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Sample records for ende der welt

  1. Physik-Nobelpreis 2004 Von der Freiheit in der Welt der Quarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartels, Jochen

    2004-11-01

    Die Schwedische Akademie der Wissenschaften vergab in diesem Jahr den Physik-Nobelpreis zu gleichen Teilen an die amerikanischen Physiker David Gross, David Politzer und Frank Wilczek. Sie würdigte damit ihre theoretischen Arbeiten zur asymptotischen Freiheit in der starken Wechselwirkung.

  2. Die Wirkung als Naturkraft und die Herkunft von Zeit, Raum, Dimensionen, Naturkräften, und Gesetzen von Logik, Geometrie und Physik bei der Entstehung der Welt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2011-02-01

    Das Wirkungs-Welt-Modell enthält eine einfache Beschreibung des Anfanges der Welt, wonach, ausgehend vom einfachsten Zustand der logisch notwendigen Bejahung ihrer Existenz innerhalb ihr selbst, alles sukzessiv bewirkt wird, und ihre logischen, geometrischen und physikalischen Eigenschaften Aspekte der Verkörperung und Fortwirkung primordialer Fakten darstellen, ohne externe Schöpfung auszuschließen. Die ersten Dimensionen und sie formal und subjektiv charakterisierenden Größen sind: Informationsmenge und Wirkung, mit abzählbarem Ereignis und Wirkungsquantum; Zeit und Energie, mit deren Planck-Einheiten; Geschwindigkeit oder Strecke und Impuls, mit Lichtgeschwindigkeit oder Planck-Länge; Krümmung oder zwei räumliche Richtungen, mit Gravitationskonstanten, und aus den ihnen entsprechenden primären Naturkräften setzen sich die uns geläufigen zusammen.

  3. Die Kosmologie der Griechen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelstraß, J.

    Contents: 1. Mythische Eier. 2. Thales-Welten. 3. "Alles ist voller Götter". 4. Griechische Astronomie. 5. "Rettung der Phänomene". 6. Aristotelische Kosmololgie. 7. Aristoteles-Welt und Platon-Welt. 8. Noch einmal: die Göttlichkeit der Welt. 9. Griechischer Idealismus.

  4. Welt und Wirkungsprinzip (2nd Aufl.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, Werner

    2010-03-01

    Modell einer kausalen Bewirkung der Welt, und logische, geometrische, physikalische Interprätation dieser Kausalmenge und Fortwirkung der frühsten ihrer sukzessiv als echt Neues bewirkten und durch Vorhandenes oder Späteres nicht darstellbaren oder widerrufbaren Ereignisse als Dimensionen und sie verkörpernde primäre Naturkräfte, mit Korrespondenz zur beobachteten Welt und ihrer grundlegendsten Eigenschaften. Wirklich ist nur was wirkt, wo und wie. Entsprechend ist im Bogenelement statt der Eigenzeit die variante Anzahl Wirkungen relevant, 0 ≈ 1/h2 dS2 - 1/tpl2 (dt2 - 1/c2 {dq12 + G02/G2 [dq2,32 - ...]}) mit G0 = c4lpl/Epl ≈ G. Die heutigen Dimensionen und Naturkräfte entstanden in dieser Reihenfolge, haben 'komplementäre' aber gleichwertige statische und dynamische Aspekte, entsprechend ihren Termen in Bogenelement bzw. Vierervektor, aus derem Vergleich sowie mit denen ihrer Nachbarn folgen Grundgleichungen bzw. Erhaltungssätze. Jeweils individuelle Eigenschaften wie ihre Naturkonstante konkretisieren sie und tragen zu gattungsmäßigen wie globale Affinität und Äquivalenzen bei. Ältestes Gebiet oder räumlicher Rand jeder Dimension sind die ersten vom Vorgänger bewirkten Ereignisse, selbst raumzeitlicher Ursprung des Nachfolgers, dort einmalig und ewig maximal rotverschoben fortwirkend und nicht lokalisierbar, um neue Elementareinheiten verschieden und lichtartig mit deren Verhältnis oder dem ihrer globalen Zustandsgrößen als konstanten Anfangsimpuls, Expansion, Längen- oder Ereignisdichte zueinander. Der Übergang vom diskreten Modell weniger Informationen zum Kontinuum und die Korrespondenz zur Physik ist problemlos, Details wie ein kontinuierlicher, abrupter oder ganz fehlender Abfall der Metrik beim ältesten Gebiet sind aber nur durch Beobachtungen entscheidbar. Erörtert werden allgemeine und individuelle Eigenschaften und ihre Konsequenzen der Dimensionen mit ihren Kräften, selbst und im Verhältnis zueinander, etwa ihrer begrenzten

