM cells elicited by ABX. These findings thus provide a novel strategy for the improvement of BCG efficacy and potentially a promising prophylactic TB vaccine candidate, warranting further investigation.

  5. Development of an indirect ELISA for detection of E. Coli antibodies in cow serum using a recombinant OmpT as antigen.

    PubMed

    Tong, Chunyu; Wu, Zhijun; Yu, Liquan; Fan, Ziyao; Chen, Liang; Hu, Rui; Ma, Jinzhu; Song, Baifen; Zhu, Zhanbo; Cui, Yudong

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article was to develop an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for efficient detection of the infection of E. coli in cattle. OmpT, a highly conserved protease in all E. coli strains, was successfully expressed in E. coli XL-1-Blue strain with PET32a vector. Molecular weight of recombinant protein was identified by analyzing SDS-PAGE and the immunogenicity of OmpT was confirmed by Western Blotting. The recombinant OmpT was then employed as capture antigen in the ELISA. The antigen concentration and serum dilution were determined using a checkerboard titration. Results showed that the optimal concentration of coated antigen was 1 μg/ml at a serum dilution of 1:640 and the cut-off value of the assay was 0.335. In addition, the cross-reactivity assay showed that the OmpT was E. coli specific and the reproducibility experiments displayed good repeatability of the assay. Three hundred and forty cattle serum samples were tested by rOmpT-ELISA and sera coagulation tests. The ELISA has showed relative sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 96.47%. Results of these experiments indicated that the rOmpT-ELISA is a simple, rapid, and convenient method for detection the infection of E. coli with different serotype strains.

  6. Immunogenicity of Mannheimia haemolytica Recombinant Outer Membrane Proteins Serotype 1-Specific Antigen, OmpA, OmpP2, and OmpD15▿

    PubMed Central

    Ayalew, Sahlu; Shrestha, Binu; Montelongo, Marie; Wilson, Amanda E.; Confer, Anthony W.

    2011-01-01

    We previously identified Mannheimia haemolytica outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that may be important immunogens by using immunoproteomic analyses. Genes for serotype 1-specific antigen (SSA-1), OmpA, OmpP2, and OmpD15 were cloned and expressed, and recombinant proteins were purified. Objective 1 of this study was to demonstrate immunogenicity of the four recombinant OMPs in mice and cattle. Objective 2 was to determine if the addition of individual recombinant OMPs or combinations of them would modify immune responsiveness of mice to the recombinant chimeric protein SAC89, containing the main epitope from M. haemolytica outer membrane lipoprotein PlpE and the neutralizing epitope of M. haemolytica leukotoxin. Mice vaccinated with recombinant OmpA (rOmpA), rSSA-1, rOmpD15, and rOmpP2 developed significant antibody responses to M. haemolytica outer membranes and to the homologous recombinant OMP. Cattle vaccinated with rOmpA and rSSA-1 developed significant antibodies to M. haemolytica outer membranes by day 28, whereas cattle vaccinated with rOmpD15 and rOmpP2 developed only minimal responses. Sera from cattle vaccinated with each of the recombinant proteins stimulated complement-mediated killing of the bacterium. Concurrent vaccination with SAC89 plus any of the four rOMPs singly resulted in increased endpoint anti-SAC89 titers, and for the SAC89/rSSA-1 vaccinees, the response was increased significantly. In contrast, the SAC89/P2/SSA-1 and SAC89/OmpA/P2/D15/SSA-1 combination vaccines resulted in significant decreases in anti-SAC89 antibodies compared to SAC89 vaccination alone. In conclusion, under the conditions of these experiments, vaccination of mice and cattle with rOmpA and rSSA-1 stimulated high antibody responses and may have protective vaccine potential. PMID:21976226

  7. The 5' flanking region of the gene for the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 contains a cell type specific cis-acting regulatory element that activates transcription in transfected B-cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ricksten, A; Olsson, A; Andersson, T; Rymo, L

    1988-01-01

    We have recently identified the promoter that positions the initiation (cap) site for RNA encoding the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) determined nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2) in transfected COS-1 cells. The cells were transfected with recombinant vectors that contained the BamHI WYH region of the EBV genome. In order to delineate regulatory DNA sequences required for the expression of EBNA2 the 5' flanking region of the gene was linked to reporter genes in expression vectors and transfected into EBV genome-negative lymphoid DG75 cells. We demonstrate that several cis-acting elements contribute to a transcriptional enhancer activity found in the region between nucleotides-553 and -86 relative to the cap site. The enhancer was active in lymphoid DG75 cells but not in HeLa cells and stimulated transcription also from the heterologous thymidine kinase (TK) and beta-globin promoters. Nuclear extracts of lymphoid cells contained protein factors that bound to the enhancer. The in vitro introduction of a mutation in the enhancer sequence that substantially reduced the transcription stimulatory activity concurrently blocked the binding of one of the factors. Images PMID:2843816

  8. Development and evaluation of two truncated recombinant NP antigen-based indirect ELISAs for detection of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 antibodies in cattle.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong; Wang, Feng-Xue; Sun, Na; Cao, Li; Zhang, Shu-Qin; Zhu, Hong-Wei; Guo, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Wen, Yong-Jun

    2015-09-15

    Bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) is one of the most important viral respiratory pathogens in both young and adult cattle. Nucleocapsid protein (NP) is the most abundant viral protein and the main regulator of virus replication and transcription. In this study, amino acid sequence data of BPIV3 NP was used to identify potential linear epitopic regions, which were subsequently used to design truncated recombinant NP antigens. The amino-terminal region (aa 9-157, NP-N) and the carboxy-terminal region (aa 391-500, NP-C) were selected, and these two truncated recombinant BPIV3 NP proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli based on the results of prediction studies. Furthermore, Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) were established using the truncated recombinant BPIV3-N proteins as antigens, and 154 clinical samples were used to evaluate the newly established ELISA systems in comparison with a virus neutralisation test (VNT) as a reference. The results showed that a high coincidence rate was observed for the data that were obtained by the two methods. The sensitivity of NP-N ELISA and NP-C ELISA were 98.4% and 94.6%, respectively, and the specificity of both ELISAs was 100% with reference to the VNTs. Our data indicated that both ends of NP have high immunogenicity during BPIV3 infection and that they were good targets for serodiagnosis. The ELISAs based on the two truncated proteins were especially suitable for use in large-scale epidemiological investigations.

  9. Evaluation of the antigenic value of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii HSP20 to detect specific immunoglobulin G antibodies in Toxoplasma infected humans.

    PubMed

    Cóceres, Veronica M; Becher, Melina Laguia; De Napoli, Maximiliano G; Corvi, María M; Clemente, Marina; Angel, Sergio O

    2010-10-01

    Recombinant Toxoplasma gondii small heat shock protein HSP20, surface antigen SAG1 and dense granule GRA7 were analyzed by IgG-ELISA with serum samples of Toxoplasma infected humans grouped as I (IgG+, IgM+), II (IgG+, IgM-) and III (IgG-, IgM-). rHSP20 reacted against 80% and 62.5% of serum samples from groups I and II, respectively. rSAG1 was recognized by 85% of the samples from group I and 70.8% from group II, whereas rGRA7 was recognized by 85% and 66.6% of the serum samples from groups I and II, respectively. When a combination of two or three recombinant antigens was used, the sensitivity values improved to 85-95% for group I and 87.5-91.7% for group II. All combinations tested produced similar reactivity profiles. None of the recombinant proteins reacted against group III serum samples. In conclusion, we demonstrated that T. gondii HSP20 elicits an important B-cell response during human infection, and could be suitable for the development of serodiagnosis tools.

  10. Molecular cloning and sequence of cDNA encoding polyoma medium tumor antigen-associated 61-kDa protein.

    PubMed Central

    Walter, G; Ferre, F; Espiritu, O; Carbone-Wiley, A

    1989-01-01

    Polyoma virus medium tumor antigen forms specific complexes with several cellular proteins; among these is a protein of approximately 61 kDa. With antibodies directed against medium tumor antigen, the 61-kDa protein was purified from human 293 cells that were infected with a hybrid adenovirus and overexpressed medium tumor antigen. The purified 61-kDa protein was partially digested with protease V8, and one of the protease V8 fragments was isolated and partially sequenced. The amino acid sequence information was used to design mixed oligonucleotide probes for screening a cDNA library from human placenta. A clone was isolated that hybridized with two separate probes; the clone contained an insert with an open reading frame for 589 amino acids. By in vitro translation of the transcript from this insert, a protein was generated that had the same size and yielded the same pattern of protease V8 fragments as the original 61-kDa protein. Its amino acid sequence reveals 15 repeats, the majority of which are 39 amino acids long. This protein bears no resemblance to proteins in the data bank that was searched. Images PMID:2554323

  11. DNA-Launched Alphavirus Replicons Encoding a Fusion of Mycobacterial Antigens Acr and Ag85B Are Immunogenic and Protective in a Murine Model of TB Infection.

    PubMed

    Dalmia, Neha; Klimstra, William B; Mason, Carol; Ramsay, Alistair J

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for effective prophylactic measures against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, particularly given the highly variable efficacy of Bacille Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the only licensed vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). Most studies indicate that cell-mediated immune responses involving both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells are necessary for effective immunity against Mtb. Genetic vaccination induces humoral and cellular immune responses, including CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, against a variety of bacterial, viral, parasitic and tumor antigens, and this strategy may therefore hold promise for the development of more effective TB vaccines. Novel formulations and delivery strategies to improve the immunogenicity of DNA-based vaccines have recently been evaluated, and have shown varying degrees of success. In the present study, we evaluated DNA-launched Venezuelan equine encephalitis replicons (Vrep) encoding a novel fusion of the mycobacterial antigens α-crystallin (Acr) and antigen 85B (Ag85B), termed Vrep-Acr/Ag85B, for their immunogenicity and protective efficacy in a murine model of pulmonary TB. Vrep-Acr/Ag85B generated antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses that persisted for at least 10 wk post-immunization. Interestingly, parenterally administered Vrep-Acr/Ag85B also induced T cell responses in the lung tissues, the primary site of infection, and inhibited bacterial growth in both the lungs and spleens following aerosol challenge with Mtb. DNA-launched Vrep may, therefore, represent an effective approach to the development of gene-based vaccines against TB, particularly as components of heterologous prime-boost strategies or as BCG boosters. PMID:26317509

  12. Entire sequence of the colonization factor coli surface antigen 6-encoding plasmid pCss165 from an enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli clinical isolate.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Sabui, Subrata; Kano, Shigeyuki; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chatterjee, Nabendu Sekhar; Hamabata, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    Coli surface antigen 6 (CS6) is one of the most prevalent colonization factors among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) isolated in developing countries. Although it is known that CS6 is encoded by a plasmid, there are no reports on the sequence analysis of the CS6-encoding plasmid or genes exhibiting similar behavior to CS6. Here, we report the isolation of the CS6-encoding plasmid, pCss165Kan, from 4266 ΔcssB::kanamycin (Km) and its complete nucleotide sequence. This plasmid consisted of 165,311bp and 222 predicted coding sequences. Remarkably, there were many insertion sequence (IS) elements, which comprised 24.4% of the entire sequence. Virulence-associated genes such as heat-stable enterotoxin, homologues of ATP-binding cassette transporter in enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), and ETEC autotransporter A were also present, although the ETEC autotransporter A gene was disrupted by the integration of IS629. We found that 2 transcriptional regulators belonging to the AraC family were not involved in CS6 expression. Interestingly, pCss165 had conjugative transfer genes, as well as 3 toxin-antitoxin systems that potentially exclude other plasmid-free host bacteria. These genes might be involved in the prevalence of CS6 among ETEC isolates. PMID:23933356

  13. Mucosal immunogenicity of a recombinant Salmonella typhimurium-cloned heterologous antigen in the absence or presence of coexpressed cholera toxin A2 and B subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Harokopakis, E; Hajishengallis, G; Greenway, T E; Russell, M W; Michalek, S M

    1997-01-01

    An avirulent Salmonella typhimurium vaccine strain expressing a streptococcal protein adhesin and a similar clone which produces the same streptococcal antigen linked to the cholera toxin (CT) A2 and B subunits (CTA2/B) were compared for the ability to induce antibody responses to the expressed heterologous antigen after oral or intranasal immunization of mice. Expression of cloned immunogens in these systems is temperature regulated, being optimal at 37 degrees C, and the two clones under comparison were shown to produce similar levels of the streptococcal antigen. Both clones were found to stimulate high levels of serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) and mucosal IgA antibodies to the cloned immunogen. A consistent trend was observed toward higher mucosal IgA but lower serum IgG responses in the case of the S. typhimurium vector that coexpressed CTA2/B, a potential mucosal adjuvant, regardless of the route of administration. Also noteworthy was the capacity of these antigen delivery systems to induce anamnestic systemic and secretory responses to the cloned immunogen 15 weeks after the primary immunization, despite preexisting immunity to the Salmonella vectors. These antibody responses were sustained for at least 7 months following the booster immunization, at which time the secretory IgA antibody levels were significantly higher in mice given the Salmonella clone that coexpressed CTA2/B. Although the serum IgG response against the Salmonella vector was characterized by a high IgG2a/IgG1 ratio (indicative of the T helper type 1 [Th1]/Th2 profile), a mixed IgG1 and IgG2a pattern was observed for the carried heterologous antigen, which displayed a dominant IgG1 response when administered as a purified immunogen. Our findings indicate that the recombinant streptococcal antigen and CTA2/B are strong immunogens when expressed by the antigen delivery system used in this study and suggest that CTA2/B may have an additional immunoenhancing activity in the mucosal compartment

  14. Low frequency of anti-SLA/LP autoantibody in Japanese adult patients with autoimmune liver diseases: analysis with recombinant antigen assay.

    PubMed

    Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Yumi; Kitazawa, Eriko; Kawaguchi, Naomi; Kato, Takashi; Kikuchi, Kentaro; Imai, Erika; Fujikawa, Hirotoshi; Hashimoto, Etsuko; Schlumberger, Wolfgang

    2003-08-01

    Anti-soluble liver antigen/liver pancreas (SLA/LP) autoantibody has been proposed to be one of the autoantibodies characterizing autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). Recently, one of the autoantigens to anti-SLA/LP was identified as a UGA suppressor tRNA-associated protein. Although the function of this protein remains unknown, the recombinant protein has been prokaryotically expressed. Using this protein as an antigen, a recombinant immunoassay for anti-SLA/LP autoantibody has been established and the frequency and significance of this autoantibody have been discussed in European countries. So, in the present study, we investigated anti-SLA/LP autoantibodies in Japanese patients with autoimmune liver diseases using the recombinant antigen ELISA and Western blot assay. Seventy-five patients with AIH type 1, 5 with AIH type 2, 46 with primary biliary cirrhosis, 10 with primary sclerosing cholangitis, 47 with chronic hepatitis C, 48 with systemic lupus erythematosus, 3 with cryptogenic hepatitis, and 40 normal controls were the subjects of the present study. Anti-SLA/LP autoantibodies were detected in only 5 of 75 (6.7%) patients with AIH type 1, but in none of the other 159 patients or 40 normal controls. The clinicopathologic features of anti-SLA/LP-positive AIH type 1, including carriers of HLA DR locus variations, were not significantly different from anti-SLA/LP-negative patients except for the mortality rate. Anti-SLA/LP autoantibody was detected at a low frequency in Japanese patients with AIH type 1 and did not significantly influence clinical features. However, since it has high disease-specificity to AIH type 1, further analysis of SLA/LP may contribute to help clarify the pathogenesis of AIH type 1.

  15. A Rapid Diagnostic Test for Toxoplasmosis using Recombinant Antigenic N-terminal Half of SAG1 Linked with Intrinsically Unstructured Domain of GRA2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kyoung Ju; Yang, Zhaoshou; Chong, Chom-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Soo; Lee, Kyung Chan; Kim, Tong-Soo

    2013-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan parasite with a broad host range of most warm-blooded mammals including humans, of which one-thirds of the human population has been infected worldwide which can cause congenital defects, abortion, and neonatal complications. Here, we developed a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) for T. gondii infection. Antigenic N-terminal half of the major surface antigen (SAG1) was linked with intrinsically unstructured domain (IUD) of dense granule protein 2 (GRA2). The recombinant GST-GRA2-SAG1A protein was successfully expressed and purified as 51 kDa of molecular weight. Furthermore, antigenicity and solubility of the rGST-GRA2-SAG1A protein were significantly increased. The overall specificity and sensitivity of GST-GRA2-SAG1A loaded RDT (TgRDT) were estimated as 100% and 97.1% by comparing with ELISA result which uses T. gondii whole cell lysates as the antigen. The TgRDT tested with Uganda people sera for field trial and showed 31.9% of seroprevalence against T. gondii antibody. The TgRDT is proved to be a kit for rapid and easy to use with high accuracy, which would be a suitable serodiagnostic tool for toxoplasmosis. PMID:24327774

  16. Recombinant hexon antigen based single serum dilution ELISA for rapid serological profiling against fowl adenovirus-4 causing hydropericardium syndrome in chickens.

    PubMed

    R, Rajasekhar; Roy, Parimal

    2014-10-01

    A recombinant hexon antigen based single serum dilution enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to measure the specific antibody in sera of chickens against Fowl adenovirus-4 (FAdV) causing Hydropericardium syndrome (HPS). An immunodominant partial hexon gene of 737bp was cloned into pRSET vector and expressed in Escherichia coli strain BL21 DE3 pLys S. Expression was tested by Western Blot test. The purified recombinant protein antigen was used in coating ELISA plate for FAdV-4 serology. A linear relationship was found between the predicted antibody titres at a single working dilution of 1:100 and the corresponding observed serum titres as determined by the standard serial dilution method. Regression analysis was used to determine a standard curve from which an equation was derived that allowed the demonstration of this correlation. The equation was then used to convert the corrected absorbance readings of the single working dilution directly into the predicted ELISA antibody titres. The assay proved to be sensitive, specific and accurate as compared to Q-AGID test. Recombinant antigen was also used in Dot ELISA. In an experimental vaccination of broiler chicken at 10 days old age, the geometric mean (GM) antibody titres as measured by ELISA ranged from 5.006±0.11log10 to 4.526±0.04log10 and by Dot ELISA titre were from 2.240±0.08log10 to 0.180±0.04log10 during 5th-8th weeks of age, results were compared with Q-AGID results. Field samples were collected randomly from breeder flocks, found to have antibody titre by both ELISA and Dot ELISA at 10th and only 75% samples were positive at 14th weeks of age. After revaccination at 16th weeks of age, all sera samples were found have considerably high antibody titre on 24th week but all samples were negative at 32nd weeks. Advantages of recombinant hexon antigen based ELISA and Dot ELISA in FAdV-4 serology have been discussed.

  17. Recombinant V antigen protects mice against pneumonic and bubonic plague caused by F1-capsule-positive and -negative strains of Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G W; Leary, S E; Williamson, E D; Titball, R W; Welkos, S L; Worsham, P L; Friedlander, A M

    1996-11-01

    The purified recombinant V antigen from Yersinia pestis, expressed in Escherichia coli and adsorbed to aluminum hydroxide, an adjuvant approved for human use, was used to immunize outbred Hsd:ND4 mice subcutaneously. Immunization protected mice from lethal bubonic and pneumonic plague caused by CO92, a wild-type F1+ strain, or by the isogenic F1- strain C12. This work demonstrates that a subunit plague vaccine formulated for human use provides significant protection against bubonic plague caused by an F1- strain (C12) or against substantial aerosol challenges from either F1+ (CO92) or F1-(C12) Y. pestis.

  18. Clostridium difficile 027/BI/NAP1 encodes a hypertoxic and antigenically variable form of TcdB.

    PubMed

    Lanis, Jordi M; Heinlen, Latisha D; James, Judith A; Ballard, Jimmy D

    2013-01-01

    The Clostridium difficile exotoxin, TcdB, which is a major virulence factor, varies between strains of this pathogen. Herein, we show that TcdB from the epidemic BI/NAP1/027 strain of C. difficile is more lethal, causes more extensive brain hemorrhage, and is antigenically variable from TcdB produced by previously studied strains of this pathogen (TcdB003). In mouse intoxication assays, TcdB from a ribotype 027 strain (TcdB027) was at least four fold more lethal than TcdB003. TcdB027 caused a previously undescribed brain hemorrhage in mice and this correlated with a heightened sensitivity of brain microvascular endothelial cells to the toxin. TcdB003 and TcdB027 also differed in their antigenic profiles and did not share cross-neutralizing epitopes in a major immunogenic region of the protein. Solid phase humoral mapping of epitopes in the carboxy-terminal domains (CTD) of TcdB027 and TcdB003 identified 11 reactive epitopes that varied between the two forms of TcdB, and 13 epitopes that were shared or overlapping. Despite the epitope differences and absence of neutralizing epitopes in the CTD of TcdB027, a toxoid form of this toxin primed a strong protective response. These findings indicate TcdB027 is a more potent toxin than TcdB003 as measured by lethality assays and pathology, moreover the sequence differences between the two forms of TcdB alter antigenic epitopes and reduce cross-neutralization by antibodies targeting the CTD. PMID:23935501

  19. Pandemic influenza vaccine: characterization of A/California/07/2009 (H1N1) recombinant hemagglutinin protein and insights into H1N1 antigen stability

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The recent H1N1 influenza pandemic illustrated the shortcomings of the vaccine manufacturing process. The A/California/07/2009 H1N1 pandemic influenza vaccine or A(H1N1)pdm09 was available late and in short supply as a result of delays in production caused by low yields and poor antigen stability. Recombinant technology offers the opportunity to shorten manufacturing time. A trivalent recombinant hemagglutinin (rHA) vaccine candidate for seasonal influenza produced using the baculovirus expression vector system (BEVS) was shown to be as effective and safe as egg-derived trivalent inactivated vaccine (TIV) in human clinical studies. In this study, we describe the characterization of the A/California/07/2009 rHA protein and compare the H1N1 pandemic rHA to other seasonal rHA proteins. Results Our data show that, like other rHA proteins, purified A/California/07/2009 rHA forms multimeric rosette-like particles of 20–40 nm that are biologically active and immunogenic in mice as assayed by hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody titers. However, proteolytic digest analysis revealed that A/California/07/2009 rHA is more susceptible to proteolytic degradation than rHA proteins derived from other seasonal influenza viruses. We identified a specific proteolytic site conserved across multiple hemagglutinin (HA) proteins that is likely more accessible in A/California/07/2009 HA, possibly as a result of differences in its protein structure, and may contribute to lower antigen stability. Conclusion We conclude that, similar to the recombinant seasonal influenza vaccine, recombinant A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccine is likely to perform comparably to licensed A(H1N1)pdm09 vaccines and could offer manufacturing advantages. PMID:23110350

  20. Concurrent Detection of Circulating Minor Histocompatibility Antigen-Specific CD8+ T Cells in SCT Recipients by Combinatorial Encoding MHC Multimers

    PubMed Central

    Broen, Kelly; Greupink-Draaisma, Annelies; Woestenenk, Rob; Schaap, Nicolaas

    2011-01-01

    Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is a potentially curative treatment for patients with hematologic malignancies. Its therapeutic effect is largely dependent on recognition of minor histocompatibility antigens (MiHA) by donor-derived CD8+ T cells. Therefore, monitoring of multiple MiHA-specific CD8+ T cell responses may prove to be valuable for evaluating the efficacy of allogeneic SCT. In this study, we investigated the use of the combinatorial encoding MHC multimer technique to simultaneously detect MiHA-specific CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood of SCT recipients. Feasibility of this approach was demonstrated by applying dual-color encoding MHC multimers for a set of 10 known MiHA. Interestingly, single staining using a fluorochrome- and Qdot-based five-color combination showed comparable results to dual-color staining for most MiHA-specific CD8+ T cell responses. In addition, we determined the potential value of combinatorial encoding MHC multimers in MiHA identification. Therefore, a set of 75 candidate MiHA peptides was predicted from polymorphic genes with a hematopoietic expression profile and further selected for high and intermediate binding affinity for HLA-A2. Screening of a large cohort of SCT recipients resulted in the detection of dual-color encoded CD8+ T cells following MHC multimer-based T cell enrichment and short ex vivo expansion. Interestingly, candidate MiHA-specific CD8+ T cell responses for LAG3 and TLR10 derived polymorphic peptides could be confirmed by genotyping of the respective SNPs. These findings demonstrate the potency of the combinatorial MHC multimer approach in the monitoring of CD8+ T cell responses to known and potential MiHA in limited amounts of peripheral blood from allogeneic SCT recipients. PMID:21731686

  1. Generation of a Recombinant Gag Virus-Like-Particle Panel for the Evaluation of p24 Antigen Detection by Diagnostic HIV Tests

    PubMed Central

    Vetter, Beatrice N.; Orlowski, Vanessa; Fransen, Katrien; Niederhauser, Christoph; Aubert, Vincent; Brandenberger, Marcel; Ciardo, Diana; Dollenmaier, Günter; Klimkait, Thomas; Regenass, Stephan; Schmid, Patrick; Schottstedt, Volkmar; Suter-Riniker, Franziska; Yerly, Sabine; Shah, Cyril; Böni, Jürg; Schüpbach, Jörg

    2014-01-01

    Background Detection of HIV-1 p24 antigen permits early identification of primary HIV infection and timely intervention to limit further spread of the infection. Principally, HIV screening should equally detect all viral variants, but reagents for a standardised test evaluation are limited. Therefore, we aimed to create an inexhaustible panel of diverse HIV-1 p24 antigens. Methods We generated a panel of 43 recombinantly expressed virus-like particles (VLPs), containing the structural Gag proteins of HIV-1 subtypes A-H and circulating recombinant forms (CRF) CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, CRF12_BF, CRF20_BG and group O. Eleven 4th generation antigen/antibody tests and five antigen-only tests were evaluated for their ability to detect VLPs diluted in human plasma to p24 concentrations equivalent to 50, 10 and 2 IU/ml of the WHO p24 standard. Three tests were also evaluated for their ability to detect p24 after heat-denaturation for immune-complex disruption, a pre-requisite for ultrasensitive p24 detection. Results Our VLP panel exhibited an average intra-clade p24 diversity of 6.7%. Among the 4th generation tests, the Abbott Architect and Siemens Enzygnost Integral 4 had the highest sensitivity of 97.7% and 93%, respectively. Alere Determine Combo and BioRad Access were least sensitive with 10.1% and 40.3%, respectively. Antigen-only tests were slightly more sensitive than combination tests. Almost all tests detected the WHO HIV-1 p24 standard at a concentration of 2 IU/ml, but their ability to detect this input for different subtypes varied greatly. Heat-treatment lowered overall detectability of HIV-1 p24 in two of the three tests, but only few VLPs had a more than 3-fold loss in p24 detection. Conclusions The HIV-1 Gag subtype panel has a broad diversity and proved useful for a standardised evaluation of the detection limit and breadth of subtype detection of p24 antigen-detecting tests. Several tests exhibited problems, particularly with non-B subtypes. PMID:25343245

  2. Construction, expression and immunoassay detection of recombinant plasmid encoding fusion protein of Roman chicken complement C3d and Newcastle disease virus F gene.

    PubMed

    Liu, D; Niu, Z-X

    2008-12-01

    The terminal degradation product (C3d) of mammalian complement component C3 plays an important role in modulation of the adaptive immune response through the interaction with complement receptor type 2 (CR2) on B cells. In this study, the gene fragment coding for the complement protein C3d (chC3d) from Roman chicken was cloned and expressed as a fusion protein for its application in the vaccine study of chicken, and for in vitro experiments. The chC3d fragment strengthened B-cell responses when complexed with antigen. Three potential vaccine construct units were engineered to contain two, four and six copies of chC3d coding gene linked to the F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), an economically important pathogen of chicken that is classified as a list A contagious disease of poultry by the Office International des Epizooties. The cloned chC3d protein and different repeats of C3d proteins in addition to the F gene of NDV were generated separately in Escherichia coli and chicken embryo fibroblast cells with the help of expression vectors. All recombinant proteins were analysed by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Analysis of the immunogenicity of different repeats of C3d revealed that chC3d had an enhancing effect on the immunogenicity of antigens, and that six or more repeats of C3d may be necessary for efficient enhancement of antigen-specific immune responses. To date, published research into the adjuvant activities of C3d has been limited to experiments in mice, rabbits and cattle. The adjuvant properties of C3d have not been assessed in poultry using homologous C3d in association with antigens relevant to the target species. The Roman chicken C3d fusion proteins described in this study is the first report and will provide a basis for immunization trials in chicken, studies of receptor binding and cell activation of chicken lymphocytes, and investigations of new types of vaccines, including recombinant vaccines and DNA vaccines for future use against other

  3. Identification of adenovirus 12-encoded E1A tumor antigens synthesized in infected and transformed mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Lucher, L A; Kimelman, D; Symington, J S; Brackmann, K H; Cartas, M A; Thornton, H; Green, M

    1984-10-01

    A 16-amino acid peptide, H2N-Arg-Glu-Gln-Thr-Val-Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Ser-Val-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Cys-COOH (peptide 204), targeted to the common C-terminus of human adenovirus 12 (Ad12) tumor antigens encoded by the E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA, has been synthesized. Antibody prepared in rabbits against peptide 204 immunoprecipitated two proteins of apparent Mr 47,000 and 45,000 from extracts of [35S]methionine-labeled Ad12-early infected KB cells and a 47,000 protein from extracts of the Ad12-transformed hamster cell line, HE C19. Immunoprecipitation analysis of infected and transformed cells labeled with 32Pi showed that both major Ad12 E1A T antigens are phosphoproteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Ad12-early infected KB cells with antipeptide antibody showed the site of E1A protein concentration to be predominantly nuclear. E1A proteins were detected by immunofluorescence at 4 to 6 h postinfection and continued to increase until at least 18 h postinfection. Antipeptide 204 antibody was used to analyze the proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli cells transformed by plasmids containing cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA or 12S mRNA under the control of the tac promoter (D. Kimelman, L. A. Lucher, M. Green, K. H. Brackmann, J. S. Symington, and M. Ptashne, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., in press). A major protein of ca. 47,000 was immunoprecipitated from extracts of each transformed E. coli cell clone. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of immunoprecipitates revealed that the T antigens synthesized in infected KB cells, transformed hamster cells, and transformed E. coli cells possess very similar molecular weights and acidic isoelectric points of 5.2 to 5.4.

  4. Identification of adenovirus 12-encoded E1A tumor antigens synthesized in infected and transformed mammalian cells and in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Lucher, L A; Kimelman, D; Symington, J S; Brackmann, K H; Cartas, M A; Thornton, H; Green, M

    1984-01-01

    A 16-amino acid peptide, H2N-Arg-Glu-Gln-Thr-Val-Pro-Val-Asp-Leu-Ser-Val-Lys-Arg-Pro-Arg-Cys-COOH (peptide 204), targeted to the common C-terminus of human adenovirus 12 (Ad12) tumor antigens encoded by the E1A 13S mRNA and 12S mRNA, has been synthesized. Antibody prepared in rabbits against peptide 204 immunoprecipitated two proteins of apparent Mr 47,000 and 45,000 from extracts of [35S]methionine-labeled Ad12-early infected KB cells and a 47,000 protein from extracts of the Ad12-transformed hamster cell line, HE C19. Immunoprecipitation analysis of infected and transformed cells labeled with 32Pi showed that both major Ad12 E1A T antigens are phosphoproteins. Immunofluorescence microscopy of Ad12-early infected KB cells with antipeptide antibody showed the site of E1A protein concentration to be predominantly nuclear. E1A proteins were detected by immunofluorescence at 4 to 6 h postinfection and continued to increase until at least 18 h postinfection. Antipeptide 204 antibody was used to analyze the proteins synthesized in Escherichia coli cells transformed by plasmids containing cDNA copies of the Ad12 E1A 13S mRNA or 12S mRNA under the control of the tac promoter (D. Kimelman, L. A. Lucher, M. Green, K. H. Brackmann, J. S. Symington, and M. Ptashne, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., in press). A major protein of ca. 47,000 was immunoprecipitated from extracts of each transformed E. coli cell clone. Two-dimensional gel electrophoretic analysis of immunoprecipitates revealed that the T antigens synthesized in infected KB cells, transformed hamster cells, and transformed E. coli cells possess very similar molecular weights and acidic isoelectric points of 5.2 to 5.4. Images PMID:6384554

  5. Bacterial fermentation of recombinant major wasp allergen Antigen 5 using oxygen limiting growth conditions improves yield and quality of inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Kischnick, Stefanie; Weber, Bernhard; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Sanders, Ernst A; Anspach, F Birger; Fiebig, Helmut; Cromwell, Oliver; Suck, Roland

    2006-06-01

    A process for bacterial expression and purification of the recombinant major wasp allergen Antigen 5 (Ves v 5) was developed to produce protein for diagnostic and therapeutic applications for type 1 allergic diseases. Special attention was focused on medium selection, fermentation conditions, and efficient refolding procedures. A soy based medium was used for fermentation to avoid peptone from animal origin. Animal-derived peptone required the use of isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) for the induction of expression. In the case of soy peptone, a constitutive expression was observed, suggesting the presence of a component that mimics IPTG. Batch cultivation at reduced stirrer speed caused a reduced biomass due to oxygen limitation. However, subsequent purification and processing of inclusion bodies yielded significantly higher amount of product. Furthermore, the protein composition of the inclusion bodies differed. Inclusion bodies were denatured and subjected to diafiltration. Detailed monitoring of diafiltration enabled the determination of the transition point. Final purification was conducted using cation-exchange and size-exclusion chromatography. Purified recombinant Ves v 5 was analyzed by RP-HPLC, CD-spectroscopy, SDS-PAGE, and quantification ELISA. Up to 15 mg highly purified Ves v 5 per litre bioreactor volume were obtained, with endotoxin concentrations less than 20 EU mg(-1) protein and high comparability to the natural counterpart. Analytical results confirm the suitability of the recombinant protein for diagnostic and clinical applications. The results clearly demonstrate that not only biomass, but especially growth conditions play a key role in the production of recombinant Ves v 5. This has an influence on inclusion body formation, which in turn influences the renaturation rate and absolute product yield. This might also be true for other recombinant proteins that accumulate as inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli.

