Science.gov

Sample records for endangered plant centaurea

  1. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed (Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey).

    PubMed

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed (Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l(-1) kinetin and 0.25 mg l(-1) NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l(-1) IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  2. Factors affecting in vitro plant regeneration of the critically endangered Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii Fisch et. Mey)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozel, Cigdem Alev; Khawar, Khalid Mahmood; Mirici, Semra; Ozcan, Sebahattin; Arslan, Orhan

    2006-10-01

    Habitat destruction has resulted in the extinction of many plant species from the earth, and many more face extinction. Likely, the annual endemic Mediterranean knapweed ( Centaurea tchihatcheffii) growing in the Golbasi district of Ankara, Turkey is facing extinction and needs urgent conservation. Plant tissue culture, a potentially useful technique for ex situ multiplication, was used for the restoration of this ill-fated plant through seed germination, micropropagation from stem nodes, and adventitious shoot regeneration from immature zygotic embryos. The seeds were highly dormant and very difficult to germinate. No results were obtained from the micropropagation of stem nodes. However, immature zygotic embryos showed the highest adventitious shoot regeneration on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium, containing 1 mg l-1 kinetin and 0.25 mg l-1 NAA. Regenerated shoots were best rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg l-1 IBA and transferred to the greenhouse for flowering and seed set. As such, the present work is the first record of in vitro propagation of critically endangered C. tchihatcheffii, using immature zygotic embryos, and is a step forward towards conservation of this indigenous species.

  3. Genetic guidelines for the conservation of the endangered polyploid Centaurea borjae (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Lopez, Lua; Barreiro, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate management of species of conservation concern requires designing strategies that should include genetic information as small population size and restricted geographic range can reduce genetic variation. We used AFLPs to investigate genetic variation within and among populations of the endangered narrow endemic Centaurea borjae, and found no evidence for genetic impoverishment despite its <40 km range and potential for vegetative propagation. Genetic variation was comparable to other plants with similar life history (88 % occurring within populations) and potential clone mates were less frequent than expected. Nonetheless, populations separated by few hundred meters showed signs of significant genetic differentiation suggesting low gene flow between them. Our results suggested that the three geographically closer populations located at the center of the range might be treated as a single management unit, while the remaining ones could be considered independent units. We found evidence of fine-scale spatial genetic structure up to 80 m indicating that the collection of germplasm for ex-situ conservation should focus on individuals separated >80 m to maximize genetic variation.

  4. Eupatoriochromene and encecalin, plant growth regulators from yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.).

    PubMed

    Merrill, G B

    1989-07-01

    Two chromenes, eupatoriochromene (1) and encecalin (2), have been isolated from yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis L.). Both chromenes retard seed germination and reduce radicle and hypocotyl growth of weed and crop plant seedlings. In addition,1 increases adventitious root formation of mung bean cuttings.

  5. Strong response of an invasive plant species (Centaurea solstitialis L.) to global environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Dukes, Jeffrey S; Chiariello, Nona R; Loarie, Scott R; Field, Christopher B

    2011-09-01

    Global environmental changes are altering interactions among plant species, sometimes favoring invasive species. Here, we examine how a suite of five environmental factors, singly and in combination, can affect the success of a highly invasive plant. We introduced Centaurea solstitialis L. (yellow starthistle), which is considered by many to be California's most troublesome wildland weed, to grassland plots in the San Francisco Bay Area. These plots experienced ambient or elevated levels of warming, atmospheric CO2, precipitation, and nitrate deposition, and an accidental fire in the previous year created an additional treatment. Centaurea grew more than six times larger in response to elevated CO2, and, outside of the burned area, grew more than three times larger in response to nitrate deposition. In contrast, resident plants in the community responded less strongly (or did not respond) to these treatments. Interactive effects among treatments were rarely significant. Results from a parallel mesocosm experiment, while less dramatic, supported the pattern of results observed in the field. Taken together, our results suggest that ongoing environmental changes may dramatically increase Centaurea's prevalence in western North America.

  6. Bioactive Compounds in Wild, In vitro Obtained, Ex vitro Adapted, and Acclimated Plants of Centaurea davidovii (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Jadranin, Milka; Gorgorov, Rossen; Stanilova, Marina

    2015-06-01

    In vitro cultures were initiated from a single seed of Centaurea davidovii. Whole plantlets were regenerated and cultivated for several months on agar-solidified nutrient media differing by their composition: basal MS medium, MS medium supplemented with plant growth regulators, and liquid MS medium. Plantlets were ex vitro adapted and successfully acclimated to open-air conditions; flowering was observed in some individuals in the first summer, and mass flowering during the second summer. The contents of the total flavonoids and the total phenolic compounds were determined spectrophotometrically in the leaves of the in vitro plantlets cultured on different media, and then compared with those in the leaves of the wild plants and in the leaves of the acclimated plants of the field plot. The sesquiterpene lactone 8α-(5'-hydroxyangeloyl)-salonitenolide was determined by HPLC in leaf samples of C. davidovii wild plants, in vitro obtained plantlets and ex vitro acclimated plants in the greenhouse and on the experimental field plot. The composition of the nutrient medium influenced the contents of all studied bioactive substances. The highest concentrations of all tested secondary metabolites were detected in the leaves of the acclimated plants during mass flowering, the content of the lactone reaching 56.2 mg/g DW, which was several times more than in the other leaf samples. The obtained results revealed both the effectiveness of biotechnological methods for propagation and conservation of rare and endangered plant species, and the possibility to use C. davidovii plants ex vitro acclimated to field conditions as a source of secondary metabolites with potential biological activity.

  7. Widespread seed limitation affects plant density but not population trajectory in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Swope, Sarah M; Parker, Ingrid M

    2010-09-01

    In some plant populations, the availability of seeds strongly regulates recruitment. However, a scarcity of germination microsites, granivory or density-dependent mortality can reduce the number of plants that germinate or survive to flower. The relative strengths of these controls are unknown for most plant populations and for exotic invaders in particular. We conducted a seed addition experiment with a granivore exclusion treatment in a field setting to explore how these factors interact to regulate populations of the widespread invader Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) at three study sites across the plant's range in California. We coupled the experimental approach with observational studies within established C. solstitialis populations to estimate seed rain, recruitment and mortality at natural densities. Seed limitation occurred in both experimental and observational plots in all populations. Although vertebrate granivores were active at each site, they had no effect on C. solstitialis recruitment. Density increased mortality, but the effect was variable and weak relative to its effect on fecundity. The seed limitation that was evident at the seedling stage persisted to flowering. Seed-limited populations such as these ought to be highly sensitive to losses to seed predators, and many biological control agents, including those established for C. solstitialis, are seed predators. However, flowering plant density was decoupled from seed production by a strong compensatory response in the surviving plants; seed production was nearly constant in plots across all seed addition levels. Thus, flowering plant density is reduced by the established biocontrol agents, but seed production compensates to replace the population every generation, and no long-term decline is predicted.

  8. Plant regeneration from mesophyll protoplasts of Centaurea cyanus, Senecio x hybridus and Callistephus chinensis.

    PubMed

    Pillai, V; Davey, M R; Power, J B

    1990-11-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of glasshouse-grown plants of Centaurea cyanus and axenic shoot cultures of Senecio x hybridus. Upon culture, using modified MS-based media, protoplasts of both systems entered division to produce callus, followed by plant regeneration. Leaf protoplasts of Callistephus chinensis entered sustained division only following the preconditioning for 24h of peeled leaf tissues on agar-solidified MS-based medium. Protoplasts were also isolated from cell suspensions of C. chinensis and divided in MS-based or KM media. However, only leaf mesophyll protoplasts of Callistephus produced callus, which developed shoots.The establishment of protoplast-to-plant protocols for these ornamental species has provided a basis for broadening their gene pools through somatic hybridisation.

  9. Endangered vascular plants in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus. PMID:18941303

  10. Biocontrol attack increases pollen limitation under some circumstances in the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Swope, Sarah M

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore damage often deters pollinator visitation and many invasive plants in North America are pollinator-dependent. This has important implications for the biological control of invasive plants because it means that agents that deter pollinators may have a larger than expected impact on the plant. Yet interactions between pollinators and biocontrol agents are rarely evaluated. Centaurea solstitialis, one of the most problematic invasive species in California, is dependent on pollinators for reproduction. I factorially manipulated infection by a biocontrol pathogen and pollen supplementation to test for (1) pollen limitation in C. solstitialis, (2) whether infection increased pollen limitation, and (3) whether this varied across a soil moisture gradient. Plants growing on north-facing slopes where soil moisture was higher experienced mild pollen limitation in the absence of the pathogen and more pronounced pollen limitation when they were infected. Plants on drier south-facing slopes did not suffer from pollen limitation but instead appeared to suffer from resource limitation. Pathogen infection directly reduced seed set in C. solstitialis by 67-72%. On north-facing slopes, infection had an additional, indirect effect by increasing the degree of pollen limitation plants experienced. The trait that mediates this indirect pathogen-pollinator interaction is the number of inflorescences plants produced: infected plants made fewer inflorescences which led to greater pollen limitation. Although in the present study this outcome is dependent on abiotic factors that vary over small spatial scales, exploiting other invasive plants' dependence on pollinators by selecting agents that deter visitation may enhance agent impact.

  11. Trait-mediated interactions and lifetime fitness of the invasive plant Centaurea solstitialis.

    PubMed

    Swope, Sarah M; Parker, Ingrid M

    2010-08-01

    Plants interact with numerous enemies and mutualists simultaneously and sequentially. Such multispecies interactions can give rise to trait-mediated indirect effects that are likely to be common in nature but which are also inherently difficult to predict. Understanding multispecies interactions is also important in the use of biological control agents to control invasive plants because modern approaches to biocontrol rely on releasing multiple agents for each target weed. Centaurea solstitialis is one of the most problematic invasive weeds in California, USA, and the weevil Eustenopus villosus is its dominant biological control agent. We conducted a field experiment to quantitatively assess the direct effect of the recently approved biocontrol pathogen Puccinia jaceae f.s. solstitialis on plant performance and any indirect effects that might arise by altering the plant's interactions with Eustenopus or its pollinators (principally the nonnative Apis mellifera). We documented both synergy and interference between the two biocontrol agents depending on the life stage of the weevil. Puccinia infection increased the impact of bud-feeding by the adult weevils but reduced the impact of seed-feeding by larval weevils. Neither infection nor Eustenopus attack had an effect on pollinator visitation. The net effect was that attack by both the pathogen and the weevil did not reduce plant fitness relative to plants attacked only by the weevil. Because the consequence to the plant of interacting with one species may depend on the presence or absence of other interacting species, a careful consideration of multispecies interactions may be necessary for the selection of biocontrol agents that act in a complementary manner to reduce plant fitness. Likewise, relatively tractable weed-biocontrol systems allow us to examine multispecies interactions that can be difficult to study experimentally in native systems that are composed of numerous species with well-established populations.

  12. Shift in cytotype frequency and niche space in the invasive plant Centaurea maculosa.

    PubMed

    Treier, Urs A; Broennimann, Olivier; Normand, Signe; Guisan, Antoine; Schaffner, Urs; Steinger, Thomas; Müller-Schärer, Heinz

    2009-05-01

    Polyploidy is often assumed to increase the spread and thus the success of alien plant species, but few empirical studies exist. We tested this hypothesis with Centaurea maculosa Lam., a species native to Europe and introduced into North America approximately 120 years ago where it became highly invasive. We analyzed the ploidy level of more than 2000 plants from 93 native and 48 invasive C. maculosa populations and found a pronounced shift in the relative frequency of diploid and tetraploid cytotypes. In Europe diploid populations occur in higher frequencies than tetraploids and only four populations had both cytotypes, while in North America diploid plants were found in only one mixed population and thus tetraploids clearly dominated. Our results showed a pronounced shift in the climatic niche between tetraploid populations in the native and introduced range toward drier climate in North America and a similar albeit smaller shift between diploids and tetraploids in the native range. The field data indicate that diploids have a predominately monocarpic life cycle, while tetraploids are often polycarpic. Additionally, the polycarpic life-form seems to be more prevalent among tetraploids in the introduced range than among tetraploids in the native range. Our study suggests that both ploidy types of C. maculosa were introduced into North America, but tetraploids became the dominant cytotype with invasion. We suggest that the invasive success of C. maculosa is partly due to preadaptation of the tetraploid cytotype in Europe to drier climate and possibly further adaptation to these conditions in the introduced range. The potential for earlier and longer seed production associated with the polycarpic life cycle constitutes an additional factor that may have led to the dominance of tetraploids over diploids in the introduced range.

  13. Pollinators of the invasive plant, yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), in north-eastern Oregon, USA

    Treesearch

    James McIver; Robbin Thorp; Karen Erickson

    2009-01-01

    The potential pollinators of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) were surveyed at six sites in north-eastern Oregon, USA, between May and September from 2000 to 2002. The objective of the study was to determine the species composition and relative abundance of the insects that visited yellow starthistle throughout the flowering season and...

  14. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  15. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  16. Endangered Plants in Oregon and Washington.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Rhoda M.

    1985-01-01

    Presents a partial list of the 132 Oregon and Washington plants which have been proposed for federal protection under the Endangered Species Act. Suggestions for student/citizen involvement in preserving these species and a description of a videotape about rare/endangered species of the Willamette Valley (Oregon) are included. (DH)

  17. 78 FR 64637 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Species Status for 15...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered species status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, for 15 species on the island of Hawaii. In addition, we are recognizing a taxonomic change for one Hawaiian plant currently listed as an endangered species and revising the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants accordingly. The effect of this......

  18. 78 FR 64839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Vandenberg Monkeyflower

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list Vandenberg monkeyflower as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act. If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Endangered Species Act's protections to this plant. The effect of this regulation will be to add Vandenberg monkeyflower to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants under the Endangered Species Act.

  19. 50 CFR 17.12 - Endangered and threatened plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Endangered and threatened plants. 17.12... WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Lists § 17.12 Endangered and threatened plants. (h) * * * Species Scientific name Common name Historic range Family Status When...

  20. Phylogeny of the Centaurea group (Centaurea, Compositae) - geography is a better predictor than morphology.

    PubMed

    Hilpold, Andreas; Vilatersana, Roser; Susanna, Alfonso; Meseguer, Andrea S; Boršić, Igor; Constantinidis, Theophanis; Filigheddu, Rossella; Romaschenko, Konstantin; Suárez-Santiago, Víctor N; Tugay, Osman; Uysal, Tuna; Pfeil, Bernard E; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2014-08-01

    The Centaurea group is part of the Circum-Mediterranean Clade (CMC) of genus Centaurea subgenus Centaurea, a mainly Mediterranean plant group with more than 200 described species. The group is traditionally split on morphological basis into three sections: Centaurea, Phalolepis and Willkommia. This division, however, is doubtful, especially in light of molecular approaches. In this study we try to resolve this phylogenetic problem and to consolidate the circumscription and delimitation of the entire group against other closely related groups. We analyzed nuclear (internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal genes) and chloroplast (rpl32-trnL intergenic spacer) DNA regions for most of the described species of the Centaurea group using phylogenetic and network approaches, and we checked the data for recombination. Phylogeny was used to reconstruct the evolution of the lacerate-membranaceous bract appendages using parsimony. The magnitude of incomplete lineage sorting was tested estimating the effective population sizes. Molecular dating was performed using a Bayesian approach, and the ancestral area reconstruction was conducted using the Dispersal-Extinction-Cladogenesis method. Monophyly of the Centaurea group is confirmed if a few species are removed. Our results do not support the traditional sectional division. There is a high incongruence between the two markers and between genetic data and morphology. However, there is a clear relation between geography and the structure of the molecular data. Diversification in the Centaurea group mainly took place during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. The ancestral area infered for the Circum-Mediterranean Clade of Centaurea is the Eastern Mediterranean, whereas for the Centaurea group it is most likely NW-Africa. The large incongruencies, which hamper phylogenetic reconstruction, are probably the result of introgression, even though the presence of incomplete lineage sorting as an additional factor cannot be ruled out

  1. 78 FR 56025 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine Leavenworthia texana (Texas golden gladecress) meets the definition of an endangered species and Hibiscus dasycalyx (Neches River rose-mallow) meets the definition of a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule adds these species to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants and implements......

  2. 78 FR 49149 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Sphaeralcea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...; Determination of Endangered Status for Sphaeralcea gierischii (Gierisch Mallow) Throughout Its Range AGENCY... Service, determine that Sphaeralcea gierischii (Gierisch mallow) meets the definition of an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Gierisch mallow is a plant species...

  3. 78 FR 40669 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable Thoroughwort, Florida Semaphore Cactus, and... thoroughwort), Consolea corallicola (Florida semaphore cactus), and Harrisia aboriginum (aboriginal prickly...

  4. Catechin-metal interactions as a mechanism for conditional allelopathy by the invasive plant, Centaurea maculosa

    Treesearch

    Jarrod L. Pollock; Ragan M. Callaway; Giles C. Thelen; William E. Holben

    2009-01-01

    Considering variation, or conditionality, in the ways that plants compete for resources, facilitate or indirectly interact with each other has been crucial for understanding the relative importance of these interactions in the organization of plant communities (Tilman 1985; Wilson & Keddy 1986; Kitzberger, Steinaker & Veblen 2000; Levine 2000; Brooker...

  5. 77 FR 60749 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Species Status for the Florida...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...). wetlands. L-31N Florida Power and Light private Miami-Dade........ NPS and FPL....... canal, mixed. (FPL... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted Bat; Proposed... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted Bat AGENCY: Fish and...

  6. Anti-inflammatory activities of eleven Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin.

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezső; Widowitz, Ute; Blazsó, Gábor; Laczkó-Zöld, Eszter; Tatsimo, Joel S N; Balogh, Agnes; Boros, Klára; Dankó, Balázs; Bauer, Rudolf; Hohmann, Judit

    2013-04-01

    Our study aimed at the identification of anti-inflammatory activities of different fractions of C. sadleriana extract after per os administration in rats, the identification of the active compounds of the plant and the investigation of the in vitro anti-inflammatory activities of Centaurea species native to or cultivated in the Carpathian Basin. The aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka have been used in Hungarian folk medicine to treat the wounds of sheep. Methanol extract of C. sadleriana was fractioned by solvent-solvent partitioning. The n-hexane fraction was further fractionated and the anti-inflammatory activities of certain subfractions were confirmed in vivo in rats. The n-hexane and chloroform fraction of the methanol extract of C. sadleriana exhibited remarkable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibiting effects in vitro. Chromatographic separation of the fractions led to the identification of the active subfractions and 11 compounds (α-linolenic acid, γ-linolenic acid, stigmasterol, β-sitosterol, campesterol, vanillin, pectolinarigenin, salvigenin, hispidulin, chrysoeriol and apigenin). The in vitro screening for anti-inflammatory activities of further Centaurea species occurring in the Carpathian Basin (C. adjarica, C. bracteata, C. cataonica, C. cynaroides, C. dealbata, C. indurata, C. macrocephala, C. melitensis, C. nigrescens, C. ruthenica) revealed considerable COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitory activities. Because C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of more prevalent species is reasonable. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. 76 FR 45053 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status for Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa skyrocket), a plant species in Archuleta County, Colorado; threatened status for Penstemon debilis (Parachute beardtongue) in Garfield County, Colorado; and threatened status for Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia) in Mesa and Garfield Counties, Colorado, under the Endangered Species......

  8. 78 FR 65936 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for Gunnison Sage-Grouse and Proposed Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed..., proposed rules to list the Gunnison sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to...

  9. 77 FR 70915 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Main Hawaiian Islands Insular False Killer Whale Distinct... insular false killer whale (Pseudorca crassidens) distinct population segment (DPS) as an endangered....fpir.noaa.gov/PRD/prd_false_killer_whale.html . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On October 1...

  10. 78 FR 60607 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Echinomastus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-01

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine that Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (acu[ntilde]a cactus) and Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae (Fickeisen plains cactus) meet the definition of endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for these species. The effect of this regulation will be to add these species to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act.

  11. 76 FR 59990 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Endangered Status, Revised Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    .... stoneana in Mexico other than observations of plants directly across the Mexican border from occurrences in... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX18 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... follows: ``The term `species' includes any subspecies of fish or wildlife or plants, and any...

  12. Endangered plants persist under phosphorus limitation.

    PubMed

    Wassen, Martin J; Venterink, Harry Olde; Lapshina, Elena D; Tanneberger, Franziska

    2005-09-22

    Nitrogen enrichment is widely thought to be responsible for the loss of plant species from temperate terrestrial ecosystems. This view is based on field surveys and controlled experiments showing that species richness correlates negatively with high productivity and nitrogen enrichment. However, as the type of nutrient limitation has never been examined on a large geographical scale the causality of these relationships is uncertain. We investigated species richness in herbaceous terrestrial ecosystems, sampled along a transect through temperate Eurasia that represented a gradient of declining levels of atmospheric nitrogen deposition--from approximately 50 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) in western Europe to natural background values of less than 5 kg ha(-1) yr(-1) in Siberia. Here we show that many more endangered plant species persist under phosphorus-limited than under nitrogen-limited conditions, and we conclude that enhanced phosphorus is more likely to be the cause of species loss than nitrogen enrichment. Our results highlight the need for a better understanding of the mechanisms of phosphorus enrichment, and for a stronger focus on conservation management to reduce phosphorus availability.

  13. 78 FR 44585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR... endangered species. The Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), prohibits certain activities...

  14. 78 FR 22506 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Threatened and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Threatened and Designation of Critical Habitat for Texas... for the Texas golden gladecress and threatened status for the Neches River rose-mallow under the... public hearing on this proposed rule in Nacogdoches, Texas, on May 1, 2013, from 7 p.m. to 8:30 p.m....

  15. 78 FR 43122 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Sierra Nevada Yellow-Legged Frog and the Northern Distinct Population Segment of the Mountain Yellow-Legged Frog, and Threatened Status for the Yosemite Toad AGENCY... period on our April 25, 2013, proposed rule to list the Sierra Nevada yellow-legged frog and the northern...

  16. 78 FR 278 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Continental United States...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    .... FWS-R4-ES-2012-0020; 92220-1113-0000-C6] RIN 1018-AX60 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Continental United States Breeding Population of the Wood Stork From Endangered to....) breeding population of wood stork from endangered to threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973...

  17. 77 FR 50152 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We...

  18. 78 FR 49761 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We...

  19. 77 FR 16254 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We...

  20. 78 FR 35953 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We...

  1. 78 FR 16291 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... endangered wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We...

  2. 77 FR 24216 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species... for a recovery permit to conduct enhancement of survival activities with an endangered species....

  3. 77 FR 57647 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for 23 Species on Oahu and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), list 23 species on the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian Islands as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also designate 42,804 acres (17,322 hectares) as critical habitat. This designation includes critical habitat for these 23 species, 2 plant species that are already listed as endangered, and revised critical habitat for 99 plant species that are already listed as endangered or threatened. In this final rule we are also recognizing taxonomic revision of the scientific names of nine plant species and revising the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants accordingly. This final rule will implement the Federal protections provided by the Act.

  4. 75 FR 5101 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our...

  5. 75 FR 27361 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce our...

  6. 76 FR 33334 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... written data or comments to the Assistant Regional Director-Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  7. 75 FR 11193 - Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), invite the public to comment on an application for a permit amendment, which would allow Service employees and their designated agents to conduct enhancement...

  8. 75 FR 52012 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...: Submit written data or comments to the Assistant Regional Director--Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  9. 75 FR 45650 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    .... ADDRESSES: Submit written data or comments to the Assistant Regional Director-Ecological Services, U.S. Fish... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  10. 76 FR 8374 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ...: Submit written data or comments to the Assistant Regional Director-Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of receipt of applications for permits. SUMMARY: We announce...

  11. Rare and endangered species of plants--the soviet side.

    PubMed

    Elias, T S

    1983-01-07

    In late 1972, the Soviet Union embarked on a program to identify and document plant species that are threatened with extinction. Perhaps 2000 species in the Soviet Union are in need of monitoring or protective measures, while nearly 200 may be in immediate danger of extinction. Currently, the Soviet Union has an official, national list of endangered species, and each of the 15 republics has prepared a regional list. Once a revised national list is prepared, Soviet scientists hope that the Supreme Soviet will pass a law protecting those species. A corresponding law for endangered animals was passed in 1980.

  12. Increased seed consumption by biological control weevil tempers positive CO2 effect on invasive plant (Centaurea diffusa) fitness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicted increases in atmospheric CO2 and temperature may benefit some invasive plants, increasing the need for effective invasive plant management. Biological control can be an effective means of managing invasive plants, but the varied responses of plant-insect interactions to climate change make...

  13. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such as...

  14. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such as...

  15. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such as...

  16. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such as...

  17. 7 CFR 650.22 - Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and... Related Environmental Concerns § 650.22 Rare, threatened, and endangered species of plants and animals. (a... endangered species is the destruction or deterioration of their habitats by human activities such as...

  18. 78 FR 6343 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50... for a permit to conduct activities with the purpose of enhancing the survival of endangered...

  19. 75 FR 17760 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri): Initiation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Spectacled Eider (Somateria... or endangered on the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants is accurate. We request... the Act on May 10, 1993 (58 FR 27474). For the description, taxonomy, distribution, status, breeding...

  20. 77 FR 28347 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... and Plants; Expanding Incentives for Voluntary Conservation Actions Under the Endangered Species Act... of the Endangered Species Act that would create incentives for landowners and others to take... published under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (16 U.S.C. 1531 et...

  1. 77 FR 45369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species...

  2. 77 FR 13349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available...

  3. 78 FR 19730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications..., 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local...

  4. 78 FR 12345 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and Comment We invite local...

  5. 77 FR 16057 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications... species, 50 CFR 17.32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local...

  6. 77 FR 16252 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications....32 for threatened wildlife species, 50 CFR 17.62 for endangered plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Applications Available for Review and Comment We invite local, State, and Federal...

  7. 78 FR 25243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... and Plants; Listing 15 Species on Hawaii Island as Endangered and Designating Critical Habitat for 3... of these 15 species on the Hawaiian island of Hawaii, and to designate critical habitat for 2 plant... information meeting in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, on Wednesday, May 15, 2013, from 3 p.m. to 5 p.m. (see ADDRESSES...

  8. 78 FR 45074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Diamond Darter

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered species status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as amended, for diamond darter (Crystallaria cincotta), a fish species from Kentucky, Indiana, Ohio, Tennessee, and West Virginia. The effect of this regulation will be to add this species to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened...

  9. 78 FR 61003 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for the Florida Bonneted...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine endangered species status under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended, for the Florida bonneted bat (Eumops floridanus), a bat species from south Florida. This final rule adds this species to the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for this...

  10. Phytochemical and Bioactive Potential of in vivo and in vitro Grown Plants of Centaurea ragusina L. - Detection of DNA/RNA Active Compounds in Plant Extracts via Thermal Denaturation and Circular Dichroism.

    PubMed

    Vujčić, Valerija; Radić Brkanac, Sandra; Radojčić Redovniković, Ivana; Ivanković, Siniša; Stojković, Ranko; Žilić, Irena; Radić Stojković, Marijana

    2017-07-25

    The phytochemical composition and biological activity of non-volatile components of Centaurea ragusina L. has not been studied previously. Our aim was to evaluate the phytochemical and bioactive potential (including interactions with polynucleotides) of C. ragusina L. depending on the origin of plant material (in vivo - leaves from natural habitats, ex vitro - leaves from plants acclimated from culture media, in vitro - leaves and calli from plants grown in culture media) and polarity of solvents used in extract preparation (80 and 96% ethanol and water combinations or single solvents). The polyphenol composition was determined by spectrophotometric and HPLC analysis. Biological activity of extracts was evaluated by following methods: 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods for antioxidative activity, 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC) microdilution method for antibacterial activity, crystal-violet test for cytotoxic activity and thermal denaturation (TD) and circular dichroism (CD) for DNA/RNA interactions. Conditions for the most efficient polyphenol extraction were determined: the 80% ethanol/water solvent system was the most suitable for callus and leaf ex vitro samples and 80 or 96% ethanol for leaf in vivo samples. Significantly higher levels of chlorogenic acid and naringenin were detected in callus tissue than in vivo plant. Ethanolic extracts exhibited the significant antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923. DNA/RNA active compounds in plant extracts were detected by TD and CD methods. Callus tissue and ex vitro leaves represent a valuable source of polyphenols as in vivo leaves. TD and CD can be applied for detection of DNA/RNA active compounds in extracts from natural resources. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. In Vitro Regeneration of Endangered Medicinal Plant Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram).

    PubMed

    Sadeq, Manal Ahmed; Pathak, Malabika Roy; Salih, Ahmed Ali; Abido, Mohammed; Abahussain, Asma

    2016-01-01

    Heliotropium kotschyi (Ramram) is an important endangered medicinal plant distributed in the Kingdom of Bahrain. Plant tissue culture technique is applied for ex situ conservation study. Nodal stem segments are cultured in modified MS media supplemented with various combination and concentration of plant growth regulators (PGRs). Plants are regenerated via shoot organogenesis from the nodal meristems. Plants are regenerated in three different steps: initial shoot development, shoot multiplication, and rooting. After 4 weeks of culture, 100 % explants respond to shoot initiation on the medium containing 8.88 μM BAP and 5.71 μM IAA. The highest frequency of shoot regeneration is observed in the same media after second subculture of shoots. The highest rooting frequency is observed in the presence of 2.85 μM IAA. After root development, the plantlets are transferred to pots filled with soil and 60 % of plants survived after 45 days. This plant regeneration protocol is of great value for rapid desert plant propagation program.

  12. 75 FR 35721 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Ipomopsis polyantha

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa skyrocket), a plant species from southwestern Colorado, as endangered throughout its range, and Penstemon debilis (Parachute beardtongue) and Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia), two plant species from western Colorado, as threatened throughout their ranges under the Endangered Species Act of 1973,......

  13. 78 FR 35201 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing All Chimpanzees as Endangered

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are taking this action in response to a petition to list the entire species, whether in the wild or in captivity, as endangered under the Act. This proposal constitutes our 12-month finding on the petition and announces our......

  14. 77 FR 63439 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Neosho Mucket...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Neosho mucket (Lampsilis rafinesqueana), a freshwater mussel, as endangered and rabbitsfoot (Quadrula cylindrica cylindrica), a freshwater mussel, as threatened under the Endangered Species Act; and propose to designate critical habitat for both species. This rule fulfills our obligation under a settlement agreement. The effect of this regulation is to conserve the Neosho mucket and rabbitsfoot and their habitats under the Endangered Species Act.

  15. Achene heteromorphism in the cleistogamous species Centaurea melitensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porras, Rafael; Muñoz, Jesús M.

    2000-07-01

    Centaurea melitensis is a cleistogamous annual plant displaying achene heteromorphism. Variation is linked to capitulum type: a) initial cleistogamous capitula produce thick achenes bearing a short pappus; b) in final cleistogamous capitula achenes are small with a short pappus; and c) chasmogamous capitula produce small achenes with a longer pappus. The present study, carried out in Córdoba (Spain), examines variability in achenes by analysis of morphology, timing, dispersal and germinative capacity, and monitors the subsequent development of seedlings at different densities. Results confirm the heterogeneous nature of the achenes produced, and suggest that Centaurea melitensis has developed a life history strategy (cleistogamy and achene heteromorphism) highly adapted to the unstable habitat (subnitrophilous pioneer pasture communities) in which it grows.