  5. Die Welt des Herrn Kuhn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Daniela

    Eines Morgens erwachte Herr Kuhn fröstelnd und staunte darüber, dass es in seinerWohnung eiskalt war. Dennoch quälte er sich aus seiner kuscheligen Bettdecke heraus und schlurfte ins Bad. "Hoffentlich wird wenigstens das Wasser warm", dachte er sich, als er den Wasserhahn betätigte - aber es kam nicht nur kein warmesWasser, außer einem unheilvollen Gluckser kam gar nichts aus der Leitung. "Dann werde ich wohl mal den Klempner anrufen", sprach er sich leise in den Bart und griff zu seinem Handy - doch das Netz war tot! Herr Kuhn begann nun, sich ernsthaft Sorgen zu machen, "Oje, was ist denn heute nur los? Ist irgendetwas Schlimmes passiert?" Um einen besseren Überblick über die Lage zu bekommen und sich austauschen zu können, brannte er nun förmlich darauf, rauszugehen und zur Arbeit zu fahren. An anderen Tagen, die er frisch geduscht und mit Kaffee und Marmeladen-Brot begann, war er selten so motiviert. So ging er also nun mit leerem Magen aus dem Haus. Hätte er den Versuch unternommen, sein tägliches Marmeladenbrot zuzubereiten, und dafür den Kühlschrank geöffnet, um das Marmeladenglas herauszunehmen, wäre ihm aufgefallen, dass auch die Stromversorgung Störungen unterworfen war, unschön zu erkennen an den ersten grünen, felligen Inseln auf seinem Lieblingskäse.

  6. Das Lob der Sternkunst. Astronomie in der deutschen Aufklärung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baasner, R.

    Contents: 1. Einleitung. 2. Die Astronomie im Rahmen der Aufklärungs-Physik. 3. Das Lob der Sternkunst. 4. Ein Blick auf die Sternwarten. 5. Allgemeine Darstellungen der Sternkunde. 6. Schleppende Rezeption: Das kopernikanische Weltbild. 7. Himmelsphysik: Die Debatte um die causa gravitatis. 8. Theorie der Himmelskörper. 9. Die Erde als Gegenstand der Astronomie. 10. Die Sonne. 11. Der Mond. 12. Die Planeten. 13. Die Kometen. 14. Die Fixsterne. 15. Die Entstehung der Welt. 16. Beiträge der Astrotheologie. 17. Der Kampf gegen die Astrologen.

  7. Zum Wissenschaftsverständnis der modernen Evolutionsbiologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, Ralf J.

    Die moderne Evolutionsbiologie hat ihren Ursprung in den Arbeiten von Charles Darwin und Alfred Wallace (Darwin 1963). Der gemeinsame Ausgangspunkt des Evolutionsgedanken ist dabei die Beobachtung, dass die biologische Welt nicht konstant ist. Biologische Systeme und alle darin lebenden Organismen unterliegen über längere Zeiträume hinweg einer stetigen Veränderung. Diese grundlegende Eigenschaft biologischer Systeme macht die Biologie zu einer historischen Wissenschaft und stellt einen wichtigen Gegensatz zu großen Teilen der Physik dar. Obwohl die Aussage von der Veränderlichkeit der Arten heute trivial klingt, war sie im 19. Jahrhundert eine Revolution, da die Konstanz der Arten und der Welt eine vorherrschende Stellung im damaligen Weltbild hatte (Amundson 2005).

  8. Die Parting welt marks' measurement using structured laser analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarr, Dennis P.; Mullen, Joey H.

    1997-01-01

    Heating and cooling air for an aircraft interior is transported using metal ducts. These ducts vary in size from a few centimeters to twelve centimeters in diameter. In the assembly of aircraft air ducts, coupling is swaged onto the ducts. In assuring the mechanical dies are operating properly the die parting welt mark is inspected. The current method of visual inspection and checking with calipers does not allow implementation of statistical process control methods. In an effort to improve this process check, a new measurement method is being developed. A feasibility study indicated that a structured light laser system would be a good approach. A few requirements are: it must be portable to be used at different locations within the fabrication area, it must be fast, it should be easy to use by the mechanic, the reading must be accurate, a hard copy print out is required, and it must be non-destructive. Due to the mechanical configuration of the duct and coupling, a camera with magnification optics is used. The measurement of the bump has a maximum height of 50.8 microns. The prototype systems uses computer vision and custom software written in the C language. This paper discusses different measurement methods tested and the benefits of each technology. The development of a specialized system is justified for production use. This paper describes the prototype system and some of its configuration for factory testing.

  9. Tectonic accretion and the origin of the two major metamorphic and plutonic welts in the Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monger, J. W. H.; Price, R. A.; Tempelman-Kluit, D. J.

    1982-02-01

    The Omineca Crystalline Belt and Coast Plutonic Complex are the two major regional tectonic welts in the Canadian Cordillera in which were concentrated intense deformation, regional metamorphism, granitic magmatism, uplift, and erosion. The welts, which formerly were thought to result from subduction of Pacific Ocean lithosphere beneath the western edge of North America, can now be viewed partly as the result of tectonic overlap and/or compressional thickening of crustal rocks during collisions between North America and two large, composite, allochthonous terranes that were accreted to its ancient western margin. The inner composite terrane, Terrane I, includes four smaller terranes that apparently were together by the end of Triassic time. The outer composite terrane, Terrane II, comprises two terranes, amalgamated by Late Jurassic time. The Omineca Crystalline Belt formed mainly from mid-Jurassic time onward, during and following the collision of Terrane I with North America. This belt straddles the zone of overlap of autochthonous and allochthonous terranes, and its characteristic metamorphism and structure are superimposed on both. The Coast Plutonic Complex formed mainly in Cretaceous to early Tertiary time during and following the attachment of Terrane II to the new, Jurassic, continental margin. It lies along the boundary of Terrane I and Terrane II and involves elements of both terranes. The collisions took place within the overall setting of the North American plate moving relatively westward into various Pacific plates from Jurassic time onward and in conjunction with subduction of Pacific Ocean lithosphere. *Present address: Geological Survey of Canada, 601 Booth Street, Ottawa, Ontario K1A OE8, Canada

  10. Vom Himmelsmythos zum Weltgesetz. Eine Kulturgeschichte der Astronomie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialas, V.

