Science.gov

Sample records for endangered plant centaurea

  1. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  2. Genetic guidelines for the conservation of the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of species of conservation concern requires designing strategies that should include genetic information as small population size and restricted geographic range can reduce genetic variation. We used AFLPs to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the endangered narrow endemic Centaurea borjae, and found no evidence for genetic impoverishment despite its <40 km range and potential for vegetative propagation. Genetic variation was comparable to other plants with similar life history (88 % occurring within populations) and potential clone mates were less frequent than expected. Nonetheless, populations separated by few hundred meters showed signs of significant genetic differentiation suggesting low gene flow between them. Our results suggested that the three geographically closer populations located at the center of the range might be treated as a single management unit, while the remaining ones could be considered independent units. We found evidence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure up to 80 m indicating that the collection of germplasm for ex-situ conservation should focus on individuals separated >80 m to maximize genetic variation.

  3. Strong response of an invasive plant species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to global environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Jeffrey S; Chiariello, Nona R; Loarie, Scott R; Field, Christopher B

    2011-09-01

    Global environmental changes are altering interactions among plant species, sometimes favoring invasive species. Here, we examine how a suite of five environmental factors, singly and in combination, can affect the success of a highly invasive plant. We introduced Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle), which is considered by many to be California's most troublesome wildland weed, to grassland plots in the San Francisco Bay Area. These plots experienced ambient or elevated levels of warming, atmospheric CO2, precipitation, and nitrate deposition, and an accidental fire in the previous year created an additional treatment. Centaurea grew more than six times larger in response to elevated CO2, and, outside of the burned area, grew more than three times larger in response to nitrate deposition. In contrast, resident plants in the community responded less strongly (or did not respond) to these treatments. Interactive effects among treatments were rarely significant. Results from a parallel mesocosm experiment, while less dramatic, supported the pattern of results observed in the field. Taken together, our results suggest that ongoing environmental changes may dramatically increase Centaurea's prevalence in western North America.

  4. Bioactive Compounds in Wild, In vitro Obtained, Ex vitro Adapted, and Acclimated Plants of Centaurea davidovii (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Jadranin, Milka; Gorgorov, Rossen; Stanilova, Marina

    2015-06-01

    In vitro cultures were initiated from a single seed of Centaurea davidovii. Whole plantlets were regenerated and cultivated for several months on agar-solidified nutrient media differing by their composition: basal MS medium, MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators, and liquid MS medium. Plantlets were ex vitro adapted and successfully acclimated to open-air conditions; flowering was observed in some individuals in the first summer, and mass flowering during the second summer. The contents of the total flavonoids and the total phenolic compounds were determined spectrophotometrically in the leaves of the in vitro plantlets cultured on different media, and then compared with those in the leaves of the wild plants and in the leaves of the acclimated plants of the field plot. The sesquiterpene lactone 8α-(5'-hydroxyangeloyl)-salonitenolide was determined by HPLC in leaf samples of C. davidovii wild plants, in vitro obtained plantlets and ex vitro acclimated plants in the greenhouse and on the experimental field plot. The composition of the nutrient medium influenced the contents of all studied bioactive substances. The highest concentrations of all tested secondary metabolites were detected in the leaves of the acclimated plants during mass flowering, the content of the lactone reaching 56.2 mg/g DW, which was several times more than in the other leaf samples. The obtained results revealed both the effectiveness of biotechnological methods for propagation and conservation of rare and endangered plant species, and the possibility to use C. davidovii plants ex vitro acclimated to field conditions as a source of secondary metabolites with potential biological activity.

  5. Plant regeneration from mesophyll protoplasts of Centaurea cyanus, Senecio x hybridus and Callistephus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V; Davey, M R; Power, J B

    1990-11-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of glasshouse-grown plants of Centaurea cyanus and axenic shoot cultures of Senecio x hybridus. Upon culture, using modified MS-based media, protoplasts of both systems entered division to produce callus, followed by plant regeneration. Leaf protoplasts of Callistephus chinensis entered sustained division only following the preconditioning for 24h of peeled leaf tissues on agar-solidified MS-based medium. Protoplasts were also isolated from cell suspensions of C. chinensis and divided in MS-based or KM media. However, only leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Callistephus produced callus, which developed shoots.The establishment of protoplast-to-plant protocols for these ornamental species has provided a basis for broadening their gene pools through somatic hybridisation.

  6. Trait-mediated interactions and lifetime fitness of the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Swope, Sarah M; Parker, Ingrid M

    2010-08-01

    Plants interact with numerous enemies and mutualists simultaneously and sequentially. Such multispecies interactions can give rise to trait-mediated indirect effects that are likely to be common in nature but which are also inherently difficult to predict. Understanding multispecies interactions is also important in the use of biological control agents to control invasive plants because modern approaches to biocontrol rely on releasing multiple agents for each target weed. Centaurea solstitialis is one of the most problematic invasive weeds in California, USA, and the weevil Eustenopus villosus is its dominant biological control agent. We conducted a field experiment to quantitatively assess the direct effect of the recently approved biocontrol pathogen Puccinia jaceae f.s. solstitialis on plant performance and any indirect effects that might arise by altering the plant's interactions with Eustenopus or its pollinators (principally the nonnative Apis mellifera). We documented both synergy and interference between the two biocontrol agents depending on the life stage of the weevil. Puccinia infection increased the impact of bud-feeding by the adult weevils but reduced the impact of seed-feeding by larval weevils. Neither infection nor Eustenopus attack had an effect on pollinator visitation. The net effect was that attack by both the pathogen and the weevil did not reduce plant fitness relative to plants attacked only by the weevil. Because the consequence to the plant of interacting with one species may depend on the presence or absence of other interacting species, a careful consideration of multispecies interactions may be necessary for the selection of biocontrol agents that act in a complementary manner to reduce plant fitness. Likewise, relatively tractable weed-biocontrol systems allow us to examine multispecies interactions that can be difficult to study experimentally in native systems that are composed of numerous species with well-established populations.

  7. Cytotype differences modulate eco-geographical differentiation in the widespread plant Centaurea stoebe.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Min A; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2013-05-01

    The evolution of optimal life history strategies is central for the fitness of organisms in a given environment. Besides divergent selection, other factors may determine regional patterns of differentiation and contribute to life history evolution. In a common-garden environment over three years, we examined life history differentiation across different eco-geographical regions and effects of a specialist root-insect herbivore in the widespread European plant Centaurea stoebe, spotted knapweed. This plant occurs as two cytotypes with contrasting life cycles: monocarpic diploids and polycarpic tetraploids. In addition, the tetraploid cytotype has more recently become invasive in North America. We found significant regional differentiation in traits related to the timing of reproduction and reproductive allocation, but contrasting patterns in diploids and tetraploids. In diploids the degree of regional differentiation was higher compared to native tetraploids, and in the latter compared to invasive tetraploids. Furthermore, a pronounced shift in environmental conditions between the native and introduced range could have contributed to the differentiation between native and invasive tetraploids. The study also revealed the potential of the root-mining insect herbivore Agapeta zoegana, used as a biological control organism, to increase plant performance (presumably through overcompensatory growth), especially in the polycarpic tetraploids, and more so in the introduced populations. These findings suggest that patterns of regional differentiation in C. stoebe may be partly determined by divergent selection, but also strongly modulated by life cycle differences among geo-cytotypes. Furthermore, our study highlights the importance in applying a comprehensive and long-term approach when studying regional differentiation in plants.

  8. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

  9. Shift in cytotype frequency and niche space in the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa.

    PubMed

    Treier, Urs A; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Guisan, Antoine; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Polyploidy is often assumed to increase the spread and thus the success of alien plant species, but few empirical studies exist. We tested this hypothesis with Centaurea maculosa Lam., a species native to Europe and introduced into North America approximately 120 years ago where it became highly invasive. We analyzed the ploidy level of more than 2000 plants from 93 native and 48 invasive C. maculosa populations and found a pronounced shift in the relative frequency of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. In Europe diploid populations occur in higher frequencies than tetraploids and only four populations had both cytotypes, while in North America diploid plants were found in only one mixed population and thus tetraploids clearly dominated. Our results showed a pronounced shift in the climatic niche between tetraploid populations in the native and introduced range toward drier climate in North America and a similar albeit smaller shift between diploids and tetraploids in the native range. The field data indicate that diploids have a predominately monocarpic life cycle, while tetraploids are often polycarpic. Additionally, the polycarpic life-form seems to be more prevalent among tetraploids in the introduced range than among tetraploids in the native range. Our study suggests that both ploidy types of C. maculosa were introduced into North America, but tetraploids became the dominant cytotype with invasion. We suggest that the invasive success of C. maculosa is partly due to preadaptation of the tetraploid cytotype in Europe to drier climate and possibly further adaptation to these conditions in the introduced range. The potential for earlier and longer seed production associated with the polycarpic life cycle constitutes an additional factor that may have led to the dominance of tetraploids over diploids in the introduced range.

  10. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  11. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  12. 78 FR 49149 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Sphaeralcea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY58 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Gierisch mallow is a plant species... List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. DATES: This rule is effective on September 12,...

  13. Phylogeny of the Centaurea group (Centaurea, Compositae) - geography is a better predictor than morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilpold, Andreas; Vilatersana, Roser; Susanna, Alfonso; Meseguer, Andrea S; Boršić, Igor; Constantinidis, Theophanis; Filigheddu, Rossella; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N; Tugay, Osman; Uysal, Tuna; Pfeil, Bernard E; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2014-08-01

    The Centaurea group is part of the Circum-Mediterranean Clade (CMC) of genus Centaurea subgenus Centaurea, a mainly Mediterranean plant group with more than 200 described species. The group is traditionally split on morphological basis into three sections: Centaurea, Phalolepis and Willkommia. This division, however, is doubtful, especially in light of molecular approaches. In this study we try to resolve this phylogenetic problem and to consolidate the circumscription and delimitation of the entire group against other closely related groups. We analyzed nuclear (internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal genes) and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer) DNA regions for most of the described species of the Centaurea group using phylogenetic and network approaches, and we checked the data for recombination. Phylogeny was used to reconstruct the evolution of the lacerate-membranaceous bract appendages using parsimony. The magnitude of incomplete lineage sorting was tested estimating the effective population sizes. Molecular dating was performed using a Bayesian approach, and the ancestral area reconstruction was conducted using the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis method. Monophyly of the Centaurea group is confirmed if a few species are removed. Our results do not support the traditional sectional division. There is a high incongruence between the two markers and between genetic data and morphology. However, there is a clear relation between geography and the structure of the molecular data. Diversification in the Centaurea group mainly took place during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The ancestral area infered for the Circum-Mediterranean Clade of Centaurea is the Eastern Mediterranean, whereas for the Centaurea group it is most likely NW-Africa. The large incongruencies, which hamper phylogenetic reconstruction, are probably the result of introgression, even though the presence of incomplete lineage sorting as an additional factor cannot be ruled out

  14. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (h) * * * Species Scientific name Common name Historic range Family Status...

  15. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (h) * * * § 17.12, Note Species Scientific name Common name Historic range Family...

  16. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (h) * * * Species Scientific name Common name Historic range Family Status When...

  17. 76 FR 50051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-11

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout Their Range... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Six Foreign Birds as Endangered Throughout Their Range...-358-1735. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal...

  18. 75 FR 81793 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered Throughout Their Range; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register... Plants; Listing Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered Throughout Their Range AGENCY: Fish and...), determine endangered status for the following seven Brazilian bird species and subspecies...

  19. 75 FR 11193 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... survival activities for a plant that was recently added to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants... common name), a plant endemic to the island of Molokai, Hawaii. The purpose of these activities is...

  20. 78 FR 32013 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 38 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-28

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, for 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui, and reaffirm the listing of 2 endemic Hawaiian plants currently listed as endangered. In this final rule, we are also delisting the plant Gahnia lanaiensis, due to new information that this......

  1. 77 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a...

  2. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed..., proposed rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to...

  3. 76 FR 59990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    .... stoneana in Mexico other than observations of plants directly across the Mexican border from occurrences in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX18 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... follows: ``The term `species' includes any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any...

  4. Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation.

    PubMed

    Wassen, Martin J; Venterink, Harry Olde; Lapshina, Elena D; Tanneberger, Franziska

    2005-09-22

    Nitrogen enrichment is widely thought to be responsible for the loss of plant species from temperate terrestrial ecosystems. This view is based on field surveys and controlled experiments showing that species richness correlates negatively with high productivity and nitrogen enrichment. However, as the type of nutrient limitation has never been examined on a large geographical scale the causality of these relationships is uncertain. We investigated species richness in herbaceous terrestrial ecosystems, sampled along a transect through temperate Eurasia that represented a gradient of declining levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition--from approximately 50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) in western Europe to natural background values of less than 5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) in Siberia. Here we show that many more endangered plant species persist under phosphorus-limited than under nitrogen-limited conditions, and we conclude that enhanced phosphorus is more likely to be the cause of species loss than nitrogen enrichment. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of phosphorus enrichment, and for a stronger focus on conservation management to reduce phosphorus availability.

  5. 75 FR 20621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service ; Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for...

  6. 77 FR 73495 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  7. 77 FR 73494 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  8. 78 FR 1878 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. The Endangered Species Act...

  9. 78 FR 44585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  10. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12 Section 17.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED)...

  11. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12 Section 17.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED)...

  12. 77 FR 74202 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available..., kill, and, for plant species only, remove and reduce to possess) all threatened and endangered...

  13. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list 23 species on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also propose to designate critical habitat for these 23 species, to designate critical habitat for 2 plant species that are already listed as endangered, and revise critical habitat for 99 plant......

  14. Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may benefit some invasive plants, increasing the need for effective invasive plant management. Biological control can be an effective means of managing invasive plants, but the varied responses of plant-insect interactions to climate change make...

  15. 77 FR 32130 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment...

  16. 78 FR 35953 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment...

  17. 77 FR 50152 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment...

  18. 77 FR 24216 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with an endangered species....

  19. 78 FR 11217 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for... to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  20. 77 FR 16254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment...

  1. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  2. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  3. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  4. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  5. 75 FR 20622 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of a permit application; request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  6. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  7. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  8. 77 FR 57647 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), list 23 species on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also designate 42,804 acres (17,322 hectares) as critical habitat. This designation includes critical habitat for these 23 species, 2 plant species that are already listed as endangered, and revised critical......

  9. 78 FR 48899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for... applications to conduct certain activities with endangered or threatened species. With some exceptions,...

  10. 78 FR 6343 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50... for a permit to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  11. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such...

  12. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such...

  13. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such...

  14. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such...

  15. 77 FR 55967 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for Texas Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... proposes to add both species to the Federal Lists of Threatened and Endangered Animals and Plants and... and Animal Taxa that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (62...

  16. 78 FR 39698 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ38 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant Species on Hawaii Island AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... of critical habitat for three plant species (Bidens micrantha ssp. ctenophylla...

  17. 77 FR 15352 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation Actions Under the Endangered Species Act... implement parts of the Endangered Species Act. By this notice, we are inviting public comment to help us... notice is published under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C....

  18. 77 FR 28347 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation Actions Under the Endangered Species Act... of the Endangered Species Act that would create incentives for landowners and others to take... published under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  19. 78 FR 8575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and ] 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and...

  20. 78 FR 76638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and...

  1. 77 FR 45369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  2. 78 FR 23947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available...

  3. 78 FR 29150 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  4. 78 FR 12345 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We invite...

  5. 75 FR 55686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Three Midwest Region...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX28 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Three Midwest Region Plant Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... 1973, as amended (Act). We are revising the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants to reflect...

  6. 77 FR 13349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications...

  7. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  8. 78 FR 54268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  9. 78 FR 19730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite...

  10. 77 FR 16057 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite...

  11. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications...

  12. 76 FR 3029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of Erigeron maguirei

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...; Removal of Erigeron maguirei (Maguire Daisy) From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants... rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service/USFWS), are removing the plant Erigeron maguirei (commonly referred to as Maguire daisy) from the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants....

  13. 78 FR 64529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... Service, P.O. Box 25486-DFC, Denver, CO 80225. In-Person Drop-Off, Viewing, or Pickup: Call (303) 236... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  14. 77 FR 16252 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and...

  15. 78 FR 40669 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Aboriginal Prickly-Apple, and Designation of Critical Habitat for Cape Sable Thoroughwort AGENCY: Fish and...-apple) as endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and...

  16. 76 FR 57943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the List of Endangered and Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ...; Revising the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife for the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the Eastern... the listing of the Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) under the Endangered Species...

  17. 77 FR 18173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ...; Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell, Round Ebonyshell, Southern Sandshell, Southern Kidneyshell, and... the October 4, 2011, rule proposing endangered status for the Alabama pearlshell (Margaritifera... relevant to the designation of critical habitat for the Alabama pearlshell, round ebonyshell,...

  18. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  19. 78 FR 53155 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Phyllostegia hispida; Addendum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Phyllostegia hispida; Addendum to the Molokai Plant Cluster Recovery Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... availability of our final recovery plan for Phyllostegia hispida (no common name) under the Endangered...

  20. 78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened...

  1. 75 FR 48896 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Tennessee Purple Coneflower From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...Under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the plant Echinacea tennesseensis (Tennessee purple coneflower) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Plants due to recovery. This action is based on a thorough review of the best available scientific and commercial data, which indicate......

  2. [Medicinal perspective of Hungarian Centaurea species in the light of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezso; Peták, Zsolt; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The genus Centaurea comprises 300-350 species, 22 of which are native to Hungary. Several species have been applied in traditional medicine, however, the rationale of their application has been analyzed only in few studies. The decoction of the aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka, a species native to Hungary, has been used in Hungarian folk medicine for the healing of wounds of livestock. Its ethnomedicinal use was reported first by our research group. There is no data available for similar application of other members of the genus native to Hungary. This paper summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological data of all Hungarian Centaurea species (C. apiculata, C. are-naria, C. banatica, C. biebersteinii, C. calcitrapa, C. cyanus, C. diffusa, C. grinensis, C. indurata, C. jacea, C. macroptilon, C. montana, C. nigrescens, C. pannonica, C. phrygia, C. rhenana, C. sadleriana, C. salonitana, C. scabiosa, C. solstitialis, C. stenolepis, C. triumfettii), focusing on compounds and activities relevant to the anticipated wound healing effect. Certain compounds (eg. sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, polyacetylenes) are characteristic to the genus, and taking into account that they may play role in the anti-inflammatory and wound healing effect, it is plausible that other Centaurea species beyond C. sadleriana would have wound healing promoting effect. Since C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of wound healing effect of more prevalent species is scientifically warranted.

  3. The potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in protecting endangered plants and habitats.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Hermann; Turnau, Katarzyna; Regvar, Marjana

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened with the extinction of plants and, at the same time, invasion by new species. Plant invasiveness and loss of species can be caused by similar but opposing pressures on the community structures. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have multiple positive effects on plant growth, productivity, health, and stress relief. Many endangered species live in symbiosis with AMF. However, the list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) indicates that the mycorrhizal status of most of the threatened species has not been assessed. Rare plants often occur in specialized and also endangered habitats and might utilize specialized or unique AMF. The specificity of any endangered plant to its AMF population has not been investigated. Because most of the current AMF isolates that are available colonize a broad range of plant species, selected inocula could be used to promote growth of endangered plants before the proper and more effective indigenous AMF are characterized. Application of AMF in field sites to protect endangered plants is hardly feasible due to the complexity of plant community structures and the large amount of fungal inocula needed. Endangered plants could, however, be grown as greenhouse cultures together with appropriate fungi, and, at the relevant developmental stage, they could be re-planted into native sites to prevent extinction and to preserve plant community ecology.

