Science.gov

Sample records for endangered plant centaurea

  1. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  2. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed (Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed (Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l(-1) kinetin and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  3. Allele identification for transcriptome-based population genomics in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Dlugosch, Katrina M; Lai, Zhao; Bonin, Aurélie; Hierro, José; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptome sequences are becoming more broadly available for multiple individuals of the same species, providing opportunities to derive population genomic information from these datasets. Using the 454 Life Science Genome Sequencer FLX and FLX-Titanium next-generation platforms, we generated 11-430 Mbp of sequence for normalized cDNA for 40 wild genotypes of the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis, yellow starthistle, from across its worldwide distribution. We examined the impact of sequencing effort on transcriptome recovery and overlap among individuals. To do this, we developed two novel publicly available software pipelines: SnoWhite for read cleaning before assembly, and AllelePipe for clustering of loci and allele identification in assembled datasets with or without a reference genome. AllelePipe is designed specifically for cases in which read depth information is not appropriate or available to assist with disentangling closely related paralogs from allelic variation, as in transcriptome or previously assembled libraries. We find that modest applications of sequencing effort recover most of the novel sequences present in the transcriptome of this species, including single-copy loci and a representative distribution of functional groups. In contrast, the coverage of variable sites, observation of heterozygosity, and overlap among different libraries are all highly dependent on sequencing effort. Nevertheless, the information gained from overlapping regions was informative regarding coarse population structure and variation across our small number of population samples, providing the first genetic evidence in support of hypothesized invasion scenarios.

  4. Allele Identification for Transcriptome-Based Population Genomics in the Invasive Plant Centaurea solstitialis

    PubMed Central

    Dlugosch, Katrina M.; Lai, Zhao; Bonin, Aurélie; Hierro, José; Rieseberg, Loren H.

    2013-01-01

    Transcriptome sequences are becoming more broadly available for multiple individuals of the same species, providing opportunities to derive population genomic information from these datasets. Using the 454 Life Science Genome Sequencer FLX and FLX-Titanium next-generation platforms, we generated 11−430 Mbp of sequence for normalized cDNA for 40 wild genotypes of the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis, yellow starthistle, from across its worldwide distribution. We examined the impact of sequencing effort on transcriptome recovery and overlap among individuals. To do this, we developed two novel publicly available software pipelines: SnoWhite for read cleaning before assembly, and AllelePipe for clustering of loci and allele identification in assembled datasets with or without a reference genome. AllelePipe is designed specifically for cases in which read depth information is not appropriate or available to assist with disentangling closely related paralogs from allelic variation, as in transcriptome or previously assembled libraries. We find that modest applications of sequencing effort recover most of the novel sequences present in the transcriptome of this species, including single-copy loci and a representative distribution of functional groups. In contrast, the coverage of variable sites, observation of heterozygosity, and overlap among different libraries are all highly dependent on sequencing effort. Nevertheless, the information gained from overlapping regions was informative regarding coarse population structure and variation across our small number of population samples, providing the first genetic evidence in support of hypothesized invasion scenarios. PMID:23390612

  5. Allele identification for transcriptome-based population genomics in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Dlugosch, Katrina M; Lai, Zhao; Bonin, Aurélie; Hierro, José; Rieseberg, Loren H

    2013-02-01

    Transcriptome sequences are becoming more broadly available for multiple individuals of the same species, providing opportunities to derive population genomic information from these datasets. Using the 454 Life Science Genome Sequencer FLX and FLX-Titanium next-generation platforms, we generated 11-430 Mbp of sequence for normalized cDNA for 40 wild genotypes of the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis, yellow starthistle, from across its worldwide distribution. We examined the impact of sequencing effort on transcriptome recovery and overlap among individuals. To do this, we developed two novel publicly available software pipelines: SnoWhite for read cleaning before assembly, and AllelePipe for clustering of loci and allele identification in assembled datasets with or without a reference genome. AllelePipe is designed specifically for cases in which read depth information is not appropriate or available to assist with disentangling closely related paralogs from allelic variation, as in transcriptome or previously assembled libraries. We find that modest applications of sequencing effort recover most of the novel sequences present in the transcriptome of this species, including single-copy loci and a representative distribution of functional groups. In contrast, the coverage of variable sites, observation of heterozygosity, and overlap among different libraries are all highly dependent on sequencing effort. Nevertheless, the information gained from overlapping regions was informative regarding coarse population structure and variation across our small number of population samples, providing the first genetic evidence in support of hypothesized invasion scenarios. PMID:23390612

  6. Shift in cytotype frequency and niche space in the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa.

    PubMed

    Treier, Urs A; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Guisan, Antoine; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Polyploidy is often assumed to increase the spread and thus the success of alien plant species, but few empirical studies exist. We tested this hypothesis with Centaurea maculosa Lam., a species native to Europe and introduced into North America approximately 120 years ago where it became highly invasive. We analyzed the ploidy level of more than 2000 plants from 93 native and 48 invasive C. maculosa populations and found a pronounced shift in the relative frequency of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. In Europe diploid populations occur in higher frequencies than tetraploids and only four populations had both cytotypes, while in North America diploid plants were found in only one mixed population and thus tetraploids clearly dominated. Our results showed a pronounced shift in the climatic niche between tetraploid populations in the native and introduced range toward drier climate in North America and a similar albeit smaller shift between diploids and tetraploids in the native range. The field data indicate that diploids have a predominately monocarpic life cycle, while tetraploids are often polycarpic. Additionally, the polycarpic life-form seems to be more prevalent among tetraploids in the introduced range than among tetraploids in the native range. Our study suggests that both ploidy types of C. maculosa were introduced into North America, but tetraploids became the dominant cytotype with invasion. We suggest that the invasive success of C. maculosa is partly due to preadaptation of the tetraploid cytotype in Europe to drier climate and possibly further adaptation to these conditions in the introduced range. The potential for earlier and longer seed production associated with the polycarpic life cycle constitutes an additional factor that may have led to the dominance of tetraploids over diploids in the introduced range.

  7. Micropropagation of endangered plant species.

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhihua; Chen, Min; Sun, Xiaofen; Tang, Kexuan

    2006-01-01

    This chapter describes the multiple-shoot-based methods of micropropagation for endangered plant species. Taxus and aloe are used here as examples. For Taxus, the process of micropropagation includes initiating multiple shoots, elongating shoots, rooting shoots, and transplanting plantlets. For aloe, the process of micropropagation includes initiating multiple shoots, rooting shoots, and transplanting plantlets.

  8. Widespread seed limitation affects plant density but not population trajectory in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In some plant populations, the availability of seeds strongly regulates recruitment. However, a scarcity of germination microsites, granivory or density dependent mortality can reduce the number of plants that germinate or survive to flowering. The relative strength of these controls is unknown for ...

  9. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  10. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  11. Biocontrol attack exacerbates pollen-limitation in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollen-limited seed set is rarely studied in invasive plants despite the fact that >50% of the most problematic invaders in North America are pollinator-dependent. Further, pollinators are rarely considered in the use biocontrol agents to manage invaders. The ecological literature shows that herbivo...

  12. Anti-inflammatory activities of eleven Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin.

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezső; Widowitz, Ute; Blazsó, Gábor; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Tatsimo, Joel S N; Balogh, Agnes; Boros, Klára; Dankó, Balázs; Bauer, Rudolf; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed at the identification of anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of C. sadleriana extract after per os administration in rats, the identification of the active compounds of the plant and the investigation of the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Centaurea species native to or cultivated in the Carpathian Basin. The aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka have been used in Hungarian folk medicine to treat the wounds of sheep. Methanol extract of C. sadleriana was fractioned by solvent-solvent partitioning. The n-hexane fraction was further fractionated and the anti-inflammatory activities of certain subfractions were confirmed in vivo in rats. The n-hexane and chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of C. sadleriana exhibited remarkable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting effects in vitro. Chromatographic separation of the fractions led to the identification of the active subfractions and 11 compounds (α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, vanillin, pectolinarigenin, salvigenin, hispidulin, chrysoeriol and apigenin). The in vitro screening for anti-inflammatory activities of further Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin (C. adjarica, C. bracteata, C. cataonica, C. cynaroides, C. dealbata, C. indurata, C. macrocephala, C. melitensis, C. nigrescens, C. ruthenica) revealed considerable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Because C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of more prevalent species is reasonable. PMID:22674731

  13. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (h) * * * Species Scientific name Common name Historic range Family Status Whenlisted...” to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants in alphabetical order under “FLOWERING...

  14. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (h) * * * § 17.12, Note Species Scientific name Common name Historic range Family Status... List of Endangered and Threatened Plants, effective Oct. 31, 2013. For the convenience of the user,...

  15. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12 Section 17.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered...

  16. 75 FR 11193 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... survival activities for a plant that was recently added to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants... common name), a plant endemic to the island of Molokai, Hawaii. The purpose of these activities is...

  17. 77 FR 25668 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Chupadera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV86 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... assessment. Comments previously submitted need not be resubmitted, as they will be fully considered in...: Background On August 2, 2011 (76 FR 46218), we published a proposed rule to list as endangered and...

  18. Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may benefit some invasive plants, increasing the need for effective invasive plant management. Biological control can be an effective means of managing invasive plants, but the varied responses of plant-insect interactions to climate change make...

  19. 76 FR 45053 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ... to Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (48 FR 53640, November 28... December 5, 1996 (61 FR 64481). This resulted in the deletion of Ipomopsis polyantha from the list of... Notice of Review (CNOR) (70 FR 24870, May 11, 2005) with a listing priority number (LPN) of 2. A...

  20. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12 Section 17.12 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR (CONTINUED) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED)...

  1. 77 FR 74202 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available..., kill, and, for plant species only, remove and reduce to possess) all threatened and endangered...

  2. 77 FR 76065 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Kendall Warm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ..., exotic species, grazing, hydrologic changes, invasive plants, pollution, and energy resource exploration... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan...-772-2374. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or...

  3. 78 FR 16291 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment...

  4. 77 FR 50152 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment...

  5. 78 FR 49761 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment...

  6. 77 FR 32130 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-31

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment...

  7. 77 FR 16254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment...

  8. 78 FR 35953 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment...

  9. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  10. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  11. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  12. 76 FR 10063 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  13. 75 FR 20621 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... FR 6052). This rule became effective March 12, 2007. However, three parties challenged this final... Western Great Lakes DPS of the gray wolf (74 FR 15070; effective May 4, 2009). In response to a second... Fish and Wildlife Service ; Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish...

  14. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  15. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  16. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  17. Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.

    PubMed

    Elias, T S

    1983-01-01

    In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980. PMID:17734310

  18. [Medicinal perspective of Hungarian Centaurea species in the light of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezso; Peták, Zsolt; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The genus Centaurea comprises 300-350 species, 22 of which are native to Hungary. Several species have been applied in traditional medicine, however, the rationale of their application has been analyzed only in few studies. The decoction of the aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka, a species native to Hungary, has been used in Hungarian folk medicine for the healing of wounds of livestock. Its ethnomedicinal use was reported first by our research group. There is no data available for similar application of other members of the genus native to Hungary. This paper summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological data of all Hungarian Centaurea species (C. apiculata, C. are-naria, C. banatica, C. biebersteinii, C. calcitrapa, C. cyanus, C. diffusa, C. grinensis, C. indurata, C. jacea, C. macroptilon, C. montana, C. nigrescens, C. pannonica, C. phrygia, C. rhenana, C. sadleriana, C. salonitana, C. scabiosa, C. solstitialis, C. stenolepis, C. triumfettii), focusing on compounds and activities relevant to the anticipated wound healing effect. Certain compounds (eg. sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, polyacetylenes) are characteristic to the genus, and taking into account that they may play role in the anti-inflammatory and wound healing effect, it is plausible that other Centaurea species beyond C. sadleriana would have wound healing promoting effect. Since C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of wound healing effect of more prevalent species is scientifically warranted. PMID:21800712

  19. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma.

  20. Effect of Three Centaurea Species Collected from Central Anatolia Region of Turkey on Human Melanoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Alessandra; Cardile, Venera; Graziano, Adriana C E; Rigano, Daniela; Aktumsek, Abdurrahman; Zengin, Gokhan; Senatore, Felice

    2016-03-01

    Centaurea is the largest genus within the Asteraceae family. Many members of this genus are used in traditional folk medicine, such as Centaurea pulchella used to treat skin problems such as to resolve the abscess. Although biological activities of many Centaurea species have been investigated in different countries and Turkey, cytotoxic effect of C. patula, C. pulchella and C. tchihatcheffii has not been studied yet. Melanoma is one of the most invasive and deadly forms of skin cancer. Therefore, in an ongoing effort to identify new natural anticancer products for the treatment and/or prevention of melanoma cancer, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of these Centaurea species, collected from Central Anatolia region of Turkey on cell growth and death in human melanoma cell line, A375.The results revealed that all extracts were able to inhibit, after 48 h of treatment, the growth of cancer cells, that could be related to an overall action of the phenolic compounds present. In fact, C. pulchella, with the highest level of phenolics, showed a major activity followed by C. patula and C. tchihatcheffii. Our data also demonstrate that these natural products induce apoptotic cell death. In conclusion, the study of plant extracts for their cytotoxic and apoptotic properties has shown that medicinal herbs from Centaurea species might have also importance in the prevention and treatment of melanoma. PMID:27169173

  1. Cytotoxic activities of flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sayed A; Kamel, Emadeldin M

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3',4'-dihydroxy-(3'',4''-dihydro-3''-hydroxy-4''-acetoxy)-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano-(5'',6'':7,8)-flavone-3-O- β -D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3,3',4'-trihydroxy-(3'',4''-dihydro-3'',4''-dihydroxy)-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano-(5'',6'':7,8)-flavone (2), along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3), Apigetrin (4), centaureidin (5), oroxylin A (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavone (7), atalantoflavone (8), 5-hydroxy-3',4',8-trimethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano (5'',6'':6,7)-flavone (9), and 3',4',5,8-tetramethoxy-2'',2''-dimethylpyrano (5'',6'':6,7)-flavone (10). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic tools including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7. Compound 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells with an IC50 0.079  μM. PMID:25114960

  2. Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) volatile composition under elevated temperature and CO2 in the field

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Global climate change is already occurring and may affect biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) involved in plant communication. Whether climate change will promote expansion of invasive species is still unclear. Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is a major invasive weed in western No...

  3. 77 FR 58569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... permit (ITP) TE83706A-0. The applicant requests a 5-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... species listed as endangered or threatened. Take of listed fish or wildlife is defined under the Act...

  4. 78 FR 23947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available...

  5. 76 FR 80960 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications...

  6. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  7. 77 FR 45369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  8. 78 FR 19730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite...

  9. 77 FR 13349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications...

  10. 78 FR 17710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available...

  11. 78 FR 76638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and...

  12. 78 FR 12345 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We invite...

  13. 78 FR 54268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  14. 76 FR 64374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and...

  15. 78 FR 29150 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant...

  16. 78 FR 8575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and ] 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and...

  17. Cytotoxic Activities of Flavonoids from Centaurea scoparia

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sayed A.; Kamel, Emadeldin M.

    2014-01-01

    Phytochemical studies on the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea scoparia led to the isolation of two new flavonoids, 3′,4′-dihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′-hydroxy-4′′-acetoxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1) and 3,3′,4′-trihydroxy-(3′′,4′′-dihydro-3′′,4′′-dihydroxy)-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano-(5′′,6′′:7,8)-flavone (2), along with eight known flavonoids isolated for the first time from this plant, cynaroside (3), Apigetrin (4), centaureidin (5), oroxylin A (6), 5,7-dihydroxy-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxyflavone (7), atalantoflavone (8), 5-hydroxy-3′,4′,8-trimethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7)-flavone (9), and 3′,4′,5,8-tetramethoxy-2′′,2′′-dimethylpyrano (5′′,6′′:6,7)-flavone (10). The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by means of spectroscopic tools including 1D and 2D NMR, UV, IR, and mass spectroscopy. Cytotoxic activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated against human cervical carcinoma HeLa, human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2, and human breast carcinoma MCF-7. Compound 2 was the most potent cytotoxic agent against HeLa cells with an IC50 0.079 μM. PMID:25114960

  18. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program. PMID:27108312

  19. 78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened...

  20. 77 FR 16057 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... notices were published in the Federal Register on July 2, 1999 (64 FR 36032) and June 20, 2000 (65 FR... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and...

  1. 78 FR 39698 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... Bidens micrantha ssp. ctenophylla, which we proposed to list as endangered on October 17, 2012 (77 FR... Caesalpinia kavaiense (we proposed a taxonomic revision for Caesalpinia kavaiense on October 17, 2012 (77 FR... Federal Register (77 FR 63928) to list 15 species (13 plants and 2 animals) found on Hawaii Island...

  2. 76 FR 3391 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sheepnose and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list two freshwater mussels, the spectaclecase mussel (Cumberlandia monodonta) and sheepnose (Plethobasus cyphyus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to these species throughout their ranges, including sheepnose in......

  3. 78 FR 15925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... published in the Federal Register a proposed rule to list the Gunnison sage-grouse as endangered (78 FR 2486... (78 FR 2486 and 2540) is extended to April 2, 2013. Comments submitted electronically using the...-grouse (78 FR 2540) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Each proposed rule has a...

  4. The potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in protecting endangered plants and habitats.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Hermann; Turnau, Katarzyna; Regvar, Marjana

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened with the extinction of plants and, at the same time, invasion by new species. Plant invasiveness and loss of species can be caused by similar but opposing pressures on the community structures. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have multiple positive effects on plant growth, productivity, health, and stress relief. Many endangered species live in symbiosis with AMF. However, the list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) indicates that the mycorrhizal status of most of the threatened species has not been assessed. Rare plants often occur in specialized and also endangered habitats and might utilize specialized or unique AMF. The specificity of any endangered plant to its AMF population has not been investigated. Because most of the current AMF isolates that are available colonize a broad range of plant species, selected inocula could be used to promote growth of endangered plants before the proper and more effective indigenous AMF are characterized. Application of AMF in field sites to protect endangered plants is hardly feasible due to the complexity of plant community structures and the large amount of fungal inocula needed. Endangered plants could, however, be grown as greenhouse cultures together with appropriate fungi, and, at the relevant developmental stage, they could be re-planted into native sites to prevent extinction and to preserve plant community ecology. PMID:20652364

  5. Endangered and threatened plant species on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.

    1984-10-01

    Plant species considered endangered or threatened on the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) were identified through a review of pertinent literature and evaluation of herbarium voucher specimens. Thirteen plant species are on the official Tennessee list of endangered and threatened plants. Three of those species have been proposed for inclusion on the Federal list as rare in Tennessee. These rare plants will be given careful consideration in land-use planning. Protection of endangered and threatened species in their native habitat is considered the best method of ensuring their survival. In addition to habitat preservation, natural history studies of the rare species is important in determ

  6. Mycorrhizal dependency of some endemic and endangered Hawaiian plant species.

    PubMed

    Gemma, J N; Koske, R E; Habte, M

    2002-02-01

    Four endemic species of Hawaiian plants were tested for their response to inoculation with a Hawaiian isolate of Glomus aggregatum (an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus [AMF]) when grown in a native soil with or without P added to achieve different soil-solution P levels. The endangered species (Sesbania tomentosa [Fabaceae] and Colubrina oppositifolia [Rhamnaceae]) and two nonendangered species (Bidens sandvicensis and B. asymmetrica × sandvicensis [Asteraceae]) were tested. When soil-solution P levels in greenhouse trials were similar to unfertilized field soils (e.g., 0.005-0.020 mg P/L), shoots of inoculated plants were 2.1 to 7.0 times larger than noninoculated plants. Leaf tissue P levels and root biomass in these species showed similar responses to inoculation. Mycorrhizal dependencies ranging from 44 to 88% were measured when plants were grown in low-P soils and were -4-42% in soil with P levels typical of highly productive agricultural soils. A survey of P levels in a variety of native (nonagricultural) Hawaiian soils indicated the widespread occurrence of P-limited sites (mean = 0.010 mg P/L, range = <0.001-0.030 mg P/L; N = 41). The terms "ecological mycorrhizal dependency" (EMD) and "agricultural mycorrhizal dependency" (AMD) are introduced to refine the concept of mycorrhizal dependency. PMID:21669742

  7. 77 FR 28347 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation Actions Under the Endangered Species Act... conservation efforts that could reduce or eliminate the need to list species as endangered or threatened. If... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT). Background On March 15, 2012 (77 FR 15352), we published an advance...

  8. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  9. 77 FR 15352 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-15

    ... Communications and Candidate Conservation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Room 420... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Parts 13, 17, and 402 RIN 1018-AY29 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation Actions Under the Endangered Species...

  10. 77 FR 2311 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY... rabbitsfoot Quadrula fragosa Winged mapleleaf ] Villosa fabalis Rayed bean Villosa trabilis Cumberland bean As... species: Clubshell, Cracking pearlymussel, Cumberland bean, Cumberland combshell, Cumberland...

  11. 78 FR 24768 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-26

    ... includes a two year scientific research study of acoustic deterrents, wind turbine operational experiments... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  12. 78 FR 32686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  13. 76 FR 30958 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  14. 76 FR 50246 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request...

  15. 77 FR 73495 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... 50 CFR part 17, the Act provides for permits, and requires that we invite public comment before... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened...

  16. 77 FR 73494 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... 50 CFR part 17, the Act provides for permits, and requires that we invite public comment before... threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened...

  17. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  18. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  19. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  20. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-19

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  1. 77 FR 60749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Species Status for the Florida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... FPL = Florida Power and Light FR = Federal Register FSPSP = Fakahatchee Strand Preserve State Park... published a Review of Vertebrate Wildlife for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (50 FR 37958... to support a listing proposal. In a January 6, 1989, Animal Notice of Review (54 FR 554), the...

  2. 76 FR 46218 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Chupadera...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... whether there are threats to the species from human activity, the degree of which can be expected to...) Land use designations and current or planned activities in the subject areas and their possible impacts... Wildlife for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (49 FR 21664). Candidates are those fish,...

  3. 78 FR 33300 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ...: We, NMFS, have completed comprehensive status reviews under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of five... review on the remaining five species (Anoxypristis cuspidata; Pristis clavata; Pristis microdon; Pristis zijsron; and all non-listed population(s) of Pristis pectinata). During our status review, new...