  16. The potential role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in protecting endangered plants and habitats.

    PubMed

    Bothe, Hermann; Turnau, Katarzyna; Regvar, Marjana

    2010-10-01

    Ecosystems worldwide are threatened with the extinction of plants and, at the same time, invasion by new species. Plant invasiveness and loss of species can be caused by similar but opposing pressures on the community structures. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can have multiple positive effects on plant growth, productivity, health, and stress relief. Many endangered species live in symbiosis with AMF. However, the list of the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species) indicates that the mycorrhizal status of most of the threatened species has not been assessed. Rare plants often occur in specialized and also endangered habitats and might utilize specialized or unique AMF. The specificity of any endangered plant to its AMF population has not been investigated. Because most of the current AMF isolates that are available colonize a broad range of plant species, selected inocula could be used to promote growth of endangered plants before the proper and more effective indigenous AMF are characterized. Application of AMF in field sites to protect endangered plants is hardly feasible due to the complexity of plant community structures and the large amount of fungal inocula needed. Endangered plants could, however, be grown as greenhouse cultures together with appropriate fungi, and, at the relevant developmental stage, they could be re-planted into native sites to prevent extinction and to preserve plant community ecology.

  17. Endangered and threatened plant species on the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Reservation: an update

    SciTech Connect

    Parr, P.D.

    1984-10-01

    Plant species considered endangered or threatened on the Department of Energy-Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE-ORR) were identified through a review of pertinent literature and evaluation of herbarium voucher specimens. Thirteen plant species are on the official Tennessee list of endangered and threatened plants. Three of those species have been proposed for inclusion on the Federal list as rare in Tennessee. These rare plants will be given careful consideration in land-use planning. Protection of endangered and threatened species in their native habitat is considered the best method of ensuring their survival. In addition to habitat preservation, natural history studies of the rare species is important in determ

  18. 76 FR 19304 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...; Endangered Status for Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... rule to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the Endangered Species Act of... dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) that was published in the Federal Register on December 14...

  19. 77 FR 11061 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-24

    ...; Proposed Endangered Status for the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior..., 2010, proposed endangered status for the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) under the... agreement for the dunes sagebrush lizard in Texas. We are reopening the comment period to allow all...

  20. 76 FR 58953 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for Casey's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status for Casey's June beetle (Dinacoma caseyi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are also designating approximately 587 acres (237 hectares) of land as critical habitat for the species in Riverside County, California.

  1. 76 FR 48722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Cumberland Darter, Rush...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status for the Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae), rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei), chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus), and laurel dace (Chrosomus saylori) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule implements the Federal protections provided......

  2. 78 FR 47109 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Physaria globosa (Short's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list Physaria globosa (Short's bladderpod), Helianthus verticillatus (whorled sunflower), and Leavenworthia crassa (fleshy-fruit gladecress) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to Physaria globosa (Short's bladderpod), Helianthus......

  3. 78 FR 8096 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ...; Listing as Endangered and Designation of Critical Habitat for Six West Texas Aquatic Invertebrate Species... on the August 16, 2012, proposed endangered status for six west Texas aquatic invertebrate species... invertebrate species and the availability of a draft economic analysis of the proposed designation and amended...

  4. 75 FR 67511 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for the Georgia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), list the Georgia pigtoe mussel (Pleurobema hanleyianum), interrupted rocksnail (Leptoxis foremani), and rough hornsnail (Pleurocera foremani) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also designate approximately 258 kilometers (km) (160 miles (mi)) of stream and river channels as critical habitat for the......

  5. 78 FR 15925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ...; Endangered Status and Critical Habitat Designation for Gunnison Sage-Grouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... sage-grouse (Centrocercus minimus) as endangered and to propose critical habitat for the Gunnison sage... the proposed rule to designate critical habitat published in the Federal Register on January 11, 2013...

  6. Significance of endangered and threatened plant natural products in the control of human disease.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Joonseok; Schinazi, Raymond F; McBrayer, Tami R; Whitaker, Tony; Doerksen, Robert J; Newman, David J; Zachos, Louis G; Hamann, Mark T

    2013-10-15

    One in five of the world's plant species is threatened with extinction according to the 2010 first global analysis of extinction risk. Tilman et al. predicted a massive ecological change to terrestrial plants within the next 50-100 y, accompanied by an increase in the number of global plant species facing extinction [Tilman D, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5433-5440]. Most of the drug-producing plant families contain endangered species never previously studied for their utility to human health, which strongly validates the need to prioritize protection and assessment of these fragile and endangered groups [Zhu F, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12943-12948]. With little prior attention given to endangered and rare plant species, this report provides strong justification for conservation of the rare plant Diplostephium rhododendroides Hieron., as well as other potential drug-producing endangered species in this and other groups.

  7. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  8. 77 FR 48367 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are designating critical habitat for the endangered Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa skyrocket) and the threatened Penstemon debilis (Parachute beardtongue) and Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia) under the Endangered Species Act (Act). The purpose of this regulation is to conserve these three plant species and their habitats under the...

  9. 77 FR 55967 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for Texas Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list two Texas plants, Leavenworthia texana (Texas golden gladecress) as an endangered species and Hibiscus dasycalyx (Neches River rose-mallow) as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) and propose to designate critical habitat for both species. These are proposed regulations, and if finalized the......

  10. 76 FR 11258 - Endangered Plants; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Manager, Endangered Species, Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 911 NE. 11th Avenue... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered Plants; Receipt of Application for Enhancement of Survival Permit AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of a permit...

  11. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  12. 75 FR 59803 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination for the Gunnison Sage-grouse as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... Interior Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 MO 92210-0-0008 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination for the Gunnison Sage-grouse as a Threatened or Endangered Species AGENCY: Fish and...

  13. 77 FR 49601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for Six West Texas Aquatic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-16

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list as endangered and propose critical habitat for six west Texas aquatic invertebrate species under the Endangered Species Act. These actions are being taken as the result of a court-approved settlement agreement. These are proposed regulations, and if finalized the effect of these regulations will be to conserve the species and protect......

  14. [Medicinal perspective of Hungarian Centaurea species in the light of scientific evidence].

    PubMed

    Csupor, Dezso; Peták, Zsolt; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-01-01

    The genus Centaurea comprises 300-350 species, 22 of which are native to Hungary. Several species have been applied in traditional medicine, however, the rationale of their application has been analyzed only in few studies. The decoction of the aerial parts of Centaurea sadleriana Janka, a species native to Hungary, has been used in Hungarian folk medicine for the healing of wounds of livestock. Its ethnomedicinal use was reported first by our research group. There is no data available for similar application of other members of the genus native to Hungary. This paper summarizes the phytochemical and pharmacological data of all Hungarian Centaurea species (C. apiculata, C. are-naria, C. banatica, C. biebersteinii, C. calcitrapa, C. cyanus, C. diffusa, C. grinensis, C. indurata, C. jacea, C. macroptilon, C. montana, C. nigrescens, C. pannonica, C. phrygia, C. rhenana, C. sadleriana, C. salonitana, C. scabiosa, C. solstitialis, C. stenolepis, C. triumfettii), focusing on compounds and activities relevant to the anticipated wound healing effect. Certain compounds (eg. sesquiterpene lactones, flavonoids, polyacetylenes) are characteristic to the genus, and taking into account that they may play role in the anti-inflammatory and wound healing effect, it is plausible that other Centaurea species beyond C. sadleriana would have wound healing promoting effect. Since C. sadleriana is an endangered species native only to the Carpathian Basin, the investigation of wound healing effect of more prevalent species is scientifically warranted.

  15. 76 FR 64372 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan, First Revision, for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... INFORMATION: Background Recovery of endangered or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are... through the present day, such that both species remain in danger of extinction. Habitat loss, resulting...

  16. [The application of DNA molecular markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants].

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi-Feng; Zhang, Ben-Gang; Zhang, Zhao; Xia, Tian-Rui

    2005-12-01

    In this paper, the advance in DNA molecular markers techniques in recent years was reviewed. The application of DNA markers in conservation of the rare and endangered medicinal plants was explicated, of which included identification of germ-plasm resource, determination of the habitats unite which should be protected in situ, sampling strategies of ex-situ conservation, evaluation of the conservation effects of the rare and endangered medicinal plants, as well as elucidation of their endangered mechanism etc. The information could help drawing up conservation strategies and conservation measures for references.

  17. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-19

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan's protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  18. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-01-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan. PMID:27538537

  19. Combining endangered plants and animals as surrogates to identify priority conservation areas in Yunnan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feiling; Hu, Jinming; Wu, Ruidong

    2016-08-01

    Suitable surrogates are critical for identifying optimal priority conservation areas (PCAs) to protect regional biodiversity. This study explored the efficiency of using endangered plants and animals as surrogates for identifying PCAs at the county level in Yunnan, southwest China. We ran the Dobson algorithm under three surrogate scenarios at 75% and 100% conservation levels and identified four types of PCAs. Assessment of the protection efficiencies of the four types of PCAs showed that endangered plants had higher surrogacy values than endangered animals but that the two were not substitutable; coupled endangered plants and animals as surrogates yielded a higher surrogacy value than endangered plants or animals as surrogates; the plant-animal priority areas (PAPAs) was the optimal among the four types of PCAs for conserving both endangered plants and animals in Yunnan. PAPAs could well represent overall species diversity distribution patterns and overlap with critical biogeographical regions in Yunnan. Fourteen priority units in PAPAs should be urgently considered as optimizing Yunnan’s protected area system. The spatial pattern of PAPAs at the 100% conservation level could be conceptualized into three connected conservation belts, providing a valuable reference for optimizing the layout of the in situ protected area system in Yunnan.

  20. 75 FR 18959 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for 48 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status for 48 species on the island of Kauai in the Hawaiian Islands under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also designate 26,582 acres (ac) (10,757 hectares (ha)) of critical habitat for 47 of these species. The critical habitat is located in Kauai County, Hawaii. Critical habitat designation was determined to be not prudent for one species, Pritchardia hardyi (a palm), which is threatened by over collection and vandalism.

  1. 75 FR 81793 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Seven Brazilian Bird Species as Endangered...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), determine endangered status for the following seven Brazilian bird species and subspecies (collectively referred to as ``species'' for purposes of this rule) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.): Black-hooded antwren (Formicivora erythronotos), Brazilian merganser (Mergus octosetaceus), cherry- throated tanager (Nemosia rourei), fringe-backed fire-eye (Pyriglena atra), Kaempfer's tody-tyrant (Hemitriccus kaempferi), Margaretta's hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis malaris margarettae), and southeastern rufous-vented ground-cuckoo (Neomorphus geoffroyi dulcis).

  2. 77 FR 60509 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding for the Lemmon Fleabane...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list as an endangered or threatened species Erigeron lemmonii (Lemmon fleabane). After a review of the best available scientific information we find that listing the Lemmon fleabane as an endangered or threatened species is no longer warranted, and therefore we are removing this species from the candidate list. We propose to list Echinomastus erectocentrus var. acunensis (acu[ntilde]a cactus) and Pediocactus peeblesianus var. fickeiseniae (Fickeisen plains cactus) as an endangered species, and we propose to designate critical habitat for both cactus species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If finalized, the effect of these regulations would be to add acu[ntilde]a cactus and Fickeisen plains cactus to the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants and to designate critical habitat for these species.

  3. 78 FR 19172 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ...; Endangered Status for the Diamond Darter and Designation of Critical Habitat AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... period on our July 26, 2012, proposed listing and designation of critical habitat for the diamond darter... comment period on our proposed listing and designation of critical habitat for the diamond...

  4. 78 FR 18938 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing as Endangered and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...; Listing as Endangered and Designation of Critical Habitat for Acu a Cactus and the Fickeisen Plains Cactus... on our October 3, 2012, proposal to add the acu a cactus and Fickeisen plains cactus to the list of... of comment on our October 3, 2012, proposal to designate critical habitat for the acu a cactus and...

  5. 78 FR 57409 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application... plant species, and 50 CFR 17.72 for threatened plant species. Application Available for Review and...

  6. 76 FR 3029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of Erigeron maguirei

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service/USFWS), are removing the plant Erigeron maguirei (commonly referred to as Maguire daisy) from the List of Endangered and Threatened Plants. The best scientific and commercial data available indicate that this species has recovered and no longer meets the definition of endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA). Our review of the status of this species shows that populations are stable, threats are addressed, and adequate regulatory mechanisms are in place so that the species is not currently, and is not likely to again become, an endangered species within the foreseeable future in all or a significant portion of its range. Finally, we announce the availability of the final post-delisting monitoring plan for Maguire daisy.

  7. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Elizabeth A.; Poore, Alistair G.B.; Bain, Keryn F.; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  8. Genotypic richness predicts phenotypic variation in an endangered clonal plant.

    PubMed

    Evans, Suzanna M; Sinclair, Elizabeth A; Poore, Alistair G B; Bain, Keryn F; Vergés, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Declines in genetic diversity within a species can affect the stability and functioning of populations. The conservation of genetic diversity is thus a priority, especially for threatened or endangered species. The importance of genetic variation, however, is dependent on the degree to which it translates into phenotypic variation for traits that affect individual performance and ecological processes. This is especially important for predominantly clonal species, as no single clone is likely to maximise all aspects of performance. Here we show that intraspecific genotypic diversity as measured using microsatellites is a strong predictor of phenotypic variation in morphological traits and shoot productivity of the threatened, predominantly clonal seagrass Posidonia australis, on the east coast of Australia. Biomass and surface area variation was most strongly predicted by genotypic richness, while variation in leaf chemistry (phenolics and nitrogen) was unrelated to genotypic richness. Genotypic richness did not predict tissue loss to herbivores or epiphyte load, however we did find that increased herbivore damage was positively correlated with allelic richness. Although there was no clear relationship between higher primary productivity and genotypic richness, variation in shoot productivity within a meadow was significantly greater in more genotypically diverse meadows. The proportion of phenotypic variation explained by environmental conditions varied among different genotypes, and there was generally no variation in phenotypic traits among genotypes present in the same meadows. Our results show that genotypic richness as measured through the use of presumably neutral DNA markers does covary with phenotypic variation in functionally relevant traits such as leaf morphology and shoot productivity. The remarkably long lifespan of individual Posidonia plants suggests that plasticity within genotypes has played an important role in the longevity of the species

  9. Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) volatile composition under elevated temperature and CO2 in the field

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global climate change is already occurring and may affect biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) involved in plant communication. Whether climate change will promote expansion of invasive species is still unclear. Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is a major invasive weed in western No...

  10. 78 FR 48943 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Act Listing Determination for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...We, NMFS, have completed a comprehensive review of the status of river herring (alewife and blueback herring) in response to a petition submitted by the Natural Resources Defense Council (NRDC) requesting that we list alewife (Alosa pseudoharengus) and blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) throughout all or a significant portion of their range or as specific distinct population segments (DPS) identified in the petition. The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) completed a comprehensive stock assessment for river herring in May 2012 which covers over 50 river specific stocks throughout the range of the species in the United States. The ASMFC stock assessment contained much of the information necessary to make an ESA listing determination for both species; however, any deficiencies were addressed through focused workshops and working group meetings and review of additional sources of information. Based on the best scientific and commercial information available, we have determined that listing alewife as threatened or endangered under the ESA is not warranted at this time. Additionally, based on the best scientific and commercial information available, we have determined that listing blueback herring as threatened or endangered under the ESA is not warranted at this time.

  11. 77 FR 36569 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Thick-Billed Parrot Draft Recovery Plan Addendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Thick-Billed Parrot Draft... or threatened animals and plants to the point where they are again secure, self-sustaining members of... forward onto the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants (List) for the...

  12. Advances in the reintroduction of rare and endangered wild plant species.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hai; Jian, ShuGuang; Liu, HongXiao; Zhang, QianMei; Lu, HongFang

    2014-06-01

    Human disturbance and climate change have increased the risk of extinction for rare and endangered wild plant species. One effective way to conserve these rare and endangered species is through reintroduction. In this review, we summarize the advances in wild plant reintroduction from five perspectives: the establishment of reintroduction biology as an important tool for biodiversity conservation; the importance of genetic diversity in reintroduction; reintroduction under global climate change; recruitment limitation in reintroduction; and reintroduction and ecological restoration. In addition, we consider the future of plant reintroduction strategies.

  13. 78 FR 53537 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Oregon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Oregon Spotted Frog... Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Oregon Spotted Frog AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... designate critical habitat for the Oregon spotted frog under the Endangered Species Act. We are proposing...

  14. Rare and endangered species of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park; endangered, threatened, and rare animal, plant, and community handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pratt, Linda W.; Pratt, Thane K.; Foote, David; Marcos Gorresen, mgorresen@usgs.gov

    2011-01-01

    In some cases, HAVO offers the best opportunity to save these species and communities from extinction. Increasingly, the park has attempted to restore rare populations by conducting surveys to locate them, controlling threats such as feral livestock, and bolstering existing populations or creating new ones by planting nursery stock. To aid such efforts, our original intent was to publish an identification guide for researchers and field management personnel. Particularly, we wanted to familiarize the reader with the many rare plant species which otherwise are known mainly from the technical literature. Because we soon came to realize that this handbook would be useful to a much larger, general readership, our aim is to make this information available to anyone interested in endangered animals and plants at Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park.

  15. Significance of endangered and threatened plant natural products in the control of human disease

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Ali; Na, MinKyun; Oh, Joonseok; Schinazi, Raymond F.; McBrayer, Tami R.; Whitaker, Tony; Doerksen, Robert J.; Newman, David J.; Zachos, Louis G.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2013-01-01

    One in five of the world’s plant species is threatened with extinction according to the 2010 first global analysis of extinction risk. Tilman et al. predicted a massive ecological change to terrestrial plants within the next 50–100 y, accompanied by an increase in the number of global plant species facing extinction [Tilman D, et al. (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98(10):5433–5440]. Most of the drug-producing plant families contain endangered species never previously studied for their utility to human health, which strongly validates the need to prioritize protection and assessment of these fragile and endangered groups [Zhu F, et al. (2011) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108(31):12943–12948]. With little prior attention given to endangered and rare plant species, this report provides strong justification for conservation of the rare plant Diplostephium rhododendroides Hieron., as well as other potential drug-producing endangered species in this and other groups. PMID:24082148

  16. 77 FR 54548 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Eagle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... [Docket No. FWS-R8-ES-2012-0072: 4500030113] Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... species to, or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants... had had portions of their genome deliberately spliced with genes from another species...

  17. 75 FR 42033 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List Pinus albicaulis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding..., or removing a species from, the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. A... communities, resulting in the successional replacement of Pinus albicaulis by more shade-tolerant species...

  18. 78 FR 24603 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Annual Notice of Findings on Resubmitted Petitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-25

    ...In this Annual Notice of Review (ANOR) of foreign species, we present an updated list of plant and animal species foreign to the United States that we regard as candidates for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. This review ensures that we focus conservation efforts on those species at greatest risk first. Overall, this ANOR recognizes one new candidate and removes one species from candidate status. The current number of foreign species that are candidates for listing is 20. Based on our current review, we find that 20 species continue to warrant listing, but their listing remains precluded by higher priority proposals to determine whether any species is an endangered species or a threatened species.

  19. Endangered vascular plants in Japan--present status and a proposal for conservation.

    PubMed

    Iwatsuki, Kunio

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Red List of Japanese vascular plants is briefly reviewed for editing and research. Especially on the results of recent monitoring, the present status of information and conservation activities on the endangered plants in Japan is discussed and the dynamics of the Japanese flora are taken up, in relation to basic research on plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago. The figures of endangered plants are not very variable during the past quarter of a century, but we can surmise that the conservation of threatened species in Japan has been promoted to some extent. Based on the results of such a study, proposals are made to contribute to the sustainable use of plant biodiversity on the Japanese Archipelago under a global conspectus.

  20. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are also reaffirming the listing of two endemic Hawaiian plants currently listed as endangered. We propose to designate critical habitat for 39 of these 40 plant and animal species. Critical habitat is not determinable for the plant Cyanea mauiensis. In this document, we also propose to designate critical habitat for 11 previously listed plant and animal species that do not have designated critical habitat, and propose to revise critical habitat for 85 plant species that are already listed as endangered or threatened. The proposed critical habitat designation totals 271,062 acres (ac) (109,695 hectares (ha)) on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe (collectively called Maui Nui), and includes both occupied and unoccupied habitat. Approximately 47 percent of the area being proposed as critical habitat is already designated as critical habitat for the 85 plant species or other species. We also propose to delist the plant Gahnia lanaiensis, due to new information that this species is synonymous with G. lacera, a widespread species from New Zealand. In addition, we propose name changes or corrections for 11 endangered plants and 2 endangered birds, and taxonomic revisions for 2 endangered plant species.

  1. Field garden experiments to assess the host specificity of Aceria solstitialis (Acari: Eriophyoidea), potential biocontrol agent for Centaurea solstitialis (Asteraceae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Centaurea solstitialis (yellow starthistle) is an annual noxious weed that currently infests millions of acres of rangelands, non-cultivated and natural areas in the Western USA. It displaces native plant communities reducing plant diversity and forage production for livestock and wildlife. Aceria s...

  2. 75 FR 66122 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game Department...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: New Hampshire Fish and Game... Game Department (NHFGD) has applied to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) for an...

  3. 78 FR 42541 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to ] comment on the following...

  4. 78 FR 23585 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following application...

  5. 78 FR 68089 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following...

  6. 77 FR 70457 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following application...

  7. Configurational assignments of conformationally restricted bis-monoterpene hydroquinones: Utility in exploration of endangered plants

    Treesearch

    Joonseok Oh; John J. Bowling; Amar G. Chittiboyina; Robert J. Doerksen; Daneel Ferreira; Theodor D. Leininger; Mark T. Hamann

    2013-01-01

    Endangered plant species are an important resource for new chemistry. Lindera melissifolia is native to the Southeastern U.S. and scarcely populates the edges of lakes and ponds. Quantum mechanics (QM) used in combination with NMR/ECD is a powerful tool for the assignment of absolute configuration in lieu of X-ray crystallography. Methods: The EtOAc extract of L....

  8. Moss is a key nurse plant for reintroduction of the endangered herb, Primulina tabacum Hance.

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Guohua Ma; Qianmei Zhang; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Zhengfeng Wang

    2010-01-01

    The rare and endangered plant Primulina tabacum is a calciphilous perennial herb found only at the entrances of a small number of karst cave drainages in southern China. In a conservation effort, we identified potentially suitable habitats and reintroduced P. tabacum plantlets (propagated in vitro) to one historical and two new cave entrances. The transplanted...

  9. 77 FR 76065 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Kendall Warm...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Kendall Warm Springs Dace AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability for review and comment. SUMMARY: The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service) announces the...

  10. 78 FR 78321 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AY53 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for the Western Distinct Population Segment of the Yellow-Billed Cuckoo...

  11. 76 FR 35349 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX80 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants...; 50 CFR 17.11(h)). Therefore, take of WVNFS may be authorized only by a permit obtained under section... decision and its impact shortly after the order was released. There are no federally recognized Tribes...

  12. 78 FR 16288 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for...

  13. 78 FR 76173 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability of permit applications; request for...

  14. 78 FR 57170 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ...-XXXXXX) in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  15. 78 FR 23947 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303) 236-4212 (phone); permits... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  16. 77 FR 53223 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ..., Ecological Services, 5600 American Blvd. West, Suite 990, Bloomington, MN 55437- 1458; or by electronic mail.... Dated: August 22, 2012. Lynn Lewis, Assistant Regional Director, Ecological Services, Midwest Region... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications...

  17. 78 FR 54268 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ...-XXXXXX) in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  18. 77 FR 73495 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... line of the message. U.S. Mail: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and..., CO 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  19. 78 FR 48899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-12

    ...-XXXXXX) in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  20. 78 FR 17710 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303) 236-4212 (phone); permits... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  1. 78 FR 11217 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303) 236-4212 (phone); permits... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  2. 77 FR 47432 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application[s

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box 25486-DFC... CONTACT: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303) 236-4256 (phone); permitsR6ES@fws.gov... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  3. 76 FR 30958 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-27

    ... U.S. mail to the Regional Director, Attn: Lisa Mandell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological..., Ecological Services, Region 3. BILLING CODE 4310-55-P ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications...

  4. 76 FR 50246 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ..., Ecological Services, 5600 American Blvd. West, Suite 990, Bloomington, MN 55437- 1458; or by electronic mail...)). Dated: August 5, 2011. Sean Marsan, Acting Assistant Regional Director, Ecological Services, Region 3... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications...

  5. 78 FR 76638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...., Permit No. TE-XXXXXX) in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and..., CO 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  6. 77 FR 73494 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... line of the message. U.S. Mail: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and..., CO 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  7. 78 FR 32686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... by U.S. mail to the Regional Director, Attn: Lisa Mandell, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological.... Dated: May 24, 2013. Lynn M. Lewis, Assistant Regional Director, Ecological Services, Midwest Region... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications...

  8. 78 FR 64529 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ...-XXXXXX) in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  9. 77 FR 39251 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-02

    ..., Ecological Services, 5600 American Blvd. West, Suite 990, Bloomington, MN 55437- 1458; or by electronic mail.... Dated: June 22, 2012. Lynn Lewis, Assistant Regional Director, Ecological Services, Midwest Region... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit Applications...

  10. 78 FR 26384 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303) 236-4212 (phone); permits... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  11. 78 FR 1878 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... line of the message. U.S. Mail: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and..., CO 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kris Olsen, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  12. 78 FR 8575 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... line of the message. U.S. Mail: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and..., CO 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator Ecological Services... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  13. 78 FR 37564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ... subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303) 236-4212 (phone); permits... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  14. 78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...-XXXXXX) in the subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife... 80228. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  15. 78 FR 29150 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ... subject line of the message. U.S. Mail: Ecological Services, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, P.O. Box... INFORMATION CONTACT: Kathy Konishi, Permit Coordinator, Ecological Services, (303) 236-4212 (phone); permits... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit...

  16. 75 FR 77961 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... Critical Habitat for Santa Ana Sucker; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 239 / Tuesday... CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AW23 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for.... Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for Santa Ana sucker (Catostomus...

  17. 78 FR 23948 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Black-Footed Ferret Draft Recovery Plan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Black-Footed Ferret Draft... draft recovery plan for the black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). This species is federally listed as... available by request from the National Black-Footed Ferret Conservation Center, U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  18. 78 FR 4429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for comments. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, invite the public to comment on the following...

  19. 75 FR 56131 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Service, announce the availability of the Draft Revised Recovery Plan for the Northern Spotted Owl (Strix...

  20. 78 FR 16526 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Recovery Plan for Pallid Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-15

    ... Mississippi River basins, threats abatement, population management, research, and monitoring. We emphasize.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background Restoring an endangered or threatened animal or plant to the point where... albus), found in the Missouri and Mississippi River basins of the United States, was listed as...

  1. 78 FR 2421 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Indiana Bat Summer Survey Guidelines Correction In notice document 2013-00213, appearing on pages 1879-1880 in...

  2. 78 FR 9724 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-11

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... Corporation, Progress Energy Florida Inc., Lake County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... (Service), have received an application from Florida Power Corporation, Progress Energy Florida Inc...

  3. 75 FR 24741 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) Conservation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus... availability of the Mexican Wolf Conservation Assessment (assessment). The assessment provides scientific information relevant to the conservation of the Mexican wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) in Arizona and New...

  4. 78 FR 31479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Leavenworthia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...-R4-ES-2013-0015; 4500030113] RIN 1018-AZ47 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation... (such as space, food, cover, and protected habitat). In identifying those physical and biological... are not limited to: (1) Space for individual and population growth and for normal behavior; (2) Food...

  5. 76 FR 37142 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit Application; Proposed Low...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-24

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Incidental Take Permit... about 0.23 acre of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and... breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat incidental to land preparation for construction of a single...

  6. 76 FR 12751 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Applications for... Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub- jay) breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat... approximately 1.75 acres (0.71 hectares (ha)) of scrub-jay breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat incidental...

  7. 78 FR 52965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for... anticipates taking about 1.49 acres of foraging, breeding, and sheltering habitat used by the Florida scrub... anticipates taking 1.49 acre of Florida scrub-jay breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat for construction...

  8. 75 FR 4839 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, St. Lucie County, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, St. Lucie County, FL... of Florida scrub-jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens) (scrub-jay) breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat... anticipates taking approximately 1 acre (0.4 hectares (ha)) of Florida scrub-jay breeding, feeding and...

  9. 78 FR 47722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... successful development of sturgeon larvae and passage of the fish both upstream and downstream at dams on the... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: We, the Fish...

  10. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits. PMID:23961155

  11. Effects of fire on threatened and endangered plants: an annotated bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hessl, Amy; Spackman, Susan

    1995-01-01

    This bibliography presents basic information about the effects of fm on plants that the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lists as endangered or threatened or as category-one (Cl) candidates for federal listing. We searched 23 databases for publications, unpublished reports, and records with pertinent information; summarized and compiled information on the effects of fire from all final rulings on endangered and threatened plants and from endangered species recovery plans for plants; and solicited information from key researchers and agencies involved in fire ecology. The bibliography includes 126 references to the effect of fire on 172 federally listed plant species, or on 26% of the total number of federally listed plant species in these categories. Our study revealed that the total number of relevant articles has been increasing since the 1970s and more rapidly since the 1980s. Although research on fire and rare plants is increasing, an absence of information on many species persists. We hope that this document will facilitate and encourage research in this increasingly important field of botanical conservation.

  12. Biotechnological approaches for conservation and improvement of rare and endangered plants of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Khan, Salim; Al-Qurainy, Fahad; Nadeem, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Genetic variation is believed to be a prerequisite for the short-and long-term survival of the plant species in their natural habitat. It depends on many environmental factors which determine the number of alleles on various loci in the genome. Therefore, it is important to understand the genetic composition and structure of the rare and endangered plant species from their natural habitat to develop successful management strategies for their conservation. However, rare and endangered plant species have low genetic diversity due to which their survival rate is decreasing in the wilds. The evaluation of genetic diversity of such species is very important for their conservation and gene manipulation. However, plant species can be conserved by in situ and in vitro methods and each has advantages and disadvantages. DNA banking can be considered as a means of complimentary method for the conservation of plant species by preserving their genomic DNA at low temperatures. Such approach of preservation of biological information provides opportunity for researchers to search novel genes and its products. Therefore, in this review we are describing some potential biotechnological approaches for the conservation and further manipulation of these rare and endangered plant species to enhance their yield and quality traits.

  13. 75 FR 18782 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Thorne's Hairstreak Butterfly as Endangered Correction In Federal Register...

  14. 75 FR 69221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on... Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as Endangered or Threatened; Annual Notice of Findings on... and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to...

  15. 75 FR 18232 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 15 Caribbean Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of reviews... status reviews of 15 species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We conduct...

  16. 75 FR 18233 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10 Southeastern Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 10... status reviews of 10 species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We conduct these... any of these 10 species indicating that a change in classification may be warranted, we may propose...

  17. 78 FR 50439 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of Nine Northeastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... northeastern species. We will review the following endangered species: Peter's Mountain mallow, Jesup's milk...). PLANTS Peter's Mountain mallow........ (Iliamna corei)... Endangered......... Entire: VA........ May 12... Lane, Gloucester, VA 23061. Peter's Mountain mallow....... Troy Andersen, U.S. Fish and 804-693-6694; e...

  18. 75 FR 67341 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bay Springs Salamander as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  19. 76 FR 47123 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List Six Sand Dune Beetles as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list six sand...

  20. 77 FR 61375 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-09

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Petitions To List the Mexican Gray Wolf as an Endangered Subspecies or Distinct Population... two petitions to list the Mexican gray wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) (Mexican wolf) as an...

  1. 76 FR 39804 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Regulation That Excludes U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX29 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Regulation That Excludes U.S. Captive-Bred Scimitar-Horned Oryx, Addax, and Dama Gazelle... the Endangered Species Act (Act). This action would eliminate the exclusion of U.S. captive-bred live...

  2. 77 FR 54434 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Endangered Status for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... specimens may have different genotypes, which is generally the result of sexual reproduction (sprouting from seed) rather than clonal reproduction (vegetative reproduction from cuttings or plant parts other than... rooted at their leaf nodes), were taken for vegetative propagation prior to translocation of the...