    Contents: I: Die Betrachtung des Himmels im Zeichen des Mythos. 1. Astronomische Spuren der Vorzeit. 2. Naturvölker und Ethnoastronomie. 3. Hochkulturen in Asien und Amerika. 4. Das alte Ägypten. 5. Mesopotamien. 6. Die mythisch-religiöse Erfahrung der Welt und die frühe Astronomie. II: Vom Mythos zum Logos. 7. Antikes Griechenland. 8. Römische Antike und frühes Christentum (ca. 200 v. Chr. - 500 n. Chr.). 9. Astronomie unter dem Zeichen des Islam. 10. Europäisches Mittelalter. 11. Die Astronomie als kulturelles Erbe der Menschheit. III: Die Selbstdifferenzierung des Logos. 12. Das Buch der Natur wird aufgeschlagen. 13. Klassische Astronomie und philosophische Aufklärung (ca. 1700 - 1850). 14. Neue Wege der Kosmosforschung in Astrophysik und Kosmologie (ca. 1850 - 1950). 15. Schlußbetrachtung: Die Frage nach dem Weltbild in verunsicherter Zeit.

  11. Ganzheitliche Digitalisierungsansätze im Stadtwerk: Von der Strategie bis zur Umsetzung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudenhausen, Roman; Hahn, Heike

    Digitalisierung muss im Stadtwerk dazu führen, Kundenerwartungen, die heutzutage schon vielfach durch digitales Know-how und Erfahrungen geprägt sind, in einzigartiger Weise zu entsprechen - in Form digitaler Kundenkontaktpunkte, automatisierter Prozesse oder plattformbasierter Geschäftsmodelle. Eine große Rolle spielen dabei unternehmensweit nutzbare Informationen, die eine 360-Grad-Sicht auf den Kunden ermöglichen. Nur in dieser Kombination werden sich nachhaltig Wettbewerbsvorteile generieren lassen. Manch ein Kunde wird die Lust, einen Prozess zu Ende zu gehen, schon vor dem Abschluss verlieren, wenn er nicht unmittelbar und ohne die digitale Welt zu verlassen zum Ziel kommt. Eine nur "halb digitale Kundenerfahrung" wird weder zu Neugeschäft noch zur positiven emotionalen Bindung zwischen Kunden und Stadtwerk führen. Nicht zu unterschätzen sind zudem Erwartungen hinsichtlich zukünftiger Geschäftsmodelle, aus denen sich disruptive Bedrohungen für die herkömmlichen Strom- und Gasangebote ergeben werden. Erste innovative Ansätze finden sich bereits im Markt, die erahnen lassen, dass zurzeit viel diskutierte Technologien wie die Blockchain nicht mehr nur hypothetischer Natur sind. Die Auseinandersetzung mit der Digitalisierung erfolgt dabei sinnvollerweise in einem unternehmensweit abgestimmten Rahmen, der eine zielgerichtete und ganzheitliche Vorgehensweise ermöglicht.

  12. Die Digitalisierung der Energiewirtschaft: Potenziale und Herausforderungen der IKT-Branche für Utility 4.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichele, Christian; Schönberger, Marius

    Energieunternehmen haben auf dem Weg zur digitalen Transformation noch viele Herausforderungen zu bewältigen. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt liegt derzeit auf der Modernisierung der IT-Systeme. Ausgangspunkt hierzu ist, dass sich bei den Endkonsumenten Mobile Applikationen, Smartphones, Tablet-PCs oder Smart TVs einer immensen Beliebtheit erfreuen. Durch diese Technologien wird die physische und virtuelle Welt in immer weiter zunehmendem Maße miteinander verknüpft. Mobile Applikation können einen wahren Hype hervorrufen und Verhaltensweisen auch nachhaltig verändern (ein Beispiel hierfür ist Pokémon Go, eine App die ein virtuelles Spiel mit der realen Umgebung kombiniert und die erstmalig auch eingefleischte Zocker aus der Anonymität ihrer häuslichen Umgebung hervorlocken konnte und für analoge Bewegung im Freien sorgte).

  13. Der II. Hauptsatz der Wärmelehre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    Wir haben in (4.44) den II. Hauptsatz als empirische Tatsache folgendermaßen formuliert: (i) Wärmeenergie geht von selbst nur von einem wärmeren Körper auf einen kälteren über, niemals in der umgekehrten Richtung. Nun werden wir beweisen, dass sich aus diesem Prinzip folgende äquivalente Formulierungen für den II. Hauptsatz ableiten lassen: (ii) Es ist unmöglich, ein Perpetuum mobile zweiter Art zu bauen, d. h. eine Maschine, die fortlaufend Wärmeenergie vollständig in mechanische Arbeit umsetzen kann. Eine Wärmekraftmaschine, die einen Kreisprozess mit der höchsten Temperatur Tw und der niedrigsten Temperatur Tk durchläuft, hat höchstens den Carnotschen Wirkungsgrad c = (Tw - Tk)/Tw. Wenn in der Maschine nur reversible Prozesse ablaufen, die gesamte Wärmezufuhr bei der Temperatur Tw erfolgt und ausschließlich bei der Temperatur Tw gekühlt wird, ist ihr Wirkungsgrad = C. Es gibt keine Wärmekraftmaschine, die eine bessere Ausnutzung der Wärmeenergie ermöglicht. (iv) In jedem thermodynamischen System existiert die Zustandsgröße Entropie, definiert durch ihr Differential dS = (dQrev)/T . Entropie kann erzeugt, aber nicht vernichtet werden. Bei Zustandsänderungen, die in einem abgeschlossenen System ablaufen, nimmt die Entropie entweder zu (irreversible Prozesse), oder sie bleibt konstant (reversible Prozesse). Im Anschluss an (iii) werden wir zur Definition der thermodynamischen Temperatur und bei der Diskussion von (iv) zu einem tieferen Verständnis der Entropie gelangen. Es zeigt sich, dass die Entropie das eigentliche Bindeglied zwischen Mechanik und Wärmelehre darstellt. Am Ende des Kapitels werden wir einige Anwendungen des II. Hauptsatzes betrachten.