  4. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ..., Notice of Review of Invertebrate Wildlife for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (49 FR 21664..., 1976 (41 FR 17742). At that time, the Phantom Cave snail (Pyrgulopsis texana) was referred to as the... snail. The proposal was withdrawn on March 6, 1979 (44 FR 12382), following 1978 amendments to the...

  5. 78 FR 35201 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing All Chimpanzees as Endangered

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... of primates under the Act (41 FR 45990); the chimpanzee and 13 of the other primate species were... reclassified from threatened to endangered. On March 23, 1988 (53 FR 9460), we published in the Federal... comments and information. On December 28, 1988 (53 FR 52452), we published in the Federal Register...

  6. 78 FR 41227 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for Six...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... endangered on August 16, 2012 (77 FR 49602). We also reopened the public comment on the proposed rules on February 5, 2013 (78 FR 8096). A complete description of the previous Federal actions for these species can be found in the Previous Federal Actions section of the August 16, 2012, proposed rules (77 FR...

  7. 76 FR 57943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the List of Endangered and Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ..., Federal Register (76 FR 53379), we announced the reopening of the comment period for our May 5, 2011, proposed rule (76 FR 26086) to provide for public review and comment of additional information regarding...; Revising the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife for the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) in the...

  8. 76 FR 33879 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... published in the Federal Register on October 13, 1998 (63 FR 54938), and our critical habitat designation published in the Federal Register on November 8, 2006 (71 FR 65662). Previous Federal Action Monardella linoides ssp. viminea was listed as endangered in 1998 (63 FR 54938; October 13, 1998). An account...

  9. 78 FR 48134 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding and Proposed Endangered Listing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-07

    ... FR 33300) in response to a petition submitted by WildEarth Guardians requesting we list six sawfish... endangered under the ESA on 4 June 2013 (78 FR 33300). As part of the proposal we provided a 60-day public comment period, scheduled to end August 5, 2013. We received a request to extend the public comment...

  10. 77 FR 60777 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ... to list the coqu llanero as an endangered species (76 FR 63420). In that document, we explained that... Register (74 FR 32510) our finding that the petition to list the coqu llanero presented substantial... species. On October 12, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 63420) our 12-month finding...

  11. 78 FR 61003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... bonneted bat as an endangered species (77 FR 60750). After careful consideration of all public and peer... October 4, 2012, are outlined in our proposed rule (77 FR 60750), which was published on that date. Publication of the proposed rule (77 FR 60750) opened a 60-day comment period, which closed on December...

  12. 78 FR 57749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    ... proposed rule (77 FR 59518) to list the Mount Charleston blue butterfly as endangered, and the lupine blue.... 8-9). In the September 27, 2012, proposed rule (77 FR 59518), we identified Lee Meadows to be... FR 59518), we identified the Bonanza Trail location (Location 10) as presumed occupied. Detections...

  13. 75 FR 18959 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... Proposed for Listing as Threatened or Endangered (CNOR) (73 FR 75176, December 10, 2008). On May 4, 2004... (70 FR 24870), September 12, 2006 (71 FR 53756), December 6, 2007 (72 FR 69033), and December 10, 2008 (73 FR 75176). On October 11, 2007, we received a petition from Dr. Eric VanderWerf and the...

  14. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... sage-grouse as endangered (78 FR 2486) and a proposed rule to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse (78 FR 2540). We proposed to designate as critical habitat approximately 1,704,227... section for our proposal to designate critical habitat for the Gunnison sage-grouse (78 FR 57604). In...

  15. 75 FR 70169 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Endangered Status for the Hawaiian...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... false killer whale warranted listing under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA) (75 FR 316). ESA... have adopted a joint policy describing what ] constitutes a DPS of a taxonomic species (61 FR 4722... When Making Listing Decisions (PECE policy; 68 FR 15100). Status Review and Approach of the BRT...

  16. 76 FR 61956 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Ozark Hellbender Salamander

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... adding species to these lists. We published a proposed rule (75 FR 54561) to list the Ozark Hellbender... action (75 FR 54561). We implemented the Service's peer review process and opened a 60-day comment period... International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) (75 FR 54579). The final rule for...

  17. 78 FR 57409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review...

  18. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzanna M; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Poore, Alistair G B; Bain, Keryn F; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  19. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Poore, Alistair G.B.; Bain, Keryn F.; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  20. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies. PMID:24824586

  1. Rare and endangered species of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; endangered, threatened, and rare animal, plant, and community handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Pratt, Thane K.; Foote, David; Marcos Gorresen, mgorresen@usgs.gov

    2011-01-01

    In some cases, HAVO offers the best opportunity to save these species and communities from extinction. Increasingly, the park has attempted to restore rare populations by conducting surveys to locate them, controlling threats such as feral livestock, and bolstering existing populations or creating new ones by planting nursery stock. To aid such efforts, our original intent was to publish an identification guide for researchers and field management personnel. Particularly, we wanted to familiarize the reader with the many rare plant species which otherwise are known mainly from the technical literature. Because we soon came to realize that this handbook would be useful to a much larger, general readership, our aim is to make this information available to anyone interested in endangered animals and plants at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

  2. 77 FR 43349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... actions must not jeopardize the existence of federally listed fish, wildlife, or plants. Applicant's... Utilities, Marion County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  3. 76 FR 9809 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... existence of federally listed fish, wildlife, or plants. Applicant's Proposal The applicant is requesting... Holdings, LLC, Volusia County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of...

  4. 78 FR 9724 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... jeopardize the existence of federally listed fish, wildlife, or plants. Applicant's Proposal The applicant is... Corporation, Progress Energy Florida Inc., Lake County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior....

  5. 77 FR 16853 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... actions must not jeopardize the existence of federally listed fish, wildlife, or plants. Applicant's...., Lake County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability;...

  6. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  7. A new species of Centaurea sect. Pseudoseridia (Asteraceae) from north-eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüzbaşıoğlu, İbrahim Sırrı; Bona, Mehmet; Genç, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centaurea ziganensis Yüzb., M. Bona & İ. Genç, a new species is described and illustrated from Gümüşhane province, NE Turkey. The new species grows in rocky places on the south face of Zigana Mountains, and is closely related to Centaurea drabifolioides, from which it differs mainly in stem, achene and phyllary appendage characters. Micromorphological structures of achenes and karyological features of Centaurea ziganensis and Centaurea drabifolioides were examined in this study. PMID:26312039

  8. 76 FR 35906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 12 Species in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    ... Endangered........ U.S.A. (UT)....... September 28, 1978 argillacea. (43 FR 44810). Colorado butterfly plant...)....... October 6, 2005 lincolniana. (70 FR 58335). Madtom, Neosho Noturus placidus.. Threatened........ U.S.A. (KS, MO, May 22, 1990 (55 OK). FR 21148). ] PLANTS Autumn buttercup Ranunculus Endangered...........

  9. 78 FR 47109 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...- 51. The Service published a notice in the Federal Register on July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27824), in which we... Plants. The 1975 notice was superseded on December 15, 1980 (45 FR 82480), by a new comprehensive notice... accumulated information. On November 28, 1983 (48 FR 53640), a supplemental plant notice of review noted...

  10. 78 FR 59334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ...-ES-2013- 0088; 4500030114] RIN 1018-AZ04; RIN 1018-AZ56 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.... DATES: Written Comments: The comment period for the proposed rules published August 29, 2013 (78 FR 53582 and 78 FR 53538) is extended. We will consider comments received or postmarked on or...

  11. 77 FR 55788 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX42 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants.... notatior that was published in the Federal Register on April 17, 2012 (77 FR 23008), our changes to the... ] published in the Federal Register on April 17, 2012 (77 FR 23008)). (7) Whether our approach to...

  12. Rare, threatened, and endangered plant species southwest Florida and potential OCS activity impacts

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, E.D.

    1981-11-01

    This report on rare, threatened, and endangered plants of southwest Florida is a compilation of all species so designated or considered for listing by Federal, State, and private agencies or organizations. Of 274 species in Pinellas, Hillsborough, Manatee, Sarasota, Charlotte, Lee, Collier, and Monroe Counties, 43 occurring in coastal habitats will be most affected by Outer Continental Shelf development.

  13. 78 FR 2421 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-00213, appearing on pages 1879-1880 in...

  14. 78 FR 9409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat... bat (Myotis sodalis) for an additional 30 days. We announced availability of these documents in our...: Field Supervisor at the above U.S. mail address; Email: indiana_bat@fws.gov ; or Fax:...

  15. 77 FR 16512 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX38 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... previously submitted need not be resubmitted and will be fully considered in preparation of the final rule... caribou. On November 30, 2011, we published a proposed rule (76 FR 74018) to designate critical...

  16. 76 FR 68710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... for the proposed rule published June 2, 2011, at 76 FR 32026, is reopened. Written comments on this... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY... habitat for the Hawaiian monk seal under the Endangered Species Act and requesting information related...

  17. 77 FR 37867 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Endangered Species Act (ESA) (76 FR 32044; June 2, 2011). We received public comments in response to the... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY.... ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of 6-month extension of the deadline for a final critical...

  18. 76 FR 16440 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley, San Bernardino...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Town of Apple Valley... expected application from the Town of Apple Valley, CA, for an incidental take permit (ITP) under the... Dale Evans Parkway, Apple Valley, CA 92307. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  19. 77 FR 47432 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application[s

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the...

  20. 78 FR 48899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the...

  1. 78 FR 64529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following...

  2. 75 FR 77651 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... Family YMCA, Volusia County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt; request for comment/information. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received...

  3. 78 FR 30772 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... 78 FR 23983 and 78 FR 24007, are delayed until November 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: You may obtain copies of... Bladderpod)'' (78 FR 23983) and ``Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical... Bluffs Bladderpod)'' (78 FR 24007). The listing final rule implements the Federal protections provided...

  4. 75 FR 35721 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Ipomopsis polyantha

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Review of Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (48 FR 53640, November 28, 1983). In... or on file to support proposed rules'' (48 FR 53641, November 28, 1983). We published our decision to... information to support issuance of a proposed rule on December 5, 1996 (61 FR 64481), This resulted in...

  5. 75 FR 2157 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Timber Harvest in Williamsburg County, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Timber Harvest in...) groups incidental to timber harvesting in Williamsburg County, South Carolina (project). The applicant's... for impacts to the species, timber harvesting activities will not be conducted until all RCWs...

  6. 77 FR 70457 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following...

  7. 76 FR 29005 - Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Applications for Enhancement of Survival Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ..., Fish and Wildlife Biologist, at the above address or by telephone (503-231-6131) or fax (503-231-6243... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Plants and Wildlife; Receipt of Applications for Enhancement of Survival Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of...

  8. 77 FR 67828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... Henson, Fish and Wildlife Biologist, at the above address or by telephone (503-231-6131) or fax (503-231... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  9. 78 FR 44585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Henson, Fish and Wildlife Biologist, at the above address or by telephone (503-231-6131) or fax (503-231... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  10. 77 FR 24216 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Register on April 22, 2009 (74 FR 18396). Public Availability of Comments All comments and materials we... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for...

  11. 76 FR 11258 - Endangered Plants; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ..., Portland, OR 97232-4181. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Linda Belluomini, Fish and Wildlife Biologist, at... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Plants; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of a permit...

  12. 78 FR 23585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following...

  13. 78 FR 68089 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the...

  14. 78 FR 42541 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to ] comment on the...

  15. 75 FR 66122 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game Department...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... also our policy on CCAAs (64 FR 32726; June 17, 1999). The CCAA that is the subject of this notice is a... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game... Game Department (NHFGD) has applied to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) for an...

  16. 76 FR 5606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... Presbyterian Church, Lake County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt; request for comment/information. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received...

  17. 77 FR 62522 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for..., LLC, Lake County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comment/information. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received...

  18. 78 FR 14816 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... Council--Engineering, Volusia County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received...

  19. 76 FR 2076 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Tumbling Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... nonprofit organizations; small governmental jurisdictions, including school boards and city and town... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW90 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants..., 2010 (75 FR 35751), including the draft economic analysis of the proposed designation of...

  20. 75 FR 1568 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ..., including school boards and city and town governments that serve fewer than ] 50,000 residents; and small... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed...), announce the reopening of the comment period on the proposed designation of critical habitat for two...

  1. 75 FR 29700 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Preble's Meadow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-27

    ... small governmental jurisdictions, including school boards and city and town governments that serve fewer... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AV45 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants...) that was published in the Federal Register on October 8, 2009 (74 FR 52066), our draft...

  2. 75 FR 6613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing with Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ... water currents and caused changes in habitat and water quality. The surviving populations are small... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing with... rough hornsnail that was published in the Federal Register on June 29, 2009 (74 FR 31114), the DEA...

  3. 75 FR 62850 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Habitat Conservation Plan for Operation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Habitat Conservation... Island Utility Cooperative on Kaua`i, Hawai`i AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Cooperative (KIUC) (Applicant) has submitted an application to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  4. 77 FR 54434 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... species (76 FR 55623) published in the Federal Register, or the Recovery Plan for Coastal Plants of the....regulations.gov ). Prudency Determination In our proposed listing rule for Arctostaphylos franciscana (76 FR... FR 61909), looks similar but has a growth habit that is more prostrate, leaves that are more...

  5. 78 FR 64839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Vandenberg Monkeyflower

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69222). Vandenberg monkeyflower was given a... 26, 2011 (76 FR 66370), and November 21, 2012 (77 FR 69994). Candidate taxa are plants and animals... pollinators, which results in a mixed mating system that utilizes both self-fertilization and...

  6. 76 FR 20463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Three Forks...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-12

    ... for listing on October 30, 2001 (66 FR 54808). We first identified the San Bernardino springsnail as a candidate for listing on December 6, 2007 (72 FR 69034). Candidates are those fish, wildlife, and plants for... most recent annual Candidate Notice of Review dated November 10, 2010 (75 FR 69222), we retained...

  7. 77 FR 41088 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-12

    ... (48 FR 43098). A listing priority of 2 reflects a species with threats that are both imminent and high.../southwest/es/NewMexico/ . Comments and materials received, as well as supporting documentation used in... Species (49 FR 21664). Candidates are those fish, wildlife, and plants for which we have on...

  8. 78 FR 2485 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    .... Such activities could include, but are not limited to, the construction of vertical structures such as... published until December 28, 2000 (65 FR 82310). Candidate species are plants and animals for which the... to 2 (69 FR 24876; May 4, 2004), as the imminence of the threats had increased. In the...

  9. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits.

  10. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits. PMID:23961155

  11. Effects of fire on threatened and endangered plants: an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hessl, Amy; Spackman, Susan

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography presents basic information about the effects of fm on plants that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lists as endangered or threatened or as category-one (Cl) candidates for federal listing. We searched 23 databases for publications, unpublished reports, and records with pertinent information; summarized and compiled information on the effects of fire from all final rulings on endangered and threatened plants and from endangered species recovery plans for plants; and solicited information from key researchers and agencies involved in fire ecology. The bibliography includes 126 references to the effect of fire on 172 federally listed plant species, or on 26% of the total number of federally listed plant species in these categories. Our study revealed that the total number of relevant articles has been increasing since the 1970s and more rapidly since the 1980s. Although research on fire and rare plants is increasing, an absence of information on many species persists. We hope that this document will facilitate and encourage research in this increasingly important field of botanical conservation.

  12. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétillon, Julien; Puzin, Charlène; Acou, Anthony; Outreman, Yannick

    2009-10-01

    Current models in evolutionary ecology predict life history alterations in response to habitat suitability to optimize fitness. Only few empirical studies have demonstrated how life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other differ among environments. In Europe, many salt marshes have been recently invaded by the grass Elymus athericus. Previous studies however showed higher densities of the endangered spider Arctosa fulvolineata (Araneae: Lycosidae) in invaded salt marshes compared to natural habitats, which suggests a lower habitat suitability in the latter. The aim of this study was to determine if this emerging habitat (1) affects the amount of resource acquisition and (2) alters the balance between life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other in this stenotopic salt marsh species. As suggested by theoretical studies, an optimization of fitness by increasing egg size at the cost of decreasing fecundity in unsuitable (i.e., natural) habitats was expected. Females presenting cocoon were then collected in close invaded and natural salt marsh areas within the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France). By considering female mass as covariate, cocoon mass, number of eggs, and egg volume were compared between both habitats. Clutch mass was strongly determined by female mass in both habitats. Clutch mass was however significantly smaller in the natural habitat compared to the invaded habitat, indicating a higher resource acquisition in the latter. When correcting for female size, fecundity was additionally increased in the invaded habitat through a significant decrease in egg size. This phenotypic response can be explained by differences in habitat structure between invaded and natural habitats: the former offers a more complex litter favoring nocturnal wanderers like A. fulvolineata. The existence of such an adaptive reproduction strategy depending on habitat suitability constitutes an original case of an invasion that favors an

  13. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal...

  14. 75 FR 55820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... MN, MO, NE, WI). (41 FR 24064). Snail, Iowa Pleistocene....... Discus Endangered...... U.S.A. (IA, IL). July 3, 1978 macclintocki. (43 FR 28932). Beetle, Hungerford's crawling Brychius Endangered...... U.S.A. (MI, March 7, 1994 water. hungerfordi. Canada). (59 FR 10580). Plants Missouri bladderpod...

  15. 77 FR 47352 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Graptopetalum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... and Warren 1994, p. 20). While more typically found in tropical deciduous forests and oak woodlands at... Endangered or Threatened Species (45 FR 82480, December 15, 1980). Category 1 candidates were defined as... Plant Taxa for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (48 FR 53640, November 28, 1983). Category...

  16. 77 FR 63927 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... FR 10305), and Mezoneuron kavaiense, listed as an endangered species on July 8, 1986 (51 FR 24672... species (76 FR 66370; October 26, 2011). Candidate species are those taxa for which the Service has... are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened (CNOR) (76 FR 66370). On May 4, 2004,...

  17. 76 FR 66018 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Delisting of the Plant Frankenia johnstonii

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ..., 1984 (49 FR 31418), as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U... populations, we proposed delisting the F. johnstonii on May 22, 2003 (68 FR 27961), due to recovery. Please see the May 22, 2003 (68 FR 27961), proposed delisting rule (also posted on our Web sites) for...

  18. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations. PMID:25485935

  19. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations.

  20. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  1. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  2. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  3. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  4. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study. PMID:22998613

  5. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  6. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  7. 77 FR 16554 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... endangered on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491), and the Kemp's Ridley sea turtle as endangered on December 2, 1970 (35 FR 18320). The Service listed the loggerhead as threatened and the green sea turtle as endangered....43 acres of nesting habitat of endangered and threatened sea turtle species in Sarasota...

  8. 77 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... following applications to conduct certain activities with endangered species. With some exceptions, the Endangered Species Act (Act) prohibits activities with endangered and threatened species unless a Federal... with endangered species authorized by section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and...

  9. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Nine Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ..., 1990 (55 heterodon. MA, NH, NJ, NY, FR 9447). NC, PA, VT, VA). PLANTS Swamp pink Helonias bullata... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5- Year Reviews of Nine Species: Purple Bean, Clubshell, Roanoke Logperch, Swamp Pink, Northern Riffleshell,...

  10. Natural Product Studies of U. S. Endangered Plants: Volatile Fraction of Lindera melissifolia (lauraceae) repels Mosquitoes and Ticks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The number of endangered plant species in the United States is significant yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors for significant pathogenic diseases and key measures to lower their associated morbidity rates include the use of p...

  11. 76 FR 46361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 23 Species on Oahu as Endangered and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-02

    ... 23 species proposed for listing are candidate species (75 FR 69222; November 10, 2010). Candidate... are Candidates for Listing as Threatened or Endangered (CNOR) (75 FR 69222). On May 4, 2004, the... (including our findings on the 19 candidate species listed above) in the CNORs dated May 11, 2005 (70...

  12. Management plan for an alkali sink and its endangered plant Cordylanthus palmatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coats, Robert; Showers, Mary Ann; Pavlik, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Cordylanthus palmatus is a hemiparasitic annual of the family Scrophulareacae. It is on both the federal and state lists of endangered species. Only four widely separated populations remain, all of them in alkali sinks, where the plant thrives in saline-sodic soils. The largest population is at Springtown, Alameda County, California. This article reports on efforts to develop a management plan for both the plant and the alkali sink ecosystem. The plan is based on: (1) characterization of hydrology, soils and geomorphology of the site; (2) characterization of the land use impacts to the site; (3) analysis of plant distribution in relation to gradients of elevation and soil chemistry; (4) studies on water potential and water stress in Cordylanthus palmatus and associated species. On the basis of this plan, both the State of California and private groups are cooperating to create, restore, and manage a preserve in the Springtown Alkali Sink.

  13. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  14. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer. PMID:27327439

  15. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-Ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer. PMID:27327439

  16. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J.; van Bodegom, P.; Dam, J. V.; Aerts, R.

    2010-12-01

    capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

  17. Spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, control options

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spotted knapweed is a non native perennial forb that is spreading rapidly in the Western United States. This plant species produces a compound that retards the growth of many native plants, giving it a competitive advantage. Spotted knapweed has been identified in several areas of Alaska. A descript...

  18. Strong spatial genetic structure reduces reproductive success in the critically endangered plant genus Pseudomisopates.

    PubMed

    Amat, María E; Silvertown, Jonathan; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth can be a double-edged sword for endangered species, because the short-term insurance against extinction may incur a longer-term hazard of creating small inbred populations with low fecundity. In the present study, we quantify the advantages and disadvantages of clonal growth regarding the fitness of the central Iberian monotypic endangered genus Pseudomisopates. Preliminary studies showed that the species is self-incompatible and exhibits extensive clonal growth with plants flowering profusely. However, seeds at many sites seemed to be unviable, and no seedlings have been observed in the field. A fully replicated nested sampling design (n = 100) was conducted to explore genetic (using seven SSR loci) and environmental factors potentially affecting seed viability, such as: 1) clonal and genetic diversity, 2) spatial genetic structure, and 3) environmental factors (shrub cover and grazing). Generalized Linear Mixed Models were fitted relating genetic and environmental variables to reproductive variables (seed viability and flower display). Our results indicate that the relatively low genotypic diversity of the population (PD = 0.23), as quantified by SSRs, and the strong spatial genetic structure observed are congruent with intense clonal growth. This clonal growth is enhanced by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as canopy closure and grazing. Under these circumstances, both flower display and mate availability decrease, thus hindering sexual reproduction. Indeed, a mixed reproductive system (clonal and sexual) to escape environmental stochasticity is crucial for the survival of Pseudomisopates, a species inhabiting a disturbance-prone ecosystem.