  6. Evaluation of immune responses in sheep induced by DNA immunization with genes encoding GRA1, GRA4, GRA6 and GRA7 antigens of Toxoplasma gondii.

    PubMed

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Olędzka, Gabriela; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Li, Hong; Xu, Janet Boyu; Sedcole, Richard; Kur, Józef; Bickerstaffe, Roy; Stankiewicz, Mirosław

    2011-05-11

    The dense granule proteins of Toxoplasma gondii are investigated as possible vaccine candidates against the parasite. The aim of this research was to evaluate the immune responses of sheep injected twice, intramuscularly, with DNA plasmids encoding T. gondii dense granule antigens GRA1, GRA4, GRA6 and GRA7 formulated into liposomes. Control sheep were injected with an empty vector or received no injections. The injection of sheep with DNA plasmids encoding for GRA1, GRA4, GRA6 or GRA7 elicited an immune response after the first and the second injections as indicated by the moderate to high antibody responses. The injection of pGRA7 induced a significant level of anti-GRA7 IgG2 antibody and IFN-γ responses indicating a Th1-like immune response whereas injection with pGRA1, pGRA4 and pGRA6 stimulated a IgG1 type antibody response with a limited, if any, IFN-γ response. The results demonstrate that the intramuscular injection of sheep with a DNA liposome formulated plasmid coding for GRA proteins is an effective system that induces a significant immune response against T. gondii.

  7. Evaluation of Immunogenicity of Cocktail DNA Vaccine Containing Plasmids Encoding Complete GRA5, SAG1, and ROP2 Antigens of Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/C Mice

    PubMed Central

    NASERIFAR, Razi; GHAFFARIFAR, Fatemeh; DALIMI, Abdolhosein; SHARIFI, Zohreh; SOLHJOO, Kavous; HOSSEINIAN KHOSROSHAHI, Kami

    2015-01-01

    Background: Severe and fatal complications of toxoplasmosis urge development of effective vaccines against the disease. The current study was performed to evaluate cocktail DNA vaccine containing plasmids encoding GRA5, SAG1, and ROP2 genes of Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice in Tarbiat Modares University in 2012. Methods: The plasmids containing complete GRA5, SAG1, and ROP2 genes were mass extracted and then the recombinant plasmids were administered via intramuscular injections according to immunized mice three times with three-week intervals. Then splenocytes were cultured, and proliferation as well as cytokine assays were carried out. The other mice in each group were inoculated by the parasite and mortality of the mice was evaluated on a daily basis. Results: The results of cytokine assay for INF-γ were higher in the mice that received the cocktail DNA containing recombinant plasmids. Evaluation of proliferation of splenocytes using the MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay indicated induction of cellular response. Measurement of total IgG and the isotypes of IgG1 and IgG2a showed that the cocktail DNA stimulated IgG and IgG2a production in comparison with the control groups (P<0.05). Furthermore, the survival rate of mice in the groups that received the cocktail DNA was significantly higher than that in the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: Administration of the cocktail DNA vaccine led to production of higher levels of IFN-γ, confirmed by secretion of IgG2a, and the immune response was shifted toward Th1. Thus, the cocktail DNA containing the recombinant plasmids can be an appropriate candidate for immunization against toxoplasmosis. PMID:26811726

  8. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Using Recombinant SAG1 Antigen To Detect Toxoplasma gondii-Specific Immunoglobulin G Antibodies in Human Sera and Saliva

    PubMed Central

    Chahed Bel-Ochi, Nouha; Bouratbine, Aïda

    2013-01-01

    Serologic detection of Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies is widely accepted as a means to determine immune status and susceptibility to Toxoplasma infection during pregnancy. However, current commercial kits present some drawbacks, such as a requirement for whole-parasite antigen preparation or interassay variability. To address these problems, the purpose of this study was to produce a whole sequence of the recombinant T. gondii SAG1 antigen (rSAG1) to assess its diagnostic performance in Toxoplasma IgG screening and to explore a saliva-based method as a noninvasive alternative to serum-based testing. rSAG1 was expressed in recombinant bacteria as inclusion bodies, purified through one-step affinity chromatography, and refolded in native form by dialysis. A large amount was obtained, and the specific antigen immunoreactivity was confirmed by immunoblotting. Two rSAG1-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) applied to paired serum and saliva samples were designed. The rSAG1-based ELISA evaluation consisted of testing intrinsic sensitivity and specificity of 49 serum samples from patients immune to toxoplasmosis and 42 serum samples from nonimmune controls identified by routinely used kits. To assess agreement between serum-based and saliva-based tests, the positive percent agreement (PPA) and negative percent agreement (NPA) between the 2 tests were estimated. The rSAG1 serum-based ELISA detected specific IgG with 100% sensitivity and specificity. The PPA and NPA between the serum-based and saliva-based tests varied according to the selected optical density threshold in saliva. Thus, for a selected cutoff of 0.14, the PPA was 100% and the NPA was 88.1%, whereas for a selected cutoff of 0.29, the PPA was 67.3% and the NPA was 100%. PMID:23345586

  9. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay for Serological Diagnosis of Chagas' Disease Employing a Trypanosoma cruzi Recombinant Antigen That Consists of Four Different Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, A. W.; Belem, Z. R.; Lemos, E. A.; Reed, S. G.; Campos-Neto, A.

    2001-01-01

    Serological tests to detect Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies have been used for screening blood donors, for epidemic studies, and for diagnosis of probably infected persons. Among different tests, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with total, semipurified, or synthetic antigens has been widely used, mainly due to its easy automation. Aiming to improve serological studies concerning Chagas' disease, we have developed and evaluated a new test, the TcF-ELISA, using an artificially engineered recombinant antigen, which contains tandem sequences of different T. cruzi-specific peptides. The sensibility of the TcF-ELISA was determined with 101 serum samples from chagasic patients well-defined by clinical and epidemiological criteria. The specificity was determined with 39 serum samples from leishmaniasis or kala-azar patients and 150 serum samples from nonchagasic blood donors from Sao Paulo, Brazil. The TcF-ELISA showed 100% sensitivity and 98.94% of specificity. Compared with conventional ELISA (with semipurified T. cruzi epimastigote antigens), the TcF-ELISA showed advantages; for example, it distinguishes better between reagent and nonreagent serum and provides better precision and a lower occurrence of leishmaniasis cross-reactions. Our studies demonstrate high reproducibility between two different lots of the TcF ELISA and its applicability for the serological diagnosis of Chagas' disease. PMID:11724850

  10. Modulation of immune response to Toxoplasma gondii in sheep by immunization with a DNA vaccine encoding ROP1 antigen as a fusion protein with ovine CD154.

    PubMed

    Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Li, Hong; Xu, Janet Boyu; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Sedcole, Richard; Bickerstaffe, Roy; Stankiewicz, Mirosław

    2011-12-29

    CD154 is a cell surface molecule expressed by activated T cells. CD40 and CD154 interaction is critically important in regulating humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. In this study we have investigated whether a DNA vaccine encoding rhoptry protein 1 (ROP1) of Toxoplasma gondii, and encoding ovine CD154 induces an enhanced ROP1-specific immune response in sheep. Two groups of twelve animals received two intramuscular injections, of a DNA plasmid encoding T. gondii ROP1 antigen (group 1) or an ROP1 antigen fused to ovine CD154 (group 2). There were two control groups of sheep. One was injected with an empty vector (group 3) and the other received no injections at all (group 4). The injection of the plasmid containing ROP1 (group 1) at weeks 0 and 4 induced a significant IgG2 response at week 2 which was amplified at week 4 after the booster injection and persisted to week 8 compared to the control animals in groups 3 and 4. For IgG1, significant differences from the control animals were only observed from week 5 onwards. The fusion of CD154 and ROP1 elicited significant IgG1 and IgG2 responses from week 1 which were amplified from weeks 5 to 8 compared to the control animals in groups 3 and 4. The IgG1 response was significantly higher in group 2 animals receiving pROP1-CD154 compared to group 1 receiving pROP1 only. There was no significant difference in IgG2 responses between groups 1 and 2. Significant differences in IFN-γ levels were only observed in treatment group 1 at week 2 and treatment group 2 at weeks 1 and 2 compared to the control animals. The results demonstrated that an intramuscular injection of pROP1-CD154 gene to sheep significantly enhanced their immune response and induced a mixed Th1/Th2 response while the intramuscular injection of pROP1 only induced a Th1-specific immune response.

  11. A recombinant protein based on the Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigote 82-kilodalton antigen that induces and effective immune response to acute infection.

    PubMed Central

    Santori F, R; Paranhos-Bacalla, G S; Franco DA Silveira, J; Yamauchi, L M; Araya, J E; Yoshida, N

    1996-01-01

    To further investigate the immunological properties of the stage-specific 82-kDa glycoprotein (gp82) of Trypanosoma cruzi metacyclic trypomastigotes, previously shown to induce antigen-specific humoral and T-cell responses in mice, we performed a series of experiments with recombinant proteins containing sequences of gp82 fused to glutathione S-transferase. Of five fusion proteins tested, only J18b and J18b1, the carboxyproximal peptides containing amino acids 224 to 516 and 303 to 516, respectively, were recognized by monoclonal antibody 3F6 as well as by various anti-T. cruzi antisera and, when administered to mice, were capable of eliciting antibodies directed to the native gp82. The amino-terminal peptide and other carboxyterminal recombinant proteins lacking the central domain of gp82 (amino acids 224 to 356), which is exposed on the surface of live metacyclic forms, did not display any of these properties. Spleen cells derived from mice immunized with any of the five recombinant proteins proliferated in vitro in the presence of native gp82.J18b was the most stimulatory, whereas J18b3, the peptide containing amino acids 408 to 516, elicited the weakest response. When BALB/c mice immunized with J18b antigen plus A1(OH)3 as adjuvant were challenged 10 5 metacyclic trypomastigotes, 85% of them resisted acute infection, in comparison with control mice that received glutathione S-transferase plus adjuvant. Antibodies induced by J18b protein lacked agglutinating or complement-dependent lytic activity and failed to neutralize parasite infectivity. On the other hand, CD4+T cells from the spleens of J18b-immunized mice displayed an intense proliferative activity upon stimulation with 1.25 microgram of native gp82 per ml, which resulted in increased production of gamma interferon, a cytokine associated with resistance to T. cruzi infection. PMID:8606064

  12. Immunogenicity of recombinant classic swine fever virus CD8(+) T lymphocyte epitope and porcine parvovirus VP2 antigen coexpressed by Lactobacillus casei in swine via oral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yigang; Cui, Lichun; Tian, Changyong; Zhang, Guocai; Huo, Guicheng; Tang, Lijie; Li, Yijing

    2011-11-01

    Classical swine fever virus (CSFV) and porcine parvovirus (PPV) are highly contagious pathogens, resulting in enormous economic losses in pig industries worldwide. Because vaccines play an important role in disease control, researchers are seeking improved vaccines that could induce antiviral immune responses against CSFV and PPV at the mucosal and systemic levels simultaneously. In this study, a genetically engineered Lactobacillus strain coexpressing the CSFV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope 290 and the VP2 antigen of PPV was developed, and its immunopotentiating capacity as an oral vaccine in pigs was analyzed. The data demonstrated that in the absence of any adjuvant, the recombinant Lactobacillus strain can efficiently stimulate mucosal and systemic CSFV-specific CD8(+) CTL responses to protect pigs against CSFV challenge. Moreover, anti-PPV-VP2 serum IgG and mucosal IgA were induced in pigs immunized orally with the recombinant Lactobacillus strain, showing a neutralizing effect on PPV infection. The results suggest that the recombinant Lactobacillus microecological agent may be a valuable component of a strategy for development of a vaccine against CSFV and PPV. PMID:21940406

  13. Expression of epstein-barr virus encoded nuclear antigen 1 in benign and malignant tissues harbouring EBV.

    PubMed Central

    Oudejans, J J; Dukers, D F; Jiwa, N M; van den Brule, A J; Grässer, F A; de Bruin, P C; Horstman, A; Vos, W; van Gorp, J; Middeldorp, J M; Meijer, C J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To determine levels of expression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA1) in benign and malignant tissues harbouring EBV in relation to EBNA1 promoter usage. METHODS: Expression of EBNA1 was investigated by means of immunohistochemistry using a mixture of two EBNA1 specific monoclonal antibodies, 1H4-1 and 2B4-1. The presence of EBV was detected by EBER1/2 RNA in situ hybridisation. Detection of promoter specific EBNA1 transcripts was by RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: EBNA1 positive cells were detected in all 20 EBV associated B cell lymphomas, 18 of which had arisen in immunocompromised patients; in eight of nine EBV associated T cell lymphomas; in 11 of 27 EBV positive cases of Hodgkin's disease; and in reactive lymphoid tissue harbouring EBV, including four cases of infectious mononucleosis. A diffuse EBNA1 staining pattern was observed in most of the EBV associated B cell lymphomas and was comparable with the EBER1/2 staining pattern. In the T cell lymphomas the number of EBNA1 positive cells was usually considerably less than the number of EBER1/2 positive ones. RT-PCR analysis revealed that in tumours with restricted EBNA1 expression-that is, T cell lymphomas and Hodgkin's disease lesions, EBNA1 transcripts were usually generated only by the F/Q promoter, whereas in B cell lymphomas EBNA1 transcripts were usually generated by both the C/W and F/Q promoters. CONCLUSIONS: EBNA1 is expressed in all types of tissue harbouring EBV, but the level of expression varies greatly. This may be the result of differential promoter usage. Images PMID:8944608

  14. A recombinant adenovirus expressing CFP10, ESAT6, Ag85A and Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis elicits strong antigen-specific immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Deng, Guangcun; Li, Min; Zeng, Jin; Zhao, Liping; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2014-11-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by an infection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) and remains an enormous and increasing health burden worldwide. To date, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is the only licensed anti-TB vaccine worldwide, which provides an important but limited protection from the Mtb infection. The development of alternative anti-TB vaccines is therefore urgently needed. Here we report, the generation of Ad5-CEAB, a recombinant adenovirus expressing Mtb antigens of CFP10, ESAT6, Ag85A and Ag85B proteins in a form of mixture. In order to evaluate the immunogenicity of Ad5-CEAB, mice were immunized with Ad5-CEAB by intranasal instillation three times with 2-week intervals. The results demonstrated that Ad5-CEAB elicited a strong antigen-specific immune response, particularly of the Th1 immune responses that were characterized by an increased ratio of IgG2a/IgG1 and secretions of Th1 type cytokines, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2 and IL-12. In addition, the Ad5-CEAB also showed an ability to enhance humoral responses with a dramatically augmented antigen-specific serum IgG. Furthermore, an elevated sIgA were also found in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the immunized mice, suggesting the elicitation of mucosal immune responses. These data indicate that Ad5-CEAB can induce a broad range of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, which provides a promising and novel route for developing anti-TB vaccines and warrants further investigation.

  15. Immunogenicity and protective efficacy of a recombinant adenoviral based vaccine expressing heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and K99 adhesion antigen of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in mice.

    PubMed

    Deng, Guangcun; Li, Wu; Wu, Xiaoling; Bao, Shaowen; Zeng, Jin; Zhao, Ning; Luo, Meihui; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2015-12-01

    The diarrheal disease of domestic animals or in humans caused by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) infections remains a major issue for public health in developing countries. Unfortunately, there is no effective vaccine available for preventing from an ETEC infection. Therefore, the development of a safe and effective vaccine against ETEC is urgently needed. In the present study, A recombinant adenoviral vector Ad5-STa-K99 that capable of expressing a fusion protein of heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) and K99 adhesion antigen of ETEC was generated and its immunogenicity was evaluated in a murine model. The intestinal mucosal secretory IgA(sIgA), serum anti-STa-K99 antibody responses, antigen-specific CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells frequencies, as well as T-cell proliferation of mice immunized with the viral vector were determined as immunological indexes. The results demonstrated that Ad5-STa-K99 was able to enhance humoral responses with a dramatically augmented antigen-specific serum IgG antibody, and an elevated production of intestinal sIgA in immunized mice, suggesting the elicitation of both of humoral and mucosal immune responses. In addition, this adenoviral vector could significantly promote splenic T cell proliferation and increase the frequencies of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell populations in mice, indicative of a capacity to activate T cell responses. More importantly, vaccination of the Ad5-STa-K99 showed a potential to evoke a protective effect from ETEC challenge in mice. These data indicate that the Ad5-STa-K99 is a highly immunogenic vector able to induce a broad range of antigen-specific immune responses in vivo, and evoke a protective immune response against ETEC infections, implying that it may be a novel vaccine candidate warranted for further investigation.

  16. Efficacy of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia and fowlpox vectors expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen in ovarian cancer and melanoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Odunsi, Kunle; Matsuzaki, Junko; Karbach, Julia; Neumann, Antje; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Beck, Amy; Morrison, Carl D.; Ritter, Gerd; Godoy, Heidi; Lele, Shashikant; duPont, Nefertiti; Edwards, Robert; Shrikant, Protul; Old, Lloyd J.; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jäger, Elke

    2012-01-01

    Recombinant poxviruses (vaccinia and fowlpox) expressing tumor-associated antigens are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as cancer vaccines to induce tumor-specific immune responses that will improve clinical outcome. To test whether a diversified prime and boost regimen targeting NY-ESO-1 will result in clinical benefit, we conducted two parallel phase II clinical trials of recombinant vaccinia-NY-ESO-1 (rV-NY-ESO-1), followed by booster vaccinations with recombinant fowlpox-NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) in 25 melanoma and 22 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with advanced disease who were at high risk for recurrence/progression. Integrated NY-ESO-1-specific antibody and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were induced in a high proportion of melanoma and EOC patients. In melanoma patients, objective response rate [complete and partial response (CR+PR)] was 14%, mixed response was 5%, and disease stabilization was 52%, amounting to a clinical benefit rate (CBR) of 72% in melanoma patients. The median PFS in the melanoma patients was 9 mo (range, 0–84 mo) and the median OS was 48 mo (range, 3–106 mo). In EOC patients, the median PFS was 21 mo (95% CI, 16–29 mo), and median OS was 48 mo (CI, not estimable). CD8+ T cells derived from vaccinated patients were shown to lyse NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor targets. These data provide preliminary evidence of clinically meaningful benefit for diversified prime and boost recombinant pox-viral-based vaccines in melanoma and ovarian cancer and support further evaluation of this approach in these patient populations. PMID:22454499

  17. Efficacy of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia and fowlpox vectors expressing NY-ESO-1 antigen in ovarian cancer and melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Odunsi, Kunle; Matsuzaki, Junko; Karbach, Julia; Neumann, Antje; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Miller, Austin; Beck, Amy; Morrison, Carl D; Ritter, Gerd; Godoy, Heidi; Lele, Shashikant; duPont, Nefertiti; Edwards, Robert; Shrikant, Protul; Old, Lloyd J; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jäger, Elke

    2012-04-10

    Recombinant poxviruses (vaccinia and fowlpox) expressing tumor-associated antigens are currently being evaluated in clinical trials as cancer vaccines to induce tumor-specific immune responses that will improve clinical outcome. To test whether a diversified prime and boost regimen targeting NY-ESO-1 will result in clinical benefit, we conducted two parallel phase II clinical trials of recombinant vaccinia-NY-ESO-1 (rV-NY-ESO-1), followed by booster vaccinations with recombinant fowlpox-NY-ESO-1 (rF-NY-ESO-1) in 25 melanoma and 22 epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with advanced disease who were at high risk for recurrence/progression. Integrated NY-ESO-1-specific antibody and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells were induced in a high proportion of melanoma and EOC patients. In melanoma patients, objective response rate [complete and partial response (CR+PR)] was 14%, mixed response was 5%, and disease stabilization was 52%, amounting to a clinical benefit rate (CBR) of 72% in melanoma patients. The median PFS in the melanoma patients was 9 mo (range, 0-84 mo) and the median OS was 48 mo (range, 3-106 mo). In EOC patients, the median PFS was 21 mo (95% CI, 16-29 mo), and median OS was 48 mo (CI, not estimable). CD8(+) T cells derived from vaccinated patients were shown to lyse NY-ESO-1-expressing tumor targets. These data provide preliminary evidence of clinically meaningful benefit for diversified prime and boost recombinant pox-viral-based vaccines in melanoma and ovarian cancer and support further evaluation of this approach in these patient populations.

  18. Insertion of host DNA into PVL-encoding phages of the Staphylococcus aureus lineage ST80 by intra-chromosomal recombination.

    PubMed

    Wirtz, Christiane; Witte, Wolfgang; Wolz, Christiane; Goerke, Christiane

    2010-10-25

    Temperate bacteriophages play a critical role in the pathogenicity of the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus by mediating positive lysogenic conversion for different virulence factors such as Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) or by interrupting chromosomal virulence genes. PVL-encoding phages are integrated in the S. aureus genome within a conserved ORF which is surrounded by a cluster of tandemly repeated genes. Here we demonstrate that in S. aureus clonal complex ST80 strains PVL-phage induction led to the acquisition of host DNA into the phage genome probably due to a homologous recombination event between direct repeats of the two paralogous genes adjacent to the phage integration site. Phage excision was accompanied by an additional chromosomal deletion in this region. This so far unrecognized mechanism of DNA uptake into the phage genome may play an important role in the co-evolution of phages and bacteria. PMID:20708208

  19. DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Kinnear, Ekaterina; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Lindeberg, Mona M.; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8+ T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8+ T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8+ T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-Ed single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines.

  20. DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8(+) T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Laura; Kinnear, Ekaterina; McDonald, Jacqueline U; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Lindeberg, Mona M; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Tregoning, John S

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8(+) T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8(+) T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8(+) T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-E(d) single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines. PMID:27602032

  1. DNA Vaccines Encoding Antigen Targeted to MHC Class II Induce Influenza-Specific CD8+ T Cell Responses, Enabling Faster Resolution of Influenza Disease

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Kinnear, Ekaterina; McDonald, Jacqueline U.; Grodeland, Gunnveig; Bogen, Bjarne; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Lindeberg, Mona M.; Fredriksen, Agnete Brunsvik; Tregoning, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Current influenza vaccines are effective but imperfect, failing to cover against emerging strains of virus and requiring seasonal administration to protect against new strains. A key step to improving influenza vaccines is to improve our understanding of vaccine-induced protection. While it is clear that antibodies play a protective role, vaccine-induced CD8+ T cells can improve protection. To further explore the role of CD8+ T cells, we used a DNA vaccine that encodes antigen dimerized to an immune cell targeting module. Immunizing CB6F1 mice with the DNA vaccine in a heterologous prime-boost regime with the seasonal protein vaccine improved the resolution of influenza disease compared with protein alone. This improved disease resolution was dependent on CD8+ T cells. However, DNA vaccine regimes that induced CD8+ T cells alone were not protective and did not boost the protection provided by protein. The MHC-targeting module used was an anti-I-Ed single chain antibody specific to the BALB/c strain of mice. To test the role of MHC targeting, we compared the response between BALB/c, C57BL/6 mice, and an F1 cross of the two strains (CB6F1). BALB/c mice were protected, C57BL/6 were not, and the F1 had an intermediate phenotype; showing that the targeting of antigen is important in the response. Based on these findings, and in agreement with other studies using different vaccines, we conclude that, in addition to antibody, inducing a protective CD8 response is important in future influenza vaccines. PMID:27602032

  2. Brucella abortus Omp19 recombinant protein subcutaneously co-delivered with an antigen enhances antigen-specific T helper 1 memory responses and induces protection against parasite challenge.

    PubMed

    Coria, Lorena M; Ibañez, Andrés E; Pasquevich, Karina A; Cobiello, Paula L González; Frank, Fernanda M; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Cassataro, Juliana

    2016-01-20

    The discovery of effective adjuvants for many vaccines especially those with limited commercial appeal, such as vaccines to poverty-related diseases, is required. In this work, we demonstrated that subcutaneous co-administration of mice with the outer membrane protein U-Omp19 from Brucella spp. plus OVA as antigen (Ag) increases Ag-specific T cell proliferation and T helper (Th) 1 immune responses in vitro and in vivo. U-Omp19 treated dendritic cells promote IFN-γ production by specific CD4(+) T cells and increases T cell proliferation. U-Omp19 co-administration induces the production of Ag specific effector memory T cell populations (CD4(+) CD44(high) CD62L(low) T cells). Finally, subcutaneous co-administration of U-Omp19 with Trypanosoma cruzi Ags confers protection against virulent parasite challenge, reducing parasitemia and weight loss while increasing mice survival. These results indicate that the bacterial protein U-Omp19 when delivered subcutaneously could be a suitable component of vaccine formulations against infectious diseases requiring Th1 immune responses.

  3. Application of encoded library technology (ELT) to a protein-protein interaction target: discovery of a potent class of integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) antagonists.

    PubMed

    Kollmann, Christopher S; Bai, Xiaopeng; Tsai, Ching-Hsuan; Yang, Hongfang; Lind, Kenneth E; Skinner, Steven R; Zhu, Zhengrong; Israel, David I; Cuozzo, John W; Morgan, Barry A; Yuki, Koichi; Xie, Can; Springer, Timothy A; Shimaoka, Motomu; Evindar, Ghotas

    2014-04-01

    The inhibition of protein-protein interactions remains a challenge for traditional small molecule drug discovery. Here we describe the use of DNA-encoded library technology for the discovery of small molecules that are potent inhibitors of the interaction between lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 and its ligand intercellular adhesion molecule 1. A DNA-encoded library with a potential complexity of 4.1 billion compounds was exposed to the I-domain of the target protein and the bound ligands were affinity selected, yielding an enriched small-molecule hit family. Compounds representing this family were synthesized without their DNA encoding moiety and found to inhibit the lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 interaction with submicromolar potency in both ELISA and cell adhesion assays. Re-synthesized compounds conjugated to DNA or a fluorophore were demonstrated to bind to cells expressing the target protein. PMID:24593905

  4. Protective immunization of horses with a recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine co-expressing genes encoding the outer capsid proteins of African horse sickness virus.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, Alan J; Quan, Melvyn; Lourens, Carina W; Audonnet, Jean-Christophe; Minke, Jules M; Yao, Jiansheng; He, Ling; Nordgren, Robert; Gardner, Ian A; Maclachlan, N James

    2009-07-16

    We describe the development and preliminary characterization of a recombinant canarypox virus vectored (ALVAC) vaccine for protective immunization of equids against African horse sickness virus (AHSV) infection. Horses (n=8) immunized with either of two concentrations of recombinant canarypox virus vector (ALVAC-AHSV) co-expressing synthetic genes encoding the outer capsid proteins (VP2 and VP5) of AHSV serotype 4 (AHSV-4) developed variable titres (<10-80) of virus-specific neutralizing antibodies and were completely resistant to challenge infection with a virulent strain of AHSV-4. In contrast, a horse immunized with a commercial recombinant canarypox virus vectored vaccine expressing the haemagglutinin genes of two equine influenza H3N8 viruses was seronegative to AHSV and following infection with virulent AHSV-4 developed pyrexia, thrombocytopenia and marked oedema of the supraorbital fossae typical of the "dikkop" or cardiac form of African horse sickness. AHSV was detected by virus isolation and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in the blood of the control horse from 8 days onwards after challenge infection whereas AHSV was not detected at any time in the blood of the ALVAC-AHSV vaccinated horses. The control horse seroconverted to AHSV by 2 weeks after challenge infection as determined by both virus neutralization and ELISA assays, whereas six of eight of the ALVAC-AHSV vaccinated horses did not seroconvert by either assay following challenge infection with virulent AHSV-4. These data confirm that the ALVAC-AHSV vaccine will be useful for the protective immunization of equids against African horse sickness, and avoids many of the problems inherent to live-attenuated AHSV vaccines.

  5. Simple Objective Detection of Human Lyme Disease Infection Using Immuno-PCR and a Single Recombinant Hybrid Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Halpern, Micah D.; Molins, Claudia R.; Schriefer, Martin

    2014-01-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of <3%. Using eight antigen-specific iPCR assays and positive call thresholds established for each assay, iPCR IgM and/or IgG diagnosis from Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi. PMID:24899074

  6. Simple objective detection of human lyme disease infection using immuno-PCR and a single recombinant hybrid antigen.

    PubMed

    Halpern, Micah D; Molins, Claudia R; Schriefer, Martin; Jewett, Mollie W

    2014-08-01

    A serology-based tiered approach has, to date, provided the most effective means of laboratory confirmation of clinically suspected cases of Lyme disease, but it lacks sensitivity in the early stages of disease and is often dependent on subjectively scored immunoblots. We recently demonstrated the use of immuno-PCR (iPCR) for detecting Borrelia burgdorferi antibodies in patient serum samples that were positive for Lyme disease. To better understand the performance of the Lyme disease iPCR assay, the repeatability and variability of the background of the assay across samples from a healthy population (n = 36) were analyzed. Both of these parameters were found to have coefficients of variation of <3%. Using eight antigen-specific iPCR assays and positive call thresholds established for each assay, iPCR IgM and/or IgG diagnosis from Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12) demonstrated a strong correlation with that of 2-tier testing. Furthermore, a simplified iPCR approach using a single hybrid antigen and detecting only IgG antibodies confirmed the 2-tier diagnosis in the Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 12). Validation of the hybrid antigen IgG iPCR assay using a blinded panel of Lyme disease and non-Lyme disease patient serum samples (n = 92) resulted in a sensitivity of 69% (95% confidence interval [CI], 50% to 84%), compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 59% (95% CI, 41% to 76%), and a specificity of 98% (95% CI, 91% to 100%) compared to that of the 2-tier analysis at 97% (95% CI, 88% to 100%). A single-tier hybrid antigen iPCR assay has the potential to be an improved method for detecting host-generated antibodies against B. burgdorferi.

  7. Considerations for the clinical application of chimeric antigen receptor T cells: observations from a recombinant DNA Advisory Committee Symposium held June 15, 2010.

    PubMed

    Ertl, Hildegund C J; Zaia, John; Rosenberg, Steven A; June, Carl H; Dotti, Gianpietro; Kahn, Jeffrey; Cooper, Laurence J N; Corrigan-Curay, Jacqueline; Strome, Scott E

    2011-05-01

    T cells that are genetically modified to express single-chain chimeric antigen receptors (CAR) have shown promise in early cancer immunotherapy clinical trials. Unfortunately, 2 recent deaths in cancer patients treated with CAR T cells have created some uncertainty on how to best mitigate patient risk, while continuing to advance this very promising therapeutic avenue. In order to address these concerns, the Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee (RAC) held a symposium, the objectives of which were to first review the reported treatment-associated toxicities and, second, to discuss methods for improving safety and efficacy. This report highlights the issues raised as part of this discussion, with a specific focus on protocols infusing CAR T cells. Because this was not a consensus conference, the opinions described should not be construed to represent those of any individual RAC member, the RAC as a body, conference participants, the National Institutes of Health, or the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  8. Biochemical characterization of recombinant guaA-encoded guanosine monophosphate synthetase (EC 6.3.5.2) from Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv strain.

    PubMed

    Franco, Tathyana Mar A; Rostirolla, Diana C; Ducati, Rodrigo G; Lorenzini, Daniel M; Basso, Luiz A; Santos, Diógenes S

    2012-01-01

    Administration of the current tuberculosis (TB) vaccine to newborns is not a reliable route for preventing TB in adults. The conversion of XMP to GMP is catalyzed by guaA-encoded GMP synthetase (GMPS), and deletions in the Shiguella flexneri guaBA operon led to an attenuated auxotrophic strain. Here we present the cloning, expression, and purification of recombinant guaA-encoded GMPS from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtGMPS). Mass spectrometry data, oligomeric state determination, steady-state kinetics, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and multiple sequence alignment are also presented. The homodimeric MtGMPS catalyzes the conversion of XMP, MgATP, and glutamine into GMP, ADP, PP(i), and glutamate. XMP, NH(4)(+), and Mg(2+) displayed positive homotropic cooperativity, whereas ATP and glutamine displayed hyperbolic saturation curves. The activity of ATP pyrophosphatase domain is independent of glutamine amidotransferase domain, whereas the latter cannot catalyze hydrolysis of glutamine to NH(3) and glutamate in the absence of substrates. ITC data suggest random order of binding of substrates, and PP(i) is the last product released. Sequence comparison analysis showed conservation of both Cys-His-Glu catalytic triad of N-terminal Class I amidotransferase and of amino acid residues of the P-loop of the N-type ATP pyrophosphatase family.