  14. 'Melt welt' mechanism of extreme weakening of gabbro at seismic slip rates.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kevin M; Fialko, Yuri

    2012-08-30

    Laboratory studies of frictional properties of rocks at slip velocities approaching the seismic range (∼0.1-1 m s(-1)), and at moderate normal stresses (1-10 MPa), have revealed a complex evolution of the dynamic shear strength, with at least two phases of weakening separated by strengthening at the onset of wholesale melting. The second post-melting weakening phase is governed by viscous properties of the melt layer and is reasonably well understood. The initial phase of extreme weakening, however, remains a subject of much debate. Here we show that the initial weakening of gabbro is associated with the formation of hotspots and macroscopic streaks of melt ('melt welts'), which partially unload the rest of the slip interface. Melt welts begin to form when the average rate of frictional heating exceeds 0.1-0.4 MW m(-2), while the average temperature of the shear zone is well below the solidus (250-450 °C). Similar heterogeneities in stress and temperature are likely to occur on natural fault surfaces during rapid slip, and to be important for earthquake rupture dynamics.

  15. Von der Freundlichkeit in der Welt: Uber die phatische Funktion der Sprache im interkulturellen Dialog (Of Friendliness in the World: The Phatic Function of Language in Intercultural Dialogue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rall, Marlene

    1996-01-01

    We humans do have a gift for bringing friendliness to this world, and this ability directly challenges the lines that Brecht wrote in which "the friendliness in this world" amounts to little more than "two handfuls of earth." With examples and thoughts from linguistics, cultural anthropology, and literature, readers are invited to reflect on how…

  16. Von der Freundlichkeit in der Welt: Uber die phatische Funktion der Sprache im interkulturellen Dialog (Of Friendliness in the World: The Phatic Function of Language in Intercultural Dialogue).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rall, Marlene

    1996-01-01

    We humans do have a gift for bringing friendliness to this world, and this ability directly challenges the lines that Brecht wrote in which "the friendliness in this world" amounts to little more than "two handfuls of earth." With examples and thoughts from linguistics, cultural anthropology, and literature, readers are invited to reflect on how…

  17. Zeitspiel ist keine Alternative - Warum der Wandel zur Pflicht wird

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieper, Stephan

    "Wege entstehen dadurch, dass man sie geht." (Franz Kafka) Die Welt der Digitalisierung ist voll von Wegen, die jemand gegangen ist, bevor dort ein Weg war. Manche dieser Wege stellten sich als Sackgasse heraus, manche als Abkürzung und aus anderen wurden ganze Wegenetze und Städte. Die Energiewelt wird durch den digitalen Wandel nicht verschont bleiben. Durch die intelligenten Messsysteme und die zugehörigen, neuen Strukturen werden energiefremden Wettbewerbern Chancen zum Markteintritt eröffnet. EVUs müssen sich darauf einstellen, dass der permanente Wandel nicht mehr enden wird. Doch auch den EVUs eröffnen sich Optionen. Um erfolgreich zu sein, müssen sie lernen loszugehen, ohne das genaue Ziel zu kennen.

  18. Entwicklung und Formulierung der Unternehmensstrategie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Lacker, Thomas

    Ursprünglich stammt der Begriff "Strategie“ aus dem Altgriechischen: "strategos“ bedeutete "Heer“, "Heeresmacht“ und damit auch "konzentrierte Kraft“; das Wort "agein“ bedeutete "tun, machen, treiben“. Ein Stratege war also eine Person, die ein Heer führte und damit Kraft, Macht und Stärke konzentrierte und einsetzen konnte. Strategie bezeichnete dementsprechend die Maßnahmen, die in dieser Funktion entwickelt wurden. Daher ist es leicht verständlich, dass der Begriff Strategie bis in die Mitte des letzten Jahrhunderts in erster Linie militärisch verstanden wurde. Anschließend wurde der Begriff in weiteren Bereichen, wie beispielsweise der Unternehmensführung, verwendet. Im betriebswirtschaftlichen Sinne bedeutet der Begriff Strategie die langfristig geplante Verhaltensweise eines Unternehmens zur Erreichung seiner Ziele.