  19. Decalepisarayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Sarkar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Decalepis arayalpatra is an endemic and critically endangered plant of India. May 2014 issue of Natural Products Research publishes the findings of R. S. Verma et al. on the chemical composition of D. arayalpatra. This study was conducted to characterise the root aroma of this plant for possible industrial applications. The authors suggest that due to its peculiar vanilla flavour, the plant could be explored as a potential substitute of vanillin-aroma in the flavour industry. Owing to the fact that D. arayalpatra is a critically endangered plant species, and its habitat is now limited to only the protected areas and reserve forest in southern part of India, and that collecting any plant from such reserve forests for commercial activities is illegal as per the law of the country, this specific conclusion of the authors is totally un-substantiated by the law of land, hence, calls for further review. PMID:25133451

  20. 75 FR 29575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... associated with Federal Register notice 75 FR 4840 (published January 29, 2010), you need not resubmit your... bat was added to the list of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants on March 11, 1967 (32 FR... species is attributed to habitat loss and degradation of both winter hibernation habitat and...

  1. 75 FR 4840 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; 30-Day Scoping Period for a National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... added to the list of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). It is... degradation of both winter hibernation habitat and summer roosting habitat, human disturbance during hibernation, and possibly pesticides. An additional and emerging threat to Indiana bats is White-Nose...

  2. 75 FR 53615 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ... warranted, and initiated a status review (74 FR 36152). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on the... species under the Act in the 1982 Candidate Notice of Review (47 FR 58454, December 30, 1982). Category 2... for possible addition to the ] Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (61 FR...

  3. 76 FR 20613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (56 FR 58804, November 21, 1991; 59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994... Review (61 FR 7595), we adopted a single category of candidate species defined as follows: ``Those... on a Petition To List Spring Mountains Acastus Checkerspot Butterfly as Endangered AGENCY: Fish...

  4. 77 FR 33142 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding and Proposed Listing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX89 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants...: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the reopening of the public comment period...

  5. 75 FR 65574 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Gray Wolf in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX37 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife... removed in Wyoming by our April 2, 2009 (74 FR 15123), final delisting rule, Wyoming is not impacted...

  6. 75 FR 48359 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... predominately of pasture land, with some cultivated cropland and isolated areas of deciduous forest scattered... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). It is currently listed as an... pesticides, agricultural development, and loss of forest habitat affecting the summer range. Impacts to...

  7. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  8. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  9. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered wetland plant Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Kuniaki; Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Masumoto, Ikuko; Iwahori, Katsumi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae) is an endangered wetland plant species in Japan. Although it is widely distributed in East Asia, only six extant populations are known in Japan, with fewer than 1000 individuals in total. We developed 15 microsatellite markers for this species and confirmed their utility for the closely related species A. triphylla var. japonica. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation within three populations of A. palustris. The number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 15, with an average of 9.3; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.48 to 0.89, with an average of 0.74. Nine loci were successfully amplified in A. triphylla var. japonica, and three of these loci showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers are useful for investigating genetic diversity and gene flow within and among remnant populations of A. palustris in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for conservation. PMID:27672523

  10. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered wetland plant Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Kuniaki; Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Masumoto, Ikuko; Iwahori, Katsumi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae) is an endangered wetland plant species in Japan. Although it is widely distributed in East Asia, only six extant populations are known in Japan, with fewer than 1000 individuals in total. We developed 15 microsatellite markers for this species and confirmed their utility for the closely related species A. triphylla var. japonica. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation within three populations of A. palustris. The number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 15, with an average of 9.3; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.48 to 0.89, with an average of 0.74. Nine loci were successfully amplified in A. triphylla var. japonica, and three of these loci showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers are useful for investigating genetic diversity and gene flow within and among remnant populations of A. palustris in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for conservation.

  11. Pollinator Interactions with Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across Urban, Agricultural, and Natural Landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K.

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services. PMID:24466050

  12. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  13. Genetic diversity of high-elevation populations of an endangered medicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Akshay; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation in natural populations governs their potential to overcome challenging ecological and environmental conditions. In addition, knowledge of this variation is critical for the conservation and management of endangered plant taxa. Found in the Himalayas, Podophyllum hexandrum is an endangered high-elevation plant species that has great medicinal importance. Here we report on the genetic diversity analysis of 24 P. hexandrum populations (209 individuals), representing the whole of the Indian Himalayas. In the present study, seven amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs generated 1677 fragments, of which 866 were found to be polymorphic. Neighbour joining clustering, principal coordinate analysis and STRUCTURE analysis clustered 209 individuals from 24 populations of the Indian Himalayan mountains into two major groups with a significant amount of gene flow (Nm = 2.13) and moderate genetic differentiation Fst(0.196), G′st(0.20). This suggests that, regardless of geographical location, all of the populations from the Indian Himalayas are intermixed and are composed broadly of two types of genetic populations. High variance partitioned within populations (80 %) suggests that most of the diversity is restricted to the within-population level. These results suggest two possibilities about the ancient population structure of P. hexandrum: either all of the populations in the geographical region of the Indian Himalayas are remnants of a once-widespread ancient population, or they originated from two types of genetic populations, which coexisted a long time ago, but subsequently separated as a result of long-distance dispersal and natural selection. High variance partitioned within the populations indicates that these populations have evolved in response to their respective environments over time, but low levels of heterozygosity suggest the presence of historical population bottlenecks. PMID:25416728

  14. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Peter) van Bodegom, P. M.; (Jos) van Dam, J. C.; (Rien) Aerts, R.

    2010-05-01

    soil moisture contents hamper oxygen transport from the atmosphere, through the soil - where part of the oxygen additionally disappears by soil microbial oxygen consumption - and to the root cells. Reduced respiration negatively affects the energy supply to plant metabolism. Plant transpiration, which responds to increased temperatures and atmospheric CO2-concentrations, is the first physiological process that will be inhibited by low soil moisture contents, negatively affecting both photosynthesis and cooling. As both the supply and demand of oxygen and water depend strongly on the prevailing meteorological conditions, both oxygen and water stress were calculated dynamically in time to capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

  15. In vitro antioxidant activity of Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Pourmorad, Fereshteh; Shahabimajd, Naghi; Shahrbandy, Kami; Hosseinzadeh, Rasa

    2007-02-15

    Extracts of five plants were investigated for their total flavonoids, phenol contents and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays: Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana. Quercetin and butylated hydroxy toluene were used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Total flavonoid content in these plants ranged from 31.6 to 109.5 mg g(-1) and the amount of free phenolic compounds was between 32 and 287.5 mg g(-1) extract powder. Free phenolic compounds content were in the order: P. hyrcanium > M. spicata > S. ebulus > C. depressa > P. americana. It was also observed that all methanolic extract samples of studied plants showed free radical scavenging activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in P. hyrcanium with an IC 50 equal to 0.036 mg mL(-1) that is higher than BHT (IC 50 = 0.054). A correlation between radical scavenging capacities of extracts with total phenolic compounds content was observed. This result indicates that P. hyrcanium contains high levels of phenolic compounds that may contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity compared to the other extracts of the plants in this study.

  16. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  17. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover`s Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  18. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stock (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stock. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels. Consultation meetings between DOE-SR and US FWS in April 1984, resulted in an agreement between the two agencies to develop alternative foraging habitat for the wood stork to replace potential losses in the Steel Creek delta area. A suitable habitat was located on the National Audubon Society's Silver Bluff Plantation Sanctuary just west of SRP. This location will be developed by the US Soil Conservation Service through an interagency agreement with DOE-SR. 6 references, 4 figures.

  19. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained. PMID:10904175

  20. Exclusionary interactions among diverse fungi infecting developing seeds of Centaurea stoebe.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, Anil Kumar H; Newcombe, George; Shipunov, Alexey; Baynes, Melissa; Tank, David

    2013-04-01

    Developing seeds are expected to be strongly defended against microbial attack. In keeping with this, only 26% of seeds of Centaurea stoebe from its native and invaded ranges in Eurasia and North America were infected with fungi, and 92.2% of those were infected with a single fungus per seed. Even when developing seeds in flower heads were inoculated under conducive conditions for infection with 14 of these seed-infecting fungi, re-isolation of inoculants was only 16% overall, and again limited to the particular inoculant. Environmental fungi (i.e. those not isolated from seed of C. stoebe) were present in control flower heads under conditions conducive to infection but they were never re-isolated from fully developed seeds in any experiments. When two or three seed isolates were co-inoculated to compete in flower heads, only one inoculant, and always the same one, was re-isolated from all matured seeds, regardless of maternal plant genotype. PCR-based detection methods confirmed that these fungal interactions were exclusionary rather than suppressive. In these strongly defended, developing seeds, we had expected the plant to control not only the overall level of infection but also the outcome of co-inoculations. Consequences for the next plant generation of this exclusionary competition among seed-infecting fungi included effects on seedling emergence, growth and fecundity.

  1. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 requires that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered (T&E) species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) staff have performed appropriate assessments of potential impacts to threatened or endangered species, and consulted with appropriate agencies with regard to protection of such species in authorizing the construction, operation, and relicensing of nuclear power generating facilities. However, the assessments and consultations concerning many facilities were performed during the 1970's or early 1980's, and have not been re-evaluated in detail or updated since those initial evaluations. A review of potential Endangered Species Act issues at licensed nuclear power facilities was completed in 1997. In that review 484 different ESA-listed species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the 75 facility sites that were examined. An update of the previous T&E species evaluation at this time is desired because, during the intervening 6 years: nearly 200 species have been added to the ESA list, critical habitats have been designated for many of the listed species, and significantly more information is available online, allowing for more efficient high-level evaluations of potential species presence near sites and the potential operation impacts. The updated evaluation included searching the NRC's ADAMS database to find any documents related to T

  2. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J.; Carroll, John F.; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC–MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. PMID:22704653

  3. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J; Carroll, John F; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hamann, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC-MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. PMID:22704653

  4. 78 FR 39835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Buena Vista...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ... July 2, 2013 Part II Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and... THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW85 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife... Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service...

  5. 76 FR 33035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Roswell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... Register on August 9, 2005 (70 FR 46304). For information on the four invertebrates' critical habitat... Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35375), and February 17, 2011 (76 FR 9297). Previous Federal... amphipod, and Pecos assiminea as endangered with critical habitat (67 FR 6459) under the Endangered...

  6. 78 FR 65248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... distinct population segment of the North American wolverine (78 FR 7864) under the Endangered Species Act... at http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/science/peer_review.cfm and also at the Federal eRulemaking... Act directs that determinations as to whether any species is a threatened or endangered species...

  7. 76 FR 74072 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-30

    ... March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001); the Hawaiian goose as endangered on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001); the Hawaiian hoary bat as endangered on October 13, 1970 (35 FR 16047); and the Newell's shearwater as threatened on September 25, 1975 (40 FR 44150). The notice for the existing ITP was published in the...

  8. 78 FR 4108 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Establishment of a Nonessential...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 as endangered (see 35 FR 8491, June 2, 1970). The Canadian... (76 FR 6734). On May 3, 2012 the status of the wood bison was reclassified to threatened (86 FR 26191... (71 FR 40657, July 18, 2006). Based on the best available information, we must determine...

  9. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Entity The Mexican wolf was listed as an endangered subspecies of gray wolf in 1976 (41 FR 17736, April... endangered, except in Minnesota where it was listed as threatened (43 FR 9607, March 9, 1978). The 1978... subspecies for purposes of research and conservation (43 FR 9607). After the 1978 listing of the gray wolf...

  10. 75 FR 5263 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Federal Action We proposed listing the Okaloosa darter as endangered on January 15, 1973 (38 FR 1521) and listed the species as endangered under the Act on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678) due to its extremely limited... initiating a 5-year status review under the Act for the Okaloosa darter (70 FR 35689). In that notice,...

  11. 78 FR 23948 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Black-Footed Ferret Draft Recovery Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... America wherever prairie dogs occurred. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 (32 FR 4001; March 11... Species Conservation Act of 1969 (35 FR 8491; June 2, 1970). On January 4, 1974, the black-footed ferret was listed under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (39 FR 1171). The ferret's close association...

  12. 76 FR 18087 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... endangered on January 15, 1973 (38 FR 1521) and listed the species as endangered under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678) due to its extremely limited range, habitat degradation... under the Act for the Okaloosa darter (70 FR 35689).The 5-year status review was completed in July...

  13. 78 FR 55649 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Southern White Rhino (Ceratotherium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ..., private collectors, zoos, museums, taxidermists, and game reserves have been documented (USFWS Office of... FR 8491-8498]. The Indian rhino was also later listed as endangered under the Endangered Species.... 2010, p. 9). The white rhino is estimated to have a lifespan of 40 to 50 years in captivity...

  14. 75 FR 65646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... FR 22041). The Gaviota Tarplant was listed as endangered on March 20, 2000 (65 FR 14888) and has been... take of the federally endangered El Segundo Blue Butterfly incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would result in the loss of Coast Buckwheat, which serves as butterfly habitat. We invite...

  15. 75 FR 52547 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Ocelot (Leopardus pardalis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-26

    ... of the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 (37 FR 6476; March 30, 1972). Following passage of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the ocelot was included on the January 4, 1974 (39 FR 1158... published July 21, 1982 (47 FR 31670). In that rule, we made a determination that designation of...

  16. Elicitation of Phenolics from the Micropropagated Endangered Medicinal Plant Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonoaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Owis, Asmaa I.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abul-Soad, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L’Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. Objectives: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C. polygonoides, using the fruit as an explant; establish callus and cell suspension cultures from in vitro germinated plantlets; investigate the production of phenolics through callus, redifferentiated shoot, and cell suspension cultures; attempt to enhance cell capacity to accumulate phenolics using salicylic acid and yeast extract and provide a brief demonstration of biosynthetic pathway leading to phenolic production. Materials and Methods: Modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with growth hormones such as kinetin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and indole-3-acetic acid were used to establish callus, redifferentiated shoots, and cell suspension cultures. Elicitation of cell suspension culture was performed using salicylic acid and yeast extracts. A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenolic content in the aforementioned cultures was developed. Results: The unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures contained fewer amounts of phenolic compounds than redifferentiated shoots. Elicitation produced massive quantitative reprogramming of phenolic content. Conclusion: The present study offers an alternative and renewable source for this valuable natural plant, provide a chance to improve secondary metabolite yield and serve as a useful tool for studying the biosynthesis of these compounds and its regulation in plant cells. SUMMARY In vitro culture techniques provided a strategy for ex situ conservation of the

  17. 75 FR 59285 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... and Wildlife Service as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C...-3958. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Julie M. Vanderwier, Fish and Wildlife Biologist, or Jen...

  18. 75 FR 8735 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... shoulderband snail was listed as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act (16 U.S.C... to (805) 644-3958. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga, HCP Coordinator, at Ventura...

  19. 75 FR 22835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Mount Hermon June beetle was listed as endangered on January 24, 1997 (62 FR 3616). Section 9 of the Act... facsimile to (805) 644-3958. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga, HCP Coordinator, at the...

  20. 75 FR 20619 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... INFORMATION: Background The Mount Hermon June beetle was listed as endangered on January 24, 1997 (62 FR 3616... alternatively send comments by facsimile to (805) 644-3958. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jen Lechuga,...

  1. 75 FR 64249 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing Determinations for Three Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...) as threatened and the New York Bight (NYB) and Chesapeake Bay (CB) DPSs as endangered under the...-1401. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On October 6, 2010, we published a proposed rule (75...

  2. 75 FR 4581 - Endangered [and Threatened] Wildlife and Plants; Permit(s); Land Clearing Associated With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...). Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant) requests a 24-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC in all requests or comments. If you do not receive a confirmation from us that...

  3. 75 FR 38831 - Endangered [and Threatened] Wildlife and Plants; Permit(s); Land Clearing Associated With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...). Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant) requests a 24-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC in all requests or comments. If you do not receive a confirmation from us that...

  4. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  5. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  6. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  7. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  8. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... they are threatened with extinction. The disappearance of any of these would be a biological, cultural..., to be critical.” The Act also: (i) Defines endangered species as any species in danger of...

  9. Using AHP to analyze and ascertain the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhang; Wei, Wang; Wang, Gary Z.; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Cunzhu; Liu, Jiahui; An, Huijun; Pei, Hao; Zhong, Huidong; Chen, Xiaojun

    2006-08-01

    AHP is a kind of very effective systematic analytical method, widely applied to energy utilizing and resource analyzing, talent predicting, economic management project, urban industries planning, communications and transportation, water resource using and so on, using this method to solve the problem of ecology also have very strong practicability and validity. Using 15 kinds of endured plants in East Alashan-West Erdos as the research objects, this paper adopts 3S technique and outfield investigates to confirm the geographical distributions, extent density in the distribution area, plant community construction, and plant community environment of the plants. Then invite the experts to give marks according to this datum and using the AHP method to deal with the results, thereby get the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos.

  10. Modeling Spatial Distribution of a Rare and Endangered Plant Species (Brainea insignis) in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Lo, N.-J.; Chang, W.-I.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM) uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF) has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM), and discriminant analysis (DA), were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  11. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume X: endangered species, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    Federally endangered species which occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, and the wood stork. Of these species, only the alligator, sturgeon, and wood stork are likely to be affected by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. The nearest colony of wood storks to the SRP is the Birdsville Colony, about 40-45 km southwest of potential foraging areas in the SRP Savannah River swamp. In 1983, it contained about six percent of the nesting pairs in the United States and produced about 250 fledglings. Its reproductive success was about the same in 1984. Based on the results of surveys made of foraging areas, both on SRP and offsite in 1983 and 1984, forage fish availability could be reduced by increased water depths in the Steel Creek delta area following L-Reactor restart with once-through cooling. Effluent discharge from SRP facilities probably limits the potential use of the SRP Savannah River swamp by foraging wood storks. The SRP supports a low-to-moderate alligator population. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests that populations in suitable habitats (e.g., Beaver Dam Creek, Steel Creek, and Par Pond) should continue to benefit from the protection provided by the SRP and should remain stable or continue to increase. Based upon information from the literature and fisheries data for the Savannah River, the operations of the SRP do not appear to have adverse effects on the shortnose sturgeon. Based on known life history characteristics, there is no indication that spawning, rearing, or foraging habitats are affected by SRP operations. 64 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  12. RNA Synthesis in Whole Cells and Protoplasts of Centaurea

    PubMed Central

    Kulikowski, Robert R.; Mascarenhas, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Protoplasts enzymically isolated from suspension cultures of Centaurea cyanus L. incorporate radioactive precursors into RNA with kinetics similar to that of whole cells. There are differences, however, in several other aspects of RNA metabolism. The proportion of total RNA that contains poly(A) sequences (25 to 30%) is similar in both freshly isolated protoplasts and whole cells after a 20-minute pulse with [3H]adenosine. After a 4-hour pulse, however, poly(A)-containing RNA makes up 30% of the total RNA in protoplasts whereas it drops to 8% in whole cells. There appears to be a faulty processing of ribosomal precursor into the mature ribosomal species, as the precursor seems to accumulate to higher levels relative to the mature 18S and 25S rRNAs in protoplasts as compared to whole cells. Additional differences are seen in the size distributions of poly(A)-containing RNA, although the length of the poly(A) segment is similar in both protoplasts and whole cells. Within 24 hours protoplasts appear to have resumed a pattern of RNA synthesis similar to that of whole cells. PMID:16660339

  13. Centaurea Revisited: A Molecular Survey of the Jacea Group

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-JACAS, N.; UYSAL, T.; ROMASHCHENKO, K.; SUÁREZ-SANTIAGO, V. N.; ERTUĞRUL, K.; SUSANNA, A.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The genus Centaurea has traditionally been considered to be a complicated taxon. No attempt at phylogenetic reconstruction has been made since recent revisions in circumscription, and previous reconstructions did not include a good representation of species. A new molecular survey is thus needed. • Methods Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 and the 5·8S gene. Parsimony and Bayesian approaches were used. • Key Results A close correlation between geography and the phylogenetic tree based on ITS sequences was found in all the analyses, with three main groups being resolved: (1) comprising the most widely distributed circum-Mediterranean/Eurosiberian sections; (2) the western Mediterranean sections; and (3) the eastern Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian sections. The results show that the sectional classification in current use needs major revision, with many old sections being merged into larger ones. A large polytomy in the eastern Mediterranean clade suggests a rapid and recent speciation in this group. Some inconsistencies between morphology and molecular phylogeny may indicate that hybridization has played a major role in the evolution of the genus. • Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of ITS has been useful in identifying the major lineages in the group, and unraveling many inconsistencies in the sectional classification. However, most recent groups in the eastern Mediterranean clade are not resolved and reticulation in the western Mediterranean group of sections makes phylogenetic relationships within these two groups somewhat obscure. PMID:16873424

  14. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  15. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  16. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  17. 77 FR 36569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Thick-Billed Parrot Draft Recovery Plan Addendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... listed as an endangered species on June 3, 1970 (35 FR 8491), pursuant to the Endangered Species... as endangered in the United States (see 45 FR 49844, page 49845). In 2009, the U.S. Department of the... always been listed as endangered throughout its entire range (see 74 FR 33957). Today, the...

  18. 75 FR 5732 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... range on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001), under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of October 15, 1966...). Threats to the Sonoran pronghorn include (1) highways, fences, railroads, developed areas, and irrigation... Wyoming Farm Bureau Fed'n, 987 F. Supp. at 1373; 59 FR at 60256. These definitions preclude...

  19. 78 FR 14022 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Removal of the Virginia Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... flying squirrel, more commonly known as the West Virginia northern flying squirrel (WVNFS) (73 FR 50226... 25, 2011, order, we published a final rule reinstating ESA protections for the WVNFS (76 FR 35349...; Reinstatement of Removal of the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel From the List of Endangered and...

  20. 76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... flying squirrel, more commonly known as the West Virginia northern flying squirrel (WVNFS) (73 FR 50226... delisting. Accordingly, WVNFS is listed as endangered throughout its range (50 FR 26999 27002, July 1, 1985...; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel in Compliance With a Court...

  1. 78 FR 17708 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document... availability of a draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan. Specifically, this supplement..., Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are federally listed as threatened under the Endangered...

  2. 76 FR 50680 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Lake Erie Watersnake (Nerodia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... biology can be found in the final listing rule (64 FR 47126; August 30, 1999) and the Lake Erie Watersnake... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife (75 FR 30319). We solicited data and comments from the public on the..., 2010 (75 FR 30319). Recovery Section 4(f) of the Act directs us to develop and implement recovery...