  4. Endangered and threatened plant species on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.

    1984-10-01

    Plant species considered endangered or threatened on the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) were identified through a review of pertinent literature and evaluation of herbarium voucher specimens. Thirteen plant species are on the official Tennessee list of endangered and threatened plants. Three of those species have been proposed for inclusion on the Federal list as rare in Tennessee. These rare plants will be given careful consideration in land-use planning. Protection of endangered and threatened species in their native habitat is considered the best method of ensuring their survival. In addition to habitat preservation, natural history studies of the rare species is important in determ

  5. 78 FR 35201 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing All Chimpanzees as Endangered

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...; Listing All Chimpanzees as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule and 12-month petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list all... announces our finding that listing all chimpanzees as endangered is warranted. This document also serves...

  6. 77 FR 25668 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Chupadera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... determination concerning this proposed listing and critical habitat will take into consideration all written... of Critical Habitat AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of... chupaderae) as endangered and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as...

  7. 78 FR 48134 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... Proposed Endangered Listing of Five Species of Sawfish Under the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: National... five sawfish species: the narrow sawfish (A. cuspidata); dwarf sawfish (P. clavata); largetooth sawfish (collectively P. pristis; formerly P. pristis, P. microdon, and P. perotteti); green sawfish (P. zijsron);...

  8. 77 FR 70915 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ...In response to a petition from the Natural Resources Defense Council, we, the NMFS, issue a final determination to list the Main Hawaiian Islands insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct population segment (DPS) as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We intend to consider critical habitat for this DPS in a separate rulemaking. The effect of this......

  9. 78 FR 65249 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Animals to list 15 species of sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii--Adriatic sturgeon; A. sturio--European... endangered species as ``any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion... ``endangered species'' to be one that is presently in danger of extinction. A ``threatened species,'' on...

  10. 76 FR 40822 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Largetooth Sawfish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ...We, NMFS, issue a final determination to list the largetooth sawfish (Pristis perotteti) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. We do not intend to propose to designate critical habitat for the species. We have reviewed the status of the species and conservation efforts being made to protect the species, considered public and peer review comments, and we have......

  11. 75 FR 59645 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the African...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ...; Determination of Endangered Status for the African Penguin AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... penguin (Spheniscus demersus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. This final rule... petition from the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) to list 12 penguin species under the Act:...

  12. 78 FR 45074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Diamond Darter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...; Endangered Species Status for Diamond Darter AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule... Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, for diamond darter (Crystallaria cincotta), a fish species... also be finalizing a designation of ] critical habitat for the diamond darter under the Act in the...

  13. 78 FR 15925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to propose critical habitat for the Gunnison sage... the proposed rule to designate critical habitat published in the Federal Register on January 11,...

  14. 77 FR 5879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened and Endangered Status for Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-06

    ...We, NMFS, are issuing a final determination to list the Gulf of Maine (GOM) Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA), and the New York Bight (NYB) and Chesapeake Bay (CB) DPSs of Atlantic sturgeon as endangered species under the ESA. We have proposed protective regulations for the GOM......

  15. 75 FR 61664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Altamaha Spinymussel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Altamaha spinymussel (Elliptio spinosa), a freshwater mussel endemic to the Altamaha River drainage of southeastern Georgia, as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate approximately 240 kilometers (149 miles) of mainstem river channel as critical habitat in Appling, Ben Hill,......

  16. 77 FR 60777 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine endangered species status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, for the coqu[iacute] llanero (Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi), and designate critical habitat. In total, we are designating approximately 615 acres (249 hectares) of a freshwater wetland in Sabana Seca Ward, Municipality of Toa Baja, Puerto Rico, as critical......

  17. 77 FR 11061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., 2010, proposed endangered status for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the... agreement for the dunes sagebrush lizard in Texas. We are reopening the comment period to allow...

  18. 78 FR 61273 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Brickellia mosieri...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list Brickellia mosieri (Florida brickell-bush) and Linum carteri var. carteri (Carter's small-flowered flax), as endangered species under the Endangered Species Act. If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to these...

  19. Significance of endangered and threatened plant natural products in the control of human disease.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Joonseok; Schinazi, Raymond F; McBrayer, Tami R; Whitaker, Tony; Doerksen, Robert J; Newman, David J; Zachos, Louis G; Hamann, Mark T

    2013-10-15

    One in five of the world's plant species is threatened with extinction according to the 2010 first global analysis of extinction risk. Tilman et al. predicted a massive ecological change to terrestrial plants within the next 50-100 y, accompanied by an increase in the number of global plant species facing extinction [Tilman D, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5433-5440]. Most of the drug-producing plant families contain endangered species never previously studied for their utility to human health, which strongly validates the need to prioritize protection and assessment of these fragile and endangered groups [Zhu F, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12943-12948]. With little prior attention given to endangered and rare plant species, this report provides strong justification for conservation of the rare plant Diplostephium rhododendroides Hieron., as well as other potential drug-producing endangered species in this and other groups.

  20. 78 FR 45405 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of Acmispon dendroideus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are reclassifying Acmispon dendroideus var. traskiae (San Clemente Island lotus) and Castilleja grisea (San Clemente Island paintbrush) from endangered to threatened. The endangered designation no longer correctly reflects the status of these plants due to substantial improvement in their status. This action is based on a review of the best......

  1. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  2. 76 FR 38203 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Amendment to the Draft Recovery Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants is a primary goal of our endangered species program... for long-term viability of the population in captivity are considered poor. The recovery...

  3. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list as endangered and propose critical habitat for six west Texas aquatic invertebrate species under the Endangered Species Act. These actions are being taken as the result of a court-approved settlement agreement. These are proposed regulations, and if finalized the effect of these regulations will be to conserve the species and protect......

  4. 75 FR 66481 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-28

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to change the status of spikedace (Meda fulgida) and loach minnow (Tiaroga cobitis) from threatened to endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, and to designate critical habitat for both species. In total, we are proposing approximately 1,168 kilometers (726 mi) of streams as critical habitat for spikedace, and......

  5. 75 FR 77801 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus), a lizard known from southeastern New Mexico and adjacent west Texas, as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. If we finalize the rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to this species. We have determined that critical habitat for the dunes......

  6. Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) volatile composition under elevated temperature and CO2 in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global climate change is already occurring and may affect biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) involved in plant communication. Whether climate change will promote expansion of invasive species is still unclear. Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is a major invasive weed in western No...

  7. 78 FR 16291 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  8. 78 FR 17710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  9. 78 FR 26384 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  10. 77 FR 47432 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application[s

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  11. 78 FR 57170 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  12. 76 FR 30958 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  13. 77 FR 39251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  14. 76 FR 50246 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  15. 78 FR 76173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  16. 77 FR 2311 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY:...

  17. 78 FR 32686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  18. 76 FR 64372 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan, First Revision, for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... INFORMATION: Background Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are... through the present day, such that both species remain in danger of extinction. Habitat loss, resulting...

  19. [The application of DNA molecular markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Tian-Rui

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the advance in DNA molecular markers techniques in recent years was reviewed. The application of DNA markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants was explicated, of which included identification of germ-plasm resource, determination of the habitats unite which should be protected in situ, sampling strategies of ex-situ conservation, evaluation of the conservation effects of the rare and endangered medicinal plants, as well as elucidation of their endangered mechanism etc. The information could help drawing up conservation strategies and conservation measures for references.

  20. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  1. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  2. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-19

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  3. 78 FR 57409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review...

  4. 76 FR 9681 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for the New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV73 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... of species and their habitats. Before a plant or animal species can receive the protection provided... Plants; section 4 of the Act and its implementing regulations at 50 CFR 424 set forth the procedures...

  5. 78 FR 72058 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Northern Long-Eared Bat as an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 ; RIN 1018-AY98 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Northern Long-Eared Bat as an Endangered Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... (Myotis leibii) and the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) as endangered or threatened...

  6. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...We, NMFS, have completed a comprehensive review of the status of river herring (alewife and blueback herring) in response to a petition submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) requesting that we list alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) throughout all or a significant portion of their range......

  7. 78 FR 19172 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and Designation of Critical Habitat AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... period on our July 26, 2012, proposed listing and designation of critical habitat for the diamond darter... comment period on our proposed listing and designation of critical habitat for the diamond...

  8. 78 FR 43122 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog, and Threatened Status for the Yosemite Toad AGENCY... yellow-legged frog as endangered species, and the Yosemite toad as a threatened species. We are also... species, and the Yosemite toad as a threatened species (78 FR 24472). Also on April 25, 2013, we...

  9. 78 FR 64839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Vandenberg Monkeyflower

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    .... We particularly seek comments concerning: (1) The species' biology, range, and population trends... population levels, and current and projected trends; and (e) Past and ongoing conservation measures for the... them as endangered or threatened under the Act, but for which development of a proposed...

  10. 76 FR 61481 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Alabama Pearlshell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Alabama pearlshell (Margaritifera marrianae), round ebonyshell (Fusconaia rotulata), southern sandshell (Hamiota australis), southern kidneyshell (Ptychobranchus jonesi), and Choctaw bean (Villosa choctawensis) as endangered, and the tapered pigtoe (Fusconaia burkei), narrow pigtoe (Fusconaia escambia), and fuzzy pigtoe (Pleurobema......

  11. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzanna M; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Poore, Alistair G B; Bain, Keryn F; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  12. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Poore, Alistair G.B.; Bain, Keryn F.; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  13. 77 FR 27386 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month... Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the Arapahoe snowfly... to revise the Federal Lists of Threatened and Endangered Wildlife and Plants that...

  14. 77 FR 36569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Thick-Billed Parrot Draft Recovery Plan Addendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Thick-Billed Parrot Draft... or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of... forward onto the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (List) for the...

  15. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies.

  16. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY...), propose to designate approximately 390 square kilometers of critical habitat for the endangered...

  17. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... animals. 650.22 Section 650.22 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a) Background. (1) A variety of plant and animal species of the United States are so reduced in numbers...

  18. Field garden experiments to assess the host specificity of Aceria solstitialis (Acari: Eriophyoidea), potential biocontrol agent for Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is an annual noxious weed that currently infests millions of acres of rangelands, non-cultivated and natural areas in the Western USA. It displaces native plant communities reducing plant diversity and forage production for livestock and wildlife. Aceria s...

  19. Rare and endangered species of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; endangered, threatened, and rare animal, plant, and community handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Pratt, Thane K.; Foote, David; Marcos Gorresen, mgorresen@usgs.gov

    2011-01-01

    In some cases, HAVO offers the best opportunity to save these species and communities from extinction. Increasingly, the park has attempted to restore rare populations by conducting surveys to locate them, controlling threats such as feral livestock, and bolstering existing populations or creating new ones by planting nursery stock. To aid such efforts, our original intent was to publish an identification guide for researchers and field management personnel. Particularly, we wanted to familiarize the reader with the many rare plant species which otherwise are known mainly from the technical literature. Because we soon came to realize that this handbook would be useful to a much larger, general readership, our aim is to make this information available to anyone interested in endangered animals and plants at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

  20. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are also reaffirming the listing of two endemic Hawaiian plants currently listed as endangered. We propose to designate critical habitat for 39 of these 40 plant and animal species. Critical......

  1. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2012-0072: 4500030113] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... species to, or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... had had portions of their genome deliberately spliced with genes from another species...

  2. 78 FR 17709 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Rogue and Illinois Valley Vernal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ...: Background Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants is the primary goal of the Endangered... vernal pool habitats. Most of the vernal pool plants and animals addressed in the recovery plan have life histories adapted to the short period for growth and reproduction within inundated or drying pools...

  3. 75 FR 55820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of reviews... reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal and plant species....

  4. Significance of endangered and threatened plant natural products in the control of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Joonseok; Schinazi, Raymond F.; McBrayer, Tami R.; Whitaker, Tony; Doerksen, Robert J.; Newman, David J.; Zachos, Louis G.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    One in five of the world’s plant species is threatened with extinction according to the 2010 first global analysis of extinction risk. Tilman et al. predicted a massive ecological change to terrestrial plants within the next 50–100 y, accompanied by an increase in the number of global plant species facing extinction [Tilman D, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5433–5440]. Most of the drug-producing plant families contain endangered species never previously studied for their utility to human health, which strongly validates the need to prioritize protection and assessment of these fragile and endangered groups [Zhu F, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12943–12948]. With little prior attention given to endangered and rare plant species, this report provides strong justification for conservation of the rare plant Diplostephium rhododendroides Hieron., as well as other potential drug-producing endangered species in this and other groups. PMID:24082148

  5. In situ volatile collection, analysis, and comparison of three Centaurea species and their relationship to biocontrol with herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Smith, Lincoln; Merrill, Glory B

    2008-04-23

    Centaurea solstitialis, commonly known as yellow starthistle, is an invasive plant listed as a noxious weed in the western areas of North America and is the target of classical biological control, which involves release of herbivores known to be specific to this plant. These insects often choose their host plant on the basis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted. Accordingly, volatile analysis of host plants can provide insight into VOCs that may attract and/or repel the insect. To this end, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and a customized collection bag were utilized to perform in situ volatile collection on intact and mechanically damaged leaves of Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea cyanus, and Centaurea cineraria. Volatile identification was performed by GC-MS, and the VOC differences were determined. The plants C. solstitialis and C. cyanus have been reported to attract the weevil, Ceratapion basicorne, a candidate for biological control, whereas C. cineraria does not attract the weevil. Major VOCs unique to C. cineraria include the sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, alpha-ylangene, and trans-alpha-bergamotene. The compound trans-beta-farnesene was unique to C. solstitialis and C. cyanus.

  6. Endangered vascular plants in Japan--present status and a proposal for conservation.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus.

  7. 76 FR 61599 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Marbled Murrelet

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW84 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Marbled Murrelet AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are revising designated...

  8. 78 FR 4108 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Establishment of a Nonessential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW57 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.... Biological Members of the family Bovidae, wood bison are the largest native terrestrial mammal in the western... Northwest Territories, and northern Alberta and British Columbia in Canada (Stephenson et al. 2001, pp....

  9. 75 FR 17153 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Review of Roseate Tern

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), we maintain lists of endangered... (for wildlife) and 17.12 (for plants) (collectively referred to as the List). Section 4(c)(2)(A) of the... basis of such reviews, under section 4(c)(2)(B), we determine whether or not any species should...

  10. 78 FR 49761 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... for a recovery permit to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of...

  11. 77 FR 67828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... Applicant: Andersen Air Force Base, Yigo, Guam The applicant requests a recovery permit to remove and...

  12. 78 FR 4429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... (Notropis topeka), in conjunction with recovery activities in Kansas for the purpose of enhancing...

  13. 75 FR 21649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Attwater's Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido attwateri) Recovery Plan, Second Revision AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability: revised recovery plan. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  14. 78 FR 42541 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to ] comment on the...

  15. 78 FR 23585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following...

  16. 78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Mississippi River basins, threats abatement, population management, research, and monitoring. We emphasize.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where... albus), found in the Missouri and Mississippi River basins of the United States, was listed as...

  17. 78 FR 2421 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-00213, appearing on pages 1879-1880 in...

  18. 78 FR 78321 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY53 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Western Distinct Population Segment of the Yellow-Billed...

  19. 76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX80 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants...; 50 CFR 17.11(h)). Therefore, take of WVNFS may be authorized only by a permit obtained under section... decision and its impact shortly after the order was released. There are no federally recognized Tribes...

  20. 78 FR 65248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY26 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... United States AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are reopening the public...

  1. 75 FR 66122 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game Department...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game... Game Department (NHFGD) has applied to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) for an...

  2. 75 FR 54908 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... applicant requests a permit amendment to take Karner Blue Butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) and...

  3. 78 FR 9409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat... bat (Myotis sodalis) for an additional 30 days. We announced availability of these documents in our...: Field Supervisor at the above U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax:...

  4. 78 FR 1879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines AGENCY... survey guidelines for the Indiana bat (Myotis sodalis) for public review and comment. The Indiana bat is...: Field Supervisor at the above U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax:...

  5. 78 FR 16828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review of the West Coast Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review... and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of status review. SUMMARY: We, the U.S... segment (DPS) in the United States. The status review will include analysis of whether the West Coast...

  6. 75 FR 8621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW72 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... coastal cutthroat trout (Johnson et al. 1999, p. 51). Growth rates increase during the initial period...

  7. 76 FR 31866 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX01 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants..., and it is now believed to be extirpated (DeVries 2005, pp. 10). Impacts of nonpoint source pollution at the Ohatchee shoal, including excessive sedimentation and algal growth, have been...

  8. 78 FR 54613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY46 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental Population of the Mexican Wolf AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... revise the existing nonessential experimental population designation of the Mexican wolf (Canis...

  9. 78 FR 47268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY46 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Nonessential Experimental Population of the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to revise the existing nonessential experimental population designation of the Mexican wolf...

  10. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus... availability of the Mexican Wolf Conservation Assessment (assessment). The assessment provides scientific information relevant to the conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New...

  11. 77 FR 32662 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit... development of shopping centers and horse stables. The property also includes undeveloped open space...

  12. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits. PMID:23961155

  13. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits.

  14. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal...

  15. 76 FR 66779 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Concho Water Snake From the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Concho Water Snake From the Federal List of Endangered and...; Removal of the Concho Water Snake From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Removal.... SUMMARY: The best available scientific and commercial data indicate that the Concho water snake...

  16. 75 FR 57720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Agave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12- month finding on a petition to list the plant Agave eggersiana (no common name) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing A. eggersiana is warranted. Currently, however, listing A. eggersiana is precluded by higher......

  17. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  18. 75 FR 30757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to Delist Cirsium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to remove Cirsium vinaceum (Sacramento Mountains thistle) from the Federal List of Threatened and Endangered Plants under the Endangered Species Act. After reviewing the best scientific and commercial information available, we find that delisting C. vinaceum is not warranted. However, we ask the public to submit......

  19. 75 FR 18233 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10... status reviews of 10 species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We conduct these... any of these 10 species indicating that a change in classification may be warranted, we may propose...

  20. 75 FR 18232 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of reviews... status reviews of 15 species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We conduct...

  1. 77 FR 61375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies or Distinct Population... two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as an...

  2. 75 FR 46894 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies With Critical Habitat AGENCY... finding on two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as...

  3. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétillon, Julien; Puzin, Charlène; Acou, Anthony; Outreman, Yannick

    2009-10-01

    Current models in evolutionary ecology predict life history alterations in response to habitat suitability to optimize fitness. Only few empirical studies have demonstrated how life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other differ among environments. In Europe, many salt marshes have been recently invaded by the grass Elymus athericus. Previous studies however showed higher densities of the endangered spider Arctosa fulvolineata (Araneae: Lycosidae) in invaded salt marshes compared to natural habitats, which suggests a lower habitat suitability in the latter. The aim of this study was to determine if this emerging habitat (1) affects the amount of resource acquisition and (2) alters the balance between life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other in this stenotopic salt marsh species. As suggested by theoretical studies, an optimization of fitness by increasing egg size at the cost of decreasing fecundity in unsuitable (i.e., natural) habitats was expected. Females presenting cocoon were then collected in close invaded and natural salt marsh areas within the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France). By considering female mass as covariate, cocoon mass, number of eggs, and egg volume were compared between both habitats. Clutch mass was strongly determined by female mass in both habitats. Clutch mass was however significantly smaller in the natural habitat compared to the invaded habitat, indicating a higher resource acquisition in the latter. When correcting for female size, fecundity was additionally increased in the invaded habitat through a significant decrease in egg size. This phenotypic response can be explained by differences in habitat structure between invaded and natural habitats: the former offers a more complex litter favoring nocturnal wanderers like A. fulvolineata. The existence of such an adaptive reproduction strategy depending on habitat suitability constitutes an original case of an invasion that favors an

  4. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider.