  19. Verbesserung der Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ens, Konstantin; Wenzel, Fabian; Fischer, Bernd

    Die lokale Symmetrie von Hirnscans entlang der Sagittalebene zu ermitteln und zu modizifieren, ist für eine Reihe neurologischer Anwendungen interessant. Beispielsweise kann der voxelweise Vergleich von rechter und linker Hirnhälfte nur dann Aufschluss über die Lokalisierung von Läsionen geben, wenn durch Transformation ein Hirnscan eine möglichst hohe Symmetrie aufweist. Ein weiteres Anwendungsgebiet ist die Visualisierung von medialen Hirnschnitten, für die die Trennfläche beider Hirnhälfte möglichst eben sein sollte. Diese Arbeit stellt die Entwicklung eines Verfahrens vor, mit dessen Hilfe die Symmetrie von Hirnaufnahmen entlang der Sagittalebene verbessert werden kann. Dies geschieht unter Verwendung von aktiven Konturen, die mit Hilfe einer neuartigen Kostenfunktion gesteuert werden. Experimente am Ende der Arbeit mit strukturellen Kernspinaufnahmen demonstrieren die Leistungsfähigkeit des Verfahrens.

  20. Der evolutionäre Naturalismus in der Ethik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Marie I.

    Charles Darwin hat eindrucksvoll gezeigt, dass der Mensch ebenso wie alle anderen Lebewesen ein Produkt der biologischen Evolution ist. Die sich an Darwin anschließende Forschung hat außerdem plausibel gemacht, dass sich nicht nur viele der körperlichen Merkmale des Menschen, sondern auch (zumindest einige) seiner Verhaltensdispositionen in adaptiven Selektionsprozessen herausgebildet haben. Die Vorstellung, dass auch die menschliche Moralität evolutionär bedingt ist, scheint daher auf den ersten Blick ganz überzeugend. Schließlich hat die Evolutionstheorie in den vergangenen Jahrzehnten in vielen Bereichen (auch außerhalb der Biologie) ihre weitreichende Bedeutung unter Beweis gestellt. Warum sollte, so könnte man beispielsweise fragen, gerade die Fähigkeit des Menschen, moralische Normen aufzustellen und gemäß ihnen zu handeln, nicht evolutionär erklärt werden können? Und warum sollte eine solche evolutionäre Erklärung der menschlichen Moralität irrelevant für die Rechtfertigung moralischer Normen sein? Warum sollte die Ethik eine Bastion der Philosophen bleiben, für die evolutionsbiologische Forschungsergebnisse über den Menschen und seine nächsten Verwandten keinerlei Relevanz besitzen?

  1. Umsetzung der Unternehmensstrategie mit der Balanced Scorecard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crespo, Isabel; Bergmann, Lars; Portmann, Stefan; Lacker, Thomas; Lacker, Michael; Fleischmann, Jürgen; Kozó, Hans

    Die Balanced Scorecard (BSC) ist ein Ansatz zum strategischen Management, der neben der Ausrichtung des Unternehmens auf finanzielle Zielwerte ebenso großes Gewicht auf so genannte weiche Faktoren legt, die den wirtschaftlichen Erfolg eines Unternehmens erst ermöglichen. Das entscheidende Merkmal der Balanced Scorecard ist dabei, dass sie ein ausgewogenes System strategischer Ziele herstellt, welches das Unternehmen hinsichtlich der vier Perspektiven Finanzen, Kunden, interne Prozesse und Mitarbeiter und Potenziale strategisch ausrichtet (Kaplan u. Norton 1997).

  2. Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, F.

    This book is a German translation, by V. Delavre, from the English original "The origin of the Universe and the origin of religion", published in 1993. Contents: E. Sens: Die unterbrochene Musikstunde. Einleitung zur deutschen Ausgabe. C. Ryskamp: Einführung. R. N. Anshen: Vorwort. F. Hoyle: Kosmische Katastrophen und der Ursprung der Religion - Die Folgen der Respektabilität; Eiszeiten und Kometen; Die allgemeine Situation in den Nacheiszeiten; Kometen und der Ursprung der Religionen; Der Übergang zu Mittelalter und Neuzeit. Diskussionsbeiträge: Ruth Nanda Anshen, Freeman Dyson, Paul Oscar Kristeller, John Archibald Wheeler, James Schwartz, Roger Shinn, Milton Gatch, Philip Solomon, Norman Newell. F. Hoyle: Schlußwort. A. Tollmann: Nachwort zur deutschen Ausgabe.

  3. Akustikgestaltung in der Fahrzeugentwicklung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pletschen, Bernd

    Die zielgerichtete Entwicklung der Fahrzeugakustik stellt eine hochkomplexe, integrative Aufgabenstellung im Rahmen der Fahrkomfortgestaltung des Automobils dar. Die Wahrnehmung der Komforteigenschaften eines Fahrzeugs erfolgt grundsätzlich als Wahrnehmung der Wirkung dieser Eigenschaften über einen oder mehrere Wahrnehmungskanäle des Menschen: visuell, auditiv, haptisch, olfaktorisch. Die individuelle Wahrnehmung ist hierbei subjektiv und daher mit rein physikalisch objektiven Messgrößen allein nur unvollständig zu beschreiben. Sie hängt einerseits von den Eigenschaften des betrachteten Fahrzeugs oder einer erlebten Situation ab und andererseits außerdem von der Sozialisation des Bewertenden und der Umgebung, in der die Bewertung stattfindet (Wikipedia). Der Fahrkomfort, den ein Fahrzeug Fahrer und Beifahrern bietet, wird also wegen unterschiedlicher Erwartungen des Kunden in den verschiedenen Weltmärkten sehr unterschiedlich erlebt.