  9. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John P.; Rascoe, Lisa N.; Levert, Keith; Chastain, Holly M.; Reed, Matthew S.; Rivera, Hilda N.; McAuliffe, Isabel; Zhan, Bin; Wiegand, Ryan E.; Hotez, Peter J.; Wilkins, Patricia P.; Pohl, Jan; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag) in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag. PMID:26485145

  10. Development of a Luminex Bead Based Assay for Diagnosis of Toxocariasis Using Recombinant Antigens Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John P; Rascoe, Lisa N; Levert, Keith; Chastain, Holly M; Reed, Matthew S; Rivera, Hilda N; McAuliffe, Isabel; Zhan, Bin; Wiegand, Ryan E; Hotez, Peter J; Wilkins, Patricia P; Pohl, Jan; Handali, Sukwan

    2015-01-01

    The clinical spectrum of human disease caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati ranges from visceral and ocular larva migrans to covert toxocariasis. The parasite is not typically recovered in affected tissues, so detection of parasite-specific antibodies is usually necessary for establishing a diagnosis. The most reliable immunodiagnostic methods use the Toxocara excretory-secretory antigens (TES-Ag) in ELISA formats to detect Toxocara-specific antibodies. To eliminate the need for native parasite materials, we identified and purified immunodiagnostic antigens using 2D gel electrophoresis followed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Three predominant immunoreactive proteins were found in the TES; all three had been previously described in the literature: Tc-CTL-1, Tc-TES-26, and Tc-MUC-3. We generated Escherichia coli expressed recombinant proteins for evaluation in Luminex based immunoassays. We were unable to produce a functional assay with the Tc-MUC-3 recombinant protein. Tc-CTL-1 and Tc-TES-26 were successfully coupled and tested using defined serum batteries. The use of both proteins together generated better results than if the proteins were used individually. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay for detecting visceral larval migrans using Tc-CTL-1 plus Tc-TES-26 was 99% and 94%, respectively; the sensitivity for detecting ocular larval migrans was 64%. The combined performance of the new assay was superior to the currently available EIA and could potentially be employed to replace current assays that rely on native TES-Ag. PMID:26485145

  11. Immunization against Lamb Haemonchosis with a Recombinant Somatic Antigen of Haemonchus contortus (rHcp26/23)

    PubMed Central

    García-Coiradas, Leticia; Angulo-Cubillán, Francisco; Valladares, Basilio; Martínez, Enrique; de la Fuente, Concepción; Alunda, José María; Cuquerella, Montserrat

    2010-01-01

    Haemonchosis, caused by the abomasal nematode Haemonchus contortus, is a common parasitic disease of sheep. Our previous results showed that a soluble fraction from adult stages of the nematode (p26/23) induced partial protection against challenge. Recombinant DNA technology was applied to obtain a synthetic protein (rHcp26/23). Immunological assays (ELISA, Western blotting, and immunolocalization), using sera from lambs immunized with p26/23, confirmed the identity of the recombinant protein and demonstrated that the synthetic protein is equivalent to the purified protein employed in the previous immunoprophylaxis studies. Vaccination of lambs with 300 μg of rHcp26/23 and Freund's adjuvant elicited a notable specific antibody response. Immunization did not induce any significant protection after challenge with 16000 infective larvae of H. contortus, and comparable values for parasite faecal egg output, packed cell volume, and abomasal parasite burdens were found in vaccinated and control animals. PMID:20631899

  12. Western Blot Assay Using Recombinant p26 Antigen for Detection of Equine Infectious Anemia Virus-Specific Antibodies▿

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, I.; Gutierrez, G.; Ostlund, E.; Barrandeguy, M.; Trono, K.

    2007-01-01

    We analyzed the performance of a single-band Western blot (WB) test using recombinant p26 (rp26) capsid protein of equine infectious anemia virus. According to the results obtained, the rp26 WB test is a reliable confirmatory diagnostic tool to be used as a complementary test after an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay or agar gel immunodiffusion test yielding doubtful results. PMID:17959820

  13. Molecular cloning of a gene encoding a Chlamydia psittaci 57-kDa protein that shares antigenic determinants with ca. 60-kDa proteins present in many gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Menozzi, F D; Menozzi-Dejaiffe, C; Nano, F E

    1989-03-01

    In order to develop reagents to study the immune response of guinea pigs to infection by Chlamydia psittaci guinea pig inclusion conjunctivitis strain (GPIC), we constructed a plasmid clone bank with C. psittaci DNA. One of the recombinant clones isolated produced large amounts of a 57-kilodalton (kDa) protein that was immunoreactive with sera from GPIC infected guinea pigs. While investigating this recombinant protein, we discovered that all the Gram-negative bacteria analyzed so far have immunoreactive proteins of similar size. This protein seems to be a 'common antigen' already described in various Gram-negative bacteria.

  14. Macrophage Immune Response Suppression by Recombinant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Antigens, the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Seghatoleslam, Atefeh; Hemmati, Mina; Ebadat, Saeedeh; Movahedi, Bahram; Mostafavi-Pour, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Macrophage immune responses are affected by the secretory proteins of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). This study aimed to examine the immune responses of macrophages to Mtb secretory antigens, namely ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10. Methods: THP-1 cells (a human monocytic cell line) were cultured and differentiated to macrophages by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The cytotoxicity of the recombinant Mtb proteins was assessed using the MTT assay. Two important immune responses of macrophages, namely NO and ROS production, were measured in response to the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 antigens. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with SPSS, version 16, and considered significant at P<0.05. Results: The results showed that the ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 proteins markedly reduced macrophage immune response. The treatment of the THP-1-differentiated cells with ESAT-6, CFP-10, and ESAT-6/CFP-10 reduced NO and ROS production. The treated THP-1-differentiated cells exhibited less inducible NO synthase activity than did the untreated cells. No toxic effect on macrophage viability was observed for the applied proteins at the different concentrations. Conclusion: It seems that the decline in macrophage immune response is due to the suppression of NO and ROS production pathways without any effect on cell viability. PMID:27365551

  15. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew D; Wilder, Julie A; Mega, William M; Hutt, Julie A; Kuehl, Philip J; Valderas, Michelle W; Chew, Lawrence L; Liang, Bertrand C; Squires, Charles H

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described. We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D) and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg.

  16. Immunization with a Recombinant, Pseudomonas fluorescens-Expressed, Mutant Form of Bacillus anthracis-Derived Protective Antigen Protects Rabbits from Anthrax Infection

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Matthew D.; Wilder, Julie A.; Mega, William M.; Hutt, Julie A.; Kuehl, Philip J.; Valderas, Michelle W.; Chew, Lawrence L.; Liang, Bertrand C.; Squires, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Protective antigen (PA), one of the components of the anthrax toxin, is the major component of human anthrax vaccine (Biothrax). Human anthrax vaccines approved in the United States and Europe consist of an alum-adsorbed or precipitated (respectively) supernatant material derived from cultures of toxigenic, non-encapsulated strains of Bacillus anthracis. Approved vaccination schedules in humans with either of these vaccines requires several booster shots and occasionally causes adverse injection site reactions. Mutant derivatives of the protective antigen that will not form the anthrax toxins have been described. We have cloned and expressed both mutant (PA SNKE167-ΔFF-315-E308D) and native PA molecules recombinantly and purified them. In this study, both the mutant and native PA molecules, formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), elicited high titers of anthrax toxin neutralizing anti-PA antibodies in New Zealand White rabbits. Both mutant and native PA vaccine preparations protected rabbits from lethal, aerosolized, B. anthracis spore challenge subsequent to two immunizations at doses of less than 1 μg. PMID:26207820

  17. Validation of a recombinant integrin αvβ6/monoclonal antibody based antigen ELISA for the diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Nigel P; Grazioli, Santina; Hutchings, Geoffrey H; Brocchi, Emiliana

    2011-08-01

    A sandwich ELISA using recombinant integrin αvβ6 as a capture ligand and serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (Mabs) as detecting reagents has been compared with a polyclonal antibody based ELISA (using type-specific rabbit antibodies as capture and guinea pig antibodies as detectors), which is employed routinely at the FAO World Reference Laboratory for Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), for the identification and serotyping of FMD virus (FMDV). The study used cell culture grown antigens (1351 FMDV positive) derived from suspected cases of vesicular disease collected from 86 countries between 1924 and 2011, those positive for the other vesicular diseases of swine vesicular disease (n = 25) and vesicular stomatitis (n = 45) and negative samples collected from uninfected cell cultures (n = 36). The diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was similar at 98.1% (polyclonal ELISA) compared to 97.9% (integrin/Mab ELISA) but the serotypic-specificity of the latter was vastly superior (96%) to that of the former (61.5%). Reactions with the viruses of swine vesicular disease and vesicular stomatitis, which produce clinically indistinguishable syndromes in pigs and cattle, did not occur. The integrin/Mab ELISA recognized FMDV strains of wide antigenic and molecular diversity of all seven serotypes and although some FMDV isolates were not detected, the greater specificity of the assay, while retaining test sensitivity comparable to the conventional assay, warrants its consideration for adoption for routine diagnostic use. PMID:21635921

  18. Redefining the Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA-1 gene promoter and transcription initiation site in group I Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, B C; Strominger, J L; Speck, S H

    1995-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen EBNA-1 gene promoter for the restricted Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency program operating in group I Burkitt lymphoma (BL) cell lines was previously identified incorrectly. Here we present evidence from RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends) cloning, reverse transcription-PCR, and S1 nuclease analyses, which demonstrates that the EBNA-1 gene promoter in group I BL cell lines is located in the viral BamHI Q fragment, immediately upstream of two low-affinity EBNA-1 binding sites. Transcripts initiated from this promoter, referred to as Qp, have the previously reported Q/U/K exon splicing pattern. Qp is active in group I BL cell lines but not in group III BL cell lines or in EBV immortalized B-lymphoblastoid cell lines. In addition, transient transfection of Qp-driven reporter constructs into both an EBV-negative BL cell line and a group I BL cell line gave rise to correctly initiated transcripts. Inspection of Qp revealed that it is a TATA-less promoter whose architecture is similar to the promoters of housekeeping genes, suggesting that Qp may be a default promoter which ensures EBNA-1 expression in cells that cannot run the full viral latency program. Elucidation of the genetic mechanism responsible for the EBNA-1-restricted program of EBV latency is an essential step in understanding control of viral latency in EBV-associated tumors. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7479841

  19. DNA vaccines encoding the envelope protein of West Nile virus lineages 1 or 2 administered intramuscularly, via electroporation and with recombinant virus protein induce partial protection in large falcons (Falco spp.).

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dominik; Angenvoort, Joke; Ziegler, Ute; Fast, Christine; Maier, Kristina; Chabierski, Stefan; Eiden, Martin; Ulbert, Sebastian; Groschup, Martin H; Lierz, Michael

    2015-08-17

    As West Nile virus (WNV) can cause lethal diseases in raptors, a vaccination prophylaxis of free-living and captive populations is desirable. In the absence of vaccines approved for birds, equine vaccines have been used in falcons, but full protection against WNV infection was not achieved. Therefore, two DNA vaccines encoding the ectodomain of the envelope protein of WNV lineages 1 and 2, respectively, were evaluated in 28 large falcons. Four different vaccination protocols were used, including electroporation and booster-injections of recombinant WNV domain III protein, before challenge with the live WNV lineage 1 strain NY99. Drug safety, plasmid shedding and antibody production were monitored during the vaccination period. Serological, virological, histological, immunohistochemical and molecular biological investigations were performed during the challenge trials. Antibody response following vaccination was low overall and lasted for a maximum of three weeks. Plasmid shedding was not detected at any time. Viremia, mortality and levels, but not duration, of oral virus shedding were reduced in all of the groups during the challenge trial compared to the non-vaccinated control group. Likewise, clinical scoring, levels of cloacal virus shedding and viral load in organs were significantly reduced in three vaccination groups. Histopathological findings associated with WNV infections (meningo-encephalitis, myocarditis, and arteritis) were present in all groups, but immunohistochemical detection of the viral antigen was reduced. In conclusion, the vaccines can be used safely in falcons to reduce mortality and clinical signs and to lower the risk of virus transmission due to decreased levels of virus shedding and viremia, but full protection was not achieved in all groups.

  20. The Immunomodulatory Role of Adjuvants in Vaccines Formulated with the Recombinant Antigens Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 against Onchocerca volvulus in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jessica A.; Zhan, Bin; Torigian, April R.; Patton, John B.; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Zhan, Tingting; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J.; Klei, Thomas R.; Lustigman, Sara; Abraham, David

    2016-01-01

    Background In some regions in Africa, elimination of onchocerciasis may be possible with mass drug administration, although there is concern based on several factors that onchocerciasis cannot be eliminated solely through this approach. A vaccine against Onchocerca volvulus would provide a critical tool for the ultimate elimination of this infection. Previous studies have demonstrated that immunization of mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, when formulated with alum, induced protective immunity. It was hypothesized that the levels of protective immunity induced with the two recombinant antigens formulated with alum would be improved by formulation with other adjuvants known to enhance different types of antigen-specific immune responses. Methodology/ Principal Findings Immunizing mice with Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with alum, Advax 2 and MF59 induced significant levels of larval killing and host protection. The immune response was biased towards Th2 with all three of the adjuvants, with IgG1 the dominant antibody. Improved larval killing and host protection was observed in mice immunized with co-administered Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2 in conjunction with each of the three adjuvants as compared to single immunizations. Antigen–specific antibody titers were significantly increased in mice immunized concurrently with the two antigens. Based on chemokine levels, it appears that neutrophils and eosinophils participate in the protective immune response induced by Ov-103, and macrophages and neutrophils participate in immunity induced by Ov-RAL-2. Conclusions/Significance The mechanism of protective immunity induced by Ov-103 and Ov-RAL-2, with the adjuvants alum, Advax 2 and MF59, appears to be multifactorial with roles for cytokines, chemokines, antibody and specific effector cells. The vaccines developed in this study have the potential of reducing the morbidity associated with onchocerciasis in humans. PMID:27387453

  1. A Comprehensive Preclinical Model Evaluating the Recombinant PRAME Antigen Combined With the AS15 Immunostimulant to Fight Against PRAME-expressing Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Baudson, Nathalie; Ory, Thierry; Segal, Lawrence; Louahed, Jamila

    2015-01-01

    The PRAME tumor antigen is a potential target for immunotherapy. We assessed the immunogenicity, the antitumor activity, and the safety and the tolerability of a recombinant PRAME protein (recPRAME) combined with the AS15 immunostimulant (recPRAME+AS15) in preclinical studies in mice and Cynomolgus monkeys. Four groups of 12 CB6F1 mice received 4 injections of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), recPRAME, AS15, or recPRAME+AS15. Immunized mice were injected with tumor cells expressing PRAME (CT26-PRAME) 2 weeks or 2 months after the last injection. The mean tumor surface was measured twice a week. Two groups of 10 monkeys received 7 injections of saline or recPRAME+AS15. T-cell responses were measured by flow cytometry using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). In CB6F1 mice, repeated injections of recPRAME+AS15 induced high PRAME-specific antibody titers and mostly CD4+ T cells producing cytokines. This immune response was long-lasting in these animals and was associated with protection against a challenge with PRAME-expressing tumor cells (CT26-PRAME) applied either 2 weeks or 2 months after the last injection; these data indicate the induction of an immune memory. In HLA-A02.01/HLA-DR1 transgenic mice, recPRAME+AS15 induced both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, indicating that this antigen can be processed by the human leukocyte antigen and is potentially immunogenic in humans. In addition, a repeated-dose toxicity study in monkeys showed that 7 biweekly injections of recPRAME+AS15 were well tolerated, and induced PRAME-specific antibodies and T cells. In conclusion, these preclinical data indicate that repeated injections of the PRAME cancer immunotherapeutic are immunogenic and have an acceptable safety profile. PMID:26325375

  2. A Comprehensive Preclinical Model Evaluating the Recombinant PRAME Antigen Combined With the AS15 Immunostimulant to Fight Against PRAME-expressing Tumors.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Catherine; Baudson, Nathalie; Ory, Thierry; Segal, Lawrence; Louahed, Jamila

    2015-10-01

    The PRAME tumor antigen is a potential target for immunotherapy. We assessed the immunogenicity, the antitumor activity, and the safety and the tolerability of a recombinant PRAME protein (recPRAME) combined with the AS15 immunostimulant (recPRAME+ AS15) in preclinical studies in mice and Cynomolgus monkeys. Four groups of 12 CB6F1 mice received 4 injections of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), recPRAME, AS15, or recPRAME+AS15. Immunized mice were injected with tumor cells expressing PRAME (CT26-PRAME) 2 weeks or 2 months after the last injection. The mean tumor surface was measured twice a week. Two groups of 10 monkeys received 7 injections of saline or recPRAME+ AS15. T-cell responses were measured by flow cytometry using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). In CB6F1 mice, repeated injections of recPRAME+ AS15 induced high PRAME-specific antibody titers and mostly CD4+ T cells producing cytokines. This immune response was long-lasting in these animals and was associated with protection against a challenge with PRAME-expressing tumor cells (CT26-PRAME) applied either 2 weeks or 2 months after the last injection; these data indicate the induction of an immune memory. In HLA-A02.01/HLA-DR1 transgenic mice, recPRAME+ AS15 induced both CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, indicating that this antigen can be processed by the human leukocyte antigen and is potentially immunogenic in humans. In addition, a repeated-dose toxicity study in monkeys showed that 7 biweekly injections of recPRAME+ AS15 were well tolerated, and induced PRAME-specific antibodies and T cells. In conclusion, these preclinical data indicate that repeated injections of the PRAME cancer immunotherapeutic are immunogenic and have an acceptable safety profile.

  3. Recombinant Nonstructural 3 Protein, rNS3, of Hepatitis C Virus Along With Recombinant GP96 Induce IL-12, TNFα and α5integrin Expression in Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hajizadeh, Mohammad Reza; Mokarram, Pooneh; Kamali sarvestani, Eskandar; Bolhassani, Azam; Mostafavi Pour, Zohreh

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the main cause of chronic liver disease and to date there has been no vaccine development to prevent this infection. Among non-structural HCV proteins, NS3 protein is an excellent goal for a therapeutic vaccine, due to its large size and less variation in conserved regions. The immunogenic properties of heat shock proteins (HSPs) for instance GP96 have prompted investigations into their function as strong adjuvant to improve innate and adaptive immunity. Objectives The aim of this study was to examine additive effects of recombinant GP96 (rGP96) fragments accompanied by rNS3 on expression levels of α5integrin and pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-12 and TNFα, in Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs). Materials and Methods Recombinant viral proteins (rNS3 and rRGD-NS3), N-terminal and C-terminal fragments of GP96 were produced and purified from E. coli in order to treat the cells; mouse spleen Dendritic Cells (DCs) and THP-1 macrophages. Results Our results showed that rNT-GP96 alone significantly increases the expression level of IL-12, TNFα and α5integrin in THP-1 macrophages and DCs, while IL-12 and TNFα expression levels were unaffected by either rNS3 or rRGD-NS3. Interestingly, the co-addition of these recombinant proteins with rNT-GP96 increased IL-12, TNFα and α5integrin expression. Pearson Correlation showed a direct association between α5integrin with IL-12 and TNF-α expression. Conclusions we have highlighted the role of rNS3 plus rNT-GP96 mediated by α5integrin in producing IL-12 and TNFα. It can be suggested that rNT-GP96 could enhance immunity characteristic of rNS3 protein via production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:24032046

  4. Purification of hepatitis B surface antigen virus-like particles from recombinant Pichia pastoris and in vivo analysis of their immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Gurramkonda, Chandrasekhar; Zahid, Maria; Nemani, Satish Kumar; Adnan, Ahmad; Gudi, Satheesh Kumar; Khanna, Navin; Ebensen, Thomas; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Guzmán, Carlos A; Rinas, Ursula

    2013-12-01

    Following earlier studies on high-level intracellular production of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using recombinant Pichia pastoris, we present here in detail an enhanced method for the purification of recombinant HBsAg virus-like particles (VLPs). We have screened various detergents for their ability to promote the solubilization of recombinant intracellular HBsAg. In addition, we have analyzed the effect of cell disruption and extraction regarding their impact on the release of HBsAg. Our results show that introduction of the mild nonionic detergent Tween 20 in the initial process of cell lysis at ∼600bars by high pressure homogenization leads to the best results. The subsequent purification steps involved polyethylene glycol precipitation of host cell contaminants, hydrophobic adsorption of HBsAg to colloidal silica followed by ion-exchange chromatography and either isopycnic density ultracentrifugation or size exclusion chromatography for the recovery of the VLPs. After final KSCN treatment and dialysis, a total yield of ∼3% with a purity of >99% was reached. The pure protein was characterized by electron microscopy, showing the presence of uniform VLPs which are the pre-requisite for immunogenicity. The intramuscular co-administration of HBsAg VLPs, with either alum or a PEGylated-derivative of the toll-like receptor 2/6 agonist MALP-2, to mice resulted in the elicitation of significantly higher HBsAg-specific IgG titers as well as a stronger cellular immune response compared to mice vaccinated with a gold standard vaccine (Engerix™). These results show that P. pastoris derived HBsAg VLPs exhibit a high potential as a superior biosimilar vaccine against hepatitis B.

  5. Lipase production by recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger expressing a lipase-encoding gene from Thermomyces lanuginosus.

    PubMed

    Prathumpai, Wai; Flitter, Simon J; McIntyre, Mhairi; Nielsen, Jens

    2004-11-01

    Two recombinant strains of Aspergillus niger (NW 297-14 and NW297-24) producing a heterologous lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus were constructed. The heterologous lipase was expressed using the TAKA amylase promoter from Aspergillus oryzae. The production kinetics of the two strains on different carbon sources in batch and carbon-limited chemostat cultivations were evaluated. In batch cultivations, the highest total product yield coefficient (Y(xp total)), given as the sum of extracellular and intracellular yields, was obtained during growth on glucose for the transformant strain NW297-24 (5.7+/-0.65 KU/g DW), whereas the highest total product yield coefficient was obtained during growth on maltose for the transformant strain NW297-14 (6.3+/-0.02 KU/g DW). Both transformants were evaluated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures. Strain NW297-14 was found to be the best producer and was thus employed for further analysis of the influence of carbon source in chemostat cultures. Here, the highest total specific lipase productivity (r(p total), the sum of extracellular and intracellular lipase productivity) was found to be 1.60+/-0.81 KU/g DW/h in maltose-limited chemostats at a dilution rate of 0.08 h(-1), compared with a total specific lipase productivity of 1.10+/-0.41 KU/g DW/h in glucose-limited chemostats. At the highest specific productivity obtained in this study, the heterologous enzyme accounted for about 1% of all cellular protein being produced by the cells, which shows that it is possible to obtain high productivities of heterologous fungal enzymes in A. niger. However, SDS-PAGE analysis showed that most of the produced lipase was bound to the cell wall.

  6. Production and characterization of egg yolk antibody (IgY) against recombinant VP8-S2 antigen.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, K; Nassiri, M R; Tahmoorespur, M; Haghparast, A; Zibaee, S

    2016-01-01

    Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. VP8 subunit of rotavirus is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Studies showed that immunoglobulin of egg yolk (IgY) from immunized hens has been identified to be a convenient source for specific antibodies for using in immunotherapy and immunodiagnostic to limit the infections. In this study, chimeric VP8-S2 gene was designed using by computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 gene was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a (+) vectors. Then, recombinant pET32a-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E. coli BL21 CodonPlus (DE3). The expressed protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Hens were immunized with the purified VP8-S2 protein three times. IgY was purified from egg yolks using polyethylene glycol precipitation method. Activity and specificity of anti-VP8-S2 IgY were detected by dot-blotting, Western-blotting and indirect ELISA. We obtained anti-VP8-S2 IgY by immunizing hens with the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. The anti-VP8-S2 IgY was showed to bind specifically to the chimeric VP8-S2 protein by dot-blotting, Western-blotting analyses and indirect ELISA. The result of this study indicated that such construction can be useful to investigate as candidates for development of detection methods for simultaneous diagnosis of both infections. Specific IgY against the recombinant VP8-S2 could be recommended as a candidate for passive immunization against bovine rotavirus and bovine coronavirus. PMID:27487500

  7. Genetically encoded optical activation of DNA recombination in human cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental protocols. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cc03934k Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Luo, J.; Arbely, E.; Zhang, J.; Chou, C.; Uprety, R.; Chin, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    We developed two tightly regulated, light-activated Cre recombinase enzymes through site-specific incorporation of two genetically-encoded photocaged amino acids in human cells. Excellent optical off to on switching of DNA recombination was achieved. Furthermore, we demonstrated precise spatial control of Cre recombinase through patterned illumination. PMID:27277957

  8. Heat treatment of unclarified Escherichia coli homogenate improved the recovery efficiency of recombinant hepatitis B core antigen.

    PubMed

    Ng, Michelle Y T; Tan, Wen Siang; Abdullah, Norhafizah; Ling, Tau Chuan; Tey, Beng Ti

    2006-10-01

    Heat precipitation procedure has been regularly incorporated as a selective purification step in various thermostable proteins expressed in different hosts. This method is efficient in precipitation of most of the host proteins and also deactivates various host proteases that can be harmful to the desired gene products. In this study, introduction of heat treatment procedure in the purification of hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg) produced in Escherichia coli has been investigated. Thermal treatment of the cell homogenate at 60 degrees C for 30 min prior to subsequent clarification steps has resulted in 1.4 times and 18% higher in purity and recovery yield, respectively, compared to the non-heat-treated cell homogenate. In direct capture of HBcAg by using anion-exchangers from unclarified feedstock, pre-conditioning the feedstock by heat treatment at 60 degrees C for 45 min has increased the recovery yield of HBcAg by 2.9-fold and 42% in purity compared to that treated for 10 min. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis showed that the antigenicity of the core particles was not affected by the heat treatment process. PMID:16860402

  9. High-yield soluble expression of recombinant influenza virus antigens from Escherichia coli and their potential uses in diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yo Han; Cho, Seung Hee; Son, Ahyun; Lee, Yun Ha; Lee, Jinhee; Lee, Kwang-Hee; Seong, Baik Lin

    2014-02-01

    Although antiviral drugs and vaccines have been successful for mitigating influenza virus infections, the lack of general technical platform for the timely supply of soluble and highly purified influenza viral antigens presents a serious bottleneck for the subsequent analysis for the effective control of the viral disease. Using the Escherichia coli (E. coli) lysyl tRNA synthetase (LysRS) as a novel fusion partner, this study reports the soluble expression of influenza viral proteins in E. coli host, construction of antibody library against the virus, and detection of anti-influenza antibodies using the expressed viral antigens. When influenza A and B viral proteins were fused with the LysRS, the fusion proteins were expressed predominantly as soluble forms and their production yields were high enough to be amenable to immunization protocols in rabbits for antibody generation. The produced antibodies showed high level binding specificity against the respective viral proteins, with cross-reactivity across heterologous viruses within the same type of influenza viruses. In addition, LysRS-HA fusion protein could bind specifically to anti-HA antibodies in the virus-infected mouse serum in widely accepted two detection methods, Western blot and ELISA. These results present a convenient tool for the production of antibodies specific to the virus as well as the rapid detection of influenza viral infections, ultimately contributing to the control of influenza viruses including highly pathogenic H5N1, pandemic H1N1, or the recent H7N9 influenza viruses.

  10. Recombinant Lactobacillus plantarum induces immune responses to cancer testis antigen NY-ESO-1 and maturation of dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Mobergslien, Anne; Vasovic, Vlada; Mathiesen, Geir; Fredriksen, Lasse; Westby, Phuong; Eijsink, Vincent G H; Peng, Qian; Sioud, Mouldy

    2015-01-01

    Given their safe use in humans and inherent adjuvanticity, Lactic Acid Bacteria may offer several advantages over other mucosal delivery strategies for cancer vaccines. The objective of this study is to evaluate the immune responses in mice after oral immunization with Lactobacillus (L) plantarum WCFS1 expressing a cell-wall anchored tumor antigen NY-ESO-1. And to investigate the immunostimulatory potency of this new candidate vaccine on human dendritic cells (DCs). L. plantarum displaying NY-ESO-1 induced NY-ESO-1 specific antibodies and T-cell responses in mice. By contrast, L. plantarum displaying conserved proteins such as heat shock protein-27 and galectin-1, did not induce immunity, suggesting that immune tolerance to self-proteins cannot be broken by oral administration of L. plantarum. With respect to immunomodulation, immature DCs incubated with wild type or L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 upregulated the expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secreted a large amount of interleukin (IL)-12, TNF-α, but not IL-4. Moreover, they upregulated the expression of immunosuppressive factors such as IL-10 and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase. Although L. plantarum-matured DCs expressed inhibitory molecules, they stimulated allogeneic T cells in-vitro. Collectively, the data indicate that L. plantarum-NY-ESO-1 can evoke antigen-specific immunity upon oral administration and induce DC maturation, raising the potential of its use in cancer immunotherapies.

  11. Immunogenicity of 60 novel latency-related antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Serra-Vidal, Mᵃdel Mar; Latorre, Irene; Franken, Kees L. C. M.; Díaz, Jéssica; de Souza-Galvão, Maria Luiza; Casas, Irma; Maldonado, José; Milà, Cèlia; Solsona, Jordi; Jimenez-Fuentes, M. Ángeles; Altet, Neus; Lacoma, Alícia; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Ausina, Vicente; Prat, Cristina; Ottenhoff, Tom H. M.; Domínguez, José

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our work here was to evaluate the immunogenicity of 60 mycobacterial antigens, some of which have not been previously assessed, notably a novel series of in vivo-expressed Mycobacterium tuberculosis (IVE-TB) antigens. We enrolled 505 subjects and separated them in individuals with and without latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) vs. patients with active tuberculosis (TB). Following an overnight and 7 days stimulation of whole blood with purified recombinant M. tuberculosis antigens, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) levels were determined by ELISA. Several antigens could statistically significantly differentiate the groups of individuals. We obtained promising antigens from all studied antigen groups [dormancy survival regulon (DosR regulon) encoded antigens; resuscitation-promoting factors (Rpf) antigens; IVE-TB antigens; reactivation associated antigens]. Rv1733, which is a probable conserved transmembrane protein encoded in DosR regulon, turned out to be very immunogenic and able to discriminate between the three defined TB status, thus considered a candidate biomarker. Rv2389 and Rv2435n, belonging to Rpf family and IVE-TB group of antigens, respectively, also stood out as LTBI biomarkers. Although more studies are needed to support our findings, the combined use of these antigens would be an interesting approach to TB immunodiagnosis candidates. PMID:25339944

  12. Small ruminant lentiviruses in Jordan: evaluation of sheep and goat serological response using recombinant and peptide antigens.

    PubMed

    Tolari, Francesco; Al-Ramadneh, Wafa'a; Mazzei, Maurizio; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Forzan, Mario; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Grego, Elena; Rosati, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Small ruminant lentiviruses infect sheep and goats worldwide, causing chronic progressive diseases and relevant economic losses. Disease eradication and prevention is mostly based on serological testing. The goal of this research was to investigate the presence of the small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLVs) in Jordan and to characterize the serological response in sheep and goat populations. A panel of sera were collected from flocks located in Northern Jordan and Jordan Valley. The samples were tested using three ELISA assays: a commercially available ELISA based on p25 recombinant protein and transmembrane peptide derived from British maedi-visna virus (MVV) EV1 strain, an ELISA based on P16-P25 recombinant protein derived from two Italian strains representative of MVV- and caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV)-like SRLVs, and an ELISA based on SU5 peptide from the same two Italian isolates. The results indicate that both MVV- and CAEV-like strains are present in Jordan and that the majority of the viruses circulating among sheep and goat populations belong to the MVV-like genotype.