    PubMed

    Pétillon, Julien; Puzin, Charlène; Acou, Anthony; Outreman, Yannick

    2009-10-01

    Current models in evolutionary ecology predict life history alterations in response to habitat suitability to optimize fitness. Only few empirical studies have demonstrated how life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other differ among environments. In Europe, many salt marshes have been recently invaded by the grass Elymus athericus. Previous studies however showed higher densities of the endangered spider Arctosa fulvolineata (Araneae: Lycosidae) in invaded salt marshes compared to natural habitats, which suggests a lower habitat suitability in the latter. The aim of this study was to determine if this emerging habitat (1) affects the amount of resource acquisition and (2) alters the balance between life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other in this stenotopic salt marsh species. As suggested by theoretical studies, an optimization of fitness by increasing egg size at the cost of decreasing fecundity in unsuitable (i.e., natural) habitats was expected. Females presenting cocoon were then collected in close invaded and natural salt marsh areas within the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France). By considering female mass as covariate, cocoon mass, number of eggs, and egg volume were compared between both habitats. Clutch mass was strongly determined by female mass in both habitats. Clutch mass was however significantly smaller in the natural habitat compared to the invaded habitat, indicating a higher resource acquisition in the latter. When correcting for female size, fecundity was additionally increased in the invaded habitat through a significant decrease in egg size. This phenotypic response can be explained by differences in habitat structure between invaded and natural habitats: the former offers a more complex litter favoring nocturnal wanderers like A. fulvolineata. The existence of such an adaptive reproduction strategy depending on habitat suitability constitutes an original case of an invasion that favors an

  5. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  6. 77 FR 13393 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... Clean Water Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.) to the five-factor analyses for both species. (4) Based on... history of the species and to reduce the risk of catastrophic fire,'' possibly including prescribed fire...). Nonnative plants also have the potential to lower water tables and alter rates of sedimentation and...

  7. 76 FR 45053 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... population trends cannot be identified from available data for Penstemon debilis and Phacelia submutica, but... in plant numbers make it hard to measure the population trend. (2) Comment: One peer reviewer... reviewer stated that the extent and imminent nature of energy development may not have been ameliorated...

  8. 78 FR 22556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for Lost River Sucker and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... INFORMATION: Background Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are... of the same threats continue, such that both species remain in danger of extinction. Habitat...

  9. 75 FR 69221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ...In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates for or have proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Identification of candidate species can......

  10. 77 FR 69993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates for or have proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Identification of candidate species can......

  11. 76 FR 66369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ...In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates for or have proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Identification of candidate species can......

  12. 78 FR 6785 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-31

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the reopening of the comment period on our June 11, 2012 (77 FR 34464), proposal to list 38 species as endangered, reaffirm the listing of 2 endemic Hawaiian plants currently listed as endangered, and designate critical habitat for 39 of these 40 plant and animal species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui; designate......

  13. 78 FR 70103 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ...In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates for or have proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Identification of candidate species can......

  14. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations.

  15. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  16. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  17. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  18. 76 FR 61825 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29 Mollusk Species as... CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 29... term ``species'' to include ``any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any distinct...

  19. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  20. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-Ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer.

  1. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  2. Speciation and genetic diversity in Centaurea subsect. Phalolepis in Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    López-Pujol, Jordi; López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Susanna, Alfonso; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Uysal, Tuna; Tugay, Osman; Guetat, Arbi; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Mountains of Anatolia are one of the main Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots and their richness in endemic species amounts for 30% of the flora. Two main factors may account for this high diversity: the complex orography and its role as refugia during past glaciations. We have investigated seven narrow endemics of Centaurea subsection Phalolepis from Anatolia by means of microsatellites and ecological niche modelling (ENM), in order to analyse genetic polymorphisms and getting insights into their speciation. Despite being narrow endemics, all the studied species show moderate to high SSR genetic diversity. Populations are genetically isolated, but exchange of genes probably occurred at glacial maxima (likely through the Anatolian mountain arches as suggested by the ENM). The lack of correlation between genetic clusters and (morpho) species is interpreted as a result of allopatric diversification on the basis of a shared gene pool. As suggested in a former study in Greece, post-glacial isolation in mountains would be the main driver of diversification in these plants; mountains of Anatolia would have acted as plant refugia, allowing the maintenance of high genetic diversity. Ancient gene flow between taxa that became sympatric during glaciations may also have contributed to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27886271

  3. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  4. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    PubMed

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  5. A new species of Centaurea sect. Pseudoseridia (Asteraceae) from north-eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüzbaşıoğlu, İbrahim Sırrı; Bona, Mehmet; Genç, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centaurea ziganensis Yüzb., M. Bona & İ. Genç, a new species is described and illustrated from Gümüşhane province, NE Turkey. The new species grows in rocky places on the south face of Zigana Mountains, and is closely related to Centaurea drabifolioides, from which it differs mainly in stem, achene and phyllary appendage characters. Micromorphological structures of achenes and karyological features of Centaurea ziganensis and Centaurea drabifolioides were examined in this study. PMID:26312039

  6. Natural Product Studies of U. S. Endangered Plants: Volatile Fraction of Lindera melissifolia (lauraceae) repels Mosquitoes and Ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of endangered plant species in the United States is significant yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors for significant pathogenic diseases and key measures to lower their associated morbidity rates include the use of p...

  7. 78 FR 75306 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... invasive woody plants; wind energy development; petroleum production; and presence of roads and manmade... modifying equipment to include flush bar attachments. (2) Routine activities in direct support of...

  8. 78 FR 54221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to Downlist...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... and Threatened Plants at 50 CFR 17.12(h). Recent taxonomic evaluations of Hesperocyparis abramsiana... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY77 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... Proposed Rule to Reclassify H. abramsiana as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  9. 76 FR 55638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Snowy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Kansas; the southern Texas coast into northeast Mexico; and the central Mexican plateau) (AOU 1957, pp... of plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife...

  10. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... the 1973 Act, published in May 1974 (USDI 1974). A third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l... ``any species or subspecies of fish and wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate...

  11. A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall.

    PubMed

    Deepak, K G K; Suneetha, G; Surekha, Ch

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga Wall. is an endangered medicinal plant whose conservation is urgently needed, as it is extensively used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. This study shows an easy, effective and simple method of conserving genetic identity and producing elite clones of S. oblonga through vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation was achieved using roots (R), stems with leaves (SL) and stems without leaves (S) with different concentrations (0-500 ppm) of indole butyric acid (IBA). Explants S and SL showed maximum shooting response with 300 ppm IBA and explant R showed maximum response with 200 ppm IBA.

  12. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  13. 78 FR 278 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ...; Reclassification of the Continental United States Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered to....) breeding population of wood stork from endangered to threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973... reclassify the continental U.S. breeding population of wood stork from endangered to threatened under the...

  14. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera.

  15. 77 FR 20947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    .... Climate Change Science Program CITES = Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species DJSP... methodologies. In February 2008, researchers recorded 3 adults on Boca Grande and a total of 32 adults at two... recorded on Boca Grande; one adult was also recorded at another island (Emmel and Daniels 2008, p. 8)....

  16. Apparent competition with an invasive plant hastens the extinction of an endangered lupine.

    PubMed

    Dangremond, Emily M; Pardini, Eleanor A; Knight, Tiffany M

    2010-08-01

    Invasive plants may compete with native plants by increasing the pressure of native consumers, a mechanism known as "apparent competition." Apparent competition can be as strong as or stronger than direct competition, but the role of apparent competition has rarely been examined in biological invasions. We used four years of demographic data and seed-removal experiments to determine if introduced grasses caused elevated levels of seed consumption on native plant species in a coastal dune system in California, USA. We show that the endangered, coastal dune plant Lupinus tidestromii experiences high levels of pre-dispersal seed consumption by the native rodent Peromyscus maniculatus due to its proximity to the invasive grass, Ammophila arenaria. We use stage-structured, stochastic population models to project that two of three study populations will decline toward extinction under ambient levels of consumption. For one of these declining populations, a relatively small decrease in consumption pressure should allow for persistence. We show that apparent competition with an invasive species significantly decreases the population growth rate and persistence of a native species. We expect that apparent competition is an important mechanism in other ecosystems because invasive plants often change habitat structure and plant-consumer interactions. Possible implications of the apparent-competition mechanism include selective extinction of species preferred by seed consumers in the presence of an invasive species and biological homogenization of communities toward non-preferred native plant species.

  17. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer. PMID:27327439

  18. Response of endangered plant species to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Turnau, Katarzyna; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-02-01

    Three endangered plant species, Plantago atrata and Pulsatilla slavica, which are on the IUCN red list of plants, and Senecio umbrosus, which is extinct in the wild in Poland, were inoculated with soil microorganisms to evaluate their responsiveness to inoculation and to select the most effective microbial consortium for application in conservation projects. Individuals of these taxa were cultivated with (1) native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from natural habitats of the investigated species, (2) a mixture of AMF strains available in the laboratory, and (3) a combination of AMF lab strains with rhizobacteria. The plants were found to be dependent on AMF for their growth; the mycorrhizal dependency for P. atrata was 91%, S. umbrosus-95%, and P. slavica-65%. The applied inocula did not significantly differ in the stimulation of the growth of P. atrata and S. umbrosus, while in P. slavica, native AMF proved to be the less efficient. We therefore conclude that AMF application can improve the ex situ propagation of these three threatened taxa and may contribute to the success of S. umbrosus reintroduction. A multilevel analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients by the JIP test permitted an in vivo evaluation of plant vitality in terms of biophysical parameters quantifying photosynthetic energy conservation, which was found to be in good agreement with the results concerning physiological parameters. Therefore, the JIP test can be used to evaluate the influence of AMF on endangered plants, with the additional advantage of being applicable in monitoring in a noninvasive way the acclimatization of reintroduced species in nature.

  19. Climate change threatens endangered plant species by stronger and interacting water-related stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud P.; Witte, Jan-Philip M.; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Dam, Jos C.; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2-concentration, temperature and rainfall variability are all expected to increase in the near future. The resulting increased dynamics of soil moisture contents, together with increased plant physiological demands for both oxygen and water, will lead to an increased occurrence of wet and dry extremes of plant stresses, i.e., of oxygen and drought stress, respectively, alone and in interaction. The use of indirect environmental variables in previous studies and a focus on individual stresses rather than their combined effects has hampered understanding of the causal impact of climate change on plant species composition through changes in abiotic site conditions. Here, we use process-based simulations of oxygen and drought stresses in conjunction with a downscaled national version of IPCC scenarios in order to show that these stresses will increase (on average by ˜20% at sites where both stresses occur) in a warmer and more variable future (2050) climate. These two types of stresses will increasingly coincide, i.e. both stresses will occur more often (but not at the same time) within a single vegetation plot. We further show that this increased coincidence of water-related stresses will negatively affect the future occurrence of currently endangered plant species (causing a reduction of ˜16%), while apparently no such decrease will occur among common species. Individual stresses did not appear to affect the occurrence of endangered plant species. Consequently, our study demonstrates that species that are already threatened under the current climate will suffer most from the effects of climate change.

  20. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Chinese endangered medicinal plant Tetrastigma hemsleyanum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Chen, N; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C X

    2014-10-31

    Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Vitaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant endemic to China. Because of its widely known efficacy for treating many health problems, wild resources of this species are currently undergoing a rapid decline. Few studies have been conducted examining the population genetics or development of microsatellite loci for this plant. In this study, 14 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for T. hemsleyanum using a double-suppression PCR method. Polymorphisms were tested with a total of 50 individuals from 2 natural populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3-9, with an average of 7 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0-1 and from 0.068-0.803, respectively. The polymorphism information content value varied from 0.215-0.760. These loci may facilitate further genetic studies of populations of T. hemsleyanum and provide guidance for their conservation.

  1. Decalepisarayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Sarkar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Decalepis arayalpatra is an endemic and critically endangered plant of India. May 2014 issue of Natural Products Research publishes the findings of R. S. Verma et al. on the chemical composition of D. arayalpatra. This study was conducted to characterise the root aroma of this plant for possible industrial applications. The authors suggest that due to its peculiar vanilla flavour, the plant could be explored as a potential substitute of vanillin-aroma in the flavour industry. Owing to the fact that D. arayalpatra is a critically endangered plant species, and its habitat is now limited to only the protected areas and reserve forest in southern part of India, and that collecting any plant from such reserve forests for commercial activities is illegal as per the law of the country, this specific conclusion of the authors is totally un-substantiated by the law of land, hence, calls for further review.

  2. Strong spatial genetic structure reduces reproductive success in the critically endangered plant genus Pseudomisopates.

    PubMed

    Amat, María E; Silvertown, Jonathan; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth can be a double-edged sword for endangered species, because the short-term insurance against extinction may incur a longer-term hazard of creating small inbred populations with low fecundity. In the present study, we quantify the advantages and disadvantages of clonal growth regarding the fitness of the central Iberian monotypic endangered genus Pseudomisopates. Preliminary studies showed that the species is self-incompatible and exhibits extensive clonal growth with plants flowering profusely. However, seeds at many sites seemed to be unviable, and no seedlings have been observed in the field. A fully replicated nested sampling design (n = 100) was conducted to explore genetic (using seven SSR loci) and environmental factors potentially affecting seed viability, such as: 1) clonal and genetic diversity, 2) spatial genetic structure, and 3) environmental factors (shrub cover and grazing). Generalized Linear Mixed Models were fitted relating genetic and environmental variables to reproductive variables (seed viability and flower display). Our results indicate that the relatively low genotypic diversity of the population (PD = 0.23), as quantified by SSRs, and the strong spatial genetic structure observed are congruent with intense clonal growth. This clonal growth is enhanced by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as canopy closure and grazing. Under these circumstances, both flower display and mate availability decrease, thus hindering sexual reproduction. Indeed, a mixed reproductive system (clonal and sexual) to escape environmental stochasticity is crucial for the survival of Pseudomisopates, a species inhabiting a disturbance-prone ecosystem.

  3. 75 FR 51204 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Remove the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Section 4(b)(3)(B) of the... Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Section 4(b)(3)(C) of the Act requires that... initiated a status review of Stephens' kangaroo rat under section 4(b)(3)(A) of the Act. We also...

  4. 77 FR 21993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife...

  5. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of conversion of grasslands to agricultural uses; encroachment by invasive woody plants; wind energy... the number of birds attending those leks. Occasionally recorded calls are used to aid in the detection... alphabetical order under Birds to read as set forth below: Sec. 17.11 Endangered and threatened...

  6. 75 FR 19592 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Wyoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and... Wildlife and Plants that presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing... published our finding that the petition to list the Wyoming pocket gopher presented substantial...

  7. 75 FR 37460 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Prairie Species of Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... endangered: Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icairoides fenderi), Erigeron decumbens var. decumbens... States. Six native prairie species in the region--one butterfly and five plants-- have been added to the... elucidate our recovery strategies and objectives for Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icairoides...

  8. 76 FR 10165 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    .... Consequently, the fact that a species is rare does not necessarily indicate that it may be in danger of... United States (Karl et al. 2009, pp. 28, 129). Approximately 20 to 30 percent of plant and animal species... indicate that Astragalus hamiltonii is in danger of extinction (endangered), or likely to become...

  9. 78 FR 77087 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Bi-State Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Bi-State Distinct Population Segment of Greater Sage-Grouse... greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... of greater sage-grouse. DATES: We request that comments on the proposals published October 28,...

  10. 75 FR 48359 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) at a wind power project in Adair, Sullivan, and Putnam Counties, Missouri....5-MW wind energy turbines and the related facilities (access roads, collection lines, operation and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of...

  11. 78 FR 41022 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Dated: June 26, 2013. Stephen Guertin, Acting Director, Fish... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY21 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6... Threatened Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of...

  12. 75 FR 52272 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Utah (Desert) Valvata Snail From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-25

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Utah (Desert) Valvata Snail From the Federal List of Endangered and... (Service), are removing the Utah (desert) valvata snail (Valvata utahensis) from the Federal List of... commercial data, we determined that the Utah valvata snail is more widespread and occurs in a greater...

  13. 75 FR 53978 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews for Lomatium cookii (Cook's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews for... Meadowfoam) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are initiating 5-year reviews for two...

  14. 78 FR 4812 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened... elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) from the List of Endangered and Threatened... remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and...

  15. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  16. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems.

  17. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered wetland plant Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Kuniaki; Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Masumoto, Ikuko; Iwahori, Katsumi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae) is an endangered wetland plant species in Japan. Although it is widely distributed in East Asia, only six extant populations are known in Japan, with fewer than 1000 individuals in total. We developed 15 microsatellite markers for this species and confirmed their utility for the closely related species A. triphylla var. japonica. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation within three populations of A. palustris. The number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 15, with an average of 9.3; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.48 to 0.89, with an average of 0.74. Nine loci were successfully amplified in A. triphylla var. japonica, and three of these loci showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers are useful for investigating genetic diversity and gene flow within and among remnant populations of A. palustris in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for conservation. PMID:27672523

  18. Indole alkaloids from the seeds of Centaurea cyanus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sarker, S D; Laird, A; Nahar, L; Kumarasamy, Y; Jaspars, M

    2001-08-01

    Preparative RP-HPLC analysis of a methanol extract of the seeds of Centaurea cyanus afforded four indole alkaloids: moschamine, cis-moschamine, centcyamine and cis-centcyamine, the latter two being new natural products. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. General toxicity of the isolates was determined by Brine Shrimp Lethality bioassay.

  19. Potent anti-platelet constituents from Centaurea iberica.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amna Nisar; Fatima, Itrat; Khaliq, Urooj Abdul; Malik, Abdul; Miana, Ghulam Abbas; Qureshi, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Rasheed, Huma

    2011-02-28

    New naturally occurring nitrogenous compounds 1 and 2, along with a new dimeric lignan glucoside 3, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Centaurea iberica. Their structures have been elucidated through spectroscopic techniques. All the isolated compounds showed significant platelet aggregation inhibition.

  20. [FTIR spectra of endangered plants Ulmus elongata and its correlation to soil nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-xiang; Liu, Peng; Kang, Hua-jing; Liao, Cheng-chuan; Pan, Cheng-chun; Li, Cheng-hui

    2008-06-01

    Ulmus elongata, an endemic species in China, is one of the grade II national key conservation rare and endangered plants. The spectra of root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata sampled from eight different sites were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry with OMNI-sampler directly, fast and accurately. A positioning technology of OMNIC E.S.P. 5.1 intelligent software and ATR correction was used. The background was scanned before the determination of every example. The peak value and absorbance were ascertained using a method of baseline correction in infrared spectra, and then the relativity between absorption peaks of the spectra and the soil nitrogen was analyzed. Results from the comparison of the spectra showed some differences in their FTIR spectra among root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata from the same plant. The coefficients of correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil nitrogen were positive in different degrees. There was the significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of stem and total nitrogen (p < 0.05). When the wave-number was 3 365 cm(-1), there was a significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of skin and total nitrogen, and a low correlation between root and leave chemical composition and total nitrogen. There was also a certain extent correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil available nitrogen, but the coefficients of correlation was smaller, and the level of the statistic significance was not significant (p > 0.05). It was showed that the change in soil total nitrogen has some influence on chemical composition of different organs of Ulmus elongata, but the degree of available nitrogen was very smaller. The linear correlation between soil total nitrogen and organs chemical composition of Ulmus elongate, not only provided the theoretic basis for plant nutriology

  1. 78 FR 69436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Vicuña in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5- Year Review..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of review; request for information. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are initiating a 5-year review under the Endangered Species Act of 1973,...