  3. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pétillon, Julien; Puzin, Charlène; Acou, Anthony; Outreman, Yannick

    2009-10-01

    Current models in evolutionary ecology predict life history alterations in response to habitat suitability to optimize fitness. Only few empirical studies have demonstrated how life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other differ among environments. In Europe, many salt marshes have been recently invaded by the grass Elymus athericus. Previous studies however showed higher densities of the endangered spider Arctosa fulvolineata (Araneae: Lycosidae) in invaded salt marshes compared to natural habitats, which suggests a lower habitat suitability in the latter. The aim of this study was to determine if this emerging habitat (1) affects the amount of resource acquisition and (2) alters the balance between life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other in this stenotopic salt marsh species. As suggested by theoretical studies, an optimization of fitness by increasing egg size at the cost of decreasing fecundity in unsuitable (i.e., natural) habitats was expected. Females presenting cocoon were then collected in close invaded and natural salt marsh areas within the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France). By considering female mass as covariate, cocoon mass, number of eggs, and egg volume were compared between both habitats. Clutch mass was strongly determined by female mass in both habitats. Clutch mass was however significantly smaller in the natural habitat compared to the invaded habitat, indicating a higher resource acquisition in the latter. When correcting for female size, fecundity was additionally increased in the invaded habitat through a significant decrease in egg size. This phenotypic response can be explained by differences in habitat structure between invaded and natural habitats: the former offers a more complex litter favoring nocturnal wanderers like A. fulvolineata. The existence of such an adaptive reproduction strategy depending on habitat suitability constitutes an original case of an invasion that favors an

  4. Plant invasion phenomenon enhances reproduction performance in an endangered spider.

    PubMed

    Pétillon, Julien; Puzin, Charlène; Acou, Anthony; Outreman, Yannick

    2009-10-01

    Current models in evolutionary ecology predict life history alterations in response to habitat suitability to optimize fitness. Only few empirical studies have demonstrated how life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other differ among environments. In Europe, many salt marshes have been recently invaded by the grass Elymus athericus. Previous studies however showed higher densities of the endangered spider Arctosa fulvolineata (Araneae: Lycosidae) in invaded salt marshes compared to natural habitats, which suggests a lower habitat suitability in the latter. The aim of this study was to determine if this emerging habitat (1) affects the amount of resource acquisition and (2) alters the balance between life history traits that are expected to trade off against each other in this stenotopic salt marsh species. As suggested by theoretical studies, an optimization of fitness by increasing egg size at the cost of decreasing fecundity in unsuitable (i.e., natural) habitats was expected. Females presenting cocoon were then collected in close invaded and natural salt marsh areas within the Mont Saint-Michel Bay (France). By considering female mass as covariate, cocoon mass, number of eggs, and egg volume were compared between both habitats. Clutch mass was strongly determined by female mass in both habitats. Clutch mass was however significantly smaller in the natural habitat compared to the invaded habitat, indicating a higher resource acquisition in the latter. When correcting for female size, fecundity was additionally increased in the invaded habitat through a significant decrease in egg size. This phenotypic response can be explained by differences in habitat structure between invaded and natural habitats: the former offers a more complex litter favoring nocturnal wanderers like A. fulvolineata. The existence of such an adaptive reproduction strategy depending on habitat suitability constitutes an original case of an invasion that favors an

  5. The World's Crop Plant Germplasm--An Endangered Resource

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkes, Garrison

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the fact that many food plants derive from domesticated rather than natural strains, and that natural germplasm or genetic strains used in the plant-improvement process must be carefully preserved. (MLH)

  6. In situ volatile collection, analysis, and comparison of three Centaurea species and their relationship to biocontrol with herbivorous insects.

    PubMed

    Beck, John J; Smith, Lincoln; Merrill, Glory B

    2008-04-23

    Centaurea solstitialis, commonly known as yellow starthistle, is an invasive plant listed as a noxious weed in the western areas of North America and is the target of classical biological control, which involves release of herbivores known to be specific to this plant. These insects often choose their host plant on the basis of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted. Accordingly, volatile analysis of host plants can provide insight into VOCs that may attract and/or repel the insect. To this end, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and a customized collection bag were utilized to perform in situ volatile collection on intact and mechanically damaged leaves of Centaurea solstitialis, Centaurea cyanus, and Centaurea cineraria. Volatile identification was performed by GC-MS, and the VOC differences were determined. The plants C. solstitialis and C. cyanus have been reported to attract the weevil, Ceratapion basicorne, a candidate for biological control, whereas C. cineraria does not attract the weevil. Major VOCs unique to C. cineraria include the sesquiterpenes cyclosativene, alpha-ylangene, and trans-alpha-bergamotene. The compound trans-beta-farnesene was unique to C. solstitialis and C. cyanus.

  7. Distribution of Rhizosphere and Endosphere Fungi on the First-Class Endangered Plant Cypripedium japonicum.

    PubMed

    Gang, Geun-Hye; Cho, Gyeongjun; Kwak, Youn-Sig; Park, Eun-Hee

    2017-06-01

    Endangered native plant habitats and populations are rapidly disappearing because of climate and environmental changes. As a representative, the abundance of the first-class endangered wild plant, Cypripedium japonicum, has been rapidly decreasing in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of rhizosphere and endophytic fungi on C. japonicum in its native habitat. A total of 440 rhizosphere and 79 endosphere fungi isolates were isolated and identified on the basis of their molecular characteristics. Sixty-five genera and 119 fungi species were identified in this study. The genus Trichoderma showed the highest abundance among both rhizosphere and endosphere fungi. Mortierella, Hypocrea, and Penicillium spp. were also relatively dominant species on C. japonicum. The community structures of rhizosphere and endosphere fungi were similar, but endosphere fungi showed greater diversity.

  8. 77 FR 69993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...In this Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), present an updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates for or have proposed for addition to the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. Identification of candidate species can......

  9. Evaluating human-disturbed habitats for recovery planning of endangered plants.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Julie; Hermanutz, Luise

    2015-03-01

    The recovery potential of endangered species is limited by the high prevalence of human-modified habitats, while effective in situ conservation strategies to identify and restore disturbed habitat within species ranges are lacking. Our goal was to determine the impact of human disturbance on the endangered endemic Barrens willow (Salix jejuna) to provide science-based protocols for future restoration of disturbed habitats; a key component of conservation and recovery plans for many rare plant species. Our study examined differences in substrate (e.g., % total plant cover, % species cover, substrate type) and vegetation in naturally- (via frost activity) vs human-disturbed limestone barrens (Newfoundland, Canada), across the entire species range of the endangered Barrens willow. There were distinct differences in substrate conditions and vegetation community structure between naturally- and human-disturbed limestone barrens habitat throughout the narrow range of this endemic willow. Human-disturbed sites are more homogeneous and differ significantly from the naturally-disturbed sites having a much coarser substrate (30% more gravel) with less fine grained sands, less exposed bedrock, decreased soil moisture, increased nitrogen content, and reduced phosphorus content. Substrate differences can inhibit return to the natural freeze-thaw disturbance regime of the limestone barrens, negatively affecting long-term persistence of this, and other rare plants. The structure of associated vegetation (specifically woody species presence) negatively affected willow abundance but was not linked to disturbance type. Human-disturbed sites are potential candidates for endangered plant recovery habitat if natural ecosystem processes, vegetation community structure, and habitat heterogeneity are restored, thereby supporting the establishment of long term viable populations.

  10. An evaluation of the contaminant impacts on plants serving as habitat for an endangered species

    SciTech Connect

    DeShields, B.R.; Stelljes, M.E.; Hawkins, E.T.; Alsop, W.R.; Collins, W.

    1995-12-31

    As part of an ecological risk assessment at a Superfund site in Monterey County, California, potential impacts on an endangered species, the Smith`s blue butterfly (Euphilotes enoptes smithi) were evaluated. This species of butterfly lives along beach dunes historically used as small arms trainfire ranges. Historical land use resulted in the accumulation of spent bullets and varying concentrations of metals in site soil. Two species of buckwheat occurring at the site (Erigonium parvifolium and E. latifolium) that serve as the sole habitat for the butterfly were evaluated. It was assumed that if there were no impacts to the habitat, there would be no impacts to the endangered species itself. Surface soil and collocated plants were sampled and chemically analyzed in order to correlate soil concentrations with plant tissue concentrations. Surface soil and collocated plants were also sampled at reference sites to determine background concentrations. Tissue concentrations were compared to benchmark concentrations to evaluate potential impacts. In addition, soil samples and seeds from buckwheat growing at the site were collected and used to conduct root elongation assays in the laboratory. The objective of the assays was to assess effects of metals associated with the spent bullets in soil on plant growth. Within the plants, higher concentrations of all metals except zinc were found in the roots; zinc was equally distributed throughout the plants. No chemical-related impacts to the plants were identified.

  11. Threatened and endangered species evaluation for 75 licensed commercial nuclear power generating plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1997-03-01

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended, and related implementing regulations of the jurisdictional federal agencies, the U.S. Departments of Commerce and Interior, at 50 CFR Part 17. 1, et seq., require that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The U.S. Department of the Interior (through the Fish and Wildlife Service), and the U.S. Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the ESA. The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) deals with species that inhabit marine environments and anadromous fish, while the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. A species (or other distinct taxonomic unit such as subspecies, variety, and for vertebrates, distinct population units) may be classified for protection as `endangered` when it is in danger of extinction within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range. A `threatened` classification is provided to those animals and plants likely to become endangered within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of their ranges. As of February 1997, there were about 1067 species listed under the ESA in the United States. Additionally there were approximately 125 species currently proposed for listing as threatened or endangered, and another 183 species considered to be candidates for formal listing proposals.

  12. 76 FR 66369 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Review of Native Species That Are Candidates for Listing as... updated list of plant and animal species native to the United States that we regard as candidates for...

  13. 77 FR 32922 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Wildlife and Plants at 50 CFR 17.11 (for animals) and 17.12 (for plants) (Lists). We amend the Lists by... nesting substrate, protection from predators, and shade from the desert sun. It also uses upland...

  14. Comprehensive Cooling Water Study: Volume 6, Federally endangered species, Savannah River Plant: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E.

    1987-09-01

    The Comprehensive Cooling Water Study (CCWS) was initiated in 1983 to evaluate the environmental effects of the intake and release of cooling water on the structure and function of aquatic ecosystems at the Savannah River Plant. The initial report described the results from the first year of the study. This document is the final report and concludes the program. The report comprises eight volumes. The Endangered Species Act requires that Federal agencies use their authorities to conduct programs for the conservation of endangered and threatened species and to ensure that agency actions do not jeopardize the continued existence of or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat of protected species. Those Federally endangered or threatened species that occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, the red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, the wood stork, and the bald eagle. Of these species, the alligator, sturgeon, wood stork, and the bald eagle are likely to be affected directly and/or indirectly by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. 81 refs., 76 figs., 35 tabs.

  15. The Effects of Rainfall on the Population Dynamics of an Endangered Aquatic Plant, Schoenoplectus gemmifer (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Koshi; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Tainaka, Kei-Ichi; Yoshimura, Jin

    2016-01-01

    The conservation of aquatic plants in river ecosystems should consider the wash-out (away) problem resulting from severe rainfall. The aquatic plant Schoenoplectus gemmifer is an endangered species endemic to Japan. Our previous study reported that the population size of S. gemmifer in Hamamatsu city, Japan, had decreased by one-tenth because many individuals had been washed out by a series of heavy rains in 2004. However, there is insufficient information on the ecological nature of this endangered aquatic plant for adequate conservation. In this paper, we report the population dynamics of one population in Hamamatsu city from 2004 to 2012 in relation to rainfall. We surveyed the number and growing location of all living individuals in the population 300 times during the study period. To examine the temporal changes of individual plants, we also counted the number of culms for 38 individuals in four observations among 300 records. Decreases and increases in the population size of this plant were associated with washing out and the settlement of gemmae (vegetative propagation), respectively. The major cause of the reduction in the population size was an increase in the number of washed-out individuals and not the decreased settlement of gemmae. The wash-out rates for small and large individuals were not significantly different. Small individuals having a stream form with linear leaves resisted flooding, and large individuals were often partially torn off by flooding events. Modification of river basins to reduce the flow velocity may be effective for the conservation of S. gemmifer.

  16. Alien and endangered plants in the Brazilian Cerrado exhibit contrasting relationships with vegetation biomass and N : P stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Lannes, Luciola S; Bustamante, Mercedes M C; Edwards, Peter J; Venterink, Harry Olde

    2012-11-01

    Although endangered and alien invasive plants are commonly assumed to persist under different environmental conditions, surprisingly few studies have investigated whether this is the case. We examined how endangered and alien species are distributed in relation to community biomass and N : P ratio in the above-ground community biomass in savanna vegetation in the Brazilian Cerrado. For 60 plots, we related the occurrence of endangered (Red List) and alien invasive species to plant species richness, vegetation biomass and N : P ratio, and soil variables. Endangered plants occurred mainly in plots with relatively low above-ground biomass and high N : P ratios, whereas alien invasive species occurred in plots with intermediate to high biomass and low N : P ratios. Occurrences of endangered or alien plants were unrelated to extractable N and P concentrations in the soil. These contrasting distributions in the Cerrado imply that alien species only pose a threat to endangered species if they are able to invade sites occupied by these species and increase the above-ground biomass and/or decrease the N : P ratio of the vegetation. We found some evidence that alien species do increase above-ground community biomass in the Cerrado, but their possible effect on N : P stoichiometry requires further study.

  17. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  18. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    PubMed

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species.

  19. Effects of invasive knapweed (Centaurea stoebe subsp. micranthos) on a threatened native thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) vary with environment and life stage

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although invasive plants can threaten rare plants, more direct evidence on the type and magnitude of their effects on demographic parameters is needed. To determine whether Eurasian spotted knapweed, Centaurea maculosa, affected seedling emergence and establishment, juvenile survival or flowering pr...

  20. A simple and effective method for vegetative propagation of an endangered medicinal plant Salacia oblonga Wall.

    PubMed

    Deepak, K G K; Suneetha, G; Surekha, Ch

    2016-01-01

    Salacia oblonga Wall. is an endangered medicinal plant whose conservation is urgently needed, as it is extensively used in the Indian Ayurvedic system of medicine to treat diabetes mellitus. This study shows an easy, effective and simple method of conserving genetic identity and producing elite clones of S. oblonga through vegetative propagation. Vegetative propagation was achieved using roots (R), stems with leaves (SL) and stems without leaves (S) with different concentrations (0-500 ppm) of indole butyric acid (IBA). Explants S and SL showed maximum shooting response with 300 ppm IBA and explant R showed maximum response with 200 ppm IBA.

  1. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    Treesearch

    Joonseok Oh; John J. Bowling; John F. Carroll; Betul Demirci; K. Hüsnü Can Baser; Theodor D. Leininger; Ulrich R. Berniere; Mark T. Hamann

    2012-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from ...

  2. Natural Product Studies of U. S. Endangered Plants: Volatile Fraction of Lindera melissifolia (lauraceae) repels Mosquitoes and Ticks

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The number of endangered plant species in the United States is significant yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are hematophagous vectors for significant pathogenic diseases and key measures to lower their associated morbidity rates include the use of p...

  3. 76 FR 55638 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Snowy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-08

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... Kansas; the southern Texas coast into northeast Mexico; and the central Mexican plateau) (AOU 1957, pp... of plants, and any distinct population segment of any species of vertebrate fish or wildlife...

  4. 75 FR 55730 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on Petitions To Delist the Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... the 1973 Act, published in May 1974 (USDI 1974). A third gray wolf subspecies, the Mexican wolf (C. l... ``any species or subspecies of fish and wildlife or plants, and any distinct vertebrate...

  5. 76 FR 62503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black-footed Albatross as... Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Black-footed Albatross as... petition to list the black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes) as endangered or threatened under the...

  6. Distribution and status of Vicia menziesii Spreng. (Leguminosae): Hawaii's first officially listed endangered plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warshauer, F.R.; Jacobi, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    Vicia menziesii Spreng., Hawai'i's first officially listed endangered plant species, formerly occurred across a large area in the upper montane-mesic forest habitat on the windward side of the island of Hawai'i. Until this species was `rediscovered? in 1974, it had last been seen in 1915, and it was presumed to be extinct. The population is presently thought to number 150?300 plants, most of which are seedlings. These are located within a 200 ha area on the eastern flank of Mauna Loa volcano. The primary factors responsible for the decline of V. menziesii are habitat loss and excessive predation on the plants by introduced ungulates. Continued logging and cattle grazing within its remnant range are major threats to its existence. Enhancing the survival of V. menziesii may best be accomplished by stabilizing its remaining habitat and allowing the population to reestablish itself naturally.

  7. Antibacterial activity of leaf extract of Breonadia salicina (Rubiaceae), an endangered medicinal plant of Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Qurainy, F; Z Gaafar, Abdel-Rhman; Khan, S; Nadeem, M; Tarroum, M; Alaklabi, A; Thomas, J

    2013-08-29

    Wild plants can contain bioactive compounds with potential activity against disease-causing microorganisms. In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, there are many plant species that may have antibacterial, antifungal, or antiviral activities, among other properties. We extracted bioactive compounds with methanol as well as with water from leaves of Breonadia salicina, which is an endangered plant found in the wild in Saudi Arabia. These extracts were tested against the bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Shigella sonnei, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Both extracts showed antibacterial activity against all of the microorganisms, and thus, B. salicina leaf extract has potential as an antimicrobial agent for the preservation of foods, instead of synthetic chemical compounds. We found that the methanolic leaf extract was more effective than the aqueous crude extract against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, and S. aureus.

  8. 76 FR 20918 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Hermes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Hermes copper butterfly (Hermelycaena [Lycaena] hermes) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing Hermes copper butterfly as endangered or threatened is warranted. Currently, however, listing Hermes copper butterfly is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add Hermes copper butterfly to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list Hermes copper butterfly as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. During any interim period, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  9. 75 FR 67925 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Cirsium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Cirsium wrightii (Wright's marsh thistle) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing C. wrightii as endangered or threatened throughout its range is warranted. Currently, however, listing of C. wrightii is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add C. wrightii to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list C. wrightii as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed rule. In the interim period, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review.

  10. [Study on species and distribution of flora of national rare and endangered medicinal plant in the Three Gorges area].

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Cheng

    2013-04-01

    According to the China Plant Red Data Book and National Key Protected Wild Plants, the distribution of the rare and endangered plants and national conservative plants in the Three Gorges area were investigated and statistically analyzed. Its floristic composition and characteristics of geographical distribution were explored. As a result, a total of 97 species of medicinal flora belonging to rare and endangered national protection plants were found in the Three Gorges area. They come from 81 genera of 46 families. Their vertical distribution is obvious and horizontal distribution has discontinuous overlap. There are many ancient relict medicinal plants in the Three Gorges area. These medicinal plants have obvious temperate characteristics, and are easily found at warm and moist ravines and hillsides; The proportion of tree is much higher than that of herb, vine, shrub and fern. Most of them belong to specific and monotypic genera.

  11. Response of endangered plant species to inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Turnau, Katarzyna; Tsimilli-Michael, Merope; Strasser, Reto J

    2009-02-01

    Three endangered plant species, Plantago atrata and Pulsatilla slavica, which are on the IUCN red list of plants, and Senecio umbrosus, which is extinct in the wild in Poland, were inoculated with soil microorganisms to evaluate their responsiveness to inoculation and to select the most effective microbial consortium for application in conservation projects. Individuals of these taxa were cultivated with (1) native arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) isolated from natural habitats of the investigated species, (2) a mixture of AMF strains available in the laboratory, and (3) a combination of AMF lab strains with rhizobacteria. The plants were found to be dependent on AMF for their growth; the mycorrhizal dependency for P. atrata was 91%, S. umbrosus-95%, and P. slavica-65%. The applied inocula did not significantly differ in the stimulation of the growth of P. atrata and S. umbrosus, while in P. slavica, native AMF proved to be the less efficient. We therefore conclude that AMF application can improve the ex situ propagation of these three threatened taxa and may contribute to the success of S. umbrosus reintroduction. A multilevel analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients by the JIP test permitted an in vivo evaluation of plant vitality in terms of biophysical parameters quantifying photosynthetic energy conservation, which was found to be in good agreement with the results concerning physiological parameters. Therefore, the JIP test can be used to evaluate the influence of AMF on endangered plants, with the additional advantage of being applicable in monitoring in a noninvasive way the acclimatization of reintroduced species in nature.

  12. Climate change threatens endangered plant species by stronger and interacting water-related stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, Ruud P.; Witte, Jan-Philip M.; van Bodegom, Peter M.; van Dam, Jos C.; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2-concentration, temperature and rainfall variability are all expected to increase in the near future. The resulting increased dynamics of soil moisture contents, together with increased plant physiological demands for both oxygen and water, will lead to an increased occurrence of wet and dry extremes of plant stresses, i.e., of oxygen and drought stress, respectively, alone and in interaction. The use of indirect environmental variables in previous studies and a focus on individual stresses rather than their combined effects has hampered understanding of the causal impact of climate change on plant species composition through changes in abiotic site conditions. Here, we use process-based simulations of oxygen and drought stresses in conjunction with a downscaled national version of IPCC scenarios in order to show that these stresses will increase (on average by ˜20% at sites where both stresses occur) in a warmer and more variable future (2050) climate. These two types of stresses will increasingly coincide, i.e. both stresses will occur more often (but not at the same time) within a single vegetation plot. We further show that this increased coincidence of water-related stresses will negatively affect the future occurrence of currently endangered plant species (causing a reduction of ˜16%), while apparently no such decrease will occur among common species. Individual stresses did not appear to affect the occurrence of endangered plant species. Consequently, our study demonstrates that species that are already threatened under the current climate will suffer most from the effects of climate change.

  13. Speciation and genetic diversity in Centaurea subsect. Phalolepis in Anatolia

    PubMed Central

    López-Pujol, Jordi; López-Vinyallonga, Sara; Susanna, Alfonso; Ertuğrul, Kuddisi; Uysal, Tuna; Tugay, Osman; Guetat, Arbi; Garcia-Jacas, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Mountains of Anatolia are one of the main Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots and their richness in endemic species amounts for 30% of the flora. Two main factors may account for this high diversity: the complex orography and its role as refugia during past glaciations. We have investigated seven narrow endemics of Centaurea subsection Phalolepis from Anatolia by means of microsatellites and ecological niche modelling (ENM), in order to analyse genetic polymorphisms and getting insights into their speciation. Despite being narrow endemics, all the studied species show moderate to high SSR genetic diversity. Populations are genetically isolated, but exchange of genes probably occurred at glacial maxima (likely through the Anatolian mountain arches as suggested by the ENM). The lack of correlation between genetic clusters and (morpho) species is interpreted as a result of allopatric diversification on the basis of a shared gene pool. As suggested in a former study in Greece, post-glacial isolation in mountains would be the main driver of diversification in these plants; mountains of Anatolia would have acted as plant refugia, allowing the maintenance of high genetic diversity. Ancient gene flow between taxa that became sympatric during glaciations may also have contributed to the high levels of genetic diversity. PMID:27886271

  14. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomeus, R.; Witte, J.; van Bodegom, P.; Dam, J. V.; Aerts, R.

    2010-12-01

    capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

  15. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Chinese endangered medicinal plant Tetrastigma hemsleyanum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y H; Chen, N; Zhang, Y C; Fu, C X

    2014-10-31

    Tetrastigma hemsleyanum (Vitaceae) is an endangered medicinal plant endemic to China. Because of its widely known efficacy for treating many health problems, wild resources of this species are currently undergoing a rapid decline. Few studies have been conducted examining the population genetics or development of microsatellite loci for this plant. In this study, 14 microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for T. hemsleyanum using a double-suppression PCR method. Polymorphisms were tested with a total of 50 individuals from 2 natural populations. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3-9, with an average of 7 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0-1 and from 0.068-0.803, respectively. The polymorphism information content value varied from 0.215-0.760. These loci may facilitate further genetic studies of populations of T. hemsleyanum and provide guidance for their conservation.

  16. A new species of Centaurea sect. Pseudoseridia (Asteraceae) from north-eastern Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Yüzbaşıoğlu, İbrahim Sırrı; Bona, Mehmet; Genç, İlker

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Centaurea ziganensis Yüzb., M. Bona & İ. Genç, a new species is described and illustrated from Gümüşhane province, NE Turkey. The new species grows in rocky places on the south face of Zigana Mountains, and is closely related to Centaurea drabifolioides, from which it differs mainly in stem, achene and phyllary appendage characters. Micromorphological structures of achenes and karyological features of Centaurea ziganensis and Centaurea drabifolioides were examined in this study. PMID:26312039

  17. 76 FR 9722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Solanum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-22

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12- month finding on a petition to list the plant Solanum conocarpum (marron bacora) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing S. conocarpum is warranted. Currently, however, listing S. conocarpum is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add S. conocarpum to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list S. conocarpum as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In any interim period, the status of the candidate taxon will be addressed through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  18. Decalepisarayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Sarkar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Decalepis arayalpatra is an endemic and critically endangered plant of India. May 2014 issue of Natural Products Research publishes the findings of R. S. Verma et al. on the chemical composition of D. arayalpatra. This study was conducted to characterise the root aroma of this plant for possible industrial applications. The authors suggest that due to its peculiar vanilla flavour, the plant could be explored as a potential substitute of vanillin-aroma in the flavour industry. Owing to the fact that D. arayalpatra is a critically endangered plant species, and its habitat is now limited to only the protected areas and reserve forest in southern part of India, and that collecting any plant from such reserve forests for commercial activities is illegal as per the law of the country, this specific conclusion of the authors is totally un-substantiated by the law of land, hence, calls for further review.

  19. Strong spatial genetic structure reduces reproductive success in the critically endangered plant genus Pseudomisopates.

    PubMed

    Amat, María E; Silvertown, Jonathan; Vargas, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Clonal growth can be a double-edged sword for endangered species, because the short-term insurance against extinction may incur a longer-term hazard of creating small inbred populations with low fecundity. In the present study, we quantify the advantages and disadvantages of clonal growth regarding the fitness of the central Iberian monotypic endangered genus Pseudomisopates. Preliminary studies showed that the species is self-incompatible and exhibits extensive clonal growth with plants flowering profusely. However, seeds at many sites seemed to be unviable, and no seedlings have been observed in the field. A fully replicated nested sampling design (n = 100) was conducted to explore genetic (using seven SSR loci) and environmental factors potentially affecting seed viability, such as: 1) clonal and genetic diversity, 2) spatial genetic structure, and 3) environmental factors (shrub cover and grazing). Generalized Linear Mixed Models were fitted relating genetic and environmental variables to reproductive variables (seed viability and flower display). Our results indicate that the relatively low genotypic diversity of the population (PD = 0.23), as quantified by SSRs, and the strong spatial genetic structure observed are congruent with intense clonal growth. This clonal growth is enhanced by unfavorable environmental conditions, such as canopy closure and grazing. Under these circumstances, both flower display and mate availability decrease, thus hindering sexual reproduction. Indeed, a mixed reproductive system (clonal and sexual) to escape environmental stochasticity is crucial for the survival of Pseudomisopates, a species inhabiting a disturbance-prone ecosystem.

  20. Spatial and temporal seed dispersal of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. ssp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) in west central Utah, a case study

    Treesearch

    Scott L. Jensen; Stephen B. Monsen; Pat Fosse

    2008-01-01

    This case study documents temporal and spatial squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata Lam. spp. squarrosa (Willd.) Gugler) seed dispersal from study sites in central Utah. Felt seed traps were placed along transects extending from sites occupied by squarrose knapweed into adjacent plant communities. Seed dispersal from knapweed...

  1. 78 FR 4812 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ...; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle From the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened... elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) from the List of Endangered and Threatened... remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and...

  2. 78 FR 63625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Dakota Skipper...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to designate critical habitat for the Dakota skipper and Poweshiek skipperling under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. The Endangered Species Act requires that critical habitat be designated to the maximum extent prudent and determinable for species determined to be endangered or threatened species. The effect of this regulation is......

  3. 78 FR 26302 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Lesser Prairie-Chicken as a Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... of conversion of grasslands to agricultural uses; encroachment by invasive woody plants; wind energy... the number of birds attending those leks. Occasionally recorded calls are used to aid in the detection... alphabetical order under Birds to read as set forth below: Sec. 17.11 Endangered and threatened...

  4. An Atlas and Illustrated Guide to the Threatened and Endangered Vascular Plants of North Carolina and Virginia

    Treesearch

    J.R. Massey; D.K.S. Otte; T.A. Atkinson; R.D. Whetstone

    1983-01-01

    Provides detailed description and illustration of 45 species of endangered vascular plants to assist public and privatl efforts to protect and to conserve them. Range maps indicate the location of each species and additional sources of information are also given for each species.

  5. Endangered, threatened, and sensitive plants of Fort Lewis, Washington: distribution, mapping, and management recommendations for species conservation.

    Treesearch

    T.B. Thomas; A.B. Carey

    1996-01-01

    The loss of native species and their habitats has increased with urban development, agriculture, and resource utilization. According to the Washington Natural Heritage Program, 20 plants listed as endangered, threatened, or sensitive are suspected to occur on the glacial outwash soils of south Puget Sound. In our study, more than 3,000 ha of prairie, wetland, and moist...

  6. The threat of increasing hybridization of an endangered plant species, Purshia subintegra, in the Verde Valley, Arizona

    Treesearch

    Joanne E. Baggs; Joyce Maschinski

    2001-01-01

    The existence of the endangered shrub Purshia subintegra may be threatened by hybridization with the more common P. stansburiana. In the Verde Valley, the range of the rare P. subintegra overlaps with the range of P. stansburiana, allowing introgression to occur. Although P. subintegra and P. stansburiana have many distinguishing characteristics, there are plants in...

  7. 76 FR 47133 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding and 12-Month Determination on a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding... AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of 90-day petition finding and notice of 12-month determination. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce our...

  8. 75 FR 53978 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews for Lomatium cookii (Cook's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews for... Meadowfoam) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of reviews; request for information. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are initiating 5-year reviews for two...

  9. 75 FR 48359 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Indiana Bat (Myotis sodalis) at a wind power project in Adair, Sullivan, and Putnam Counties, Missouri....5-MW wind energy turbines and the related facilities (access roads, collection lines, operation and... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Indiana Bat; Notice of Intent...

  10. 77 FR 21993 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Notice of Availability of a Technical/Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Alabama Sturgeon AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability and request for public comment. SUMMARY: We, the Fish and Wildlife Service...

  11. 78 FR 36566 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Agency Draft Recovery Plan for Golden Sedge AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability... draft recovery plan, you may obtain a copy by contacting the Raleigh Ecological Services Field Office, U...

  12. 77 FR 9884 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Publishing Notice of Receipt of Captive-Bred...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-21

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 RIN 1018-AX96 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Publishing Notice of Receipt of Captive-Bred Wildlife Registration Applications AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... the Act that are authorized under the Captive Bred Wildlife (CBW) regulations. This action would add...

  13. 78 FR 4428 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of an Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-22

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of an Application for... (Eumeces egregius lividus) (skinks) foraging, breeding, and sheltering habitat incidental to land... and blue-tailed mole skink breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat incidental to land preparation...

  14. 77 FR 58084 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings on Petitions To Delist U.S...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Findings... two petitions to remove the U.S. captive-bred and U.S. captive populations of three antelope species... information indicating that delisting the U.S. captive animals or U.S. captive-bred members of these species...

  15. 78 FR 10202 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of an Application for an Incidental Take...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of an Application for... anticipates taking about 2.99 acres of foraging, breeding, and sheltering habitat used by the Florida scrub... acres of scrub-jay, indigo snake, and gopher tortoise breeding, feeding, and sheltering habitat...