  4. Quantenphysikalischer Ursprung der Eichidee

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bopp, Fritz

    Vergleichbares leisten.Tatsächlich folgt die EQE aus einer bereits vorhandenen, wenn auch wenig beachteten Symmetrie der empirisch bewährten Diractheorie. Sie ist darum einerseits im Sinne der Newtonschen Definition des Begriffs hypothesenfrei. Andererseits kann sie wegen der erforderlichen Phaseninvarianz kaum wegdiskutiert werden, was immer sie am Ende bedeuten mag. Die Erfindung neuer Symmetrien und die Anerkennung einer Unzahl unabhängiger Spinorkomponenten ist jedenfalls zunächst entbehrlich.Translated AbstractThe Quantum Physical Origin of the Gauge IdeaTo consider quantum physics as an interplay of creation and annihilation processes has the consequence that gauge field theories are not only possible but necessary. Since the complex conjugate phase factors of each pair of fermion creators and annihilators can be arbitrary chosen, quantum field theories must be completely phase invariant.Unfortunately, even globally the Dirac equation for systems of free fermions is not phase invariant. The Dirac matrices are namely transformed, if we multiply the spinor components by different constant phase factors. The Dirac equations before and after the transformation are however physically equivalent. We may therefore say: Systems of free fermions will be completely described, only if we consider the class of all equivalent Dirac equations.Since Dirac's commutation relations are unitarily invariant, the class equivalent Dirac equations is invariant under all transformations of the group U 4. Unitary diagonal matrices yield arbitrary phase transformations. Hence, gauge fields of the group U 4 are compatible with the postulate of general phase invariance. These gauge file are so similar to the QED that we may speak of an extended quantum electrodynamics, EQE.Here, we will show that EQE exists. The invariant subgroup U 1 U 4 yields QED. The complementary subgroup SU 4 includes four subgroups SU 3, there subgroups O 4

  5. Die Arbeitsunfähigkeit in der Statistik der GKV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Klaus

    Der vorliegende Beitrag gibt anhand der Statistiken des Bundesministeriums für Gesundheit (BMG) einen Überblick über die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsdaten der Gesetzlichen Krankenkassen (GKV). Zunächst werden die Arbeitsunfähigkeitsstatistiken der Krankenkassen und die Erfassung der Arbeitsunfähigkeit erläutert. Hiernach wird auf die Entwicklung der Fehlzeiten auf GKV-Ebene eingegangen. Ebenfalls wird Bezug auf die Unterschiede der Fehlzeiten zwischen den verschiedenen Kassen genommen.

  6. Kants Theorie der Sonne: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2005-01-01

    Im Rahmen seiner Kosmogonie entwickelte der junge Immanuel Kant eine Theorie der Sonne. Sie ist ein einzigartiges Zeugnis seiner intuitiven Vorstellungskraft und beweist auch die Leistungsfähigkeit der damaligen, vorwiegend von Newton geprägten Weltsicht. Entstehung, Aufbau und Dynamik der Sonne werden in Kants Theorie ebenso erklärt wie etwa das Phänomen der Sonnenflecken.

  7. Theoretische Konzepte der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longair, Malcolm S.; Simon, B.; Simon, H.

    "Dies ist kein Lehrbuch der theoretischen Physik, auch kein Kompendium der Physikgeschichte ... , vielmehr eine recht anspruchsvolle Sammlung historischer Miniaturen zur Vergangenheit der theoretischen Physik - ihrer "Sternstunden", wenn man so will. Frei vom Zwang, etwas Erschöpfendes vorlegen zu müssen, gelingt dem Autor etwas Seltenes: einen "lebendigen" Zugang zum Ideengebäude der modernen Physik freizulegen, ... zu zeigen, wie Physik in praxi entsteht... Als Vehikel seiner Absichten dienen dem Autor geschichtliche Fallstudien, insgesamt sieben an der Zahl. Aus ihnen extrahiert er das seiner Meinung nach Lehrhafte, dabei bestrebt, mathematische Anachronismen womöglich zu vermeiden... Als Student hätte ich mir diese gescheiten Essays zum Werden unserer heutigen physikalischen Weltsicht gewünscht. Sie sind originell, didaktisch klug und genieren sich auch nicht, von der Faszination zu sprechen, die ... von der Physik ausgeht. Unnötig darauf hinzuweisen, das sie ein gründliches "konventionelles" Studium weder ersetzen wollen noch können, sie vermögen aber, dazu zu ermuntern." #Astronomische Nachrichten (zur englischen Ausgabe)#1