  2. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover`s Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  3. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  4. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained.

  5. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stock (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stock. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels. Consultation meetings between DOE-SR and US FWS in April 1984, resulted in an agreement between the two agencies to develop alternative foraging habitat for the wood stork to replace potential losses in the Steel Creek delta area. A suitable habitat was located on the National Audubon Society's Silver Bluff Plantation Sanctuary just west of SRP. This location will be developed by the US Soil Conservation Service through an interagency agreement with DOE-SR. 6 references, 4 figures.

  6. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the red-crowned parrot as endangered or threatened is warranted.......

  7. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  8. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J; Carroll, John F; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hamann, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC-MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species.

  9. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J.; Carroll, John F.; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC–MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. PMID:22704653

  10. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 requires that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered (T&E) species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) staff have performed appropriate assessments of potential impacts to threatened or endangered species, and consulted with appropriate agencies with regard to protection of such species in authorizing the construction, operation, and relicensing of nuclear power generating facilities. However, the assessments and consultations concerning many facilities were performed during the 1970's or early 1980's, and have not been re-evaluated in detail or updated since those initial evaluations. A review of potential Endangered Species Act issues at licensed nuclear power facilities was completed in 1997. In that review 484 different ESA-listed species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the 75 facility sites that were examined. An update of the previous T&E species evaluation at this time is desired because, during the intervening 6 years: nearly 200 species have been added to the ESA list, critical habitats have been designated for many of the listed species, and significantly more information is available online, allowing for more efficient high-level evaluations of potential species presence near sites and the potential operation impacts. The updated evaluation included searching the NRC's ADAMS database to find any documents related to T

  11. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... biological or ecological requirements of the 15 species proposed for listing, and ongoing conservation... contain the physical or biological features essential for the conservation of the three plant species... features essential to the conservation of the three plant species; and What areas not currently...

  12. 76 FR 25593 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are reestablishing the Sonoran pronghorn, a federally listed endangered mammal, in its historical habitat in King Valley, Kofa National Wildlife Refuge, in Yuma County, and the Barry M. Goldwater Range-- East, Maricopa County, in southwestern Arizona. We are reestablishing the Sonoran pronghorn under section 10(j) of the Endangered Species Act......

  13. 78 FR 20074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Checkerspot Butterfly, Streaked Horned Lark, and Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher AGENCY: Fish and... (77 FR 61938), proposal to list Taylor's checkerspot butterfly as endangered and streaked horned lark... list Taylor's checkerspot butterfly as endangered and streaked horned lark as threatened and...

  14. 77 FR 69891 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    .... The applicant requests a permit to take (capture and release) the following endangered mussel species... (capture and release; capture and relocate) endangered mussels throughout the States of Arkansas, Iowa..., Oklahoma, Ohio, South Dakota, Tennessee, Virginia, Wisconsin, and West Virginia. The following...

  15. 75 FR 69049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listings for Two Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... hearings--one in Wilmington, NC and one in Atlanta, GA. The purpose of these hearings is to accept comments... Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. DATES: The hearings will be held on December 6, 2010, from 6 to 9 p.m. in...

  16. 77 FR 40171 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Two Foreign Macaw Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... macaw (Ara militaris) and the great green macaw (Ara ambiguus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973... actions for the military macaw (Ara militaris) and the great green macaw (Ara ambiguus)) to the Federal... list as endangered the military macaw (Ara militaris) and the great green macaw (Ara ambiguus). We...

  17. 77 FR 73219 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Listing Determinations for 82 Reef...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...We, NMFS, have completed comprehensive status reviews under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 82 reef-building coral species in response to a petition submitted by the Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) to list the species as either threatened or endangered. We have determined, based on the best scientific and commercial data available and efforts being made to protect the species, that......

  18. 78 FR 53058 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revisions to the Regulations for Impact Analyses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... analyses conducted for designations of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (the Act). This regulation is being finalized as directed by the President's February 28, 2012... the regulations implementing the Endangered Species Act to provide that a draft economic analysis...

  19. 75 FR 35424 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...; Proposed Reclassification of the Tulotoma Snail From Endangered to Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife...), propose to reclassify the tulotoma snail (Tulotoma magnifica) from endangered to threatened, under the... no longer correctly reflects the status of this snail. We have documented a substantial...

  20. 75 FR 8735 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana) incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would result in the permanent loss of 0.2 acre of Morro shoulderband snail habitat... shoulderband snail was listed as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act (16...

  1. 78 FR 47590 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Species Status for Graham's Beardtongue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list Graham's beardtongue (Penstemon grahamii) and White River beardtongue (Penstemon scariosus var. albifluvis) as threatened species throughout their ranges under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would add Graham's and White River beardtongues to the List of Endangered and......

  2. 75 FR 36035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Cumberland Darter, Rush Darter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae), rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei), chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus), and laurel dace (Phoxinus saylori) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's......

  3. 75 FR 35990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flying Earwig Hawaiian Damselfly and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for two species of Hawaiian damselflies, the flying earwig Hawaiian damselfly (Megalagrion nesiotes) on the island of Maui and the Pacific Hawaiian damselfly (M. pacificum) on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Molokai. This final rule implements the Federal......

  4. 77 FR 60237 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. This action is based on a review of the best available scientific and commercial data, which indicates that the subspecies no longer meets the definition of endangered or threatened under the......

  5. Restoration of an endangered plant, Hygrophila pogonocalyx, leads to an adaptive host shift of the chocolate pansy (Junonia iphita iphita).

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Hao; Liu, Tsui-Hua; Lin, Y Kirk; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of a plant species may cause novel encounters between the plant and local herbivores, and initiate evolutionary changes in host plant usage by herbivores. Until recently the endemic aquatic plant Hygrophila pogonocalyx was endangered and had a restricted distribution in Taiwan. Massive restoration efforts since 1997 have led to an expansion of the plant's distribution and a novel encounter between it and an Asian butterfly, the chocolate pansy, Junonia iphita (Nymphalidae). This butterfly appears to have colonized H. pogonocalyx, switching from its original host, Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. formosana. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the utilization of H. pogonocalyx as a host plant has initiated a differentiation between butterflies using the novel and the original hosts. To this purpose we collected butterflies from patches of the two host plants which grow sympatrically. We tested oviposition preference for the two hosts and larval performance on them. Female adults exhibited distinct oviposition preference toward the host plant their mothers preferred. Offspring showed greater survivorship and pupal weight when fed on the host plant their mothers preferred. Male adults displayed territorial behaviors on the host plant that their mothers had preferred. Finally, the survival rate of offspring produced from cross-mating between individuals with different host plant preference was lower than that of non-hybrids. Taken together, we suggest that genetic differentiation has occurred between individuals preferring H. pogonocalyx versus S. penstemonoides as host plants via host shifting. This process was likely induced by the mass restoration of the formerly rare and endangered plant species.

  6. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis Inflorescences from the Central Balkans - Ecological Significance and Taxonomic Implications.

    PubMed

    Novaković, Jelica; Rajčević, Nemanja; Milanovici, Sretco; Marin, Petar D; Janaćković, Pedja

    2016-09-01

    The essential oil composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis flowering heads (capitula) from Central Balkans have been determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 121 compounds were identified, representing on average 97.7% of the oil composition. In all samples, sesquiterpenes were most abundant group, representing 53.9 - 74.0% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in all studied populations of C. orientalis and C. atropurpurea, except C. atropurpurea f. flava in which essential oil was characterized with high level of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The dominant components differed between species, and also between typical C. atropurpurea and C. atropurpurea f. flava. The most abundant compounds of essential oil of C. orientalis were germacrene D and α-cadinol. In C. atropuruprea, germacrene D and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant, while caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene were dominant in C. atropurpurea f. flava oil. Taxonomical and ecological implications are further discussed.

  7. Elicitation of Phenolics from the Micropropagated Endangered Medicinal Plant Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonoaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Owis, Asmaa I.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abul-Soad, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L’Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. Objectives: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C. polygonoides, using the fruit as an explant; establish callus and cell suspension cultures from in vitro germinated plantlets; investigate the production of phenolics through callus, redifferentiated shoot, and cell suspension cultures; attempt to enhance cell capacity to accumulate phenolics using salicylic acid and yeast extract and provide a brief demonstration of biosynthetic pathway leading to phenolic production. Materials and Methods: Modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with growth hormones such as kinetin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and indole-3-acetic acid were used to establish callus, redifferentiated shoots, and cell suspension cultures. Elicitation of cell suspension culture was performed using salicylic acid and yeast extracts. A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenolic content in the aforementioned cultures was developed. Results: The unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures contained fewer amounts of phenolic compounds than redifferentiated shoots. Elicitation produced massive quantitative reprogramming of phenolic content. Conclusion: The present study offers an alternative and renewable source for this valuable natural plant, provide a chance to improve secondary metabolite yield and serve as a useful tool for studying the biosynthesis of these compounds and its regulation in plant cells. SUMMARY In vitro culture techniques provided a strategy for ex situ conservation of the

  8. Using AHP to analyze and ascertain the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhang; Wei, Wang; Wang, Gary Z.; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Cunzhu; Liu, Jiahui; An, Huijun; Pei, Hao; Zhong, Huidong; Chen, Xiaojun

    2006-08-01

    AHP is a kind of very effective systematic analytical method, widely applied to energy utilizing and resource analyzing, talent predicting, economic management project, urban industries planning, communications and transportation, water resource using and so on, using this method to solve the problem of ecology also have very strong practicability and validity. Using 15 kinds of endured plants in East Alashan-West Erdos as the research objects, this paper adopts 3S technique and outfield investigates to confirm the geographical distributions, extent density in the distribution area, plant community construction, and plant community environment of the plants. Then invite the experts to give marks according to this datum and using the AHP method to deal with the results, thereby get the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos.

  9. 78 FR 38897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos franciscana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... designation of critical habitat for Arctostaphylos franciscana (Franciscan manzanita) under the Endangered... (DEA) for the proposed critical habitat designation and an amended required determinations section...

  10. 76 FR 49201 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Four Foreign Parrot Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list as endangered the Philippine cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia) and the yellow-crested cockatoo (C. sulphurea), and to list as threatened the white cockatoo (C. alba), under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). We are taking this action in response to a petition to list the following four parrot species: Crimson......

  11. Conservation genetics of endangered medicinal plant Commiphora wightii in Indian Thar Desert.

    PubMed

    Harish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Shekhawat, Narpat Singh

    2014-02-10

    To ascertain the conservation priorities and strategies for Commiphora wightii, an endangered medicinal plant of Indian Thar Desert, genetic diversity was estimated within and among different populations. The total of 155 amplification products were scored using ten each of RAPD and ISSR primers, exhibiting an overall 86.72% polymorphism across 45 individuals representing eight populations. The cumulative data of two markers were used to compute pair-wise distances. The Neighbor-Joining tree revealed high genetic differentiation among populations except Kiradu population. Nei's gene diversity (h) ranged between 0.082 and 0.193 with total diversity at species level is 0.294. Shannon's information index (I) ranged between 0.118 and 0.275 with an overall diversity of 0.439. Analysis of molecular variance showed more diversity among population level (56.65%) than at within population level (43.35%). The low gene flow value (Nm=0.349) and high coefficient of genetic differentiation (GST=0.589) and high fixation index (FST=0.566) demonstrated elevated genetic differentiation among the population and can be predicted that these populations are not in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis confirms that Akal population has become phylogenetically more distinct and less diverse than the rest of the samples. Mantel's test revealed no correlation between genetic and geographical distances of populations (R(2)=0.122). Overall highest diversity was observed in the population of Machiya Safari Park and Kiradu, while lowest in Akal population, later may constitute an evolutionary significant unit, having merit for special management.

  12. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume X: endangered species, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    Federally endangered species which occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, and the wood stork. Of these species, only the alligator, sturgeon, and wood stork are likely to be affected by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. The nearest colony of wood storks to the SRP is the Birdsville Colony, about 40-45 km southwest of potential foraging areas in the SRP Savannah River swamp. In 1983, it contained about six percent of the nesting pairs in the United States and produced about 250 fledglings. Its reproductive success was about the same in 1984. Based on the results of surveys made of foraging areas, both on SRP and offsite in 1983 and 1984, forage fish availability could be reduced by increased water depths in the Steel Creek delta area following L-Reactor restart with once-through cooling. Effluent discharge from SRP facilities probably limits the potential use of the SRP Savannah River swamp by foraging wood storks. The SRP supports a low-to-moderate alligator population. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests that populations in suitable habitats (e.g., Beaver Dam Creek, Steel Creek, and Par Pond) should continue to benefit from the protection provided by the SRP and should remain stable or continue to increase. Based upon information from the literature and fisheries data for the Savannah River, the operations of the SRP do not appear to have adverse effects on the shortnose sturgeon. Based on known life history characteristics, there is no indication that spawning, rearing, or foraging habitats are affected by SRP operations. 64 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Modeling Spatial Distribution of a Rare and Endangered Plant Species (Brainea insignis) in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Lo, N.-J.; Chang, W.-I.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM) uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF) has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM), and discriminant analysis (DA), were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  14. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  16. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  17. 76 FR 67401 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... 54423) a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under...

  18. 77 FR 47866 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Two Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-10

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received two applications for incidental take permits (ITP). Reed Motors, Inc. and Clermont Land Development, LLC each request a 5-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We request public comment on the permit applications and accompanying proposed habitat conservation plans (HCPs), as well as on our preliminary......

  19. 76 FR 5606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from the (Applicant) for an incidental take permit (ITP) TE30950A-0 for 5 years under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We request public comment on the permit application and accompanying proposed habitat conservation plan (plan), as well as on our preliminary determination that the plan......

  20. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for the diamond darter (Crystallaria cincotta), a small fish in West Virginia, under the Endangered Species Act (Act). In total, approximately 197.1 river kilometers (122.5 river miles) in Kanawha and Clay Counties, West Virginia, and Edmonson, Hart, and Green Counties, Kentucky, are being designated as critical......

  1. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... for Black Abalone; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76 , No. 208 / Thursday, October 27, 2011... Designate Critical Habitat for Black Abalone AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), hereby designate critical habitat for the endangered black abalone...

  2. 76 FR 43973 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... endangered insect, into its historical habitat in Wah'kon-tah Prairie in southwestern Missouri. We propose to... competition from other carrion insects (Sikes and Raithel 2002, pp. 104-109). Confounding most of these... insects is in its infancy (USFWS 2008, p. 31). Competition for carrion by scavengers is thought to be...

  3. 77 FR 16712 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Service (Service), will reestablish the American burying beetle, a federally listed endangered insect... competition from other carrion insects (Sikes and Raithel 2002, pp. 104-109). Predation is not believed to be... in the decline of the ABB, but knowledge of diseases of insects is in its infancy (USFWS 2008, p....

  4. 77 FR 23007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Allium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... designated that is considered to be critical habitat. Section 4(b)(2) of the Endangered Species Act states...) The amount and distribution of Allium munzii and Atriplex coronata var. notatior habitat, (b) Which... critical habitat should be considered for exclusion under section 4(b)(2) of the Act and for those...

  5. 77 FR 63603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Cumberland...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, designate critical habitat for the Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae), rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei), Chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus), and laurel dace (Chrosomus saylori) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total, approximately 86 river kilometers (rkm) (54 river miles (rmi)) are......

  6. 77 FR 33100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Correction for African Wild Ass

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... under section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). This change to the List of Endangered and Threatened ] Wildlife (at 50 CFR 17.11(h)) reflects the most recently accepted scientific name in accordance...-669, 80 Stat. 926). Section 1(c) of the 1966 Act stated that native species of fish or wildlife...

  7. 76 FR 64995 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise critical habitat for the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 12,157 acres (4,920 hectares) are being proposed for designation as critical habitat. The proposed revised critical habitat is located in Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, Sonoma,......

  8. 76 FR 63944 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... Plan (HCP) to the address shown in ADDRESSES. Background In 1986, a single pair of endangered Interior... the Service to develop a Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) regarding continued operation of the facility... renewed. Management of the facility under the HCP has promoted the continued growth of the tern colony....

  9. 78 FR 14022 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Removal of the Virginia Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...; Reinstatement of Removal of the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel From the List of Endangered and Threatened... reinstating the removal of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) from the List of... November 13, 2012, this rule again removes the Virginia northern flying squirrel from the List...

  10. 76 FR 6811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Operation of Kaheawa II Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Draft... caused by the construction and operation of the KWP II wind energy facility on the island of Maui. The... permit under the ESA to authorize take of three federally endangered and one threatened bird species....

  11. 75 FR 13715 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States AGENCY: Fish and... of critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) ] under the Endangered Species Act of... January 14, 2010, we published our proposed revised designation of critical habitat for bull trout in...

  12. 77 FR 16554 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ....43 acres of nesting habitat of endangered and threatened sea turtle species in Sarasota County... minimization and mitigation measures proposed to address the effects of the project on nesting sea turtles... taking beach nesting habitat of the threatened loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta),...

  13. 75 FR 32727 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Sonoran Pronghorn in Southwestern Arizona AGENCY... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to classify that reestablished population as a nonessential experimental population (NEP). The proposed rule provided a plan for establishing...

  14. 78 FR 17708 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document... availability of a draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan. Specifically, this supplement..., Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are federally listed as threatened under the Endangered...

  15. 76 FR 47490 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for the Preble's meadow jumping mouse... the Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse To Specify Over What Portion of Its Range the Subspecies...

  16. 76 FR 58441 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the reopening of the public comment period on the March 15, 2011, proposed threatened status for the Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis) and proposed designation of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are proposing to revise the primary constituent elements (PCEs) and......

  17. 78 FR 68370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Direct... kirtlandii (Kirtland's warbler) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are revising... documents a taxonomic change (scientific name) to Kirtland's warbler (50 CFR 17.11(h)). The basis for...

  18. 77 FR 46105 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Cape Coral (applicant) requests an ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The...), telephone: 772-469-4232. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The City of Cape Coral (applicant) anticipates taking 75... Cape Coral at latitude 26.701016, longitude--81.999287, Lee County, Florida. The applicant proposes...

  19. 75 FR 13012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Threatened Status for Southern Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ...We, the NMFS, issue a final determination to list the southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of Pacific eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus; hereafter ``eulachon'') as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We intend to consider protective regulations and critical habitat for this DPS in separate...

  20. 78 FR 23948 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Black-Footed Ferret Draft Recovery Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... America wherever prairie dogs occurred. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 (32 FR 4001; March 11... prairie dogs was an important factor in the ferret's decline. From the late 1800s to approximately the 1960s, prairie dog-occupied habitat and prairie dog numbers were dramatically reduced by the effects...