  16. Effective long-distance pollen dispersal in Centaurea jacea.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Matthias; Duelli, Peter; Obrist, Martin K; Kleijn, David; Schmid, Bernhard

    2009-08-25

    Agri-environment schemes play an increasingly important role for the conservation of rare plants in intensively managed agricultural landscapes. However, little is known about their effects on gene flow via pollen dispersal between populations of these species. In a 2-year experiment, we observed effective pollen dispersal from source populations of Centaurea jacea in restored meadows, the most widespread Swiss agri-environment scheme, to potted plants in adjacent intensively managed meadows without other individuals of this species. Potted plants were put in replicated source populations at 25, 50, 100 m and where possible 200 m distance from these source populations. Pollen transfer among isolated plants was prevented by temporary bagging, such that only one isolated plant was accessible for flower visitors at any one time. Because C. jacea is self-incompatible, seed set in single-plant isolates indicated insect mediated effective pollen dispersal from the source population. Seed set was higher in source populations (35.7+/-4.4) than in isolates (4.8+/-1.0). Seed set declined from 18.9% of that in source populations at a distance of 25 m to 7.4% at 200 m. At a distance of 200 m seed set was still significantly higher in selfed plants, indicating long-distance effective pollen dispersal up to 200 m. Analyses of covariance suggested that bees contributed more than flies to this long-distance pollen dispersal. We found evidence that pollen dispersal to single-plant isolates was positively affected by the diversity and flower abundance of neighboring plant species in the intensively managed meadow. Furthermore, the decline of the dispersal was less steep when the source population of C. jacea was large. We conclude that insect pollinators can effectively transfer pollen from source populations of C. jacea over at least 200 m, even when "recipient populations" consisted of single-plant isolates, suggesting that gene flow by pollen over this distance is very likely

  17. Early successional microhabitats allow the persistence of endangered plants in coastal sand dunes.

    PubMed

    Pardini, Eleanor A; Vickstrom, Kyle E; Knight, Tiffany M

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems.

  18. Early Successional Microhabitats Allow the Persistence of Endangered Plants in Coastal Sand Dunes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Many species are adapted to disturbance and occur within dynamic, mosaic landscapes that contain early and late successional microhabitats. Human modification of disturbance regimes alters the availability of microhabitats and may affect the viability of species in these ecosystems. Because restoring historical disturbance regimes is typically expensive and requires action at large spatial scales, such restoration projects must be justified by linking the persistence of species with successional microhabitats. Coastal sand dune ecosystems worldwide are characterized by their endemic biodiversity and frequent disturbance. Dune-stabilizing invasive plants alter successional dynamics and may threaten species in these ecosystems. We examined the distribution and population dynamics of two federally endangered plant species, the annual Layia carnosa and the perennial Lupinus tidestromii, within a dune ecosystem in northern California, USA. We parameterized a matrix population model for L. tidestromii and examined the magnitude by which the successional stage of the habitat (early or late) influenced population dynamics. Both species had higher frequencies and L. tidestromii had higher frequency of seedlings in early successional habitats. Lupinus tidestromii plants in early successional microhabitats had higher projected rates of population growth than those associated with stabilized, late successional habitats, due primarily to higher rates of recruitment in early successional microhabitats. These results support the idea that restoration of disturbance is critical in historically dynamic landscapes. Our results suggest that large-scale restorations are necessary to allow persistence of the endemic plant species that characterize these ecosystems. PMID:25835390

  19. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite loci for the endangered wetland plant Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Otake, Kuniaki; Kondo, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Sonoko; Masumoto, Ikuko; Iwahori, Katsumi; Isagi, Yuji

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Adenophora palustris (Campanulaceae) is an endangered wetland plant species in Japan. Although it is widely distributed in East Asia, only six extant populations are known in Japan, with fewer than 1000 individuals in total. We developed 15 microsatellite markers for this species and confirmed their utility for the closely related species A. triphylla var. japonica. Methods and Results: Ten polymorphic loci were characterized for genetic variation within three populations of A. palustris. The number of alleles per locus ranged from four to 15, with an average of 9.3; the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.48 to 0.89, with an average of 0.74. Nine loci were successfully amplified in A. triphylla var. japonica, and three of these loci showed polymorphism. Conclusions: These markers are useful for investigating genetic diversity and gene flow within and among remnant populations of A. palustris in Japan, and the results will provide crucial information for conservation. PMID:27672523

  20. Genetic diversity of high-elevation populations of an endangered medicinal plant

    PubMed Central

    Nag, Akshay; Ahuja, Paramvir Singh; Sharma, Ram Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Intraspecific genetic variation in natural populations governs their potential to overcome challenging ecological and environmental conditions. In addition, knowledge of this variation is critical for the conservation and management of endangered plant taxa. Found in the Himalayas, Podophyllum hexandrum is an endangered high-elevation plant species that has great medicinal importance. Here we report on the genetic diversity analysis of 24 P. hexandrum populations (209 individuals), representing the whole of the Indian Himalayas. In the present study, seven amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) primer pairs generated 1677 fragments, of which 866 were found to be polymorphic. Neighbour joining clustering, principal coordinate analysis and STRUCTURE analysis clustered 209 individuals from 24 populations of the Indian Himalayan mountains into two major groups with a significant amount of gene flow (Nm = 2.13) and moderate genetic differentiation Fst(0.196), G′st(0.20). This suggests that, regardless of geographical location, all of the populations from the Indian Himalayas are intermixed and are composed broadly of two types of genetic populations. High variance partitioned within populations (80 %) suggests that most of the diversity is restricted to the within-population level. These results suggest two possibilities about the ancient population structure of P. hexandrum: either all of the populations in the geographical region of the Indian Himalayas are remnants of a once-widespread ancient population, or they originated from two types of genetic populations, which coexisted a long time ago, but subsequently separated as a result of long-distance dispersal and natural selection. High variance partitioned within the populations indicates that these populations have evolved in response to their respective environments over time, but low levels of heterozygosity suggest the presence of historical population bottlenecks. PMID:25416728

  1. Climate change hampers endangered species through intensified moisture-related plant stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    (Ruud) Bartholomeus, R. P.; (Flip) Witte, J. P. M.; (Peter) van Bodegom, P. M.; (Jos) van Dam, J. C.; (Rien) Aerts, R.

    2010-05-01

    soil moisture contents hamper oxygen transport from the atmosphere, through the soil - where part of the oxygen additionally disappears by soil microbial oxygen consumption - and to the root cells. Reduced respiration negatively affects the energy supply to plant metabolism. Plant transpiration, which responds to increased temperatures and atmospheric CO2-concentrations, is the first physiological process that will be inhibited by low soil moisture contents, negatively affecting both photosynthesis and cooling. As both the supply and demand of oxygen and water depend strongly on the prevailing meteorological conditions, both oxygen and water stress were calculated dynamically in time to capture climate change effects. We demonstrate that increased rainfall variability in interaction with predicted changes in temperature and CO2, affects soil moisture conditions and plant oxygen and water demands such, that both oxygen stress and water stress will intensify due to climate change. Moreover, these stresses will increasingly coincide, causing variable stress conditions. These variable stress conditions were found to decrease future habitat suitability, especially for plant species that are presently endangered. The future existence of such species is thus at risk by climate change, which has direct implications for policies to maintain endangered species, as applied by international nature management organisations (e.g. IUCN). Our integrated mechanistic analysis of two stresses combined, which has never been done so far, reveals large impacts of climate change on species extinctions and thereby on biodiversity.

  2. [FTIR spectra of endangered plants Ulmus elongata and its correlation to soil nitrogen].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-xiang; Liu, Peng; Kang, Hua-jing; Liao, Cheng-chuan; Pan, Cheng-chun; Li, Cheng-hui

    2008-06-01

    Ulmus elongata, an endemic species in China, is one of the grade II national key conservation rare and endangered plants. The spectra of root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata sampled from eight different sites were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry with OMNI-sampler directly, fast and accurately. A positioning technology of OMNIC E.S.P. 5.1 intelligent software and ATR correction was used. The background was scanned before the determination of every example. The peak value and absorbance were ascertained using a method of baseline correction in infrared spectra, and then the relativity between absorption peaks of the spectra and the soil nitrogen was analyzed. Results from the comparison of the spectra showed some differences in their FTIR spectra among root, stem, skin and leaf of Ulmus elongata from the same plant. The coefficients of correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil nitrogen were positive in different degrees. There was the significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of stem and total nitrogen (p < 0.05). When the wave-number was 3 365 cm(-1), there was a significantly positive correlation between chemical composition of skin and total nitrogen, and a low correlation between root and leave chemical composition and total nitrogen. There was also a certain extent correlation between chemical composition of this four different organs of Ulmus elongata and soil available nitrogen, but the coefficients of correlation was smaller, and the level of the statistic significance was not significant (p > 0.05). It was showed that the change in soil total nitrogen has some influence on chemical composition of different organs of Ulmus elongata, but the degree of available nitrogen was very smaller. The linear correlation between soil total nitrogen and organs chemical composition of Ulmus elongate, not only provided the theoretic basis for plant nutriology

  3. 76 FR 15919 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Berry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Berry Cave salamander (Gyrinophilus gulolineatus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Berry Cave salamander is warranted. Currently, however, listing is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the Berry Cave salamander to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list the Berry Cave salamander as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. During any interim period, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  4. 75 FR 78513 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service/USFWS), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Astragalus microcymbus (skiff milkvetch) and Astragalus schmolliae (Schmoll's milkvetch) as endangered or threatened, and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After a review of all the available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing A. microcymbus and A. schmolliae is warranted. However, currently listing of A. microcymbus and A. schmolliae is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add A. microcymbus and A. schmolliae to our list of candidate species. We will make any determinations on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In any interim period, the status of the candidate taxon will be addressed through our annual Candidate Notice of Review.

  5. 76 FR 12667 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Mt...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12- month finding on a petition to list the Mt. Charleston blue butterfly (Plebejus shasta charlestonensis) (formerly in genus Icaricia) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Mt. Charleston blue butterfly is warranted. Currently, however, listing of the Mt. Charleston blue is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the Mt. Charleston blue butterfly to our candidate species list. If an emergency situation develops with this subspecies that warrants an emergency listing, we will act immediately to provide additional protection. We will develop a proposed rule to list this subspecies as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule.

  6. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  7. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover`s Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus).

  8. 78 FR 69436 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5-Year Review of the Vicuña in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of a 5- Year Review..., Interior. ACTION: Notice of initiation of review; request for information. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are initiating a 5-year review under the Endangered Species Act of 1973,...

  9. 76 FR 26085 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rule To Revise the List of Endangered and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or USFWS) are re-evaluating the listing of the Minnesota population of gray wolves (Canis lupus) and propose to revise it to conform to current statutory and policy requirements. We propose to identify the Minnesota population as a Western Great Lakes (WGL) Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of the gray wolf and to remove this DPS from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. We propose these actions because the best available scientific and commercial information indicates that the WGL DPS does not meet the definitions of threatened or endangered under the Act. This proposed rule, if made final, would remove the currently designated critical habitat for the gray wolf in Minnesota and Michigan and the current special regulations for gray wolves in Minnesota. We also propose to revise the range of the gray wolf (the species C. lupus) by removing all or parts of 29 eastern states that we now recognize were not part of the historical range of the gray wolf. New information indicates that these areas should not have been included in the original listing of the gray wolf. In this proposed rule, we recognize recent taxonomic information indicating that the gray wolf subspecies Canis lupus lycaon should be elevated to the full species C. lycaon. Given that a complete status review of this newly recognized species has never been conducted, we are initiating a rangewide review of the conservation status of C. lycaon in the United States and Canada. This rule also constitutes the initiation of our five-year review of the status of gray wolves under section 4(c)(2) of the Act, as well as the initiation of status reviews specific to gray wolves in the Pacific Northwest and Mexican wolves in the Southwest United States and Mexico.

  10. Agency interaction at the Savannah River Plant under the Endangered Species Act

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    The 300 square mile Savannah River Plant (SRP) offers a variety of protected habitats for endangered species including the alligator (resident), red-cockaded woodpecker (resident), short-nose sturgeon (migratory), and wood stock (fish-forager). The most recent of these four species to be listed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (US FWS) is the wood stock. It had been observed prior to 1983 as an infrequent forager in the SRP Savannah River swamp which adjoins SRP on the south and southwest. In anticipation of its listing as an endangered species, DOE-SR requested in the spring of 1983 that the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, conduct field surveys and studies of the nearest colony of wood storks to SRP (the Birdsville colony in north-central Georgia). The objective of these studies was to determine potential effects of the flooding of the Steel Creek swamp area with cooling water from L-Reactor. L-Reactor, which is proposed for restart, has not been operated since 1968. The survey found that wood storks forage in the Steel Creek delta swamp area of the Savannah River at SRP. Based on the numbers of storks at various foraging locations, sites at SRP ranked higher than non-SRP sites during the pre-fledging phase of the colony. Cold flow testing of L-Reactor also demonstrated that foraging sites in the Steel Creek delta would be unavailable during L-Reactor operation because of increased water levels. Consultation meetings between DOE-SR and US FWS in April 1984, resulted in an agreement between the two agencies to develop alternative foraging habitat for the wood stork to replace potential losses in the Steel Creek delta area. A suitable habitat was located on the National Audubon Society's Silver Bluff Plantation Sanctuary just west of SRP. This location will be developed by the US Soil Conservation Service through an interagency agreement with DOE-SR. 6 references, 4 figures.

  11. Plant part substitution--a way to conserve endangered medicinal plants?

    PubMed

    Zschocke, S; Rabe, T; Taylor, J L; Jäger, A K; van Staden, J

    2000-07-01

    Population growth, urbanization and the unrestricted collection of medicinal plants from the wild is resulting in an over-exploitation of natural resources in southern Africa. Therefore, the management of traditional medicinal plant resources has become a matter of urgency. In southern Africa the most frequently used medicinal plants are slow-growing forest trees, bulbous and tuberous plants, with bark and underground parts being the parts mainly utilized. A strategy which would satisfy the requirements of sustainable harvesting, yet simultaneously provide for primary health care needs, would be the substitution of bark or underground parts with leaves of the same plant. This paper outlines the concept of plant substitution, using preliminary results of our recent investigations into four of the most important and most threatened South African medicinal plants - Eucomis autumnalis (bulb), Siphonochilus aethiopicus (rhizome), Ocotea bullata (bark), and Warburgia salutaris (bark) - as a demonstration of the kind of research necessary. Extracts of various plant parts were compared chemically using TLC-analysis, and pharmacologically in terms of antibacterial activity and cyclooxygenase-1 inhibition in vitro. The importance of the concept of plant part substitution as a strategy for the conservation of medicinal plants in southern Africa is discussed in terms of the results obtained.

  12. 76 FR 62016 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Red-Crowned Parrot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the red-crowned parrot (Amazona viridigenalis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the red-crowned parrot as endangered or threatened is warranted.......

  13. 77 FR 39965 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Hyacinth Macaw

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list as endangered the hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are taking this action in response to a petition to list this species as endangered or threatened under the Act. This document, which also serves as the completion of the status review and as the 12-month finding on......

  14. 78 FR 39698 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ...; Designating Critical Habitat for Three Plant Species on Hawaii Island AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... of critical habitat for three plant species (Bidens micrantha ssp. ctenophylla (kookoolau... critical habitat and the draft economic analysis. Comments previously submitted on the proposed rule or...

  15. Genetic Structure of the Endangered Plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) from the Zhoushan Archipelago Using RAPD Markers

    PubMed Central

    WANG, ZHONG-SHENG; AN, SHU-QING; LIU, HONG; LENG, XIN; ZHENG, JIAN-WEI; LIU, YU-HONG

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims The Zhoushan archipelago is the largest archipelago in China. It separated from the mainland about 9000 years ago due to rising sea levels and climate change. Because of the long-term influences of human activities, the original forest vegetation on the large islands has been badly damaged and its plant diversity reduced. • Methods Levels and patterns of genetic diversity in 114 individuals from six natural populations and four cultivated populations of the insular endangered plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) on the Zhoushan archipelago were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. • Key Results A total of 99 discernible loci were obtained for all populations using ten primers, 50·5 % of which were polymorphic [percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) = 50·5 %]. Despite being a woody, long-lived, perennial, outcrossing and insect-pollinated plant, N. sericea exhibited low levels of genetic variation. The cultivated populations (PPB = 18·9 %, HE = 0·060, S = 0·092) were genetically less diverse than the natural populations (PPB = 23·1 %, HE = 0·082, S = 0·123). Based on analysis of molecular variance, a high degree of among-population differentiation was revealed for both natural (0·387) and cultivated populations (0·598). • Conclusions Removal of plants from the wild for horticulture purposes has eroded the level of genetic variation of N. sericea. Low levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population differentiation indicate that management strategies should include conservation of natural habitats occupied by all six wild populations, and sampling of germplasm resources from multiple seed sources. PMID:15546928

  16. Genetic structure of the endangered plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) from the Zhoushan archipelago using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhong-Sheng; An, Shu-Qing; Liu, Hong; Leng, Xin; Zheng, Jian-Wei; Liu, Yu-Hong

    2005-01-01

    The Zhoushan archipelago is the largest archipelago in China. It separated from the mainland about 9000 years ago due to rising sea levels and climate change. Because of the long-term influences of human activities, the original forest vegetation on the large islands has been badly damaged and its plant diversity reduced. Levels and patterns of genetic diversity in 114 individuals from six natural populations and four cultivated populations of the insular endangered plant Neolitsea sericea (Lauraceae) on the Zhoushan archipelago were assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. A total of 99 discernible loci were obtained for all populations using ten primers, 50.5 % of which were polymorphic [percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB)=50.5 %]. Despite being a woody, long-lived, perennial, outcrossing and insect-pollinated plant, N. sericea exhibited low levels of genetic variation. The cultivated populations (PPB=18.9 %, HE=0.060, S=0.092) were genetically less diverse than the natural populations (PPB=23.1 %, HE=0.082, S=0.123). Based on analysis of molecular variance, a high degree of among-population differentiation was revealed for both natural (0.387) and cultivated populations (0.598). Removal of plants from the wild for horticulture purposes has eroded the level of genetic variation of N. sericea. Low levels of genetic diversity and a high degree of population differentiation indicate that management strategies should include conservation of natural habitats occupied by all six wild populations, and sampling of germplasm resources from multiple seed sources.

  17. Elicitation of Phenolics from the Micropropagated Endangered Medicinal Plant Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonoaceae).

    PubMed

    Owis, Asmaa I; Abdelwahab, Nada S; Abul-Soad, Adel A

    2016-07-01

    Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L'Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C. polygonoides, using the fruit as an explant; establish callus and cell suspension cultures from in vitro germinated plantlets; investigate the production of phenolics through callus, redifferentiated shoot, and cell suspension cultures; attempt to enhance cell capacity to accumulate phenolics using salicylic acid and yeast extract and provide a brief demonstration of biosynthetic pathway leading to phenolic production. Modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with growth hormones such as kinetin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and indole-3-acetic acid were used to establish callus, redifferentiated shoots, and cell suspension cultures. Elicitation of cell suspension culture was performed using salicylic acid and yeast extracts. A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenolic content in the aforementioned cultures was developed. The unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures contained fewer amounts of phenolic compounds than redifferentiated shoots. Elicitation produced massive quantitative reprogramming of phenolic content. The present study offers an alternative and renewable source for this valuable natural plant, provide a chance to improve secondary metabolite yield and serve as a useful tool for studying the biosynthesis of these compounds and its regulation in plant cells. In vitro culture techniques provided a strategy for ex situ conservation of the endangered C. polygonoides.Unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures accumulated

  18. Threatened and Endangered Species Evaluation for Operating Commercial Nuclear Power Generating Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.

    2004-01-15

    The Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973 requires that federal agencies ensure that any action authorized, funded, or carried out under their jurisdiction is not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of any threatened or endangered (T&E) species or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitats for such species. The issuance and maintenance of a federal license, such as a construction permit or operating license issued by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a commercial nuclear power generating facility is a federal action under the jurisdiction of a federal agency, and is therefore subject to the provisions of the ESA. The Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation (NRR) staff have performed appropriate assessments of potential impacts to threatened or endangered species, and consulted with appropriate agencies with regard to protection of such species in authorizing the construction, operation, and relicensing of nuclear power generating facilities. However, the assessments and consultations concerning many facilities were performed during the 1970's or early 1980's, and have not been re-evaluated in detail or updated since those initial evaluations. A review of potential Endangered Species Act issues at licensed nuclear power facilities was completed in 1997. In that review 484 different ESA-listed species were identified as potentially occurring near one or more of the 75 facility sites that were examined. An update of the previous T&E species evaluation at this time is desired because, during the intervening 6 years: nearly 200 species have been added to the ESA list, critical habitats have been designated for many of the listed species, and significantly more information is available online, allowing for more efficient high-level evaluations of potential species presence near sites and the potential operation impacts. The updated evaluation included searching the NRC's ADAMS database to find any documents related to T

  19. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks.

    PubMed

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J; Carroll, John F; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D; Bernier, Ulrich R; Hamann, Mark T

    2012-08-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC-MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Natural product studies of U.S. endangered plants: Volatile components of Lindera melissifolia (Lauraceae) repel mosquitoes and ticks

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Joonseok; Bowling, John J.; Carroll, John F.; Demirci, Betul; Başer, K. Hüsnü Can; Leininger, Theodor D.; Bernier, Ulrich R.; Hamann, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The number of endangered plant species in the U.S. is significant, yet studies aimed towards utilizing these plants are limited. Ticks and mosquitoes are vectors of significant pathogenic diseases of humans. Repellents are critical means of personal protection against biting arthropods and disease transmission. The essential oil and solvent extracts from Lindera melissifolia (Walt.) Blume (Lauraceae) (pondberry) drupes were gathered and analyzed by GC and GC–MS. The essential oil obtained from this endangered plant showed a significant dose dependent repellency of ticks and a moderate mosquito repellent effect while the subsequent hexanes extract was completely ineffective. Fractional freezing enriched the tick repellent components of the essential oil. Several known tick repellent components were recognized by the GC–MS comparison of the resulting fractions and β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, germacrene D and β-elemene warrant evaluations for tick repellency. Identifying pondberry as a potential renewable source for a broad spectrum repellent supports efforts to conserve similar U.S. endangered or threatened plant species. PMID:22704653

  1. 75 FR 8735 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... the Federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana) incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would result in the permanent loss of 0.2 acre of Morro shoulderband snail habitat... shoulderband snail was listed as endangered on December 15, 1994 (59 FR 64613). Section 9 of the Act (16...

  2. 78 FR 20074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ... Checkerspot Butterfly, Streaked Horned Lark, and Four Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher AGENCY: Fish and... (77 FR 61938), proposal to list Taylor's checkerspot butterfly as endangered and streaked horned lark... list Taylor's checkerspot butterfly as endangered and streaked horned lark as threatened and to...

  3. 75 FR 36035 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Cumberland Darter, Rush Darter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list the Cumberland darter (Etheostoma susanae), rush darter (Etheostoma phytophilum), yellowcheek darter (Etheostoma moorei), chucky madtom (Noturus crypticus), and laurel dace (Phoxinus saylori) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's......

  4. 75 FR 69049 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listings for Two Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... hearings--one in Wilmington, NC and one in Atlanta, GA. The purpose of these hearings is to accept comments... Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) of 1973, as amended. DATES: The hearings will be held on December 6, 2010, from 6 to 9 p.m. in...

  5. 78 FR 53581 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Oregon Spotted Frog

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Oregon spotted frog (Rana pretiosa), as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act. If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to this species. The effect of this regulation is to add this species to the list of Endangered and Threatened wildlife under the...

  6. 78 FR 68370 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Kirtland's Warbler

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the revised taxonomy of Dendroica... the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife to reflect the scientifically accepted taxonomy and... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife to reflect the scientifically accepted taxonomy and nomenclature of one...

  7. Potent anti-platelet constituents from Centaurea iberica.

    PubMed

    Khan, Amna Nisar; Fatima, Itrat; Khaliq, Urooj Abdul; Malik, Abdul; Miana, Ghulam Abbas; Qureshi, Zia-Ur-Rehman; Rasheed, Huma

    2011-02-28

    New naturally occurring nitrogenous compounds 1 and 2, along with a new dimeric lignan glucoside 3, have been isolated from the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of Centaurea iberica. Their structures have been elucidated through spectroscopic techniques. All the isolated compounds showed significant platelet aggregation inhibition.

  8. Indole alkaloids from the seeds of Centaurea cyanus (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sarker, S D; Laird, A; Nahar, L; Kumarasamy, Y; Jaspars, M

    2001-08-01

    Preparative RP-HPLC analysis of a methanol extract of the seeds of Centaurea cyanus afforded four indole alkaloids: moschamine, cis-moschamine, centcyamine and cis-centcyamine, the latter two being new natural products. Structures of these compounds were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses. General toxicity of the isolates was determined by Brine Shrimp Lethality bioassay.

  9. 76 FR 33923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Abronia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Abronia ammophila (Yellowstone sand verbena), Agrostis rossiae (Ross' bentgrass), Astragalus proimanthus (precocious milkvetch), Boechera (Arabis) pusilla (Fremont County rockcress or small rockcress), and Penstemon gibbensii (Gibbens' beardtongue) as threatened or endangered, and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing A. ammophila, A. rossiae, A. proimanthus, and P. gibbensii is not warranted at this time. However, we ask the public to submit to us any new information that becomes available concerning the threats to A. ammophila, A. rossiae, A. proimanthus, and P. gibbensii or their habitats at any time. After a review of all the available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing B. pusilla as threatened or endangered is warranted. However, currently listing B. pusilla is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Federal Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add B. pusilla to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list B. pusilla as our priorities allow. We will make any determinations on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In any interim period, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review.

  10. 75 FR 35398 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the Least...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the least chub (Iotichthys phlegethontis), a fish, as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the least chub as threatened or endangered under the Act is warranted. Currently, however, listing the least chub is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the least chub to our list of candidate species with a listing priority number (LPN) of 7. We will develop a proposed rule to list this species as our priorities and funding allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In the interim, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  11. 75 FR 54822 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Jemez...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Jemez Mountains salamander (Plethodon neomexicanus) as an endangered or threatened species and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Jemez Mountains salamander as endangered or threatened throughout its range is warranted. Currently, however, listing the Jemez Mountains salamander is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the Jemez Mountains salamander to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list the Jemez Mountains salamander as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed rule. In the interim period, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  12. Restoration of an endangered plant, Hygrophila pogonocalyx, leads to an adaptive host shift of the chocolate pansy (Junonia iphita iphita).

    PubMed

    Tan, Wen-Hao; Liu, Tsui-Hua; Lin, Y Kirk; Hsu, Yu-Feng

    2014-08-01

    Anthropogenic introduction of a plant species may cause novel encounters between the plant and local herbivores, and initiate evolutionary changes in host plant usage by herbivores. Until recently the endemic aquatic plant Hygrophila pogonocalyx was endangered and had a restricted distribution in Taiwan. Massive restoration efforts since 1997 have led to an expansion of the plant's distribution and a novel encounter between it and an Asian butterfly, the chocolate pansy, Junonia iphita (Nymphalidae). This butterfly appears to have colonized H. pogonocalyx, switching from its original host, Strobilanthes penstemonoides var. formosana. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether the utilization of H. pogonocalyx as a host plant has initiated a differentiation between butterflies using the novel and the original hosts. To this purpose we collected butterflies from patches of the two host plants which grow sympatrically. We tested oviposition preference for the two hosts and larval performance on them. Female adults exhibited distinct oviposition preference toward the host plant their mothers preferred. Offspring showed greater survivorship and pupal weight when fed on the host plant their mothers preferred. Male adults displayed territorial behaviors on the host plant that their mothers had preferred. Finally, the survival rate of offspring produced from cross-mating between individuals with different host plant preference was lower than that of non-hybrids. Taken together, we suggest that genetic differentiation has occurred between individuals preferring H. pogonocalyx versus S. penstemonoides as host plants via host shifting. This process was likely induced by the mass restoration of the formerly rare and endangered plant species.

  13. Elicitation of Phenolics from the Micropropagated Endangered Medicinal Plant Calligonum polygonoides L. (Polygonoaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Owis, Asmaa I.; Abdelwahab, Nada S.; Abul-Soad, Adel A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Calligonum polygonoides L. subsp. comosum (L’Hér.) Sosk. is a plant species belonging to family Polygonaceae. Susceptibility to threaten, presence of various chemical constituents, and many medicinal effects reported for this plant in addition to rareness of in vitro culture studies have fuelled the need for its micropropagation and phytochemical investigations of the produced cultures. Objectives: To employ in vitro culture technique for ex situ conservation of C. polygonoides, using the fruit as an explant; establish callus and cell suspension cultures from in vitro germinated plantlets; investigate the production of phenolics through callus, redifferentiated shoot, and cell suspension cultures; attempt to enhance cell capacity to accumulate phenolics using salicylic acid and yeast extract and provide a brief demonstration of biosynthetic pathway leading to phenolic production. Materials and Methods: Modified Murashige and Skoog media supplemented with growth hormones such as kinetin, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid, 6-benzylaminopurine, and indole-3-acetic acid were used to establish callus, redifferentiated shoots, and cell suspension cultures. Elicitation of cell suspension culture was performed using salicylic acid and yeast extracts. A reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of phenolic content in the aforementioned cultures was developed. Results: The unorganized callus and cell suspension cultures contained fewer amounts of phenolic compounds than redifferentiated shoots. Elicitation produced massive quantitative reprogramming of phenolic content. Conclusion: The present study offers an alternative and renewable source for this valuable natural plant, provide a chance to improve secondary metabolite yield and serve as a useful tool for studying the biosynthesis of these compounds and its regulation in plant cells. SUMMARY In vitro culture techniques provided a strategy for ex situ conservation of the

  14. Predicting weed migration from soil and climate maps. [Centaurea maculosa Lam

    SciTech Connect

    Chicoine, T.K.; Fay, P.K.; Nielsen, G.A.

    1985-01-01

    Soil characteristics, elevation, annual precipitation, potential evapotranspiration, length of frost-free season, and mean maximum July temperature were estimated for 116 established infestations of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa Lam. number/sup 3/ CENMA) in Montana using basic land resource maps. Areas potentially vulnerable to invasion by the plant were delineated on the basis of representative edaphic and climatic characteristics. No single environmental variable was an effective predictor of sites vulnerable to invasion by spotted knapweed. Only a combination of variables was effective, indicating that the factors that regulate adaptability of this plant are complex. This technique provides a first approximation map of the regions most similar environmentally to infested sites and; therefore, most vulnerable to further invasion. This weed migration prediction technique shows promise for predicting suitable habitats of other invader species. 6 references, 4 figures, 1 table.

  15. 77 FR 60237 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Valley Elderberry Longhorn Beetle...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle (Desmocerus californicus dimorphus) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. This action is based on a review of the best available scientific and commercial data, which indicates that the subspecies no longer meets the definition of endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This proposed rule, if made final, would remove the valley elderberry longhorn beetle as a threatened species from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife, and would remove the designation of critical habitat for the subspecies. This document also constitutes our 12-month finding on a petition to delist the valley elderberry longhorn beetle.

  16. 77 FR 2243 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat and Taxonomic...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are also recognizing the recent change to the taxonomy... alexandrinus (Linnaeus 1758)). We accepted this taxonomy and have used this name in all Service documents up to...

  17. 75 FR 4581 - Endangered [and Threatened] Wildlife and Plants; Permit(s); Land Clearing Associated With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...). Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant) requests a 24-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC in all requests or comments. If you do not receive a confirmation from us that...

  18. 75 FR 38831 - Endangered [and Threatened] Wildlife and Plants; Permit(s); Land Clearing Associated With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ...). Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant) requests a 24-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC in all requests or comments. If you do not receive a confirmation from us that...

  19. 76 FR 66250 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... habitat fragmentation. Although no development has taken place within the proposed critical habitat areas...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Lepidium papilliferum (Slickspot Peppergrass) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... designate critical habitat for Lepidium papilliferum (slickspot peppergrass) under the Endangered Species...

  20. Using AHP to analyze and ascertain the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Zhang; Wei, Wang; Wang, Gary Z.; Luo, Hongyan; Liang, Cunzhu; Liu, Jiahui; An, Huijun; Pei, Hao; Zhong, Huidong; Chen, Xiaojun

    2006-08-01

    AHP is a kind of very effective systematic analytical method, widely applied to energy utilizing and resource analyzing, talent predicting, economic management project, urban industries planning, communications and transportation, water resource using and so on, using this method to solve the problem of ecology also have very strong practicability and validity. Using 15 kinds of endured plants in East Alashan-West Erdos as the research objects, this paper adopts 3S technique and outfield investigates to confirm the geographical distributions, extent density in the distribution area, plant community construction, and plant community environment of the plants. Then invite the experts to give marks according to this datum and using the AHP method to deal with the results, thereby get the priority protective order of endangered plants in East Alashan-West Erdos.