  8. Nomogramme der Sickerwasserprognose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, Wilfried; Stöfen, Heinke

    Kurzfassung Modelle zur Sickerwasserprognose stehen in unterschiedlicher Komplexität zur Verfügung. Komplexe Modelle werden aufgrund der schwierigen Handhabung und des enormen Eingabedatenumfangs in der Praxis kaum angewandt. Grobe Abschätzmethoden sind dagegen nicht ausreichend wissenschaftlich fundiert, um damit justiziable Ergebnisse erzielen zu können. Um die Kluft zwischen komplexer und einfacher, jedoch justiziabler sowie wissenschaftlich fundierter Methode zu schmälern, wurden Nomogramme für Sickerwasserprognosen zur Berücksichtigung der Endlichkeit der Quelle entwickelt. Mithilfe der Nomogramme können ohne Modellierungserfahrung schnell und einfach die zu erwartenden Schadstoffkonzentrationen am Ort der Beurteilung abgeschätzt werden, falls die Endlichkeit der Quelle der hauptsächlich zur Abminderung führende Prozess ist. Die Nomogramme basieren auf analytischen Lösungen der eindimensionalen Advektions-Dispersions-Gleichung. Sie berücksichtigen die Prozesse Advektion, Diffusion in Bodenwasser und -luft, Dispersion, lineare Sorption, Abbau 1. Ordnung innerhalb einer aus mehreren Bodenschichten bestehenden Sickerwasserzone, wobei die Endlichkeit der Schadstoffmasse in der Bodenkontamination einbezogen wird. Die Genauigkeit der Nomogramme wird dargestellt. Models of different complexity are available for groundwater risk assessment. In practice complex models are hardly used, due to their difficult handling and large data requirement. Rough estimation methods are not sufficiently scientifically founded to produce justiciable results. To reduce the gap between complex and easy to use but justiciable and scientifically founded methods we developed nomograms for groundwater risk assessment which take into account the finite mass of contaminant in the source. With the help of the nomograms the expected concentrations at the point of compliance (transition between the unsaturated and saturated zone) can be estimated easily, fast and without any

  9. Nanophysik: Wärmeübertrag auf der Nanometerskala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kittel, Achim

    2006-01-01

    Gegen Ende des 19. Jahrhunderts waren die grundlegenden Prozesse des Wärmeaustauschs verstanden. Die Gesetze dienten dann als Grundlage für die Quantenmechanik. Doch gelten diese Gesetze auch auf der Nanometerskala? In den 1970er-Jahren wurde eine Theorie für den Wärmeübertrag im atomaren Bereich entwickelt. Physiker der Universität Oldenburg überprüften deren Vorhersagen und stießen dabei auf signifikante Abweichungen, welche auf einen Zusammenbruch der klassischen, makroskopischen Elektrodynamik hindeuten.

  10. Mathematik in der Drahtlosen Kommunikation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boche, Holger; Eisenblätter, Andreas

    Die Mobilkommunikation besitzt heute große wirtschaftliche Bedeutung. Sie hat seit der Einführung des derzeit noch dominierenden Mobilfunkstandards GSM Anfang der neunziger Jahre einen enormen Einfluss auf das gesellschaftliche Leben genommen. Mit neuen Anwendungsfeldern, z. B. im Maschinen- und Anlagenbau, in der Automobilindustrie und im Wohnbereich, wird die Bedeutung der Mobilkommunikation weiter steigen. Um der Vielfalt der Anwendungen gerecht zu werden und die Wünsche nach neuen Diensten erfüllen zu können, werden fortwährend neue Mobilfunksysteme eingeführt.

  11. Die Zeitung der Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, Christoph; Schaffert, Sebastian

    Schon lange wird spekuliert, wie wir in Zukunft Zeitung lesen werden. Werden wir am Frühstückstisch wie gewohnt in einer Zeitung aus Papier schmökern oder werden wir die Zeitung als biegsame Folie beschrieben mit elektronischer Tinte in Händen halten? Wird die Zeitung mit anderen Medien wie Radio und Fernsehen verschmelzen? Viele Varianten sind denkbar. Heute lässt sich schon ein Trend ablesen: Immer mehr Leser entdecken die Online-Zeitung als Informationsmedium, eine Voraussetzung für die Nutzung neuer Technologien in der Zeitung der Zukunft. In diesem Kapitel stellen wir Entwicklungsmöglichkeiten der Online-Zeitung dar, wie sie im Social Semantic Web möglich werden.

  12. Grundbegriffe der Thermodynamik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heintze, Joachim

    In diesem Kapitel geht es darum, Vorgänge zu analysieren, bei denen der thermische Zustand eines Systems verändert wird: Daher der Name "Thermodynamik". Wir werden zunächst untersuchen, unter welchen Umständen man eine Zustandsänderung im Detail beschreiben kann. Hierbei werden wir zwei grundsätzlich verschiedene Arten, Zustandsänderungen herbeizuführen, kennenlernen: reversible und irreversible Prozesse. Sodann werden wir die Eigenschaften von Zustandsgrößen allgemein definieren und dabei auf eine überaus wichtige neue Zustandsgröße, die Entropie, stoßen.

  13. CAD in der Praxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labisch, Susanna

    Konstruktion und Fertigung erfolgen in der Praxis fast ausschließlich rechnerunterstützt. Mit diesem Rechnereinsatz beim Konstruieren (CAD, Computer Aided Design) und Fertigen CAM (Computer Aided Manufacturing) scheint die technische Zeichnung an Bedeutung zu verlieren, da die Verständigung zwischen Konstruktions- und Fertigungsabteilung primär durch den Austausch digitaler Daten erfolgen kann.