  1. 77 FR 73769 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list four subspecies of Mazama pocket gopher (Olympia, Tenino, Yelm, and Roy Prairie) as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We additionally propose to designate critical habitat for these subspecies. We have determined that the Tacoma pocket gopher is extinct, and that the listing of three other......

  2. 76 FR 17666 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Joint Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... impacts on biological resources, land use, air quality, water quality, water resources, and socioeconomics... Springs (City) and Mission Springs Water District (MSWD) as permittees under the Endangered Species Act of... and Water Conservation District's future flood control facility. The current Plan boundaries would...

  3. 75 FR 12815 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate revised critical habitat for the California red-legged frog (Rana draytonii) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 1,636,609 acres (ac) (662,312 hectares (ha)) of critical habitat in 27 California counties fall within the boundaries of the final revised critical habitat...

  4. 75 FR 65646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... the construction and operation of wind turbines. Any potential impacts to listed species caused by the... endangered El Segundo Blue Butterfly (Euphilotes battoides allyni) incidental to otherwise lawful activities... under the Act as ``to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or...

  5. 76 FR 76432 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... suitability of the project site's wind regime to sustain a wind-turbine facility for electrical energy... (Himantopus mexicanus knudseni), endangered Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus), and the threatened... or threatened. The term ``take'' means to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill,...

  6. 75 FR 77817 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi Gopher Frog AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog (Rana sevosa) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended... interested parties an opportunity to comment simultaneously on the proposed critical habitat designation,...

  7. 77 FR 43222 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Tidewater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Tidewater Goby AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... habitat for the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... revised designation of critical habitat for tidewater goby and an amended required determinations...

  8. 76 FR 27629 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing of the Altamaha Spinymussel and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-12

    ...; Listing of the Altamaha Spinymussel and Designation of Critical Habitat AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... habitat for the Altamaha spinymussel (Elliptio spinosa) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... designation of critical habitat and an amended required determinations section of the proposal. We...

  9. 77 FR 66946 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revisions to the Regulations for Impact Analyses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Analyses of Critical Habitat AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior; National Marine Fisheries... to impact analyses conducted for designations of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of... critical habitat designations, and considering exclusions from critical habitat. These changes are...

  10. 78 FR 53390 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... critical habitat for the jaguar (Panthera onca), as revised on July 1, 2013, under the Endangered Species... critical habitat. Accordingly, the final designation may differ from our proposal. If you...

  11. 75 FR 65239 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...We, NMFS, issue a final determination to list the southern distinct population segment (DPS) of the spotted seal (Phoca largha) as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Because the southern DPS occurs outside the United States, no critical habitat is proposed for...

  12. 77 FR 12074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Fertilizer, LLC, Manatee County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... received an application from Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant), for modification to Incidental Take Permit TE236128-0. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant), requests a 41-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act...

  13. 75 FR 59285 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... applicant's take of the federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana... INFORMATION: Background The Morro shoulderband (also known as banded dune) snail was listed by the U.S. Fish... snail in association with a residential redevelopment project. The project is proposed for a...

  14. 77 FR 71875 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, designate revised critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) under the Endangered Species Act. In total, approximately 9,577,969 acres (ac) (3,876,064 hectares (ha)) in 11 units and 60 subunits in California, Oregon, and Washington fall within the boundaries of the critical habitat...

  15. 76 FR 25149 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339... submitted to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) to list a number of foreign bird and butterfly species as endangered or threatened under the Act. We received petitions to list foreign bird species...

  16. 78 FR 24603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) to list a number of foreign bird and butterfly species as endangered or threatened under the Act. We received petitions to list foreign bird species on November...

  17. 75 FR 5263 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... training mission while meeting the legal requirements of the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act (33 U...) habitat by 2011; and (8) Train and use Okaloosa darter monitoring crews and aquatic monitoring crews to... Surface Water Improvement and Management (SWIM) Plan that addresses water issues in the...

  18. 75 FR 74545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule Designating Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating critical habitat for Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Approximately 783 acres (317 hectares) are being designated as critical habitat for A. pumila in Riverside and San Diego counties,...

  19. 78 FR 41499 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Northern Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-10

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the northern Mexican gartersnake (Thamnophis eques megalops) and narrow-headed gartersnake (Thamnophis rufipunctatus) as threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to these species. The effect of this regulation is to......

  20. 77 FR 60207 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) propose to list the Coral Pink Sand Dunes tiger beetle, Cicindela albissima, as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act); and propose to designate critical habitat for the species. In total, approximately 921 hectares (2,276 acres) are being proposed for designation as critical habitat. The proposed......

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity of Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Pourmorad, Fereshteh; Shahabimajd, Naghi; Shahrbandy, Kami; Hosseinzadeh, Rasa

    2007-02-15

    Extracts of five plants were investigated for their total flavonoids, phenol contents and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays: Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana. Quercetin and butylated hydroxy toluene were used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Total flavonoid content in these plants ranged from 31.6 to 109.5 mg g(-1) and the amount of free phenolic compounds was between 32 and 287.5 mg g(-1) extract powder. Free phenolic compounds content were in the order: P. hyrcanium > M. spicata > S. ebulus > C. depressa > P. americana. It was also observed that all methanolic extract samples of studied plants showed free radical scavenging activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in P. hyrcanium with an IC 50 equal to 0.036 mg mL(-1) that is higher than BHT (IC 50 = 0.054). A correlation between radical scavenging capacities of extracts with total phenolic compounds content was observed. This result indicates that P. hyrcanium contains high levels of phenolic compounds that may contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity compared to the other extracts of the plants in this study.

  2. 75 FR 63897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are revising critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are designating a total of 31,750.8 km (19,729.0 mi) of streams (which includes 1,213.2 km (754.0 mi) of marine shoreline) and are designating a total of 197,589.2 ha (488,251.7 ac) of reservoirs and lakes. The areas......

  3. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus santaanae) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total, approximately 9,331 acres (3,776 hectares) of habitat in the Santa Ana River in San Bernardino, Riverside, and Orange Counties and the San Gabriel River and Big Tujunga Creek in Los Angeles County in southern......

  4. 75 FR 21394 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Critical Habitat for Hine's Emerald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating critical habitat for the Hine's emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 26,531.8 acres (ac) (10,737 hectares (ha)) in 37 units fall within the boundaries of our critical habitat designation. The critical habitat units are located in Cook,......

  5. 78 FR 2539 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to this species' critical habitat. The effect of this regulation is to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse......

  6. Predicting recovery criteria for threatened and endangered plant species on the basis of past abundances and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Neel, Maile C; Che-Castaldo, Judy P

    2013-04-01

    Recovery plans for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act are required to specify measurable criteria that can be used to determine when the species can be delisted. For the 642 listed endangered and threatened plant species that have recovery plans, we applied recursive partitioning methods to test whether the number of individuals or populations required for delisting can be predicted on the basis of distributional and biological traits, previous abundance at multiple time steps, or a combination of traits and previous abundances. We also tested listing status (threatened or endangered) and the year the recovery plan was written as predictors of recovery criteria. We analyzed separately recovery criteria that were stated as number of populations and as number of individuals (population-based and individual-based criteria, respectively). Previous abundances alone were relatively good predictors of population-based recovery criteria. Fewer populations, but a greater proportion of historically known populations, were required to delist species that had few populations at listing compared with species that had more populations at listing. Previous abundances were also good predictors of individual-based delisting criteria when models included both abundances and traits. The physiographic division in which the species occur was also a good predictor of individual-based criteria. Our results suggest managers are relying on previous abundances and patterns of decline as guidelines for setting recovery criteria. This may be justifiable in that previous abundances inform managers of the effects of both intrinsic traits and extrinsic threats that interact and determine extinction risk.

  7. 75 FR 15454 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 14 Southwestern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... citation ANIMALS Alamosa springsnail Tryonia alamosae.. Endangered........ U.S.A. (NM)....... September 30... vertebrate, which interbreeds when mature. B. Endangered species (E) means any species that is in danger...

  8. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... construction, and water pollution. The petition is available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/petitions... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  9. Molecular and quantitative trait variation within and among small fragmented populations of the endangered plant species Psilopeganum sinense

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qigang; Tang, Feiyan; Wei, Na; Yao, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural selection and genetic drift are important evolutionary forces in determining genetic and phenotypic differentiation in plant populations. The extent to which these two distinct evolutionary forces affect locally adaptive quantitative traits has been well studied in common plant and animal species. However, we know less about how quantitative traits respond to selection pressures and drift in endangered species that have small population sizes and fragmented distributions. To address this question, this study assessed the relative strengths of selection and genetic drift in shaping population differentiation of phenotypic traits in Psilopeganum sinense, a naturally rare and recently endangered plant species. Methods Population differentiation at five quantitative traits (QST) obtained from a common garden experiment was compared with differentiation at putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST) in seven populations of P. sinense. QST estimates were derived using a Bayesian hierarchical variance component method. Key Results Trait-specific QST values were equal to or lower than FST. Neutral genetic diversity was not correlated with quantitative genetic variation within the populations of P. sinense. Conclusions Despite the prevalent empirical evidence for QST > FST, the results instead suggest a definitive role of stabilizing selection and drift leading to phenotypic differentiation among small populations. Three traits exhibited a significantly lower QST relative to FST, suggesting that populations of P. sinense might have experienced stabilizing selection for the same optimal phenotypes despite large geographical distances between populations and habitat fragmentation. For the other two traits, QST estimates were of the same magnitude as FST, indicating that divergence in these traits could have been achieved by genetic drift alone. The lack of correlation between molecular marker and quantitative genetic variation suggests that

  10. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria S; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X; Borba, Ana R; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-06-26

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood.

  11. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced... maintain endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies is extended to October...

  12. 75 FR 23654 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Hermes Copper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... on a Petition to List Hermes Copper Butterfly as Threatened or Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... copper butterfly (Hermelycaena hermes) as a threatened or endangered species under the Endangered Species... substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing the Hermes copper butterfly may...

  13. 75 FR 21568 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Harlequin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... on a Petition to List the Harlequin Butterfly as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... butterfly (Atlantea tulita), a butterfly endemic to Puerto Rico, as endangered under the Endangered Species... butterfly may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we are initiating a review...

  14. 75 FR 17062 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as or Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... hairstreak butterfly (Callophrys grynea thornei or Callophrys thornei) as endangered under the Endangered... listing Thorne's hairstreak butterfly may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice,...

  15. 76 FR 10310 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... on a Petition To List the Unsilvered Fritillary Butterfly as Threatened or Endangered AGENCY: Fish... butterfly (Speyeria adiaste) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as..., dated January 6, 2010, from WildEarth Guardians, requesting that the unsilvered fritillary butterfly...

  16. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing P. albicaulis as threatened or endangered is......

  17. 75 FR 51969 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... on a Petition to List the Oklahoma Grass Pink Orchid as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... Calopogon oklahomensis (Oklahoma grass pink orchid) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species... orchid) from governmental agencies, Native American Tribes, the scientific community, industry, and...

  18. 75 FR 67925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Cirsium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Cirsium wrightii (Wright's marsh thistle) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing C. wrightii as endangered or threatened throughout its......

  19. 75 FR 56028 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Sprague's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Sprague's pipit (Anthus spragueii) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Sprague's pipit as endangered or......

  20. 76 FR 7633 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Pacific walrus (Odobenus rosmarus divergens) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all the available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Pacific walrus as endangered or threatened......

  1. Reconciling contradictory findings of herbivore impacts on spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Knochel, David G; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2010-10-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the efficacy of biological control insects to reduce densities of Centaurea stoebe, a widespread, aggressive invasive plant in North America. We developed a graphical model to conceptualize the conditions required to explain the current contradictory findings, and then employed a series of manipulations to evaluate C. stoebe responses to herbivores. We manipulated soil nitrogen and competition in a field population and measured attack rates of a foliage and seed feeder (Larinus minutus), two gall flies (Urophora spp.), and a root feeder (Cyphocleonus achates), as well as their effects on the growth and reproduction of C. stoebe. Nitrogen limitation and competing vegetation greatly reduced C. stoebe growth. L. minutus most intensively reduced seed production in low-nitrogen soils, and removal of neighboring vegetation increased Larinus numbers per flower head and the percentage of flowers attacked by 15% and 11%, respectively. Cyphocleonus reduced flower production and aboveground biomass over two years, regardless of resources or competition. Our results, in conjunction with other published studies, demonstrate that positive, neutral, and negative plant growth responses to herbivory can be generated. However, under realistic field conditions and in the presence of multiple herbivores, our work repudiates earlier studies that indicate insect herbivores increase C. stoebe dominance.

  2. Development of 18 novel microsatellite primers for Begonia fimbristipula (Begoniaceae), an endangered medicinal plant in China1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Du, Yun-Qian; Li, Jing-Jian; Tang, Wen-Xiu; Zhong, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Begonia fimbristipula (Begoniaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed in the Chinese provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, and it is on the verge of extinction due to habitat destruction and deterioration of its ecosystem. Here we developed a set of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic and conservation studies of this endangered medicinal plant. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining repeats (FIASCO) protocol, 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified within 48 individuals from two geographic locations. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.208 to 1.000 and from 0.291 to 0.812, respectively. These microsatellite markers were cross-amplified in five related Begonia species, and six loci were successfully amplified in all species. Conclusions: These 18 markers will be useful for better conservation and utilization of wild resources of B. fimbristipula and other Begonia species in the future. PMID:27437176

  3. Revised Flora and List of Threatened and Endangered Plants for the John F. Kennedy Space Center Area, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Duncan, Brean W.; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's, and the list was revised in 1990. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required a revision of this list. The revised list includes 1024 taxa of which 803 are native and 221 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Fifty taxa are endemic or nearly endemic, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of Florida. Of the 221 introduced plants, twenty-six are Category I invasive exotics and fifteen are Category II invasive exotics. Thirty-eight taxa are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on state lists. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area includes 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  4. Free radical-scavenging activities of Homalium species--An endangered medicinal plant of Eastern Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Pani, Sweta Smita; Sahoo, Atish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Three species of the genus Homalium - e.g. Homalium nepalense, Homalium tomentosum and Homalium zeylanicum (Flacourtiaceae) - are recorded in India which are confined to the Eastern Ghat hill ranges. While H. zeylanicum is the IUCN red-listed medium-sized tree, the other two are endangered species of medicinal significance. The antioxidant potential of leaf and bark of the plants was evaluated through successive extraction methods by using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were subjected to in vitro assays as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide along with its biochemical estimation. Amongst all, the ethyl acetate extracts of bark is found to be most potent compared with that of the leaves. H. nepalense has the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents followed by H. tomentosum and H. zeylanicum, respectively, and significant antioxidant behaviour.

  5. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  6. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  7. Growth and competitive effects of Centaurea stoebe populations in response to simulated nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Ming; Montesinos, Daniel; Thelen, Giles C; Callaway, Ragan M

    2012-01-01

    Increased resource availability can promote invasion by exotic plants, raising concerns over the potential effects of global increases in the deposition of nitrogen (N). It is poorly understood why increased N favors exotics over natives. Fast growth may be a general trait of good invaders and these species may have exceptional abilities to increase growth rates in response to N deposition. Additionally, invaders commonly displace locals, and thus may have inherently greater competitive abilities. The mean growth response of Centaurea stoebe to two N levels was significantly greater than that of North American (NA) species. Growth responses to N did not vary among C. stoebe populations or NA species. Without supplemental N, NA species were better competitors than C. stoebe, and C. stoebe populations varied in competitive effects. The competitive effects of C. stoebe populations increased with N whereas the competitive effects of NA species decreased, eliminating the overall competitive advantage demonstrated by NA species in soil without N added. These results suggest that simulated N deposition may enhance C. stoebe invasion through increasing its growth and relative competitive advantage, and also indicate the possibility of local adaptation in competitive effects across the introduced range of an invader.

  8. Growth and Competitive Effects of Centaurea stoebe Populations in Response to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Ming; Montesinos, Daniel; Thelen, Giles C.; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2012-01-01

    Increased resource availability can promote invasion by exotic plants, raising concerns over the potential effects of global increases in the deposition of nitrogen (N). It is poorly understood why increased N favors exotics over natives. Fast growth may be a general trait of good invaders and these species may have exceptional abilities to increase growth rates in response to N deposition. Additionally, invaders commonly displace locals, and thus may have inherently greater competitive abilities. The mean growth response of Centaurea stoebe to two N levels was significantly greater than that of North American (NA) species. Growth responses to N did not vary among C. stoebe populations or NA species. Without supplemental N, NA species were better competitors than C. stoebe, and C. stoebe populations varied in competitive effects. The competitive effects of C. stoebe populations increased with N whereas the competitive effects of NA species decreased, eliminating the overall competitive advantage demonstrated by NA species in soil without N added. These results suggest that simulated N deposition may enhance C. stoebe invasion through increasing its growth and relative competitive advantage, and also indicate the possibility of local adaptation in competitive effects across the introduced range of an invader. PMID:22563451

  9. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

  10. 78 FR 31479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Leavenworthia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ... shallow soil in which occur natural, long-persisting (edaphic climax) plant communities dominated by... year when conditions are unfavorable for reproduction (e.g., damage (natural or manmade) to plants... competition from nonnative or invasive plants. The natural areas supporting L. exigua var. laciniata are...

  11. Biotic constraints on the invasion of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) in North American grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seastedt, T R; Suding, K N

    2007-04-01

    Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.) are among the most invasive of non-indigenous plant species that have colonized western North America over the last century. We conducted a 4-year experiment in a reconstructed grassland to test hypotheses related to the ability of grasslands to resist the invasion of diffuse knapweed (C. diffusa). We experimentally invaded C. diffusa and three native species into areas where we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability and removed extant grasses to reduce competition. We evaluated the growth response of these species to these resources and competitive manipulations. Of the native species that were experimentally added, only one species, Ratibida pinnata (prairie coneflower), established in any numbers. Establishment values in intact vegetation were low for both species, but establishment by C. diffusa (0.02%) clearly outperformed that of R. pinnata (0.001%). Under reduced grass competition, establishment was enhanced, but the values for C. diffusa (0.68%) were not statistically different from those of R. pinnata (0.57%). Neither species performed better under higher soil nutrients in the presence of competing grasses. In plots with both species, biomass of the two planted species was positively correlated, but the biomass of both species was negatively correlated with non-added weedy species. Subsequent harvests of C. diffusa indicated that establishment was enhanced in treatments with higher soil nutrients but that the biomass of these plants could only be enhanced when plant competition was also reduced. These results indicate that C. diffusa can establish in intact grasslands at rates higher than natives, but opportunism rather than competitive ability best describes the invasiveness of C. diffusa. Thus, the mechanisms contributing to the establishment of this knapweed species are different from factors identified as contributing to the dominance of this invader.

  12. 78 FR 35663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) evaluated the classification status of gray wolves (Canis lupus) currently listed in the contiguous United States and Mexico under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our evaluation, we propose to remove the gray wolf from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife but to maintain endangered status for the Mexican......

  13. 77 FR 55529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-10

    ...The best scientific and commercial data available indicate that gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Wyoming are recovered and are no longer in need of protection as part of an endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Therefore, we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), remove the gray wolf in Wyoming from the Federal List of Endangered and......

  14. 76 FR 25590 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reissuance of Final Rule To Identify the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ... * * * * * (h) * * * Species Vertebrate population where Critical Special Historic range endangered or Status...)(iii). The revisions read as follows: Sec. 17.84 Special rules--vertebrates. * * * * * (i) * * *...