  1. 78 FR 63573 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Dakota Skipper and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, propose to list the Dakota skipper as a threatened species and the Poweshiek skipperling as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. If we finalize this rule as proposed, it would extend the Act's protections to the Dakota skipper and the Poweshiek skipperling. The effect of this regulation is to add the Dakota skipper......

  2. Concentrations of the Allelochemical (+/-)-catechin IN Centaurea maculosa soils.

    PubMed

    Perry, Laura G; Thelen, Giles C; Ridenour, Wendy M; Callaway, Ragan M; Paschke, Mark W; Vivanco, Jorge M

    2007-12-01

    The phytotoxin (+/-)-catechin has been proposed to mediate invasion and autoinhibition by the Eurasian plant Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed). The importance of (+/-)-catechin to C. maculosa ecology depends in part on whether sufficient catechin concentrations occur at appropriate times and locations within C. maculosa soil to influence neighboring plants. Previous research on catechin in C. maculosa soils has yielded conflicting results, with some studies finding high soil catechin concentrations and other, more recent studies finding little or no catechin in field soils. Here, we report the most extensive study of soil catechin concentrations to date. We examined soil catechin concentrations in 402 samples from 11 C. maculosa sites in North America sampled in consecutive months over 1 yr, excluding winter months. One site was sampled on seven dates, another was sampled twice, and the remaining nine sites were each sampled once on a range of sampling dates. Methods used were similar to those with which we previously measured high soil catechin concentrations. We detected catechin only in the site that was sampled on seven dates and only on one sampling date in that site (May 16 2006), but in all samples collected on that date. The mean soil catechin concentration on that date was 0.65 +/- 0.45 (SD) mg g(-1), comparable to previously reported high concentrations. There are a number of possible explanations for the infrequency with which we detected soil catechin in this work compared to previous studies. Differences in results could reflect spatial and temporal variation in catechin exudation or degradation, as we examined different sites in a different year from most previous studies. Also, large quantities of catechin were detected in blanks for two sampling periods in the present study, leading us to discard those data. This contamination suggests that previous reports of high catechin concentrations that did not include blanks should be viewed with caution

  3. Comprehensive cooling water study annual report. Volume X: endangered species, Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Gladden, J.B.; Lower, M.W.; Mackey, H.E.; Specht, W.L.; Wilde, E.W.

    1985-07-01

    Federally endangered species which occur on the Savannah River Plant (SRP) include the American alligator, red-cockaded woodpecker, the shortnose sturgeon, and the wood stork. Of these species, only the alligator, sturgeon, and wood stork are likely to be affected by the intake or release of cooling water at the SRP. The nearest colony of wood storks to the SRP is the Birdsville Colony, about 40-45 km southwest of potential foraging areas in the SRP Savannah River swamp. In 1983, it contained about six percent of the nesting pairs in the United States and produced about 250 fledglings. Its reproductive success was about the same in 1984. Based on the results of surveys made of foraging areas, both on SRP and offsite in 1983 and 1984, forage fish availability could be reduced by increased water depths in the Steel Creek delta area following L-Reactor restart with once-through cooling. Effluent discharge from SRP facilities probably limits the potential use of the SRP Savannah River swamp by foraging wood storks. The SRP supports a low-to-moderate alligator population. The current information available on the alligators of the SRP suggests that populations in suitable habitats (e.g., Beaver Dam Creek, Steel Creek, and Par Pond) should continue to benefit from the protection provided by the SRP and should remain stable or continue to increase. Based upon information from the literature and fisheries data for the Savannah River, the operations of the SRP do not appear to have adverse effects on the shortnose sturgeon. Based on known life history characteristics, there is no indication that spawning, rearing, or foraging habitats are affected by SRP operations. 64 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Modeling Spatial Distribution of a Rare and Endangered Plant Species (Brainea insignis) in Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, W.-C.; Lo, N.-J.; Chang, W.-I.; Huang, K.-Y.

    2012-07-01

    With an increase in the rate of species extinction, we should choose right methods that are sustainable on the basis of appropriate science and human needs to conserve ecosystems and rare species. Species distribution modeling (SDM) uses 3S technology and statistics and becomes increasingly important in ecology. Brainea insignis (cycad-fern, CF) has been categorized a rare, endangered plant species, and thus was chosen as a target for the study. Five sampling schemes were created with different combinations of CF samples collected from three sites in Huisun forest station and one site, 10 km farther north from Huisun. Four models, MAXENT, GARP, generalized linear models (GLM), and discriminant analysis (DA), were developed based on topographic variables, and were evaluated by five sampling schemes. The accuracy of MAXENT was the highest, followed by GLM and GARP, and DA was the lowest. More importantly, they can identify the potential habitat less than 10% of the study area in the first round of SDM, thereby prioritizing either the field-survey area where microclimatic, edaphic or biotic data can be collected for refining predictions of potential habitat in the later rounds of SDM or search areas for new population discovery. However, it was shown unlikely to extend spatial patterns of CFs from one area to another with a big separation or to a larger area by predictive models merely based on topographic variables. Follow-up studies will attempt to incorporate proxy indicators that can be extracted from hyperspectral images or LIDAR DEM and substitute for direct parameters to make predictive models applicable on a broader scale.

  5. Conservation genetics of endangered medicinal plant Commiphora wightii in Indian Thar Desert.

    PubMed

    Harish; Gupta, Amit Kumar; Phulwaria, Mahendra; Rai, Manoj Kumar; Shekhawat, Narpat Singh

    2014-02-10

    To ascertain the conservation priorities and strategies for Commiphora wightii, an endangered medicinal plant of Indian Thar Desert, genetic diversity was estimated within and among different populations. The total of 155 amplification products were scored using ten each of RAPD and ISSR primers, exhibiting an overall 86.72% polymorphism across 45 individuals representing eight populations. The cumulative data of two markers were used to compute pair-wise distances. The Neighbor-Joining tree revealed high genetic differentiation among populations except Kiradu population. Nei's gene diversity (h) ranged between 0.082 and 0.193 with total diversity at species level is 0.294. Shannon's information index (I) ranged between 0.118 and 0.275 with an overall diversity of 0.439. Analysis of molecular variance showed more diversity among population level (56.65%) than at within population level (43.35%). The low gene flow value (Nm=0.349) and high coefficient of genetic differentiation (GST=0.589) and high fixation index (FST=0.566) demonstrated elevated genetic differentiation among the population and can be predicted that these populations are not in Hardy-Weinberg proportions. Principal Co-ordinate Analysis confirms that Akal population has become phylogenetically more distinct and less diverse than the rest of the samples. Mantel's test revealed no correlation between genetic and geographical distances of populations (R(2)=0.122). Overall highest diversity was observed in the population of Machiya Safari Park and Kiradu, while lowest in Akal population, later may constitute an evolutionary significant unit, having merit for special management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 75 FR 57720 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List Agave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... as endangered. Species Information Taxonomy and Species Description Agave eggersiana is a flowering... reclassifying species listed as threatened to endangered status. The system places greatest importance on the...

  7. Remnants of populations provide effective source material for reintroduction of an endangered Hawaiian plant, Schiedea kaalae (Caryophyllaceae).

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, Lauren A; Weller, Stephen G; Sakai, Ann K

    2014-11-01

    Reintroductions may be essential to prevent extinction of many critically endangered species. Ideally, reintroduction efforts rely on adjacent source populations, but limited source material may necessitate crossing individuals from different and possibly distant populations. To determine the consequences of integrating multiple populations in reintroductions, we investigated levels of inbreeding depression, outbreeding depression, and heterosis for populations of Schiedea kaalae (Caryophyllaceae), an endangered species endemic to the Wai'anae and Ko'olau Mountains of O'ahu, Hawai'i. The possibility of gene flow among plants was explored through pollinator observations. Individuals from ex situ living collections of nine populations were hand-pollinated with pollen from the same plant, plants from the same population (for three populations only), or plants from different populations. Progeny were outplanted into two common gardens, one in each mountain range on O'ahu. Cumulative fitness was estimated using several independent life history stages. Inbreeding depression was minimal, and no outbreeding depression was detected. In contrast, strong heterosis was evident in progeny from between-population crosses, which had higher relative fitness than progeny from self-pollinations or within-population crosses. Observations of floral visitors provided the first evidence that biotic pollination may be important for this species. Results demonstrate the ability to conduct genetic rescue of rare species and suggest that reintroductions may be most successful using heterotic individuals from crosses between populations and at sites where pollinators are present and promote outcrossing. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  8. 78 FR 38162 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing One Distinct Population Segment of Broad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ...Under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), reclassify the broad- snouted caiman in Argentina from endangered to threatened in the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. As part of this final rule, we have established two distinct population segments (DPSs) of the broad- snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris): A DPS in Argentina and a DPS encompassing Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. This second DPS remains listed as endangered under the ESA. We are finalizing this action under the ESA based on the best available data indicating that the Argentine population of the broad-snouted caiman no longer meets the definition of endangered under the ESA. Intense management of the species in Argentina has brought the Argentine DPS to the point where a change in status is appropriate. As of the effective date of this final rule, the broad-snouted caiman will be included in the special rule for trade in caiman species. Inclusion in this special rule allows U.S. commerce in skins, other parts, and products of this species originating from Argentina, and reexport of such specimens originating in Argentina, if certain conditions are met prior to exportation to the United States.

  9. 76 FR 55169 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on Five Petitions To List Seven...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on five petitions to list seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees (Hylaeus anthracinus, H. assimulans, H. facilis, H. hilaris, H. kuakea, H. longiceps, and H. mana) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing these seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees is warranted. Currently, however, listing these seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add these seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list these seven species of Hawaiian yellow-faced bees as our priorities allow. We will make any determinations on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In any interim period we will address the status of the candidate taxa through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  10. 76 FR 31282 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12- month finding on a petition to list the Puerto Rican harlequin butterfly (Atlantea tulita) as endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After reviewing all available scientific and commercial information, we find that the listing of the Puerto Rican harlequin butterfly is warranted. Currently, however, listing the Puerto Rican harlequin butterfly is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the Puerto Rican harlequin butterfly to our candidate species list. If an emergency situation develops with this species that warrants an emergency listing, we will act immediately to provide additional protection. We will develop a proposed rule to list the Puerto Rican harlequin butterfly as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. During any interim period, we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  11. 75 FR 78093 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Sonoran...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Sonoran population of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Sonoran population of the desert tortoise is warranted. Currently, however, listing the Sonoran population of the desert tortoise is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. Upon publication of this 12-month petition finding, we will add the Sonoran population of the desert tortoise to our candidate species list. We will develop a proposed rule to list the Sonoran population of the desert tortoise as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In any interim period we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review (CNOR).

  12. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe.

    PubMed

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  13. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure of the Rare and Endangered Plant Species Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill in East Central Europe

    PubMed Central

    Szczecińska, Monika; Sramko, Gabor; Wołosz, Katarzyna; Sawicki, Jakub

    2016-01-01

    Pulsatilla patens s.s. is a one of the most endangered plant species in Europe. The present range of this species in Europe is highly fragmented and the size of the populations has been dramatically reduced in the past 50 years. The rapid disappearance of P. patens localities in Europe has prompted the European Commission to initiate active protection of this critically endangered species. The aim of this study was to estimate the degree and distribution of genetic diversity within European populations of this endangered species. We screened 29 populations of P. patens using a set of six microsatellite primers. The results of our study indicate that the analyzed populations are characterized by low levels of genetic diversity (Ho = 0.005) and very high levels of inbreeding (FIS = 0.90). These results suggest that genetic erosion could be partially responsible for the lower fitness in smaller populations of this species. Private allelic richness was very low, being as low as 0.00 for most populations. Average genetic diversity over loci and mean number of alleles in P. patens populations were significantly correlated with population size, suggesting severe genetic drift. The results of AMOVA point to higher levels of variation within populations than between populations.The results of Structure and PCoA analyses suggest that the genetic structure of the studied P. patens populations fall into three clusters corresponding to geographical regions. The most isolated populations (mostly from Romania) formed a separate group with a homogeneous gene pool located at the southern, steppic part of the distribution range. Baltic, mostly Polish, populations fall into two genetic groups which were not fully compatible with their geographic distribution.Our results indicate the serious genetic depauperation of P. patens in the western part of its range, even hinting at an ongoing extinction vortex. Therefore, special conservation attention is required to maintain the populations

  14. 76 FR 18087 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are reclassifying the Okaloosa darter (Etheostoma okaloosae) from endangered to threatened under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The endangered designation no longer correctly reflects the current status of this fish due to a substantial improvement in the species' status. This action is based on a thorough review of the best available scientific and commercial data, which indicate a substantial reduction in threats to the species, a significant habitat restoration in most of the species' range, and a stable or increasing trend of darters in all darter stream systems. We also establish a special rule under section 4(d) of the Act. This special rule allows Eglin Air Force Base to continue activities with a reduced regulatory burden and will provide a net benefit to the Okaloosa darter.

  15. Antimicrobial activity and chemical composition of endemic Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa.

    PubMed

    Ugur, Aysel; Sarac, Nurdan; Ceylan, Ozgur; Emin Duru, M

    2010-05-01

    The antimicrobial activity of the n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the aerial parts of Centaurea cariensis subsp. niveo-tomentosa was evaluated against microorganisms, including multi-antibiotic resistant bacteria, using the paper disc diffusion method. The chemical composition of the chloroform extract of this plant was determined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The chloroform extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity for all bacteria tested, which are important pathogens. The major compounds of the chloroform extract were caryophyllene oxide (20.79%), spathulenol (14.73%), beta-eudesmol (9.27%), beta-caryophyllene (6.84%), n-cetylalcohol (6.27%), cubenol (5.23%) and cis-alpha-santalol (4.67%), respectively.

  16. Essential Oil Composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis Inflorescences from the Central Balkans - Ecological Significance and Taxonomic Implications.

    PubMed

    Novaković, Jelica; Rajčević, Nemanja; Milanovici, Sretco; Marin, Petar D; Janaćković, Pedja

    2016-09-01

    The essential oil composition of Centaurea atropurpurea and Centaurea orientalis flowering heads (capitula) from Central Balkans have been determined by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In total, 121 compounds were identified, representing on average 97.7% of the oil composition. In all samples, sesquiterpenes were most abundant group, representing 53.9 - 74.0% of the total oil. Sesquiterpene hydrocarbons dominated in all studied populations of C. orientalis and C. atropurpurea, except C. atropurpurea f. flava in which essential oil was characterized with high level of oxygenated sesquiterpenes. The dominant components differed between species, and also between typical C. atropurpurea and C. atropurpurea f. flava. The most abundant compounds of essential oil of C. orientalis were germacrene D and α-cadinol. In C. atropuruprea, germacrene D and β-caryophyllene were the most abundant, while caryophyllene oxide and β-caryophyllene were dominant in C. atropurpurea f. flava oil. Taxonomical and ecological implications are further discussed.

  17. Lignans from the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis and their anti-neuroinflammatory activities.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chang-Ling; Xiong, Juan; Xu, Peng; Cheng, Ke-Jun; Yang, Guo-Xun; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2017-06-01

    During a further and comprehensive phytochemical investigation on the shed trunk barks of the critically endangered plant Abies beshanzuensis, one new (1) and ten known (2-11) lignans with diverse structures were isolated. On the basis of spectroscopic methods, the new structure was established to be (7S,8R,8'R)-4'-methoxyl-α-conidendrin (1). Among the isolated lignans, (-)-matairesinol (5) and (-)-arctigenin (6) showed significant anti-neuroinflammatory activities by inhibiting the overproduction of nitric oxide in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated murine BV-2 microglial cells, with IC50 values of 11.5 and 19.0 μM, respectively.

  18. 76 FR 67401 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... 54423) a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as endangered under the...

  19. 78 FR 53058 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revisions to the Regulations for Impact Analyses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) (collectively referred to as the ``Services'' or ``we''), are finalizing a revision to our regulations pertaining to impact analyses conducted for designations of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (the Act). This regulation is being finalized as directed by the......

  20. 75 FR 59285 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Luis Obispo County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... applicant's take of the federally endangered Morro shoulderband snail (Helminthoglypta walkeriana... INFORMATION: Background The Morro shoulderband (also known as banded dune) snail was listed by the U.S. Fish... snail in association with a residential redevelopment project. The project is proposed for a...

  1. 78 FR 23983 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Eriogonum codium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine to list Umtanum desert buckwheat (Eriogonum codium) and White Bluffs bladderpod (Physaria douglasii subsp. tuplashensis) as threatened, under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for these species.

  2. 76 FR 6811 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit; Construction and Operation of Kaheawa II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Operation of Kaheawa II Wind Energy Generation Facility, Maui, HI; Draft Habitat Conservation Plan and Draft... caused by the construction and operation of the KWP II wind energy facility on the island of Maui. The... permit under the ESA to authorize take of three federally endangered and one threatened bird species. We...

  3. 78 FR 25679 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Revision of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ..., and Peck's Cave Amphipod AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening... comalensis), and Peck's cave amphipod (Stygobromus pecki) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... critical habitat for the Comal Springs dryopid beetle, Comal Springs riffle beetle, and Peck's cave...

  4. 76 FR 45077 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ipomopsis...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to designate critical habitat for Ipomopsis polyantha (Pagosa skyrocket), Penstemon debilis (Parachute beardtongue), and Phacelia submutica (DeBeque phacelia) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Approximately 9,894 acres (4,004 hectares) are being proposed for designation as critical habitat for I. polyantha.......

  5. 75 FR 77528 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Final Rulemaking To Establish Take Prohibitions...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-13

    ... Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon; Permit and Reporting Requirements AGENCY: National... collection-of-information requirements contained in protective regulations established under the Endangered Species Act (ESA) for the threatened Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American green sturgeon...

  6. 75 FR 22835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ... Stanton and the San Lorenzo Valley Water District (applicants) for incidental take permits under the... applicants' take of the Federally endangered Mount Hermon June beetle (Polyphylla barbata) incidental to...)) of Mount Hermon June beetle habitat near Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz County, California. We invite...

  7. 77 FR 28846 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Astragalus lentiginosus var. coachellae (Coachella Valley Milk-Vetch.... coachellae (Coachella Valley milk-vetch) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We also... all of the costs of milk-vetch conservation efforts may ultimately be borne by current landowners...

  8. 77 FR 71041 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Southern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... 300 meter (m)) change in elevation from 4,000 ft (1,220 m) in the proposed rule, to an elevation at or... factors that were considered and influenced this change from the proposed rule included: (1) A revised... below); (b) strengths or weaknesses of the Endangered Species Act, and whether the Act should be...

  9. 75 FR 5263 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Reclassification of the Okaloosa Darter...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... training mission while meeting the legal requirements of the Endangered Species Act, Clean Water Act (33 U...) habitat by 2011; and (8) Train and use Okaloosa darter monitoring crews and aquatic monitoring crews to... Surface Water Improvement and Management (SWIM) Plan that addresses water issues in the...

  10. 76 FR 47490 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    ...; Reinstatement of Listing Protections for the Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for the Preble's meadow jumping mouse... the Preble's Meadow Jumping Mouse To Specify Over What Portion of Its Range the Subspecies...

  11. 78 FR 17708 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document... availability of a draft Revised Supplement to the Grizzly Bear Recovery Plan. Specifically, this supplement..., Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) are federally listed as threatened under the Endangered Species...

  12. 75 FR 77817 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Mississippi Gopher Frog AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog (Rana sevosa) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended... proposed designation of critical habitat for the Mississippi gopher frog that was published in the Federal...

  13. 76 FR 17666 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits; Joint Supplemental Environmental Impact...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    ... impacts on biological resources, land use, air quality, water quality, water resources, and socioeconomics... Springs (City) and Mission Springs Water District (MSWD) as permittees under the Endangered Species Act of... and Water Conservation District's future flood control facility. The current Plan boundaries would...

  14. 78 FR 49165 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Sphaeralcea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for Sphaeralcea gierischii (Gierisch Mallow) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... for Sphaeralcea gierischii (Gierisch mallow) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The effect of this regulation is to designate critical habitat for Gierisch mallow under the Act. This...

  15. 77 FR 71875 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, designate revised critical habitat for the northern spotted owl (Strix occidentalis caurina) under the Endangered Species Act. In total, approximately 9,577,969 acres (ac) (3,876,064 hectares (ha)) in 11 units and 60 subunits in California, Oregon, and Washington fall within the boundaries of the critical habitat designation.

  16. 77 FR 67828 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-14

    ... comment before issuing such permits. DATES: To ensure consideration, please send your written comments by... section 10(a)(1)(A) of the Act for these permits are found at 50 CFR 17.22 for endangered wildlife species... the address listed in the ADDRESSES section of this notice. Before including your address, phone...

  17. 75 FR 65646 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, Santa Barbara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... the construction and operation of wind turbines. Any potential impacts to listed species caused by the... endangered El Segundo Blue Butterfly (Euphilotes battoides allyni) incidental to otherwise lawful activities... under the Act as ``to harass, harm, pursue, hunt, shoot, wound, kill, trap, capture, or collect, or to...

  18. 78 FR 14022 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reinstatement of Removal of the Virginia Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ...; Reinstatement of Removal of the Virginia Northern Flying Squirrel From the List of Endangered and Threatened... reinstating the removal of the Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus) from the List of... November 13, 2012, this rule again removes the Virginia northern flying squirrel from the List of...

  19. 77 FR 66946 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revisions to the Regulations for Impact Analyses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ... Analyses of Critical Habitat AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior; National Marine Fisheries... to impact analyses conducted for designations of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of... critical habitat designations, and considering exclusions from critical habitat. These changes are being...

  20. 77 FR 43222 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Tidewater...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Tidewater Goby AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION... habitat for the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... revised designation of critical habitat for tidewater goby and an amended required determinations section...

  1. 78 FR 39237 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-01

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Revised... critical habitat for the jaguar (Panthera onca) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and we announce revisions to our proposed designation of critical habitat for the jaguar. We also...

  2. 78 FR 58923 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Grotto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Grotto Sculpin (Cottus specus) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service... proposed as critical habitat for the ] grotto sculpin (Cottus specus) under the Endangered Species Act in... surface stream that were proposed as critical habitat are excluded under section 4(b)(2) of the Act from...

  3. 78 FR 53390 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ...; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Jaguar AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed... critical habitat for the jaguar (Panthera onca), as revised on July 1, 2013, under the Endangered Species... critical habitat. Accordingly, the final designation may differ from our proposal. If you submitted...

  4. 77 FR 51503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revisions to the Regulations for Impact Analyses...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Analyses of Critical Habitat AGENCIES: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior; National Marine Fisheries... analyses conducted for designations of critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as... to designate critical habitat. DATES: We will accept comments from all interested parties until...

  5. 75 FR 32727 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-09

    ...; Establishment of a Nonessential Experimental Population of Sonoran Pronghorn in Southwestern Arizona AGENCY... the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), and to classify that reestablished population as a nonessential experimental population (NEP). The proposed rule provided a plan for establishing the...

  6. 77 FR 46105 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-02

    ... Cape Coral (applicant) requests an ITP under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The...), telephone: 772-469-4232. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The City of Cape Coral (applicant) anticipates taking 75... Cape Coral at latitude 26.701016, longitude--81.999287, Lee County, Florida. The applicant proposes...

  7. 78 FR 8745 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Tidewater Goby

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, designate critical habitat for the tidewater goby (Eucyclogobius newberryi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 12,156 acres (4,920 hectares) in Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, Sonoma, Marin, San Mateo, Santa Cruz, Monterey, San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara, Ventura, Los Angeles, Orange, and San Diego......

  8. 76 FR 5606 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Incidental Take Permit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-01

    ...We, the Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), have received an application from the (Applicant) for an incidental take permit (ITP) TE30950A-0 for 5 years under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We request public comment on the permit application and accompanying proposed habitat conservation plan (plan), as well as on our preliminary determination that the plan......

  9. 78 FR 4866 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Enhancement of Survival Permit Application; Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-23

    ... Application; Draft Black-Footed Ferret Programmatic Safe Harbor Agreement and Environmental Assessment... reopening the public comment period for an application from the Black- footed Ferret Recovery Implementation...) to reintroduce the federally endangered black-footed ferret on properties of voluntary participants...

  10. 77 FR 12074 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Receipt of Application for Modification of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ... Fertilizer, LLC, Manatee County, FL AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of... received an application from Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant), for modification to Incidental Take Permit TE236128-0. Mosaic Fertilizer, LLC (applicant), requests a 41-year ITP under the Endangered Species Act...

  11. 75 FR 41229 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permit, San Bernardino County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-15

    ... Mohave ground squirrel (Xerospermophilus mohavensis) incidental to otherwise lawful activities that would... ground squirrel is not a species listed under the Act. However, it is a State threatened species under the California Endangered Species Act. By including the Mohave ground squirrel in the HCP, take of...

  12. 78 FR 54214 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing Five Subspecies of Mazama Pocket Gopher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-03

    ... section 3 of the Act, an endangered species is any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all... extinction for the Tacoma pocket gopher is based on well-documented habitat loss due to intense urban... was originally collected. This determination is in contrast to our presumption of extinction for...

  13. 75 FR 13715 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ...; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout in the Coterminous United States AGENCY: Fish and... of critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) ] under the Endangered Species Act of... January 14, 2010, we published our proposed revised designation of critical habitat for bull trout in the...

  14. 78 FR 2539 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Gunnison Sage...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-11

    ... population growth and for normal behavior; (2) Food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or... Individual and Population Growth and for Normal Behavior Gunnison sage-grouse require large, interconnected... history, habitat, and population descriptions and our proposal to list the species as an endangered...

  15. 75 FR 59899 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants: Proposed Rulemaking To Designate Critical Habitat...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-28

    ... exclusion will not result in the extinction of the species: rocky habitats within the MHHW line to a depth... extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range and listed the species as endangered under... significantly impede conservation of the species or result in extinction of the species. The total estimated...

  16. 77 FR 45869 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the British Columbia Distinct Population...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... defines an endangered species as ``any species which is in danger of extinction throughout all or a... redundancy, resiliency, and representation, but set a threshold for ``significant'' in terms of extinction... extinction without the portion in question. This approach recognizes the Queen Charlotte goshawk itself as...

  17. 75 FR 25174 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing for the Largetooth Sawfish

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... fish or wildlife which interbreeds when mature.'' Next we completed an extinction risk assessment to.... Section 3 of the ESA defines an endangered species as ``any species which is in danger of extinction... range.'' For our extinction risk analysis we follow the general procedure of Wainwright and Cope (1999...

  18. 75 FR 21179 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassification of the Oregon Chub From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... that the Oregon chub is not currently in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion... endangered species is any species that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of... much of its presumed historical range. The risk of extinction has been substantially reduced as threats...

  19. 77 FR 665 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Two Distinct Population Segments of Broad...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to reclassify the broad-snouted caiman in Argentina from endangered to threatened in the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA or Act). As part of this proposed rule, we would establish two distinct population segments (DPSs) of the broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris): a DPS in Argentina and a DPS that would encompass Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay. This second DPS would remain listed as endangered under the Act. We are proposing this action under the Act based on the best available data indicating that the Argentine population of the broad- snouted caiman no longer meets the definition of endangered under the Act. Intense management of the species in Argentina has brought the Argentine DPS to the point where a change in status is appropriate. This also serves as our 5-year review. We also propose that the Argentine population of broad-snouted caiman be included in the special rule for trade in caiman species. Inclusion in this special rule would allow U.S. commerce in skins, other parts, and products of this species originating from Argentina, and reexport of such specimens originating in Argentina, if certain conditions are met prior to exportation to the United States. We are seeking information, data, and comments from the public on this proposed rule. This proposed rule to reclassify the broad-snouted caiman in Argentina to threatened under the Act also constitutes our warranted 12-month finding (status review) on a petition.

  20. Phenotypic plasticity and differentiation in fitness-related traits in invasive populations of the Mediterranean forb Centaurea melitensis (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Moroney, Jolene R; Rundel, Philip W; Sork, Victoria L

    2013-10-01

    Biological invasions threaten global biodiversity, resulting in severe ecological and economic costs. Phenotypic plasticity and differentiation in fitness-related traits after introduction can contribute to increased performance in invasive populations of plants. We determined whether postintroduction evolution in trait means or in their plasticity, or inherent species-wide phenotypic plasticity has promoted invasiveness in a European annual forb. • In a common greenhouse, we compared several fitness-related traits and the phenotypic plasticity of those traits under four levels of nutrients among native and invasive populations of Centaurea melitensis. We tested 18 populations from three regions of similar mediterranean climate type: the native range (southern Spain) and two invaded ranges (California and central Chile). • Centaurea melitensis possesses overall phenotypic plasticity, which is a trait that promotes invasiveness. Invasive populations were differentiated from native plants for several trait means and their levels of phenotypic plasticity in directions that enhance competitive ability and success. Invasive plants flowered earlier and grew faster in the early stages of growth phases, important features for invasiveness. • Phenotypic plasticity, its evolution postinvasion, and the evolution of fitness-related trait means in invasive populations have potentially contributed to the invasion of C. melitensis in California and Chile. Along with an overall wide range of tolerance to growing conditions, C. meltiensis populations that have colonized habitats in California and Chile have undergone rapid evolution in several life history traits and the plasticities of those traits in directions that would promote invasiveness in mediterranean ecosystems.

  1. Spotted knapweed, Centaurea stoebe, control options

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Spotted knapweed is a non native perennial forb that is spreading rapidly in the Western United States. This plant species produces a compound that retards the growth of many native plants, giving it a competitive advantage. Spotted knapweed has been identified in several areas of Alaska. A descript...

  2. 78 FR 52363 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Diamond...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-22

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for the diamond darter (Crystallaria cincotta), a small fish in West Virginia, under the Endangered Species Act (Act). In total, approximately 197.1 river kilometers (122.5 river miles) in Kanawha and Clay Counties, West Virginia, and Edmonson, Hart, and Green Counties, Kentucky, are being designated as critical habitat. The effect of this regulation is to designate critical habitat for the diamond darter under the Act.

  3. 75 FR 63897 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, are revising critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are designating a total of 31,750.8 km (19,729.0 mi) of streams (which includes 1,213.2 km (754.0 mi) of marine shoreline) and are designating a total of 197,589.2 ha (488,251.7 ac) of reservoirs and lakes. The areas......

  4. 75 FR 2269 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Bull...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to revise the designation of critical habitat for the bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In total, approximately 36,498 kilometers (km) (22,679 miles (mi)) of streams (which includes 1,585.7 km (985.30 mi) of marine shoreline area in the Olympic Peninsula and Puget Sound), and......

  5. 75 FR 21394 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Revised Critical Habitat for Hine's Emerald...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating critical habitat for the Hine's emerald dragonfly (Somatochlora hineana) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 26,531.8 acres (ac) (10,737 hectares (ha)) in 37 units fall within the boundaries of our critical habitat designation. The critical habitat units are located in Cook,......

  6. Genetic diversity in three endangered pitcher plant species (Sarracenia; Sarraceniaceae) is lower than widespread congeners.