  3. 75 FR 31387 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-03

    ... endangered, which was published in the Federal Register on December 4, 2001 (66 FR 62993). See also the... recent taxonomic treatment for reptiles and amphibians is dusky gopher frog (Crother et al. 2003, p. 197... County, Mississippi (66 FR 62993). Mississippi gopher frog habitat includes both upland sandy...

  4. 78 FR 35719 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision To the Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... established a Mexican wolf nonessential experimental population (63 FR 1752, January 12, 1998) (1998 Final... Mexican wolf nonessential experimental population in 1998 (63 FR 1752, January 12, 1998), it corresponded... endangered subspecies in 1976 (41 FR 17736, April 28, 1976). In 1978, the Service listed the entire gray...

  5. 78 FR 53155 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Phyllostegia hispida; Addendum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... for public comment through August 1, 2011 (76 FR 31973). We have considered information we received... Phyllostegia hispida under the Act as an endangered species without critical habitat on March 17, 2009 (74 FR.... Native caterpillar species may also pose an herbivory threat to this species. The short-term...

  6. 76 FR 25593 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ..., proposed rule (75 FR 5732) and the 1998 Revised Sonoran Pronghorn Recovery Plan (Service 1998: http://ecos... americana sonoriensis) as endangered throughout its range on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001), under the... southwestern Arizona (75 FR 5732), and requested written comments from the public on the proposed rule...

  7. 78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    .... Fish and Wildlife Service, 2900 4th Avenue North, Room 301, Billings, MT 59101; telephone 406-247-7365... endangered species on September 6, 1990 (55 FR 36641). At the time of listing, the species was threatened by..., Colorado. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P...

  8. 78 FR 46862 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ivesia webberi

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ..., 2002, Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR, 67 FR 40657). Ivesia webberi was included in all subsequent... a candidate in 2002 (67 FR 40657), we assigned I. webberi a listing priority number (LPN) of 5... Standards Under the Endangered Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR...

  9. 75 FR 11080 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ..., refer to the final listing rule published in the Federal Register on January 23, 2002 (67 FR 3120... (65 cm). The species is endemic to Onslow and Pender Counties in the Black River section of the... listed as endangered under the Act on January 23, 2002 (67 FR 3120). Designation of critical habitat...

  10. 77 FR 61937 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Taylor's Checkerspot Butterfly and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... Segments under the Endangered Species Act (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996). (14) Whether we could improve or... high magnitude and reassigned it an LPN of 3 (69 FR 24876; May 4, 2004). In 2006, the streaked horned... training activities (71 FR 53755; September 12, 2006) were imminent threats to the subspecies....

  11. 78 FR 77289 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Arctostaphylos...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... rule. We listed Arctostaphylos franciscana as an endangered species on September 5, 2012 (77 FR 54434). On the same date we also proposed critical habitat for the species (77 FR 54517). We subsequently... the species, and we revised the proposed critical habitat on June 28, 2013 (78 FR 38897). Section...

  12. 77 FR 8449 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Nine Bexar...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ... County karst invertebrate species as endangered in the Federal Register on December 30, 1998 (63 FR 71855... invertebrates (67 FR 55063). The final critical habitat rule, designating approximately 1,063 ac (431 ha) in 22... December 26, 2000 (65 FR 81419), and to our September 2011 final recovery plan (Service 2011), which...

  13. 77 FR 16712 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... range on July 13, 1989 (54 FR 29652), under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C... Comments and Recommendations In the proposed rule published on July 22, 2011 (76 FR 43973), we requested... July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we solicited expert opinions from three individuals with...

  14. 76 FR 9681 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Threatened Status for the New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ... 90-day finding (72 FR 37695) in which we determined that the petition presented substantial... endangered under the Act (73 FR 77332); (2) a warranted 12-month finding and proposed rule to list the yellow... penguin as threatened under the Act (73 FR 77303); and (3) a warranted 12-month finding and proposed...

  15. 76 FR 66805 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ... or a significant portion of its range and listed the species as endangered under the ESA (74 FR 1937). We issued a proposed critical habitat designation for the black abalone on September 28, 2010 (75 FR... Biological Report (NMFS 2011a) and in the proposed rule to designate critical habitat (75 FR 59900;...

  16. 76 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Register on October 6, 1998 (63 FR 53596), and the designation of critical habitat for A. l. var. coachellae published in the Federal Register on December 14, 2005 (70 FR 74112). Additionally, information on.... coachellae has remained effectively the same since the taxon was listed as endangered in 1998 (63 FR...

  17. 78 FR 47612 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Sharpnose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we will seek the expert opinions of at least three appropriate and... (primary constituent elements such as roost sites, nesting grounds, seasonal wetlands, water quality, tide... the Endangered Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271)),...

  18. 76 FR 32025 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ...) listed under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. The October 3, 2008, 90-day finding (73 FR 57583), the public comments received on the 90-day finding, and the June 12, 2009, 12-month finding (74 FR 27988... schauinslandi) was listed as endangered throughout its range under the ESA in 1976 (41 FR 51611; November...

  19. 76 FR 6066 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... endangered species on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). We have previously designated NEPs for whooping cranes in Florida (58 FR 5647, January 22, 1993); the Rocky Mountains (62 FR 38932, July 21, 1997); and the Eastern United States (66 FR 33903, June 26, 2001). On August 19, 2010, we proposed designating Louisiana as...

  20. 75 FR 35375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Roswell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... the final listing rule published in the Federal Register on August 9, 2005 (70 FR 46304), and to the... (74 FR 10701). All four invertebrate species are associated with aquifer-fed spring systems in desert... Pecos assiminea (Assiminea pecos) as endangered under the Act (70 FR 46304). In that rule, we...

  1. 75 FR 14496 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Protections for the Grizzly Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... Service did not adequately consider the impacts of global warming and other factors on whitebark pine nuts... Endangered Wildlife (72 FR 14866). In that rule, we determined that the Yellowstone grizzly bear population... (Rausch 1963, p. 43; Servheen 1999, pp. 50-53). The original 1975 grizzly bear listing (40 FR 31734-...

  2. 77 FR 46105 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Lee County, Florida. The Service listed the scrub-jay as threatened on June 3, 1987 (52 FR 20715). The... Cape Coral (applicant) requests an ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The...-4232. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The City of Cape Coral (applicant) anticipates taking 75 acres...

  3. 78 FR 68370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Direct... kirtlandii (Kirtland's warbler) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are revising... documents a taxonomic change (scientific name) to Kirtland's warbler (50 CFR 17.11(h)). The basis for...

  4. 77 FR 66946 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revisions to the Regulations for Impact Analyses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... on August 24, 2012 (77 FR 51503). We will consider information and recommendations from all... Analyses of Critical Habitat AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior; National Marine Fisheries... to impact analyses conducted for designations of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act...

  5. 75 FR 16404 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revised Designation of Critical Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... in the Federal Register on October 6, 1998 (63 FR 53596) and the previous proposed critical habitat of April 6, 2004 (69 FR 18018). These documents are available on the Ventura Fish and Wildlife Office... Astragalus jaegerianus as an endangered species was published on October 6, 1998 (63 FR 53596). On...

  6. 78 FR 10449 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... as an endangered species on October 6, 1998 (63 FR 53596). On August 25, 2011, we published in the Federal Register a proposed critical habitat designation for A. l. var. coachellae (76 FR 53224). Section... FR 28846), allowing the public to provide comments on our analysis. We considered all comments...

  7. 75 FR 7625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Rio Grande Silvery Minnow (Hybognathus amarus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Rio Grande silvery minnow was listed as federally endangered in 1994 (July 20, 1994; 59 FR 36988) and critical habitat was designated in 2003 (February 19, 2003; 68 FR 8087). The species was extirpated from... (mi)) reach of the Rio Grande River in New Mexico, downstream of Cochiti Dam to the headwaters...

  8. 78 FR 63100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Comal Springs...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-23

    ... FR 25679), allowing the public to provide comments on our analysis. We have incorporated the comments..., and Peck's cave amphipod as endangered species on December 18, 1997 (62 FR 66295). We designated critical habitat for these three species on July 17, 2007 (72 FR 39248). On October 19, 2012 (77 FR...

  9. 77 FR 47011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... the import of sport-hunted straight-horned markhor trophies under certain conditions. This regulation...), and would allow the import of sport-hunted straight-horned markhor trophies under certain conditions... endangered under the Act (41 FR 24062). All species were found to have declining numbers due to the...

  10. 75 FR 69049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listings for Two Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... proposed rule (75 FR 61904) to list the Carolina and South Atlantic DPSs of Atlantic sturgeon as endangered... hearings--one in Wilmington, NC and one in Atlanta, GA. The purpose of these hearings is to accept comments..., NC, and on December 7, 2010, from 6 to 9 p.m. in Atlanta, GA. An informational session will be...

  11. 78 FR 54613 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision to the Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... language or English as a second language interpreter needs. Authors The primary authors of this notice are... (Canis lupus baileyi) by listing it as endangered (78 FR 35664). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mexican... Register on June 13, 2013 (78 FR 35719). For the types of information we are seeking public comments...

  12. 77 FR 60207 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Coral Pink Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... as a Category 2 species (49 FR 21664, May 22, 1984). Category 2 status included those taxa for which... endangered species and to designate critical habitat. In our 90-day petition finding (59 FR 47293, September... later that year we changed the CPSD tiger beetle's status from Category 2 to Category 1 (59 FR...

  13. 75 FR 6697 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Yuma Clapper Rail (Rallus longirostris...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-10

    ..., 1967 (32 FR 4001). It was not included on the list of foreign species established under the Endangered Species Conservation Act, so is not listed throughout its historical range in Mexico. Critical habitat has not been designated. The primary threats to the Yuma clapper rail are habitat loss and degradation...

  14. 76 FR 37663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Tumbling Creek...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... cavesnail, refer to the final listing rule published in the Federal Register on August 14, 2002 (67 FR 52879... Federal Actions The Tumbling Creek cavesnail was emergency listed on December 27, 2001 (66 FR 66803) and subsequently listed as endangered on August 14, 2002 (67 FR 52879). At the time of listing, we determined...

  15. 78 FR 7890 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ..., economic activities such as agriculture, forestry, recreation, mining, oil and gas development, and... (59 FR 34270), we will seek the expert opinion of at least three appropriate independent specialists... designated a candidate species on December 14, 2010 (75 FR 78030), under the Endangered Species Act of...

  16. 76 FR 76337 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... measures, please see the final listing rule (53 FR 27130; July 18, 1988), the 2007 5-year reviews completed... sucker were listed as endangered on July 18, 1988 (53 FR 27130). A recovery plan for Lost River sucker... River sucker and shortnose sucker were completed on July 19, 2007 (73 FR 11945; March 5, 2008)....

  17. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ... the diamond darter as an endangered species on July 26, 2013 (78 FR 45074). On July 26, 2012, we published in the Federal Register a proposed critical habitat designation for the diamond darter (77 FR... Register on March 29, 2013 (78 FR 19172), allowing the public to provide comments on our analysis. We...

  18. 75 FR 51223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... as an endangered species on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). We have previously designated NEPs for whooping cranes in Florida (58 FR 5647, January 22, 1993); the Rocky Mountains (62 FR 38932, July 21, 1997); and the Eastern United States (66 FR 33903, June 26, 2001). See also ``Recovery Efforts''...

  19. 76 FR 43973 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ..., ABB) was listed as endangered throughout its range on July 13, 1989 (154 FR 29652), under the.... Peer Review In accordance with our policy on peer review, published on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we... FR 22951), Executive Order 13175, and the Department of the Interior's manual at 512 DM 2, we...

  20. 76 FR 38204 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... listed as an endangered species by the Service in 1970 (35 FR 16047; October 13, 1970) and reclassified as threatened in 1975 (40 FR 29863; July 16, 1975). The primary threats affecting Lahontan cutthroat... the Lahontan cutthroat trout within the Northwest Geographic Management Unit that includes the...

  1. 77 FR 665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Two Distinct Population Segments of Broad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...-day finding (73 FR 33968, published on June 16, 2008). We received comments from foreign government... listed this species as endangered on June 14, 1976 (41 FR 24062), in response to a petition we received... Federal Register a 90-day finding (73 FR 33968) on the petition, stating that the petition...

  2. 78 FR 20074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... (77 FR 61938), proposal to list Taylor's checkerspot butterfly as endangered and streaked horned lark... butterfly and streaked horned lark (October 11, 2012; 77 FR 61938) and the Mazama pocket gophers (December... checkerspot butterfly and streaked horned lark (October 11, 2012; 77 FR 61938) during the comment period...

  3. 76 FR 11086 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Carex lutea

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Register on January 23, 2002 (67 FR 3120). Information on the associated draft economic analysis (DEA) for..., 2010 (75 FR 45592). Species Description, Life History, Distribution, Ecology and Habitat Carex lutea is... endangered under the Act on January 23, 2002 (67 FR 3120). Designation of critical habitat had been found...

  4. 78 FR 63489 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Incidental Take Permit; Availability of Proposed Low- Effect Habitat Conservation Plan; Clermont Land... application for incidental take permit (ITP). Clermont Land Development, LLC requests a 10-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We request public comment on the permit application...

  5. 77 FR 32662 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... beetle as endangered and designate critical habitat for it on September 22, 2011 (76 FR 58954). The rule... of pesticide, herbicide, and fertilizer use in the conservation areas. Prohibition of ground... occupied habitat is currently found (76 FR 58954; September 22, 2011). The current abundance of...

  6. 77 FR 12074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Fertilizer, LLC, Manatee County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... received an application from Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant), for modification to Incidental Take Permit TE236128-0. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant), requests a 41-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act...

  7. 77 FR 33100 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Correction for African Wild Ass

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Secretary to be endangered. Such a list was published on March 8, 1969, at 34 FR 5034, without reference to... Federal Register on April 14, 1970 (35 FR 6069), the Secretary of the Interior set forth the original list... species was published on June 2, 1970, at 35 FR 8491, Appendix A was retitled to read, ``Appendix...

  8. 76 FR 17666 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Joint Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... Springs (City) and Mission Springs Water District (MSWD) as permittees under the Endangered Species Act of... process to support the issuance of take authorizations by the Service (April 1, 2006, 71 FR 20719... Desert Hot Springs be removed as a Permittee. The CVAG prepared and recirculated a revised Plan...

  9. 77 FR 73739 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lost River...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Wildlife Service (Service), listed these two species as endangered on July 18, 1988 (53 FR 27130). On... River sucker and shortnose sucker (59 FR 61744); that proposal was never finalized. On December 7, 2011, we published a revised proposed critical habitat designation in the Federal Register (76 FR...

  10. 78 FR 30839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX72; 1018-AZ54 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife... Buckwheat) and Physaria douglasii subsp. tuplashensis (White Bluffs Bladderpod) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...

  11. 78 FR 64446 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... Standards Under the Endangered Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271... and grows in height, the understory is generally bare, with most herbs restricted to remaining canopy... recognized canopy gaps in mature chaparral as important microhabitats where some subshrubs and herbs [such...

  12. 78 FR 24603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ... (Stiles in litt. 1999 as cited in BLI 2010b). The species inhabits the water's edge, in flooded pasture... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Chief, Branch of Foreign Species, Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish and... findings. Since publication of the previous ANOR on May 3, 2011 (76 FR 25150), we reviewed the...

  13. 78 FR 42702 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... cropland (16 percent) and deciduous forest (15 percent). Cropland is concentrated in the bottomland along... on December 15, 1998 (63 FR 69008), and critical habitat was designated in Iowa, Minnesota, and Nebraska on July 27, 2004 (69 FR 44736), under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16...

  14. 77 FR 55967 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for Texas Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ... and Animal Taxa that are Candidates or Proposed for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (62 FR... through 2004 (64 FR 57533, October 25, 1999; 66 FR 54808, October 30, 2001; 67 FR 40657, June 13, 2002; and 69 FR 24876, May 4, 2004). A petition to list Texas golden gladecress and the Neches River...

  15. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... occurs in tropical lowlands and foothills, inhabiting tropical deciduous forest, gallery forest...). Enkerlin and Hogan (1997, unpaginated) describe typical habitat as being diverse deciduous tropical forest... Endangered Species Act (50 CFR 424.14(a)). On July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33957), we published a 90- day finding...

  16. 78 FR 278 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ... December 26, 2012 (77 FR 75947), we published a petition finding and proposed rule to reclassify the... 77 FR 75947. Sara Prigan, Federal Register Liaison. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ...; Reclassification of the Continental United States Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered...

  17. 75 FR 41229 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Bernardino County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Mohave ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus mohavensis) incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would... ground squirrel is not a species listed under the Act. However, it is a State threatened species under the California Endangered Species Act. By including the Mohave ground squirrel in the HCP, take...

  18. Allogamy-Autogamy Switch Enhance Assortative Mating in the Allotetraploid Centaurea seridis L. Coexisting with the Diploid Centaurea aspera L. and Triggers the Asymmetrical Formation of Triploid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ferriol, María; Garmendia, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Ana; Merle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between tetraploids and their related diploids is generally unsuccessful in Centaurea, hence natural formation of triploid hybrids is rare. In contrast, the diploid Centaurea aspera and the allotetraploid C. seridis coexist in several contact zones where a high frequency of triploid hybrids is found. We analyzed the floral biology of the three taxa to identify reproductive isolation mechanisms that allow their coexistence. Flowering phenology was recorded, and controlled pollinations within and between the three taxa were performed in the field. Ploidy level and germination of progeny were also assessed. There was a 50% flowering overlap which indicated a phenological shift. Diploids were strictly allogamous and did not display mentor effects, while tetraploids were found to be highly autogamous. This breakdown of self-incompatibility by polyploids is first described in Centaurea. The asymmetrical formation of the hybrid was also found: all the triploid intact cypselae came from the diploid mothers pollinated by the pollen of tetraploids. Pollen and eggs from triploids were totally sterile, acting as a strong triploid block. These prezygotic isolation mechanisms ensured higher assortative mating in tetraploids than in diploids, improving their persistence in the contact zones. However these mechanisms can also be the cause of the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure observed in C. seridis. PMID:26469271

  19. Predicting recovery criteria for threatened and endangered plant species on the basis of past abundances and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Neel, Maile C; Che-Castaldo, Judy P

    2013-04-01

    Recovery plans for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act are required to specify measurable criteria that can be used to determine when the species can be delisted. For the 642 listed endangered and threatened plant species that have recovery plans, we applied recursive partitioning methods to test whether the number of individuals or populations required for delisting can be predicted on the basis of distributional and biological traits, previous abundance at multiple time steps, or a combination of traits and previous abundances. We also tested listing status (threatened or endangered) and the year the recovery plan was written as predictors of recovery criteria. We analyzed separately recovery criteria that were stated as number of populations and as number of individuals (population-based and individual-based criteria, respectively). Previous abundances alone were relatively good predictors of population-based recovery criteria. Fewer populations, but a greater proportion of historically known populations, were required to delist species that had few populations at listing compared with species that had more populations at listing. Previous abundances were also good predictors of individual-based delisting criteria when models included both abundances and traits. The physiographic division in which the species occur was also a good predictor of individual-based criteria. Our results suggest managers are relying on previous abundances and patterns of decline as guidelines for setting recovery criteria. This may be justifiable in that previous abundances inform managers of the effects of both intrinsic traits and extrinsic threats that interact and determine extinction risk.

  20. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... distribution patterns, particularly regarding their seasonal migrations; (d) Historical and current population... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  1. Synthesis, biological activity, and bioavailability of moschamine, a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in Centaurea cyanus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moschamine is a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide originally isolated from Centaurea cyanus. This paper describes the synthesis, detection of serotoninergic and COX inhibitory activities, and bioavailability of moschamine. Moschamine was chemically synthesized and identified using NMR spect...

  2. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... listing rule Animals Akepa, Maui Loxops coccineus Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ ochraceus. 1970. Creeper, Molokai Paroreomyza Endangered........ U.S.A. (HI)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ flammea. 1970. Crow, Mariana (=aga) Corvus kubaryi.... Endangered........ Western Pacific 49 FR 33885;...

  3. 78 FR 8185 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 44 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    .... Pendant kihi fern Adenophorus Endangered U.S.A (HI)....... 59 FR 56333; 11/ periens. 10/1994. Mauna Loa..., nightingale reed...... Acrocephalus Endangered Western Pacific 35 FR 8491; 06/02/ luscinia. Ocean--U.S.A 1970. (Guam, Alamagan, Saipan). Swiftlet, Mariana gray (=Guam Aerodramus Endangered Western Pacific 49...

  4. 75 FR 35746 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Honduran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... on a Petition to List the Honduran Emerald Hummingbird as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), the Honduran emerald hummingbird... indicating that listing the Honduran emerald hummingbird may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication...

  5. 75 FR 50739 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Brian Head...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... be warranted (74 FR 6122). That finding included the Brian Head mountainsnail in a table of species... on a Petition to List Brian Head Mountainsnail as Endangered or Threatened with Critical Habitat... Head mountainsnail (Oreohelix parawanensis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered...

  6. 75 FR 1574 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition To Revise Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... 32256-7517. Please submit any new information, materials, comments, or questions concerning this finding... (Trichechus manatus), as endangered in 1967 (32 FR 4001) under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966... names to the list of foreign endangered species (35 FR 18319). This listing incorporated West...

  7. 75 FR 21568 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Harlequin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... on a Petition to List the Harlequin Butterfly as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... butterfly (Atlantea tulita), a butterfly endemic to Puerto Rico, as endangered under the Endangered Species... butterfly may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we are initiating a review...

  8. 78 FR 62523 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments Under the Endangered Species Act (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996... Finding on a Petition To List Ashy Storm-Petrel as an Endangered or Threatened Species AGENCY: Fish and... homochroa) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical habitat under the...