  15. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  16. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Ali, Abbas; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-01-21

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of ¹H, (13)C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM) comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  17. The effects of plant density and nectar reward on bee visitation to the endangered orchid Spiranthes romanzoffiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Karl J.; Stout, Jane C.

    2008-09-01

    Density can affect attraction of pollinators, with rare plants receiving fewer pollinating visits compared with more common co-flowering species. However, if a locally rare species is very attractive in terms of the rewards it offers pollinators, it may be preferentially visited. Spiranthes romanzoffiana is a nectar rewarding, geographically rare, endangered orchid species which forms small populations in Ireland, co-flowering with more common, florally rewarding species. We examined visitation rates to S. romanzoffiana and two nectar rewarding co-flowering species ( Mentha aquatica and Prunella vulgaris) in the west of Ireland. These three plant species were visited by three bee species ( Bombus pascuorum, B. hortorum and Apis mellifera). B. pascuorum was the most common visitor, while A. mellifera was least common. Our results suggest that individual S. romanzoffiana inflorescences compete intraspecifically for visitation from pollinators at high densities. The relationship between visitation to S. romanzoffiana and total floral density appeared to be positive, suggesting interspecific facilitation of pollinator visitation at high densities. Nectar standing crop varied through the season, among species and between open and bagged flowers. Nectar standing crop was not correlated with visitation in S. romanzoffiana. Despite relatively high visitation, S. romanzoffiana produced no mature fruit during this flowering season. The lack of fruit maturation in this species may be a major factor causing its rarity in Europe.

  18. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-08-22

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved.

  19. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum.

    PubMed

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-06-25

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance.

  20. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum

    PubMed Central

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance. PMID:26109456

  1. 75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT). Author(s) The primary authors of this notice are the staff members of the Carlsbad Fish...) Flowering plants. * * * * * Family Asteraceae: Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) * * * * *...

  2. Simulated warming differentially affects the growth and competitive ability of Centaurea maculosa populations from home and introduced ranges.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors.

  3. Simulated Warming Differentially Affects the Growth and Competitive Ability of Centaurea maculosa Populations from Home and Introduced Ranges

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors. PMID:22303485

  4. Flora and threatened and endangered plants of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required revision of this list. The revised list includes 1045 taxa of which 850 are native and 195 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Forty six taxa are endemic or nearly endemic to Florida, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of central Florida. Seventy three taxa (69 native) are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on Federal or state lists. Taxa of special concern occur in all major habitats, but many are restricted to hammocks and hardwood swamps that constitute a minor proportion of the terrestrial vegetation. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area include 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  5. 75 FR 5732 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... range of the U.S. population. Four forage enhancement plots, each consisting of a well, pump, pipelines... habitats. There is also the potential for BLM to permit large-scale solar power plants, which would be... adverse effects of solar plants, agricultural leases, highways, or other projects that may...

  6. 78 FR 46889 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Candidate Removal for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., invasive plants; modified fire regime (increased wildfire); OHV use and roads; development; livestock... Soldier Meadow were fenced to exclude domestic livestock, wild horses, and other large ungulates; this... species and modified fire regime (Service 2013b, pp. 31- 32). Nonnative, invasive plant species, such...

  7. 78 FR 61293 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Brickellia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... essential for the conservation of the plants, to provide for the necessary expansion of current Brickellia... constitute ``physical or biological features essential to the conservation of the species,'' within the... essential to the conservation of these plants, should be included in the designation and why; and ] (f)...

  8. 77 FR 40705 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista Lake Shrew... Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista Lake Shrew AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... designation of critical habitat for the Buena Vista Lake shrew (Sorex ornatus relictus) under the...

  9. Biomechanics of Riparian Plant Species Common to the Platte River and Implications for Management of Habitat for Endangered Species. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankhead, N. L.; Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Improving riparian habitat for endangered species in the central Platte River fundamentally relies upon re-creating a dynamic, braided stream channel. The diversion and storage of water for agricultural, municipal and industrial uses has caused significant alteration of the hydrologic regime of the central Platte River, allowing the colonization and proliferation of vegetation that has effectively created semi-permanent islands, narrowed the active channel and reduced available habitat. Attempts to remove vegetation by spraying and disking for the purpose of re-creating a dynamic braided channel are costly and time consuming. Alternative plans to remove vegetation by modifying the hydrologic regime must be based on a fundamental understanding and quantification of the effects of vegetation on in-stream hydraulics, the effects of in-stream hydraulics on vegetation and the effects of the biomechanical properties of the plant on the substrate. This study aims to investigate the resistance of bar-top vegetation to removal by the drag forces exerted on the stems and leaves of partly or completely submerged plants with different rooting depths. In the first phase, we measured the forces required to remove 1 to 2 year-old Phragmites, reed canary grass, cottonwood and sandbar willow plants from sandbars in the Platte River. In addition, root tensile strength tests were carried out for each species and over a range of root diameters. The mean plant pullout or breaking force ranged from 31.9 N for young cottonwood saplings to 156 N for Phragmites. The mean rooting depths of cottonwoods and sandbar willows were 0.14 and 0.12 m, respectively, and during testing it was observed that largely intact rootballs were removed from the substrate. Therefore, it is possible that 1 to 2 year-old cottonwoods and sandbar willows could be removed by flows of sufficient magnitude and duration to scour such depths of sediment. Conversely, Phragmites plants had deep rhizome networks that broke

  10. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi). On September 5, 2013, we announced three public hearings on... Wildlife but to maintain endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies is...

  11. 78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), hereby list four Colombian species, the blue-billed curassow (Crax alberti), brown- banded antpitta (Grallaria milleri), Cauca guan (Penelope perspicax), and gorgeted wood-quail (Odontophorus strophium), and one Ecuadorian species, the Esmeraldas woodstar (Chaetocercus berlepschi), as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act)......

  12. 76 FR 54423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan... listing all chimpanzees as endangered may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice,...

  13. 76 FR 12667 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Mt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Finding on a Petition To List the Mt. Charleston Blue Butterfly as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish... butterfly (Plebejus shasta charlestonensis) (formerly in genus Icaricia) as endangered or threatened under... commercial information, we find that listing the Mt. Charleston blue butterfly is warranted....

  14. 77 FR 52650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Platte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Platte River caddisfly (Ironoquia plattensis) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Platte River caddisfly as......

  15. 78 FR 19510 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ...)....... 62 FR 4172; 12/01/ Connie Rutherford, U.S. Fish and vetch. 1997. Listing and Wildlife Service... lentiginosus var. Fish slough milk- Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 63 FR 53596, 06/10/ Connie Rutherford... milk- Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 63 FR 43100; 08/12/ Connie Rutherford (above). vetch....

  16. 77 FR 38762 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal... to as the List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for... interbreeds when mature; (B) Endangered species means any species that is in danger of extinction...

  17. 76 FR 44547 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Giant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the giant Palouse earthworm (Driloleirus americanus) as threatened or endangered as petitioned, and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the giant......

  18. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... 5-year status reviews under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), of seven animal... to as the List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for... interbreeds when mature; (B) Endangered species means any species that is in danger of extinction...

  19. 77 FR 431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Regulation That Excludes U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... wildlife and sport-hunted trophies of three endangered antelopes-- scimitar-horned oryx, addax, and dama... violated section 10(c) of the Act. These three antelope species remain listed as endangered under the Act... throughout their ranges under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). The numbers of these species of antelopes...

  20. 76 FR 39804 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Regulation That Excludes U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... wildlife and sport-hunted trophies of three endangered antelopes-- scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah... antelope species remain listed as endangered under the Act, and a person would need to qualify for an... et seq.). The numbers of these species of antelopes in the wild have declined drastically in...

  1. 78 FR 57835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of 6-Month Extension of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act and Reclassify Acropora cervicornis... corals (59 in the Pacific and seven in the Caribbean) and to re- classify two species already listed... determinations for all of the 68 proposed corals. Based on comments received during the public comment period,...

  2. 76 FR 62213 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Mohave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Mohave ground squirrel (Spermophilus mohavensis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Mohave ground squirrel is not warranted at this time.......

  3. 75 FR 78029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the North American wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) as an endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that the North American wolverine occurring in the contiguous United......

  4. 75 FR 78093 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Sonoran population of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Sonoran population of......

  5. 77 FR 47587 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... widespread species from New Zealand. In addition, we propose name changes or corrections for 11 endangered... climate change on the species included in this proposed rule, and any special management needs or...; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat on...

  6. 76 FR 61855 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Cactus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the cactus ferruginous pygmy-owl (Glaucidium brasilianum cactorum) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Additionally, the petition requested that we recognize and list a western subspecies of the cactus......

  7. 78 FR 61763 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Kittlitz's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After a review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the......

  8. 75 FR 13909 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings for Petitions to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce three 12-month findings on petitions to list three entities of the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We find that listing the greater sage-grouse (rangewide) is warranted, but precluded by higher priority listing actions. We will......

  9. RNA Synthesis in Whole Cells and Protoplasts of Centaurea

    PubMed Central

    Kulikowski, Robert R.; Mascarenhas, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Protoplasts enzymically isolated from suspension cultures of Centaurea cyanus L. incorporate radioactive precursors into RNA with kinetics similar to that of whole cells. There are differences, however, in several other aspects of RNA metabolism. The proportion of total RNA that contains poly(A) sequences (25 to 30%) is similar in both freshly isolated protoplasts and whole cells after a 20-minute pulse with [3H]adenosine. After a 4-hour pulse, however, poly(A)-containing RNA makes up 30% of the total RNA in protoplasts whereas it drops to 8% in whole cells. There appears to be a faulty processing of ribosomal precursor into the mature ribosomal species, as the precursor seems to accumulate to higher levels relative to the mature 18S and 25S rRNAs in protoplasts as compared to whole cells. Additional differences are seen in the size distributions of poly(A)-containing RNA, although the length of the poly(A) segment is similar in both protoplasts and whole cells. Within 24 hours protoplasts appear to have resumed a pattern of RNA synthesis similar to that of whole cells. PMID:16660339

  10. Centaurea Revisited: A Molecular Survey of the Jacea Group

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-JACAS, N.; UYSAL, T.; ROMASHCHENKO, K.; SUÁREZ-SANTIAGO, V. N.; ERTUĞRUL, K.; SUSANNA, A.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The genus Centaurea has traditionally been considered to be a complicated taxon. No attempt at phylogenetic reconstruction has been made since recent revisions in circumscription, and previous reconstructions did not include a good representation of species. A new molecular survey is thus needed. • Methods Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 and the 5·8S gene. Parsimony and Bayesian approaches were used. • Key Results A close correlation between geography and the phylogenetic tree based on ITS sequences was found in all the analyses, with three main groups being resolved: (1) comprising the most widely distributed circum-Mediterranean/Eurosiberian sections; (2) the western Mediterranean sections; and (3) the eastern Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian sections. The results show that the sectional classification in current use needs major revision, with many old sections being merged into larger ones. A large polytomy in the eastern Mediterranean clade suggests a rapid and recent speciation in this group. Some inconsistencies between morphology and molecular phylogeny may indicate that hybridization has played a major role in the evolution of the genus. • Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of ITS has been useful in identifying the major lineages in the group, and unraveling many inconsistencies in the sectional classification. However, most recent groups in the eastern Mediterranean clade are not resolved and reticulation in the western Mediterranean group of sections makes phylogenetic relationships within these two groups somewhat obscure. PMID:16873424

  11. Population genetic structure of rare and endangered plants using molecular markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raji, Jennifer; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the remaining populations of Phyllostegia stachyoides and Melicope zahlbruckneri in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and determine the extent of gene flow to identify genetically distinct individuals or groups for conservation purposes. Thirty-six Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic (AFLP) primer combinations generated a total of 3,242 polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments in the P. stachyoides population with a percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranging from 39.3 to 65.7% and 2,780 for the M. zahlbruckneri population with a PPB of 18.8 to 64.6%. Population differentiation (Fst) of AFLP loci between subpopulations of P. stachyoides was low (0.043) across populations. Analysis of molecular variance of P. stachyoides showed that 4% of the observed genetic differentiation occurred between populations in different kīpuka and 96% when individuals were pooled from all kīpuka. Moderate genetic diversity was detected within the M. zahlbruckneri population. Bayesian and multivariate analyses both classified the P. stachyoides and M. zahlbruckneri populations into genetic groups with considerable sub-structuring detected in the P. stachyoides population. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations explained by geographical distance was estimated by Mantel tests. No spatial correlation was found between genetic and geographic distances in both populations. Finally, a moderate but significant gene flow that could be attributed to insect or bird-mediated dispersal of pollen across the different kīpuka was observed. The results of this study highlight the utility of a multi-allelic DNA-based marker in screening a large number of polymorphic loci in small and closely related endangered populations and revealed the presence of genetically unique groups of individuals in both M. zahlbruckneri and P. stachyoides populations. Based on these findings

  12. Living in isolation – population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink)

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential. PMID:26380690

  13. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    PubMed

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  14. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris)

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia—a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub—were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world. PMID:27557152

  15. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  16. Genetic structure of colline and montane populations of an endangered plant species

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Tiphaine; Matthies, Diethart; Muller, Serge; Colling, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Due to land-use intensification, lowland and colline populations of many plants of nutrient-poor grasslands have been strongly fragmented in the last decades, with potentially negative consequences for their genetic diversity and persistence. Populations in mountains might represent a genetic reservoir for grassland plants, because they have been less affected by land-use changes. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of colline and montane Vosges populations of the threatened perennial plant Arnica montana in western central Europe using AFLP markers. Our results indicate that in contrast to our expectation even strongly fragmented colline populations of A. montana have conserved a considerable amount of genetic diversity. However, mean seed mass increased with the proportion of polymorphic loci, suggesting inbreeding effects in low diversity populations. At a similar small geographical scale, there was a clear IBD pattern for the montane Vosges but not for the colline populations. However, there was a strong IBD-pattern for the colline populations at a large geographical scale suggesting that this pattern is a legacy of historical gene flow, as most of the colline populations are today strongly isolated from each other. Genetic differentiation between colline and montane Vosges populations was strong. Moreover, results of a genome scan study indicated differences in loci under selection, suggesting that plants from montane Vosges populations might be maladapted to conditions at colline sites. Our results suggest caution in using material from montane populations of rare plants for the reinforcement of small genetically depauperate lowland populations. PMID:27519913

  17. Genetic structure of colline and montane populations of an endangered plant species.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Tiphaine; Matthies, Diethart; Muller, Serge; Colling, Guy

    2016-08-12

    Due to land-use intensification, lowland and colline populations of many plants of nutrient-poor grasslands have been strongly fragmented in the last decades, with potentially negative consequences for their genetic diversity and persistence. Populations in mountains might represent a genetic reservoir for grassland plants, because they have been less affected by land-use changes. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of colline and montane Vosges populations of the threatened perennial plant Arnica montana in western central Europe using AFLP markers. Our results indicate that in contrast to our expectation even strongly fragmented colline populations of A. montana have conserved a considerable amount of genetic diversity. However, mean seed mass increased with the proportion of polymorphic loci, suggesting inbreeding effects in low diversity populations. At a similar small geographical scale there was a clear IBD pattern for the montane Vosges but not for the colline populations. However, there was a strong IBD-pattern for the colline populations at a large geographical scale suggesting that this pattern is a legacy of historical gene flow, as most of the colline populations are today strongly isolated from each other. Genetic differentiation between colline and montane Vosges populations was strong. Moreover, results of a genome scan study indicated differences in loci under selection, suggesting that plants from montane Vosges populations might be maladapted to conditions at colline sites. Our results suggest caution in using material from montane populations of rare plants for the reinforcement of small genetically depauperate lowland populations.

  18. Is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants endangered by heat?

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Ursula; Pramsohler, Manuel; Bauer, Ines; Zimmermann, Sonja; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Strong solar irradiation in combination with still air and dry soil can cause prostrate high-mountain plants to heat up considerably and ultimately suffer heat damage. Such heat damage has been repeatedly shown for vegetative structures, but not for reproductive structures, which we expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat. Heat effects on cold-adapted plants may increase with rising global temperatures and the predicted increase in heat waves. We have tested the heat tolerance of reproductive versus vegetative shoots at different reproductive stages, comparing ten common plant species from different elevation belts in the European Alps. Plant samples were exposed to temperatures in 2-K steps of 30 min each between 42 and 56 °C. Heat damage was assessed by visual rating and vital staining. Reproductive shoots were on average 2.5 K less heat tolerant (LT50, i.e. the mean temperature causing 50 % heat damage, 47.2 °C) than vegetative shoots (mean LT50 49.7 °C). Initial heat injuries (mean LT10) were observed at 43-45 °C in heat-susceptible species and at 45-47 °C in more heat-tolerant species, in at least one reproductive stage. Generally, heat tolerance was significantly higher during fruiting than during the bud stages and anthesis. Prostrate species with acaulescent buds and flowers tolerated heat better than those with caulescent buds and flowers. Petals were the most heat-susceptible plant structure and mature pollen the most heat tolerant. Based on these data, heat tolerance of reproductive structures appears to be adapted to the prevailing maximum temperatures which the plants experience during different reproductive stages in their environment. During hot spells, however, heat tolerance thresholds may be exceeded. More frequent heat waves would decrease the reproductive output and, consequently, the competitiveness of heat-susceptible species.

  19. 78 FR 12011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION...), announce the reopening of the public comment period on two proposed rules: one to list the hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), and one to list the military macaw (Ara militaris) and great green macaw...

  20. 75 FR 70946 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Assisting States, Federal Agencies, and Tribes in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... planned 60 days. WNS is a fungal disease responsible for unprecedented mortality in hibernating bats in... potentially catastrophic threat to hibernating bats throughout North America, including several species listed... representatives of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service and...

  1. 78 FR 38895 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical Habitat for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum... reopening of the comment period on our May 15, 2012, proposed listing and designation of critical habitat... (proposed designation of critical habitat) for Umtanum desert buckwheat and White Bluffs bladderpod;...

  2. 77 FR 37867 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY.... ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of 6-month extension of the deadline for a final critical habitat... Register on June 2, 2011, proposing to revise critical habitat for the Hawaiian monk seal under...

  3. Influence of Wildland Fire on the Recovery of Endangered Plant Species Study Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    mint family ( Lamiaceae ). It is the last remaining extant member of the genus and is only found at PTA and the Parker Ranch. Shaw (1995) estimated that...and stoloniferous perennial plant. It also belongs to the mint family ( Lamiaceae ) and is found over much of the west side of PTA and at several

  4. 76 FR 41446 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Public Hearings for Proposed Rulemaking To Revise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Public Hearings for Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk..., and other relevant impacts. We will consider additional information received prior to making a final... Ainoa Street, Kaunakakai, Molokai 96748--5:30-8 p.m. August 9, 2011--Kihei Community Center, 303...

  5. 77 FR 76065 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Kendall Warm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... changes from oil and gas development and potential competition and/or disease from the introduction of..., exotic species, grazing, hydrologic changes, invasive plants, pollution, and energy resource exploration...) establishment of two captive refugia populations; and (4) monitoring and managing population levels,...

  6. 76 FR 27183 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    .... On the basis of peer reviewer and public comments, we may, during the development of our final... of these threats independently have on L. papilliferum. Development also poses a threat to Lepidium..., pp. 166, 191, 206). In addition to wildfire, nonnative plants, and development, livestock use poses...