    PubMed

    Furches, M Steven; Small, Randall L; Furches, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Narrow-ranging, rare species often exhibit levels of genetic diversity lower than more common or widespread congeners. These taxa are at increased risk of extinction due to threats associated with natural as well as anthropogenic events. We assessed genetic variation in three federally endangered Sarracenia species. We discuss maintenance of genetic diversity and evolutionary implications of rarity. • We analyzed three noncoding chloroplast regions and nine microsatellite loci in populations spanning the geographic ranges of S. oreophila, S. alabamensis, and S. jonesii. The same microsatellite loci were used to examine a single field site of three more widespread species (S. alata, S. leucophylla, and S. rubra subsp. wherryi). • All three endangered species have experienced reductions in population size and numbers. All show considerably less variation than more widespread members of the genus. Sarracenia alabamensis maintains the greatest microsatellite variation but has the fewest remaining populations and may be under the greatest threat. More widespread S. oreophila maintains surprising chloroplast diversity, yet exhibits little microsatellite diversity. Sarracenia jonesii lacks chloroplast diversity, yet maintains greater microsatellite diversity than S. oreophila. • The three endangered species differ in levels and structure of diversity, yet not in predictable ways, emphasizing that unique demographic and ecological histories, rather than current distribution and population size, best explain present patterns of genetic variation. Maintenance of remaining genetic variation is important, but preventing further habitat loss and degradation is critical.

  7. Predicting recovery criteria for threatened and endangered plant species on the basis of past abundances and biological traits.

    PubMed

    Neel, Maile C; Che-Castaldo, Judy P

    2013-04-01

    Recovery plans for species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act are required to specify measurable criteria that can be used to determine when the species can be delisted. For the 642 listed endangered and threatened plant species that have recovery plans, we applied recursive partitioning methods to test whether the number of individuals or populations required for delisting can be predicted on the basis of distributional and biological traits, previous abundance at multiple time steps, or a combination of traits and previous abundances. We also tested listing status (threatened or endangered) and the year the recovery plan was written as predictors of recovery criteria. We analyzed separately recovery criteria that were stated as number of populations and as number of individuals (population-based and individual-based criteria, respectively). Previous abundances alone were relatively good predictors of population-based recovery criteria. Fewer populations, but a greater proportion of historically known populations, were required to delist species that had few populations at listing compared with species that had more populations at listing. Previous abundances were also good predictors of individual-based delisting criteria when models included both abundances and traits. The physiographic division in which the species occur was also a good predictor of individual-based criteria. Our results suggest managers are relying on previous abundances and patterns of decline as guidelines for setting recovery criteria. This may be justifiable in that previous abundances inform managers of the effects of both intrinsic traits and extrinsic threats that interact and determine extinction risk. © 2013 Society for Conservation Biology.

  8. Pollinator interactions with yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) across urban, agricultural, and natural landscapes.

    PubMed

    Leong, Misha; Kremen, Claire; Roderick, George K

    2014-01-01

    Pollinator-plant relationships are found to be particularly vulnerable to land use change. Yet despite extensive research in agricultural and natural systems, less attention has focused on these interactions in neighboring urban areas and its impact on pollination services. We investigated pollinator-plant interactions in a peri-urban landscape on the outskirts of the San Francisco Bay Area, California, where urban, agricultural, and natural land use types interface. We made standardized observations of floral visitation and measured seed set of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis), a common grassland invasive, to test the hypotheses that increasing urbanization decreases 1) rates of bee visitation, 2) viable seed set, and 3) the efficiency of pollination (relationship between bee visitation and seed set). We unexpectedly found that bee visitation was highest in urban and agricultural land use contexts, but in contrast, seed set rates in these human-altered landscapes were lower than in natural sites. An explanation for the discrepancy between floral visitation and seed set is that higher plant diversity in urban and agricultural areas, as a result of more introduced species, decreases pollinator efficiency. If these patterns are consistent across other plant species, the novel plant communities created in these managed landscapes and the generalist bee species that are favored by human-altered environments will reduce pollination services.

  9. 78 FR 58507 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 10 Sturgeon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-24

    ... construction, and water pollution. The petition is available at http://www.nmfs.noaa.gov/pr/pdfs/petitions... sturgeon (Acipenser baerii). Endangered Decreasing China; Kazakhstan; Mongolia; Russia. Yangtze sturgeon (Acipenser Critically Endangered.. Decreasing China. dabryanus). Russian sturgeon (Acipenser...

  10. Molecular and quantitative trait variation within and among small fragmented populations of the endangered plant species Psilopeganum sinense

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Qigang; Tang, Feiyan; Wei, Na; Yao, Xiaohong

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Natural selection and genetic drift are important evolutionary forces in determining genetic and phenotypic differentiation in plant populations. The extent to which these two distinct evolutionary forces affect locally adaptive quantitative traits has been well studied in common plant and animal species. However, we know less about how quantitative traits respond to selection pressures and drift in endangered species that have small population sizes and fragmented distributions. To address this question, this study assessed the relative strengths of selection and genetic drift in shaping population differentiation of phenotypic traits in Psilopeganum sinense, a naturally rare and recently endangered plant species. Methods Population differentiation at five quantitative traits (QST) obtained from a common garden experiment was compared with differentiation at putatively neutral microsatellite markers (FST) in seven populations of P. sinense. QST estimates were derived using a Bayesian hierarchical variance component method. Key Results Trait-specific QST values were equal to or lower than FST. Neutral genetic diversity was not correlated with quantitative genetic variation within the populations of P. sinense. Conclusions Despite the prevalent empirical evidence for QST > FST, the results instead suggest a definitive role of stabilizing selection and drift leading to phenotypic differentiation among small populations. Three traits exhibited a significantly lower QST relative to FST, suggesting that populations of P. sinense might have experienced stabilizing selection for the same optimal phenotypes despite large geographical distances between populations and habitat fragmentation. For the other two traits, QST estimates were of the same magnitude as FST, indicating that divergence in these traits could have been achieved by genetic drift alone. The lack of correlation between molecular marker and quantitative genetic variation suggests that

  11. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; Borba, Ana R.; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood. PMID:24969504

  12. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria S; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X; Borba, Ana R; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-06-26

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood.

  13. In vitro culture and production of syringin and rutin in Saussurea involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) - an endangered medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Lin; Agrawal, Dinesh-Chandra; Chang, Hung-Chi; Chiu, Ya-Ting; Huang, Chu-Peng; Chen, Yi-Lin; Huang, Shih-Hung; Tsay, Hsin-Sheng

    2015-12-01

    Saussurea involucrata (Kar. et Kir.) commonly known as 'snow lotus' or 'Xue Lian' is an important plant in the traditional Chinese system of medicine. The plant contains flavonoids such as syringin and rutin. These compounds have been reported to be anti-rheumatic, anti-inflammatory and dilate blood vessels, lower blood pressure, prevent cardiovascular diseases, enhance immunity, and act as anti-aging, anti-cancer, and anti-fatigue agents. The species has become endangered due to the excessive collection of S. involucrata plants in the wild, slower plant growth and ecological destruction of natural habitats. There is a severe shortage of plant material, while the market demand is ever increasing. Hence, it is very important to apply tissue culture technique for plant propagation and production of the bioactive compounds of this species. Multiple shoot induction and proliferation in shoot base explants derived from in vitro raised seedlings of S. involucrata was achieved on 3/4 strength of Murashige and Skoog's (MS) basal medium (MSBM) supplemented with 1.0 mg/L(-1) BA and 1.5 mg/L(-1) NAA. Rooting was induced in 100 % shoots cultured on 1/2X MSBM supplemented with 1.0 mg/L(-1) IBA for one week and then transfer to auxin free medium. The plantlets could be acclimatized successfully by sachet technique and established in the greenhouse. Maximum callus induction and proliferation in leaf segments was achieved on 1/2X MSBM supplemented with 0.5 mg/L(-1) BA, 0.5 mg/L(-1) NAA, 0.4 % gelrite and on incubation at 20 °C. Container closures had an influence on the quality and quantity of callus and production of the active compounds. The HPLC analysis showed much higher syringin content in in vitro shoots and callus as compared to commercially available market crude drug. The present study describes an in vitro culture protocol of Saussurea involucrata. The bioactive compounds, syringin and rutin could be produced through tissue culture technique without sacrificing

  14. 76 FR 10310 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... on a Petition To List the Unsilvered Fritillary Butterfly as Threatened or Endangered AGENCY: Fish... butterfly (Speyeria adiaste) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (Act), as..., dated January 6, 2010, from WildEarth Guardians, requesting that the unsilvered fritillary butterfly be...

  15. 75 FR 43853 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule to List the Medium Tree-Finch...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-27

    ...; Final Rule to List the Medium Tree-Finch (Camarhynchus pauper) as Endangered Throughout Its Range AGENCY... Service (Service), determine endangered status for the medium tree-finch (Camarhynchus pauper) under the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In this final rule, we determine endangered status for the medium...

  16. 76 FR 78601 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... on a Petition To List the Western Glacier Stonefly as Endangered With Critical Habitat AGENCY: Fish... the western glacier stonefly (Zapada glacier) in Montana as endangered under the Endangered Species... western glacier stonefly may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we...

  17. 78 FR 54614 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... Protections for the Mexican Wolf (Canis lupus baileyi) by Listing It as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies (Canis lupus baileyi), and we announced... maintain endangered status for the Mexican wolf by listing it as a subspecies is extended to October 28...

  18. 76 FR 42631 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Pinus...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing P. albicaulis as threatened or endangered is......

  19. 76 FR 54711 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-02

    ...; Bald Eagles Nesting in Sonoran Desert Area of Central Arizona Removed From the List of Endangered and... regulatory protections under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), for the bald eagles... remove bald eagles in the lower 48 States from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife (List) due...

  20. 77 FR 16323 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing and Designation of Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are designating critical habitat for the Chiricahua leopard frog (Lithobates chiricahuensis) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, we are designating approximately 10,346 acres (4,187 hectares) as critical habitat for the Chiricahua leopard frog in Apache, Cochise, Gila, Graham, Greenlee, Pima, Santa Cruz, and Yavapai Counties, Arizona; and Catron, Grant, Hidalgo, Sierra, and Socorro Counties, New Mexico. In addition, because of a taxonomic revision of the Chiricahua leopard frog, we reassessed the status of and threats to the currently described species Lithobates chiricahuensis and are listing the currently described species as threatened.

  1. 75 FR 78429 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Critical Habitat for the Preble's Meadow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-15

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate revised critical habitat for the Preble's meadow jumping mouse (Zapus hudsonius preblei) (PMJM) in Colorado, where it is listed as threatened in a Significant Portion of the Range (SPR) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 411 miles (mi) (662 kilometers (km)) of rivers and streams and 34,935 acres (ac) (14,138 hectares (ha)) fall within the boundaries of revised critical habitat in Boulder, Broomfield, Douglas, El Paso, Jefferson, Larimer, and Teller Counties.

  2. The case against (-)-catechin involvement in allelopathy of Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed)

    PubMed Central

    Dayan, Franck E; Bajsa, Joanna; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Hufbauer, Ruth A; Blair, Amy C

    2009-01-01

    Proving allelopathic chemical interference is a daunting endeavor, in that production and movement of a phytotoxin from a donor plant to a receiving plant must be demonstrated in the substrate in which the plants grow, which is usually a complex soil matrix. The soil levels or soil flux levels of the compound generated by the donor must be proven to be sufficient to adversely affect the receiving plant. Reports of (-)-catechin to be the novel weapon used by Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed) to invade new territories are not supported by the paper featured in this Addendum, nor by papers produced by two other laboratories. These papers find that (-)-catechin levels in soil in which C. stoebe grows are orders of magnitude below levels that cause only minor growth effects on reported sensitive species. Furthermore, the claim that (-)-catechin acts as a phytotoxin through causing oxidative damage is refuted by the fact that the molecule is a strong antioxidant and is quickly degraded by extracellular root enzymes. PMID:19816095

  3. In vitro antioxidant activity of Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana.

    PubMed

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jalal; Pourmorad, Fereshteh; Shahabimajd, Naghi; Shahrbandy, Kami; Hosseinzadeh, Rasa

    2007-02-15

    Extracts of five plants were investigated for their total flavonoids, phenol contents and their radical scavenging activity using DPPH assays: Polygonium hyrcanicum, Centaurea depressa, Sambucus ebulus, Mentha spicata and Phytolacca americana. Quercetin and butylated hydroxy toluene were used as standard reference with well-documented antioxidant activity. Total flavonoid content in these plants ranged from 31.6 to 109.5 mg g(-1) and the amount of free phenolic compounds was between 32 and 287.5 mg g(-1) extract powder. Free phenolic compounds content were in the order: P. hyrcanium > M. spicata > S. ebulus > C. depressa > P. americana. It was also observed that all methanolic extract samples of studied plants showed free radical scavenging activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in P. hyrcanium with an IC 50 equal to 0.036 mg mL(-1) that is higher than BHT (IC 50 = 0.054). A correlation between radical scavenging capacities of extracts with total phenolic compounds content was observed. This result indicates that P. hyrcanium contains high levels of phenolic compounds that may contribute to higher free radical scavenging activity compared to the other extracts of the plants in this study.

  4. Clonal Re-Introduction of Endangered Plant Species: The Case of German False Tamarisk in Pre-Alpine Rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Christiane; Kollmann, Johannes

    2012-08-01

    The scope of re-introduction as a measure for plant species protection is increasing, but as long as no standardized methods are available, species-specific assessments are necessary to determine whether seeds, adult plants or plant fragments should be used. The endangered German False Tamarisk ( Myricaria germanica), which occurs on gravel bars along pre-alpine rivers, is difficult to grow from seeds. Thus, propagation of stem cuttings was investigated as an alternative method. Experiments were conducted in a greenhouse and a field site with three treatments: cutting length 5 or 10 cm, vertical burial 5 or 10 cm, and water level low or high. Plants grown in the greenhouse were transplanted to the River Isar to test establishment of rooted cuttings on gravel bars. The cuttings in the greenhouse showed high survival (34-96 %). Survival and biomass production were greatest for 10-cm cuttings buried at 10-cm depth, while only one of the 5-cm cuttings survived at this depth, and no significant effect of variation in water level was observed. None of the cuttings transplanted to field sites survived, most likely because of drought stress and competition. We conclude that for re-introduction of Myricaria germanica rooted cuttings can be easily produced in large quantities, while transplantation to near-natural environments has to be improved to reduce mortality.

  5. Revised Flora and List of Threatened and Endangered Plants for the John F. Kennedy Space Center Area, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Foster, Tammy E.; Duncan, Brean W.; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's, and the list was revised in 1990. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required a revision of this list. The revised list includes 1024 taxa of which 803 are native and 221 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Fifty taxa are endemic or nearly endemic, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of Florida. Of the 221 introduced plants, twenty-six are Category I invasive exotics and fifteen are Category II invasive exotics. Thirty-eight taxa are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on state lists. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area includes 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  6. Development of 18 novel microsatellite primers for Begonia fimbristipula (Begoniaceae), an endangered medicinal plant in China1

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bo; Du, Yun-Qian; Li, Jing-Jian; Tang, Wen-Xiu; Zhong, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Begonia fimbristipula (Begoniaceae) is a medicinal herb distributed in the Chinese provinces of Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, Jiangxi, and Zhejiang, and it is on the verge of extinction due to habitat destruction and deterioration of its ecosystem. Here we developed a set of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for population genetic and conservation studies of this endangered medicinal plant. Methods and Results: Using the Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining repeats (FIASCO) protocol, 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers were identified within 48 individuals from two geographic locations. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.208 to 1.000 and from 0.291 to 0.812, respectively. These microsatellite markers were cross-amplified in five related Begonia species, and six loci were successfully amplified in all species. Conclusions: These 18 markers will be useful for better conservation and utilization of wild resources of B. fimbristipula and other Begonia species in the future. PMID:27437176

  7. Free radical-scavenging activities of Homalium species--An endangered medicinal plant of Eastern Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Mahapatra, Ajay Kumar; Pani, Sweta Smita; Sahoo, Atish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Three species of the genus Homalium - e.g. Homalium nepalense, Homalium tomentosum and Homalium zeylanicum (Flacourtiaceae) - are recorded in India which are confined to the Eastern Ghat hill ranges. While H. zeylanicum is the IUCN red-listed medium-sized tree, the other two are endangered species of medicinal significance. The antioxidant potential of leaf and bark of the plants was evaluated through successive extraction methods by using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. The extracts were subjected to in vitro assays as DPPH, hydroxyl, nitric oxide and superoxide along with its biochemical estimation. Amongst all, the ethyl acetate extracts of bark is found to be most potent compared with that of the leaves. H. nepalense has the highest amount of total phenolic and flavonoid contents followed by H. tomentosum and H. zeylanicum, respectively, and significant antioxidant behaviour.

  8. Actual and potential use of population viability analyses in recovery of plant species listed under the US endangered species act.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Sara L; Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2013-12-01

    Use of population viability analyses (PVAs) in endangered species recovery planning has been met with both support and criticism. Previous reviews promote use of PVA for setting scientifically based, measurable, and objective recovery criteria and recommend improvements to increase the framework's utility. However, others have questioned the value of PVA models for setting recovery criteria and assert that PVAs are more appropriate for understanding relative trade-offs between alternative management actions. We reviewed 258 final recovery plans for 642 plants listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act to determine the number of plans that used or recommended PVA in recovery planning. We also reviewed 223 publications that describe plant PVAs to assess how these models were designed and whether those designs reflected previous recommendations for improvement of PVAs. Twenty-four percent of listed species had recovery plans that used or recommended PVA. In publications, the typical model was a matrix population model parameterized with ≤5 years of demographic data that did not consider stochasticity, genetics, density dependence, seed banks, vegetative reproduction, dormancy, threats, or management strategies. Population growth rates for different populations of the same species or for the same population at different points in time were often statistically different or varied by >10%. Therefore, PVAs parameterized with underlying vital rates that vary to this degree may not accurately predict recovery objectives across a species' entire distribution or over longer time scales. We assert that PVA, although an important tool as part of an adaptive-management program, can help to determine quantitative recovery criteria only if more long-term data sets that capture spatiotemporal variability in vital rates become available. Lacking this, there is a strong need for viable and comprehensive methods for determining quantitative, science-based recovery criteria for

  9. 77 FR 36727 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate revised critical habitat for the Pacific Coast distinct population segment (DPS) (Pacific Coast WSP) of the western snowy plover (Charadrius nivosus nivosus, formerly C. alexandrinus nivosus) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 24,527 acres (9,926 hectares) of critical habitat for the Pacific Coast WSP in Washington, Oregon, and California, fall within the boundaries of the critical habitat designation. This revised final designation constitutes an increase of approximately 12,377 ac (5,009 ha) from the 2005 designation of critical habitat for the Pacific Coast WSP. A taxonomic name change has occurred and been accepted for the snowy plover. Throughout the remainder of this document, we will use the currently recognized name for the subspecies, Charadrius nivosus nivosus, to which the listed entity (Pacific Coast WSP) belongs for references to the Pacific Coast WSP.

  10. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  11. Reconciling contradictory findings of herbivore impacts on spotted knapweed (Centaurea stoebe) growth and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Knochel, David G; Seastedt, Timothy R

    2010-10-01

    Substantial controversy surrounds the efficacy of biological control insects to reduce densities of Centaurea stoebe, a widespread, aggressive invasive plant in North America. We developed a graphical model to conceptualize the conditions required to explain the current contradictory findings, and then employed a series of manipulations to evaluate C. stoebe responses to herbivores. We manipulated soil nitrogen and competition in a field population and measured attack rates of a foliage and seed feeder (Larinus minutus), two gall flies (Urophora spp.), and a root feeder (Cyphocleonus achates), as well as their effects on the growth and reproduction of C. stoebe. Nitrogen limitation and competing vegetation greatly reduced C. stoebe growth. L. minutus most intensively reduced seed production in low-nitrogen soils, and removal of neighboring vegetation increased Larinus numbers per flower head and the percentage of flowers attacked by 15% and 11%, respectively. Cyphocleonus reduced flower production and aboveground biomass over two years, regardless of resources or competition. Our results, in conjunction with other published studies, demonstrate that positive, neutral, and negative plant growth responses to herbivory can be generated. However, under realistic field conditions and in the presence of multiple herbivores, our work repudiates earlier studies that indicate insect herbivores increase C. stoebe dominance.

  12. 75 FR 37460 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Plan for the Prairie Species of Western...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ... checker-mallow), and Castilleja levisecta (golden paintbrush). Background Recovery of endangered or... sulphureus ssp. kincaidii (Kincaid's lupine), Sidalcea nelsoniana (Nelson's checker-mallow), and Castilleja...

  13. 76 FR 61307 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Calopogon...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Act. Included in the petition was supporting information regarding the species' taxonomy and ecology... endangered. Species Information Taxonomy and Species Description Calopogon oklahomensis, commonly known as...

  14. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum

    PubMed Central

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance. PMID:26109456

  15. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine

    PubMed Central

    Tella, José L.; Dénes, Francisco V.; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P.; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved. PMID:27546381

  16. Does the passage of seeds through frugivore gut affect their storage: A case study on the endangered plant Euryodendron excelsum.

    PubMed

    Shikang, Shen; Fuqin, Wu; Yuehua, Wang

    2015-06-25

    Plant-frugivore mutualism serves an important function in multiple ecological processes. Although previous studies have highlighted the effect of frugivore gut passage on fresh seed germinability, no study has investigated the effect on seed storage after frugivore gut passage. We used the endangered plant, Euryodendron excelsum, to determine the combined effects of frugivore gut passage and storage conditions on the germination percentage and rate of seeds. In particular, three treatments that included storage periods, storage methods, and seed types were designed in the experiment. We hypothesized that seeds that passed through the gut will exhibit enhanced germination capacity and rate during storage. Results showed that the final germination percentage decreased in seeds that passed through the gut, whereas the germination rate increased during seed storage. Germination decreased in most types of seeds under both dry and wet storage after 6 months compared with storage after 1 and 3 months. The results suggest that after frugivore gut passage, E. excelsum seeds cannot form persistent soil seed bank in the field, and were not suitable for species germplasm storage. These finding underscore that seeds that passed through frugivore gut have long-term impact on their viability and germination performance.

  17. The effects of plant density and nectar reward on bee visitation to the endangered orchid Spiranthes romanzoffiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffy, Karl J.; Stout, Jane C.

    2008-09-01

    Density can affect attraction of pollinators, with rare plants receiving fewer pollinating visits compared with more common co-flowering species. However, if a locally rare species is very attractive in terms of the rewards it offers pollinators, it may be preferentially visited. Spiranthes romanzoffiana is a nectar rewarding, geographically rare, endangered orchid species which forms small populations in Ireland, co-flowering with more common, florally rewarding species. We examined visitation rates to S. romanzoffiana and two nectar rewarding co-flowering species ( Mentha aquatica and Prunella vulgaris) in the west of Ireland. These three plant species were visited by three bee species ( Bombus pascuorum, B. hortorum and Apis mellifera). B. pascuorum was the most common visitor, while A. mellifera was least common. Our results suggest that individual S. romanzoffiana inflorescences compete intraspecifically for visitation from pollinators at high densities. The relationship between visitation to S. romanzoffiana and total floral density appeared to be positive, suggesting interspecific facilitation of pollinator visitation at high densities. Nectar standing crop varied through the season, among species and between open and bagged flowers. Nectar standing crop was not correlated with visitation in S. romanzoffiana. Despite relatively high visitation, S. romanzoffiana produced no mature fruit during this flowering season. The lack of fruit maturation in this species may be a major factor causing its rarity in Europe.

  18. Endangered plant-parrot mutualisms: seed tolerance to predation makes parrots pervasive dispersers of the Parana pine.

    PubMed

    Tella, José L; Dénes, Francisco V; Zulian, Viviane; Prestes, Nêmora P; Martínez, Jaime; Blanco, Guillermo; Hiraldo, Fernando

    2016-08-22

    Parrots are largely considered plant antagonists as they usually destroy the seeds they feed on. However, there is evidence that parrots may also act as seed dispersers. We evaluated the dual role of parrots as predators and dispersers of the Critically Endangered Parana pine (Araucaria angustifolia). Eight of nine parrot species predated seeds from 48% of 526 Parana pines surveyed. Observations of the commonest parrot indicated that 22.5% of the picked seeds were dispersed by carrying them in their beaks. Another five parrot species dispersed seeds, at an estimated average distance of c. 250 m. Dispersal distances did not differ from those observed in jays, considered the main avian dispersers. Contrary to jays, parrots often dropped partially eaten seeds. Most of these seeds were handled by parrots, and the proportion of partially eaten seeds that germinated was higher than that of undamaged seeds. This may be explained by a predator satiation effect, suggesting that the large seeds of the Parana pine evolved to attract consumers for dispersal. This represents a thus far overlooked key plant-parrot mutualism, in which both components are threatened with extinction. The interaction is becoming locally extinct long before the global extinction of the species involved.

  19. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Ali, Abbas; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-01-21

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of ¹H, (13)C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM) comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  20. 75 FR 27690 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Ambrosia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... INFORMATION CONTACT). Author(s) The primary authors of this notice are the staff members of the Carlsbad Fish...) Flowering plants. * * * * * Family Asteraceae: Ambrosia pumila (San Diego ambrosia) * * * * *...

  1. Flora and threatened and endangered plants of John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmalzer, Paul A.; Hinkle, C. Ross

    1990-01-01

    The vascular flora of the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) area was first studied in the 1970's. Nomenclatural and taxonomic changes as well as additional collections required revision of this list. The revised list includes 1045 taxa of which 850 are native and 195 are introduced. This appears to be a substantial proportion of the regional flora. Forty six taxa are endemic or nearly endemic to Florida, a level of endemism that appears high for the east coast of central Florida. Seventy three taxa (69 native) are listed as threatened, endangered, or of special concern on Federal or state lists. Taxa of special concern occur in all major habitats, but many are restricted to hammocks and hardwood swamps that constitute a minor proportion of the terrestrial vegetation. For some of these taxa, populations on KSC appear to be important for their regional and global survival. The bryophyte flora of the KSC area include 23 mosses and 20 liverworts and hornworts. The lichen flora is currently unknown.

  2. 78 FR 24007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Eriogonum codium

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... native plant and animal species, such as Umtanum desert buckwheat and White Bluffs bladderpod (USFWS 2008... Proclamation directs the DOE and the Service to protect and conserve the area's native plant communities... carbonate paleosol caps several hundred feet of alkaline, easily eroded, lacustrine sediments of the...

  3. Biomechanics of Riparian Plant Species Common to the Platte River and Implications for Management of Habitat for Endangered Species. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bankhead, N. L.; Thomas, R. E.; Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Improving riparian habitat for endangered species in the central Platte River fundamentally relies upon re-creating a dynamic, braided stream channel. The diversion and storage of water for agricultural, municipal and industrial uses has caused significant alteration of the hydrologic regime of the central Platte River, allowing the colonization and proliferation of vegetation that has effectively created semi-permanent islands, narrowed the active channel and reduced available habitat. Attempts to remove vegetation by spraying and disking for the purpose of re-creating a dynamic braided channel are costly and time consuming. Alternative plans to remove vegetation by modifying the hydrologic regime must be based on a fundamental understanding and quantification of the effects of vegetation on in-stream hydraulics, the effects of in-stream hydraulics on vegetation and the effects of the biomechanical properties of the plant on the substrate. This study aims to investigate the resistance of bar-top vegetation to removal by the drag forces exerted on the stems and leaves of partly or completely submerged plants with different rooting depths. In the first phase, we measured the forces required to remove 1 to 2 year-old Phragmites, reed canary grass, cottonwood and sandbar willow plants from sandbars in the Platte River. In addition, root tensile strength tests were carried out for each species and over a range of root diameters. The mean plant pullout or breaking force ranged from 31.9 N for young cottonwood saplings to 156 N for Phragmites. The mean rooting depths of cottonwoods and sandbar willows were 0.14 and 0.12 m, respectively, and during testing it was observed that largely intact rootballs were removed from the substrate. Therefore, it is possible that 1 to 2 year-old cottonwoods and sandbar willows could be removed by flows of sufficient magnitude and duration to scour such depths of sediment. Conversely, Phragmites plants had deep rhizome networks that broke

  4. 77 FR 30819 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Final Rule To Remove the Morelet's Crocodile From...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ...Under the authority of the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act), we, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), are removing the Morelet's crocodile (Crocodylus moreletii) throughout its range from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife due to recovery. This action is based on a thorough review of the best available scientific and commercial data, which indicate......

  5. 76 FR 48777 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Nueces...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Nueces River shiner (Cyprinella sp.) and plateau shiner (Cyprinella lepida) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the......

  6. 76 FR 62165 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Texas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list five mussel species in Texas as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). The five species are Texas fatmucket (Lampsilis bracteata), golden orb (Quadrula aurea), smooth pimpleback (Q. houstonensis), Texas pimpleback......

  7. 76 FR 54423 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-01

    ... on a Petition To List All Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) as Endangered AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife....S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 90-day finding on a petition to list all chimpanzees (Pan... listing all chimpanzees as endangered may be warranted. Therefore, with the publication of this notice, we...

  8. 75 FR 78029 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the North...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the North American wolverine (Gulo gulo luscus) as an endangered or threatened species under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that the North American wolverine occurring in the contiguous United......

  9. 76 FR 3069 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Delist or...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... clementinus (San Clemente Island bush-mallow), and Castilleja grisea (San Clemente Island Indian paintbrush... January 26, 1984 September 28, 2007 (San Clemente Island bush- (42 FR 40682) Downlist. mallow). Endangered... or http://www.fws.gov/endangered/ . Malacothamnus clementinus (San Clemente Island bush-mallow) is a...

  10. 76 FR 62722 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Amoreuxia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list Amoreuxia gonzalezii (Santa Rita yellowshow), Astragalus hypoxylus (Huachuca milk-vetch), and Erigeron piscaticus (Fish Creek fleabane) as endangered or threatened with critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best scientific and commercial......

  11. 78 FR 7907 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Island Night Lizard From the Federal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the island night lizard (Xantusia riversiana) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. This action is based on a review of the best available scientific and commercial information, which indicates that the species no longer meets the definition of endangered species or threatened species under the......

  12. Population genetic structure of rare and endangered plants using molecular markers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raji, Jennifer; Atkinson, Carter T.

    2013-01-01

    This study was initiated to assess the levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the remaining populations of Phyllostegia stachyoides and Melicope zahlbruckneri in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and determine the extent of gene flow to identify genetically distinct individuals or groups for conservation purposes. Thirty-six Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphic (AFLP) primer combinations generated a total of 3,242 polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragments in the P. stachyoides population with a percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) ranging from 39.3 to 65.7% and 2,780 for the M. zahlbruckneri population with a PPB of 18.8 to 64.6%. Population differentiation (Fst) of AFLP loci between subpopulations of P. stachyoides was low (0.043) across populations. Analysis of molecular variance of P. stachyoides showed that 4% of the observed genetic differentiation occurred between populations in different kīpuka and 96% when individuals were pooled from all kīpuka. Moderate genetic diversity was detected within the M. zahlbruckneri population. Bayesian and multivariate analyses both classified the P. stachyoides and M. zahlbruckneri populations into genetic groups with considerable sub-structuring detected in the P. stachyoides population. The proportion of genetic differentiation among populations explained by geographical distance was estimated by Mantel tests. No spatial correlation was found between genetic and geographic distances in both populations. Finally, a moderate but significant gene flow that could be attributed to insect or bird-mediated dispersal of pollen across the different kīpuka was observed. The results of this study highlight the utility of a multi-allelic DNA-based marker in screening a large number of polymorphic loci in small and closely related endangered populations and revealed the presence of genetically unique groups of individuals in both M. zahlbruckneri and P. stachyoides populations. Based on these findings

  13. 78 FR 76995 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-20

    ... PCEs, such as geological formation, specific soil types, vegetation type, and plant pollinators that... unable to remove from the map due to practical mapping issues, we do not consider them critical habitat...

  14. 78 FR 31498 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Threatened Status for Leavenworthia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...) Genetics and taxonomy; (c) Historical and current range including distribution patterns; (d) Historical and... time the plant is in fruit (Evans and Hannan 1990, p. 6). The fruit is flat and pod-shaped. Taxonomy...