  9. Development of 18 novel microsatellite primers for Begonia fimbristipula (Begoniaceae), an endangered medicinal plant in China1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Du, Yun-Qian; Li, Jing-Jian; Tang, Wen-Xiu; Zhong, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Begonia fimbristipula (Begoniaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed in the Chinese provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, and it is on the verge of extinction due to habitat destruction and deterioration of its ecosystem. Here we developed a set of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic and conservation studies of this endangered medicinal plant. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining repeats (FIASCO) protocol, 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified within 48 individuals from two geographic locations. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.208 to 1.000 and from 0.291 to 0.812, respectively. These microsatellite markers were cross-amplified in five related Begonia species, and six loci were successfully amplified in all species. Conclusions: These 18 markers will be useful for better conservation and utilization of wild resources of B. fimbristipula and other Begonia species in the future. PMID:27437176

  10. Revised Flora and List of Threatened and Endangered Plants for the John F. Kennedy Space Center Area, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Duncan, Brean W.; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's, and the list was revised in 1990. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required a revision of this list. The revised list includes 1024 taxa of which 803 are native and 221 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Fifty taxa are endemic or nearly endemic, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of Florida. Of the 221 introduced plants, twenty-six are Category I invasive exotics and fifteen are Category II invasive exotics. Thirty-eight taxa are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on state lists. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area includes 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  11. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  12. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  13. The effects of plant density and nectar reward on bee visitation to the endangered orchid Spiranthes romanzoffiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Karl J.; Stout, Jane C.

    2008-09-01

    Density can affect attraction of pollinators, with rare plants receiving fewer pollinating visits compared with more common co-flowering species. However, if a locally rare species is very attractive in terms of the rewards it offers pollinators, it may be preferentially visited. Spiranthes romanzoffiana is a nectar rewarding, geographically rare, endangered orchid species which forms small populations in Ireland, co-flowering with more common, florally rewarding species. We examined visitation rates to S. romanzoffiana and two nectar rewarding co-flowering species ( Mentha aquatica and Prunella vulgaris) in the west of Ireland. These three plant species were visited by three bee species ( Bombus pascuorum, B. hortorum and Apis mellifera). B. pascuorum was the most common visitor, while A. mellifera was least common. Our results suggest that individual S. romanzoffiana inflorescences compete intraspecifically for visitation from pollinators at high densities. The relationship between visitation to S. romanzoffiana and total floral density appeared to be positive, suggesting interspecific facilitation of pollinator visitation at high densities. Nectar standing crop varied through the season, among species and between open and bagged flowers. Nectar standing crop was not correlated with visitation in S. romanzoffiana. Despite relatively high visitation, S. romanzoffiana produced no mature fruit during this flowering season. The lack of fruit maturation in this species may be a major factor causing its rarity in Europe.

  14. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  15. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-08-22

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved.

  16. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  17. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum

    PubMed Central

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance. PMID:26109456

  18. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum.

    PubMed

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-06-25

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance.

  19. Flora and threatened and endangered plants of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required revision of this list. The revised list includes 1045 taxa of which 850 are native and 195 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Forty six taxa are endemic or nearly endemic to Florida, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of central Florida. Seventy three taxa (69 native) are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on Federal or state lists. Taxa of special concern occur in all major habitats, but many are restricted to hammocks and hardwood swamps that constitute a minor proportion of the terrestrial vegetation. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area include 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  20. 76 FR 36053 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Reclassify...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-21

    ...-day finding published on February 21, 2007 (72 FR 7843), constituted our compliance with the... Columbia vacated and remanded our February 21, 2007, not- substantial 90-day finding (72 FR 7843) back to... endangered species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678), pursuant to the Endangered Species Conservation Act of...

  1. 76 FR 31903 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Reclassify the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... endangered under the Act (41 FR 24062). All species were found to have declining numbers due to the present.... On September 23, 1999 (64 FR 51499), we published in the Federal Register a finding, in accordance... Under the Endangered Species Act'' (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996), three elements are considered in...

  2. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... on a Petition To List the Eagle Lake Rainbow Trout as an Endangered or Threatened Species AGENCY... the Eagle Lake rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss aquilarum) as an endangered or threatened species... rainbow trout may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we are initiating a...

  3. 78 FR 57835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of 6-Month Extension of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... Federal Register (77 FR 73219) in response to a petition from the Center of Biological Diversity to list... Coral as Threatened or Endangered Under the Endangered Species Act and Reclassify Acropora cervicornis... corals (59 in the Pacific and seven in the Caribbean) and to re- classify two species already...

  4. 77 FR 25664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... FR 61782) to remove the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming from the List of Endangered and Threatened... Wyoming from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife (76 FR 61782). This proposal relied heavily on... published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34270), we intend to subject this proposal to...

  5. 78 FR 50439 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Nine Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ..., 1986; 51 FR 17343. Jesup's milk-vetch (Astragalus Endangered......... Entire: NH, VT.... June 5, 1987............ Entire: NC, VA, WV July 22, 1988; 53 collina). FR 27689. Rough rabbitsfoot (Quadrula Endangered......... Entire: TN, VA.... January 10, 1997; cylindrica 62 FR 1647. strigillata). Northeastern beach tiger...

  6. 77 FR 15617 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishing a Manatee Refuge in Kings Bay, Citrus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... endangered species on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491), under the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 and... waterborne activities (44 FR 60964). The first manatee protection areas were designated in Kings Bay on... the Magnolia Springs Sanctuary (45 FR 74880). The Service subsequently designated four...

  7. 78 FR 77485 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Black-Footed Ferret

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... recovery plan available for public comment and peer review from April 23, 2013, to June 24, 2013 (78 FR... North America wherever prairie dogs occurred. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 (32 FR 4001... Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969 (35 FR 8491, June 2, 1970). On January 4, 1974, the...

  8. 76 FR 31906 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Special Rule for the Utah Prairie Dog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-02

    ... prairie dog (Cynomys parvidens) was listed as an endangered species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678... incorporated into the ESA of 1973, as amended (39 FR 1158; see page 1171). On May 29, 1984, the Service reclassified the Utah prairie dog from endangered to threatened (49 FR 22330) and developed a special...

  9. 77 FR 46157 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Special Rule for the Utah Prairie Dog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678), pursuant to the Endangered Species Conservation Act of 1969. On January 4, 1974, this listing was incorporated into the ESA of 1973, as amended (39 FR 1158; see page 1175). On May 29, 1984, the Service reclassified the Utah prairie dog from endangered to threatened (49...

  10. 76 FR 49541 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Emergency Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (49 FR 21664), which included the Miami blue butterfly... proposal. In a January 6, 1989, Animal Notice of Review (54 FR 572), the Miami blue butterfly continued as... Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (56 FR 58830), characterized as having an...

  11. 76 FR 30377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California, Nevada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ........... U.S.A. (CA)....... 58 FR 49887; 09/23/ terminatus 1993 abdominalis. El Segundo blue butterfly.../ lagunae. 1997 Lange's metalmark butterfly..... Apodemia mormo Endangered........ U.S.A (CA)........ 41 FR.... (OR, CA)... 53 FR 27130; 07/18/ 1988 Lotis blue butterfly Lycaeides Endangered........ U.S.A....

  12. 75 FR 71726 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 58 Species in Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... listing rule ANIMALS Butterfly, Oregon silverspot Speyeria zerene Threatened U.S.A. (CA, OR, 45 FR 44935; 7/2/1980. hippolyta. WA). Creeper, Oahu Paroreomyza Endangered U.S.A. (HI).... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/1970. maculata. Deer, Columbian white-tailed Odocoileus Endangered U.S.A. (OR, WA) 32 FR 4001;...

  13. 75 FR 1744 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 475...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... endangered under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (74 FR 66865). We found that the petition presented... Finding on a Petition to List 475 Species in the Southwestern United States as Threatened or Endangered... petition finding; correction. SUMMARY: On Wednesday, December 16, 2009, we, the U.S. Fish and...

  14. 77 FR 25112 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California and Nevada

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-27

    ... FR 41448). lethoporus. Paiute cutthroat trout........ Oncorhynchus Threatened U.S.A. (CA) July 16, 1975 clarki (40 FR 29863). seleniris. Riverside fairy shrimp........ Streptocephalus Endangered U.S.A. (CA) August 3, 1993 woottoni. (58 FR 41384). San Diego fairy shrimp........ Branchinecta Endangered...

  15. 77 FR 33143 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments Under the Endangered Species Act (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and designate critical habitat. Based on our... SEARCH field, enter Docket No. FWS-R6-ES- 2012-0023, which is the docket number for this action....

  16. 76 FR 30082 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Spot...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-24

    ...-tailed earless lizard (Holbrookia lacerata) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act... petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing this species may... status of the species to determine if listing the spot-tailed earless lizard is warranted. To ensure...

  17. 76 FR 36491 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Eskimo Curlew; Initiation of 5-Year Status Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... endangered under the Endangered Species Preservation Act of 1966 on March 11, 1967 (32 FR 4001). No... following summary of their life history is based on Gollop et al. (1986), unless another citation is... in the Northwest Territories, Canada, but their breeding range probably extended through...

  18. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ........... U.S.A. (CA)....... 67 FR 10101; 3/6/ relictus. 2002. California clapper rail......... Rallus Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 35 FR 16047; 10/13/ longirostris 1970. obsoletus. California least tern Sternula (Sterna) Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 35 FR 8495; 06/02/ antillarum browni....

  19. Biomechanics of Riparian Plant Species Common to the Platte River and Implications for Management of Habitat for Endangered Species. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankhead, N. L.; Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Improving riparian habitat for endangered species in the central Platte River fundamentally relies upon re-creating a dynamic, braided stream channel. The diversion and storage of water for agricultural, municipal and industrial uses has caused significant alteration of the hydrologic regime of the central Platte River, allowing the colonization and proliferation of vegetation that has effectively created semi-permanent islands, narrowed the active channel and reduced available habitat. Attempts to remove vegetation by spraying and disking for the purpose of re-creating a dynamic braided channel are costly and time consuming. Alternative plans to remove vegetation by modifying the hydrologic regime must be based on a fundamental understanding and quantification of the effects of vegetation on in-stream hydraulics, the effects of in-stream hydraulics on vegetation and the effects of the biomechanical properties of the plant on the substrate. This study aims to investigate the resistance of bar-top vegetation to removal by the drag forces exerted on the stems and leaves of partly or completely submerged plants with different rooting depths. In the first phase, we measured the forces required to remove 1 to 2 year-old Phragmites, reed canary grass, cottonwood and sandbar willow plants from sandbars in the Platte River. In addition, root tensile strength tests were carried out for each species and over a range of root diameters. The mean plant pullout or breaking force ranged from 31.9 N for young cottonwood saplings to 156 N for Phragmites. The mean rooting depths of cottonwoods and sandbar willows were 0.14 and 0.12 m, respectively, and during testing it was observed that largely intact rootballs were removed from the substrate. Therefore, it is possible that 1 to 2 year-old cottonwoods and sandbar willows could be removed by flows of sufficient magnitude and duration to scour such depths of sediment. Conversely, Phragmites plants had deep rhizome networks that broke

  20. Population genetic structure of rare and endangered plants using molecular markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raji, Jennifer; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the remaining populations of Phyllostegia stachyoides and Melicope zahlbruckneri in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and determine the extent of gene flow to identify genetically distinct individuals or groups for conservation purposes. Thirty-six Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic (AFLP) primer combinations generated a total of 3,242 polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments in the P. stachyoides population with a percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranging from 39.3 to 65.7% and 2,780 for the M. zahlbruckneri population with a PPB of 18.8 to 64.6%. Population differentiation (Fst) of AFLP loci between subpopulations of P. stachyoides was low (0.043) across populations. Analysis of molecular variance of P. stachyoides showed that 4% of the observed genetic differentiation occurred between populations in different kīpuka and 96% when individuals were pooled from all kīpuka. Moderate genetic diversity was detected within the M. zahlbruckneri population. Bayesian and multivariate analyses both classified the P. stachyoides and M. zahlbruckneri populations into genetic groups with considerable sub-structuring detected in the P. stachyoides population. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations explained by geographical distance was estimated by Mantel tests. No spatial correlation was found between genetic and geographic distances in both populations. Finally, a moderate but significant gene flow that could be attributed to insect or bird-mediated dispersal of pollen across the different kīpuka was observed. The results of this study highlight the utility of a multi-allelic DNA-based marker in screening a large number of polymorphic loci in small and closely related endangered populations and revealed the presence of genetically unique groups of individuals in both M. zahlbruckneri and P. stachyoides populations. Based on these findings

  1. Genetic structure of colline and montane populations of an endangered plant species

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Tiphaine; Matthies, Diethart; Muller, Serge; Colling, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Due to land-use intensification, lowland and colline populations of many plants of nutrient-poor grasslands have been strongly fragmented in the last decades, with potentially negative consequences for their genetic diversity and persistence. Populations in mountains might represent a genetic reservoir for grassland plants, because they have been less affected by land-use changes. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of colline and montane Vosges populations of the threatened perennial plant Arnica montana in western central Europe using AFLP markers. Our results indicate that in contrast to our expectation even strongly fragmented colline populations of A. montana have conserved a considerable amount of genetic diversity. However, mean seed mass increased with the proportion of polymorphic loci, suggesting inbreeding effects in low diversity populations. At a similar small geographical scale, there was a clear IBD pattern for the montane Vosges but not for the colline populations. However, there was a strong IBD-pattern for the colline populations at a large geographical scale suggesting that this pattern is a legacy of historical gene flow, as most of the colline populations are today strongly isolated from each other. Genetic differentiation between colline and montane Vosges populations was strong. Moreover, results of a genome scan study indicated differences in loci under selection, suggesting that plants from montane Vosges populations might be maladapted to conditions at colline sites. Our results suggest caution in using material from montane populations of rare plants for the reinforcement of small genetically depauperate lowland populations. PMID:27519913

  2. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    PubMed

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  3. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris)

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia—a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub—were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world. PMID:27557152

  4. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris).

    PubMed

    Patykowski, John; Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world. PMID:27557152

  5. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  6. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum.

    PubMed

    Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Naif; Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  7. Living in isolation – population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink)

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential. PMID:26380690

  8. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris).

    PubMed

    Patykowski, John; Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world.

  9. Is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants endangered by heat?

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Ursula; Pramsohler, Manuel; Bauer, Ines; Zimmermann, Sonja; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Strong solar irradiation in combination with still air and dry soil can cause prostrate high-mountain plants to heat up considerably and ultimately suffer heat damage. Such heat damage has been repeatedly shown for vegetative structures, but not for reproductive structures, which we expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat. Heat effects on cold-adapted plants may increase with rising global temperatures and the predicted increase in heat waves. We have tested the heat tolerance of reproductive versus vegetative shoots at different reproductive stages, comparing ten common plant species from different elevation belts in the European Alps. Plant samples were exposed to temperatures in 2-K steps of 30 min each between 42 and 56 °C. Heat damage was assessed by visual rating and vital staining. Reproductive shoots were on average 2.5 K less heat tolerant (LT50, i.e. the mean temperature causing 50 % heat damage, 47.2 °C) than vegetative shoots (mean LT50 49.7 °C). Initial heat injuries (mean LT10) were observed at 43-45 °C in heat-susceptible species and at 45-47 °C in more heat-tolerant species, in at least one reproductive stage. Generally, heat tolerance was significantly higher during fruiting than during the bud stages and anthesis. Prostrate species with acaulescent buds and flowers tolerated heat better than those with caulescent buds and flowers. Petals were the most heat-susceptible plant structure and mature pollen the most heat tolerant. Based on these data, heat tolerance of reproductive structures appears to be adapted to the prevailing maximum temperatures which the plants experience during different reproductive stages in their environment. During hot spells, however, heat tolerance thresholds may be exceeded. More frequent heat waves would decrease the reproductive output and, consequently, the competitiveness of heat-susceptible species.

  10. 78 FR 20689 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Renewal of Incidental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... determination that the plan qualifies as low effect under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). To make.... The Act's take prohibitions do not apply to federally listed plants on private lands unless such take... and qualifies for categorical exclusion under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA),...

  11. 77 FR 59517 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Mount Charleston Blue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants (56 FR 58804, November 21, 1991; 59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994). The Mt. Charleston blue butterfly was formerly referred to as the Spring Mountains blue (butterfly) (56 FR 58804, November 21, 1991; 59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994), but this common name is no longer used to...

  12. 77 FR 48367 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... is considered to be critical habitat. We listed these three plant species on July 27, 2011 (76 FR 45054). At the same time, we proposed to designate critical habitat (76 FR 45078). Section 4(b)(2) of... final listing rule published in the Federal Register on July 27, 2011 (76 FR 45054). For information...

  13. 75 FR 11010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ....pdf and the March 10, 2009, proposed rule (74 FR 10412). Description and Taxonomy The Oregon chub... with the highest diversity of native fish, amphibian, reptile and plant species (Scheerer and Apke 1998...; this reach represented just 2 percent of the species' historical range (58 FR 53800). Very...

  14. 78 FR 12011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... information on the status of the species. Comments previously submitted need not be resubmitted, as they will... (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) (77 FR 39965), and a combined 12-month finding and proposed rule to list two...

  15. 77 FR 49893 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for the Gierisch Mallow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    .... Starvation Point........ 0 1,022 ha (2,526 316 ha (782 ac)... 1,339 ha (3,309 ac). ac). Unit 2. Black Knolls... (73 FR 75176). Species on the candidate list are those fish, wildlife, and plants for which we have... September 21, 1983 (48 FR ] 43098). Gierisch mallow has remained a candidate in subsequent Candidate...

  16. 75 FR 48896 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Tennessee Purple Coneflower From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... notice in the Federal Register (40 FR 27873) accepting the Smithsonian report as a petition to list taxa... those plants. Echinacea tennesseensis was included in that report (40 FR 27880). Tennessee purple.... On June 16, 1976, we published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (41 FR 24524) to...

  17. 78 FR 26064 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Conservation Strategy for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... for the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Divide Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horriblis) population for public review and input. The... or plant to the point where it is again a secure, self-sustaining member of its ecosystem is...

  18. 76 FR 3029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of Erigeron maguirei

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... (40 FR 27824) accepting the Smithsonian report as a petition to list taxa named therein under section... plants. Erigeron maguirei was included in that report (40 FR 27824, July 1, 1975). Maguire daisy is the... throughout this rule. On June 16, 1976, we published a proposed rule in the Federal Register (41 FR 24524)...

  19. 78 FR 61293 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Brickellia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... lands. Such designation does not require implementation of restoration, recovery, or enhancement... Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271)), the Information Quality Act... Brickellia mosieri and Linum carteri var. carteri from observations of both plants' habitat, ecology,...

  20. 77 FR 60509 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding for the Lemmon Fleabane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... (40 FR 27824), the Lemmon fleabane was included among 3,000 plant species under status review. We first identified the Lemmon fleabane as a category 1 candidate species on September 30, 1993 (58 FR... published on September 21, 1983 (48 FR 43098). On the basis of immediacy and magnitude of threats, as...

  1. 78 FR 45405 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of Acmispon dendroideus

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... operational areas, the Navy committed to prepare and implement an erosion control plan that will minimize soil... and land use, erosion, nonnative plants, and fire, the significant increase in abundance (number of... activities, erosion, nonnatives, and fire are ongoing and the best available information indicates these...

  2. 76 FR 45077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ..., refer to the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on June 23, 2010 (75 ] FR 35721) or the... individuals (Service 2011b, p. 1). The plant is specific to Mancos shale soils at elevations of 6,725 to 7,776... grassland or shrublands. The species' highly restricted soil requirements and geographic range make...

  3. [Molecular characterization of a HMG-CoA reductase gene from a rare and endangered medicinal plant, Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ji-Tao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Gang; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-03-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in mavalonic acid pathway, which is the first committed step for isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. However, it still remains unclear whether HGMR gene plays a role in the isoprenoid biosynthesis in Dendrobium officinale, an endangered epiphytic orchid species. In the present study, a HMGR encoding gene, designed as DoHMGR1 (GenBank accession JX272632), was identified from D. officinale using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods, for the first time. The full length cDNA of DoHMGR1 was 2 071 bp in length and encoded a 562-aa protein with a molecular weight of 59.73 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.18. The deduced DoHMGR1 protein, like other HMGR proteins, constituted four conserved domains (63-561, 147-551, 268-383 and 124-541) and two transmembrane motifs (42-64 and 85-107). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that DoHMGR1 had high identity (67%-89%) to a number of HMGR genes from various plants and was closely related to Vanda hybrid cultivar, rice and maize monocots. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that DoHMGR1 was expressed in the three included organs. The transcripts were the most abundant in the roots with 2.13 fold over that in the leaves, followed by that in the stems with 1.98 fold. Molecular characterization of DoHMGR1 will be useful for further functional elucidation of the gene involving in isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway in D. officinale. PMID:24961116

  4. Endangered Species of Florida Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Merlien W.

    This coloring book portrays endangered animal and plant species of Florida in their natural environment. Each picture is to be colored by the student. On the back of each page bearing the picture to be colored is a description of the animal or plant, its preferred habitat, and the reason the animal or plant is endangered. (RE)

  5. 78 FR 40162 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-03

    ... as endangered species under the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) on November 2, 2010 (75 FR 67512). All... mussel (153 km (95 mi)). Critical habitat is located in Cherokee, Clay, Coosa, Elmore and Shelby...

  6. 76 FR 59835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ..., Tennessee Forests Council, West Virginia Highlands Conservancy, Tierra Curry, and Noah Greenwald (referred... 24, 2011; 75 FR 36035)), spectaclecase (Cumberlandia monodonta) ((currently proposed for listing as endangered (January 19, 2011; 76 FR 3392)), narrow pigtoe (Fusconaia escambia), round ebonyshell...

  7. 76 FR 9309 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Sand...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list the sand verbena moth, Copablepharon fuscum, as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Based on our review, we find the petition presents substantial information indicating that listing the sand verbena moth may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this......

  8. 77 FR 47587 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are extending the comment period on our proposed rule to, among other things, list 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, and designate critical habitat on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 species. We made the proposed rule available......

  9. Next-generation sequencing identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz., an endemic and endangered medicinal plant of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y-E; Yu, J-N; Nam, G H; Ryu, S-A; Kim, S; Oh, K; Lim, C E

    2015-01-01

    We used next-generation sequencing to develop 9 novel microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense, an endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Korea. Owing to its very limited distribution, over-harvesting for traditional medicinal purposes, and habitat loss, the natural populations are dramatically declining in Korea. All novel microsatellite markers were successfully genotyped using 64 samples from two populations (Mt. Choejeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Ungseokbong, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Gyeongsang Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus in each population. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.031 to 0.938 and from 0.031 to 0.697, respectively. The novel markers will be valuable tools for assessing the genetic diversity of A. austrokoreense and for germplasm conservation of this endangered species. PMID:25966255

  10. Seed Dispersal and Establishment of Endangered Plants on Oceanic Islands: The Janzen-Connell Model, and the Use of Ecological Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dennis M.; Kaiser, Christopher N.