  7. An analysis of genetic variation in Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax, a critically endangered plant, using AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Travis, S E; Maschinski, J; Keim, P

    1996-12-01

    A recently developed molecular technique (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) was used for characterizing genetic heterogeneity within and among populations of a critically endangered species of plant, Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax. Using AFLP, up to 50 polymorphic genetic markers per AFLP-PCR amplification were generated, and a total of 220 variable markers overall. This information was used first to assess genetic diversity within each of the three known populations of Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax from Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, USA: North Rim (NR; n = 970), South Rim Site 1 (SR1; n = 500), and South Rim Site 2 (SR2; n = 2). Diversity in the form of average heterozygosity [symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] and the proportion of polymorphic genes [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] was greatest in the NR population ([symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] = 0.13 and [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] = 0.38) and least in the SR2 population ([symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] = 0.02 and [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] = 0.04). Diversity was also quite low for the SR1 population ([symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] = 0.04 and [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] = 0.10). In addition, substantial genetic differentiation among populations was indicated by both phenetic (AMOVA) and genetic analyses (overall corrected FST = 0.41). This finding was corroborated by the results of several multivariate analyses which utilized the genetic data, including a UPGMA cluster analysis and a principal coordinate analysis which revealed the existence of discrete groups corresponding to the populations. Population structure was further revealed within the NR population which was known to consist of four spatially separated groups of plants. Several recommendations for the future management of the species are discussed.

  8. [Molecular characterization of a HMG-CoA reductase gene from a rare and endangered medicinal plant, Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ji-Tao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Gang; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-03-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in mavalonic acid pathway, which is the first committed step for isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. However, it still remains unclear whether HGMR gene plays a role in the isoprenoid biosynthesis in Dendrobium officinale, an endangered epiphytic orchid species. In the present study, a HMGR encoding gene, designed as DoHMGR1 (GenBank accession JX272632), was identified from D. officinale using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods, for the first time. The full length cDNA of DoHMGR1 was 2 071 bp in length and encoded a 562-aa protein with a molecular weight of 59.73 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.18. The deduced DoHMGR1 protein, like other HMGR proteins, constituted four conserved domains (63-561, 147-551, 268-383 and 124-541) and two transmembrane motifs (42-64 and 85-107). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that DoHMGR1 had high identity (67%-89%) to a number of HMGR genes from various plants and was closely related to Vanda hybrid cultivar, rice and maize monocots. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that DoHMGR1 was expressed in the three included organs. The transcripts were the most abundant in the roots with 2.13 fold over that in the leaves, followed by that in the stems with 1.98 fold. Molecular characterization of DoHMGR1 will be useful for further functional elucidation of the gene involving in isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway in D. officinale.

  9. Endangered Uyghur Medicinal Plant Ferula Identification through the Second Internal Transcribed Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Congzhao; Li, Xiaojin; Zhu, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Ferula has been widely used in Asian medicine, especially in Uyghur medicine in Xinjiang, China. Given that various substitutes and closely related species have similar morphological characteristics, Ferula is difficult to distinguish based on morphology alone, thereby causing confusion and threatening the safe use of Ferula. In this study, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences were analyzed and assessed for the accurate identification of two salable Ferula species (Ferula sinkiangensis and Ferula fukangensis) and eight substitutes or closely related species. Results showed that the sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 451 bp to 45 bp, whereas guanine and cytosine contents (GC) were from 53.6% to 56.2%. A total of 77 variation sites were detected, including 63 base mutations and 14 insertion/deletion mutations. The ITS2 sequence correctly identified 100% of the samples at the species level using the basic local alignment search tool 1 and nearest-distance method. Furthermore, neighbor-joining tree successfully identified the genuine plants F. sinkiangensis and F. fukangensis from their succedaneum and closely related species. These results indicated that ITS2 sequence could be used as a valuable barcode to distinguish Uyghur medicine Ferula from counterfeits and closely related species. This study may broaden DNA barcoding application in the Uyghur medicinal plant field. PMID:26120347

  10. Endangered Species of Florida Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Merlien W.

    This coloring book portrays endangered animal and plant species of Florida in their natural environment. Each picture is to be colored by the student. On the back of each page bearing the picture to be colored is a description of the animal or plant, its preferred habitat, and the reason the animal or plant is endangered. (RE)

  11. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... federally endangered were (1) predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) (San Miguel Island fox, Santa... to potential and ongoing predation by golden eagles, to potential or incipient disease outbreaks,...

  12. 75 FR 65574 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Gray Wolf in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ...) * * * Species Vertebrate population Historic range where endangered or Status When listed Critical Special...) and adding new paragraph (n)(9)(iii) to read as set forth below. Sec. 17.84 Special...

  13. Next-generation sequencing identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz., an endemic and endangered medicinal plant of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y-E; Yu, J-N; Nam, G H; Ryu, S-A; Kim, S; Oh, K; Lim, C E

    2015-05-11

    We used next-generation sequencing to develop 9 novel microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense, an endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Korea. Owing to its very limited distribution, over-harvesting for traditional medicinal purposes, and habitat loss, the natural populations are dramatically declining in Korea. All novel microsatellite markers were successfully genotyped using 64 samples from two populations (Mt. Choejeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Ungseokbong, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Gyeongsang Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus in each population. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.031 to 0.938 and from 0.031 to 0.697, respectively. The novel markers will be valuable tools for assessing the genetic diversity of A. austrokoreense and for germplasm conservation of this endangered species.

  14. Allogamy-Autogamy Switch Enhance Assortative Mating in the Allotetraploid Centaurea seridis L. Coexisting with the Diploid Centaurea aspera L. and Triggers the Asymmetrical Formation of Triploid Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, María; Garmendia, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Ana; Merle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between tetraploids and their related diploids is generally unsuccessful in Centaurea, hence natural formation of triploid hybrids is rare. In contrast, the diploid Centaurea aspera and the allotetraploid C. seridis coexist in several contact zones where a high frequency of triploid hybrids is found. We analyzed the floral biology of the three taxa to identify reproductive isolation mechanisms that allow their coexistence. Flowering phenology was recorded, and controlled pollinations within and between the three taxa were performed in the field. Ploidy level and germination of progeny were also assessed. There was a 50% flowering overlap which indicated a phenological shift. Diploids were strictly allogamous and did not display mentor effects, while tetraploids were found to be highly autogamous. This breakdown of self-incompatibility by polyploids is first described in Centaurea. The asymmetrical formation of the hybrid was also found: all the triploid intact cypselae came from the diploid mothers pollinated by the pollen of tetraploids. Pollen and eggs from triploids were totally sterile, acting as a strong triploid block. These prezygotic isolation mechanisms ensured higher assortative mating in tetraploids than in diploids, improving their persistence in the contact zones. However these mechanisms can also be the cause of the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure observed in C. seridis.

  15. Allogamy-Autogamy Switch Enhance Assortative Mating in the Allotetraploid Centaurea seridis L. Coexisting with the Diploid Centaurea aspera L. and Triggers the Asymmetrical Formation of Triploid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ferriol, María; Garmendia, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Ana; Merle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between tetraploids and their related diploids is generally unsuccessful in Centaurea, hence natural formation of triploid hybrids is rare. In contrast, the diploid Centaurea aspera and the allotetraploid C. seridis coexist in several contact zones where a high frequency of triploid hybrids is found. We analyzed the floral biology of the three taxa to identify reproductive isolation mechanisms that allow their coexistence. Flowering phenology was recorded, and controlled pollinations within and between the three taxa were performed in the field. Ploidy level and germination of progeny were also assessed. There was a 50% flowering overlap which indicated a phenological shift. Diploids were strictly allogamous and did not display mentor effects, while tetraploids were found to be highly autogamous. This breakdown of self-incompatibility by polyploids is first described in Centaurea. The asymmetrical formation of the hybrid was also found: all the triploid intact cypselae came from the diploid mothers pollinated by the pollen of tetraploids. Pollen and eggs from triploids were totally sterile, acting as a strong triploid block. These prezygotic isolation mechanisms ensured higher assortative mating in tetraploids than in diploids, improving their persistence in the contact zones. However these mechanisms can also be the cause of the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure observed in C. seridis. PMID:26469271

  16. 77 FR 21920 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list either the Eastern population or the Southern Rocky Mountain (SRM) population of the boreal toad (Anaxyrus boreas boreas) as a distinct population segment (DPS) that is endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to designate critical habitat. Based on......

  17. 75 FR 606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the following six South American bird species (collectively referred to as ``species'' for purposes of this proposed rule) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.): ash-breasted tit-tyrant (Anairetes alpinus), Junin grebe (Podiceps taczanowskii), Junin rail (Laterallus......

  18. 77 FR 19755 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the San Francisco Bay-Delta distinct population segment (Bay Delta DPS) of longfin smelt as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find......

  19. 76 FR 55169 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Five Petitions To List Seven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on five petitions to list seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees (Hylaeus anthracinus, H. assimulans, H. facilis, H. hilaris, H. kuakea, H. longiceps, and H. mana) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific......

  20. 75 FR 17352 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) in the Big Lost River, Idaho, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that the mountain whitefish in the Big Lost River does not......

  1. 77 FR 29077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Downlist Three...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce our 12-month findings on a petition to reclassify San Clemente Island lotus, and San Clemente Island paintbrush under the Endangered Species Act are warranted and we propose to change the status of these two species from endangered to threatened. We also propose to correct the scientific and common names of San Clement Island lotus. We are also......

  2. 76 FR 63479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Two South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a status review (12-month finding) on a petition to list the blue-headed macaw (Primolius couloni) and grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the blue-headed......

  3. 75 FR 6437 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the American pika (Ochotona princeps) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the American pika, at the species level or any of the five recognized subspecies (O.......

  4. 77 FR 36871 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Withdrawal of the Proposed Rule To List Dunes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), withdraw the proposed rule to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This withdrawal is based on our conclusion that the threats to the species as identified in the proposed rule no longer are as significant as believed at the time of the proposed rule.......

  5. Seed Dispersal and Establishment of Endangered Plants on Oceanic Islands: The Janzen-Connell Model, and the Use of Ecological Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dennis M.; Kaiser, Christopher N.

    2008-01-01

    Background The Janzen-Connell model states that plant-specific natural enemies may have a disproportionately large negative effect on progeny close to maternal trees. The majority of experimental and theoretical studies addressing the Janzen-Connell model have explored how it can explain existing patterns of species diversity in tropical mainland areas. Very few studies have investigated how the model's predictions apply to isolated oceanic islands, or to the conservation management of endangered plants. Here, we provide the first experimental investigation of the predictions of the Janzen-Connell model on an oceanic island, in a conservation context. In addition, we experimentally evaluate the use of ecological analogue animals to resurrect the functional component of extinct frugivores that could have dispersed seeds away from maternal trees. Methodology/Principal Findings In Mauritius, we investigated seed germination and seedling survival patterns of the critically endangered endemic plant Syzygium mamillatum (Myrtaceae) in relation to proximity to maternal trees. We found strong negative effects of proximity to maternal trees on growth and survival of seedlings. We successfully used giant Aldabran tortoises as ecological analogues for extinct Mauritian frugivores. Effects of gut-passage were negative at the seed germination stage, but seedlings from gut-passed seeds grew taller, had more leaves, and suffered less damage from natural enemies than any of the other seedlings. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first experimental evidence of a distance-dependent Janzen-Connell effect on an oceanic island. Our results potentially have serious implications for the conservation management of rare plant species on oceanic islands, which harbour a disproportionately large fraction of the world's endemic and endangered plants. Furthermore, in contrast to recent controversy about the use of non-indigenous extant megafauna for re-wilding projects in North America and

  6. Puccinia jaceae is established on Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in Oregon

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Puccinia jaceae Otth var. solstitialis isolate FDWSRU 84-71 from the California Department of Food and Agriculture was released under APHIS permit at seven sites in Oregon for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) between May, 2008, and April, 2011. Sites were inspected ...

  7. A review of therapeutic potential of Saussurea lappa-An endangered plant from Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Zahara, Kulsoom; Tabassum, Shaista; Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad; Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-09-01

    There are 300 known Saussurea species. Among them, Saussurea lappa (S. lappa) is a representative perennial herb, globally distributed across Himalaya region. S. lappa has been traditionally used in medicines without obvious adverse effects. Despite significant progress in phytochemical and biological analyses of S. lappa over the past few years, inclusive and critical reviews of this plant are anachronistic or quite limited in scope. The present review aims to summarize up-to-date information on the active constituents, pharmacology, traditional uses, trade and challenges in conservation and sustainable use of S. lappa from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of S. lappa in over 43 diseases, scientific studies investigating the latent medicinal uses of this species and its constituent phytochemicals for a range of disorders are presented and discussed. The structure, bioactivity, and likely mechanisms of action of S. lappa and its phytochemicals are highlighted. Although some progress has been made, further scrupulous efforts are required to investigate the individual compounds isolated from S. lappa to validate and understand its traditional uses and develop clinical applications. The present review offers preliminary information and gives direction for further basic and clinical research into this plant.

  8. Increasing demands on limited water resources: Consequences for two endangered plants in Amargosa Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Allen, Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Recent population expansion throughout the Southwest United States has created an unprecedented demand for already limited water resources, which may have severe consequences on the persistence of some species. Two such species are the federally protected Nitrophila mohavensis (Chenopodiaceae) and Grindelia fraxino-pratensis (Asteraceae) found in Amargosa Valley, one valley east of Death Valley, California. Because both species are federally protected, no plant material could be harvested for analysis. We therefore used a chamber system to collect transpired water for isotopic analysis. After a correction for isotopic enrichment during transpiration, δ(18)O values of plant xylem water were significantly different between N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis throughout the study. Using a multisource mixing model, we found that both N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis used soil moisture near the soil surface in early spring when surface water was present. However, during the dry summer months, G. fraxino-pratensis tracked soil moisture to deeper depths, whereas N. mohavensis continued to use soil moisture near the soil surface. These results indicate that pumping groundwater and subsequently lowering the water table may directly prevent G. fraxino-pratensis from accessing water, whereas these same conditions may indirectly affect N. mohavensis by reducing surface soil moisture and thus its ability to access water.

  9. Rapid plant regeneration and analysis of genetic fidelity of in vitro derived plants of Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker--an endangered medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Lattoo, S K; Bamotra, S; Sapru Dhar, R; Khan, S; Dhar, A K

    2006-06-01

    An efficient in vitro multiplication system via multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration has been developed in Chlorophytum arundinaceum using shoot crown explants. Optimum regeneration frequency (87%) and desirable organogenetic response in the form of de novo organized multiple shoot buds without an intervening callus phase was obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) minimal organics medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 4 x 10(-6) M Kn and 2 x 10(-6) MIBA. Axenic secondary explants with multiple shoot buds on subculturing elicited best response with 1 x 10(-5) M Kinetin (Kn) and 5 x 10(-6) M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) giving rise to an average of 18.74 shoots per culture with mean shoot length of 7.6 cm +/- 1.73. Varying molar ratios of either Kn/IBA or Kn/NAA revealed statistically significant differences in the regeneration frequencies among the phytohormone treatments. It was observed that the shoot bud differentiation and regeneration was influenced by the molar ratios of cytokinins/auxin rather than their relative concentrations. Healthy regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS basal medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 5 x 10(-6) M IBA. Following simple hardening procedures, rooted plantlets, were transferred to soil-sand (1:1; v/v) with more than 90% success. Genetic fidelity was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), karyotype analysis and meiotic behaviour of in vitro and in vivo plants. Five arbitrary decamers displayed same banding profile within all the micropropagated plants and in vivo explant donor. The cytological and molecular analysis complemented and compared well and showed no genomic alterations in the plants regenerated through shoot bud differentiation. High multiplication frequency, molecular, cytological and phenotypic stability ensures the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production and conservation of this important endangered medicinal herb.

  10. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Rodriguez, Alex; Holben, William E

    2004-02-19

    Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote 'exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare species native to North America consistently demonstrate negative feedbacks with soil microbes that promote biological diversity, whereas abundant exotic and native species demonstrate positive feedbacks that reduce biological diversity. Here we report that soil microbes from the home range of the invasive exotic plant Centaurea maculosa L. have stronger inhibitory effects on its growth than soil microbes from where the weed has invaded in North America. Centaurea and soil microbes participate in different plant-soil feedback processes at home compared with outside Centaurea's home range. In native European soils, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly negative effects on the weed's growth, possibly leading to its control. But in soils from North America, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly positive effects on itself, which may contribute to the success of this exotic species in North America.

  11. Synthesis, biological activity, and bioavailability of moschamine, a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in Centaurea cyanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moschamine is a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide originally isolated from Centaurea cyanus. This paper describes the synthesis, detection of serotoninergic and COX inhibitory activities, and bioavailability of moschamine. Moschamine was chemically synthesized and identified using NMR spect...

  12. Combining incidence and demographic modelling approaches to evaluate metapopulation parameters for an endangered riparian plant

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Record, Sydne

    2016-01-01

    Metapopulations are a central concept in ecology and conservation biology; however, estimating key parameters such as colonization rates presents a substantial obstacle to modelling metapopulations in many species. We develop spatial and non-spatial simulation models that combine incidence- and demographic-based approaches to build a relationship between observed patch occupancy, habitat turnover rates, colonization rates and dispersal scales. Applying these models to long-term observations of Pedicularis furbishiae (Furbish’s lousewort), a rare plant endemic to the Saint John River, we predict that observed habitat patches averaging 550 m in length receive colonizing seedlings with a yearly probability of 0.45 or 0.54, based on two different models. Predictions are consistent with a standard analytic metapopulation formulation modified to partition extinction drivers during the early and the late phases of a population’s life cycle. While the specific results rest on several simplifying assumptions, the models allow us to understand the impact that increasing rates of habitat turnover would have on the future survival of this species. PMID:27339047

  13. Focussed beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) monitoring of particle size and morphology in suspension cultures of Morinda citrifolia and Centaurea calcitrapa.

    PubMed

    Jeffers, Paul; Raposo, Sara; Lima-Costa, Maria-Emilia; Connolly, Patricia; Glennon, Brian; Kieran, Patricia M

    2003-12-01

    Laser light scattering technology, as applied in the Lasentec focussed beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) system, was used to characterise two morphologically dissimilar plant cell suspension cultures, Morinda citrifolia and Centaurea calcitrapa. Shake-flask suspensions were analysed in terms of biomass concentration and aggregate size/shape over the course of typical batch growth cycles. For the heavily aggregated C. calcitrapa, biomass levels [from 10-160 g fresh weight (fw) l(-1))] were linearly correlated with FBRM counts. For M. citrifolia, which grows in unbranched chains of 2-10 elongated cells, linear correlation of biomass concentration with FBRM counts was applicable in the range 0-100 g fw l(-1); at higher levels (100-300 g fw l(-1)), biomass was non-linearly correlated with FBRM counts and length-weighted average FBRM chord length. For both cell systems, particle morphology (size/shape) was quantified using semi-automated digital image analysis. The average aggregate equivalent diameter (C. calcitrapa) and average chain length (M. citrifolia), determined using image analysis, closely tracked the FBRM average chord length. The data clearly demonstrate the potential for applying the FBRM technique for rapid characterisation of plant cell suspension cultures.