  13. Prime-Boost Vaccination with Toxoplasma Lysate Antigen, but Not with a Mixture of Recombinant Protein Antigens, Leads to Reduction of Brain Cyst Formation in BALB/c Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Angelika; Schabussova, Irma; Ruttkowski, Bärbel; Peschke, Roman; Kur, Józef; Kundi, Michael; Joachim, Anja; Wiedermann, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Infection with the ubiquitous parasite Toxoplasma gondii is a threat for immunocompromised patients and pregnant women and effective immune-prophylaxis is still lacking. Methods Here we tested a mixture of recombinant T. gondii antigens expressed in different developmental stages, i.e., SAG1, MAG1 and GRA7 (SMG), and a lysate derived from T. gondii tachyzoites (TLA) for prophylactic vaccination against cyst formation. Both vaccine formulations were applied systemically followed by an oral TLA-booster in BALB/c mice. Results Systemic priming with SMG and oral TLA-booster did not show significant induction of protective immune responses. In contrast, systemic priming and oral booster with TLA induced higher levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a in sera as well as high levels of Toxoplasma-specific IgG1 in small intestines. Furthermore, high levels of Toxoplasma-specific Th1-, Th17- and Th2-associated cytokines were only detected in restimulated splenocytes of TLA-vaccinated mice. Importantly, in mice orally infected with T. gondii oocysts, only TLA-vaccination and booster reduced brain cysts. Furthermore, sera from these mice reduced tachyzoites invasion of Vero cells in vitro, indicating that antibodies may play a critical role for protection against Toxoplasma infection. Additionally, supernatants from splenocyte cultures of TLA-vaccinated mice containing high levels of IFN-γ lead to substantial production of nitric oxide (NO) after incubation with macrophages in vitro. Since NO is involved in the control of parasite growth, the high levels of IFN-γ induced by vaccination with TLA may contribute to the protection against T. gondii. Conclusion In conclusion, our data indicate that prime-boost approach with TLA, but not with the mixture of recombinant antigens SMG, induces effective humoral and cellular Toxoplasma-specific responses and leads to significant reduction of cerebral cysts, thereby presenting a viable strategy for further

  14. Increased B and T Cell Responses in M. bovis Bacille Calmette-Guérin Vaccinated Pigs Co-Immunized with Plasmid DNA Encoding a Prototype Tuberculosis Antigen

    PubMed Central

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; Pedersen, Lasse E.; Vandermeulen, Gaëlle; Préat, Véronique; Stockhofe-Zurwieden, Norbert; Huygen, Kris; Romano, Marta

    2015-01-01

    The only tuberculosis vaccine currently available, bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a poor inducer of CD8+ T cells, which are particularly important for the control of latent tuberculosis and protection against reactivation. As the induction of strong CD8+ T cell responses is a hallmark of DNA vaccines, a combination of BCG with plasmid DNA encoding a prototype TB antigen (Ag85A) was tested. As an alternative animal model, pigs were primed with BCG mixed with empty vector or codon-optimized pAg85A by the intradermal route and boosted with plasmid delivered by intramuscular electroporation. Control pigs received unformulated BCG. The BCG-pAg85A combination stimulated robust and sustained Ag85A specific antibody, lymphoproliferative, IL-6, IL-10 and IFN-γ responses. IgG1/IgG2 antibody isotype ratio reflected the Th1 helper type biased response. T lymphocyte responses against purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD) were induced in all (BCG) vaccinated animals, but responses were much stronger in BCG-pAg85A vaccinated pigs. Finally, Ag85A-specific IFN-γ producing CD8+ T cells were detected by intracellular cytokine staining and a synthetic peptide, spanning Ag85A131-150 and encompassing two regions with strong predicted SLA-1*0401/SLA-1*0801 binding affinity, was promiscuously recognized by 6/6 animals vaccinated with the BCG-pAg85A combination. Our study provides a proof of concept in a large mammalian species, for a new Th1 and CD8+ targeting tuberculosis vaccine, based on BCG-plasmid DNA co-administration. PMID:26172261

  15. Evaluation of an ELISA using recombinant Ssλ20ΔB3 antigen for the serological diagnosis of Sarcoptes scabiei infestation in domestic and wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Casais, Rosa; Millán, Javier; Rosell, Joan Maria; Dalton, Kevin P; Prieto, José Miguel

    2015-12-15

    An ELISA, based on the Sarcoptes scabiei Ssλ20ΔB3 inmunodominant antigen, was evaluated for the detection of antibodies to S. scabiei in experimentally infested (n=10), farm (n=109), and wild (n=78) rabbit sera. The S. scabiei antigen Ssλ20ΔB3, a major structural protein present over the entire mite's body, was produced as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for its use in the ELISA. The resulting ELISA showed, in experimentally infested domestic rabbits, detectable specific antibody responses (IgG) above the cut off level from week three post-infestation indicating that the assay is able to detect positive rabbits very early during the course of the infestation. The ELISA was validated on a panel of 109 domestic breeding rabbit sera collected from 26 Spanish farms, of which 41 were obtained from rabbits with skin lesions compatible with sarcoptic mange, 26 with skin lesions compatible with psoroptic mange, and 42 from unexposed individuals from mange-free farms. The ELISA in this group was characterized by 95% sensitivity, 97% specificity, and a high degree of repeatability. In the psoroptic mange compatible lesions group, included in the study as control group for cross-reactivity with the closely related mite Psoroptes cuniculi, cross-reacting antibodies to Ssλ20ΔB3 S. scabiei antigen were detected in 42.30% of the rabbit sera. However, mean% OD values of the sarcoptic-mange group (55.61 ± 39.20%) were significantly higher (p<0.001) than OD values of the psoroptic-mange (3.64% ± 5.4%) and also of the free-mange (0.21% ± 0.67%) groups. In addition, the ELISA was also evaluated in serum samples obtained from both naturally infested and non-infested wild rabbits from Mallorca Island. The sensitivity of the assay for this group was 100% (4 out of the 4 rabbits with sarcoptic mange compatible lesions and presence of S. scabiei mites were seropositive) and the specificity was 90% (67 out of 74 wild rabbits without detectable mange lesions

  16. Characterization of the gene encoding an extracellular laccase of Myceliophthora thermophila and analysis of the recombinant enzyme expressed in Aspergillus oryzae.

    PubMed Central

    Berka, R M; Schneider, P; Golightly, E J; Brown, S H; Madden, M; Brown, K M; Halkier, T; Mondorf, K; Xu, F

    1997-01-01

    A genomic DNA segment encoding an extracellular laccase was isolated from the thermophilic fungus Myceliophthora thermophila, and the nucleotide sequence of this gene was determined. The deduced amino acid sequence of M. thermophila laccase (MtL) shows homology to laccases from diverse fungal genera. A vector containing the M. thermophila laccase coding region, under transcriptional control of an Aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase gene promoter and terminator, was constructed for heterologous expression in A. oryzae. The recombinant laccase expressed in A. oryzae was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by anion-exchange chromatography. Amino-terminal sequence data suggests that MtL is synthesized as a preproenzyme. The molecular mass was estimated to be approximately 100 to 140 kDa by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300 and to be 85 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Carbohydrate analysis revealed that MtL contains 40 to 60% glycosylation. The laccase shows an absorbance spectrum that is typical of blue copper oxidases, with maxima at 276 and 589 nm, and contains 3.9 copper atoms per subunit. With syringaldazine as a substrate, MtL has optimal activity at pH 6.5 and retains nearly 100% of its activity when incubated at 60 degrees C for 20 min. This is the first report of the cloning and heterologous expression of a thermostable laccase. PMID:9251203

  17. Construction of the recombinant vaccine based on T-cell epitope encoding Der p1 and evaluation on its specific immunotherapy efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jinhong; Li, Chaopin; Zhao, Beibei; Xu, Pengfei; Xu, Haifeng; He, Lianping

    2015-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is currently recognized as the only etiological therapy to ameliorate asthmatic symptom. The current study was aimed at evaluating the immune effect of vaccine MAT3T designed on MHCII pathway, which includes T cell fusion peptide encoding Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus class 1 allergen (Der p1). We initially cloned the nucleotide sequences of TAT, IhC and 3 segments of T cell epitope coding for Der p1, and reassembled these sequences in linear manner to form fusion gene named MAT3T, which was applied to immunize the asthmatic models of mice induced by Der p1 allergen for tentative SIT. ELISA results showed that MAT3T was able to increase the level of IFN-γ in BALF and allergen specific antibody IgG2a in serum, while decrease the level of IL-13 in BALF and allergen specific antibody IgE and IgG1. Pathological confirmation further revealed that the inflammatory reactions and inflammatory cell infiltration were totally reduced in lung tissue of mice after MAT3T treatment. Our results show that the recombinant allergen MAT3T can effectively correct the imbalance of Th1/Th2, and MAT3T may be used as candidate vaccine against asthma on SIT basis. PMID:26131270

  18. An overview of live attenuated recombinant pseudorabies viruses for use as novel vaccines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pseudorabies virus (PRV) is a double-stranded, DNA-based swine virus with a genome approximating 150 kb in size. In cell culture, PRV has many non-essential genes which can be replaced with genes encoding heterologous antigens but without deleterious effects on virus propagation. Recombinant PRVs ex...

  19. Antigen-Independent Appearance of Recombination Activating Gene (Rag)-Positive Bone Marrow B Cells in the Spleens of Immunized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gärtner, Frank; Alt, Frederick W.; Monroe, Robert J.; Seidl, Katherine J.

    2000-01-01

    Splenic B lineage cells expressing recombination activation genes (RAG+) in mice immunized with 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenyl-acetyl coupled to chicken γ-globulin (NP-CGG) and the adjuvant aluminum-hydroxide (alum) have been proposed to be mature B cells that reexpress RAG after an antigen encounter in the germinal center (GC), a notion supported by findings of RAG expression in peripheral B lymphocyte populations activated in vitro. However, recent studies indicate that these cells might be immature B cells that have not yet extinguished RAG expression. Here, we employ RAG2–green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion gene knock-in mice to show that RAG+ B lineage cells do appear in the spleen after the administration of alum alone, and that their appearance is independent of T cell interactions via the CD40 pathway. Moreover, splenic RAG+ B lineage cells were detectable in immunized RAG2-deficient mice adoptively transferred with bone marrow (BM) cells, but not with spleen cells from RAG+ mice. Although splenic RAG+ B cells express surface markers associated with GC B cells, we also find the same basic markers on progenitor/precursor BM B cells. Finally, we did not detect RAG gene expression after the in vitro stimulation of splenic RAG− mature B cells with mitogens (lipopolysaccharide and anti-CD40) and cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4 and IL-7). Together, our studies indicate that RAG+ B lineage cells from BM accumulate in the spleen after immunization, and that this accumulation is not the result of an antigen-specific response. PMID:11120771

  20. Assessing drivers of the IgG4 antibody reactivity to recombinant antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa.

    PubMed

    Damgaard, Johanne; Meyrowitsch, Dan W; Rwegoshora, Rwehumbiza T; Magesa, Stephen M; Mukoko, Dunstan A; Simonsen, Paul E

    2016-09-01

    A high proportion of the human population in lymphatic filariasis (LF) endemic areas is positive for filarial specific IgG4 antibodies, including many individuals without microfilariae (mf; circulating larvae in the human blood) or circulating filarial antigens (CFA; marker of adult worm infection). The antibodies are commonly regarded as markers of infection and/or exposure to filarial larvae, but a direct association between the antibodies and these indices has not been well documented. The present study assessed the role and relative effect of potential drivers of the human IgG4 antibody reactivity to the recombinant filarial antigen Bm14 in Wuchereria bancrofti endemic populations in East Africa. Sera collected during previous studies from 395 well characterized individuals with regard to age, sex, mf, CFA, household vector biting and household exposure to infective filarial larvae were tested for IgG4 antibodies to Bm14, and associations between antibody reactivity and the different variables were statistically analyzed. IgG4 reactivity to Bm14 was highly positively associated with CFA, and to a lesser extent with age. However, an expected association with household exposure to infective filarial larvae was not found. Bm14 antibody reactivity thus appeared mainly to reflect actual infection of individuals with adult filarial worms rather than ongoing exposure to transmission. The analyses moreover suggested that many of the CFA negative but Bm14 positive individuals had early or low level infections where antibodies had been induced but where CFA was not (yet?) measurable. Although the study indicated that IgG4 reactivity to Bm14 is a marker of filarial infection, assessment of this reactivity, especially in children, will still be useful for indirect monitoring of changes in transmission intensity, including break of transmission and post-elimination surveillance, in LF control. PMID:27172877

  1. A phase I study of the safety and immunogenicity of recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen co-administered with an immunostimulatory phosphorothioate oligonucleotide adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Halperin, Scott A; Van Nest, Gary; Smith, Bruce; Abtahi, Simin; Whiley, Heather; Eiden, Joseph J

    2003-06-01

    Certain oligodeoxynuclotides with CpG motifs provide enhanced immune response to co-delivered antigens. We performed a phase I, observer-blinded, randomized study in healthy anti-hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBsAg) antibody negative adults to explore safety and immunogenicity of co-injection of recombinant HBsAg combined with an immunostimulatory DNA sequence (ISS) 1018 ISS. Four ISS dosage groups (N=12 per group) were used: 300, 650, 1000 or 3000 microg. For each group, two controls received 20 microg HBsAg alone, two controls received ISS alone, and eight subjects received ISS+20 microg HBsAg. Subjects received two doses 8 weeks apart. Injection site reactions (tenderness and pain on limb movement) were more frequent at higher ISS+HBsAg doses but were mainly mild and of short duration. Higher anti-HBsAg antibody levels were associated with higher ISS doses. Four weeks after the first dose, a seroprotective titer (>or=10 mIU/ml) was noted for 0, 25, 75, and 87.5% of subjects by increasing ISS dose group (P<0.05) for those who received ISS+HBsAg; 1 month after the second dose this increased to 62.5, 100, 100, and 100%, respectively. Geometric mean anti-HBsAg antibody levels by increasing ISS+HBsAg dose were 1.22, 5.78, 24.75, and 206.5 mIU/ml after the first dose and 65.37, 877.6, 1545, and 3045 mIU/ml after the second dose. We conclude that 1018 ISS+HBsAg was well tolerated and immunogenic in this phase I study in healthy adults and may offer the potential for enhancement of hepatitis B virus (HBV) immunization and protection after one or two doses or in individuals who fail to respond to the standard vaccine regimen. PMID:12744879

  2. Diagnostic value of proteins of three Borrelia species (Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) and implications for development and use of recombinant antigens for serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis in Europe.

    PubMed

    Hauser, U; Lehnert, G; Wilske, B

    1998-07-01

    More and more assays for the serodiagnosis of Lyme borreliosis (LB) are based on recombinant antigens. However, so far, there is no consensus as to which are the most specific and sensitive proteins and how they should be used in combination to obtain tests with the best discrimination abilities. The present study was preceded by a detailed analysis of Western blots (WB) using whole-cell lysates of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto strain PKa2, B. afzelii PKo, and B. garinii PBi (U. Hauser, G. Lehnert, R. Lobentanzer, and B. Wilske, J. Clin. Microbiol. 35:1433-1444, 1997). For the present work, the data bank from that study, containing information about the reactivities of 330 sera (from patients at different stages of LB [n = 189]; control group, n = 141), was reused. The specificities and sensitivities of various combinations of proteins from different strains were calculated for different interpretation criteria. For immunoglobulin G (IgG) WB, the recommended combination of antigens available to date as recombinant proteins included p83/100 of PKa2, p83/100 of PKo, p39 of PKo, p39 of PBi, and OspC of PBi (interpretation criterion, at least one reactive band required for a positive WB; specificity, 96.5%; sensitivity, 56.1%). The further addition of p58 of PKo, p17 of PKo, or p14 of PKo was most favorable in terms of both a considerable gain of sensitivity and little loss of specificity. IgG Western blotting with a whole-cell lysate of strain PKo might be improved by the addition of OspC of PBi. For IgG WB, the best combination, out of all bands, was p83/100, p58, p39, p30, and p21 of all three strains and OspC of PBi, p17b of PBi, p56 of PKa2, p43 of PKo, p17 of PKo, and p14 of PKo (interpretation criterion, at least two reactive bands required for a positive WB; specificity, 97.2%; sensitivity, 61.4%). An interpretation criterion of at least two reactive bands is more reliable than one of only one reactive band. For IgM WB, the best combination was OspC of PKo

  3. [Comparison of adsorbent with varying arm length and ligand density for the purification of recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen].

    PubMed

    Li, Rui-Hong; Li, Yan; Bi, Jing-Xiu; Zhao, Lan; Zhou, Wei-Bin; Huang, Yong-Dong; Zhang, Yan; Sun, Li-Jing; Wang, Hua-Jun; Su, Zhi-Guo

    2007-07-01

    Novel hydrophobic absorbents were synthesized by immobilizing butyl derivative onto the highly cross-linked agarose beads manufatured in China, which are used as matrix. The effect of the spacer arm length (3C, 8C and 10C) and ligand density (from 13 to 45 micromol/mL) on the hydrophobicity were investigated using purified Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) expressed by CHO cell lines. Also considering the effects of salt concentration and pH on HBsAg recovery and purification factor, orthogonal experiment design method was used to evaluated the absorbents. The results showed the butyl-S absorbent with the spacer arm length of C8, the ligand density of 22 micromol/mL gel showed the best performance for the separation of HBsAg. Approximately 100% HBsAg recovery and 60 as purification fold were achieved by this media under the operating condition of pH 7.0 and 9% of salt concentrateion.

  4. Diagnostic potential and antigenic properties of recombinant tick-borne encephalitis virus subviral particles expressed in mammalian cells from Semliki Forest virus replicons.

    PubMed

    Levanov, Lev; Kuivanen, Suvi; Matveev, Andrey; Swaminathan, Sathyamangalam; Jääskeläinen-Hakala, Anu; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-03-01

    The precursor membrane envelope (prME) proteins of all three tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) subtypes were produced based on expression from Semliki Forest virus (SFV) replicons transcribed from recombinant plasmids. Vero E6 cells transfected by these plasmids showed specific reactivities in immunofluorescence and immunoblot assays by monoclonal antibodies against European and Far-Eastern subtype strains of TBEV, indicating proper folding of the expressed glycoproteins. The prME glycoproteins were secreted into the cell culture supernatant, forming TBEV subviral particles of 20 to 30 nm in diameter. IgM μ-capture and IgG monoclonal antibody (MAb)-capture enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) were developed based on prME Karelia-94 (Siberian subtype) particles. Altogether, 140 human serum samples were tested using these assays, and the results were compared to those obtained with a commercial IgM EIA, an in-house μ-capture IgM assay based on baculovirus-expressed antigen, a commercial IgG EIA, and a hemagglutination inhibition test. Compared to reference enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), the sensitivities of the generated μ-capture IgM SFV-prME and IgG MAb-capture SFV-prME EIAs were 97.4 to 100% and 98.7%, respectively, and the specificities of the two assays were 100%. IgM and IgG immunofluorescence assays (IFAs) were created based on Vero E6 cells transfected with the recombinant plasmid carrying the TBEV Karelia-94 prME glycoproteins. The IgM IFA was 100% concordant with the μ-capture IgM bac-prME ELISA. The IgG IFA sensitivity and specificity were 98.7% and 100%, respectively, compared to those of the commercial ELISA. In conclusion, the tests developed based on SFV replicon-driven expression of TBEV glycoproteins provide safe and robust alternatives for conducting TBEV serology. PMID:24371235

  5. Design and optimization of a recombinant system for large-scale production of the MPT64 antigen from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Geisbrecht, Brian V; Nikonenko, Boris; Samala, Rowena; Nakamura, Reiko; Nacy, Carol A; Sacksteder, Katherine A

    2006-03-01

    Early clinical trials of a potential new tuberculosis (TB) diagnostic, the Patch Test for Active TB (PTAT), used MPB64 protein that was purified from the spent medium of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) Tokyo 172 vaccine production. The yield was poor, 0.05 mg/L, and the process for purification of the protein was complex, requiring four chromatographic steps. The combination of yield and purification complexity compromised the ability to produce the PTAT diagnostic in quantities sufficient for larger clinical trials and commercialization. We report here a highly efficient method for the overexpression and purification of recombinant MPT64 from Escherichia coli (rMPT64) based upon a mild insolubility of rMPT64 following induction, and scalable anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies. Yields of protein were improved substantially to approximately 250 mg/L, and resulted in a preparation greater than 98% pure. Quantitative release assays were developed and used with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to confirm the identity of rMPT64. Using a guinea pig model of active TB, we found that rMPT64 elicited a specific immune response indistinguishable from that of MPB64 purified from BCG Tokyo culture filtrates. These results describe the first efficient and scalable protocol for production of rMPT64, demonstrate its activity in an animal model of active TB, and lay the foundation of ongoing and future use of the PTAT in clinical settings.

  6. Improved Immunogenicity of a Vaccination Regimen Combining a DNA Vaccine Encoding Brucella melitensis Outer Membrane Protein 31 (Omp31) and Recombinant Omp31 Boosting▿

    PubMed Central

    Cassataro, Juliana; Velikovsky, Carlos A.; Bruno, Laura; Estein, Silvia M.; de la Barrera, Silvia; Bowden, Raúl; Fossati, Carlos A.; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H.

    2007-01-01

    In the present study, we report an attempt to improve the immunogenicity of the Omp31 antigen by a DNA prime-protein boost immunization regimen. We immunized BALB/c mice with an Omp31 DNA vaccine (pCIOmp31) followed by boosting with recombinant Omp31 (rOmp31) in incomplete Freund's adjuvant and characterized the resulting immune responses and the protective efficacy against Brucella ovis and B. melitensis infection. Immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2a titers were higher in sera from pCIOmp31/rOmp31-immunized mice than in sera from mice immunized with pCIOmp31 or rOmp31 alone. Splenocytes from pCIOmp31/rOmp31-immunized mice produced significantly higher levels of gamma interferon than did those from mice given rOmp31 alone. In contrast, interleukin 2 (IL-2) production levels were comparable between the two groups of immunized mice. Cells from all immunized mice produced undetectable levels of IL-4. Notably, rOmp31 stimulated IL-10 production in the pCIOmp31/rOmp31-immunized group but not in the pCIOmp31- or rOmp31-immunized group. Although the prime-boost regimen induced specific cytotoxic responses, these responses could not reach the levels achieved by the pCIOmp31 immunization. In conclusion, pCIOmp31 priming followed by rOmp31 boosting led to moderately improved protection against a challenge with B. ovis or B. melitensis. PMID:17428946

  7. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers. PMID:26792800

  8. In Vivo Synthesis of Cyclic-di-GMP Using a Recombinant Adenovirus Preferentially Improves Adaptive Immune Responses against Extracellular Antigens.

    PubMed

    Alyaqoub, Fadel S; Aldhamen, Yasser A; Koestler, Benjamin J; Bruger, Eric L; Seregin, Sergey S; Pereira-Hicks, Cristiane; Godbehere, Sarah; Waters, Christopher M; Amalfitano, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    There is a compelling need for more effective vaccine adjuvants to augment induction of Ag-specific adaptive immune responses. Recent reports suggested the bacterial second messenger bis-(3'-5')-cyclic-dimeric-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) acts as an innate immune system modulator. We recently incorporated a Vibrio cholerae diguanylate cyclase into an adenovirus vaccine, fostering production of c-di-GMP as well as proinflammatory responses in mice. In this study, we recombined a more potent diguanylate cyclase gene, VCA0848, into a nonreplicating adenovirus serotype 5 (AdVCA0848) that produces elevated amounts of c-di-GMP when expressed in mammalian cells in vivo. This novel platform further improved induction of type I IFN-β and activation of innate and adaptive immune cells early after administration into mice as compared with control vectors. Coadministration of the extracellular protein OVA and the AdVCA0848 adjuvant significantly improved OVA-specific T cell responses as detected by IFN-γ and IL-2 ELISPOT, while also improving OVA-specific humoral B cell adaptive responses. In addition, we found that coadministration of AdVCA0848 with another adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing the HIV-1-derived Gag Ag or the Clostridium difficile-derived toxin B resulted in significant inhibitory effects on the induction of Gag and toxin B-specific adaptive immune responses. As a proof of principle, these data confirm that in vivo synthesis of c-di-GMP stimulates strong innate immune responses that correlate with enhanced adaptive immune responses to concomitantly administered extracellular Ag, which can be used as an adjuvant to heighten effective immune responses for protein-based vaccine platforms against microbial infections and cancers.

  9. Usefulness of Four Different Echinococcus granulosus Recombinant Antigens for Serodiagnosis of Unilocular Hydatid Disease (UHD) and Postsurgical Follow-Up of Patients Treated for UHD▿

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-González, Ana; Muro, Antonio; Barrera, Inmaculada; Ramos, Guillermo; Orduña, Antonio; Siles-Lucas, Mar

    2008-01-01

    Four different recombinant antigens derived from Echinococcus granulosus, designated B1t, B2t, E14t, and C317, were tested with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for the detection of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in patients with unilocular hydatid disease (UHD). The results were compared to those obtained with hydatid fluid and were subjected to receiver operator characteristic analysis. The diagnostic performance of the above-listed proteins was defined with respect to their specificity, sensitivity, and predictive values (PV); the influence of cyst location; and usefulness in the follow-up of surgical treatment for UHD and in the determination of whether or not patients have been surgically cured of UHD. The best diagnostic results were obtained with the anti-B2t IgG ELISA, with 91.2% sensitivity, 93% specificity, and high positive and negative PV (89.4 and 94.2, respectively). In addition, this diagnostic tool proved to be useful for the follow-up of surgically treated UHD patients. The anti-B2t IgG ELISA may find an application in the serodiagnosis of UHD in clinical laboratories. PMID:17989342

  10. Application of a recombinant Fab fragment from a phage display library for sensitive detection of a target antigen by an inhibition ELISA system.

    PubMed

    Itoh, K; Suzuki, K; Ishiwata, S; Tezuka, T; Mizugaki, M; Suzuki, T

    1999-02-01

    We have found that the recombinant Fab (rFab) produced by phage display system was detectable for a target antigen more sensitive than the parental monoclonal antibody (MoAb). The Fab phage display library was constructed from hybridoma cells producing APU-6 MoAb specific for a modified nucleoside, pseudouridine that have been studied as a urinary marker for malignancy. Fab-displayed phage clones were screened by a direct ELISA, and the single positive clone was finally obtained. Although the reaction pattern of rFab against pseudouridine and uridine was almost identical to that of MoAb, detection sensitivity of rFab was approximately 30 times higher than that of MoAb. Since the sensitivity of rFab was almost identical to that of Fab fragment prepared by papain digestion of MoAb, the increased sensitivity is considered to be the nature of Fab fragment. The sensitivity of established assay system was sufficient for quantitative determination of serum pseudouridine levels in healthy individuals and cancer patients. This procedure may be applicable for improvement of detection sensitivity of a MoAb-based inhibition ELISA system for drugs or low molecular weight compounds.

  11. Woodchuck dendritic cells generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and transduced with recombinant human adenovirus serotype 5 induce antigen-specific cellular immune responses.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Callejero, Laura; Berraondo, Pedro; Crettaz, Julien; Olagüe, Cristina; Vales, Africa; Ruiz, Juan; Prieto, Jesús; Tennant, Bud C; Menne, Stephan; González-Aseguinolaza, Gloria

    2007-05-01

    Woodchucks infected with the woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) is the best available animal model for testing the immunotherapeutic effects of dendritic cells (DCs) in the setting of a chronic infection, as woodchucks develop a persistent infection resembling that seen in humans infected with the hepatitis B virus. In the present study, DCs were generated from woodchuck peripheral blood mononuclear cells (wDCs) in the presence of human granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (hGM-CSF) and human interleukin 4 (hIL-4). After 7 days of culture, cells with morphology similar to DCs were stained positively with a cross-reactive anti-human CD86 antibody. Functional analysis showed that uptake of FITC-dextran by wDCs was very efficient and was partially inhibited after LPS-induced maturation. Furthermore, wDCs stimulated allogenic lymphocytes and induced proliferation. Moreover, wDCs were transduced efficiently with a human adenovirus serotype 5 for the expression of beta-galactosidase. Following transduction and in vivo administration of such DCs into woodchucks, an antigen-specific cellular immune response was induced. These results demonstrate that wDCs can be generated from the peripheral blood. Following transfection with a recombinant adenovirus wDCs can be used as a feasible and effective tool for eliciting WHV-specific T-cell responses indicating their potential to serve as prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines. PMID:17385694

  12. Construction of expression systems for flaA and flaB genes of Helicobacter pylori and determination of immunoreactivity and antigenicity of recombinant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jie; Liang, Shao-Hui; Mao, Ya-Fei; Li, Li-Wei; Li, Shu-Ping

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To clone flagellin genes A (flaA) and B (flaB) from a clinical strain of Helicobacter pylori (H pylori) and to construct prokaryotic expression systems of the genes and identify immunity of the fusion proteins. METHODS: The flaA and flaB genes from a clinical H pylori isolate Y06 were amplified by high fidelity PCR. The nucleotide sequences of target DNA amplification fragments from the two genes were sequenced after T-A cloning. The recombinant expression vector pET32a inserted with flaA and flaB genes was constructed, respectively. The expressions of FlaA and FlaB fusion proteins in E. coli BL21DE3 induced by isopropylthio-β-D-galactoside (IPTG) at different concentrations were examined by SDS-PAGE. Western blot using commercial antibodies against whole cell of H pylori and immunodiffusion assay using self-prepared rabbit antiserum against FlaA (rFlaA) or FlaB (rFlaB) recombinant proteins were applied to the determination of the fusion proteins immunity. ELISA was used to detect the antibodies against rFlaA and rFlaB in sera of 125 H pylori infected patients and to examine rFlaA and rFlaB expression in 98 clinical isolates of H pylori, respectively. RESULTS: In comparison with the reported corresponding sequences, the nucleotide sequence homologies of the cloned flaA and flaB genes were from 96.28%-97.13% and 96.31%-97.73%, and their putative amino acid sequence homologies were 99.61%-99.80% and 99.41%-100% for the two genes, respectively. The output of rFlaA and rFlaB expressed by pET32a-flaA-BL21DE3 and pET32a-flaB-BL21DE3 systems was as high as 40%-50% of the total bacterial proteins. Both rFlaA and rFlaB were able to combine with the commercial antibodies against whole cell of H pylori and to induce rabbits to produce specific antibodies with the same 1:2 immunodiffusion titers after the animals were immunized with the two recombinant proteins. Ninety-eight and zero point 4 and 92.80% of the serum samples from 125 patients infected with H pylori were

  13. Toxicity and Biodistribution of the Serotype 2 Recombinant Adeno-Associated Viral Vector, Encoding Aquaporin-1, after Retroductal Delivery to a Single Mouse Parotid Gland

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Hongen; Elbekai, Reem H.; Vallant, Molly; Chiorini, John A.

    2014-01-01

    In preparation for testing the safety of using serotype 2 recombinant adeno-associated vector, encoding Aquaporin-1 to treat radiation-induced salivary gland damage in a phase 1 clinical trial, we conducted a 13 week GLP biodistribution and toxicology study using Balb/c mice. To best assess the safety of rAAV2hAQP1 as well as resemble clinical delivery, vector (108, 109, 1010, or 4.4×1010 vector particles/gland) or saline was delivered to the right parotid gland of mice via retroductal cannulation. Very mild surgically induced inflammation was caused by this procedure, seen in 3.6% of animals for the right parotid gland, and 5.3% for the left parotid gland. Long term distribution of vector appeared to be localized to the site of cannulation as well as the right and left draining submandibular lymph nodes at levels >50 copies/μg in some animals. As expected, there was a dose-related increase in neutralizing antibodies produced by day 29. Overall, animals appeared to thrive, with no differences in mean body weight, food or water consumption between groups. There were no significant adverse effects due to treatment noted by clinical chemistry and pathology evaluations. Hematology assessment of serum demonstrated very limited changes to the white blood cell, segmented neutrophils, and hematocrit levels and were concluded to not be vector-associated. Indicators for liver, kidney, cardiac functions and general tissue damage showed no changes due to treatment. All of these indicators suggest the treatment is clinically safe. PMID:24667436

  14. A new human IgG avidity test, using mixtures of recombinant antigens (rROP1, rSAG2, rGRA6), for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef; Ferra, Bartłomiej; Hiszczyńska-Sawicka, Elżbieta; Lautenbach, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    The preliminary diagnostic utility of two mixtures of Toxoplasma gondii recombinant antigens (rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6) in IgG ELISA and IgG avidity test has been evaluated. A total of 173 serum samples from patients with toxoplasmosis and seronegative people were examined. The sensitivity of IgG ELISA for rROP1+rSAG2 and rROP1+rGRA6 was 91.1% and 76.7%, respectively, while the reactivity for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was higher, at 100% and 95.4%, respectively, than for people with chronic infection, at 88.2% and 70.6%. In this study a different trend in avidity maturation of IgG antibodies for two mixtures of proteins in comparison with native antigen was observed. The results suggest that a new IgG avidity test using the mixtures of recombinant antigens may be useful for the diagnosis of difficult-to-identify phases of toxoplasmosis. For this reason, selected mixtures after the additional tests on groups of sera with well-defined dates of infection could be used as a better alternative to the native antigens of the parasite in the serodiagnosis of human T. gondii infection.

  15. Competitive ELISA for detection of antibodies to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus using recombinant E. coli-expressed nucleocapsid protein as antigen.