    2008-01-01

    Background The Janzen-Connell model states that plant-specific natural enemies may have a disproportionately large negative effect on progeny close to maternal trees. The majority of experimental and theoretical studies addressing the Janzen-Connell model have explored how it can explain existing patterns of species diversity in tropical mainland areas. Very few studies have investigated how the model's predictions apply to isolated oceanic islands, or to the conservation management of endangered plants. Here, we provide the first experimental investigation of the predictions of the Janzen-Connell model on an oceanic island, in a conservation context. In addition, we experimentally evaluate the use of ecological analogue animals to resurrect the functional component of extinct frugivores that could have dispersed seeds away from maternal trees. Methodology/Principal Findings In Mauritius, we investigated seed germination and seedling survival patterns of the critically endangered endemic plant Syzygium mamillatum (Myrtaceae) in relation to proximity to maternal trees. We found strong negative effects of proximity to maternal trees on growth and survival of seedlings. We successfully used giant Aldabran tortoises as ecological analogues for extinct Mauritian frugivores. Effects of gut-passage were negative at the seed germination stage, but seedlings from gut-passed seeds grew taller, had more leaves, and suffered less damage from natural enemies than any of the other seedlings. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first experimental evidence of a distance-dependent Janzen-Connell effect on an oceanic island. Our results potentially have serious implications for the conservation management of rare plant species on oceanic islands, which harbour a disproportionately large fraction of the world's endemic and endangered plants. Furthermore, in contrast to recent controversy about the use of non-indigenous extant megafauna for re-wilding projects in North America and

  11. Using population count data to assess the effects of changing river flow on an endangered Riparian plant.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Diane M; Schwartz, Mark W

    2006-08-01

    Methods for using simple population count data to project extinction risk have been the focus of much recent theoretical work, but few researchers have used these approaches to address management questions. We analyzed 15 years of census data on the federally endangered endemic riparian plant Pityopsis ruthii (Small) with the diffusion approximation (DA). Our goals were to evaluate relative extinction risk among populations in two different watersheds (in Tennessee, U.S.A.) and potential effects of variation in managed river flow on population dynamics. Populations in both watersheds had high projected risks of extinction within 50 years, but the causes of this risk differed. Populations of P ruthii on the Hiwassee River had higher initial population sizes but significantly lower average growth rates than those on the Ocoee River The only populations with low predicted short-term extinction risk were on the Ocoee. Growth rates for populations on both rivers were significantly reduced during periods of lower river flow. We found only marginal evidence of a quadratic relationship between population performance and flow. These patterns are consistent with the idea that low flows affect P ruthii due to growth of competing vegetation, but the degree to which very high flows may reduce population growth is still unclear Simulations indicated that populations were most sensitive to growth rates in low-flow years, but small changes in the frequency of these periods did not strongly increase risk for most populations. Consistent with results of other studies, DA estimates of extinction risk had wide confidence limits. Still, our results yielded several valuable insights, including the need for greater monitoring of populations on the Hiwassee and the importance of low-flow years to population growth. Our work illustrates the potential value of simple methods for analyzing count data despite the challenges posed by uncertainty in estimates of extinction risk.

  12. Rapid plant regeneration and analysis of genetic fidelity of in vitro derived plants of Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker--an endangered medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Lattoo, S K; Bamotra, S; Sapru Dhar, R; Khan, S; Dhar, A K

    2006-06-01

    An efficient in vitro multiplication system via multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration has been developed in Chlorophytum arundinaceum using shoot crown explants. Optimum regeneration frequency (87%) and desirable organogenetic response in the form of de novo organized multiple shoot buds without an intervening callus phase was obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) minimal organics medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 4 x 10(-6) M Kn and 2 x 10(-6) MIBA. Axenic secondary explants with multiple shoot buds on subculturing elicited best response with 1 x 10(-5) M Kinetin (Kn) and 5 x 10(-6) M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) giving rise to an average of 18.74 shoots per culture with mean shoot length of 7.6 cm +/- 1.73. Varying molar ratios of either Kn/IBA or Kn/NAA revealed statistically significant differences in the regeneration frequencies among the phytohormone treatments. It was observed that the shoot bud differentiation and regeneration was influenced by the molar ratios of cytokinins/auxin rather than their relative concentrations. Healthy regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS basal medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 5 x 10(-6) M IBA. Following simple hardening procedures, rooted plantlets, were transferred to soil-sand (1:1; v/v) with more than 90% success. Genetic fidelity was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), karyotype analysis and meiotic behaviour of in vitro and in vivo plants. Five arbitrary decamers displayed same banding profile within all the micropropagated plants and in vivo explant donor. The cytological and molecular analysis complemented and compared well and showed no genomic alterations in the plants regenerated through shoot bud differentiation. High multiplication frequency, molecular, cytological and phenotypic stability ensures the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production and conservation of this important endangered medicinal herb. PMID:16477407

  13. Rapid plant regeneration and analysis of genetic fidelity of in vitro derived plants of Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker--an endangered medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Lattoo, S K; Bamotra, S; Sapru Dhar, R; Khan, S; Dhar, A K

    2006-06-01

    An efficient in vitro multiplication system via multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration has been developed in Chlorophytum arundinaceum using shoot crown explants. Optimum regeneration frequency (87%) and desirable organogenetic response in the form of de novo organized multiple shoot buds without an intervening callus phase was obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) minimal organics medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 4 x 10(-6) M Kn and 2 x 10(-6) MIBA. Axenic secondary explants with multiple shoot buds on subculturing elicited best response with 1 x 10(-5) M Kinetin (Kn) and 5 x 10(-6) M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) giving rise to an average of 18.74 shoots per culture with mean shoot length of 7.6 cm +/- 1.73. Varying molar ratios of either Kn/IBA or Kn/NAA revealed statistically significant differences in the regeneration frequencies among the phytohormone treatments. It was observed that the shoot bud differentiation and regeneration was influenced by the molar ratios of cytokinins/auxin rather than their relative concentrations. Healthy regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS basal medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 5 x 10(-6) M IBA. Following simple hardening procedures, rooted plantlets, were transferred to soil-sand (1:1; v/v) with more than 90% success. Genetic fidelity was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), karyotype analysis and meiotic behaviour of in vitro and in vivo plants. Five arbitrary decamers displayed same banding profile within all the micropropagated plants and in vivo explant donor. The cytological and molecular analysis complemented and compared well and showed no genomic alterations in the plants regenerated through shoot bud differentiation. High multiplication frequency, molecular, cytological and phenotypic stability ensures the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production and conservation of this important endangered medicinal herb.

  14. Combining incidence and demographic modelling approaches to evaluate metapopulation parameters for an endangered riparian plant

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Record, Sydne

    2016-01-01

    Metapopulations are a central concept in ecology and conservation biology; however, estimating key parameters such as colonization rates presents a substantial obstacle to modelling metapopulations in many species. We develop spatial and non-spatial simulation models that combine incidence- and demographic-based approaches to build a relationship between observed patch occupancy, habitat turnover rates, colonization rates and dispersal scales. Applying these models to long-term observations of Pedicularis furbishiae (Furbish’s lousewort), a rare plant endemic to the Saint John River, we predict that observed habitat patches averaging 550 m in length receive colonizing seedlings with a yearly probability of 0.45 or 0.54, based on two different models. Predictions are consistent with a standard analytic metapopulation formulation modified to partition extinction drivers during the early and the late phases of a population’s life cycle. While the specific results rest on several simplifying assumptions, the models allow us to understand the impact that increasing rates of habitat turnover would have on the future survival of this species. PMID:27339047

  15. Combining incidence and demographic modelling approaches to evaluate metapopulation parameters for an endangered riparian plant.

    PubMed

    Charney, Noah D; Record, Sydne

    2016-01-01

    Metapopulations are a central concept in ecology and conservation biology; however, estimating key parameters such as colonization rates presents a substantial obstacle to modelling metapopulations in many species. We develop spatial and non-spatial simulation models that combine incidence- and demographic-based approaches to build a relationship between observed patch occupancy, habitat turnover rates, colonization rates and dispersal scales. Applying these models to long-term observations of Pedicularis furbishiae (Furbish's lousewort), a rare plant endemic to the Saint John River, we predict that observed habitat patches averaging 550 m in length receive colonizing seedlings with a yearly probability of 0.45 or 0.54, based on two different models. Predictions are consistent with a standard analytic metapopulation formulation modified to partition extinction drivers during the early and the late phases of a population's life cycle. While the specific results rest on several simplifying assumptions, the models allow us to understand the impact that increasing rates of habitat turnover would have on the future survival of this species. PMID:27339047

  16. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened. 17... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or §...

  17. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened. 17... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or §...

  18. 76 FR 20558 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 44 Marine and Anadromous Taxa: Adding 10 Taxa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ... abalone as endangered (74 FR 1937; January 14, 2009); Bocaccio, Puget Sound/Georgia Basin DPS, as..., bocaccio (Puget Sound/ Sebastespinniger FR 18516), to FR 22276). Georgia Basin DPS), Sebastespaucispin list... U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and Reorganization Plan No. 4 of 1970 (35 FR 15627; October 6, 1970), NMFS...

  19. 75 FR 46894 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... endangered subspecies on April 28, 1976 (41 FR 17742). The gray wolf species (Canis lupus) in North America... threatened (43 FR 9607). This listing of the species as a whole subsumed the previous Mexican wolf subspecies... the purpose of research and conservation (43 FR 9607). We initiated recovery programs for the...

  20. 77 FR 61375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... listed as an endangered subspecies on April 28, 1976 (41 FR 17736). In 1978, we published a rule (43 FR... subspecies for the purpose of research and conservation (43 FR 9607). We initiated recovery programs for the... the Mexican wolf (61 FR 67573; December 23, 1996). On April 3, 1997, the Department of the...

  1. 77 FR 13251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Nine Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ........... July 3, 1978; 43 virginianus. FR 28932. Virginia big-eared bat Corynorhinus Endangered........ U.S.A... darter, Virginia fringed mountain snail, Virginia big-eared bat, Hay's Spring amphipod, Lee County Cave...-year review assesses the best scientific and commercial data available at the time of the review....

  2. 75 FR 81637 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of the St. Andrew Beach...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... (63 FR 70053). The endangered St. Andrew beach mouse is now found in two populations: East Crooked... recovery plan available for public comment from April 22, 2009 through June 22, 2009 (74 FR 18403). We... feral cats and hogs in beach mouse habitat. 4. In areas with known populations of beach mice...

  3. 78 FR 73173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Straight-Horned Markhor as Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-05

    ... chialtanensis (Chiltan wild goat) (64 FR 51500, September 23, 1999). In our June 2, 2011, 90-day petition....S. and foreign vertebrates and invertebrates, as endangered under the Act (41 FR 24062). All species... threatened under the Act. On September 23, 1999 (64 FR 51499), we published in the Federal Register a...

  4. 76 FR 61307 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Calopogon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... orchid) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of the best available... is available for public inspection, by appointment, during normal business hours at the U.S. Fish and... On May 28, 2008, we received a petition dated May 22, 2008, from Dr. Douglas Goldman of the...

  5. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ... INFORMATION: Executive Summary On January 5, 2010, we published a proposed rule (75 FR 606) to list these six... proposed rule (75 FR 606) to list these six species as endangered: Ash-breasted tit-tyrant (Anairetes... response to the 1991 petition, we published a substantial 90-day finding on December 16, 1991 (56 FR...

  6. 75 FR 48914 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Tiger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... lines; and receiving or acquiring big cats if the animals are moved from one State to another (72 FR... 1969 (ESCA) (35 FR 6069, April 14, 1970). We finalized this action on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491), but... under Appendix A of the ``U.S. List of Endangered Foreign Fish and Wildlife'' (37 FR 6476, March...

  7. 78 FR 40970 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Six West Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Register a proposed critical habitat designation for these species (77 FR 49602). Section 4(b)(2..., 2012 (77 FR 49602), for a complete discussion of the previous Federal actions for these species. We proposed all six species be listed as endangered with critical habitat on August 16, 2012 (77 FR 49602)....

  8. 78 FR 75313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Reclassify...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ....C. 1531 et seq.) on December 23, 1991 (56 FR 66400), based primarily on loss of habitat that was... listing E. altissimum as endangered was published in the Federal Register on December 15, 1994 (59 FR... section 4(c)(2) of the Act on March 22, 2006 (71 FR 14538). A second notice was published on April 3,...

  9. 75 FR 42040 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... endangered or threatened (42 FR 39121). Subsequently, we assigned the Amargosa toad as a category 1 candidate species under the Act in 1982 (47 FR 58454, December 30, 1982) and 1994 (59 FR 58982, November 15, 1994); and designated it as a category 2 candidate in 1985 (50 FR 37958, September 18, 1985); 1989 (54 FR...

  10. 76 FR 62259 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ... Listing as burrowing Endangered or crayfish. Threatened Species; Notice of Review. 56 FR 58804 11/21/1991... crayfish. Threatened Species. 54 FR 554 01/06/1989 ETWP; Animal Florida bog Notice of frog; Review. Greensboro burrowing crayfish. 49 FR 21664 05/22/1984 ETWP; Review of Greensboro Invertebrate...

  11. 77 FR 38762 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... publication date and citation Animals Warbler (wood), Kirtland's...... Dendroica Endangered........ U.S.A. March 11, 1967 (32 kirtlandii. (principally MI), FR 4001). Canada, West Indies--Bahama Islands. Darter, Niangua Etheostoma Threatened........ U.S.A. (MO)....... June 12, 1985 (50 nianguae. FR 24649)....

  12. 78 FR 8576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Ocelot and Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Endangered........ U.S.A. (AZ, TX) to 47 FR 31670 July Mitch Sternberg, South Texas Central and South 21... Spotted Strix Threatened........ U.S.A. (AZ, CO, 58 FR 14248 March Field Supervisor, 602- U.S. Fish and... Ocelot and Mexican Spotted Owl in the Southwest Region AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service,...

  13. 78 FR 55046 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... The gypsum wild-buckwheat was federally listed as threatened on February 18, 1981 (46 FR 5730, January... habitat on November 5, 1987 (52 FR 37420, October 6, 1987). A recovery plan was issued September 30, 1991... was federally listed as endangered without critical habitat on October 31, 1988 (53 FR...

  14. 77 FR 36457 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Coquí Llanero

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... proposed rule to list the coqu llanero as endangered and to designate critical habitat (76 FR 63420). We... the proposed rule that published on October 12, 2011, at 76 FR 63420, is reopened. We will consider... frog) that was published in the Federal Register on October 12, 2011 (76 FR 63420), our evaluation...

  15. 78 FR 41022 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... in the Federal Register a proposed rule (77 FR 73828) to list the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus... Oklahoma, and the Texas Panhandle, as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as..., 2013; in Garden City, Kansas, on February 7, 2013; in Lubbock, Texas, on February 11, 2013; and...

  16. 75 FR 48294 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... reproduction, nutrition, and habitat; (b) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range including... as an endangered species under the Act in 1976 (41 FR 24524, June 16, 1976). It was included in the... be extinct in the wild although known to be extant in cultivation (U45 FR 82480, December 15,...

  17. 75 FR 1567 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... on a Petition to List the Eastern Population of the Gopher Tortoise as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... population of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of... eastern population of the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) as threatened in the Federal Register...

  18. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... baileyi), was listed as endangered on April 28, 1976, (41 FR 17736) with its known range given as ``Mexico, USA (Arizona, New Mexico, Texas).'' On June 14, 1976, (41 FR 240624) the subspecies C. l. monstrabilis... as ``Texas, New Mexico, Mexico.'' On March 9, 1978, we published a rule (43 FR 9607) relisting...

  19. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... April 28, 1976 Southeastern (41 FR 17736). U.S.A. Bat, Indiana Myotis sodalis... Endangered Eastern and March 11, 1967 Midwestern U.S.A. (32 FR 4001). Snake, copperbelly water....... Nerodia Threatened IN north of January 29, 1997 erythrogaster 40 N. Lat., (62 FR 4183). neglecta. MI, OH. Mussel,...

  20. 76 FR 53482 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Revised Recovery Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Revised Recovery Plan for the Mojave Population of the Desert Tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) AGENCY: Fish... of the desert tortoise under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This species is... Mojave population of the desert tortoise includes those animals living north and west of the...

  1. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... federally endangered were (1) predation by golden eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) (San Miguel Island fox, Santa... conservation of a particular species. Species' History We listed four of the six subspecies of island fox... population declines (69 FR 10335). The San Miguel Island fox had declined from an estimated 450...

  2. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... Candidate Species (47 FR 58454). Category 2 included taxa for which information in the Service's possession... review, and reclassified the least chub as a Category 1 Candidate Species (54 FR 554). Category 1... endangered with critical habitat (60 FR 50518). A listing moratorium, imposed by Congress in 1995,...

  3. 76 FR 47133 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding and 12-Month Determination on a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... concerned. Previous Federal Actions In 1970, the leatherback sea turtle was listed as endangered (35 FR 8491... designated critical habitat for the leatherback sea turtle on March 23, 1979 (44 FR 17710), in the U.S... sea turtles may be warranted (May 5, 2011; 76 FR 25660). On February 23, 2011, the Sierra Club sent...

  4. 75 FR 51204 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To Remove the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Stephens' kangaroo rat as endangered on September 30, 1988 (53 FR 38465). We published a draft recovery plan for the Stephens' kangaroo rat on June 23, 1997 (62 FR 33799; Service 1997, pp. 1-71), but it has... substantial information to indicate that the petitioned action may be warranted (69 FR 21567), and...

  5. 75 FR 57055 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Utah Prairie Dog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... an endangered species on June 4, 1973 (38 FR 14678). At the time of listing, the species was... (49 FR 22330), the species was reclassified as threatened with a special rule to allow regulated take of the species. This special rule was amended on June 14, 1991 (56 FR 27438), to increase the...

  6. 76 FR 38203 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Amendment to the Draft Recovery Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... 6, 2007 (72 FR 51461). The recovery plan has not yet been finalized; because new scientific... November 30, 2001 (66 FR 59734), and fully listed it as endangered on March 5, 2003 (68 FR 10388). The last... developed in the 2007 Draft Recovery Plan, based on new information about genetics, disease risk,...

  7. 76 FR 30957 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Draft Recovery Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... as an endangered species under the Act on June 3, 1987 (52 FR 20994). We designated critical habitat on January 5, 1990 (55 FR 425). We originally completed and announced a recovery plan for the species.... It is also our policy to request peer review of recovery plans (July 1, 1994; 59 FR 34270). In...

  8. 77 FR 25791 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Michigan, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Oregon, and Washington (43 FR 6230). On July 12, 1995, we published a final... listed as endangered and retain the threatened status for the other 5 States (60 FR 36000). On July 6... recovery (64 FR 36454). On February 16, 2006, we reopened the public comment period to consider...

  9. 77 FR 431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Regulation That Excludes U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ... INFORMATION: Background On September 2, 2005 (70 FR 52319), the Service determined that the scimitar-horned... antelopes as endangered), the Service also published a new regulation (70 FR 52310) at 50 CFR 17.21(h) to... opinion. ] To comply with the Court's order, the Service published a proposed rule on July 7, 2011 (76...

  10. 78 FR 35663 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., 2011, proposed action to remove protections for C. lupus in all or portions of 29 eastern states (76 FR... Department of Fish and Game AGFD Arizona Game and Fish Department APA Administrative Procedure Act BRWRA Blue... Wildlife in Canada CPV Canine parvovirus DPS distinct population segment ESA Endangered Species Act...

  11. 76 FR 81665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revising the Listing of the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ..., published in May 1974 (USDI 1974). On March 9, 1978, we published a rule (43 FR 9607) reclassifying the gray..., and listed it as endangered (43 FR 9607, 9610, respectively, March 9, 1978). This reclassification was... continue to be maintained and dealt with as separate entities'' (43 FR 9609), and offered ``the...

  12. 76 FR 60431 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ..., 2005, the Service issued a 90-day finding (70 FR 38849), which found that the petition presented... threatened or ] endangered was not warranted (72 FR 4967). Species Information This section is a summary of the species information presented in the Service's 2007 12-month finding (72 FR 4967),...

  13. 76 FR 7633 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... development of the proposed listing rule. Consistent with section 4(b)(3)(C)(iii) of the Endangered Species... substantial scientific information indicating that listing the Pacific walrus may be warranted (74 FR 46548... Grebmeier 2009, pp. 764-768). Of the large number of different types of prey, statistically...

  14. 75 FR 30319 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule to remove the Lake Erie Watersnake...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... the recommendations from the 5-year status review initiated on April 22, 2008 (73 FR 21643). DATES: We...'s life history and biology can be found in the final listing rule (64 FR 47126; August 30, 1999) and... 30, 1999 (64 FR 47126) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). On September...

  15. 78 FR 64327 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Bi-State...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-28

    ... suitable habitat that accommodates restoration identified in the Bi-State Action Plan (i.e., actions HIR1-1... private lands. Such designation does not require implementation of restoration, recovery, or enhancement... Under the Endangered Species Act (published in the Federal Register on July 1, 1994 (59 FR 34271)),...

  16. 78 FR 22556 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for Lost River Sucker and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... species as endangered throughout their entire range under the Act on July 18, 1988 (53 FR 27130). The... comment from October 18, 2011 through December 19, 2011 (76 FR 64372). We considered all information we... Lost River and shortnose suckers are very similar in ecology. They both predominantly inhabit...

  17. 77 FR 66799 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Notice of 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... petitioned action may be warranted (75 FR 16713). We initiated a comprehensive status review of bumphead... Listing Determinations, or PECE policy (68 FR 15100; March 28, 2003) provides direction for the... endangered or threatened depends on the specific life history and ecology of the species, the nature...

  18. 76 FR 9991 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... Hermes copper butterflies in the Federal Register (71 FR 44980 and 71 FR 44966, respectively). The... FR 44980). On March 17, 2009, Center for Biological Diversity (CBD) and David Hogan filed a complaint... butterfly as endangered may be warranted (75 FR 17062). This notice constitutes the 12-month finding on...

  19. 76 FR 47123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... and threats were not available to support proposed rules (59 FR 58982; November 15, 1994). In the February 28, 1996, Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR) (61 FR 7595), we adopted a single category of... proposed to list Giuliani's dune scarab as endangered or threatened in 1978 (43 FR 35636; August 10,...

  20. 76 FR 54423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... species (Pan troglodytes) as endangered, whether in the wild or in captivity, pursuant to the Act. We... rule listing the chimpanzee and 25 other species of primates under the Act (41 FR 45990); the...; (2) capture and exportation for use in research labs and zoos; (3) diseases, such as...