  15. Growth and competitive effects of Centaurea stoebe populations in response to simulated nitrogen deposition.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Ming; Montesinos, Daniel; Thelen, Giles C; Callaway, Ragan M

    2012-01-01

    Increased resource availability can promote invasion by exotic plants, raising concerns over the potential effects of global increases in the deposition of nitrogen (N). It is poorly understood why increased N favors exotics over natives. Fast growth may be a general trait of good invaders and these species may have exceptional abilities to increase growth rates in response to N deposition. Additionally, invaders commonly displace locals, and thus may have inherently greater competitive abilities. The mean growth response of Centaurea stoebe to two N levels was significantly greater than that of North American (NA) species. Growth responses to N did not vary among C. stoebe populations or NA species. Without supplemental N, NA species were better competitors than C. stoebe, and C. stoebe populations varied in competitive effects. The competitive effects of C. stoebe populations increased with N whereas the competitive effects of NA species decreased, eliminating the overall competitive advantage demonstrated by NA species in soil without N added. These results suggest that simulated N deposition may enhance C. stoebe invasion through increasing its growth and relative competitive advantage, and also indicate the possibility of local adaptation in competitive effects across the introduced range of an invader.

  16. Growth and Competitive Effects of Centaurea stoebe Populations in Response to Simulated Nitrogen Deposition

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Ming; Montesinos, Daniel; Thelen, Giles C.; Callaway, Ragan M.

    2012-01-01

    Increased resource availability can promote invasion by exotic plants, raising concerns over the potential effects of global increases in the deposition of nitrogen (N). It is poorly understood why increased N favors exotics over natives. Fast growth may be a general trait of good invaders and these species may have exceptional abilities to increase growth rates in response to N deposition. Additionally, invaders commonly displace locals, and thus may have inherently greater competitive abilities. The mean growth response of Centaurea stoebe to two N levels was significantly greater than that of North American (NA) species. Growth responses to N did not vary among C. stoebe populations or NA species. Without supplemental N, NA species were better competitors than C. stoebe, and C. stoebe populations varied in competitive effects. The competitive effects of C. stoebe populations increased with N whereas the competitive effects of NA species decreased, eliminating the overall competitive advantage demonstrated by NA species in soil without N added. These results suggest that simulated N deposition may enhance C. stoebe invasion through increasing its growth and relative competitive advantage, and also indicate the possibility of local adaptation in competitive effects across the introduced range of an invader. PMID:22563451

  17. Larvicidal Activity of Centaurea bruguierana ssp. belangerana Against Anopheles stephensi Larvae

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Rajabi, Afsaneh; Behzad, Masoud; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Vatandoost, Hassan; Abaee, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the total 80% of MeOH extract and also petroleum ether, CHCl3, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and the remaining MeOH fractions obtained by solvent-solvent fractionation of the whole flowering samples of Centaurea bruguierana (DC.) Hand.-Mzt. ssp. belangerana (DC.) Bornm. (Asteraceae), namely “Baad-Avard”, collected from Borazjan in Bushehr Province (Bushehr, Iran) were investigated for larvicidal activity against malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston, according to WHO methods. The mortality rate of total extract and petroleum ether fraction in concentration of 40 ppm were 28% and 86% respectively and the other fractions were inactive. The probit regression analysis for the dose-response to petroleum ether fraction treatment of larvae exhibited the LC50 and LC90 values of 15.7 ppm and 48.3 ppm, respectively. As results showed, the larvicidal activity of the petroleum ether fraction would be due to the nonpolar compounds in the plant which further isolation and purification would obtain the more active compounds in lower concentrations useful for preparation of biological insecticides. PMID:24250419

  18. Genetic structure of colline and montane populations of an endangered plant species

    PubMed Central

    Maurice, Tiphaine; Matthies, Diethart; Muller, Serge; Colling, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Due to land-use intensification, lowland and colline populations of many plants of nutrient-poor grasslands have been strongly fragmented in the last decades, with potentially negative consequences for their genetic diversity and persistence. Populations in mountains might represent a genetic reservoir for grassland plants, because they have been less affected by land-use changes. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of colline and montane Vosges populations of the threatened perennial plant Arnica montana in western central Europe using AFLP markers. Our results indicate that in contrast to our expectation even strongly fragmented colline populations of A. montana have conserved a considerable amount of genetic diversity. However, mean seed mass increased with the proportion of polymorphic loci, suggesting inbreeding effects in low diversity populations. At a similar small geographical scale, there was a clear IBD pattern for the montane Vosges but not for the colline populations. However, there was a strong IBD-pattern for the colline populations at a large geographical scale suggesting that this pattern is a legacy of historical gene flow, as most of the colline populations are today strongly isolated from each other. Genetic differentiation between colline and montane Vosges populations was strong. Moreover, results of a genome scan study indicated differences in loci under selection, suggesting that plants from montane Vosges populations might be maladapted to conditions at colline sites. Our results suggest caution in using material from montane populations of rare plants for the reinforcement of small genetically depauperate lowland populations. PMID:27519913

  19. Genetic structure of colline and montane populations of an endangered plant species.

    PubMed

    Maurice, Tiphaine; Matthies, Diethart; Muller, Serge; Colling, Guy

    2016-08-12

    Due to land-use intensification, lowland and colline populations of many plants of nutrient-poor grasslands have been strongly fragmented in the last decades, with potentially negative consequences for their genetic diversity and persistence. Populations in mountains might represent a genetic reservoir for grassland plants, because they have been less affected by land-use changes. We studied the genetic structure and diversity of colline and montane Vosges populations of the threatened perennial plant Arnica montana in western central Europe using AFLP markers. Our results indicate that in contrast to our expectation even strongly fragmented colline populations of A. montana have conserved a considerable amount of genetic diversity. However, mean seed mass increased with the proportion of polymorphic loci, suggesting inbreeding effects in low diversity populations. At a similar small geographical scale there was a clear IBD pattern for the montane Vosges but not for the colline populations. However, there was a strong IBD-pattern for the colline populations at a large geographical scale suggesting that this pattern is a legacy of historical gene flow, as most of the colline populations are today strongly isolated from each other. Genetic differentiation between colline and montane Vosges populations was strong. Moreover, results of a genome scan study indicated differences in loci under selection, suggesting that plants from montane Vosges populations might be maladapted to conditions at colline sites. Our results suggest caution in using material from montane populations of rare plants for the reinforcement of small genetically depauperate lowland populations.

  20. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris).

    PubMed

    Patykowski, John; Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia-a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub-were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world.

  1. In Vitro Antibacterial, Antifungal, Antibiofilm, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Properties of Isosteviol Isolated from Endangered Medicinal Plant Pittosporum tetraspermum

    PubMed Central

    Valan Arasu, Mariadhas; Rejiniemon, Thankappan Sarasam

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the in vitro antibacterial, antifungal, antibiofilm, antioxidant, and anticancer properties of isosteviol isolated from endangered medicinal plant Pittosporum tetraspermum. Pure compound was obtained and characterized by column chromatography followed by 1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR, and mass spectral analysis. The antimicrobial activities of the compound were assessed by the broth microdilution method and the antioxidant properties were determined using reducing ability assay, DPPH scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, and superoxide radical scavenging assay. Anticancer study was evaluated by following MTT assay. Column purification and spectrocopical analysis lead to identifying isosteviol from the crude ethyl acetate extract. The compound exhibited significant activity against bacteria such as Staphylococcus epidermidis (125 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus (125 µg/mL), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (62.5 µg/mL). The MIC of the compound against Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes was 62.5, 125, and 500 µg/mL, respectively. The compound showed comparatively better antibiofilm activity against E. coli, S. typhi, and P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, it exhibited good antioxidant properties. Anticancer properties of the compound against Vero and MCF7 cell lines were its advantage. Novel isosteviol would be useful to reduce the infectious diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms or slow the progress of various oxidative stress-related diseases. PMID:26101532

  2. Germination Ecology and Seed Dispersal of a Critically Endangered Plant: A Case Study of Pomaderris vacciniifolia (Round-Leaf Pomaderris)

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Matthew; Gibson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Change in ecosystem disturbance regimes from human land-use poses a worldwide problem for management of rare species. Two important types of disturbance influencing the persistence of species in Australian ecosystems are habitat fragmentation and fire. In this study, seed dispersal and the germination ecology of Pomaderris vacciniifolia—a critically endangered, rare endemic Australian shrub—were examined to identify likely influences of fire and fragmentation on the decline of populations. The response of seed germination to simulated effects of wildfire and canopy openings was investigated, as was the unaided dispersal capability of seeds from parent plants. A significant increase in germination rate was observed following 100°C heat treatment to seeds, while smoke and light exposure had little influence. Seed imbibition was strongly influenced by heat treatment. The findings indicate a likely positive post-fire germination response, with implications for recruitment success determined by moisture availability following fire. Unaided seed dispersal was limited, which partly explains the apparent decline of populations. Understanding disturbance requirements for threatened species, and subsequent management of landscapes for disturbance, will aid conservation of rare species throughout the world. PMID:27557152

  3. Living in isolation – population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink)

    PubMed Central

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential. PMID:26380690

  4. Living in isolation - population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation of the endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus (Cheddar pink).

    PubMed

    Putz, Christina M; Schmid, Christoph; Reisch, Christoph

    2015-09-01

    The endangered plant species Dianthus gratianopolitanus exhibits a highly fragmented distribution range comprising many isolated populations. Based upon this pattern of distribution, we selected a study region in Switzerland with a lower magnitude of isolation (Swiss Jura) and another study region in Germany with a higher degree of isolation (Franconian Jura). In each region, we chose ten populations to analyze population structure, reproduction, and genetic variation in a comparative approach. Therefore, we determined population density, cushion size, and cushion density to analyze population structure, investigated reproductive traits, including number of flowers, capsules, and germination rate, and analyzed amplified fragment length polymorphisms to study genetic variation. Population and cushion density were credibly higher in German than in Swiss populations, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were similar in both study regions. However, genetic variation among populations and isolation by distance were stronger in Germany than in Switzerland. Generally, cushion size and density as well as flower and capsule production increased with population size and density, whereas genetic variation decreased with population density. In contrast to our assumptions, we observed denser populations and cushions in the region with the higher magnitude of isolation, whereas reproductive traits and genetic variation within populations were comparable in both regions. This corroborates the assumption that stronger isolation must not necessarily result in the loss of fitness and genetic variation. Furthermore, it supports our conclusion that the protection of strongly isolated populations contributes essentially to the conservation of a species' full evolutionary potential.

  5. Is sexual reproduction of high-mountain plants endangered by heat?

    PubMed

    Ladinig, Ursula; Pramsohler, Manuel; Bauer, Ines; Zimmermann, Sonja; Neuner, Gilbert; Wagner, Johanna

    2015-04-01

    Strong solar irradiation in combination with still air and dry soil can cause prostrate high-mountain plants to heat up considerably and ultimately suffer heat damage. Such heat damage has been repeatedly shown for vegetative structures, but not for reproductive structures, which we expected to be particularly vulnerable to heat. Heat effects on cold-adapted plants may increase with rising global temperatures and the predicted increase in heat waves. We have tested the heat tolerance of reproductive versus vegetative shoots at different reproductive stages, comparing ten common plant species from different elevation belts in the European Alps. Plant samples were exposed to temperatures in 2-K steps of 30 min each between 42 and 56 °C. Heat damage was assessed by visual rating and vital staining. Reproductive shoots were on average 2.5 K less heat tolerant (LT50, i.e. the mean temperature causing 50 % heat damage, 47.2 °C) than vegetative shoots (mean LT50 49.7 °C). Initial heat injuries (mean LT10) were observed at 43-45 °C in heat-susceptible species and at 45-47 °C in more heat-tolerant species, in at least one reproductive stage. Generally, heat tolerance was significantly higher during fruiting than during the bud stages and anthesis. Prostrate species with acaulescent buds and flowers tolerated heat better than those with caulescent buds and flowers. Petals were the most heat-susceptible plant structure and mature pollen the most heat tolerant. Based on these data, heat tolerance of reproductive structures appears to be adapted to the prevailing maximum temperatures which the plants experience during different reproductive stages in their environment. During hot spells, however, heat tolerance thresholds may be exceeded. More frequent heat waves would decrease the reproductive output and, consequently, the competitiveness of heat-susceptible species.

  6. Biotic constraints on the invasion of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) in North American grasslands.

    PubMed

    Seastedt, T R; Suding, K N

    2007-04-01

    Knapweeds (Centaurea spp.) are among the most invasive of non-indigenous plant species that have colonized western North America over the last century. We conducted a 4-year experiment in a reconstructed grassland to test hypotheses related to the ability of grasslands to resist the invasion of diffuse knapweed (C. diffusa). We experimentally invaded C. diffusa and three native species into areas where we manipulated soil nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability and removed extant grasses to reduce competition. We evaluated the growth response of these species to these resources and competitive manipulations. Of the native species that were experimentally added, only one species, Ratibida pinnata (prairie coneflower), established in any numbers. Establishment values in intact vegetation were low for both species, but establishment by C. diffusa (0.02%) clearly outperformed that of R. pinnata (0.001%). Under reduced grass competition, establishment was enhanced, but the values for C. diffusa (0.68%) were not statistically different from those of R. pinnata (0.57%). Neither species performed better under higher soil nutrients in the presence of competing grasses. In plots with both species, biomass of the two planted species was positively correlated, but the biomass of both species was negatively correlated with non-added weedy species. Subsequent harvests of C. diffusa indicated that establishment was enhanced in treatments with higher soil nutrients but that the biomass of these plants could only be enhanced when plant competition was also reduced. These results indicate that C. diffusa can establish in intact grasslands at rates higher than natives, but opportunism rather than competitive ability best describes the invasiveness of C. diffusa. Thus, the mechanisms contributing to the establishment of this knapweed species are different from factors identified as contributing to the dominance of this invader.

  7. 76 FR 45129 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Gopher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the gopher tortoise (Gopherus polyphemus) in the eastern portion of its range (east of the Mobile and Tombigbee Rivers) as threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. In this finding, we also evaluate whether the status of the gopher tortoise in the western portion of its range (west of the Mobile and Tombigbee Rivers) is accurate. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that the current listing of the gopher tortoise as a threatened species in the western portion of its range is accurate and that listing the gopher tortoise in the eastern portion of its range is warranted. Currently, however, listing the gopher tortoise in the eastern portion of its range is precluded by higher priority actions to amend the Lists of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants. We will add the gopher tortoise in the eastern portion of its range to our candidate species list, and we will develop a proposed rule to list the gopher tortoise in the eastern portion of its range as our priorities allow. We will make any determination on critical habitat during development of the proposed listing rule. In any interim period we will address the status of the candidate taxon through our annual Candidate Notice of Review and will work through partnerships to conserve the species by improving the habitat and removing the threats with the objective to make listing unnecessary. The Service's candidate conservation efforts place great emphasis on coordination with the states and other partners, voluntary conservation efforts, and may include tools such as Candidate Conservation Agreements with Assurances. Even though we are currently unable to take action to list the gopher tortoise in the eastern portion of its range, this does not affect the status of the gopher tortoise in the western portion of its

  8. 78 FR 12011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... and Plants; Listing Three Foreign Macaw Species AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION...), announce the reopening of the public comment period on two proposed rules: one to list the hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus), and one to list the military macaw (Ara militaris) and great green macaw...

  9. 77 FR 23007 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Revised Critical Habitat for Allium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    .... 413). Biology and Life History Native Allium taxa typically require 3 to 5 years after seeds germinate... between March and May (California Native Plant Society (CNPS) 2001, p. 67). After flowering and seed...)). Many of the clay soil types where Allium munzii occurs typically support open native or...

  10. 77 FR 49893 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Determination of Status for the Gierisch Mallow...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... from other concerned governmental agencies, Native American tribes, the scientific community, industry... such as Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) and B. rubens (red brome) that can alter native vegetation and... (Brooks 2009, p. 105), and both abundance and diversity of native plants and animals is lower in...

  11. 78 FR 56071 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Texas Golden...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-11

    ... overgrowth of both species' habitats by invading woody and weedy native and nonnative plants, were adversely... Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Forest Service... Department of Agriculture, NRCS, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, U.S. Forest Service,...

  12. 75 FR 11010 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Oregon Chub...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... with the highest diversity of native fish, amphibian, reptile and plant species (Scheerer and Apke 1998... habitats that support these diverse native species assemblages (Scheerer and Apke 1998, p. 45). Conversely... fine substrates, but protected from excessive sedimentation. When excessive sediment is...

  13. Modeling the relationship between extractable chlorophyll and SPAD-502 readings for endangered plant species research

    Treesearch

    Tracy S. Hawkins; Emile S. Gardiner; Greg S. Comer

    2009-01-01

    Handheld chlorophyll meters have proven to be useful tools for rapid, nondestructive assessment of chlorophyll and nutrient status in various agricultural and arborescent plant species. We proposed that a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter would provide valuable information when monitoring life cycle changes and intraspecific variation in...

  14. 78 FR 38895 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Threatened Status and Designation of Critical Habitat for Eriogonum codium (Umtanum... reopening of the comment period on our May 15, 2012, proposed listing and designation of critical habitat... (proposed designation of critical habitat) for Umtanum desert buckwheat and White Bluffs bladderpod; from...

  15. 77 FR 37867 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    ... Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Rulemaking To Revise Critical Habitat for Hawaiian Monk Seals AGENCY.... ACTION: Proposed rule; notice of 6-month extension of the deadline for a final critical habitat... Register on June 2, 2011, proposing to revise critical habitat for the Hawaiian monk seal under the...

  16. 77 FR 50213 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Jaguar

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... days; warmer temperatures; greater water demand by plants, animals, and people; and an increased... growth, and for normal behavior; food, water, air, light, minerals, or other nutritional or physiological... (primary constituent elements such as roost sites, nesting grounds, seasonal wetlands, water quality, tide...

  17. 78 FR 22625 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Designation of Critical Habitat for Allium...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ..., reproduction, or rearing (or development) of offspring; and (5) Habitats that are protected from disturbance or..., slope, and subsurface geology); (3) sites for reproduction that contain clay or rocky loam soils; and (4...) Management and control of invasive nonnative plants to provide open areas for growth and reproduction, and (4...

  18. 75 FR 42489 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Limnanthes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    .... In the Illinois River Valley, other reports indicate that vegetative succession, herbivory by voles... plants depend on for reproduction and survival. Incompatible agricultural practices, including some... grazed to a height that prevents reproduction. Water diversion and water impoundment, when used in...

  19. Influence of Wildland Fire on the Recovery of Endangered Plant Species Study Project.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    mint family ( Lamiaceae ). It is the last remaining extant member of the genus and is only found at PTA and the Parker Ranch. Shaw (1995) estimated that...and stoloniferous perennial plant. It also belongs to the mint family ( Lamiaceae ) and is found over much of the west side of PTA and at several

  20. 75 FR 55686 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Technical Corrections for Three Midwest Region...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce the revised taxonomy... current scientifically accepted taxonomy and nomenclature of these species. We revise the scientific names... accepted taxonomy and nomenclature of three plant species listed under section 4 of the Act (16 U.S.C. 1531...

  1. 78 FR 26064 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Conservation Strategy for the Northern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... for the Northern Continental Divide Ecosystem Grizzly Bear AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior... Divide Ecosystem grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horriblis) population for public review and input. The... or plant to the point where it is again a secure, self-sustaining member of its ecosystem is a...

  2. An analysis of genetic variation in Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax, a critically endangered plant, using AFLP markers.

    PubMed

    Travis, S E; Maschinski, J; Keim, P

    1996-12-01

    A recently developed molecular technique (amplified fragment length polymorphisms, AFLP) was used for characterizing genetic heterogeneity within and among populations of a critically endangered species of plant, Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax. Using AFLP, up to 50 polymorphic genetic markers per AFLP-PCR amplification were generated, and a total of 220 variable markers overall. This information was used first to assess genetic diversity within each of the three known populations of Astragalus cremnophylax var. cremnophylax from Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, USA: North Rim (NR; n = 970), South Rim Site 1 (SR1; n = 500), and South Rim Site 2 (SR2; n = 2). Diversity in the form of average heterozygosity [symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] and the proportion of polymorphic genes [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] was greatest in the NR population ([symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] = 0.13 and [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] = 0.38) and least in the SR2 population ([symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] = 0.02 and [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] = 0.04). Diversity was also quite low for the SR1 population ([symbol: see text] H [symbol: see text] = 0.04 and [symbol: see text] P [symbol: see text] = 0.10). In addition, substantial genetic differentiation among populations was indicated by both phenetic (AMOVA) and genetic analyses (overall corrected FST = 0.41). This finding was corroborated by the results of several multivariate analyses which utilized the genetic data, including a UPGMA cluster analysis and a principal coordinate analysis which revealed the existence of discrete groups corresponding to the populations. Population structure was further revealed within the NR population which was known to consist of four spatially separated groups of plants. Several recommendations for the future management of the species are discussed.

  3. [Molecular characterization of a HMG-CoA reductase gene from a rare and endangered medicinal plant, Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ji-Tao; Zhang, Da-Wei; Zhang, Gang; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2014-03-01

    The 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) catalyzes the conversion of HMG-CoA to mevalonate in mavalonic acid pathway, which is the first committed step for isoprenoid biosynthesis in plants. However, it still remains unclear whether HGMR gene plays a role in the isoprenoid biosynthesis in Dendrobium officinale, an endangered epiphytic orchid species. In the present study, a HMGR encoding gene, designed as DoHMGR1 (GenBank accession JX272632), was identified from D. officinale using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) methods, for the first time. The full length cDNA of DoHMGR1 was 2 071 bp in length and encoded a 562-aa protein with a molecular weight of 59.73 kD and an isoelectric point (pI) of 6.18. The deduced DoHMGR1 protein, like other HMGR proteins, constituted four conserved domains (63-561, 147-551, 268-383 and 124-541) and two transmembrane motifs (42-64 and 85-107). Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that DoHMGR1 had high identity (67%-89%) to a number of HMGR genes from various plants and was closely related to Vanda hybrid cultivar, rice and maize monocots. Real time quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis revealed that DoHMGR1 was expressed in the three included organs. The transcripts were the most abundant in the roots with 2.13 fold over that in the leaves, followed by that in the stems with 1.98 fold. Molecular characterization of DoHMGR1 will be useful for further functional elucidation of the gene involving in isoprenoid biosynthesis pathway in D. officinale.

  4. 76 FR 38503 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List a Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list a distinct population segment (DPS) of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in its U.S. Northern Rocky Mountain range, including portions of Montana, Idaho, and Wyoming, as endangered or threatened and designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the fisher in the U.S. Northern Rocky Mountains as threatened or endangered is not warranted at this time.

  5. Identification and Management of Multiple Threats to Rare and Endangered Plant Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-30

    Proportion of A. rostellata (A), A. serpentaria (B) and T. erectum (C) plants attacked by herbivores in one open and fenced plot per species from 2009...by the angular cut of stems. These three species also showed frequent attack by a variety of invertebrate herbivores . Population growth rate (λ) of... herbivores . These effects are most likely species-specific as has been demonstrated in Minnesota where foliar nitrogen content for Carex pensylvanica

  6. Endangered Uyghur Medicinal Plant Ferula Identification through the Second Internal Transcribed Spacer

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Congzhao; Li, Xiaojin; Zhu, Jun; Song, Jingyuan; Yao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The medicinal plant Ferula has been widely used in Asian medicine, especially in Uyghur medicine in Xinjiang, China. Given that various substitutes and closely related species have similar morphological characteristics, Ferula is difficult to distinguish based on morphology alone, thereby causing confusion and threatening the safe use of Ferula. In this study, internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) sequences were analyzed and assessed for the accurate identification of two salable Ferula species (Ferula sinkiangensis and Ferula fukangensis) and eight substitutes or closely related species. Results showed that the sequence length of ITS2 ranged from 451 bp to 45 bp, whereas guanine and cytosine contents (GC) were from 53.6% to 56.2%. A total of 77 variation sites were detected, including 63 base mutations and 14 insertion/deletion mutations. The ITS2 sequence correctly identified 100% of the samples at the species level using the basic local alignment search tool 1 and nearest-distance method. Furthermore, neighbor-joining tree successfully identified the genuine plants F. sinkiangensis and F. fukangensis from their succedaneum and closely related species. These results indicated that ITS2 sequence could be used as a valuable barcode to distinguish Uyghur medicine Ferula from counterfeits and closely related species. This study may broaden DNA barcoding application in the Uyghur medicinal plant field. PMID:26120347

  7. Endangered Species of Florida Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Merlien W.

    This coloring book portrays endangered animal and plant species of Florida in their natural environment. Each picture is to be colored by the student. On the back of each page bearing the picture to be colored is a description of the animal or plant, its preferred habitat, and the reason the animal or plant is endangered. (RE)

  8. Endangered Species of Florida Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Merlien W.

    This coloring book portrays endangered animal and plant species of Florida in their natural environment. Each picture is to be colored by the student. On the back of each page bearing the picture to be colored is a description of the animal or plant, its preferred habitat, and the reason the animal or plant is endangered. (RE)

  9. Simulated warming differentially affects the growth and competitive ability of Centaurea maculosa populations from home and introduced ranges.

    PubMed

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors.

  10. Simulated Warming Differentially Affects the Growth and Competitive Ability of Centaurea maculosa Populations from Home and Introduced Ranges

    PubMed Central

    He, Wei-Ming; Li, Jing-Ji; Peng, Pei-Hao

    2012-01-01

    Climate warming may drive invasions by exotic plants, thereby raising concerns over the risks of invasive plants. However, little is known about how climate warming influences the growth and competitive ability of exotic plants from their home and introduced ranges. We conducted a common garden experiment with an invasive plant Centaurea maculosa and a native plant Poa pratensis, in which a mixture of sand and vermiculite was used as a neutral medium, and contrasted the total biomass, competitive effects, and competitive responses of C. maculosa populations from Europe (home range) and North America (introduced range) under two different temperatures. The warming-induced inhibitory effects on the growth of C. maculosa alone were stronger in Europe than in North America. The competitive ability of C. maculosa plants from North America was greater than that of plants from Europe under the ambient condition whereas this competitive ability followed the opposite direction under the warming condition, suggesting that warming may enable European C. maculosa to be more invasive. Across two continents, warming treatment increased the competitive advantage instead of the growth advantage of C. maculosa, suggesting that climate warming may facilitate C. maculosa invasions through altering competitive outcomes between C. maculosa and its neighbors. Additionally, the growth response of C. maculosa to warming could predict its ability to avoid being suppressed by its neighbors. PMID:22303485

  11. 77 FR 36457 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Coquí Llanero

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ... the coqu llanero (Eleutherodactylus juanariveroi) (a tree frog) under the Endangered Species Act of... period on our proposed designation of critical habitat for the coqu llanero (an endemic Puerto Rican...

  12. 75 FR 55820 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Midwest Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    .... MN, MO, NE, WI). (41 FR 24064). Snail, Iowa Pleistocene....... Discus Endangered...... U.S.A. (IA, IL... American Boulevard E., Bloomington, MN 55425-1665. Iowa Pleistocene snail...... Ms. Kristen Lundh, Rock...

  13. 77 FR 38762 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ...). FR 24064). perobliqua. Dragonfly, Hine's emerald....... Somatochlora Endangered........ U.S.A. (AL...@fws.gov. Service, 4625 Morse Road, Suite 104, Columbus, OH 43230. Hine's emerald dragonfly.... Kris...

  14. 76 FR 30377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Reviews of Species in California, Nevada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... Island bush-mallow... Malacothamnus Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 62 FR 40954; 07/31..., Santa Cruz Island bush-mallow, Santa Rosa Island manzanita, Smith's blue butterfly, and soft-leaved...

  15. 75 FR 17667 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to Reclassify the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... 74674). Species Information Description and Taxonomy Delta smelt are slender-bodied fish, generally... threatened to endangered status. The system places greatest importance on the immediacy and magnitude of...

  16. 76 FR 63479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Two South...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a status review (12-month finding) on a petition to list the blue-headed macaw (Primolius couloni) and grey-cheeked parakeet (Brotogeris pyrrhoptera) as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the blue-headed......

  17. 77 FR 19755 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the San...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the San Francisco Bay-Delta distinct population segment (Bay Delta DPS) of longfin smelt as endangered or threatened and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find......

  18. 76 FR 59835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List 404...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a partial 90-day finding on a petition to list 404 species in the southeastern United States as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that for 374 of the 404 species, the petition presents substantial scientific or commercial information indicating that listing......

  19. 77 FR 36871 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Withdrawal of the Proposed Rule To List Dunes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-19

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), withdraw the proposed rule to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This withdrawal is based on our conclusion that the threats to the species as identified in the proposed rule no longer are as significant as believed at the time of the proposed rule.......

  20. Next-generation sequencing identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz., an endemic and endangered medicinal plant of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y-E; Yu, J-N; Nam, G H; Ryu, S-A; Kim, S; Oh, K; Lim, C E

    2015-05-11

    We used next-generation sequencing to develop 9 novel microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense, an endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Korea. Owing to its very limited distribution, over-harvesting for traditional medicinal purposes, and habitat loss, the natural populations are dramatically declining in Korea. All novel microsatellite markers were successfully genotyped using 64 samples from two populations (Mt. Choejeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Ungseokbong, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Gyeongsang Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus in each population. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.031 to 0.938 and from 0.031 to 0.697, respectively. The novel markers will be valuable tools for assessing the genetic diversity of A. austrokoreense and for germplasm conservation of this endangered species.

  1. Seed Dispersal and Establishment of Endangered Plants on Oceanic Islands: The Janzen-Connell Model, and the Use of Ecological Analogues

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Dennis M.; Kaiser, Christopher N.

    2008-01-01

    Background The Janzen-Connell model states that plant-specific natural enemies may have a disproportionately large negative effect on progeny close to maternal trees. The majority of experimental and theoretical studies addressing the Janzen-Connell model have explored how it can explain existing patterns of species diversity in tropical mainland areas. Very few studies have investigated how the model's predictions apply to isolated oceanic islands, or to the conservation management of endangered plants. Here, we provide the first experimental investigation of the predictions of the Janzen-Connell model on an oceanic island, in a conservation context. In addition, we experimentally evaluate the use of ecological analogue animals to resurrect the functional component of extinct frugivores that could have dispersed seeds away from maternal trees. Methodology/Principal Findings In Mauritius, we investigated seed germination and seedling survival patterns of the critically endangered endemic plant Syzygium mamillatum (Myrtaceae) in relation to proximity to maternal trees. We found strong negative effects of proximity to maternal trees on growth and survival of seedlings. We successfully used giant Aldabran tortoises as ecological analogues for extinct Mauritian frugivores. Effects of gut-passage were negative at the seed germination stage, but seedlings from gut-passed seeds grew taller, had more leaves, and suffered less damage from natural enemies than any of the other seedlings. Conclusions/Significance We provide the first experimental evidence of a distance-dependent Janzen-Connell effect on an oceanic island. Our results potentially have serious implications for the conservation management of rare plant species on oceanic islands, which harbour a disproportionately large fraction of the world's endemic and endangered plants. Furthermore, in contrast to recent controversy about the use of non-indigenous extant megafauna for re-wilding projects in North America and

  2. Development of microsatellite markers for Euryale ferox (Nymphaeaceae), an endangered aquatic plant species in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imanishi, Ayumi; Kaneko, Shingo; Isagi, Yuji; Imanishi, Junichi; Natuhara, Yosihiro; Morimoto, Yukihiro

    2011-08-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed to investigate genetic diversity and genetic structure of Euryale ferox, a vulnerable aquatic plant. Ten microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized for this species. Eight loci showed polymorphisms with two or three alleles per locus. As for the polymorphic markers, the expected and observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.00 to 0.08 and 0.17 to 0.64, respectively. The 10 microsatellite markers described here will be useful for investigating genetic diversity, genetic structure, and gene flow between populations of E. ferox.