    PubMed

    Dea, S; Wilson, L; Therrien, D; Cornaglia, E

    2000-06-01

    The 15 kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein is the most abundant protein of the porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), and is highly antigenic, which therefore makes it a suitable candidate for the detection of virus-specific antibodies and diagnosis of the disease. In this study, complementary DNA corresponding to the entire N gene of the IAF-Klop strain of PRRSV was cloned into the pGEX-4T-1 vector, and the N protein was expressed in Escherichia coli fused to the glutathione S-transferase (GST) protein. The resulting GST-N recombinant fusion protein was purified by affinity chromatography and used as antigen for serological testing by indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Two anti-N specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) (IAF-K8 and IAF-2B4), obtained following fusion experiments with spleen cells of BAlb/c mice that were immunized with the purified virus, were used in a competitive assay to increase the specificity of the ELISA. Both MAbs were found to be directed against highly conserved conformational epitopes of North American isolates of PRRSV. Optimal concentration of GST-N protein was determined by checkerboard titration, using hyperimmune pig antiserum to the homologous PRRSV strain, and corresponded to a range of 0.1-0.5 microg protein per well. When tested on 95 sera from pigs that were experimentally infected with the IAF-Klop strain, the competitive ELISA (K8-ELISA) was capable of detecting anti-PRRSV antibodies in 86.7% (65/75) and 92.6% (63/68) of pig sera known to be seropositive by indirect immunofluorescence (antibody titers >16) and a currently used commercial ELISA (HerdCheck(R); Idexx), with specificity values of 100 and 96.2%, respectively. When tested on clinical samples (542 sera) from 28 positive and 28 negative pig herds, the K8-ELISA performed in a similar way to HerdCheck(R) and immunofluorescence (IF) tests as shown by kappa values of 0.762 and 0.803. The sensitivity and specificity of K8-ELISA were 100% on a

  16. Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Expressed by Recombinant Respiratory Syncytial Virus Attenuates Viral Replication and Increases the Level of Pulmonary Antigen-Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bukreyev, Alexander; Belyakov, Igor M.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Murphy, Brian R.; Collins, Peter L.

    2001-01-01

    An obstacle to developing a vaccine against human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is that natural infection typically does not confer solid immunity to reinfection. To investigate methods to augment the immune response, recombinant RSV (rRSV) was constructed that expresses murine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (mGM-CSF) from a transcription cassette inserted into the G-F intergenic region. Replication of rRSV/mGM-CSF in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of BALB/c mice was reduced 23- to 74- and 5- to 588-fold, respectively, compared to that of the parental rRSV. Despite this strong attenuation of replication, the level of RSV-specific serum antibodies induced by rRSV/mGM-CSF was comparable to, or marginally higher than, that of the parental rRSV. The induction of RSV-specific CD8+ cytotoxic T cells was moderately reduced during the initial infection, which might be a consequence of reduced antigen expression. Mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF had elevated levels of pulmonary mRNA for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and interleukin 12 (IL-12) p40 compared to animals infected by wild-type rRSV. Elevated synthesis of IFN-γ could account for the restriction of RSV replication, as was observed previously with an IFN-γ-expressing rRSV. The accumulation of total pulmonary mononuclear cells and total CD4+ T lymphocytes was accelerated in animals infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to that in animals infected with the control virus, and the level of IFN-γ-positive or IL-4-positive pulmonary CD4+ cells was elevated approximately twofold. The number of pulmonary lymphoid and myeloid dendritic cells and macrophages was increased up to fourfold in mice infected with rRSV/mGM-CSF compared to those infected with the parental rRSV, and the mean expression of major histocompatibility complex class II molecules, a marker of activation, was significantly increased in the two subsets of dendritic cells. Enhanced antigen presentation likely accounts for the

  17. Establishment of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using purified recombinant 83-kilodalton antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii for serodiagnosis of Lyme disease.

    PubMed

    Rauer, S; Kayser, M; Neubert, U; Rasiah, C; Vogt, A

    1995-10-01

    The 83-kDa antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi was expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified for use in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (p83-ELISA). Antibodies to the 83-kDa antigen of both the immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM isotypes could be detected in all stages of Lyme disease. Sensitivity varied, depending on the clinical stage of illness. In early stages, as defined for 118 patients with erythema migrans, it was found to be 20% (24 of 118 patients: 7 with IgM, 16 with IgG, and 1 with IgM and IgG). Of the patients with late-stage Lyme arthritis and acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans, 94% (16 of 17:2 with IgM and IgG and 14 with IgG) and 86% (36 of 42:2 with IgG and IgM and 34 with IgG) revealed positive results in the p83-ELISA, respectively. p83 displays sequence heterogeneity according to the genomospecies, but when the reactions of serum specimens from acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans patients and arthritis patients with p83 derived from representative strains of B. burgdorferi sensu stricto and Borrelia afzelii in ELISAs were compared, no differences in specificity and sensitivity were seen. When 82 serum specimens from healthy controls were tested, none had IgG and only 3 (4%) had IgM antibodies, indicating a high specificity. Positive reactions with antibodies against Treponema pallidum (1 of 37 patients; IgG) and Epstein-Barr virus (1 of 44 patients; IgM) and with autoantibodies of various specificities (1 of 53 patients; IgG) were seen with < 3% of the serum samples te11111111111111111111 high speficicity for B. burgdorferi.2+ 13% for IgM antibodies, the IgM p83-ELISA provided little diagnostic information for Lyme disease, whereas the IgG p83-ELISA appears to be a suita ;e test for serodiagnosis of advanced-stage Lyme disease.

  18. Immunogenic Salivary Proteins of Triatoma infestans: Development of a Recombinant Antigen for the Detection of Low-Level Infestation of Triatomines

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Helling, Stefan; Collin, Nicolas; Teixeira, Clarissa R.; Medrano-Mercado, Nora; Hume, Jen C. C.; Assumpção, Teresa C.; Marcus, Katrin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Ribeiro, José M. C.; Billingsley, Peter F.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Sternberg, Jeremy M.; Schaub, Günter A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Triatomines are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. The most effective vector, Triatoma infestans, has been controlled successfully in much of Latin America using insecticide spraying. Though rarely undertaken, surveillance programs are necessary in order to identify new infestations and estimate the intensity of triatomine bug infestations in domestic and peridomestic habitats. Since hosts exposed to triatomines develop immune responses to salivary antigens, these responses can be evaluated for their usefulness as epidemiological markers to detect infestations of T. infestans. Methodology/Principal Findings T. infestans salivary proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis and tested for their immunogenicity by Western blotting using sera from chickens and guinea pigs experimentally exposed to T. infestans. From five highly immunogenic protein spots, eight salivary proteins were identified by nano liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-ESI-MS/MS) and comparison to the protein sequences of the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) database and expressed sequence tags of a unidirectionally cloned salivary gland cDNA library from T. infestans combined with the NCBI yeast protein sub-database. The 14.6 kDa salivary protein [gi|149689094] was produced as recombinant protein (rTiSP14.6) in a mammalian cell expression system and recognized by all animal sera. The specificity of rTiSP14.6 was confirmed by the lack of reactivity to anti-mosquito and anti-sand fly saliva antibodies. However, rTiSP14.6 was recognized by sera from chickens exposed to four other triatomine species, Triatoma brasiliensis, T. sordida, Rhodnius prolixus, and Panstrongylus megistus and by sera of chickens from an endemic area of T. infestans and Chagas disease in Bolivia. Conclusions/Significance The recombinant rTiSP14.6 is a suitable and promising epidemiological marker for

  19. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming.

  20. A new ELISA kit which uses a combination of Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens as an alternative to IFAT for detection of malaria antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Doderer, Cecile; Heschung, Aurelie; Guntz, Phillippe; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Hansmann, Yves; Senegas, Alexandre; Pfaff, Alexander W; Abdelrahman, Tamer; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2007-01-01

    Background The methods most commonly used to measure malarial antibody titres are the Indirect Fluorescence Antibody Test (IFAT), regarded as the gold standard, and the Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA). The objective here was to assess the diagnostic performance, i.e. the sensitivity and specificity, of a new malaria antibody ELISA kit in comparison to IFAT. This new ELISA kit, the ELISA malaria antibody test (DiaMed), uses a combination of crude soluble Plasmodium falciparum extract and recombinant Plasmodium vivax antigens. Methods Two groups were used: 95 samples from malaria patients to assess the clinical sensitivity and 2,152 samples from blood donors, who had not been exposed to malaria, to assess the clinical specificity. Results The DiaMed ELISA test kit had a clinical sensitivity of 84.2% and a clinical specificity of 99.6% as compared with 70.5% and 99.6% respectively, using the IFAT method. The ELISA method was more sensitive than the IFAT method for P. vivax infections (75% vs. 25%). However, in 923 malaria risk donors the analytical sensitivity of the ELISA test was 40% and its specificity 98.3%, performances impaired by large numbers of equivocal results non-concordant between ELISA and IFAT. When the overall analytical performances of ELISA was compared to IFAT, the ELISA efficiency J index was 0.84 versus 0.71 for IFAT. Overall analytical sensitivity was 93.1% and the analytical specificity 96.7%. Overall agreement between the two methods reached 0.97 with a reliability k index of 0.64. Conclusion The DiaMed ELISA test kit shows a good correlation with IFAT for analytical and clinical parameters. It may be an interesting method to replace the IFAT especially in blood banks, but further extensive investigations are needed to examine the analytical performance of the assay, especially in a blood bank setting. PMID:17313669

  1. A novel recombinant bivalent outer membrane protein of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila as a vaccine antigen of American eel (Anguilla rostrata).

    PubMed

    SongLin, Guo; PanPan, Lu; JianJun, Feng; JinPing, Zhao; Peng, Lin; LiHua, Duan

    2015-04-01

    The immogenicity of a novel vaccine antigen was evaluated after immunized American eels (Anguilla rostrata) with a recombinant bivalent expressed outer membrane protein (OMP) of Vibrio vulnificus and Aeromonas hydrophila. Three groups of eels were intraperitoneal (i.p) injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS group), formaline-killed-whole-cell (FKC) of A. hydrophila and V. vulnificus (FKC group) or the bivalent OMP (OMP group). On 14, 21, 28 and 42 days post-vaccination respectively, proliferation of the whole blood cells, titers of specific antibody and lysozyme activities of experimental eels were detected. On 28 day post-vaccination, eels from three groups were challenged by i.p injection of live A. hydrophila or V. vulnificus. The results showed that, compared with the PBS group, proliferation of whole blood cells in OMP group was significant enhanced on 28 days, and the serum titers of anti-A.hydrophila and anti-V. vulnificus antibody in eels of FKC and OMP group were significant increased on 14, 21 and 28d. Lysozyme Activities in serum, skin mucus, liver and kidney were significant changed between the three groups. Relative Percent Survival (RPS) after challenged A. hydrophila in KFC vs. PBS group and OMP vs. PBS group were 62.5% and 50% respectively, and the RPS challenged V. vulnificus in FKC and OMP vs. PBS group were 37.5% and 50% respectively. These results suggest that American eels immunized with the bivalent OMP would positively affect specific as well as non-specific immune parameters and protect against infection by the two pathogens in fresh water farming. PMID:25655329

  2. DNA Double-Strand Breaks and Telomeres Play Important Roles in Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Human-infecting microbial pathogens all face a serious problem of elimination by the host immune response. Antigenic variation is an effective immune evasion mechanism where the pathogen regularly switches its major surface antigen. In many cases, the major surface antigen is encoded by genes from the same gene family, and its expression is strictly monoallelic. Among pathogens that undergo antigenic variation, Trypanosoma brucei (a kinetoplastid), which causes human African trypanosomiasis, Plasmodium falciparum (an apicomplexan), which causes malaria, Pneumocystis jirovecii (a fungus), which causes pneumonia, and Borrelia burgdorferi (a bacterium), which causes Lyme disease, also express their major surface antigens from loci next to the telomere. Except for Plasmodium, DNA recombination-mediated gene conversion is a major pathway for surface antigen switching in these pathogens. In the last decade, more sophisticated molecular and genetic tools have been developed in T. brucei, and our knowledge of functions of DNA recombination in antigenic variation has been greatly advanced. VSG is the major surface antigen in T. brucei. In subtelomeric VSG expression sites (ESs), VSG genes invariably are flanked by a long stretch of upstream 70-bp repeats. Recent studies have shown that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), particularly those in 70-bp repeats in the active ES, are a natural potent trigger for antigenic variation in T. brucei. In addition, telomere proteins can influence VSG switching by reducing the DSB amount at subtelomeric regions. These findings will be summarized and their implications will be discussed in this review. PMID:25576484

  3. Identification of a cDNA clone encoding a mature blood stage antigen of Plasmodium falciparum by immunization of mice with bacterial lysates.

    PubMed Central

    Coppel, R L; Brown, G V; Mitchell, G F; Anders, R F; Kemp, D J

    1984-01-01

    A cDNA library was constructed in pBR322 using mRNA from blood stages of a Papua New Guinean isolate of Plasmodium falciparum. Expression of parasite antigens was not directly detectable by conventional immunological assays. To circumvent this, mice were immunized with lysates of cDNA clones, and the antisera raised were assayed for anti-parasite reactivity. One cDNA clone was identified which reliably elicited antibodies to P. falciparum. The mouse antisera were used to characterize the native P. falciparum protein as a 120-kd protein, which is antigenic during natural infection. The protein occurs in late trophozoite and schizont stages and is found in isolates of the parasite from widely separated geographical areas. The genomic context of the antigen gene is conserved in the different isolates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:6370681

  4. Expression of the gene encoding secretor type galactoside 2 α fucosyltransferase (FUT2) and ABH antigens in patients with oral lesions

    PubMed Central

    Campi, Carlos; Escovich, Livia; Moreno, Alejandra; Racca, Liliana; Racca, Amelia; Cotorruelo, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this work was to evaluate the expression of FUT2 gene in saliva and histo ABH antigens of patients with oral lesions. Study Design: In total 178 subjects were examined, half of whom suffered from oral pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions, while the other half were the healthy control group We analyzed the FUT 2 polymorphism by ASO-PCR (allele specific oligonucleotid – polymerase chain reaction) with specific primers for G428 allele and the wild type allele of FUT2 gene. To reveal A, B and H antigens in tissue sections of the patients (n= 89) we used a modified specific red cell adherence technique. Results: We found a high intensity of oral disease in the non-secretor group (OR = 2.43). A total of 58% of the patients with oral pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions was non secretors (se_/_), in contrast with the healthy population (21.5%). A strongly positive reaction was defined as a sheet of indicator erythrocytes adhered to the epithelial cells. In 31 of the 54 samples analyzed the test showed slightly positive results on atypical areas, and there was a complete antigen deletion in areas affected by neoplasia. Nineteen samples showed a total absence of ABH antigens in both histologically normal and pathological areas. Blood group antigens were expressed at a high level in benign and highly differentiated malignant tumors. In poorly differentiated malignant tumors, they were mostly absent. Conclusion: Considering these results we suggest the use of this method to monitor probable preneoplastic lesions in risk population, especially in those with no secretor status (absence of FUT2 gene). Key words: FUT2 gene, ABH antigens, secretor status, oral lesions. PMID:22157667

  5. Small, clonally variant antigens expressed on the surface of the Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocyte are encoded by the rif gene family and are the target of human immune responses.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, V; Hommel, M; Chen, Q; Hagblom, P; Wahlgren, M

    1999-11-15

    Disease severity in Plasmodium falciparum infections is a direct consequence of the parasite's efficient evasion of the defense mechanisms of the human host. To date, one parasite-derived molecule, the antigenically variant adhesin P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is known to be transported to the infected erythrocyte (pRBC) surface, where it mediates binding to different host receptors. Here we report that multiple additional proteins are expressed by the parasite at the pRBC surface, including a large cluster of clonally variant antigens of 30-45 kD. We have found these antigens to be identical to the rifins, predicted polypeptides encoded by the rif multigene family. These parasite products, formerly called rosettins after their identification in rosetting parasites, are prominently expressed by fresh isolates of P. falciparum. Rifins are immunogenic in natural infections and strain-specifically recognized by human immune sera in immunoprecipitation of surface-labeled pRBC extracts. Furthermore, human immune sera agglutinate pRBCs digested with trypsin at conditions such that radioiodinated PfEMP1 polypeptides are not detected but rifins are detected, suggesting the presence of epitopes in rifins targeted by agglutinating antibodies. When analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis, the rifins resolved into several isoforms in the pI range of 5.5-6.5, indicating molecular microheterogeneity, an additional potential novel source of antigenic diversity in P. falciparum. Prominent polypeptides of 20, 22, 76-80, 140, and 170 kD were also detected on the surfaces of pRBCs bearing in vitro-propagated or field-isolated parasites. In this report, we describe the rifins, the second family of clonally variant antigens known to be displayed by P. falciparum on the surface of the infected erythrocyte.

  6. Cationic Lipid-Formulated DNA Vaccine against Hepatitis B Virus: Immunogenicity of MIDGE-Th1 Vectors Encoding Small and Large Surface Antigen in Comparison to a Licensed Protein Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Endmann, Anne; Klünder, Katharina; Kapp, Kerstin; Riede, Oliver; Oswald, Detlef; Talman, Eduard G.; Schroff, Matthias; Kleuss, Christiane; Ruiters, Marcel H. J.; Juhls, Christiane

    2014-01-01

    Currently marketed vaccines against hepatitis B virus (HBV) based on the small (S) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) fail to induce a protective immune response in about 10% of vaccinees. DNA vaccination and the inclusion of PreS1 and PreS2 domains of HBsAg have been reported to represent feasible strategies to improve the efficacy of HBV vaccines. Here, we evaluated the immunogenicity of SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S or the large (L) protein of HBsAg in mice and pigs. In both animal models, vectors encoding the secretion-competent S protein induced stronger humoral responses than vectors encoding the L protein, which was shown to be retained mainly intracellularly despite the presence of a heterologous secretion signal. In pigs, SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vectors encoding the S protein elicited an immune response of the same magnitude as the licensed protein vaccine Engerix-B, with S protein-specific antibody levels significantly higher than those considered protective in humans, and lasting for at least six months after the third immunization. Thus, our results provide not only the proof of concept for the SAINT-18-formulated MIDGE-Th1 vector approach but also confirm that with a cationic-lipid formulation, a DNA vaccine at a relatively low dose can elicit an immune response similar to a human dose of an aluminum hydroxide-adjuvanted protein vaccine in large animals. PMID:24992038

  7. Recombinant Antigens rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 for Serological Diagnosis of Leptospirosis by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays in Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Cuilian; Yan, Weiwei; Xiang, Hua; He, Hongxuan; Yang, Maosheng; Ijaz, Muhammad; Useh, Nicodemus; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; McDonough, Patrick L.; McDonough, Sean P.; Mohamed, Hussni; Yang, Zhibang; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Animal leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the United States and around the world. In a previous study, we applied four recombinant antigens, rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 of Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans) for the serological diagnosis of equine leptospirosis (Ye et al, Serodiagnosis of equine leptospirosis by ELISA using four recombinant protein markers, Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 21:478–483). In this study, the same four recombinant antigens were evaluated for their potential to diagnose canine leptospirosis by ELISA. A total of 305 canine sera that were Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (n = 102) and MAT-positive (n = 203) to 5 serovars (Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola and Hardjo) were tested. When individual recombinant antigens were used, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8; 89.7% and 81.4% for rLoa22; 92.6% and 84.3% for rLipL32 and 99.5% and 84.3% for rLipL21, respectively compared to the MAT. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL32, 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL21, 89.7% and 87.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLoa22, 89.7% and 87.3% to rLipL21 and rLoa22, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLipL21 and rLipL32 and 89.2% and 94.1% for rLoa22 and rLipL32 when one of the two antigens was test positive. The use of all four antigens in the ELISA assay was found to be sensitive and specific, easy to perform, and agreed with the results of the standard Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination test (MAT) for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. PMID:25526513

  8. Recombinant antigens rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 for serological diagnosis of leptospirosis by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in dogs.

    PubMed

    Ye, Cuilian; Yan, Weiwei; Xiang, Hua; He, Hongxuan; Yang, Maosheng; Ijaz, Muhammad; Useh, Nicodemus; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; McDonough, Patrick L; McDonough, Sean P; Mohamed, Hussni; Yang, Zhibang; Chang, Yung-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Animal leptospirosis is one of the most common zoonotic diseases in the United States and around the world. In a previous study, we applied four recombinant antigens, rLipL21, rLoa22, rLipL32 and rLigACon4-8 of Leptospira interrogans (L. interrogans) for the serological diagnosis of equine leptospirosis (Ye et al, Serodiagnosis of equine leptospirosis by ELISA using four recombinant protein markers, Clin. Vaccine. Immunol. 21:478-483). In this study, the same four recombinant antigens were evaluated for their potential to diagnose canine leptospirosis by ELISA. A total of 305 canine sera that were Leptospira microscopic agglutination test (MAT)-negative (n = 102) and MAT-positive (n = 203) to 5 serovars (Pomona, Grippotyphosa, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola and Hardjo) were tested. When individual recombinant antigens were used, the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8; 89.7% and 81.4% for rLoa22; 92.6% and 84.3% for rLipL32 and 99.5% and 84.3% for rLipL21, respectively compared to the MAT. The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA were, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL32, 97.5% and 84.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLipL21, 89.7% and 87.3% for rLigACon4-8 and rLoa22, 89.7% and 87.3% to rLipL21 and rLoa22, 92.6% and 91.2% for rLipL21 and rLipL32 and 89.2% and 94.1% for rLoa22 and rLipL32 when one of the two antigens was test positive. The use of all four antigens in the ELISA assay was found to be sensitive and specific, easy to perform, and agreed with the results of the standard Leptospira Microscopic Agglutination test (MAT) for the diagnosis of canine leptospirosis. PMID:25526513

  9. Mapping Antigenic Motifs in the Trypomastigote Small Surface Antigen from Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Balouz, Virginia; Cámara, María de los Milagros; Cánepa, Gaspar E.; Carmona, Santiago J.; Volcovich, Romina; Gonzalez, Nicolás; Altcheh, Jaime; Agüero, Fernán

    2015-01-01

    The trypomastigote small surface antigen (TSSA) is a mucin-like molecule from Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which displays amino acid polymorphisms in parasite isolates. TSSA expression is restricted to the surface of infective cell-derived trypomastigotes, where it functions as an adhesin and engages surface receptors on the host cell as a prerequisite for parasite internalization. Previous results have established TSSA-CL, the isoform encoded by the CL Brener clone, as an appealing candidate for use in serology-based diagnostics for Chagas disease. Here, we used a combination of peptide- and recombinant protein-based tools to map the antigenic structure of TSSA-CL at maximal resolution. Our results indicate the presence of different partially overlapping B-cell epitopes clustering in the central portion of TSSA-CL, which contains most of the polymorphisms found in parasite isolates. Based on these results, we assessed the serodiagnostic performance of a 21-amino-acid-long peptide that spans TSSA-CL major antigenic determinants, which was similar to the performance of the previously validated glutathione S-transferase (GST)-TSSA-CL fusion molecule. Furthermore, the tools developed for the antigenic characterization of the TSSA antigen were also used to explore other potential diagnostic applications of the anti-TSSA humoral response in Chagasic patients. Overall, our present results provide additional insights into the antigenic structure of TSSA-CL and support this molecule as an excellent target for molecular intervention in Chagas disease. PMID:25589551

  10. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  11. Recombinant Protective Antigen Anthrax Vaccine Improves Survival when Administered as a Postexposure Prophylaxis Countermeasure with Antibiotic in the New Zealand White Rabbit Model of Inhalation Anthrax

    PubMed Central

    Bourdage, James S.; Williamson, E. Diane; Duchars, Matthew; Fuerst, Thomas R.; Fusco, Peter C.

    2012-01-01

    Inhalation anthrax is a potentially lethal form of disease resulting from exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis spores. Over the last decade, incidents spanning from the deliberate mailing of B. anthracis spores to incidental exposures in users of illegal drugs have highlighted the importance of developing new medical countermeasures to protect people who have been exposed to “anthrax spores” and are at risk of developing disease. The New Zealand White rabbit (NZWR) is a well-characterized model that has a pathogenesis and clinical presentation similar to those seen in humans. This article reports how the NZWR model was adapted to evaluate postexposure prophylaxis using a recombinant protective antigen (rPA) vaccine in combination with an oral antibiotic, levofloxacin. NZWRs were exposed to multiples of the 50% lethal dose (LD50) of B. anthracis spores and then vaccinated immediately (day 0) and again on day 7 postexposure. Levofloxacin was administered daily beginning at 6 to 12 h postexposure for 7 treatments. Rabbits were evaluated for clinical signs of disease, fever, bacteremia, immune response, and survival. A robust immune response (IgG anti-rPA and toxin-neutralizing antibodies) was observed in all vaccinated groups on days 10 to 12. Levofloxacin plus either 30 or 100 μg rPA vaccine resulted in a 100% survival rate (18 of 18 per group), and a vaccine dose as low as 10 μg rPA resulted in an 89% survival rate (16 of 18) when used in combination with levofloxacin. In NZWRs that received antibiotic alone, the survival rate was 56% (10 of 18). There was no adverse effect on the development of a specific IgG response to rPA in unchallenged NZWRs that received the combination treatment of vaccine plus antibiotic. This study demonstrated that an accelerated two-dose regimen of rPA vaccine coadministered on days 0 and 7 with 7 days of levofloxacin therapy results in a significantly greater survival rate than with antibiotic treatment alone. Combination of

  12. Prime-boost vaccination with Bacillus Calmette Guerin and a recombinant adenovirus co-expressing CFP10, ESAT6, Ag85A and Ag85B of Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces robust antigen-specific immune responses in mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Wu; Li, Min; Deng, Guangcun; Zhao, Liping; Liu, Xiaoming; Wang, Yujiong

    2015-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains to be a prevalent health issue worldwide. At present, Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guerin (BCG) is the singular anti-TB vaccine available for the prevention of disease in humans; however, this vaccine only provides limited protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Therefore, the development of alternative vaccines and strategies for increasing the efficacy of vaccination against TB are urgently required. The present study aimed to evaluate the ability of a recombinant adenoviral vector (Ad5-CEAB) co-expressing 10-kDa culture filtrate protein, 6-kDa early-secreted antigenic target, antigen 85 (Ag85)A and Ag85B of Mtb to boost immune responses following primary vaccination with BCG in mice. The mice were first subcutaneously primed with BCG and boosted with two doses of Ad5-CEAB via an intranasal route. The immunological effects of Ad5-CEAB boosted mice primed with BCG were then evaluated using a series of immunological indexes. The results demonstrated that the prime-boost strategy induced a potent antigen-specific immune response, which was primarily characterized by an enhanced T cell response and increased production of cytokines, including interferon-γ, tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-2, in mice. In addition, this vaccination strategy was demonstrated to have an elevated humoral response with increased concentrations of antigen-specific bronchoalveolar lavage secretory immunoglobulin (Ig)A and serum IgG in mice compared with those primed with BCG alone. These data suggested that the regimen of subcutaneous BCG prime and mucosal Ad5-CEAB boost was a novel strategy for inducing a broad range of antigen-specific immune responses to Mtb antigens in vivo, which may provide a promising strategy for further development of adenoviral-based vaccine against Mtb infection.

  13. Molecular cloning and characterization of a major egg antigen in Paragonimus westermani and its use in ELISA for the immunodiagnosis of paragonimiasis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Sik; Lee, Jongweon; Kim, Sun Hyun; Yong, Tai-Soon

    2007-03-01

    A recombinant protein of a Paragonimus westermani egg antigen was produced and tested as an antigen for the serologic diagnosis of P. westermani infection. The P. westermani egg antigen gene contains a single open reading frame of 966 base pairs encoding 322 amino acids from 5' methionine to the 3' stop codon. The predicted amino acid sequence of this egg antigen was 40, 38, and was 35% identical to heat shock proteins from Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Taenia saginata. The distribution this antigen was investigated in adult worms by indirect immunofluorescence assay, and found to be distributed in eggs and uteri. The specificity and sensitivity of the recombinant antigen were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using sera from patients infected with different parasites, which included 41 patients with paragonimiasis, and negative controls. The diagnostic positive and negative predictive absorbance value was 0.24 and the sensitivity of ELISA using the recombinant antigen was 90.2%, and its specificity 100%. Our results suggest that the developed recombinant major egg antigen-based ELISA offers a highly sensitive and specific assay for the diagnosis of paragonimiasis.

  14. A bivalent typhoid live vector vaccine expressing both chromosome- and plasmid-encoded Yersinia pestis antigens fully protects against murine lethal pulmonary plague infection.

    PubMed

    Galen, James E; Wang, Jin Yuan; Carrasco, Jose A; Lloyd, Scott A; Mellado-Sanchez, Gabriela; Diaz-McNair, Jovita; Franco, Olga; Buskirk, Amanda D; Nataro, James P; Pasetti, Marcela F

    2015-01-01

    Live attenuated bacteria hold great promise as multivalent mucosal vaccines against a variety of pathogens. A major challenge of this approach has been the successful delivery of sufficient amounts of vaccine antigens to adequately prime the immune system without overattenuating the live vaccine. Here we used a live attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi strain to create a bivalent mucosal plague vaccine that produces both the protective F1 capsular antigen of Yersinia pestis and the LcrV protein required for secretion of virulence effector proteins. To reduce the metabolic burden associated with the coexpression of F1 and LcrV within the live vector, we balanced expression of both antigens by combining plasmid-based expression of F1 with chromosomal expression of LcrV from three independent loci. The immunogenicity and protective efficacy of this novel vaccine were assessed in mice by using a heterologous prime-boost immunization strategy and compared to those of a conventional strain in which F1 and LcrV were expressed from a single low-copy-number plasmid. The serum antibody responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced by the optimized bivalent vaccine were indistinguishable from those elicited by the parent strain, suggesting an adequate immunogenic capacity maintained through preservation of bacterial fitness; in contrast, LPS titers were 10-fold lower in mice immunized with the conventional vaccine strain. Importantly, mice receiving the optimized bivalent vaccine were fully protected against lethal pulmonary challenge. These results demonstrate the feasibility of distributing foreign antigen expression across both chromosomal and plasmid locations within a single vaccine organism for induction of protective immunity.

  15. Identification of the gene encoding BmpB, a 30 kDa outer envelope lipoprotein of Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae, and immunogenicity of recombinant BmpB in mice and pigs.

    PubMed

    Lee, B J; La, T; Mikosza, A S; Hampson, D J

    2000-10-01

    A gene encoding a 30kDa outer envelope protein of the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira (Serpulina) hyodysenteriae, was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli strain XLOLR. Five phagemids containing DNA inserts encoding the protein were established and one clone (pSHA) was sequenced. An 816bp hypothetical open reading frame (ORF) was identified, with a potential ribosome binding site (AGGAG), and putative -10 (TATAAT) and -35 (TTGAAA) promoter regions upstream from the ATG start of the ORF. A 12bp inverted repeat sequence, possibly serving as a transcription terminator, was identified downstream from the TAA stop codon. Analysis of the amino acid sequence identified a 19 residue hydrophobic signal peptide, incorporating a potential signal peptidase cleavage site and membrane lipoprotein lipid attachment site. Further analysis of the amino acid usage of this lipoprotein, designated BmpB, showed its possible outer membrane localisation. Comparison of the gene encoding the lipoprotein, bmpB, with GenBank nucleotide sequences showed that it has homology with the gene (plp3) encoding Plp3, an outer membrane lipoprotein of Pasteurella haemolytica (54% identity in 735bp). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the SWISS-PROT amino acid database revealed greatest homology with the outer membrane lipoproteins (Plp1, 2, 3) of P. haemolytica (34% identity in 242 aa, 37% identity in 250 aa, and 39% identity in 272 aa, respectively), and lipoproteins (rcsF and lipoprotein-28) of E. coli (40% identity in 267 aa and 36% identity in 263 aa, respectively). Three of the recombinant E. coli clones (pSHA, pSHD, and pSHE) were formalinised and used to immunise mice. A bacterin preparation of one recombinant E. coli clone (pSHA) was used to immunise pigs. Sera from these mice and pigs recognised the 30kDa lipoprotein in outer membrane preparations of B. hyodysenteriae, indicating the immunogenicity of recombinant BmpB. Sera from pigs naturally infected with B

  16. Sequencing of the gene encoding the major pilin of pilus colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli and evidence that CFA/III is related to type IV pili.