  1. 75 FR 37460 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Prairie Species of Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... Washington to the public and solicited comments (see Federal Register notices 73 FR 54603 of September 22, 2008, and 73 FR 58975 of October 8, 2008). We considered information we received during the public... endangered: Fender's blue butterfly (Icaricia icairoides fenderi), Erigeron decumbens var....

  2. 76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... (59 FR 34270), we will seek the expert opinion of at least three appropriate independent specialists... (48 FR 49244). Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501, et seq.) This proposed rule does not contain...; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered, and Proposed Listing of the Cassius...

  3. 78 FR 77087 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for the Bi-State Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... (78 FR 64358 and 78 FR 64328) be submitted by the close of business on February 10, 2014. ADDRESSES... species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (78 FR 64358). We concurrently published a proposed rule to designate critical habitat (78 FR 64328). We received requests to extend...

  4. 75 FR 18232 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    .... mirabilis (no common name), chupacallos (Pleodendron macranthum), Vahl's boxwood or diablito de tres cuernos...), palo de nigua (Cornutia obovata), palo de Ram n (Banara vanderbiltii), uvillo (Eugenia haematocarpa... mature. B. Endangered means any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a...

  5. 75 FR 19591 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of Status Review of the North American...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-15

    ... information on the potential effects of climate change on wolverines, their habitat, and their food sources in... Vertebrate Population Segments Under the Endangered Species Act (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) (61 FR 4722... climbing (Banci 1994, p. 99). Wolverines exist in alpine and sub-alpine habitats, which in the...

  6. 75 FR 47025 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of Five Listed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... listed as endangered: Delmarva Peninsula fox squirrel, listed in 1967 (32 FR 4001); northeastern bulrush, 1991 (56 FR 21091-21096); and Furbish lousewort, 1978 (43 FR 17910-17916). In addition, we are... following species as threatened: Chittenango ovate amber snail, 1978 (43 FR 28932-28935), and Virginia...

  7. 78 FR 33790 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    .... lozanoi) were listed as endangered in their entirety, i.e., wherever found, on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491). On November 5, 1991, we published in the Federal Register (56 FR 56491) a proposed rule to list the... 24, 2003 (68 FR 43706), and again on November 26, 2003 (68 FR 66395). On February 1, 2005 (70 FR...

  8. 75 FR 15454 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 14 Southwestern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ..., 1991 (56 FR 49646). Gila trout Oncorhynchus gilae Threatened........ U.S.A. (AZ, NM)... May 11, 2005 (70 FR 24750). ] Hualapai Mexican vole Microtus mexicanus Endangered........ U.S.A. (AZ)....... October 1, 1987 hualpaiensis. (52 FR 36776). Loach minnow Tiaroga cobitis... Threatened........ U.S.A....

  9. 75 FR 32728 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List van Rossem's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ... in the food chain). Additionally, as cited in the petition, the San Diego National Wildlife Refuge... Regarding the Recognition of Distinct Vertebrate Population Segments under the Endangered Species Act, 61 FR..., 1994, notice of candidate review (59 FR 58982). Category 2 taxa were defined as those taxa for...

  10. 77 FR 60179 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding, Listing of the Spring...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... listing as endangered with critical habitat on November 29, 1977 (42 FR 60765). The critical habitat portion of the proposal was withdrawn on March 6, 1979 (44 FR 12382), in order to make a new critical... amendments to the Act. The Service proposed critical habitat again for the species on July 27, 1979 (44...

  11. 78 FR 64691 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Five Foreign Bird Species in Colombia and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... numerous threats and warrant listing under the Act as endangered species (74 FR 32308). Therefore, we... reopened the comment period for an additional 60 days (74 FR 57987). During the comment periods, we sought... published a positive 90-day finding on May 12, 1981 (46 FR 26464), to initiate a status review for...

  12. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... for 124 Species (76 FR 46362). Previous Federal Actions Twenty of the 40 species proposed or reevaluated for listing are candidate species (75 FR 69222; November 10, 2010). Candidate species are those... Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened (CNOR) (75 FR 69222). On May...

  13. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ..., diseased, rarely reproductive,'' and from only ``Deciduous Forest.'' Chapman et al. (2006) describe long... publish these 12-month findings in the Federal Register. Previous Federal Actions On July 1, 1975 (40 FR... Service for listing as an endangered species under the Act in 1976 (June 16, 1976, 41 FR 24524)....

  14. 77 FR 48934 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bicknell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... projected impacts to the Canadian portion of the species' breeding range; (b) Impacts to forest habitats in... announced that finding in the Animal Candidate Review for Listing as Endangered or Threatened Species (59 FR... thrush from candidate status (61 FR 64481). Although the Bicknell's thrush was removed from the list...

  15. 75 FR 30313 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Castanea pumila

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Federal Action On July 1, 1975 (40 FR 27924), Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis was included as one of the... as an endangered species under the Act in 1976 (41 FR 17 24524). We, however, did not finalize that... candidate on December 15, 1980 (45 FR 82480 82569). It was again advertised as a category 2 candidate...

  16. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  17. Evolution and biogeography of Centaurea section Acrocentron inferred from nuclear and plastid DNA sequence analyses

    PubMed Central

    Font, Mònica; Garcia-Jacas, Núria; Vilatersana, Roser; Roquet, Cristina; Susanna, Alfonso

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Section Acrocentron of the genus Centaurea is one of the largest sections of Centaurea with approx. 100 species. The geographic distribution, centred in the Mediterranean, makes it an excellent example for studies of the biogeographic history of this biodiversity-rich region. Methods Plastid (trnH-psbA) and nuclear (ITS and ETS) DNA sequence analysis was used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Ancestral biogeographic patterns were inferred by dispersal-vicariance analysis (DIVA). Key Results The resulting phylogeny has implications for the sectional classification of Acrocentron and confirms merging sect. Chamaecyanus into Acrocentron as a subsection. Previous suggestions of an eastern Mediterranean origin of the group are confirmed. The main centres of diversification established in previous studies are now strongly supported. Expansion of the group in two different radiations that followed patently diverse paths is inferred. Conclusions Radiation followed two waves, widely separated in time scale. The oldest one, from Turkey to Greece and the northern Balkans and then to North Africa and Iberia, should be dated at the end of the Miocene in the Messinian period. It reached the Iberian Peninsula from the south, following a route that is landmarked by several relictic taxa in Sicily and North Africa. A later radiation during the Holocene interglacial periods followed, involving species from the north of the Balkan Peninsula, along a Eurasian pathway running from Central Iberia to the steppes of Kazakhstan. A generalized pattern of reticulation is also evident from the results, indicating past contacts between presently separated species. Molecular data also confirmed the extent of hybridization within Acrocentron and were successful in reconstructing the paleogeography of the section. PMID:19228702

  18. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D.; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L.; Pandey, Arun K.

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations. PMID:27434060

  19. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L; Pandey, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations. PMID:27434060

  20. Genetically engineered plants, endangered species, and risk: a temporal and spatial exposure assessment for Karner blue butterfly larvae and Bt maize pollen.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robert K D; Meyer, Steven J; Wolf, Amy T; Wolt, Jeffrey D; Davis, Paula M

    2006-06-01

    Genetically engineered maize (Zea mays) containing insecticidal endotoxin proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) delta-endotoxin proteins has been adopted widely in the Midwestern United States. The proteins are toxic to several lepidopteran species and because a variety of maize tissues, including pollen, may express the endotoxins, the probability of exposure to nontarget species, including endangered species, needs to be understood. The objective of this study was to assess the potential temporal and spatial exposure of endangered Karner blue butterfly larvae (Lycaeides melissa samuelis) to Bt maize pollen in Wisconsin using probabilistic exposure techniques and geographic information systems analysis. Based on degree-day modeling of butterfly phenology and maize pollen shed, there is some potential for temporal exposure of larvae to maize pollen. However, in the majority of years and locations, maize pollen shed most likely will occur after the majority of larval feeding on wild lupine (Lupinus perennis). The spatial analysis indicates that some Karner blue butterfly populations occur in close proximity to maize fields, but in the vast majority of cases the butterfly's host plant and maize fields are separated by more than 500 m. A small number of potential or existing Karner blue butterfly sites are located near maize fields, including sites in two of the four counties where temporal overlap is most likely. The exposure assessment indicates that these two counties should receive the highest priority to determine if Karner blue butterfly larvae are actually at risk and then, if needed, to reduce or prevent exposure.

  1. Propagation and Introduction of Arnica montana L. into Cultivation: A Step to Reduce the Pressure on Endangered and High-Valued Medicinal Plant Species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive traits were monitored, and survival time was assessed. The particular ways of arnica plant propagation and introduction determined all the intrinsic species traits and plant survival. The values of the characteristics studied indicated good acclimatization of the arnica ecotype to the climatic conditions of eastern Poland. Practical implications from the data presented here include the possibility of using the presented modes of arnica propagation and introduction in the short- and long-term perspective of arnica cultivation, which can give a possibility of better adjustment of raw material production. PMID:24282381

  2. Propagation and introduction of Arnica montana L. into cultivation: a step to reduce the pressure on endangered and high-valued medicinal plant species.

    PubMed

    Sugier, Danuta; Sugier, Piotr; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2013-01-01

    Arnica montana (L.) is an endangered and endemic medicinal plant species in Europe. The pressure on natural sources of this plant is alleviated by a suitable use of arnica resources in the European region and introduction into cultivation. The objective of this study was to describe the impact of different ways of plant propagation and introduction on the growth and reproduction mode of this species. During the six consecutive years of the field experiment, the vegetative and reproductive traits were monitored, and survival time was assessed. The particular ways of arnica plant propagation and introduction determined all the intrinsic species traits and plant survival. The values of the characteristics studied indicated good acclimatization of the arnica ecotype to the climatic conditions of eastern Poland. Practical implications from the data presented here include the possibility of using the presented modes of arnica propagation and introduction in the short- and long-term perspective of arnica cultivation, which can give a possibility of better adjustment of raw material production.

  3. Endangered Species in the Pacific Northwest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Suggests that students can learn how society works by studying threatened and endangered plant and animal species which occur in the local environments. Pictures, descriptions, habitats, and niche information are given for 21 threatened or endangered species of the Pacific Northwest. (DH)

  4. Save Our Species: Protecting Endangered Species from Pesticides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This full-size poster profiles 11 wildlife species that are endangered. Color illustrations of animals and plants are accompanied by narrative describing their habitats and reasons for endangerment. The reverse side of the poster contains information on the Endangered Species Act, why protecting endangered and threatened species is important, how…

  5. Metabolic Variations, Antioxidant Potential, and Antiviral Activity of Different Extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an Endangered Medicinal Plant Used by Kani Tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) Leaf

    PubMed Central

    John, K. M. Maria; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  6. Metabolic variations, antioxidant potential, and antiviral activity of different extracts of Eugenia singampattiana (an endangered medicinal plant used by Kani tribals, Tamil Nadu, India) leaf.

    PubMed

    John, K M Maria; Ayyanar, Muniappan; Jeeva, Subbiah; Suresh, Murugesan; Enkhtaivan, Gansukh; Kim, Doo Hwan

    2014-01-01

    Eugenia singampattiana is an endangered medicinal plant used by the Kani tribals of South India. The plant had been studied for its antioxidant, antitumor, antihyperlipidemic, and antidiabetic activity. But its primary and secondary metabolites profile and its antiviral properties were unknown, and so this study sought to identify this aspect in Eugenia singampattiana plant through different extraction methods along with their activities against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The GC-MS analysis revealed that 11 primary metabolites showed significant variations among the extracts. Except for fructose all other metabolites were high with water extract. Among 12 secondary metabolites showing variations, the levels of 4-hydroxy benzoic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, ferulic acid, coumaric acid, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, myricetin, and kaempferol were high with methanol extract. Since the flavonoid content of methanol extracts was high, the antioxidant potential, such as ABTS, and phosphomolybdenum activity increased. The plants antiviral activity against PRRSV was for the first time confirmed and the results revealed that methanol 25 µg and 75 to 100 µg in case of water extracts revealed antiviral activity. PMID:25133179

  7. Role of Within‐individual Variation in Capitulum Size and Achene Mass in the Adaptation of the Annual Centaurea eriophora to Varying Water Supply in a Mediterranean Environment

    PubMed Central

    RUIZ DE CLAVIJO, E.

    2002-01-01

    To clarify the adaptive value of variation in capitulum size and achene mass, plants of Centaurea eriophora were studied in a glasshouse and in a natural population. C. eriophora plants consist of a basal leaf rosette from which an erect stem grows, with lateral branches of various orders ending in capitula of different orders. Primary, secondary and tertiary capitula are comparable in size and they produce similar numbers of achenes, which are similar in weight (large achenes). These capitula are formed during April, May and early June, and constitute the normal or primary flowering. Following ripening of tertiary capitula, leaves senesce, but, later during June and the first half of July, a secondary flowering of a variable number of smaller capitula may occur if wet conditions persist for longer than usual. Plants that have almost senesced develop small lateral branches 1–2 cm long bearing a few small leaves and ending in a capitulum about half the diameter of capitula from the primary flowering period. The number of achenes produced in these capitula (small achenes) and their weight are 70 and 30 % less, respectively, than those of capitula formed during primary flowering. These reductions appear to result from restricted availability of resources. Large and small achenes have similar dispersal characteristics and possess similar germination potential. However, large achenes produce seedlings that are capable of emerging from greater burial depths, providing the resulting plants with a potential advantage. The normal flowering period coincides with the optimum time of year for flowering and fruiting in the south of Spain, and only if rainfall lasts longer than usual does secondary flowering occur. Secondary flowering extends the normal flowering and fruiting periods, thereby providing a supplementary crop of smaller, yet viable, fruits. It can be considered to be an adaptive response to the unpredictable Mediterranean climate, optimizing the use of available

  8. Duration of emission of volatile organic compounds from mechanically damaged plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lincoln; Beck, John J

    2015-09-01

    Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds depends on the use of arthropod herbivores that are sufficiently host specific to avoid risk of injuring nontarget plants. Host plant specificity is usually evaluated by using a combination of behavioral and developmental experiments under choice, no-choice and field conditions. Secondary plant compounds are likely to have an important influence on host plant specificity. However, relatively little is known about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by target and nontarget plants, and how environmental conditions may affect their emission. Previous studies have shown that mechanical damage of leaves increases the composition and content of VOCs emitted. In this study we measured the VOC emissions of five species of plants in the subtribe Centaureinae (Asteraceae)--Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea cineraria, Centaurea melitensis, Centaurea rothrockii, and Centaurea solstitialis--that have previously been used in host specificity experiments for a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle (C. solstitialis). Leaves of each plant were punctured with a needle and the VOCs were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) periodically over 48 h and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 49 compounds were detected. Damage caused an immediate increase of 200-600% in the composition of VOCs emitted from each plant species, and the amounts generally remained high for at least 48 h. The results indicate that a very unspecific mechanical damage can cause a prolonged change in the VOC profile of plants. PMID:26398629

  9. Duration of emission of volatile organic compounds from mechanically damaged plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Smith, Lincoln; Beck, John J

    2015-09-01

    Classical biological control of invasive alien weeds depends on the use of arthropod herbivores that are sufficiently host specific to avoid risk of injuring nontarget plants. Host plant specificity is usually evaluated by using a combination of behavioral and developmental experiments under choice, no-choice and field conditions. Secondary plant compounds are likely to have an important influence on host plant specificity. However, relatively little is known about the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted by target and nontarget plants, and how environmental conditions may affect their emission. Previous studies have shown that mechanical damage of leaves increases the composition and content of VOCs emitted. In this study we measured the VOC emissions of five species of plants in the subtribe Centaureinae (Asteraceae)--Carthamus tinctorius, Centaurea cineraria, Centaurea melitensis, Centaurea rothrockii, and Centaurea solstitialis--that have previously been used in host specificity experiments for a prospective biological control agent of yellow starthistle (C. solstitialis). Leaves of each plant were punctured with a needle and the VOCs were collected by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) periodically over 48 h and analyzed by GC-MS. A total of 49 compounds were detected. Damage caused an immediate increase of 200-600% in the composition of VOCs emitted from each plant species, and the amounts generally remained high for at least 48 h. The results indicate that a very unspecific mechanical damage can cause a prolonged change in the VOC profile of plants.

  10. Genetic diversity and structure of native and non-native populations of the endangered plant Pinus dabeshanensis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Wang, H; Chen, W; Pang, X M; Li, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    Owing to a severe decline in its abundance, Pinus dabeshanensis has been listed as an endangered species by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature. Although several restoration events have been undertaken since the 1960s, the natural population genetic structure of this species remains to be investigated. Herein, we examined the level of genetic diversity and structure of two native and two non-native populations using 10 microsatellite loci. A relatively high level of genetic variation (HO = 0.586 ± 0.039) and a low level of population differentiation (FST = 0.016 ± 0.011) were revealed. For forensic investigation, an assignment test was performed. To better understand the genetic differentiation between the native and non-native populations, the individuals in the transplanted and cultivated populations may have derived from populations that were not surveyed in this study. In light of our results, we discuss the real problems faced by all four populations and provide useful information for management decision-making. PMID:27323170

  11. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk.

    PubMed

    Fountain, Emily D; Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H; Paterson, Adrian M

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach's speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010-2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  12. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    PubMed Central

    Malumbres-Olarte, Jagoba; Cruickshank, Robert H.; Paterson, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun) and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk), which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1) these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2) the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3) the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units. PMID:25699201

  13. 76 FR 3069 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    .... We published a notice May 21, 2010 (75 FR 28636), announcing the review of Acmispon dendroideus... either plant. A notice of review initiation was published for the two Eureka Valley plants in 1983 (48 FR 55100; December 8, 1983), 1991 (56 FR 56882; November 6, 1991), and 2005 (70 FR 39327; July 7,...

  14. 76 FR 62722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Amoreuxia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... in tropical areas in foothills thornscrub and tropical deciduous forest. Rainfall amounts range from 28 cm per year (11 in) near the coast (thornscrub) to 60 cm (24 in) in tropical deciduous forest... deciduous forest plant communities, which are more humid, and where many plant species grow in response...

  15. Anthropogenic disturbance as a driver of microspatial and microhabitat segregation of cytotypes of Centaurea stoebe and cytotype interactions in secondary contact zones

    PubMed Central

    Mráz, Patrik; Španiel, Stanislav; Keller, Andreas; Bowmann, Gillianne; Farkas, Alexandre; Šingliarová, Barbora; Rohr, Rudolf P.; Broennimann, Olivier; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims In a mixed-ploidy population, strong frequency-dependent mating will lead to the elimination of the less common cytotype, unless prezygotic barriers enhance assortative mating. However, such barriers favouring cytotype coexistence have only rarely been explored. Here, an assessment is made of the mechanisms involved in formation of mixed-ploidy populations and coexistence of diploid plants and their closely related allotetraploid derivates from the Centaurea stoebe complex (Asteraceae). Methods An investigation was made of microspatial and microhabitat distribution, life-history and fitness traits, flowering phenology, genetic relatedness of cytotypes and intercytotype gene flow (cpDNA and microsatellites) in six mixed-ploidy populations in Central Europe. Key Results Diploids and tetraploids were genetically differentiated, thus corroborating the secondary origin of contact zones. The cytotypes were spatially segregated at all sites studied, with tetraploids colonizing preferentially drier and open microhabitats created by human-induced disturbances. Conversely, they were rare in more natural microsites and microsites with denser vegetation despite their superior persistence ability (polycarpic life cycle). The seed set of tetraploid plants was strongly influenced by their frequency in mixed-ploidy populations. Triploid hybrids originated from bidirectional hybridizations were extremely rare and almost completely sterile, indicating a strong postzygotic barrier between cytotypes. Conclusions The findings suggest that tetraploids are later immigrants into already established diploid populations and that anthropogenic activities creating open niches favouring propagule introductions were the major factor shaping the non-random distribution and habitat segregation of cytotypes at fine spatial scale. Establishment and spread of tetraploids was further facilitated by their superior persistence through the perennial life cycle. The results highlight

  16. Dispersal pathways and genetic differentiation among worldwide populations of the invasive weed Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Eriksen, Renée L; Hierro, José L; Eren, Özkan; Andonian, Krikor; Török, Katalin; Becerra, Pablo I; Montesinos, Daniel; Khetsuriani, Liana; Diaconu, Alecu; Kesseli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of introduced species is often unclear due to a lack of historical records. Even when historical information is readily available, important factors of the invasions such as genetic bottlenecks, hybridization, historical relationships among populations and adaptive changes are left unknown. In this study, we developed a set of nuclear, simple sequence repeat markers and used these to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure among native (Eurasian) and non-native (North and South American) populations of Centaurea solstitialis L., (yellow starthistle). We used these data to test hypotheses about the invasion pathways of the species that were based on historical and geographical records, and we make inferences about historical relationships among populations and demographic processes following invasion. We confirm that the center of diversity and the native range of the species is likely the eastern Mediterranean region in the vicinity of Turkey. From this region, the species likely proceeded to colonize other parts of Europe and Asia via a slow, stepwise range expansion. Spanish populations were the primary source of seed to invade South America via human-mediated events, as was evident from historical records, but populations from the eastern Mediterranean region were also important. North American populations were largely derived from South America, but had secondary contributors. We suggest that the introduction history of non-native populations from disparate parts of the native range have allowed not just one, but multiple opportunities first in South America then again in North America for the creation of novel genotypes via intraspecific hybridization. We propose that multiple intraspecific hybridization events may have created especially potent conditions for the selection of a noxious invader, and may explain differences in genetic patterns among North and South America populations, inferred differences in demographic

  17. Dispersal Pathways and Genetic Differentiation among Worldwide Populations of the Invasive Weed Centaurea solstitialis L. (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Eriksen, Renée L.; Hierro, José L.; Eren, Özkan; Andonian, Krikor; Török, Katalin; Becerra, Pablo I.; Montesinos, Daniel; Khetsuriani, Liana; Diaconu, Alecu; Kesseli, Rick

    2014-01-01

    The natural history of introduced species is often unclear due to a lack of historical records. Even when historical information is readily available, important factors of the invasions such as genetic bottlenecks, hybridization, historical relationships among populations and adaptive changes are left unknown. In this study, we developed a set of nuclear, simple sequence repeat markers and used these to characterize the genetic diversity and population structure among native (Eurasian) and non-native (North and South American) populations of Centaurea solstitialis L., (yellow starthistle). We used these data to test hypotheses about the invasion pathways of the species that were based on historical and geographical records, and we make inferences about historical relationships among populations and demographic processes following invasion. We confirm that the center of diversity and the native range of the species is likely the eastern Mediterranean region in the vicinity of Turkey. From this region, the species likely proceeded to colonize other parts of Europe and Asia via a slow, stepwise range expansion. Spanish populations were the primary source of seed to invade South America via human-mediated events, as was evident from historical records, but populations from the eastern Mediterranean region were also important. North American populations were largely derived from South America, but had secondary contributors. We suggest that the introduction history of non-native populations from disparate parts of the native range have allowed not just one, but multiple opportunities first in South America then again in North America for the creation of novel genotypes via intraspecific hybridization. We propose that multiple intraspecific hybridization events may have created especially potent conditions for the selection of a noxious invader, and may explain differences in genetic patterns among North and South America populations, inferred differences in demographic

  18. Cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) honey quality parameters: chromatographic fingerprints, chemical biomarkers, antioxidant capacity and others.