  3. Increasing demands on limited water resources: Consequences for two endangered plants in Amargosa Valley, USA.

    PubMed

    Hasselquist, Niles J; Allen, Michael F

    2009-03-01

    Recent population expansion throughout the Southwest United States has created an unprecedented demand for already limited water resources, which may have severe consequences on the persistence of some species. Two such species are the federally protected Nitrophila mohavensis (Chenopodiaceae) and Grindelia fraxino-pratensis (Asteraceae) found in Amargosa Valley, one valley east of Death Valley, California. Because both species are federally protected, no plant material could be harvested for analysis. We therefore used a chamber system to collect transpired water for isotopic analysis. After a correction for isotopic enrichment during transpiration, δ(18)O values of plant xylem water were significantly different between N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis throughout the study. Using a multisource mixing model, we found that both N. mohavensis and G. fraxino-pratensis used soil moisture near the soil surface in early spring when surface water was present. However, during the dry summer months, G. fraxino-pratensis tracked soil moisture to deeper depths, whereas N. mohavensis continued to use soil moisture near the soil surface. These results indicate that pumping groundwater and subsequently lowering the water table may directly prevent G. fraxino-pratensis from accessing water, whereas these same conditions may indirectly affect N. mohavensis by reducing surface soil moisture and thus its ability to access water.

  4. A review of therapeutic potential of Saussurea lappa-An endangered plant from Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Zahara, Kulsoom; Tabassum, Shaista; Sabir, Sidra; Arshad, Muhammad; Qureshi, Rahmatullah; Amjad, Muhammad Shoaib; Chaudhari, Sunbal Khalil

    2014-09-01

    There are 300 known Saussurea species. Among them, Saussurea lappa (S. lappa) is a representative perennial herb, globally distributed across Himalaya region. S. lappa has been traditionally used in medicines without obvious adverse effects. Despite significant progress in phytochemical and biological analyses of S. lappa over the past few years, inclusive and critical reviews of this plant are anachronistic or quite limited in scope. The present review aims to summarize up-to-date information on the active constituents, pharmacology, traditional uses, trade and challenges in conservation and sustainable use of S. lappa from the literature. In addition to botanical studies and records of the traditional use of S. lappa in over 43 diseases, scientific studies investigating the latent medicinal uses of this species and its constituent phytochemicals for a range of disorders are presented and discussed. The structure, bioactivity, and likely mechanisms of action of S. lappa and its phytochemicals are highlighted. Although some progress has been made, further scrupulous efforts are required to investigate the individual compounds isolated from S. lappa to validate and understand its traditional uses and develop clinical applications. The present review offers preliminary information and gives direction for further basic and clinical research into this plant.

  5. RNA Synthesis in Whole Cells and Protoplasts of Centaurea

    PubMed Central

    Kulikowski, Robert R.; Mascarenhas, Joseph P.

    1978-01-01

    Protoplasts enzymically isolated from suspension cultures of Centaurea cyanus L. incorporate radioactive precursors into RNA with kinetics similar to that of whole cells. There are differences, however, in several other aspects of RNA metabolism. The proportion of total RNA that contains poly(A) sequences (25 to 30%) is similar in both freshly isolated protoplasts and whole cells after a 20-minute pulse with [3H]adenosine. After a 4-hour pulse, however, poly(A)-containing RNA makes up 30% of the total RNA in protoplasts whereas it drops to 8% in whole cells. There appears to be a faulty processing of ribosomal precursor into the mature ribosomal species, as the precursor seems to accumulate to higher levels relative to the mature 18S and 25S rRNAs in protoplasts as compared to whole cells. Additional differences are seen in the size distributions of poly(A)-containing RNA, although the length of the poly(A) segment is similar in both protoplasts and whole cells. Within 24 hours protoplasts appear to have resumed a pattern of RNA synthesis similar to that of whole cells. PMID:16660339

  6. Centaurea Revisited: A Molecular Survey of the Jacea Group

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-JACAS, N.; UYSAL, T.; ROMASHCHENKO, K.; SUÁREZ-SANTIAGO, V. N.; ERTUĞRUL, K.; SUSANNA, A.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims The genus Centaurea has traditionally been considered to be a complicated taxon. No attempt at phylogenetic reconstruction has been made since recent revisions in circumscription, and previous reconstructions did not include a good representation of species. A new molecular survey is thus needed. • Methods Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using sequences of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 2 and the 5·8S gene. Parsimony and Bayesian approaches were used. • Key Results A close correlation between geography and the phylogenetic tree based on ITS sequences was found in all the analyses, with three main groups being resolved: (1) comprising the most widely distributed circum-Mediterranean/Eurosiberian sections; (2) the western Mediterranean sections; and (3) the eastern Mediterranean and Irano-Turanian sections. The results show that the sectional classification in current use needs major revision, with many old sections being merged into larger ones. A large polytomy in the eastern Mediterranean clade suggests a rapid and recent speciation in this group. Some inconsistencies between morphology and molecular phylogeny may indicate that hybridization has played a major role in the evolution of the genus. • Conclusions Phylogenetic analysis of ITS has been useful in identifying the major lineages in the group, and unraveling many inconsistencies in the sectional classification. However, most recent groups in the eastern Mediterranean clade are not resolved and reticulation in the western Mediterranean group of sections makes phylogenetic relationships within these two groups somewhat obscure. PMID:16873424

  7. Isolation of microsatellite primers for Melampyrum sylvaticum (Orobanchaceae), an endangered plant in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Crichton, Rhiannon J; Squirrell, Jane; Woodin, Sarah J; Dalrymple, Sarah E; Hollingsworth, Peter M

    2012-11-01

    Microsatellite markers were developed for the hemiparasitic plant Melampyrum sylvaticum to investigate the breeding system, genetic diversity, and structure of populations in the United Kingdom, Sweden, and Norway. Microsatellites were isolated from genomic DNA using an enrichment protocol. Twenty-nine loci were characterized in two individuals from each of 15 geographically disparate populations ("global"). Seven polymorphic loci were further characterized in one population ("local"). The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to 12 in the global sample and one to seven in the local sample. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0-0.75, the observed heterozygosity from 0-0.1, and the inbreeding coefficient from 0.84-1 in the local sample. The results show the utility of these novel polymorphic microsatellite markers for further conservation genetic analyses. The strong deficit of heterozygosity across all loci in the local sample suggests the species may be inbreeding.

  8. Rapid plant regeneration and analysis of genetic fidelity of in vitro derived plants of Chlorophytum arundinaceum Baker--an endangered medicinal herb.

    PubMed

    Lattoo, S K; Bamotra, S; Sapru Dhar, R; Khan, S; Dhar, A K

    2006-06-01

    An efficient in vitro multiplication system via multiple shoot bud induction and regeneration has been developed in Chlorophytum arundinaceum using shoot crown explants. Optimum regeneration frequency (87%) and desirable organogenetic response in the form of de novo organized multiple shoot buds without an intervening callus phase was obtained on Murashige and Skoog's (MS) minimal organics medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 4 x 10(-6) M Kn and 2 x 10(-6) MIBA. Axenic secondary explants with multiple shoot buds on subculturing elicited best response with 1 x 10(-5) M Kinetin (Kn) and 5 x 10(-6) M indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) giving rise to an average of 18.74 shoots per culture with mean shoot length of 7.6 cm +/- 1.73. Varying molar ratios of either Kn/IBA or Kn/NAA revealed statistically significant differences in the regeneration frequencies among the phytohormone treatments. It was observed that the shoot bud differentiation and regeneration was influenced by the molar ratios of cytokinins/auxin rather than their relative concentrations. Healthy regenerated shoots were rooted in half strength MS basal medium containing 3% sucrose (w/v) supplemented with 5 x 10(-6) M IBA. Following simple hardening procedures, rooted plantlets, were transferred to soil-sand (1:1; v/v) with more than 90% success. Genetic fidelity was assessed using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), karyotype analysis and meiotic behaviour of in vitro and in vivo plants. Five arbitrary decamers displayed same banding profile within all the micropropagated plants and in vivo explant donor. The cytological and molecular analysis complemented and compared well and showed no genomic alterations in the plants regenerated through shoot bud differentiation. High multiplication frequency, molecular, cytological and phenotypic stability ensures the efficacy of the protocol developed for the production and conservation of this important endangered medicinal herb.

  9. Combining incidence and demographic modelling approaches to evaluate metapopulation parameters for an endangered riparian plant

    PubMed Central

    Charney, Noah D.; Record, Sydne

    2016-01-01

    Metapopulations are a central concept in ecology and conservation biology; however, estimating key parameters such as colonization rates presents a substantial obstacle to modelling metapopulations in many species. We develop spatial and non-spatial simulation models that combine incidence- and demographic-based approaches to build a relationship between observed patch occupancy, habitat turnover rates, colonization rates and dispersal scales. Applying these models to long-term observations of Pedicularis furbishiae (Furbish’s lousewort), a rare plant endemic to the Saint John River, we predict that observed habitat patches averaging 550 m in length receive colonizing seedlings with a yearly probability of 0.45 or 0.54, based on two different models. Predictions are consistent with a standard analytic metapopulation formulation modified to partition extinction drivers during the early and the late phases of a population’s life cycle. While the specific results rest on several simplifying assumptions, the models allow us to understand the impact that increasing rates of habitat turnover would have on the future survival of this species. PMID:27339047

  10. 75 FR 42040 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition to List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Amargosa toad (Anaxyrus nelsoni) as threatened or endangered and to designate critical habitat under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended. After review of all available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Amargosa toad is not warranted at this time. However, we ask the public to submit to us any new information that becomes available concerning the threats to the Amargosa toad or its habitat at any time.

  11. 76 FR 62213 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Mohave...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-06

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the Mohave ground squirrel (Spermophilus mohavensis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the Mohave ground squirrel is not warranted at this time. However, we ask the public to continue to submit to us any new information that becomes available concerning the threats to the Mohave ground squirrel or its habitat at any time.

  12. Allogamy-Autogamy Switch Enhance Assortative Mating in the Allotetraploid Centaurea seridis L. Coexisting with the Diploid Centaurea aspera L. and Triggers the Asymmetrical Formation of Triploid Hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ferriol, María; Garmendia, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Ana; Merle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between tetraploids and their related diploids is generally unsuccessful in Centaurea, hence natural formation of triploid hybrids is rare. In contrast, the diploid Centaurea aspera and the allotetraploid C. seridis coexist in several contact zones where a high frequency of triploid hybrids is found. We analyzed the floral biology of the three taxa to identify reproductive isolation mechanisms that allow their coexistence. Flowering phenology was recorded, and controlled pollinations within and between the three taxa were performed in the field. Ploidy level and germination of progeny were also assessed. There was a 50% flowering overlap which indicated a phenological shift. Diploids were strictly allogamous and did not display mentor effects, while tetraploids were found to be highly autogamous. This breakdown of self-incompatibility by polyploids is first described in Centaurea. The asymmetrical formation of the hybrid was also found: all the triploid intact cypselae came from the diploid mothers pollinated by the pollen of tetraploids. Pollen and eggs from triploids were totally sterile, acting as a strong triploid block. These prezygotic isolation mechanisms ensured higher assortative mating in tetraploids than in diploids, improving their persistence in the contact zones. However these mechanisms can also be the cause of the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure observed in C. seridis.

  13. Allogamy-Autogamy Switch Enhance Assortative Mating in the Allotetraploid Centaurea seridis L. Coexisting with the Diploid Centaurea aspera L. and Triggers the Asymmetrical Formation of Triploid Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Ferriol, María; Garmendia, Alfonso; Gonzalez, Ana; Merle, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Hybridization between tetraploids and their related diploids is generally unsuccessful in Centaurea, hence natural formation of triploid hybrids is rare. In contrast, the diploid Centaurea aspera and the allotetraploid C. seridis coexist in several contact zones where a high frequency of triploid hybrids is found. We analyzed the floral biology of the three taxa to identify reproductive isolation mechanisms that allow their coexistence. Flowering phenology was recorded, and controlled pollinations within and between the three taxa were performed in the field. Ploidy level and germination of progeny were also assessed. There was a 50% flowering overlap which indicated a phenological shift. Diploids were strictly allogamous and did not display mentor effects, while tetraploids were found to be highly autogamous. This breakdown of self-incompatibility by polyploids is first described in Centaurea. The asymmetrical formation of the hybrid was also found: all the triploid intact cypselae came from the diploid mothers pollinated by the pollen of tetraploids. Pollen and eggs from triploids were totally sterile, acting as a strong triploid block. These prezygotic isolation mechanisms ensured higher assortative mating in tetraploids than in diploids, improving their persistence in the contact zones. However these mechanisms can also be the cause of the low genetic diversity and high genetic structure observed in C. seridis. PMID:26469271

  14. First Report of Crown Gall Caused by Agrobacterium sp. on Diffuse Knapweed (Centaurea diffusa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A specimen of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa, DK) with crown gall-like symptoms was collected July 27, 2004, in Mosier, Wasco Co., OR (N 45.6842, W 121.4021), and sent to the USDA at Ft. Detrick, MD, for identification. A bacterium was isolated on Potato Dextrose Agar that caused hyperplasia a...

  15. Puccinia jaceae is established on Yellow Starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) in Oregon

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Puccinia jaceae Otth var. solstitialis isolate FDWSRU 84-71 from the California Department of Food and Agriculture was released under APHIS permit at seven sites in Oregon for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) between May, 2008, and April, 2011. Sites were inspected ...

  16. Effects of fire and restoration seeding on establishment of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa)

    Treesearch

    Alison Whittaker; Scott L. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa), herein referred to simply as knapweed, is a noxious weed that invades both disturbed and healthy sagebrush communities. Fire, grazing, mining, recreation, and farming have all played a large part in the establishment of knapweed in Tintic Valley, Utah. This study was designed to look at the...

  17. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  18. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  19. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  20. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  1. 50 CFR 17.51 - Treatment as endangered or threatened.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) ENDANGERED AND THREATENED WILDLIFE AND PLANTS Similarity of Appearance § 17.51 Treatment as endangered or threatened. (a) Any species listed in § 17.11 or § 17.12... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Treatment as endangered or threatened....

  2. 77 FR 33142 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Petition Finding and Proposed Listing of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Search box, enter FWS-R8-ES-2010-0049, which is the docket number for this rulemaking. Then, on the left... INFORMATION CONTACT). Authority: The authority for this action is the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (16 U.S.C... determinable at the time because we did not have sufficient information on what physical and biological...

  3. 77 FR 13248 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of 46 Species in Idaho...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... River physa snail and bull trout, submit information to: Branch Chief, Classification and Recovery... (for Snake River physa snail and bull trout). Individuals who are hearing impaired or speech impaired...). Population. Snail, Snake River physa........ Physa natricina... Endangered........ U.S.A. (ID)....... 57...

  4. 76 FR 75858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 6-Month Extension of Final Determination for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ...-Month Extension of Final Determination for the Proposed Listing of the Dunes Sagebrush Lizard as... determination of whether to list the dunes sagebrush lizard (Sceloporus arenicolus) (lizard) as endangered and... published a proposed rule (75 FR 77801) to list the dunes sagebrush lizard, a lizard known from southeastern...

  5. 75 FR 9377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Flat- Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION..., proposed rule to list the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) as threatened under the Endangered..., 1993 (58 FR 62624), to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species, and reopens the...

  6. 78 FR 77485 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Revised Recovery Plan for the Black-Footed Ferret

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... North America wherever prairie dogs occurred. The species was listed as endangered in 1967 (32 FR 4001... with prairie dogs was an important factor in the ferret's decline. From the late 1800s to approximately the 1960s, prairie dog-occupied habitat and prairie dog numbers were dramatically reduced by the...

  7. 75 FR 30338 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-month Finding on a Petition to List the White...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ... Finding on a Petition to List the White-tailed Prairie Dog as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and... Wildlife Service announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the white-tailed prairie dog (Cynomys... dog is not warranted at this time. However, we ask the public to submit to us any new information that...

  8. 76 FR 49408 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ...; Proposed Listing of the Miami Blue Butterfly as Endangered, and Proposed Listing of the Cassius Blue, Ceraunus Blue, and Nickerbean Blue Butterflies as Threatened Due to Similarity of Appearance to the Miami Blue Butterfly AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule; request for public...

  9. 76 FR 30757 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Salmon-Crested Cockatoo as Threatened...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, determine threatened status for the salmon-crested cockatoo (Cacatua moluccensis) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). This final rule implements the Federal protections provided by the Act for this species. We are also publishing a special rule for the species.

  10. 75 FR 51969 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List the Oklahoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of petition finding and initiation of status review. SUMMARY: We... Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Based on our review, we find that the petition presents substantial... a review of the status of the species to determine if listing C. oklahomensis as endangered or...

  11. 77 FR 48934 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Bicknell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... water droplets undergo rapid freezing upon contact with a cold surface (Wallace 1939, p. 282; Rimmer et... Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) 2009, p. 9), despite being relatively common at the... 2006). Weather is an important factor in the survival of this insect, because in cold winters, only...

  12. 75 FR 48914 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition to Delist the Tiger...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ... on a Petition to Delist the Tiger (Panthera tigris) AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), announce a 90-day finding on a petition to remove the tiger (Panthera tigris) from the List of Endangered... information that becomes available concerning the status of the tiger or threats to it or its habitat at any...

  13. 75 FR 28636 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 34 Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-21

    ... 15427; 4/13/ aguabonita whitei. 1978. Morro Bay kangaroo rat Dipodomys Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA... and Wildlife Office at (916) 414-6600. For the Morro Bay Kangaroo rat, Santa Cruz Island fox, San... treated, except when it occurs in an area within the National Wildlife Refuge System or the National...

  14. 76 FR 44564 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Seven Listed Species

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ..., SD, TN, WI). Pearlymussel, Curtis' Epioblasma Endangered U.S.A. (AR, MO).. June 14, 1976 (41... 14, 1988 decurrens. (53 FR 45858). Fassett's locoweed Oxytropis Threatened U.S.A. (WI..._mckenzie@fws.gov . Office, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 101 Park DeVille Drive, Suite A, Columbia, MO...

  15. 78 FR 8185 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Status Reviews of 44 Species...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... suitability; (C) Conservation measures that have been implemented that benefit the species; (D) Threat status... 49 FR 33881; 08/ Ocean--U.S.A 27/1984. (Guam). White-eye, Rota bridled........ Zosterops Endangered... completed and currently active 5-year reviews addressing species for which the Pacific Region of the Service...

  16. 77 FR 70987 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Status Review for a Petition To List the Ashy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... for a Petition To List the Ashy Storm-Petrel as Endangered or Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife... collection period regarding the status of the ashy storm-petrel (Oceanodroma homochroa) throughout its range in the United States. The status review will include analysis of whether the ashy storm-petrel may...

  17. 78 FR 19510 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Initiation of 5-Year Reviews of 56 Species in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ..... Kenwood Marsh Endangered........ U.S.A. (CA)....... 62 FR 54791; 10/22/ Josh Hull (above). checker-mallow...). Malacothamnus clementinus San Clemente Island Carlsbad Bradd Baskerville- bush-mallow. Bridges (above). Malacothamnus fasciculatus var. Santa Cruz Island bush- Ventura Connie Rutherford, 805- nesioticus. mallow. 644...

  18. 78 FR 8576 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 5-Year Status Reviews of Ocelot and Mexican...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Ocelot and Mexican Spotted Owl in the Southwest Region AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior...), of the endangered ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) and the threatened Mexican spotted owl (Strix..., Sternberg@fws.gov Attention 5-Year (email). Review, 3325 Green Jay Road, Alamo, TX 78516. Owl, Mexican...

  19. 77 FR 56858 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Subspecies of Island Fox AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of document availability... availability of our Draft Recovery Plan for Four Subspecies of Island Fox (Urocyon littoralis) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Each of the four subspecies, San Miguel Island fox (Urocyon...

  20. 76 FR 7528 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To Revise Critical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... on a Petition To Revise Critical Habitat for Vernal Pool Fairy Shrimp and Vernal Pool Tadpole Shrimp... petition to revise critical habitat for vernal pool fairy shrimp (Branchinecta lynchi) and vernal pool tadpole shrimp (Lepidurus packardi) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Following...

  1. 76 FR 17664 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Permits, City of Scotts Valley and Santa Cruz...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-30

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Availability of Documents You may download a copy of the IPHCP, IAs and related... phone. Individuals wishing copies of the Draft IPHCP, Draft EA, and/or Draft IAs, should contact the...) at 50 CFR part 17 prohibit the ``take'' of fish or wildlife species listed as endangered...

  2. 76 FR 38203 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Amendment to the Draft Recovery Plan for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ..., 11103 E. Montgomery Drive, Spokane Valley, WA 99206 (telephone: 509-891-6839). Written comments and... and the Endangered Species Act (Act) (16 U.S.C. 1531 et seq.). Recovery means improvement of the... occurred in portions of six Washington counties: Douglas, Grant, Lincoln, Adams, Franklin, and Benton. This...

  3. 75 FR 20974 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ... Finding on a Petition To List the Mountain Whitefish in the Big Lost River, Idaho, as Endangered or... finding on a petition to list the mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) in the Big Lost River, Idaho... finding on a petition to list the mountain whitefish (Prosopium williamsoni) in the Big Lost River, Idaho...

  4. 76 FR 37706 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List Castanea...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-28

    ... 27823), Castanea pumila var. ozarkensis (Ozark chinquapin; see Taxonomy and Species Description section... chinquapin as threatened or endangered. Species Information Taxonomy and Species Description Castanea pumila... the opinion of tree experts that Ozark chinquapin is the best taxonomic classification (see Taxonomy...

  5. 75 FR 1744 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Partial 90-Day Finding on a Petition to List 475...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... number, you need not resubmit it. For more information about the species, background, and our finding... Finding on a Petition to List 475 Species in the Southwestern United States as Threatened or Endangered... Service, announced a 90-day finding on 192 species from a petition to list 475 species in the Southwest...

  6. 78 FR 65938 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition and Proposed Rule...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to remove the Inyo California towhee (Pipilo crissalis eremophilus = Melozone crissalis eremophilus) from the Federal List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife due to recovery. This action is based on a review of the best available scientific and commercial information, which indicates that the species is no longer threatened with......

  7. 76 FR 59623 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... of extinction of the species such that the species warrants listing as endangered or threatened as... the species is in danger of extinction now or in the foreseeable future. The mere identification of... extinction. Because we lack sufficient information related to habitat loss and Tamaulipan agapema population...

  8. 76 FR 50971 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Leona's...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ... risk of extinction of the species such that the species may warrant listing as endangered or threatened... to extinction by the threats of disease and predation due to the fact that it is ``only a single... order to avoid extinction, it does not provide any specific information regarding the impacts of...

  9. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation. PMID:24324859

  10. Diet analysis by next-generation sequencing indicates the frequent consumption of introduced plants by the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon (Columba janthina nitens) in oceanic island habitats.

    PubMed

    Ando, Haruko; Setsuko, Suzuki; Horikoshi, Kazuo; Suzuki, Hajime; Umehara, Shoko; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Isagi, Yuji

    2013-10-01

    Oceanic island ecosystems are vulnerable to the introduction of alien species, and they provide a habitat for many endangered species. Knowing the diet of an endangered animal is important for appropriate nature restoration efforts on oceanic islands because introduced species may be a major component of the diets of some endangered species. DNA barcoding techniques together with next-generation sequencing may provide more detailed information on animal diets than other traditional methods. We performed a diet analysis using 48 fecal samples from the critically endangered red-headed wood pigeon that is endemic to the Ogasawara Islands based on chloroplast trnL P6 loop sequences. The frequency of each detected plant taxa was compared with a microhistological analysis of the same sample set. The DNA barcoding approach detected a much larger number of plants than the microhistological analysis. Plants that were difficult to identify by microhistological analysis after being digested in the pigeon stomachs were frequently identified only by DNA barcoding. The results of the barcoding analysis indicated the frequent consumption of introduced species, in addition to several native species, by the red-headed wood pigeon. The rapid eradication of specific introduced species may reduce the food resources available to this endangered bird; thus, balancing eradication efforts with the restoration of native food plants should be considered. Although some technical problems still exist, the trnL approach to next-generation sequencing may contribute to a better understanding of oceanic island ecosystems and their conservation.

  11. Soil biota and exotic plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Ragan M; Thelen, Giles C; Rodriguez, Alex; Holben, William E

    2004-02-19

    Invasive plants are an economic problem and a threat to the conservation of natural systems. Escape from natural enemies might contribute to successful invasion, with most work emphasizing the role of insect herbivores; however, microbial pathogens are attracting increased attention. Soil biota in some invaded ecosystems may promote 'exotic' invasion, and plant-soil feedback processes are also important. Thus, relatively rare species native to North America consistently demonstrate negative feedbacks with soil microbes that promote biological diversity, whereas abundant exotic and native species demonstrate positive feedbacks that reduce biological diversity. Here we report that soil microbes from the home range of the invasive exotic plant Centaurea maculosa L. have stronger inhibitory effects on its growth than soil microbes from where the weed has invaded in North America. Centaurea and soil microbes participate in different plant-soil feedback processes at home compared with outside Centaurea's home range. In native European soils, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly negative effects on the weed's growth, possibly leading to its control. But in soils from North America, Centaurea cultivates soil biota with increasingly positive effects on itself, which may contribute to the success of this exotic species in North America.

  12. Synthesis, biological activity, and bioavailability of moschamine, a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide found in Centaurea cyanus

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Moschamine is a safflomide-type phenylpropenoic acid amide originally isolated from Centaurea cyanus. This paper describes the synthesis, detection of serotoninergic and COX inhibitory activities, and bioavailability of moschamine. Moschamine was chemically synthesized and identified using NMR spect...

  13. Predicting the Global Potential Distribution of Four Endangered Panax Species in Middle-and Low-Latitude Regions of China by the Geographic Information System for Global Medicinal Plants (GMPGIS).

    PubMed

    Du, Zhixia; Wu, Jie; Meng, Xiangxiao; Li, Jinhua; Huang, Linfang

    2017-09-28

    Global biodiversity is strongly influenced by the decrease in endangered biological species. Predicting the distribution of endangered medicinal plants is necessary for resource conservation. A spatial distribution model-geographic information system for global medicinal plants (GMPGIS)-is used to predict the global potential suitable distribution of four endangered Panax species, including Panax japonicas (T. Nees) C. A. Meyer and Panax japonicas var. major (Burkill) C. Y. Wu & K. M. Feng distributed in low- and middle-latitude, Panax zingiberensis C. Y. Wu & K. M. Feng and Panax stipuleanatus C. T. Tsai & K. M. Feng in low-latitude regions of China based on seven bioclimatic variables and 600 occurrence points. Results indicate that areas of P. japonicus and P. japonicusvar. major are 266.29 × 10⁵ and 77.5 × 10⁵ km², respectively, which are mainly distributed in China and America. By contrast, the areas of P. zingiberensis and P. stipuleanatus are 5.09 × 10⁵ and 2.05 × 10⁵ km², respectively, which are mainly distributed in Brazil and China. P. japonicus has the widest distribution among the four species. The data also indicate that the mean temperature of coldest quarter is the most critical factor. This scientific prediction can be used as reference for resource conservation of endangered plants and as a guide to search for endangered species in previously unknown areas.

  14. 77 FR 43433 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing Foreign Bird Species in Peru and Bolivia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-24

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (We or Service), determine endangered status for the following six South American bird species (collectively referred to as species for purposes of this final rule) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act): Ash- breasted tit-tyrant (Anairetes alpinus), Jun[iacute]n grebe (Podiceps taczanowskii), Jun[iacute]n rail (Laterallus tuerosi), Peruvian plantcutter (Phytotoma raimondii), royal cinclodes (Cinclodes aricomae), and white-browed tit-spinetail (Leptasthenura xenothorax). These species are in danger of extinction throughout all of their ranges. All six species are native to Peru. The ash-breasted tit-tyrant and royal cinclodes are also native to Bolivia.

  15. 76 FR 61895 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the northern leopard frog (Lithobates (=Rana) pipiens) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). After review of the best scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the northern leopard frog is not warranted at this time. However, we ask the public to submit to us any......

  16. 75 FR 76085 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for the Polar Bear...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), designate critical habitat for polar bear (Ursus maritimus) populations in the United States under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). In total, approximately 484,734 square kilometers (km\\2\\) (187,157 square miles (mi\\2\\)) fall within the boundaries of the critical habitat designation. The critical habitat is located in......

  17. 78 FR 11766 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Special Rule for the Polar Bear Under Section 4(d...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-20

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), amends it regulations which implement the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (ESA), to create a special rule under authority of section 4(d) of the ESA that provides measures that are necessary and advisable to provide for the conservation of the polar bear (Ursus maritimus), while also including appropriate prohibitions from section 9(a)(1) of the ESA.

  18. 78 FR 61045 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; 12-Month Finding on a Petition To List the Eastern...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce a 12-month finding on a petition to list the eastern small-footed bat (Myotis leibii) and the northern long-eared bat (Myotis septentrionalis) as endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act) and to designate critical habitat. After review of the best available scientific and commercial information, we find that listing the eastern small-footed bat is not warranted but listing the northern long-eared bat is warranted. Accordingly, we propose to list the northern long-eared bat as an endangered species throughout its range under the Act. We also determine that critical habitat for the northern long-eared bat is not determinable at this time. This proposed rule, if finalized, would extend the Act's protections to the northern long-eared bat. The Service seeks data and comments from the public on this proposed listing rule for the northern long-eared bat.

  19. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-05

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service or USFWS), are proposing to remove the gray wolf (Canis lupus) in Wyoming from the List of Endangered and Threatened Wildlife. This rule focuses on the Wyoming portion of the Northern Rocky Mountain (NRM) Distinct Population Segment (DPS), except where discussion of the larger Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) or NRM metapopulation (a population that exists as partially isolated sets of subpopulations) is necessary to understand impacts to wolves in Wyoming. The best scientific and commercial data available indicate that wolves in Wyoming are recovered and no longer meet the definition of endangered or threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). Wyoming's wolf population is stable, threats are addressed, and a post-delisting monitoring and management framework has been developed. However, additional changes to Wyoming State law and Wyoming Game and Fish Commission regulations are necessary for implementation. We expect the State of Wyoming to adopt the necessary statutory and regulatory changes within the next several months. If this proposal is finalized, the gray wolf would be delisted in Wyoming, the nonessential experimental population designation would be removed, and future management for this species, except in National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges, would be conducted by the appropriate State or Tribal wildlife agencies. We seek information, data, and comments from the public about this proposal including the post-delisting monitoring and management framework.

  20. Genetic Homogeneity Revealed Using SCoT, ISSR and RAPD Markers in Micropropagated Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle- An Endemic and Endangered Medicinal Plant.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Julie; Dwivedi, Mayank D; Sourabh, Pragya; Uniyal, Prem L; Pandey, Arun K

    2016-01-01

    Pittosporum eriocarpum Royle, a medicinally important taxon, is endemic to Uttarakhand region of Himalaya. It has become endangered due to over-collection and the loss of habitats. As raising plants through seeds in this plant is problematic, a reliable protocol for micropropagation using nodal explants has been developed. High shoot regeneration (95%) occurred in MS medium augmented with BA 0.4mg/l in combination IBA 0.6mg/l. In vitro regenerated shoots were rooted in MS medium supplemented with three auxins, of which 0.6 mg/l indole butyric acid proved to be the best for rooting (90%) with maximum number of roots per shoot. Thereafter, rooted plants were hardened and nearly 73% of rooted shoots were successfully acclimatized and established in the field. Start codon targeted (SCoT), inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers were used to validate the genetic homogeneity amongst nine in vitro raised plantlets with mother plant. DNA fingerprints of in vitro regenerated plantlets displayed monomorphic bands similar to mother plant, indicating homogeneity among the micropropagated plants with donor mother plant. The similarity values were calculated based on SCoT, ISSR and RAPD profiles which ranged from 0.89 to 1.00, 0.91 to 1.00 and 0.95 to 1.00 respectively. The dendrograms generated through Unweighted Pair Group Method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) analysis revealed 97% similarity amongst micropropagated plants with donor mother plant, thus confirming genetic homogeneity of micropropagated clones. This is the first report on micropropagation and genetic homogeneity assessment of P. eriocarpum. The protocol would be useful for the conservation and large scale production of P. eriocarpum to meet the demand for medicinal formulations and also for the re-introduction of in vitro grown plants in the suitable natural habitats to restore the populations.