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, T; Fujino, Y; Yamamoto, K; Miwatani, T; Honda, T

    1995-01-01

    The plasmid-encoded structural gene cofA necessary for the production of the major pilin subunit of pilus colonization factor antigen III (CFA/III) of human enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli was identified, and the nucleotide sequence of the gene was determined. cofA consists of 714 nucleotides encoding a 238-amino-acid protein (molecular weight of 25,309). CofA seems to be a precursor of CFA/III pilin, because the first 23 residues of the N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified CFA/III pili coincided with the deduced amino acid sequence for residues 32 to 54 of CofA. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of CofA also indicated its processing to form mature pilin in the presence of the downstream region of cofA. These results suggest that the major pilin of CFA/III pili is produced as a precursor form which is posttranslationally modified to the mature pilin and forms morphological pili after cleavage of the Gly-30-Met-31 junction, probably by a protease encoded by an as-yet-unknown gene located downstream of cofA. Interestingly, the N-terminal 30-amino-acid sequence of mature CFA/III shows the highest identity (76.7%) to TcpA pilin of Vibrio cholerae, which is a type IV class B pilin. PMID:7822050

  17. Evaluation of recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1 (ASP-1) as a potent Th1-biased adjuvant with a panel of protein or peptide-based antigens and commercial inactivated vaccines.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Wenjun; Du, Lanying; Liang, Chao; Guan, Jie; Jiang, Shibo; Lustigman, Sara; He, Yuxian; Zhou, Yusen

    2008-09-15

    Alum, the only adjuvant approved for clinical applications, can induce strong humoral (Th2) but weak cellular (Th1) immune responses. It is necessary to develop safe and effective adjuvants capable of inducing both humoral and cellular immune responses. We previously showed that activation-associated protein-1 (ASP-1) derived from Onchocerca volvulus has potent adjuvant activity. In this study, we have further evaluated the adjuvanticity of recombinant ASP-1 using a panel of recombinant proteins or synthetic peptide-based antigens, including ovalbumin (OVA), synthetic HIV peptide (HIV-p), recombinant HIV gp41 (rgp41) and HBV HBsAg, as well as three commercially available inactivated vaccines against haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), Influenza and Rabies. Our results indicate that ASP-1 induced significantly higher IgG1 (Th2-associated) and IgG2a (Th1-associated) responses than alum adjuvant against OVA antigen, HIV-p, and rgp41. Consistently, it induced similar level of IgG1 responses as alum but higher level of IgG2a and IFN-gamma-producing T cell responses than alum adjuvant against HBsAg. Further, ASP-1 improved both IgG1 and IgG2a responses to three commercial inactivated vaccines when used separately or in combination. In conclusion, the recombinant ASP-1, unlike alum adjuvant, is able to induce both Th1 and Th2-associated humoral responses and Th1 cellular responses, suggesting that it can be further developed as a promising adjuvant for subunit-based and inactivated vaccines. PMID:18675867

  18. Isolation and structure of a cDNA encoding the B1 (CD20) cell-surface antigen of human B lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Tedder, T F; Streuli, M; Schlossman, S F; Saito, H

    1988-01-01

    The B1 (CD20) molecule is a Mr 33,000 phosphoprotein on the surface of human B lymphocytes that may serve a central role in the humoral immune response by regulating B-cell proliferation and differentiation. In this report, a cDNA clone that encodes the B1 molecule was isolated and the amino acid sequence of B1 was determined. B-cell-specific cDNA clones were selected from a human tonsillar cDNA library by differential hybridization with labeled cDNA derived from either size-fractionated B-cell mRNA or size-fractionated T-cell mRNA. Of the 261 cDNA clones isolated, 3 cross-hybridizing cDNA clones were chosen as potential candidates for encoding B1 based on their selective hybridization to RNA from B1-positive cell lines. The longest clone, pB1-21, contained a 2.8-kilobase insert with an 891-base-pair open reading frame that encodes a protein of 33 kDa. mRNA synthesized from the pB1-21 cDNA clone in vitro was translated into a protein of the same apparent molecular weight as B1. Limited proteinase digestion of the pB1-21 translation product and B1 generated peptides of the same sizes, indicating that the pB1-21 cDNA encodes the B1 molecule. Gel blot analysis indicated that pB1-21 hybridized with two mRNA species of 2.8 and 3.4 kilobases only in B1-positive cell lines. The amino acid sequence deduced from the pB1-21 nucleotide sequence apparently lacks a signal sequence and contains three extensive hydrophobic regions. The deduced B1 amino acid sequence shows no significant homology with other known proteins. Images PMID:2448768

  19. Vaccination of patients with metastatic renal cancer with modified vaccinia Ankara encoding the tumor antigen 5T4 (TroVax) given alongside interferon-alpha.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Robert E; Macdermott, Catriona; Shablak, Alaaeldin; Hamer, Caroline; Thistlethwaite, Fiona; Drury, Noel L; Chikoti, Priscilla; Shingler, William; Naylor, Stuart; Harrop, Richard

    2009-05-01

    Approximately 90% of renal cell tumors overexpress the tumor antigen 5T4. The attenuated strain of vaccinia virus, modified vaccinia Ankara, has been engineered to express 5T4 (TroVax). We conducted an open-label phase 1/2 trial in which TroVax was administered alongside interferon-alpha (IFNalpha) to 11 patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Antigen-specific cellular and humoral responses were monitored throughout the study, and clinical responses were assessed by measuring the changes in tumor burden by computed tomography scan (Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors). The primary objective was to assess the safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of TroVax when given alongside IFNalpha. Treatment with TroVax plus IFNalpha was well tolerated with no serious adverse events attributed to TroVax. All 11 patients mounted 5T4-specific antibody responses and 5 (45%) mounted cellular responses. No objective tumor responses were seen, but the overall median time to progression (TTP) of 9 months (range: 2.1 to 26+ mo) was longer than expected for IFNalpha alone. For the 10 clear cell patients the TTP ranged from 3.9 to 26+ months, with a median TTP of 10.4 months. The high frequency of 5T4-specific immune responses and prolonged median TTP for clear cell patients compared with that expected for IFNalpha alone is encouraging and warrants further investigation.

  20. Recombinant constructs of Borrelia burgdorferi

    DOEpatents

    Dattwyler, Raymond J.; Gomes-Solecki, Maria J. C.; Luft, Benjamin J.; Dunn, John J.

    2007-02-20

    Novel chimeric nucleic acids, encoding chimeric Borrelia proteins comprising OspC or an antigenic fragment thereof and OspA or an antigenic fragment thereof, are disclosed. Chimeric proteins encoded by the nucleic acid sequences are also disclosed. The chimeric proteins are useful as vaccine immunogens against Lyme borreliosis, as well as for immunodiagnostic reagents.

  1. Hybrid genes between HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 constructed by in vivo recombination allow mapping of HLA-A2 and HLA-A3 polymorphic antigenic determinants.

    PubMed

    Sire, J; Chimini, G; Boretto, J; Toubert, A; Kahn-Perles, B; Layet, C; Sodoyer, R; Lemonnier, F; Jordan, B

    1988-04-01

    HLA-A2 and -A3 genes have been modified in their third exon (second domain) by using in vivo recombination. In this method Escherichia coli are transfected with a plasmid which contains two highly homologous sequences (e.g., the third exons of HLA-A2 and -A3) and has been linearized by cleavage between these two sequences. Circularization takes place in the bacteria by homologous recombination leading to hybrid A2-A3 sequences. The analysis by DNA sequencing of a number of such recombinants shows that they indeed occur by homologous recombination (no insertions or deletions) and that the probability of crossing over decreases as the distance from the free end of DNA in the homologous region increases. No double recombinants were observed. These hybrid exons were reinserted into either HLA-A2 or HLA-A3 genes, thus generating a panel of functional hybrid genes containing one or several HLA-A2 specific substitutions in an HLA-A3 background or vice versa. These genes were expressed by transfection into murine P815-high transfection efficiency recipient cells. Serologic analysis leads to the conclusion that expression of polymorphic antigenic determinants specific for HLA-A2 (detected with M58, A2A28M1, and CR11.351 mAb) is linked to the presence of threonine residue (amino acid (AA) 142) and/or histidine residue (AA 145) and valine residue (AA 152). The expression of specific HLA-A3 polymorphic determinants (recognized by GAP-A3 mAb) is correlated with the existence of a asparagine residue (AA 127) and a aspartic residue (AA 161). But aspartic residue 161 contributes with glutamic acid residue 152 in the formation of the A3 epitope recognized by the anti-A3 mAb X1.23.2. PMID:2450922

  2. High-resolution structure of HLA-A*0201 in complex with a tumour-specific antigenic peptide encoded by the MAGE-A4 gene.

    PubMed

    Hillig, R C; Coulie, P G; Stroobant, V; Saenger, W; Ziegler, A; Hülsmeyer, M

    2001-07-27

    The heterotrimeric complex of the human major histocompatibity complex (MHC) molecule HLA-A*0201, beta2-microglobulin and the decameric peptide GVYDGREHTV derived from the melanoma antigen (MAGE-A4 protein has been determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.4 A resolution. MAGE-A4 belongs to a family of genes that are specifically expressed in a variety of tumours. MAGE-A4-derived peptides are presented by MHC molecules at the cell surface to cytotoxic T-lymphocytes. As the HLA-A*0201:MAGE-A4 complex occurs only on tumour cells, it is considered to be an appropriate target for immunotherapy. The structure presented here reveals potential epitopes specific to the complex and indicates which peptide residues could be recognised by T-cell receptors. In addition, as the structure could be refined anisotropically, it was possible to describe the movements of the bound peptide in more detail.

  3. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David B.; Lao, Guifang

    1998-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium.

  4. Nucleotide sequences encoding a thermostable alkaline protease

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.B.; Lao, G.

    1998-01-06

    Nucleotide sequences, derived from a thermophilic actinomycete microorganism, which encode a thermostable alkaline protease are disclosed. Also disclosed are variants of the nucleotide sequences which encode a polypeptide having thermostable alkaline proteolytic activity. Recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide may be obtained by culturing in a medium a host cell genetically engineered to contain and express a nucleotide sequence according to the present invention, and recovering the recombinant thermostable alkaline protease or recombinant polypeptide from the culture medium. 3 figs.

  5. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes.

    PubMed

    Bishop, R P; Hemmink, J D; Morrison, W I; Weir, W; Toye, P G; Sitt, T; Spooner, P R; Musoke, A J; Skilton, R A; Odongo, D O

    2015-12-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. 'Deep 454 pyrosequencing' of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  6. The African buffalo parasite Theileria. sp. (buffalo) can infect and immortalize cattle leukocytes and encodes divergent orthologues of Theileria parva antigen genes

    PubMed Central

    Bishop, R.P.; Hemmink, J.D.; Morrison, W.I.; Weir, W.; Toye, P.G.; Sitt, T.; Spooner, P.R.; Musoke, A.J.; Skilton, R.A.; Odongo, D.O.

    2015-01-01

    African Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) is the wildlife reservoir of multiple species within the apicomplexan protozoan genus Theileria, including Theileria parva which causes East coast fever in cattle. A parasite, which has not yet been formally named, known as Theileria sp. (buffalo) has been recognized as a potentially distinct species based on rDNA sequence, since 1993. We demonstrate using reverse line blot (RLB) and sequencing of 18S rDNA genes, that in an area where buffalo and cattle co-graze and there is a heavy tick challenge, T. sp. (buffalo) can frequently be isolated in culture from cattle leukocytes. We also show that T. sp. (buffalo), which is genetically very closely related to T. parva, according to 18s rDNA sequence, has a conserved orthologue of the polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) that forms the basis of the diagnostic ELISA used for T. parva serological detection. Closely related orthologues of several CD8 T cell target antigen genes are also shared with T. parva. By contrast, orthologues of the T. parva p104 and the p67 sporozoite surface antigens could not be amplified by PCR from T. sp. (buffalo), using conserved primers designed from the corresponding T. parva sequences. Collectively the data re-emphasise doubts regarding the value of rDNA sequence data alone for defining apicomplexan species in the absence of additional data. ‘Deep 454 pyrosequencing’ of DNA from two Theileria sporozoite stabilates prepared from Rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks fed on buffalo failed to detect T. sp. (buffalo). This strongly suggests that R. appendiculatus may not be a vector for T. sp. (buffalo). Collectively, the data provides further evidence that T. sp. (buffalo). is a distinct species from T. parva. PMID:26543804

  7. Antigen S1, encoded by the MIC1 gene, is characterized as an epitope of human CD59, enabling measurement of mutagen-induced intragenic deletions in the AL cell system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, A. B.; Seilly, D.; Willers, C.; Vannais, D. B.; McGraw, M.; Waldren, C. A.; Hei, T. K.; Davies, A.; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    S1 cell membrane antigen is encoded by the MIC1 gene on human chromosome 11. This antigen has been widely used as a marker for studies in gene mapping or in analysis of mutagen-induced gene deletions/mutations, which utilized the human-hamster hybrid cell-line, AL-J1, carrying human chromosome 11. Evidence is presented here which identifies S1 as an epitope of CD59, a cell membrane complement inhibiting protein. E7.1 monoclonal antibody, specific for the S1 determinant, was found to react strongly with membrane CD59 in Western blotting, and to bind to purified, urinary form of CD59 in ELISAs. Cell membrane expression of S1 on various cell lines always correlated with that of CD59 when examined by immunofluorescent staining. In addition, E7.1 antibody inhibited the complement regulatory function of CD59. Identification of S1 protein as CD59 has increased the scope of the AL cell system by enabling analysis of intragenic mutations, and multiplex PCR analysis of mutated cells is described, showing variable loss of CD59 exons.

  8. [Recombinant expression of the fusion antigen based on Treponema pallidum TpN17 and TpN47 epitope peptides and establishment and application of the associated ELISA].

    PubMed

    Sun, Aihua; Fan, Xingli; Shen, Xiangdi; Tang, Renxian; Yan, Jie

    2009-08-01

    Using recombinant TpNs proteins of Treponema pallidum as antigens, ELISAs are proved to be of higher sensitivity and specificity. However, they can be further increased by using multiple TpNs antigens. According to the epitope analysis, we firstly used linking primers PCRs to obtain an artificial fusion gene segment tpE17-47 containing epitopes of both TpN17 and TpN47. Subsequently, we conducted the prokaryotic expression systems of entire tpN17 and tpN47 genes and tpE17-47 fusion gene. SDS-PAGE analysis and BioRad Gel Image Analysis System showed that the recombinant proteins rTpN17, rTpN47 and rTpE17-47 expressed stably, with 36%, 20% and 28% yields of total bacterial protein, respectively. After purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography, all the three recombinant proteins could be recognized by T. pallidum antibody positive sera from syphilis patients. The positive rate of rTpE17-47-ELISA for detecting serum specimens in clinically 630 cases with syphilis was 98.6%. This rate was slightly higher than that by Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TPPA) (97.9%) (P > 0.05), but significantly higher than those by rTpN17-ELISA (83.8%), rTpN47-ELISA (83.3%) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) (72.1%) (P < 0.01). Furthermore, both ELISAs and TPPA for detecting the serum specimens in 25 cases with SLE, 36 cases with RA and 250 healthy cases were all negative. RPR showed positive in 1 case with SLE, 2 cases with RA and 2 healthy cases. This could be a novel serological screening or diagnostic method of syphilis with advantages of quickness, convenience, safety, sensitivity and specificity. PMID:19938456

  9. Cloning and Expression of Synthetic Genes Encoding the Broad Antimicrobial Spectrum Bacteriocins SRCAM 602, OR-7, E-760, and L-1077, by Recombinant Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Jiménez, Juan J.; Gútiez, Loreto; Cintas, Luis M.; Herranz, Carmen; Hernández, Pablo E.

    2015-01-01

    We have evaluated the cloning and functional expression of previously described broad antimicrobial spectrum bacteriocins SRCAM 602, OR-7, E-760, and L-1077, by recombinant Pichia pastoris. Synthetic genes, matching the codon usage of P. pastoris, were designed from the known mature amino acid sequence of these bacteriocins and cloned into the protein expression vector pPICZαA. The recombinant derived plasmids were linearized and transformed into competent P. pastoris X-33, and the presence of integrated plasmids into the transformed cells was confirmed by PCR and sequencing of the inserts. The antimicrobial activity, expected in supernatants of the recombinant P. pastoris producers, was purified using a multistep chromatographic procedure including ammonium sulfate precipitation, desalting by gel filtration, cation exchange-, hydrophobic interaction-, and reverse phase-chromatography (RP-FPLC). However, a measurable antimicrobial activity was only detected after the hydrophobic interaction and RP-FPLC steps of the purified supernatants. MALDI-TOF MS analysis of the antimicrobial fractions eluted from RP-FPLC revealed the existence of peptide fragments of lower and higher molecular mass than expected. MALDI-TOF/TOF MS analysis of selected peptides from eluted RP-FPLC samples with antimicrobial activity indicated the presence of peptide fragments not related to the amino acid sequence of the cloned bacteriocins. PMID:25821820

  10. Selection of a recombinant Marek's disease virus in vivo through expression of the Marek's EcoRI-Q (Meq)-encoded oncoprotein: characterization of an rMd5-based mutant expressing the Meq of strain RB-1B.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pankaj; Dong, Huimin; Lenihan, Dawn; Gaddamanugu, Syamsundar; Katneni, Upendra; Shaikh, Shireen; Tavlarides-Hontz, Phaedra; Reddy, Sanjay M; Peters, Wachen; Parcells, Mark S

    2012-06-01

    Marek's disease (MD) is a highly contagious viral disease of chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) caused by MD virus (MDV), characterized by paralysis, neurologic signs, and the rapid onset of T-cell lymphomas. MDV-induced T-cell transformation requires a basic leucine zipper protein called Marek's EcoRI-Q-encoded protein (Meq). We have identified mutations in the coding sequence of Meq that correlated with virus pathotype (virulent, very virulent, and very virulent plus). The aim of this study was to determine whether recombinant viruses could be isolated based on Meq expression through in vivo selection. Chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) were cotransfected with an rMd5 strain-based Meq deletion virus (rMd5deltaMeq) and meq loci from strains representing different pathotypes of MDV. Transfected CEFs were inoculated into chickens in two independent studies. We were able to isolate a single recombinant virus, rMDV-1137, in a contact-exposed chicken. rMDV-1137 had recombined two copies of the meq gene of RB-1B and was found to have pathogenicity similar to both RB-1B and rMd5 parental strains. We found the RB-1B- and rMd5-induced lymphomas showed differences in composition and that rMDV-1137-induced lymphomas were intermediate in their composition. We were able to establish cell lines from both RB-1B- (MDCC-UD35, -UD37) and rMDV-1137 (MDCC-UD36, -UD38)-induced, but not rMd5-induced, lymphomas. To date, no rMd5- or parent Md5-transformed T-cell lines have been reported. Our results suggest that 1) a recombinant MDV can be selected on the basis of oncogenicity; 2) changes in Meq sequence seem to affect tumor composition and the ability to establish cell lines; and 3) in addition to meq, other genomic loci affect MDV pathogenicity and oncogenicity.

  11. Construction and characterization of DNA vaccines encoding the single-chain variable fragment of the anti-idiotype antibody 1A7 mimicking the tumor-associated antigen disialoganglioside GD2.

    PubMed

    Zeytin, H E; Tripathi, P K; Bhattacharya-Chatterjee, M; Foon, K A; Chatterjee, S K

    2000-11-01

    Anti-idiotype antibody, 1A7, functionally mimics the tumor-associated antigen disialoganglioside GD2, which is overexpressed on the surface of a number of neuroectodermal tumors such as melanoma, neuroblastoma, soft tissue sarcoma, and small cell carcinoma of the lung. Immunization of mice with 1A7 generated the production of anti-GD2 antibodies. In a phase I clinical trial, immunization of patients with 1A7, mixed with the adjuvant QS21, demonstrated that 1A7 could act as a surrogate antigen for GD2 and induce strong humoral immune responses in advanced stage melanoma patients. DNA vaccines have recently been shown to invoke humoral as well as cellular responses in injected hosts against the transgene product. To evaluate the efficiency of DNA vaccines encoding anti-idiotype antibodies, we constructed expression plasmids encoding the variable heavy (VH) and variable light (VL) chains of 1A7. The plasmids were made in two configurations, expressing either the VH (pc1A7VHLnVL) or the VL (pc1A7VLLnVH) chain of 1A7 at the amino terminus, linked together by a 15-amino acid linker (Ln). In vitro transcription/translation assays and transfection of CHO-K1 cells with the plasmids demonstrated that a approximately 30-kDa protein was expressed by both configurations of the single-chain variable fragment. This protein can be specifically precipitated by monoclonal anti-GD2 antibody, 14G2a. Following intramuscular injection in mice, the plasmids were detectable in the injected tissues for at least 3 months and the injected plasmids actively transcribed the single-chain variable fragment 1A7 gene at the injected site. A single, intramuscular immunization of a group of C57BL/6 mice with pc1A7VLLnVH in phosphate-buffered saline induced humoral immune responses against 1A7 as well as GD2, the nominal antigen. Multiple immunizations, however, were required to elicit stronger immune responses. PMID:11129285

  12. Recombinant Ov-ASP-1, a Th1-biased protein adjuvant derived from the helminth Onchocerca volvulus, can directly bind and activate antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    He, Yuxian; Barker, Sophie J; MacDonald, Angus J; Yu, Yu; Cao, Long; Li, Jingjing; Parhar, Ranjit; Heck, Susanne; Hartmann, Susanne; Golenbock, Douglas T; Jiang, Shibo; Libri, Nathan A; Semper, Amanda E; Rosenberg, William M; Lustigman, Sara

    2009-04-01

    We previously reported that rOv-ASP-1, a recombinant Onchocerca volvulus activation associated protein-1, was a potent adjuvant for recombinant protein or synthetic peptide-based Ags. In this study, we further evaluated the adjuvanticity of rOv-ASP-1 and explored its mechanism of action. Consistently, recombinant full-length spike protein of SARS-CoV or its receptor-binding domain in the presence of rOv-ASP-1 could effectively induce a mixed but Th1-skewed immune response in immunized mice. It appears that rOv-ASP-1 primarily bound to the APCs among human PBMCs and triggered Th1-biased proinflammatory cytokine production probably via the activation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells and the TLR, TLR2, and TLR4, thus suggesting that rOv-ASP-1 is a novel potent innate adjuvant. PMID:19299698

  13. Enhanced target-specific signal detection using an Escherichia coli lysate in multiplex microbead immunoassays with E. coli-derived recombinant antigens.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Sandra; Leitolis, Amanda; Lima, Lucianna Freitas Oliveira; Krieger, Marco A; Foti, Leonardo

    2016-08-01

    Diverse techniques have been developed to analyze antibody-mediated responses to infections. However, the most common tests, i.e., enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, require separate reactions for each antigen and consequently necessitate large sample volumes. Luminex technology allows the detection of multiple antibodies in a single experiment, but nonspecific binding can impair the results. Therefore, we examined the use of Escherichia coli lysates to reduce nonspecific binding and improve the results of liquid microarrays based on Luminex technology. Anti-bacteria antibodies were detected in human serum samples, as evidenced by high median fluorescence intensity (MFI) in assays performed with paramagnetic microspheres coupled with E. coli lysates. Moreover, the addition of an E. coli lysate as a blocker reduced the nonspecific binding of antigens produced by E. coli in a concentration-dependent manner. Tris-HCl reduced MFI values in negative samples, but did not affect MFI for positive samples. For microspheres coupled with different antigens, an E. coli lysate blocker significantly improved the fluorescence signals from positive samples. The addition of Tris-HCl and the E. coli lysate induced antigen-specific differences in MFI. This combination of the E. coli lysate blocker and Tris-HCl yielded a statistically significant improvement in MFI in the assays for Chagas disease and hepatitis C virus samples. However, for the Treponema pallidum p47 antigen improvement in MFI was only observed for the preparation with the E. coli blocker at a concentration of 3%. In conclusion, the addition of an E. coli lysate and Tris-HCl to the microarray assay reduced the nonspecific binding of human anti-bacteria antibodies and, therefore, increased the specific MFI.

  14. Protective immune response to 16 kDa immunoreactive recombinant protein encoding the C-terminal VP1 portion of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus type Asia 1.

    PubMed

    Bayry, J; Prabhudas, K; Gopalakrishna, S; Patil, P K; Ramakrishna, C; Misra, L D; Suryanarayana, V V

    1999-01-01

    Recombinant protein of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) type Asia 1 corresponding to the C-terminal half of VP1 was expressed in Escherichia coli. As an alternative to the synthetic peptide, this selected C-terminal region was used as a protein vaccine in guinea pigs in order to study the immune response with various adjuvant formulations: immune stimulatory complexes (ISCOMs), Montanide ISA 206, Freund's incomplete adjuvant (FIA), lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and cytokine mixture. A primary dose of 40 microg/animal followed by a booster of the same dose was injected after a 21-day interval. The sera were collected at intervals of 21, 42 and 63 days after the booster. The humoral response to vaccine was monitored by sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a serum neutralization test (SNT). The guinea pig sera showed high titers both in ELISA and SNT, which could be protective. Further, irrespective of the adjuvant preparation used, the vaccine conferred protection against the challenge virus 105 days post-vaccination in 13 of 15 animals (86%). The results indicated that a combination of recombinant protein ISCOMs and Montanide ISA 206 would be a better choice for achieving early protective titers and longer lasting immunity and that the C-terminal half of the VP1 protein may be tried as a safe vaccine for secondary immunization. PMID:10524794

  15. Novel genes encoding six kinds of three-finger toxins in Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) and function characterization of two recombinant long-chain neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Huayuan; Liu, Jing; Xu, Kangsen

    2006-09-01

    Three-finger toxins are a family of low-molecular-mass toxins (<10 kDa) having very similar three-dimensional structures. In the present study, 19 novel cDNAs coding three-finger toxins were cloned from the venom gland of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra). Alignment analysis showed that the putative peptides could be divided into six kinds of three-finger toxins: LNTXs (long-chain neurotoxins), short-chain neurotoxins, cardiotoxins (CTXs), weak neurotoxins, muscarinic toxins and a toxin with a free SH group. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was established on the basis of the toxin cDNAs and the previously reported similar nucleotide sequences from the same source venom. It indicated that three-finger-toxin genes in O. hannah diverged early in the course of evolution by long- and short-type pathways. Two LNTXs, namely rLNTX1 (recombinant LNTX1) and rLNTX3, were expressed and showed cytolytic activity in addition to their neurotoxic function. By comparing the functional residues, we offer some possible explanations for the differences in their neurotoxic function. Moreover, a plausible elucidation of the additonal cytolytic activity was achieved by hydropathy-profile analysis. This, to our knowledge, is the first observation that recombinant long chain alpha-neurotoxins have a CTX-like cytolytic activity. PMID:16689684

  16. Novel genes encoding six kinds of three-finger toxins in Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra) and function characterization of two recombinant long-chain neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Huayuan; Liu, Jing; Xu, Kangsen

    2006-09-01

    Three-finger toxins are a family of low-molecular-mass toxins (<10 kDa) having very similar three-dimensional structures. In the present study, 19 novel cDNAs coding three-finger toxins were cloned from the venom gland of Ophiophagus hannah (king cobra). Alignment analysis showed that the putative peptides could be divided into six kinds of three-finger toxins: LNTXs (long-chain neurotoxins), short-chain neurotoxins, cardiotoxins (CTXs), weak neurotoxins, muscarinic toxins and a toxin with a free SH group. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree was established on the basis of the toxin cDNAs and the previously reported similar nucleotide sequences from the same source venom. It indicated that three-finger-toxin genes in O. hannah diverged early in the course of evolution by long- and short-type pathways. Two LNTXs, namely rLNTX1 (recombinant LNTX1) and rLNTX3, were expressed and showed cytolytic activity in addition to their neurotoxic function. By comparing the functional residues, we offer some possible explanations for the differences in their neurotoxic function. Moreover, a plausible elucidation of the additonal cytolytic activity was achieved by hydropathy-profile analysis. This, to our knowledge, is the first observation that recombinant long chain alpha-neurotoxins have a CTX-like cytolytic activity.

  17. Reverse mapping of the gene encoding the human fos-related antigen-1 (fra-1) within chromosome band 11q13

    SciTech Connect

    Sinke, R.J. ); Tanigami, A.; Nakamura, Y.; Kessel, A.G. van )

    1993-10-01

    For the identification of sequence-tagged sites within cosmid clones derived from the q13 region of human chromosome 11, the authors subcloned a number of single copy BamHI fragments in a pT7T3 19U vector. Surprisingly, within one of these subclones, they encountered a stretch of DNA that matches perfectly with 5' end of the known cDNA sequence for the human fos-related antigen. This match comes to an abrupt end at nucleotide 328, which coincides with a perfect splice donor site. At position 231 an ATG codon (translation initiation) was found. From these data they conclude that position 328 marks the boundary of the first exon of the fra-1 gene. Homology of this same region with the rat fra-1 cDNA sequence is [+-]70%. This human fra-1 genomic fragment is contained within cosmid clone cCL11-254 (D11S460), which was previously mapped to region V of a long-range contig map of 11q13. The localization of fra-1 on chromosome 11 was cross-checked and confirmed by hybridizing the fra-1 containing fragment to a panel of somatic cell hybrids, including one line that contains chromosome 11 as its only human constituent. In addition to a cross-hybridizing rodent fragment, a single human-specific band was revealed in all the chromosome 11-containing hybrids. This subchromosomal localization of fra-1 to 11q13 adds yet another proto-oncogene to this restricted genomic region, which appears to be involved in a number of neoplastic disorders, e.g., multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, breast cancer, squamous cell tumors of head and neck, esophageal carcinoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma, bladder carcinoma, extragonadal germ cell tumors, and some hematopoietic malignancies. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. A Recombinant Chimeric Ad5/3 Vector Expressing a Multistage Plasmodium Antigen Induces Protective Immunity in Mice Using Heterologous Prime-Boost Immunization Regimens.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Singh, Balwan; Zhao, Chunxia; Makarova, Natalia; Dmitriev, Igor; Curiel, David T; Blackwell, Jerry; Moreno, Alberto

    2016-10-01

    An ideal malaria vaccine should target several stages of the parasite life cycle and induce antiparasite and antidisease immunity. We have reported a Plasmodium yoelii chimeric multistage recombinant protein (P. yoelii linear peptide chimera/recombinant modular chimera), engineered to express several autologous T cell epitopes and sequences derived from the circumsporozoite protein and the merozoite surface protein 1. This chimeric protein elicits protective immunity, mediated by CD4(+) T cells and neutralizing Abs. However, experimental evidence, from pre-erythrocytic vaccine candidates and irradiated sporozoites, has shown that CD8(+) T cells play a significant role in protection. Recombinant viral vectors have been used as a vaccine platform to elicit effective CD8(+) T cell responses. The human adenovirus (Ad) serotype 5 has been tested in malaria vaccine clinical trials with excellent safety profile. Nevertheless, a major concern for the use of Ad5 is the high prevalence of anti-vector neutralizing Abs in humans, hampering its immunogenicity. To minimize the impact of anti-vector pre-existing immunity, we developed a chimeric Ad5/3 vector in which the knob region of Ad5 was replaced with that of Ad3, conferring partial resistance to anti-Ad5 neutralizing Abs. Furthermore, we implemented heterologous Ad/protein immunization regimens that include a single immunization with recombinant Ad vectors. Our data show that immunization with the recombinant Ad5/3 vector induces protective efficacy indistinguishable from that elicited by Ad5. Our study also demonstrates that the dose of the Ad vectors has an impact on the memory profile and protective efficacy. The results support further studies with Ad5/3 for malaria vaccine development. PMID:27574299

  19. Construction and biochemical characterization of recombinant cytoplasmic forms of the IucD protein (lysine:N6-hydroxylase) encoded by the pColV-K30 aerobactin gene cluster.