    PubMed

    Kuś, Piotr Marek; Jerković, Igor; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Marijanović, Zvonimir; Congiu, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    The samples of cornflower (Centaurea cyanus L.) honey from Poland were subjected to ultrasonic solvent extraction applying the mixture of pentane and diethyl ether 1:2v/v (solvent A) as well as dichloromethane (solvent B). The major compounds of the extracts (analysed by GC-MS/GC-FID) were C13 and C9 norisoprenoids. Among them, (E)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol (2.4-23.9% (solvent A); 3.9-14.4% (solvent B)) and (Z)-3-oxo-retro-α-ionol (3.7-29.9% (solvent A); 8.4-20.4% (solvent B)) were found to be useful as chemical biomarkers of this honey. Other abundant compounds were: methyl syringate (0.0-31.4% (solvent A); 0.0-25.4% (solvent B)) and 3-hydroxy-4-phenylbutan-2-one (1.6-15.8% (solvent A); 5.1-15.1% (solvent B)). HPLC-DAD analysis of the samples revealed lumichrome (4.7-10.0mg/kg), riboflavin (1.9-2.7mg/kg) and phenyllactic acid (112.1-250.5mg/kg) as typical compounds for this honey type. Antioxidant and antiradical properties as well as total phenolic content of the samples were found to be rather moderate by FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power), DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical) and Folin-Ciocalteu assays, respectively. Additionally, CIE L(∗)a(∗)b(∗)C(∗)h chromatic coordinates were evaluated. Colour attributes of cornflower honey were characterised by elevated values of L(∗) and particularly high values of b(∗) and h coordinates, which correspond to medium bright honey with intense yellow colour.

  19. 78 FR 36566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... (67 FR 3120). This species is a rare perennial member of the sedge family (Cyperaceae) endemic to the... this plant occur in the Northeast Cape Fear River watershed in North Carolina. Factors contributing...

  20. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080.

  1. Genetic stability and phytochemical analysis of the in vitro regenerated plants of Dendrobium nobile Lindl., an endangered medicinal orchid

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharyya, Paromik; Kumaria, Suman; Diengdoh, Reemavareen; Tandon, Pramod

    2014-01-01

    An efficient genetically stable regeneration protocol with increased phytochemical production has been established for Dendrobium nobile, a highly prized orchid for its economic and medicinal importance. Protocorm like bodies (PLBs) were induced from the pseudostem segments using thidiazuron (TDZ; 1.5 mg/l), by-passing the conventional auxin–cytokinin complement approach for plant regeneration. Although, PLB induction was observed at higher concentrations of TDZ, plantlet regeneration from those PLBs was affected adversely. The best rooting (5.41 roots/shoot) was achieved in MS medium with 1.5 mg/l TDZ and 0.25% activated charcoal. Plantlets were successfully transferred to a greenhouse with a survival rate of 84.3%, exhibiting normal development. Genetic stability of the regenerated plants was investigated using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and start codon targeted (SCoT) polymorphism markers which detected 97% of genetic fidelity among the regenerants. The PIC values of RAPD and SCoT primers were recorded to be 0.92 and 0.76 and their Rp values ranged between 3.66 and 10, and 4 and 12 respectively. The amplification products of the regenerated plants showed similar banding patterns to that of the mother plant thus demonstrating the homogeneity of the micropropagated plants. A comparative phytochemical analysis among the mother and the micropropagated plants showed a higher yield of secondary metabolites. The regeneration protocol developed in this study provides a basis for ex-situ germplasm conservation and also harnesses the various secondary metabolite compounds of medicinal importance present in D. nobile. PMID:25606433

  2. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    An efficient protocol for the in vitro propagation of Magnolia dealbata Zucc., an important medicinal plant that is the source of the anxiolytic and anticancer compounds honokiol and magnolol, was established. This plant is wild-crafted, and conservationists have expressed concerns with regard to the sustainability of production. In the present work, two factors were found to be of importance for the regeneration of M. dealbata and the production of honokiol and magnolol. These factors were the type of explants and the combination and concentration of plant-growth regulators. Green, compact, nodular organogenic callus was obtained from leaf explants in a medium fortified with Murashige and Skoog salts and supplemented with 1.5 mg/L 2,4-dicholorophenoxyacetic acid and 1.5 mg/L kinetin. Shoots multiplication from callus cultures was achieved in the Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with 1.5 mg/L thidiazuron (TDZ). Phenol secretion was controlled by the addition of 250 mg/L of activated charcoal. For rooting, shoots were transferred to MS medium supplemented with several auxins. After root induction, the plants were hardened in earthen pots containing sand, soil, and vermiculite. The contents of honokiol (HK) and magnolol (MG) were determined in different plant materials by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode-array detection techniques. This analysis revealed that the honokiol and magnolol content in aerial and underground parts of micropropagated M. dealbata were higher than that observed in wild plants (both 6 months old). Our results suggest that conservation of M. dealbata is possible by means of in vitro multiplication of leaf-derived callus. The usefulness of M. dealbata regeneration and production of HK and MG may be attributed to the proper selection of explant sourcing and identification of the correct growth medium to support adequate growth. This careful selection of explants and growth medium leads to a very useful source of plant material for

  3. Endangered Animals. Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Marcia

    This second grade teaching unit centers on endangered animal species around the world. Questions addressed are: What is an endangered species? Why do animals become extinct? How do I feel about the problem? and What can I do? Students study the definition of endangered species and investigate whether it is a natural process. They explore topics…

  4. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of conversion of grasslands to agricultural uses; encroachment by invasive woody plants; wind energy... a proposed rule to list the lesser prairie-chicken as a threatened species under the Act (77 FR... Proposed Rule? At the time of the 2012 proposed listing rule (77 FR 73828), we indicated that we...

  5. 77 FR 71757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Phoenix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ... research, education, propagation, as well as the economic advantages of the grove's production of high... cultivar is vegetative (asexual; only one plant is involved and the offspring is genetically identical to its parent). Propagation is accomplished by removing offshoots (lateral shoot from the main stem...

  6. 76 FR 10310 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... petition finding (59 FR 28741), we determined that, although the S. adiaste adiaste may be declining... by nonnative plants, livestock grazing, and over- collection (December 5, 1997, 62 FR 64306, pp... butterflies. The primary threat to the Callippe (62 FR 64306), Behren's (62 FR 64306), Myrtle's (June 22,...

  7. 76 FR 10165 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ... indicate that an emergency situation existed for any of the 11 species. On February 5, 2009 (74 FR 6122...-day finding (74 FR 41649) on 38 species from the petition to list 206 species in the mountain-prairie... reproduce mainly by outcrossing (cross-fertilization) (Heil and Melton 1995a, p. 14). Plants that...

  8. 76 FR 10299 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Wild...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... completed a 90-day finding on August 15, 2007 (72 FR 45717). Based upon the information available at that... FR 54707), for the Arctic grayling (Thymallus arcticus) and a 12-month finding published on September 22, 2010, for the plant Agave eggersiana (75 FR 57720), we have focused on wild populations in...

  9. 76 FR 55623 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding and Proposed Listing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... participated (71 FR 10608; March 2, 2006; NPS 2006). The original habitat of the plant was threatened by the... new location. Potential immediate threats applicable to the new location, including the danger that... listing may be warranted. The 90-day finding was published on August 10, 2010 (75 FR 48294). This...

  10. 78 FR 70103 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... plant and its habitat at the four remaining U.S. occurrences that still experience effects from... encroaching on P. stellaris occurrences in Mexico. However, the management of P. stellaris in the U.S. will... this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present...

  11. 76 FR 62740 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... CFR 424.14(a)). On July 14, 2009 (74 FR 33957), we published a 90-day finding in which we determined... cockatoo, and yellow-crested cockatoo (76 FR 49202). In this status review we make a determination whether... other accessible areas to plant yams, corn, dasheen, banana, plantain, and sugar cane, and graze...

  12. 75 FR 59803 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination for the Gunnison Sage-grouse as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... decision was not published until December 28, 2000 (65 FR 82310). Candidate species are plants and animals... elevated the listing priority number for Gunnison sage-grouse from 5 to 2 (69 FR 24876; May 4, 2004), as the imminence of the threats had increased. In the subsequent CNOR (70 FR 24870; May 11, 2005),...

  13. 76 FR 16439 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-23

    ... 26, 1990 (55 FR 49046). A plant, S. gentianoides, comprises two varieties: Var. gentianoides is.... alabamensis is a narrow endemic limited to the Bibb County Glades in Alabama. The loss or alteration of..., Bibb County, Alabama) located on public land are stable (where fertility and mortality are...

  14. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified.

  15. Optimization of supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of essential oil from Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss: An endangered medicinal plant in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nejad-Sadeghi, Masoud; Taji, Saeed; Goodarznia, Iraj

    2015-11-27

    Extraction of the essential oil from a medicinal plant called Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss was performed by green technology of supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction. A Taguchi orthogonal array design with an OA16 (4(5)) matrix was used to evaluate the effects of five extraction variables: pressure of 150-310bar, temperature of 40-60°C, average particle size of 250-1000μm, CO2 flow rate of 2-10ml/s and dynamic extraction time of 30-100min. The optimal conditions to obtain the maximum extraction yield were at 240bar, 60°C, 500μm, 10ml/s and 100min. The extraction yield under the above conditions was 2.72% (w/w) which is more than two times the maximum extraction yield that has been reported for this plant in the literature using traditional extraction techniques. Results from analysis of variance (ANOVA) indicated that the CO2 flow rate and the extraction time were the most significant factors on the extraction yield by percentage contribution of 44.27 and 28.86, respectively. Finally, the chemical composition of the essential oil was evaluated by using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Citral, p-mentha-1,3,8-triene, D-3-carene and methyl geranate were the major components identified. PMID:26522747

  16. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly

  17. How endangered is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants by summer frosts? Frost resistance, frequency of frost events and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Ursula; Hacker, Jürgen; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2013-03-01

    In temperate-zone mountains, summer frosts usually occur during unpredictable cold spells with snow-falls. Earlier studies have shown that vegetative aboveground organs of most high-mountain plants tolerate extracellular ice in the active state. However, little is known about the impact of frost on reproductive development and reproductive success. In common plant species from the European Alps (Cerastium uniflorum, Loiseleuria procumbens, Ranunculus glacialis, Rhododendron ferrugineum, Saxifraga bryoides, S. moschata, S. caesia), differing in growth form, altitudinal distribution and phenology, frost resistance of reproductive and vegetative shoots was assessed in different reproductive stages. Intact plants were exposed to simulated night frosts between -2 and -14 °C in temperature-controlled freezers. Nucleation temperatures, freezing damage and subsequent reproductive success (fruit and seed set, seed germination) were determined. During all reproductive stages, reproductive shoots were significantly less frost resistant than vegetative shoots (mean difference for LT50 -4.2 ± 2.7 K). In most species, reproductive shoots were ice tolerant before bolting and during fruiting (mean LT50 -7 and -5.7 °C), but were ice sensitive during bolting and anthesis (mean LT50 around -4 °C). Only R. glacialis remained ice tolerant during all reproductive stages. Frost injury in reproductive shoots usually led to full fruit loss. Reproductive success of frost-treated but undamaged shoots did not differ significantly from control values. Assessing the frost damage risk on the basis of summer frost frequency and frost resistance shows that, in the alpine zone, low-statured species are rarely endangered as long as they are protected by snow. The situation is different in the subnival and nival zone, where frost-sensitive reproductive shoots may become frost damaged even when covered by snow. Unprotected individuals are at high risk of suffering from frost damage, particularly

  18. An efficient method of propagation of Podophyllum hexandrum: an endangered medicinal plant of the Western Himalayas under ex situ conditions.

    PubMed

    Kharkwal, Amit C; Kushwaha, Rekha; Prakash, Om; Ogra, R K; Bhattacharya, Amita; Nagar, P K; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh

    2008-04-01

    This study shows an effective but simple method of conserving characterized populations and elite clones through vegetative propagation and genetic diversity through seeds in Podophyllum hexandrum (family Berberidaceae). Seed dormancy has been considered to be a major constraint in these seeds and most of the earlier reports recommended dormancy-breaking pretreatments such as chilling, gibberellic acid (GA(3)), etc. However, seeds of the 14 accessions that we tested exhibited no dormancy and hence did not require any pretreatments. Besides accession, collection of seeds with high moisture content could be one of the reasons for lack of dormancy. Thus, we propose germination of seeds (while they still retained moisture) in sand at 25 degrees C for high and reproducible results within a shorter period of time compared with earlier reports. Hypocotyl dormancy is known to considerably delay plant establishment and hence en masse propagation by preventing the emergence of functional leaves for up to 11-12 months. Manual removal of cotyledonary leaves, being labor and time intensive, is not a feasible method for large-scale seedling establishment. However, in this study, we showed that GA(3) at 200 ppm can alleviate hypocotyl dormancy besides reducing the time taken for true or functional leaf emergence. Treatment of cotyledonary leaves of 1 week-old-seedlings with 200 ppm GA(3 )resulted in true or functional leaf emergence within 7 days, and the resultant plants were also more vigorous than the ones obtained from manual removal of cotyledonary leaves. The study helped advance the establishment of seedlings by one growing season (almost 1 year).

  19. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans.

  20. Bioeconomic analysis supports the endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Salau, Kehinde R; Fenichel, Eli P

    2015-10-01

    The United States Endangered Species Act (ESA) was enacted to protect and restore declining fish, wildlife, and plant populations. The ESA mandates endangered species protection irrespective of costs. This translates to the restriction of activities that harm endangered populations. We discuss criticisms of the ESA in the context of public land management and examine under what circumstance banning non-conservation activity on multiple use federal lands can be socially optimal. We develop a bioeconomic model to frame the species management problem under the ESA and identify scenarios where ESA-imposed regulations emerge as optimal strategies. Results suggest that banning harmful activities is a preferred strategy when valued endangered species are in decline or exposed to poor habitat quality. However, it is not optimal to sustain such a strategy in perpetuity. An optimal plan involves a switch to land-use practices characteristic of habitat conservation plans. PMID:25312414

  1. 75 FR 57426 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Reclassify the U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... population segment (DPS) policy (61 FR 4722; February 7, 1996). (5) Discreteness, significance, and status of... habitat, particularly in south Florida (49 FR 7332). The endangered status covered wood storks in the.... At the time of listing, critical habitat was considered but not designated for this species (49...

  2. 78 FR 69436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Vicuña in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... endangered under the Act on June 2, 1970 (35 FR 8491). Among other things, that listing prohibited certain U... within a proposed rule, which was published in the Federal Register on September 8, 1999 (64 FR 48743). In a final rule published on May 30, 2002 (67 FR 37695), we reclassified the populations of...

  3. The ex situ conservation strategy for endangered plant species: small samples, storage and lessons from seed collected from US national parks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ex situ collections of seeds sampled from wild populations provide germplasm for restoration and for scientific study about biological diversity. Seed collections of endangered species are urgent because they might forestall ever-dwindling population size and genetic diversity. However, collecting ...

  4. National Wildlife. Special Issue: Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strohm, John, Ed.

    This is the first special issue in the 12-year history of "National Wildlife," and is devoted entirely to endangered species of animals and plants in the United States. An overview of the problem stresses the impact of man's haphazard development, suburban sprawl, and urban pollution upon a fragile environment, resulting in dozens of wild animals…

  5. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  6. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  7. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  8. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  9. 40 CFR 230.30 - Threatened and endangered species.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service of the Department of the Interior (codified annually at 50 CFR 17.... (a) An endangered species is a plant or animal in danger of extinction throughout all or...

  10. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae), an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Le; Sun, Weibang; Wang, Zhonglang; Guan, Kaiyun; Yang, Junbo

    2011-01-01

    Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae) is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species. PMID:22016620

  11. 77 FR 3423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the `I'iwi as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-24

    ...) and nonnative plants (Pratt et al. 2009, p. 152; 75 FR 18959, April 13, 2010). During dry periods... invertebrates and plant material, pigs disturb and destroy native vegetation, and trample plants and...

  12. 76 FR 2348 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA140 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... Fort Fisher. The requested permit has been issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of... exporting of endangered and threatened species (50 CFR parts 222-226). The North Carolina Aquarium at...

  13. 75 FR 78974 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-17

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA087 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.) and the regulations governing the taking, importing, and exporting of endangered and threatened...

  14. 76 FR 1405 - Endangered Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA128 Endangered Species AGENCY: National Marine... issued under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA; 16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq... not operate to the disadvantage of such endangered or threatened species, and (3) is consistent...

  15. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the following…

  16. Endangered Species Program Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC) are operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA. (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one threatened plant species are known to occur on NPRC: the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides) and Hoover's Wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declares that it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for the continued compliance with the Endangered Species Act. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1991 (FY91).

  17. Endangered Species Program, Naval Petroleum Reserves in California

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1) is operated by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Chevron USA (CUSA). Four federally-listed endangered animal species and one federally-threatened plant species are known to occur on the Naval Petroleum Reserves in California (NPRC): the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes velox macrotis), blunt-nosed leopard lizard (Gambelia silus), giant kangaroo rat (Dipodomys ingens), Tipton kangaroo rat (Dipodomys nitratoides nitratoides), and Hoover's wooly-star (Eriastrum hooveri). All five are protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (as amended) (Public Law 93-205), which declaresthat it is the policy of Congress that all Federal departments and agencies shall seek to conserve endangered and threatened species and shall utilize their authorities in furtherance of the purposes of the Act. DOE is also obliged to determine whether actions taken by their lessees on Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 2 (NPR-2) will have any effects on endangered species or their habitats. The major objective of the EG G Energy Measurements, Inc. Endangered Species Program on NPR-1 and NPR-2 is to provide DOE with the scientific expertise and continuity of programs necessary for continued compliance with the Endangered SpeciesAct. The specific objective of this report is to summarize progress and results of the Endangered Species Program made during Fiscal Year 1992 (FY92).

  18. Catechin is a phytototoxin and a pro-oxidant secreted from the roots of Centaurea stoebe.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Shail; Bais, Harsh P; Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Venkatachalam, Lakshmannan

    2010-09-01

    When applied to the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytotoxin (±)-catechin triggers a wave of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a cascade of genome-wide changes in gene expression and, ultimately, death of the root system. Biochemical links describing the root secreted phytotoxin, (±)-catechin, represent one of most well studied systems to describe biochemically based negative plant-plant interactions, but of late have also sparked controversies on phytotoxicity and pro-oxidant behavior of (±)-catechin. The studies originating from two labs ( 1- 3) maintained that (±)-catechin is not at all phytotoxic but has strong antioxidant activity. The step-wise experiments performed and the highly correlative results reported in the present study clearly indicate that (±)-catechin indeed is phytotoxic against A. thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. Our results show that catechin dissolved in both organic and aqueous phase inflict phytotoxic activity against both A. thaliana and F. idahoensis. We show that the deviation in results highlighted by the two labs ( 1- 3) could be due to different media conditions and a group effect in catechin treated seedlings. We also determined the presence of catechin in the growth medium of C. stoebe to support the previous studies. One of the largest functional categories observed for catechin-responsive genes corresponded to gene families known to participate in cell death and oxidative stress. Our results showed that (±)-catechin treatment to A. thaliana plants resulted in activation of signature cell death genes such as accelerated cell death (acd2) and constitutively activated cell death 1 (cad1). Further, we confirmed our earlier observation of (±)-catechin induced ROS mediated phytotoxicity in A. thaliana. We also provide evidence that (±)-catechin induced ROS could be aggravated in the presence of divalent transition metals. These observations have significant impact on our understanding regarding catechin

  19. Catechin is a phytotoxin and a pro-oxidant secreted from the roots of Centaurea stoebe

    PubMed Central

    Kaushik, Shail; Biedrzycki, Meredith L; Venkatachalam, Lakshmannan

    2010-01-01

    When applied to the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana, the phytotoxin (±)-catechin triggers a wave of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to a cascade of genome-wide changes in gene expression and, ultimately, death of the root system. Biochemical links describing the root secreted phytotoxin, (±)-catechin, represent one of most well studied systems to describe biochemically based negative plant-plant interactions, but of late have also sparked controversies on phytotoxicity and pro-oxidant behavior of (±)-catechin. The studies originating from two labs1–3 maintained that (±)-catechin is not at all phytotoxic but has strong antioxidant activity. The step-wise experiments performed and the highly correlative results reported in the present study clearly indicate that (±)-catechin indeed is phytotoxic against A. thaliana and Festuca idahoensis. Our results show that catechin dissolved in both organic and aqueous phase inflicts phytotoxic activity against both A. thaliana and F. idahoensis. We show that the deviation in results highlighted by the two labs1–3 could be due to different media conditions and a group effect in catechin treated seedlings. We also determined the presence of catechin in the growth medium of C. stoebe to support the previous studies. One of the largest functional categories observed for catechin-responsive genes corresponded to gene families known to participate in cell death and oxidative stress. Our results showed that (±)-catechin treatment to A. thaliana plants resulted in activation of signature cell death genes such as accelerated cell death (acd2) and constitutively activated cell death 1 (cad1). Further, we confirmed our earlier observation of (±)-catechin induced ROS mediated phytotoxicity in A. thaliana. We also provide evidence that (±)-catechin induced ROS could be aggravated in the presence of divalent transition metals. These observations have significant impact on our understanding regarding catechin phytotoxicity and

  20. The Politics of Endangered Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipscomb, Fran

    1982-01-01

    Presents background information and teaching suggestions about endangered species for social studies teachers. Discusses political processes, economics, current events, and ethics. Lists resource information. (DC)