  14. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  15. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  16. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  17. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  18. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  19. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  20. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation. PMID:24324859

  1. 78 FR 65938 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the Inyo California towhee (Pipilo crissalis eremophilus = Melozone crissalis eremophilus) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife due to recovery. This action is based on a review of the best available scientific and commercial information, which indicates that the species is no longer threatened with......

  2. 77 FR 51958 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... Bay skipper as an endangered species. Species Information The Bay skipper, a small butterfly, was... base to the margin (Shuey 1989, p. 165; Vaughan and Shepherd 2005, pp. 1-2; Butterflies and Moths of... (Karl et al. 2009, pp. 5-6). Researchers studying butterfly community response to hurricane and...

  3. 76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered, and Proposed Listing of the Cassius Blue, Ceraunus Blue, and Nickerbean Blue Butterflies as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance to the Miami Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for...

  4. 75 FR 43853 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List the Medium Tree-Finch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ... medium tree- finch's habitat is a lush evergreen cloud forest dominated by Scalesia pedunculata (daisy...: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife..., Chief, Branch of Foreign Species, Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401...

  5. 77 FR 25112 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California and Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... threatened or endangered is accurate. A 5-year review assesses the best scientific and commercial data....'' ] Individuals who are hearing-impaired or speech-impaired may call the Federal Relay Service at (800) 877-8337... portion of its range. We must support delisting by the best scientific and commercial data available,...

  6. 78 FR 11766 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Special Rule for the Polar Bear Under Section 4(d...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...; Special Rule for the Polar Bear Under Section 4(d) of the Endangered Species Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... conservation of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), while also including appropriate prohibitions from section 9... rule) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et al), for the polar bear. The District Court for the District of...

  7. 75 FR 24545 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear in the United States AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... proposed designation of critical habitat for the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) under the Endangered Species... habitat for the polar bear and on the DEA, and an amended required determinations section of the...

  8. 75 FR 39656 - Listing Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ... species (16 U.S.C. 1532 (16)). The ESA defines an endangered species as ``any species which is in danger... animals have a higher capacity for buffering pH changes, and that the tolerance of CO2 by marine fish appears to be very high. Porbeagle sharks are an active, highly migratory species, and active animals...

  9. 76 FR 30957 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Draft Recovery Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... size and range; changes in forest age structure and density within the squirrel's habitat; loss of habitat due to development, road construction, and forest fire; and competition with the introduced Abert... as an endangered species under the Act on June 3, 1987 (52 FR 20994). We designated critical...

  10. 78 FR 23533 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the Wood Bison

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... on a Petition To Delist the Wood Bison AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... finding on a petition to delist the wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) under the Endangered Species Act... substantial information indicating that delisting the wood bison subspecies may be warranted. Therefore,...

  11. 75 FR 8736 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Request for Scoping Comments and Intent To Prepare...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Protections Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (Act; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.), wood bison are listed as... Experimental Population of Wood Bison in Alaska AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... potential proposed rule to establish an experimental population of wood bison (Bison bison athabascae)...

  12. 78 FR 43123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determinations on the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AZ20; RIN 1018-AX71 Endangered and Threatened... Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rules; Reopening of the Comment Period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and...

  13. 77 FR 75091 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-19

    ... vertebrate fish or wildlife which interbreeds when mature.'' The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) and... or endangered. A population segment of a vertebrate species may be considered discrete if it... different DPSs of the same vertebrate taxon. Previous Federal Actions The southern Selkirk...

  14. 76 FR 17664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, City of Scotts Valley and Santa Cruz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Availability of Documents You may download a copy of the IPHCP, IAs and related... phone. Individuals wishing copies of the Draft IPHCP, Draft EA, and/or Draft IAs, should contact the...) at 50 CFR part 17 prohibit the ``take'' of fish or wildlife species listed as endangered...

  15. 77 FR 13251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Nine Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... darter, Virginia fringed mountain snail, Virginia big-eared bat, Hay's Spring amphipod, Lee County Cave........... March 11, 1967; 32 FR 4001. Virginia fringed mountain snail. Polygyriscus Endangered........ U.S.A.; VA... fringed mountain Michael Drummond, U.S. Fish and snail. (804) 693-6694; e- Wildlife Service, mail...

  16. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... River physa snail and bull trout, submit information to: Branch Chief, Classification and Recovery... (for Snake River physa snail and bull trout). Individuals who are hearing impaired or speech impaired...). Population. Snail, Snake River physa........ Physa natricina... Endangered........ U.S.A. (ID)....... 57...

  17. 75 FR 1567 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... on a Petition to List the Eastern Population of the Gopher Tortoise as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... population of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of... eastern population of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) as threatened in the Federal Register...

  18. 77 FR 70987 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review for a Petition To List the Ashy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... for a Petition To List the Ashy Storm-Petrel as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... collection period regarding the status of the ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa) throughout its range in the United States. The status review will include analysis of whether the ashy storm-petrel may...

  19. 77 FR 14061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Northern Spotted Owl

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ...The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) proposes to revise the designated critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Consistent with the best scientific data available, the standards of the Act, our regulations, and agency practice, we have initially identified, for public comment, approximately......

  20. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or USFWS), are proposing to remove the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. This rule focuses on the Wyoming portion of the Northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) Distinct Population Segment (DPS), except where discussion of the larger Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) or NRM metapopulation (a population......

  1. 76 FR 23265 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Smooth...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-26

    ... facsimile to 772-562-4288. If you use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD), please call the..., Florida, requesting that the smooth- billed ani (Crotophaga ani), a bird, be listed as endangered under... been included on the list of birds of conservation concern in peninsular Florida in 2002 and that...

  2. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...; February 11, 2008); Beluga whale, Cook Inlet DPS, as endangered (73 FR 62919; October 22, 2008); Black... 6895), to (73 FR 72210). designate critical habitat. Black abalone Haliotiscracherodi January 11, 2008...)'', and ``Steelhead (Puget Sound DPS)''; and under SNAILSfor ``Abalone, black'' to read as set forth...

  3. 76 FR 75858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...-Month Extension of Final Determination for the Proposed Listing of the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard as... determination of whether to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) (lizard) as endangered and... published a proposed rule (75 FR 77801) to list the dunes sagebrush lizard, a lizard known from...

  4. 75 FR 9377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Flat- Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION..., proposed rule to list the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) as threatened under the Endangered..., 1993 (58 FR 62624), to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species, and reopens...

  5. 76 FR 14209 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Withdrawal of Proposed Rule To List the Flat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... described in section 4(a)(1) of the Act, are likely to endanger the species in the foreseeable future... described by Hallowell in 1852, no subspecies have been described or are recognized for the flat-tailed... generalizations, as described below. Flat-tailed horned lizards are also known to occur at the edges of...

  6. Response of the aphid parasitoid Aphidius funebris to volatiles from undamaged and aphid-infested Centaurea nigra.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Martín; Moraes, Maria C B; Clark, Suzanne J; Birkett, Michael A; Powell, Wilf

    2007-04-01

    Two issues have hindered the understanding of the ecology and evolution of volatile-mediated tritrophic interactions: few studies have addressed noncrop systems; and few statistical techniques have been applied that are suitable for the analysis of complex volatile blends. In this paper, we addressed both of these issues by studying the noncrop system involving the plant Centaurea nigra, the specialist aphid Uroleucon jaceae, and the parasitoid Aphidius funebris. In a Y-tube olfactometer, A. funebris was attracted to the odor from undamaged C. nigra, but preferred the plant-host complex (PHC) after 3 d of feeding by 200 U. jaceae over the undamaged plant, but not after three or 5 d of feeding by 50 U. jaceae. When aphids were removed, the initial preference for the damaged plant remained, but the final preference was not greater than for the undamaged plant. No qualitative differences were detected between the headspaces of C. nigra and the C. nigra-U. jaceae PHC. For quantitative analysis, we used a compositional approach, which treats each compound produced as part of a blend, and not as a compound released in isolation, thus allowing analysis of the relative contribution of each compound to the blend as a whole. With this approach, subtle increases and decreases of some green leaf volatiles and monoterpenoids on the third day of aphid infestation were detected. Mechanically damaged C. nigra had a volatile profile that differed from undamaged C. nigra and the PHC. One and 10 ng of (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, and 10 or 100 ng of 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one were attractive to the parasitoid when placed in solution on filter paper. A. funebris appears to be using a combination of chemical cues to locate host-infested plants.

  7. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A threatened species is one in danger of becoming an endangered species...

  8. Anti-inflammatory and immunological effects of Centaurea cyanus flower-heads.

    PubMed

    Garbacki, N; Gloaguen, V; Damas, J; Bodart, P; Tits, M; Angenot, L

    1999-12-15

    Centaurea cyanus flower-heads are used in European phytotherapy for the treatment of minor ocular inflammations. Different pharmacological experiments (inhibition of carrageenan, zymosan and croton oil-induced oedemas, inhibition of plasma haemolytic activity, induction of anaphylatoxin activity) showed that polysaccharides extracted from C. cyanus flower-heads had anti-inflammatory properties and interfered with complement. Moreover, these polysaccharides were found to be mainly composed of galacturonic acid, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose and galactose.

  9. A new flavonoid and other constituents from Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Leila; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Samir; Mosset, Paul; Lobstein, Annelise; Chaabi, Mehdi; León, Francisco; Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime; Benayache, Fadila

    2012-01-01

    A new flavone glucoside, apigenin 4'-(6″-methylglucuronide) (1), together with six known compounds, cirsilineol, jaceosidin, melitensin, apigenin, apigenin 7-(6″-methylglucuronide) and prunasin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M. (Asteraceae) collected from Souk-Ahras, eastern Algeria. The structures were established by spectral analysis, mainly HRESI-MS, UV and 2D-NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC).

  10. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L; Pandey, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations.

  11. 76 FR 61895 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the northern leopard frog (Lithobates (=Rana) pipiens) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the northern leopard frog is not warranted at this time. However, we ask the public to submit to us any......

  12. 76 FR 45129 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Gopher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in the eastern portion of its range (east of the Mobile and Tombigbee Rivers) as threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In this finding, we also evaluate whether the status of the gopher......

  13. 78 FR 15624 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Yellow-Billed Parrot With Special Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine threatened status for the yellow-billed parrot (Amazona collaria) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for this species. We are also publishing a special rule for this species. In addition, we are correcting the special rule for the salmon-crested......

  14. 78 FR 64357 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Bi-State Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the Bi-State distinct population segment (DPS) of greater sage- grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also propose a special rule under section 4(d) of the Act to provide for the conservation of the Bi-State DPS of greater sage-grouse. If finalized, the......

  15. Novel weapons and invasion: biogeographic differences in the competitive effects of Centaurea maculosa and its root exudate (+/-)-catechin.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Ming; Feng, Yulong; Ridenour, Wendy M; Thelen, Giles C; Pollock, Jarrod L; Diaconu, Alecu; Callaway, Ragan M

    2009-04-01

    Recent studies suggest that the invasive success of Centaurea maculosa may be related to its stronger allelopathic effects on native North American species than on related European species, one component of the "novel weapons" hypothesis. Other research indicates that C. maculosa plants from the invasive range in North America have evolved to be larger and better competitors than conspecifics from the native range in Europe, a component of the "evolution of increased competitive ability" hypothesis. These hypotheses are not mutually exclusive, but this evidence sets the stage for comparing the relative importance of evolved competitive ability to inherent competitive traits. In a competition experiment with a large number of C. maculosa populations, we found no difference in the competitive effects of C. maculosa plants from North America and Europe on other species. However, both North American and European C. maculosa were much better competitors against plants native to North America than congeners native to Romania, collected in areas where C. maculosa is also native. These results are consistent with the novel weapons hypothesis. But, in a second experiment using just one population from North America and Europe, and where North American and European species were collected from a broader range of sites, competitive interactions were weaker overall, and the competitive effects of C. maculosa were slightly stronger against European species than against North American species. Also consistent with the novel weapons hypothesis, (+/-)-catechin had stronger effects on native North American species than on native European species in two experiments. Our results suggest that the regional composition of the plant communities being invaded by C. maculosa may be more important for invasive success than the evolution of increased size and competitive ability.

  16. Propagation and Introduction of Arnica montana L. into Cultivation: A Step to Reduce the Pressure on Endangered and High-Valued Medicinal Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive traits were monitored, and survival time was assessed. The particular ways of arnica plant propagation and introduction determined all the intrinsic species traits and plant survival. The values of the characteristics studied indicated good acclimatization of the arnica ecotype to the climatic conditions of eastern Poland. Practical implications from the data presented here include the possibility of using the presented modes of arnica propagation and introduction in the short- and long-term perspective of arnica cultivation, which can give a possibility of better adjustment of raw material production. PMID:24282381

  17. Propagation and introduction of Arnica montana L. into cultivation: a step to reduce the pressure on endangered and high-valued medicinal plant species.

    PubMed

    Sugier, Danuta; Sugier, Piotr; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive traits were monitored, and survival time was assessed. The particular ways of arnica plant propagation and introduction determined all the intrinsic species traits and plant survival. The values of the characteristics studied indicated good acclimatization of the arnica ecotype to the climatic conditions of eastern Poland. Practical implications from the data presented here include the possibility of using the presented modes of arnica propagation and introduction in the short- and long-term perspective of arnica cultivation, which can give a possibility of better adjustment of raw material production.

  18. Genetically engineered plants, endangered species, and risk: a temporal and spatial exposure assessment for Karner blue butterfly larvae and Bt maize pollen.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert K D; Meyer, Steven J; Wolf, Amy T; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Davis, Paula M

    2006-06-01

    Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin proteins has been adopted widely in the Midwestern United States. The proteins are toxic to several lepidopteran species and because a variety of maize tissues, including pollen, may express the endotoxins, the probability of exposure to nontarget species, including endangered species, needs to be understood. The objective of this study was to assess the potential temporal and spatial exposure of endangered Karner blue butterfly larvae (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bt maize pollen in Wisconsin using probabilistic exposure techniques and geographic information systems analysis. Based on degree-day modeling of butterfly phenology and maize pollen shed, there is some potential for temporal exposure of larvae to maize pollen. However, in the majority of years and locations, maize pollen shed most likely will occur after the majority of larval feeding on wild lupine (Lupinus perennis). The spatial analysis indicates that some Karner blue butterfly populations occur in close proximity to maize fields, but in the vast majority of cases the butterfly's host plant and maize fields are separated by more than 500 m. A small number of potential or existing Karner blue butterfly sites are located near maize fields, including sites in two of the four counties where temporal overlap is most likely. The exposure assessment indicates that these two counties should receive the highest priority to determine if Karner blue butterfly larvae are actually at risk and then, if needed, to reduce or prevent exposure.

  19. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  20. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H; Paterson, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach's speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010-2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  1. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity.

  2. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  3. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Threatened and endangered species. 230... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  4. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section 257... and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife. (b) The...

  5. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Threatened and endangered species. 230... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  6. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife....

  7. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Threatened and endangered species. 230... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  8. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife....

  9. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife....

  10. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Threatened and endangered species. 230... Impacts on Biological Characteristics of the Aquatic Ecosystem § 230.30 Threatened and endangered species. (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  11. 40 CFR 257.3-2 - Endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Endangered species. 257.3-2 Section... Disposal Facilities and Practices § 257.3-2 Endangered species. (a) Facilities or practices shall not cause or contribute to the taking of any endangered or threatened species of plants, fish, or wildlife....

  12. High-performance liquid chromatography based chemical fingerprint analysis and chemometric approaches for the identification and distinction of three endangered Panax plants in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Xia, Pengguo; Bai, Zhenqing; Liang, Tongyao; Yang, Dongfeng; Liang, Zongsuo; Yan, Xijun; Liu, Yan

    2016-10-01

    Among Panax genus, only three endangered species Panax notoginseng, P. vietnamensis, and P. stipuleanatus that have a similar morphology are mainly distributed in Southeast Asia. These three plants are usually misidentified or adulterated. To identify them well, their chemical chromatographic fingerprints were established by an effective high-performance liquid chromatography method. By comparing the chromatograms, the three Panax species could be distinguished easily using the 22 characteristic peaks. Besides, the data of the chromatographic fingerprints aided by chemometric approaches were applied for the identification and investigation the relationship of different samples and species. Using similarity analysis, the chemical components revealed higher similarity between P. vietnamensis and P. stipuleanatus. The results of hierarchical clustering analysis indicated that samples belonging to the same species could be clustered together. The result of principal component analysis was similar with hierarchical clustering analysis and the three principal components accounted for >80.5% of total variability.

  13. Long-term conservation through cryopreservation of immature seed of Mantisia spathulata and Mantisia wengeri; two endangered plants of north-east India.

    PubMed

    Das Bhowmik, S S; Kumaria, S; Tandon, P

    2011-01-01

    A successful protocol for long-term conservation of two endangered plants viz. Mantisia spathulata and M. wengeri has been devised through cryopreservation of immature seeds. Immature seeds of both the species were precultured in 0.6 M Sucrose and 2 M Glycerol for 3 h at 24 ± 2 degree C. Precultured seeds were then desiccated under the airflow of 27 ± 3 m min -1 velocity inside laminar air flow cabinet for different time periods. The seeds were then cryostored in liquid nitrogen for an hour. A maximum of 40 percent and 36.6 percent seed germination was recorded after cryostorage at moisture contents of 26.0 percent and 16.2 percent for M. spathulata and M. wengeri respectively. To protect these rare plants against loss due to disease, insect damage, or natural disaster a back up collection has been established using the protocol and applied to a large number of immature seeds that were obtained from the ex situ plants growing in the experimental garden of the North-eastern Hill University, Shillong.

  14. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  15. Genetic diversity and structure of native and non-native populations of the endangered plant Pinus dabeshanensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Wang, H; Chen, W; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2016-06-10

    Owing to a severe decline in its abundance, Pinus dabeshanensis has been listed as an endangered species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Although several restoration events have been undertaken since the 1960s, the natural population genetic structure of this species remains to be investigated. Herein, we examined the level of genetic diversity and structure of two native and two non-native populations using 10 microsatellite loci. A relatively high level of genetic variation (HO = 0.586 ± 0.039) and a low level of population differentiation (FST = 0.016 ± 0.011) were revealed. For forensic investigation, an assignment test was performed. To better understand the genetic differentiation between the native and non-native populations, the individuals in the transplanted and cultivated populations may have derived from populations that were not surveyed in this study. In light of our results, we discuss the real problems faced by all four populations and provide useful information for management decision-making.

  16. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... var. aestivalis), clay phacelia (Phacelia argillacea), Colorado butterfly plant (Gaura neomexicana ssp....A. (UT)....... September 28, 1978 argillacea. (43 FR 44810). Colorado butterfly plant........ Gaura....gov. Review, 2369 West Orton Circle, Suite 50, West Valley City, UT 84119. Colorado butterfly...

  17. 76 FR 59623 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...), please call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 800-877-8339. For information regarding... residential settings, because they are deliberately planted or started by bird droppings (Cobb 2011, pers... intentionally planted or started by bird droppings (Cobb 2011, pers. comm.). Peigler and Kendall (1993, p....

  18. 76 FR 36491 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Eskimo Curlew; Initiation of 5-Year Status Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Labrador, feeding on berries in nearby uplands and invertebrates in intertidal habitats (Gill et al. 1998... (List) in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants)....

  19. 77 FR 43218 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... dark peripheral band (Bequaert and Miller 1973, p. 110). Because shells of Sonorella are weakly... and decaying plant matter (Hoffman 1990, p. 7; Hoffman 1995, p. 6; AGFD 2008, p. 2). Sonorella...

  20. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...