    PubMed Central

    Thariath, A; Socha, D; Valvano, M A; Viswanatha, T

    1993-01-01

    The aerobactin gene cluster in pColV-K30 consists of five genes (iucABCD iutA); four of these (iucABCD) are involved in aerobactin biosynthesis, whereas the fifth one (iutA) encodes the ferriaerobactin outer membrane receptor. iucD encodes lysine:N6-hydroxylase, which catalyzes the first step in aerobactin biosynthesis. Regardless of the method used for cell rupture, we have consistently found that IucD remains membrane bound, and repeated efforts to achieve a purified and active soluble form of the enzyme have been unsuccessful. To circumvent this problem, we have constructed recombinant IucD proteins with modified amino termini by creating three in-frame gene fusions of IucD to the amino-terminal amino acids of the cytoplasmic enzyme beta-galactosidase. Two of these constructs resulted in the addition to the iucD coding region of a hydrophilic leader sequence of 13 and 30 amino acids. The other construct involved the deletion of the first 47 amino acids of the IucD amino terminus and the addition of 19 amino acids of the amino terminus of beta-galactosidase. Cells expressing any of the three recombinant IucD forms were found to produce soluble N6-hydroxylysine. One of these proteins, IucD439, was purified to homogeneity from the soluble fraction of the cell lysates, and it was capable of participating in the biosynthesis of aerobactin, as determined in vitro by a cell-free system and in vivo by a cross-feeding bioassay. A medium ionic strength of 0.25 (250 mM NaCl) or higher was required to maintain the protein in a catalytically functional, tetrameric state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images PMID:8423134

  20. Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of a 200-Kilodalton Diagnostic Antigen of Babesia bigemina†

    PubMed Central

    Tebele, N.; Skilton, R. A.; Katende, J.; Wells, C. W.; Nene, V.; McElwain, T.; Morzaria, S. P.; Musoke, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    Current serological tests for Babesia bigemina use semipurified merozoite antigens derived from infected erythrocytes. One of the major drawbacks of these tests is that antigen quality can vary from batch to batch. Since the quality of the antigen contributes to the sensitivity and specificity of serological tests, the use of standardized recombinant antigens should ensure consistency in assay quality. Previously, a 200-kDa merozoite antigen (p200) was identified as a candidate diagnostic antigen for use in a serological assay for the detection of B. bigemina antibodies in infected cattle. In this study, we have cloned, characterized, and expressed p200. A 3.5-kbp cDNA clone encoding p200 was isolated and shown to be almost full length, lacking approximately 300 bp at the 5′ end. The predicted amino acid sequence shows that p200 consists of a long, highly charged central repeat region of an uninterrupted α helix, indicative of a fibrous protein. Immunoelectron microscopy localized p200 to the merozoite cytoplasm, suggesting that the antigen may be a structural protein involved in forming filament structures within the cytoskeleton. The 3.5-kbp cDNA was expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase (GST), but the yield was poor. To improve the yield, cDNA fragments encoding antigenic domains of p200 were expressed as fusions with GST. One of these fusion proteins, C1A-GST, is composed of a 7-kDa fragment of the p200 repeat region and contains epitopes that react strongly with sera from cattle experimentally infected with B. bigemina. Recombinant C1A-GST should permit the development of an improved enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the detection of antibodies against B. bigemina. PMID:10834983

  1. A recombinant hepatitis B core antigen polypeptide with the protamine-like domain deleted self-assembles into capsid particles but fails to bind nucleic acids.

    PubMed Central

    Gallina, A; Bonelli, F; Zentilin, L; Rindi, G; Muttini, M; Milanesi, G

    1989-01-01

    We have cloned in Escherichia coli both the complete core gene of hepatitis B virus and a truncated version of it, leading to the synthesis of high levels of a core-antigen-equivalent polypeptide (r-p22) and of an e-antigen-equivalent polypeptide (r-p16), respectively. We then compared the structural and antigenic properties of the two polypeptides, as well as their ability to bind viral nucleic acids. r-p16 was found to self-assemble into capsid-like particles that appeared similar, when observed under the electron microscope, to those formed by r-p22. In r-p16 particles, disulfide bonds linked the truncated polypeptides in dimers, assembled in the particle by noncovalent interactions. In r-p22 capsids, further disulfide bonds, conceivably involving the carboxy-terminal cysteines of r-p22 polypeptides, joined the dimers together, converting the structure into a covalently closed lattice. The protamine-like domain was at least partly exposed on the surface of r-p22 particles, since it was accessible to selective proteolysis. Finally, r-p22, but not r-p16, was shown to bind native and denatured DNA as well as RNA. Taken together, these results suggest that the protamine-like domain in core polypeptides is a nucleic acid-binding domain and is dispensable for the correct folding and assembly of amino-terminal and central regions. Images PMID:2677399

  2. Immunogenicity and protective immunity against bubonic plague and pneumonic plague by immunization of mice with the recombinant V10 antigen, a variant of LcrV.

    PubMed

    DeBord, Kristin L; Anderson, Deborah M; Marketon, Melanie M; Overheim, Katie A; DePaolo, R William; Ciletti, Nancy A; Jabri, Bana; Schneewind, Olaf

    2006-08-01

    In contrast to Yersinia pestis LcrV, the recombinant V10 (rV10) variant (lacking residues 271 to 300) does not suppress the release of proinflammatory cytokines by immune cells. Immunization with rV10 generates robust antibody responses that protect mice against bubonic plague and pneumonic plague, suggesting that rV10 may serve as an improved plague vaccine.

  3. Antigen-specific immunomodulation for type 1 diabetes by novel recombinant antibodies directed against diabetes-associates auto-reactive T cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Rony; Gebe, John A; Preisinger, Anton; James, Eddie A; Tendler, Mark; Nepom, Gerald T; Reiter, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    The trimolecular complex composed of autoreactive T-cell receptor, MHC class II, and an autoantigenic peptide plays a central role in the activation of pathogenic Islet-specific CD4+ T cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We isolated and characterized novel antibodies against autoreactive T-cell epitopes associated with T1D. Our antibodies mimic the specificity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), while binding MHC class II/peptide complexes in an autoantigen peptide specific, MHC-restricted manner. The isolated TCR-like antibodies were directed against the minimal T-cell epitope GAD-555-567 in the context of the HLA-DR4-diabetic-associated molecule. A representative high-affinity TCR-like antibody clone (G3H8) enabled the detection of intra- and extra-cellular DR4/GAD-555-567 complexes in antigen presenting cells. I561M single mutation at the central position (P5) of the GAD-555-567 peptide abolished the binding of G3H8 to the DR4/GAD complex, demonstrating its high fine TCR-like specificity. The G3H8 TCR-like antibody significantly inhibited GAD-555-567 specific, DR4 restricted T-cell response in vitro and in vivo in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Our findings constitute a proof-of-concept for the utility of TCR-like antibodies as antigen-specific immunomodulation agents for regulating pathogenic T-cells and suggest that TCR-like antibodies targeting autoreactive MHC class II epitopes are valuable research tools that enable studies related to antigen presentation as well as novel therapeutic agents that may be used to modulate autoimmune disorders such as T1D. PMID:24090977

  4. Antigen-specific immunomodulation for type 1 diabetes by novel recombinant antibodies directed against diabetes-associates auto-reactive T cell epitope.

    PubMed

    Dahan, Rony; Gebe, John A; Preisinger, Anton; James, Eddie A; Tendler, Mark; Nepom, Gerald T; Reiter, Yoram

    2013-12-01

    The trimolecular complex composed of autoreactive T-cell receptor, MHC class II, and an autoantigenic peptide plays a central role in the activation of pathogenic Islet-specific CD4+ T cells in type 1 diabetes (T1D). We isolated and characterized novel antibodies against autoreactive T-cell epitopes associated with T1D. Our antibodies mimic the specificity of the T-cell receptor (TCR), while binding MHC class II/peptide complexes in an autoantigen peptide specific, MHC-restricted manner. The isolated TCR-like antibodies were directed against the minimal T-cell epitope GAD-555-567 in the context of the HLA-DR4-diabetic-associated molecule. A representative high-affinity TCR-like antibody clone (G3H8) enabled the detection of intra- and extra-cellular DR4/GAD-555-567 complexes in antigen presenting cells. I561M single mutation at the central position (P5) of the GAD-555-567 peptide abolished the binding of G3H8 to the DR4/GAD complex, demonstrating its high fine TCR-like specificity. The G3H8 TCR-like antibody significantly inhibited GAD-555-567 specific, DR4 restricted T-cell response in vitro and in vivo in HLA-DR4 transgenic mice. Our findings constitute a proof-of-concept for the utility of TCR-like antibodies as antigen-specific immunomodulation agents for regulating pathogenic T-cells and suggest that TCR-like antibodies targeting autoreactive MHC class II epitopes are valuable research tools that enable studies related to antigen presentation as well as novel therapeutic agents that may be used to modulate autoimmune disorders such as T1D.

  5. The streptomyces genome contains multiple pseudo-attB sites for the (phi)C31-encoded site-specific recombination system.

    PubMed

    Combes, Patricia; Till, Rob; Bee, Sally; Smith, Margaret C M

    2002-10-01

    The integrase from the Streptomyces phage (phi)C31 is a member of the serine recombinase family of site-specific recombinases and is fundamentally different from that of lambda or its relatives. Moreover, (phi)C31 int/attP is used widely as an essential component of integration vectors (such as pSET152) employed in the genetic analysis of Streptomyces species. phiC31 or integrating plasmids containing int/attP have been shown previously to integrate at a locus, attB, in the chromosome. The DNA sequences of the attB sites of various Streptomyces species revealed nonconserved positions. In particular, the crossover site was narrowed to the sequence 5'TT present in both attP and attB. Strains of Streptomyces coelicolor and S. lividans were constructed with a deletion of the attB site ((Delta)attB), and pSET152 was introduced into these strains by conjugation. Thus, secondary or pseudo-attB sites were identified by Southern blotting and after rescue of plasmids containing DNA flanking the insertion sites from the chromosome. The sequences of the integration sites had similarity to those of attB. Analysis of the insertions of pSET152 into both attB(+) and (Delta)attB strains indicated that this plasmid can integrate at several loci via independent recombination events within a transconjugant.

  6. Notch1, Notch2, and Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 signaling differentially affects proliferation and survival of Epstein-Barr virus-infected B cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlhof, Hella; Hampel, Franziska; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Burtscher, Helmut; Weidle, Ulrich H; Hölzel, Michael; Eick, Dirk; Zimber-Strobl, Ursula; Strobl, Lothar J

    2009-05-28

    The canonical mode of transcriptional activation by both the Epstein-Barr viral protein, Epstein-Barr virus-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2), and an activated Notch receptor (Notch-IC) requires their recruitment to RBPJ, suggesting that EBNA2 uses the Notch pathway to achieve B-cell immortalization. To gain further insight into the biologic equivalence between Notch-IC and EBNA2, we performed a genome-wide expression analysis, revealing that Notch-IC and EBNA2 exhibit profound differences in the regulation of target genes. Whereas Notch-IC is more potent in regulating genes associated with differentiation and development, EBNA2 is more potent in inducing viral and cellular genes involved in proliferation, survival, and chemotaxis. Because both EBNA2 and Notch-IC induced the expression of cell cycle-associated genes, we analyzed whether Notch1-IC or Notch2-IC can replace EBNA2 in B-cell immortalization. Although Notch-IC could drive quiescent B cells into the cell cycle, B-cell immortalization was not maintained, partially due to an increased apoptosis rate in Notch-IC-expressing cells. Expression analysis revealed that both EBNA2 and Notch-IC induced the expression of proapoptotic genes, but only in EBNA2-expressing cells were antiapoptotic genes strongly up-regulated. These findings suggest that Notch signaling in B cells and B-cell lymphomas is only compatible with proliferation if pathways leading to antiapototic signals are active. PMID:19339697

  7. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  8. An evolutionarily mobile antigen receptor variable region gene: doubly rearranging NAR-TcR genes in sharks.

    PubMed

    Criscitiello, Michael F; Saltis, Mark; Flajnik, Martin F

    2006-03-28

    Distinctive Ig and T cell receptor (TcR) chains define the two major lineages of vertebrate lymphocyte yet similarly recognize antigen with a single, membrane-distal variable (V) domain. Here we describe the first antigen receptor chain that employs two V domains, which are generated by separate VDJ gene rearrangement events. These molecules have specialized "supportive" TcRdeltaV domains membrane-proximal to domains with most similarity to IgNAR V. The ancestral NAR V gene encoding this domain is hypothesized to have recombined with the TRD locus in a cartilaginous fish ancestor >200 million years ago and encodes the first V domain shown to be used in both Igs and TcRs. Furthermore, these data support the view that gamma/delta TcRs have for long used structural conformations recognizing free antigen.

  9. An evolutionarily mobile antigen receptor variable region gene: Doubly rearranging NAR-TcR genes in sharks

    PubMed Central

    Criscitiello, Michael F.; Saltis, Mark; Flajnik, Martin F.

    2006-01-01

    Distinctive Ig and T cell receptor (TcR) chains define the two major lineages of vertebrate lymphocyte yet similarly recognize antigen with a single, membrane-distal variable (V) domain. Here we describe the first antigen receptor chain that employs two V domains, which are generated by separate VDJ gene rearrangement events. These molecules have specialized “supportive” TcRδV domains membrane-proximal to domains with most similarity to IgNAR V. The ancestral NAR V gene encoding this domain is hypothesized to have recombined with the TRD locus in a cartilaginous fish ancestor >200 million years ago and encodes the first V domain shown to be used in both Igs and TcRs. Furthermore, these data support the view that γ/δ TcRs have for long used structural conformations recognizing free antigen. PMID:16549799

  10. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-07-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8-9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies.

  11. Genetically modified anthrax lethal toxin safely delivers whole HIV protein antigens into the cytosol to induce T cell immunity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yichen; Friedman, Rachel; Kushner, Nicholas; Doling, Amy; Thomas, Lawrence; Touzjian, Neal; Starnbach, Michael; Lieberman, Judy

    2000-01-01

    Bacillus anthrax lethal toxin can be engineered to deliver foreign proteins to the cytosol for antigen presentation to CD8 T cells. Vaccination with modified toxins carrying 8–9 amino acid peptide epitopes induces protective immunity in mice. To evaluate whether large protein antigens can be used with this system, recombinant constructs encoding several HIV antigens up to 500 amino acids were produced. These candidate HIV vaccines are safe in animals and induce CD8 T cells in mice. Constructs encoding gag p24 and nef stimulate gag-specific CD4 proliferation and a secondary cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in HIV-infected donor peripheral blood mononuclear cells in vitro. These results lay the foundation for future clinical vaccine studies. PMID:10884430

  12. Molecular characterization of a 35-kilodalton protein of Borrelia burgdorferi, an antigen of diagnostic importance in early Lyme disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, R D; Kappel, K J; Johnson, B J

    1997-01-01

    Antibodies against a 35-kDa antigen of Borrelia burgdorferi are detectable in the serum of about half of patients with early Lyme disease. The gene encoding this antigen was isolated from a genomic library of B. burgdorferi B31 (low passage), and full-length expression of the recombinant gene product was achieved in Escherichia coli. Antiserum raised against the recombinant protein was reactive with a B. burgdorferi protein of the same molecular size as the diagnostic 35-kDa antigen cited in an earlier study of criteria for the sero-diagnosis of early Lyme disease. Also, the recombinant protein was reactive with serum from patients with early Lyme disease who were seropositive for the 35-kDa antigen. DNA sequence analysis of the gene indicated an open reading frame of 909 bp encoding a protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kDa. This gene did not possess the usual initiation codon ATG but rather probably used a TTG codon. The deduced amino acid sequence of the N terminus exhibited a motif similar to that for signal peptides of lipoproteins. Southern blotting revealed a chromosomal location for this gene; and it was specific for B. burgdorferi, B. afzellii, and B. garinii but not for B. hermsii, B. coriaciae, or B. turicatae. PMID:8968885

  13. A prime/boost DNA/Modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine expressing recombinant Leishmania DNA encoding TRYP is safe and immunogenic in outbred dogs, the reservoir of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Carson, Connor; Antoniou, Maria; Ruiz-Argüello, Maria Begoña; Alcami, Antonio; Christodoulou, Vasiliki; Messaritakis, Ippokratis; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Courtenay, Orin

    2009-02-11

    Previous studies demonstrated safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA/modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) prime/boost vaccines expressing tryparedoxin peroxidase (TRYP) and Leishmania homologue of the mammalian receptor for activated C kinase (LACK) against Leishmania major challenge in mice, which was consistent with results from TRYP protein/adjuvant combinations in non-human primates. This study aimed to conduct safety and immunogenicity trials of these DNA/MVA vaccines in dogs, the natural reservoir host of Leishmania infantum, followed-up for 4 months post-vaccination. In a cohort of 22 uninfected outbred dogs, blinded randomised administration of 1000 microg (high dose) or 100 microg (low dose) DNA prime (day 0) and 1x10(8)pfu MVA boost (day 28) was shown to be safe and showed no clinical side effects. High dose DNA/MVA vaccinated TRYP dogs produced statistically higher mean levels of the type-1 pro-inflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma than controls in whole blood assays (WBA) stimulated with the recombinant vaccine antigen TRYP, up to the final sampling at day 126, and in the absence of challenge with Leishmania. TRYP vaccinated dogs also demonstrated significantly higher TRYP-specific total IgG and IgG2 subtype titres than in controls, and positive in vivo intradermal reactions at day 156 in the absence of natural infection, observed in 6/8 TRYP vaccinated dogs. No significant increases in IFN-gamma in LACK-stimulated WBA, or in LACK-specific IgG levels, were detected in LACK vaccinated dogs compared to controls, and only 2/9 LACK vaccinated dogs demonstrated DTH responses at day 156. In all groups, IgG1 subclass responses and antigen-specific stimulation of IL-10 were similar to controls demonstrating an absence of Th2/T(reg) response, as expected in the absence of in vivo restimulation or natural/experimental challenge with Leishmania. These collective results indicate significant antigen-specific type-1 responses and in vivo memory phase cellular immune

  14. Fusion of HCV Nonstructural Antigen to MHC Class II–associated Invariant Chain Enhances T-cell Responses Induced by Vectored Vaccines in Nonhuman Primates

    PubMed Central

    Capone, Stefania; Naddeo, Mariarosaria; D'Alise, Anna Morena; Abbate, Adele; Grazioli, Fabiana; Del Gaudio, Annunziata; Del Sorbo, Mariarosaria; Esposito, Maria Luisa; Ammendola, Virginia; Perretta, Gemma; Taglioni, Alessandra; Colloca, Stefano; Nicosia, Alfredo; Cortese, Riccardo; Folgori, Antonella

    2014-01-01

    Despite viral vectors being potent inducers of antigen-specific T cells, strategies to further improve their immunogenicity are actively pursued. Of the numerous approaches investigated, fusion of the encoded antigen to major histocompatibility complex class II–associated invariant chain (Ii) has been reported to enhance CD8+ T-cell responses. We have previously shown that adenovirus vaccine encoding nonstructural (NS) hepatitis C virus (HCV) proteins induces potent T-cell responses in humans. However, even higher T-cell responses might be required to achieve efficacy against different HCV genotypes or therapeutic effect in chronically infected HCV patients. In this study, we assessed fusion of the HCV NS antigen to murine and human Ii expressed by the chimpanzee adenovirus vector ChAd3 or recombinant modified vaccinia Ankara in mice and nonhuman primates (NHPs). A dramatic increase was observed in outbred mice in which vaccination with ChAd3 expressing the fusion antigen resulted in a 10-fold increase in interferon-γ+ CD8+ T cells. In NHPs, CD8+ T-cell responses were enhanced and accelerated with vectors encoding the Ii-fused antigen. These data show for the first time that the enhancement induced by vector vaccines encoding li-fused antigen was not species specific and can be translated from mice to NHPs, opening the way for testing in humans. PMID:24476798

  15. Recombinant ROP2, ROP4, GRA4 and SAG1 antigen-cocktails as possible tools for immunoprophylaxis of toxoplasmosis: what's next?

    PubMed

    Dziadek, Bozena; Brzostek, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a globally distributed foodborne zoonosis caused by a protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Usually asymptomatic in immunocompetent humans, toxoplasmosis is a serious clinical and veterinary problem often leading to lethal damage in an infected host. In order to overcome the exceptionally strong clinical and socio-economic impact of Toxoplasma infection, the construction of an effective vaccine inducing full immunoprotection against the parasite is an urgent issue. In the last two decades many live attenuated, subunit and DNA-based vaccines against toxoplasmosis have been studied, however only partial protection conferred by vaccination against chronic as well as acute infection has been achieved. Among various immunization strategies, no viable subunit vaccines based on recombinant secretory (ROP2, ROP4 and GRA4) and surface (SAG1) T. gondii proteins have been found as attractive tools for further studies. This is due to their high, but still partial, protective efficacy correlated with the induction of cellular and humoral immune responses.

  16. A complex organization of the gene encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 in the mitochondrial genome of the dinoflagellate, Crypthecodinium cohnii: homologous recombination generates two different cox1 open reading frames.

    PubMed

    Norman, J E; Gray, M W

    2001-01-01

    In the course of investigating mitochondrial genome organization in Crypthecodinium cohnii, a non-photosynthetic dinoflagellate, we identified four EcoRI fragments that hybridize to a probe specific for cox1, the gene that encodes subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase. Cloning and sequence characterization of the four fragments (5.7, 5.1, 4.1, 3.5 kilobase pairs) revealed that cox1 exists in four distinct but related contexts in C. cohnii mtDNA, with a central repeat unit flanked by one of two possible upstream (flanking domain 1 or 2) and downstream (flanking domain 3 or 4) regions. The majority of the cox1 gene is located within the central repeat; however, the C-terminal portion of the open reading frame extends into flanking domains 3 and 4, thereby creating two distinct cox1 coding sequences. The 3'-terminal region of one of the cox1 reading frames can assume an elaborate secondary structure, which potentially could act to stabilize the mature mRNA against nucleolytic degradation. In addition, a high density of small inverted repeats (15-22 base pairs) has been identified at the 5'-end of cox1, further suggesting that hairpin structures could be important for gene regulation. The organization of cox1 in C. cohnii mtDNA appears to reflect homologous recombination events within the central repeat between different cox1 sequence contexts. Such recombining repeats are a characteristic feature of plant (angiosperm) mtDNA, but they have not previously been described in the mitochondrial genomes of protists.

  17. Immune responses of two recombinant adenoviruses expressing VP1 antigens of FMDV fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed

    Du, Yijun; Jiang, Ping; Li, Yufeng; He, Hairong; Jiang, Wenming; Wang, Xinglong; Hong, Weibin

    2007-11-28

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating vesicular disease of cloven-hoofed animals. In the present report, we constructed and characterized the immune responses conferred by two recombinant adenoviruses expressing VP1 epitopes (three amino acid residues 21-60, 141-160 and 200-213 in VP1, designated VPe) or VP1 protein of FMDV fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (named rAd-GMCSF-VPe and rAd-GMCSF-VP1). Seven groups of female BALB/c mice each containing 18 mice were inoculated subcutaneously twice at 2-week intervals with the recombinant adenoviruses. Then the protective efficacy of the two adenoviruses was detected in guinea pigs and swine. The results showed that the highest levels of FMDV-specific T cell proliferation, IFN-gamma and IL-4 could be induced by rAd-GMCSF-VPe expressing fusion GMCSF-VPe, and the highest level of FMDV-specific humoral immune responses could be induced by rAd-GMCSF-VP1 expressing fusion GMCSF-VP1 in mice. All guinea pigs and swine co-administrated with rAd-GMCSF-VPe and rAd-GMCSF-VP1 were protected from viral challenge, even though the neutralizing antibody titers were significantly lower than those in the group inoculated with inactivated FMD vaccine. It demonstrated that co-administration of rAd-GMCSF-VPe and rAd-GMCSF-VP1 might be attractive candidate vaccines for preventing FMDV infection. PMID:17980939

  18. Characterization of Recombinant Human Cytomegaloviruses Encoding IE1 Mutants L174P and 1-382 Reveals that Viral Targeting of PML Bodies Perturbs both Intrinsic and Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Myriam; Otto, Victoria; Stump, Joachim D.; Klingl, Stefan; Müller, Regina; Reuter, Nina; Muller, Yves A.; Sticht, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT PML is the organizer of cellular structures termed nuclear domain 10 (ND10) or PML-nuclear bodies (PML-NBs) that act as key mediators of intrinsic immunity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and other viruses. The antiviral function of ND10 is antagonized by viral regulatory proteins such as the immediate early protein IE1 of HCMV. IE1 interacts with PML through its globular core domain (IE1CORE) and induces ND10 disruption in order to initiate lytic HCMV infection. Here, we investigate the consequences of a point mutation (L174P) in IE1CORE, which was shown to abrogate the interaction with PML, for lytic HCMV infection. We found that a recombinant HCMV encoding IE1-L174P displays a severe growth defect similar to that of an IE1 deletion virus. Bioinformatic modeling based on the crystal structure of IE1CORE suggested that insertion of proline into the highly alpha-helical domain severely affects its structural integrity. Consistently, L174P mutation abrogates the functionality of IE1CORE and results in degradation of the IE1 protein during infection. In addition, our data provide evidence that IE1CORE as expressed by a recombinant HCMV encoding IE1 1-382 not only is required to antagonize PML-mediated intrinsic immunity but also affects a recently described function of PML in innate immune signaling. We demonstrate a coregulatory role of PML in type I and type II interferon-induced gene expression and provide evidence that upregulation of interferon-induced genes is inhibited by IE1CORE. In conclusion, our data suggest that targeting PML by viral regulatory proteins represents a strategy to antagonize both intrinsic and innate immune mechanisms. IMPORTANCE PML nuclear bodies (PML-NBs), which represent nuclear multiprotein complexes consisting of PML and additional proteins, represent important cellular structures that mediate intrinsic resistance against many viruses, including human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). During HCMV infection, the major immediate

  19. Antigen discovery and delivery of subunit vaccines by nonliving bacterial ghost vectors.

    PubMed

    Walcher, Petra; Mayr, Ulrike B; Azimpour-Tabrizi, Chakameh; Eko, Francis O; Jechlinger, Wolfgang; Mayrhofer, Peter; Alefantis, Tim; Mujer, Cesar V; DelVecchio, Vito G; Lubitz, Werner

    2004-12-01

    The bacterial ghost (BG) platform system is a novel vaccine delivery system endowed with intrinsic adjuvant properties. BGs are nonliving Gram-negative bacterial cell envelopes which are devoid of their cytoplasmic contents, yet maintain their cellular morphology and antigenic structures, including bioadhesive properties. The main advantages of BGs as carriers of subunit vaccines include their ability to stimulate a high immune response and to target the carrier itself to primary antigen-presenting cells. The intrinsic adjuvant properties of BGs enhance the immune response to target antigens, including T-cell activation and mucosal immunity. Since native and foreign antigens can be carried in the envelope complex of BGs, combination vaccines with multiple antigens of diverse origin can be presented to the immune system simultaneously. Beside the capacity of BGs to function as carriers of protein antigens, they also have a high loading capacity for DNA. Thus, loading BGs with recombinant DNA takes advantage of the excellent bioavailability for DNA-based vaccines and the high expression rates of the DNA-encoded antigens in target cell types such as macrophages and dendritic cells. There are many spaces within BGs including the inner and outer membranes, the periplasmic space and the internal lumen which can carry antigens, DNA or mediators of the immune response. All can be used for subunit antigen to design new vaccine candidates with particle presentation technology. In addition, the fact that BGs can also carry piggyback large-size foreign antigen particles, increases the technologic usefulness of BGs as combination vaccines against viral and bacterial pathogens. Furthermore, the BG antigen carriers can be stored as freeze-dried preparations at room temperature for extended periods without loss of efficacy. The potency, safety and relatively low production cost of BGs offer a significant technical advantage over currently utilized vaccine technologies.

  20. New recombinant chimeric antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1, for the serodiagnosis of human toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Drapała, Dorota; Holec-Gąsior, Lucyna; Kur, Józef

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the usefulness of 3 chimeric Toxoplasma gondii antigens, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1 and MAG1-ROP1, in the serodiagnosis of an acute toxoplasmosis in humans. Proteins were produced as fusion proteins containing His tags ends and then further purified by metal affinity chromatography. Their application for the diagnosis of recently acquired T. gondii infection was tested in IgG and IgM enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). At 100%, 77.3%, and 86.4%, respectively, the reactivity of the IgG ELISA using P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 for sera from patients where acute toxoplasmosis was suspected was significantly higher than for the samples from people with a chronic infection, at 26.2%, 36.1%, and 32.8%, respectively. Moreover, P35-MAG1, MIC1-ROP1, and MAG1-ROP1 detected IgM antibodies with a reactivity at 81.8%, 72.7%, and 59.1%, respectively. The results presented in the article show that, particularly, P35-MAG1 may be useful in the preliminary detection of recent T. gondii infection.

  1. [Eukaryotic Expression and Immunogenic Research of Recombination Ebola Virus Membrane Protein Gp-Fc].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoguang; Yang, Ren; Wang, Jiao; Wang, Xuan; Hou, Mieling; An, Lina; Zhu, Ying; Cao, Yuxi; Zeng, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We used 293 cells to express the recombinant membrane protein of the Ebola virus. Then, the immunogenicity of the recombinant protein was studied by immunized BALB/c mice. According to the codon use frequency of humans, the gene encoding the extracellular domain of the Ebola virus membrane protein was optimized, synthesized, and inserted into the eukaryotic expression plasmid pXG-Fc to construct the human IgG Fc and Ebola GP fusion protein expression plasmid pXG-modGP-Fc. To achieve expression, the fusion protein expression vector was transfected into high-density 293 cells using transient transfection technology. The recombinant protein was purified by protein A affinity chromatography. BALB/c mice were immunized with the purified fusion protein, and serum antibody titers evaluated by an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Purification and analyses of the protein revealed that the eukaryotic expression vector could express the recombinant protein GP-Fc effectively, and that the recombinant protein in the supernatant of the cell culture was present as a dimer. After immunization with the purified recombinant protein, a high titer of antigen-specific IgG could be detected in the serum of immunized mice by indirect ELISA, showing that the recombinant protein had good immunogenicity. These data suggest that we obtained a recombinant protein with good immunogenicity. Our study is the basis for development of a vaccine against the Ebola virus and for screening of monoclonal antibodies.

  2. Effective protection against experimental Taenia solium tapeworm infection in hamsters by primo-infection and by vaccination with recombinant or synthetic heterologous antigens.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Revilla, C; Toledo, A; Rosas, G; Huerta, M; Flores-Perez, I; Peña, N; Morales, J; Cisneros-Quiñones, J; Meneses, G; Díaz-Orea, A; Anciart, N; Goldbaum, F; Aluja, A; Larralde, C; Fragoso, G; Sciutto, E

    2006-08-01

    The disease caused by Taenia solium is progressively being recognized as a growing global threat for public human health and pig husbandry that requires the development of effective control measures. A central participant in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission network is the human carrier of the adult tapeworm because of its great potential in spreading the infection. Herein, evidence is presented that a primary infection of golden hamsters with orally administered T. solium cysticerci improved the host's resistance against a secondary infection. Likewise, previous vaccination increased the hamster's resistance. Similar high levels of protection (> 78%) were induced by systemic or oral vaccination with the S3Pvac anticysticercosis synthetic peptide vaccine or the highly immunogenic recombinant chimera based on the protective peptide KETc1 bound to Brucella spp. lumazine synthase (BLS-KETc1). Increased resistance after primo-infection and vaccination possibly results from changes in the immune conditions prevailing in the host's intestine. The contribution to protection from the KETc1 and BLS epitopes in a chimeric vaccine is under study. Preventive vaccination of definitive hosts of T. solium against the tapeworm, the most relevant step in the taeniasis/cysticercosis transmission, may greatly impact the dynamics of endemic disease and has not been studied or tried previously.

  3. Nitrocellulose immunoblotting for identification and molecular gene cloning of Eimeria maxima antigens that stimulate lymphocyte proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Bumstead, J M; Dunn, P P; Tomley, F M

    1995-01-01

    An immunoblotting technique was used to identify lymphostimulatory antigens within sized polypeptide fractions of Eimeria maxima sporozoites. Six fractions contained polypeptides that specifically stimulated the proliferation of immune lymphocytes in an in vitro assay, and polyclonal antisera were made in rabbits against these fractions. cDNA clones, isolated with antisera against a lymphostimulatory fraction of around 70 kDa, were found to encode four different antigens including a classical hsp70, a molecule homologous to an endoplasmic reticulum chaperonin (BiP/GRP), and a calcium-dependent serine/threonine protein kinase that appears homologous to a recently described molecule from Plasmodium falciparum. The protein kinase cDNA clone was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and the recombinant antigen was found to induce both antibody and lymphoproliferative responses in chickens when administered subcutaneously. Thus, immunoblotting, in combination with in vitro lymphoproliferation assays, can be used as an initial screen for the identification of lymphostimulatory antigens from a complex pool of polypeptides, and a combination of cDNA cloning, expression, and immunization allows assessment of the lymphostimulatory activity of individual polypeptides. These studies should facilitate further evaluation of antigens that are potential candidates for inclusion in a recombinant vaccine against poultry coccidiosis. PMID:8548529

  4. Induction of long-lasting protective immunity against Toxoplasma gondii in BALB/c mice by recombinant surface antigen 1 protein encapsulated in poly (lactide-co-glycolide) microparticles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Current development efforts of subunit vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii, the etiological agent of toxoplasmosis, have been focused mainly on tachyzoite surface antigen 1 (SAG1). Since microparticles made from poly (lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) polymers have been developed as safe, potent adjuvants or delivery systems, we aimed to encapsulate recombinant SAG1 (rSAG1) with the PLG polymers to prepare PLG-encapsulated rSAG1 (PLG-rSAG1) microparticles that would sustain rSAG1 release and generate long-lasting protective immunity against T. gondii in BALB/c mice. Methods In the present study, rSAG1 was encapsulated into PLG microparticles by the double emulsion method. PLG-rSAG1 microparticles were then intraperitoneally injected twice at a 14-day interval into BALB/c mice. We examined the ability of PLG-rSAG1 microparticles to induce and prolong effective anti-Toxoplasma immune responses, in comparison with rSAG1 formulated with a Vet L-10 adjuvant (rSAG1 (Vet L-10)). Eight weeks after the last immunization, protective activities were also evaluated after a lethal subcutaneous challenge of 1x104 live T. gondii tachyzoites. Results PLG-rSAG1 microparticles, 4.25~6.58 micrometers in diameter, showed 69%~81% entrapment efficiency. The amount of released rSAG1 protein from microparticles increased gradually over a 35-day period and the protein still retained native SAG1 antigenicity. Intraperitoneal vaccination of mice with the microparticles resulted in enhanced SAG1-specific IgG titers as well as lymphocyte proliferation and, more importantly, these enhanced activities were maintained for 10 weeks. In addition, eight weeks after the last immunization, maximum production of gamma interferon was detected in mice immunized with PLG-rSAG1 microparticles. Furthermore, 80% (8/10) of mice immunized with PLG-rSAG1 microparticles survived at least 28 days after a lethal subcutaneous tachyzoite challenge. Conclusions Encapsulation of rSAG1 into PLG microparticles

  5. Genetic Variation at the O-Antigen Biosynthetic Locus in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Christopher K.; Sims, Elizabeth H.; Kas, Arnold; Spencer, David H.; Kutyavin, Tanya V.; Ivey, Richard G.; Zhou, Yang; Kaul, Rajinder; Clendenning, James B.; Olson, Maynard V.

    2002-01-01

    The outer carbohydrate layer, or O antigen, of Pseudomonas aeruginosa varies markedly in different isolates of these bacteria, and at least 20 distinct O-antigen serotypes have been described. Previous studies have indicated that the major enzymes responsible for O-antigen synthesis are encoded in a cluster of genes that occupy a common genetic locus. We used targeted yeast recombinational cloning to isolate this locus from the 20 internationally recognized serotype strains. DNA sequencing of these isolated segments revealed that at least 11 highly divergent gene clusters occupy this region. Homology searches of the encoded protein products indicated that these gene clusters are likely to direct O-antigen biosynthesis. The O15 serotype strains lack functional gene clusters in the region analyzed, suggesting that O-antigen biosynthesis genes for this serotype are harbored in a different portion of the genome. The overall pattern underscores the plasticity of the P. aeruginosa genome, in which a specific site in a well-conserved genomic region can be occupied by any of numerous islands of functionally related DNA with diverse sequences. PMID:12057956

  6. Structural heterogeneity in HLA-B70, a high-frequency antigen of black populations.

    PubMed

    Domena, J D; Little, A M; Madrigal, A J; Hildebrand, W H; Johnston-Dow, L; du Toit, E; Bias, W B; Parham, P

    1993-11-01

    Although the B70 antigen exhibits allele frequencies of 8-23% in African and American black populations, it remains poorly defined. Cloning and sequencing of cDNA encoding B70 antigens from six cell lines has identified a group of three closely related alleles: B*1503, B*1509 and B*1510, that form a subgroup of the B15 family. The sequences of these alleles and, in particular, B*1503, are close to that of the HLA-B consensus consistent with the difficulty in their serological definition. The products of the three alleles correspond to three electrophoretically detected variants of the B70 antigen and some correlation with the B71 and B72 subspecificities of the B70 antigen can be made. A fourth allele, B*7901, previously described by Choo et al. (J. Immunol. 147: 174-180, 1991) that was not serologically typed as B70, differs by a single nucleotide substitution from B*1510. The sensitivity of alloantibodies to single differences in peptide binding residues suggest a role for bound peptides in the HLA-B70 alloantigenic specificities. The heavy chains encoded by the four alleles differ at four peptide binding residues of the antigen recognition site, the evolutionary modification of which can be explained in terms of interallelic recombination events.

  7. Use of Recombinant Virus Replicon Particles for Vaccination against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bolz, Miriam; Kerber, Sarah; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which is most prevalent in rural regions of West African countries. The majority of clinical presentations seen in patients are ulcers on limbs that can be treated by eight weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, scarring and permanent disabilities occur frequently and Buruli ulcer still causes high morbidity. A vaccine against the disease is so far not available but would be of great benefit if used for prophylaxis as well as therapy. In the present study, vesicular stomatitis virus-based RNA replicon particles encoding the M. ulcerans proteins MUL2232 and MUL3720 were generated and the expression of the recombinant antigens characterized in vitro. Immunisation of mice with the recombinant replicon particles elicited antibodies that reacted with the endogenous antigens of M. ulcerans cells. A prime-boost immunization regimen with MUL2232-recombinant replicon particles and recombinant MUL2232 protein induced a strong immune response but only slightly reduced bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of M. ulcerans infection. We conclude that a monovalent vaccine based on the MUL2232 antigen will probably not sufficiently control M. ulcerans infection in humans. PMID:26275222

  8. Use of Recombinant Virus Replicon Particles for Vaccination against Mycobacterium ulcerans Disease.

    PubMed

    Bolz, Miriam; Kerber, Sarah; Zimmer, Gert; Pluschke, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Buruli ulcer, caused by infection with Mycobacterium ulcerans, is a necrotizing disease of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, which is most prevalent in rural regions of West African countries. The majority of clinical presentations seen in patients are ulcers on limbs that can be treated by eight weeks of antibiotic therapy. Nevertheless, scarring and permanent disabilities occur frequently and Buruli ulcer still causes high morbidity. A vaccine against the disease is so far not available but would be of great benefit if used for prophylaxis as well as therapy. In the present study, vesicular stomatitis virus-based RNA replicon particles encoding the M. ulcerans proteins MUL2232 and MUL3720 were generated and the expression of the recombinant antigens characterized in vitro. Immunisation of mice with the recombinant replicon particles elicited antibodies that reacted with the endogenous antigens of M. ulcerans cells. A prime-boost immunization regimen with MUL2232-recombinant replicon particles and recombinant MUL2232 protein induced a strong immune response but only slightly reduced bacterial multiplication in a mouse model of M. ulcerans infection. We conclude that a monovalent vaccine based on the MUL2232 antigen will probably not sufficiently control M. ulcerans infection in humans.

  9. Serodiagnosis of Lyme disease by kinetic enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using recombinant VlsE1 or peptide antigens of Borrelia burgdorferi compared with 2-tiered testing using whole-cell lysates.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Rendi Murphree; Biggerstaff, Brad J; Schriefer, Martin E; Gilmore, Robert D; Philipp, Mario T; Steere, Allen C; Wormser, Gary P; Marques, Adriana R; Johnson, Barbara J B

    2003-04-15

    In a study of US patients with Lyme disease, immunoglobulin (Ig) G and IgM antibody responses to recombinant Borrelia burgdorferi antigen VlsE1 (rVlsE1), IgG responses to a synthetic peptide homologous to a conserved internal sequence of VlsE (C6), and IgM responses to a synthetic peptide comprising the C-terminal 10 amino acid residues of a B. burgdorferi outer-surface protein C (pepC10) were evaluated by kinetic enzyme-linked immunoassay. At 99% specificity, the overall sensitivities for detecting IgG antibody to rVlsE1 or C6 in samples from patients with diverse manifestations of Lyme disease were equivalent to that of 2-tiered testing. When data were considered in parallel, 2 combinations (IgG responses to either rVlsE1 or C6 in parallel with IgM responses to pepC10) maintained high specificity (98%) and were significantly more sensitive than 2-tiered analysis in detecting antibodies to B. burgdorferi in patients with acute erythema migrans. In later stages of Lyme disease, the sensitivities of the in parallel tests and 2-tiered testing were high and statistically equivalent.

  10. Sequence analysis of the Bs-Ag1 gene of Baylisascaris schroederi from the giant panda and an evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Baylisascaris schroederi Bs-Ag1 antigen in mice.

    PubMed

    He, Guangzhi; Chen, Sijie; Wang, Tao; Yan, Yubo; Zhang, Zhihe; Li, Desheng; Yu, Hua; Xie, Yue; Wang, Chengdong; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2012-07-01

    The Baylisascaris schroederi infection rate among wild giant pandas may reach over 50% or even 100%, making it one of the leading causes of death from primary or secondary infection in wild populations. Until now, little was known about how protective immunity to B. schroederi infection could be achieved. The present study was conducted to evaluate the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant Bs-Ag1 from B. schroederi, by cloning the full-length Bs-Ag1 gene of B. schroederi and expressing it in a heterologous host, Escherichia coli BL21. In mice vaccinated with rBs-Ag1 coupled with Freund's complete adjuvant (FCA), there was a significant reduction (69.2%) in the recovery of challenged B. schroederi L3 compared with either nonvaccinated controls or mice vaccinated with FCA alone. Our study supports the use of Bs-Ag1 as a potential candidate for vaccination against B. schroederi infection and provides basic data for further vaccination trials with mixtures of antigens (with Bs-Ag2 and Bs-Ag3) to B. schroederi. PMID:22339267

  11. Cell bank characterization and fermentation optimization for production of recombinant heavy chain C-terminal fragment of botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (rBoNTE(H(c)): antigen E) by Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Jayanta; Inan, Mehmet; Fanders, Sarah; Taoka, Shinichi; Gouthro, Mark; Swanson, Todd; Barent, Rick; Barthuli, Ardis; Loveless, Bonnie M; Smith, Leonard A; Smith, Theresa; Henderson, Ian; Ross, John; Meagher, Michael M

    2007-01-10

    A process was developed for production of a candidate vaccine antigen, recombinant C-terminal heavy chain fragment of the botulinum neurotoxin serotype E, rBoNTE(H(c)) in Pichia pastoris. P. pastoris strain GS115 was transformed with the rBoNTE(H(c)) gene inserted into pHILD4 Escherichia coli-P. pastoris shuttle plasmid. The clone was characterized for genetic stability, copy number, and BoNTE(H(c)) sequence. Expression of rBoNTE(H(c)) from the Mut(+) HIS4 clone was confirmed in the shake-flask, prior to developing a fed-batch fermentation process at 5 and 19 L scale. The fermentation process consists of a glycerol growth phase in batch and fed-batch mode using a defined medium followed by a glycerol/methanol transition phase for adaptation to growth on methanol and a methanol induction phase resulting in the production of rBoNTE(H(c)). Specific growth rate, ratio of growth to induction phase, and time of induction were critical for optimal rBoNTE(H(c)) production and minimal proteolytic degradation. A computer-controlled exponential growth model was used for process automation and off-gas analysis was used for process monitoring. The optimized process had an induction time of 9 h on methanol and produced up to 3 mg of rBoNTE(H(c)) per gram wet cell mass as determined by HPLC and Western blot analysis.

  12. Complex Minigene Library Vaccination for Discovery of Pre-Erythrocytic Plasmodium T Cell Antigens

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Brad C.; Kas, Arnold; Billman, Zachary P.; Fuller, Deborah H.; Fuller, James T.; Shendure, Jay; Murphy, Sean C.

    2016-01-01

    Development of a subunit vaccine targeting liver-stage Plasmodium parasites requires the identification of antigens capable of inducing protective T cell responses. However, traditional methods of antigen identification are incapable of evaluating T cell responses against large numbers of proteins expressed by these parasites. This bottleneck has limited development of subunit vaccines against Plasmodium and other complex intracellular pathogens. To address this bottleneck, we are developing a synthetic minigene technology for multi-antigen DNA vaccines. In an initial test of this approach, pools of long (150 bp) antigen-encoding oligonucleotides were synthesized and recombined into vectors by ligation-independent cloning to produce two DNA minigene library vaccines. Each vaccine encoded peptides derived from 36 (vaccine 1) and 53 (vaccine 2) secreted or transmembrane pre-erythrocytic P. yoelii proteins. BALB/cj mice were vaccinated three times with a single vaccine by biolistic particle delivery (gene gun) and screened for interferon-γ-producing T cell responses by ELISPOT. Library vaccination induced responses against four novel antigens. Naïve mice exposed to radiation-attenuated sporozoites mounted a response against only one of the four novel targets (PyMDH, malate dehydrogenase). The response to PyMDH could not be recalled by additional homologous sporozoite immunizations but could be partially recalled by heterologous cross-species sporozoite exposure. Vaccination against the dominant PyMDH epitope by DNA priming and recombinant Listeria boosting did not protect against sporozoite challenge. Improvements in library design and delivery, combined with methods promoting an increase in screening sensitivity, may enable complex minigene screening to serve as a high-throughput system for discovery of novel T cell antigens. PMID:27070430

  13. Wide Distribution of O157-Antigen Biosynthesis Gene Clusters in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Seto, Kazuko; Ooka, Tadasuke; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Osawa, Kayo; Osawa, Ro

    2011-01-01

    Most Escherichia coli O157-serogroup strains are classified as enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC), which is known as an important food-borne pathogen for humans. They usually produce Shiga toxin (Stx) 1 and/or Stx2, and express H7-flagella antigen (or nonmotile). However, O157 strains that do not produce Stxs and express H antigens different from H7 are sometimes isolated from clinical and other sources. Multilocus sequence analysis revealed that these 21 O157:non-H7 strains tested in this study belong to multiple evolutionary lineages different from that of EHEC O157:H7 strains, suggesting a wide distribution of the gene set encoding the O157-antigen biosynthesis in multiple lineages. To gain insight into the gene organization and the sequence similarity of the O157-antigen biosynthesis gene clusters, we conducted genomic comparisons of the chromosomal regions (about 59 kb in each strain) covering the O-antigen gene cluster and its flanking regions between six O157:H7/non-H7 strains. Gene organization of the O157-antigen gene cluster was identical among O157:H7/non-H7 strains, but was divided into two distinct types at the nucleotide sequence level. Interestingly, distribution of the two types did not clearly follow the evolutionary lineages of the strains, suggesting that horizontal gene transfer of both types of O157-antigen gene clusters has occurred independently among E. coli strains. Additionally, detailed sequence comparison revealed that some positions of the repetitive extragenic palindromic (REP) sequences in the regions flanking the O-antigen gene clusters were coincident with possible recombination points. From these results, we conclude that the horizontal transfer of the O157-antigen gene clusters induced the emergence of multiple O157 lineages within E. coli and speculate that REP sequences may involve one of the driving forces for exchange and evolution of O-antigen loci. PMID:21876740

  14. Recombineering Pseudomonas syringae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the identification of functions that promote genomic recombination of linear DNA introduced into Pseudomonas cells by electroporation. The genes encoding these functions were identified in Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae B728a based on similarity to the lambda Red Exo/Beta and RecE...

  15. Encoding Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ide, Nancy

    1995-01-01

    Describes problems in devising a Text Encoding Initiative (TEI) encoding format for dictionaries. Asserts that the high degree of structuring and compression of information are among the most complex text types treated in the TEI. Concludes that the source of some TEI problems lies in the design of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML). (CFR)

  16. Immunological response to parenteral vaccination with recombinant hepatitis B virus surface antigen virus-like particles expressing Helicobacter pylori KatA epitopes in a murine H. pylori challenge model.

    PubMed

    Kotiw, Michael; Johnson, Megan; Pandey, Manisha; Fry, Scott; Hazell, Stuart L; Netter, Hans J; Good, Michael F; Olive, Colleen

    2012-02-01

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) based on the small envelope protein of hepatitis B virus (HBsAg-S) are immunogenic at the B- and T-cell level. In this study, we inserted overlapping sequences encoding the carboxy terminus of the Helicobacter pylori katA gene product into HBsAg-S. The HBsAg-S-KatA fusion proteins were able to assemble into secretion-competent VLPs (VLP-KatA). The VLP-KatA proteins were able to induce KatA-specific antibodies in immunized mice. The mean total IgG antibody titers 41 days post-primary immunization with VLP-KatA (2.3 × 10(3)) were significantly greater (P < 0.05) than those observed for vaccination with VLP alone (5.2 × 10(2)). Measurement of IgG isotypes revealed responses to both IgG1 and IgG2a (mean titers, 9.0 × 10(4) and 2.6 × 10(4), respectively), with the IgG2a response to vaccination with VLP-KatA being significantly higher than that for mice immunized with KatA alone (P < 0.05). Following challenge of mice with H. pylori, a significantly reduced bacterial load in the gastric mucosa was observed (P < 0.05). This is the first report describing the use of VLPs as a delivery vehicle for H. pylori antigens.

  17. Contrasting Roles of Interallelic Recombination at the Hla-a and Hla-B Loci

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, A. L.; Hughes, M. K.; Watkins, D. I.

    1993-01-01

    A statistical study of DNA sequences of alleles at the highly polymorphic class I MHC loci of humans, HLA-A and HLA-B, showed evidence of both large-scale recombination events (involving recombination of exons 1-2 of one allele with exons 3-8 of another) and small-scale recombination events (involving apparent exchange of short DNA segments). The latter events occurred disproportionately in the region of the gene encoding the antigen recognition site (ARS) of the class I molecule. Furthermore, they involved the ARS codons which are under the strongest selection favoring allelic diversity at the amino acid level. Thus, the frequency of recombinant alleles appears to have been increased by some form of balancing selection (such as overdominant selection) favoring heterozygosity in the ARS. These analyses also revealed a striking difference between the A and B loci. Recombination events appear to have occurred about twice as frequently at the B locus, and recombinants at the B locus were significantly more likely to affect polymorphic sites in the ARS. At the A locus, there are well-defined allelic lineages that have persisted since prior to the human-chimpanzee divergence; but at the B locus, there is no evidence for such long-lasting allelic lineages. Thus, relatively frequent interallelic recombination has apparently been a feature of the long-term evolution of the B locus but not of the A locus. PMID:8454208

  18. Contrasting roles of interallelic recombination at the HLA-A and HLA-B loci

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, A.L.; Hughes, M.K. ); Watkins, D.I. )

    1993-03-01

    A statistical study of DNA sequences of alleles at the highly polymorphic class I MHC loci of humans, HLA-A and HLA-B, showed evidence of both large-scale recombination events(involving recombination of exons 1-2 of one allele with exons 3-8 of another) and small scale recombination events (involving apparent exchange of short DNA segments). The latter events occurred disproportionately in the region of the gene encoding the antigen recognition site (ARS) of the class I molecule. Furthermore, they involved the ARS codons which are under the strongest selection favoring allelic diversity at the amino acid level. Thus, the frequency of recombinant alleles appears to have been increased by some form of balancing selection (such as overdominant selection) favoring heterozygosity in the ARS. These analyses also revealed a striking difference between the A and B loci. Recombination events appear to have occurred about twice as frequently at the B locus, and recombinants at the B locus were significantly more likely to affect polymorphic sites in the ARS. At the A locus, there are well-defined allelic lineages that have persisted since prior to the human-chimpanzee divergence; but at the B locus, there is no evidence for such long-lasting allelic lineages. Thus, relatively frequent interallelic recombination has apparently been a feature of the long-term evolution of the B locus but not of the A locus. 45 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. A 32 kDa surface antigen of Theileria parva: characterization and immunization studies.

    PubMed

    Skilton, R A; Musoke, A J; Wells, C W; Yagi, Y; Nene, V; Spooner, P R; Gachanja, J; Osaso, J; Bishop, R P; Morzaria, S P

    2000-06-01

    Previous studies using monoclonal antibody (mAb) 4C9 specific for a 32 kDa antigen (p32) of Theileria parva demonstrated expression of the antigen on the surface of the sporozoite, making it a potential antigen for sporozoite neutralization. A full-length cDNA encoding the major merozoite/piroplasm surface antigen (mMPSA) of T. parva was cloned and expressed in bacteria. The expressed product reacted strongly with mAb 4C9, demonstrating identity between the p32 and mMPSA of T. parva. Using immunoblot analysis and immunoelectron microscopy with mAb 4C9 it was shown that the mMPSA is a major antigen of the merozoite and piroplasm at the cell surface, while lower levels of antigen are expressed in the sporozoite and schizont stages. Upregulation of the mMPSA occurs at merogony and can be induced by culturing schizont-infected lymphocytes at 42 degrees C. Recombinant mMPSA of T. parva induced high titres of specific antibodies in cattle but failed to confer protection against a T. parva sporozoite stabilate challenge. The pre-challenge sera also failed to neutralize infectivity of sporozoites in an in vitro assay. Possible reasons for the lack of parasite neutralization in vivo and in vitro are discussed. PMID:10874718

  20. Neisseria meningitidis antigen NMB0088: sequence variability, protein topology and vaccine potential.

    PubMed

    Sardiñas, Gretel; Yero, Daniel; Climent, Yanet; Caballero, Evelin; Cobas, Karem; Niebla, Olivia

    2009-02-01

    The significance of Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B membrane proteins as vaccine candidates is continually growing. Here, we studied different aspects of antigen NMB0088, a protein that is abundant in outer-membrane vesicle preparations and is thought to be a surface protein. The gene encoding protein NMB0088 was sequenced in a panel of 34 different meningococcal strains with clinical and epidemiological relevance. After this analysis, four variants of NMB0088 were identified; the variability was confined to three specific segments, designated VR1, VR2 and VR3. Secondary structure predictions, refined with alignment analysis and homology modelling using FadL of Escherichia coli, revealed that almost all the variable regions were located in extracellular loop domains. In addition, the NMB0088 antigen was expressed in E. coli and a procedure for obtaining purified recombinant NMB0088 is described. The humoral immune response elicited in BALB/c mice was measured by ELISA and Western blotting, while the functional activity of these antibodies was determined in a serum bactericidal assay and an animal protection model. After immunization in mice, the recombinant protein was capable of inducing a protective response when it was administered inserted into liposomes. According to our results, the recombinant NMB0088 protein may represent a novel antigen for a vaccine against meningococcal disease. However, results from the variability study should be considered for designing a cross-protective formulation in future studies.

  1. An amphioxus RAG1-like DNA fragment encodes a functional central domain of vertebrate core RAG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanni; Xu, Ke; Deng, Anqi; Fu, Xing; Xu, Anlong; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The highly diversified repertoire of antigen receptors in the vertebrate immune system is generated via proteins encoded by the recombination activating genes (RAGs) RAG1 and RAG2 by a process known as variable, diversity, and joining [V(D)J] gene recombination. Based on the study of vertebrate RAG proteins, many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of RAG. This issue remains unresolved, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the evolution of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the amphioxus genome contains an ancient RAG1-like DNA fragment (bfRAG1L) that encodes a virus-related protein that is much shorter than vertebrate RAG1 and harbors a region homologous to the central domain of core RAG1 (cRAG1). bfRAG1L also contains an unexpected retroviral type II nuclease active site motif, DXN(D/E)XK, and is capable of degrading both DNA and RNA. Moreover, bfRAG1L shares important functional properties with the central domain of cRAG1, including interaction with RAG2 and localization to the nucleus. Remarkably, the reconstitution of bfRAG1L into a cRAG1-like protein yielded an enzyme capable of recognizing recombination signal sequences and performing V(D)J recombination in the presence of mouse RAG2. Moreover, this reconstituted cRAG1-like protein could mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes in RAG1-deficient mice. Together, our results demonstrate that amphioxus bfRAG1L encodes a protein that is functionally equivalent to the central domain of cRAG1 and is well prepared for further evolution to mediate V(D)J recombination. Thus, our findings provide unique insights into the evolutionary origin of RAG1.

  2. An amphioxus RAG1-like DNA fragment encodes a functional central domain of vertebrate core RAG1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanni; Xu, Ke; Deng, Anqi; Fu, Xing; Xu, Anlong; Liu, Xiaolong

    2014-01-01

    The highly diversified repertoire of antigen receptors in the vertebrate immune system is generated via proteins encoded by the recombination activating genes (RAGs) RAG1 and RAG2 by a process known as variable, diversity, and joining [V(D)J] gene recombination. Based on the study of vertebrate RAG proteins, many hypotheses have been proposed regarding the origin and evolution of RAG. This issue remains unresolved, leaving a significant gap in our understanding of the evolution of adaptive immunity. Here, we show that the amphioxus genome contains an ancient RAG1-like DNA fragment (bfRAG1L) that encodes a virus-related protein that is much shorter than vertebrate RAG1 and harbors a region homologous to the central domain of core RAG1 (cRAG1). bfRAG1L also contains an unexpected retroviral type II nuclease active site motif, DXN(D/E)XK, and is capable of degrading both DNA and RNA. Moreover, bfRAG1L shares important functional properties with the central domain of cRAG1, including interaction with RAG2 and localization to the nucleus. Remarkably, the reconstitution of bfRAG1L into a cRAG1-like protein yielded an enzyme capable of recognizing recombination signal sequences and performing V(D)J recombination in the presence of mouse RAG2. Moreover, this reconstituted cRAG1-like protein could mediate the assembly of antigen receptor genes in RAG1-deficient mice. Together, our results demonstrate that amphioxus bfRAG1L encodes a protein that is functionally equivalent to the central domain of cRAG1 and is well prepared for further evolution to mediate V(D)J recombination. Thus, our findings provide unique insights into the evolutionary origin of RAG1. PMID:24368847

  3. Serological diagnosis of enzootic pneumonia of swine by a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using a monoclonal antibody and recombinant antigen (P46) of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Okada, Munenori; Asai, Tetsuo; Futo, Satoshi; Mori, Yasuyuki; Mukai, Tetsuya; Yazawa, Shigeto; Uto, Takehiko; Shibata, Isao; Sato, Shizuo

    2005-02-25

    To facilitate the control of enzootic pneumonia (EP) of swine caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the complement fixation (CF) test has been used for the detection of M. hyopneumoniae antibodies. However, the CF test is a cumbersome and time-consuming technique and cross-reactivity are major drawbacks associated with this method. To circumvent these drawbacks, we have developed a double-sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), consisting of purified monoclonal antibody (Mab) against the 46 kDa surface antigen (P46) of M. hyopneumoniae and recombinant P46 protein expressed in Escherichia coli, for the detection of antibodies to M. hyopneumoniae in serum samples from pigs experimentally inoculated with M. hyopneumoniae and from naturally infected pigs, and compared the practical usefulness of ELISA using the CF test. In experimentally inoculated pigs, the CF and ELISA antibodies were detected at almost the same time, and a good correlation was demonstrated between the CF test and the ELISA. In a survey conducted on field samples, the seropositivity by ELISA in pigs of age 2-6 months was increased. At the time of slaughter, approximately 80% of the animals were seropositive for ELISA. However, a gradual decrease in the prevalence of ELISA positive samples was observed in sows with increasing parity. No correlation was seen between the results obtained with the two methods in the clinical samples. The CF test appears to have limited value for the diagnosis of EP in conventional herds because nonspecific reactions were frequently observed. Therefore, this ELISA is a useful alternative to the CF test currently used for the diagnosis of EP. PMID:15708823

  4. Evaluation of Salmonella enterica type III secretion system effector proteins as carriers for heterologous vaccine antigens.

    PubMed

    Hegazy, Wael Abdel Halim; Xu, Xin; Metelitsa, Leonid; Hensel, Michael

    2012-03-01

    Live attenuated strains of Salmonella enterica have a high potential as carriers of recombinant vaccines. The type III secretion system (T3SS)-dependent translocation of S. enterica can be deployed for delivery of heterologous antigens to antigen-presenting cells. Here we investigated the efficacy of various effector proteins of the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI2)-encoded T3SS for the translocation of model antigens and elicitation of immune responses. The SPI2 T3SS effector proteins SifA, SteC, SseL, SseJ, and SseF share an endosomal membrane-associated subcellular localization after translocation. We observed that all effector proteins could be used to translocate fusion proteins with the model antigens ovalbumin and listeriolysin into the cytosol of host cells. Under in vitro conditions, fusion proteins with SseJ and SteC stimulated T-cell responses that were superior to those triggered by fusion proteins with SseF. However, in mice vaccinated with Salmonella carrier strains, only fusion proteins based on SseJ or SifA elicited potent T-cell responses. These data demonstrate that the selection of an optimal SPI2 effector protein for T3SS-mediated translocation is a critical parameter for the rational design of effective Salmonella-based recombinant vaccines.

  5. Characterization of the Apa antigen from M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis: a conserved Mycobacterium antigen that elicits a strong humoral response in cattle.

    PubMed

    Gioffré, A; Echeverría-Valencia, G; Arese, A; Morsella, C; Garbaccio, S; Delgado, F; Zumárraga, M; Paolicchi, F; Cataldi, A; Romano, M I

    2009-12-15

    Johne's disease or paratuberculosis is widespread in almost all countries and remains difficult to eradicate. Nowadays, diagnosis of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MPTB) infection is one of the main concerns. In this work, we evaluated the expression, biochemical properties and antigenicity of the Apa antigen, encoded by the gene annotated as MAP1569, in the MPTB genome. We confirmed its expression in MPTB and its glycosylation by the ConA binding assay. Although the MPTB-Apa is not an immunodominant antigen, MPTB-infected cattle showed a strong humoral response to recombinant Apa by Western blot and ELISA. Milk was also a suitable sample to be tested by ELISA. We comparatively analysed the humoral cross-reactivity to the Apa from MPTB (MPTB-Apa) and the orthologue from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT-Apa, identical to that from Mycobacterium bovis) in both infected and control cows. Response of M. bovis- and MPTB-infected animals against MT-Apa was similar (P=0.6985) but the response of the M. bovis-infected ones to MPTB-Apa was differential, being significantly diminished (P<0.0001). Although 6 out 45 animals from MPTB-infected herds responded to MPTB-Apa stimulation in the IFNgamma release assay, we found no significant differences when compared infected herds with non-infected ones (P=0.34). This antigen, in contrast to bovine Purified Protein Derivative (PPDb), was strongly represented in avian PPD (PPDa), as shown by the recognition of BALB/c mice hyperimmune sera against MPTB-Apa by Dot-blot immunoassay. We therefore demonstrated the antigenicity of Apa in MPTB-infected animals and a differential response to the recombinant antigen when compared to M. bovis-infected animals. These traits herein described, added to the usefulness of milk samples to detect IgG anti-Apa, could be important for routine screening in dairy cattle, considering a multiantigenic approach to overcome the lack of immunodominance.

  6. A Phase 1 Study of a Vaccine Targeting Preferentially Expressed Antigen in Melanoma and Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen in Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey S.; Vogelzang, Nicholas J.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Goodman, Oscar B.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Marshall, John L.; Miles, Sabrina; Rosario, Dar; Diamond, David C.; Qiu, Zhiyong; Obrocea, Mihail; Bot, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Summary Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) and prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) are tumor-associated antigens implicated in cellular differentiation, genetic stability, and angiogenesis. MKC1106-PP is an immunotherapeutic regimen cotargeting PRAME and PSMA, comprised of a recombinant plasmid (pPRA-PSM encoding fragments derived from both antigens) and 2 peptides (E-PRA and E-PSM derived from PRAME and PSMA, respectively). This multicenter study evaluated MKC1106-PP with a fixed plasmid dose and 2 different peptide doses, administered by intralymph node injection in a prime-boost sequence in human leukocyte antigen-A*0201 and tumor-antigen-positive patients with progressing metastatic solid tumors who had failed standard therapy. Immune monitoring was done by tetramer and enzymatic-linked immune spot analysis. The treatment was well tolerated, with no significant differences in safety, immune response, and clinical outcome relative to peptide doses. Fifteen of 24 evaluable patients showed an immune response, as defined by the expansion of PRAME-specific or PSMA-specific T cells in the blood. There were no partial or complete responses by the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Seven patients showed stable disease (SD) for 6 months or longer, or prostate specific antigen decline: 4 of 10 with prostate carcinoma, 2 of 2 with renal clear cell carcinoma, and 1 of 10 with metastatic melanoma. In addition, there was an association between the induction and persistence of antigen-specific T cells in blood above baseline levels and disease control, defined as SD for 6 months or longer. These results support further development of MKC1106-PP in specific clinical indications. PMID:21760528

  7. Recombinant expression and epitope mapping of grass pollen allergens.

    PubMed

    Suphioglu, C; Smith, P M; Ong, E K; Knox, R B; Singh, M B

    1996-01-01

    We have studied the expression of recombinant forms of Group 1 allergens from rye-grass and Bermuda grass pollens. Recombinant Lol p 1 expressed in bacteria bound serum IgE from allergic patients. Based on analysis of fragments of the Lol p 1 cDNA clone, the major IgE-reactive epitope has been mapped to the C-terminus. However, although SDS-denatured natural Cyn d 1 (from Bermuda grass) bound IgE, the full or partial recombinant proteins expressed in bacteria did not bind IgE. We have since expressed Cyn d 1 in the yeast Pichia pastoris and restored IgE binding. cDNA clones encoding two isoforms of Lol p 5, Lol p 5A and Lol p 5B, have been expressed in bacteria and resulting polypeptides show IgE-binding. Random fragments of these clones have been generated and when expressed as partial recombinant proteins in bacteria, allowed us to identify the major IgE-binding epitopes. The allergenic epitopes were localised towards the C-terminal half of the molecule. Although both isoforms shared similar IgE-reactive epitopes, Lol p 5B did not recognise the Lol p 5A-specific monoclonal antibody A7. At sequence level, there appear to be several amino acid differences between the antigenic epitopes of these two isoallergens. These results aid in the design of diagnostics and in grass pollen immunotherapy.

  8. Application of Re