  14. Melker Meilensteine auf dem Weg in ein naturwissenschaftliches Zeitalter - Glanzlichter der Ausstellung zum Internationalen Astronomiejahr 2009 in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Paul G.; Zotti, Georg

    2009-06-01

    Das Mittelalter wird weithin als die dunkle Epoche in der Geschichte der Europäischen Wissenschaften betrachtet, und insbesondere das Leben in den Klöstern galt lange Zeit als frei von jeglichem Interesse für Naturwissenschaften abseits der Medizin. Im Mittelalter galt die Astronomie bloß als Mittel zum Zweck, um religiöse und zivile Kalender erstellen zu können. Durch den Bestand der Handschriftenkammer der Melker Stiftsbibliothek eröffnet sich uns eine neue Sichtweise auf das gegen Ende des Mittelalters wachsende Interesse an den Naturwissenschaften. Dies wurde durch die starke Aufwertung der Klosterbibliothek im Rahmen der 'Melker Reform' im 15. Jahrhundert noch weiter verstärkt. Diese Epoche fällt mit der Frühphase der Universität Wien und der 'ersten Wiener Schule der Astronomie' zusammen. Dieser Artikel beleuchtet ausgewählte astronomischen Werke in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek zwischen dem frühen 9 und dem 18. Jahrhundert. Einen Schwerpunkt stellt das Wirken der Wiener Schule der Astronomie dar, wobei wir u.a. die Melker Abschrift von Peuerbachs Gutachten über den Kometen von 1456 sowie die im Stift Melk durchgeführte Beobachtung der Mondfinsternis von 1457 durch Regiomontanus und Peuerbach beleuchten. Dieser Beitrag ist der einführende Übersichtsartikel zum Ausstellungsprojekt in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek im Rahmen des Internationalen Jahres der Astronomie 2009. The medieval period is commonly seen as a dark epoch for science in Europe. Especially monasteries were seen as institutions without interest in natural sciences except for medicine. Astronomy was allegedly only a tool to construct religious and civil calendars. The inventory of the medieval manuscript collection of the library of the Abbey of Melk allows a new view on the growing interest in the exact sciences towards the end of the medieval ages. This interest was intensified through the increased importance of the monastery library due to the monastery reform

  15. Grundlagen der Organisationsgestaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spath, Dieter; Koch, Steffen

    In diesem Kapitel werden Grundlagen der Organisationsgestaltung dargestellt. Es scheint nahe liegend, diese Inhalte wie in einem Lehrbuch aufzubereiten. Schließlich handelt es sich um grundlegende Inhalte. Die Neufassung dieses Abschnitts ist aber stärker für Verantwortliche in Unternehmen geschrieben und weniger wissenschaftlich geprägt. Das "Lehrbuchwissen“ wird daher bewusst knapp gehalten. Das betrifft z.B. die Klärung des Organisationsbegriffes und die Fragen nach den Zielsetzungen und den Gestaltungsbereichen von Organisation. Stattdessen widmet sich das Kapitel ausführlicher den Fragen, ob es Trends in der Organisationsgestaltung gibt, welche wichtigen Einflussgrößen existieren und welche übergeordneten und beständigen Leitlinien es gibt.

  16. Infrarot-Thermografie in der Instandhaltung der chemischen Industrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Christian

    Als Folge der raschen technologischen Entwicklung preisgünstiger, leistungsfähiger Thermografiekameras rückte diese für viele Anwendungen nutzbringend einzusetzende Inspektionsmethode zunehmend ins Interesse der Instandhalter aller Branchen. Die Infrarot(IR)-Thermografie wird damit als Schadensfrüherkennungsmethode integriert in das Repertoire bereits langjährig angewendeter Methoden wie der Schwingungsmesstechnik, Schmierstoffanalyse, Fehlerdiagnose an elektrotechnischen Komponenten sowie die gesamte Fülle zerstörungsfreier Untersuchungen im Werkstoffbereich.

  17. Haftung in der Medizintechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Ute; Lücker, Volker

    Die Unversehrtheit von Leib und Leben ist das größte Rechtsgut unserer Gesellschaft. Dies macht schon das Grundgesetz in Art. 2 Abs. Satz 1 GG deutlich. Die Öffentlichkeit zeigt daher größtes Interesse an Produkten, welche der Gesundheit dienen und Leben retten oder erhalten. Dieses Interesse gilt einerseits der Entwicklung und Bereitstellung leistungsfähiger Medizinprodukte, andererseits zielt es auf deren Sicherheit. Um vor allem letztere zu gewährleisten, nimmt der Gesetzgeber alle Beteiligten in die Pflicht, die auftretenden Risiken auf das geringstmögliche Maß zu begrenzen. Dies spiegelt sich in den rechtlichen Vorgaben ebenso wie in den Haftungsfolgen, die bei Verletzung dieser Vorgaben greifen, wieder. Diese Folgen können dementsprechend gravierend ausfallen, von Geldstrafen bis zu Freiheitsstrafen, von Bußgeldzahlungen bis zum Schadenersatzansprüchen, die schnell ein wirtschaftliches Aus bedeuten können. Den Beteiligten, allen voran den Herstellern, muss deshalb daran gelegen sein, nicht nur die Produkte, sondern auch deren Sicherheit stetig weiter zu entwickeln.

  18. Evaluation der zentralen TUM-Lernplattform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Elvira; Baume, Matthias; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan

    Die Notwendigkeit der Qualitätssicherung und -kontrolle für innovative universitäre Lehr-/Lernszenarien ist in der Praxis unbestritten. Die Wirksamkeit der Einführung der zentralen Lernplattform CLIX Campus der imc AG an der TUM wurde mittels quantitativer und qualitativer Evaluation überprüft. Als statistische Bewertungsgrundlage wurde der Erreichungsgrad bestimmter Projektziele herangezogen. Aufbauend auf den theoretischen Grundlagen der Evaluation von Bildungsangeboten gibt diese Studie Aufschluss über die Ergebnisse der Datenerhebungen sowie die Einschätzung der Plattform aus Nutzersicht und belegt die wesentliche Bedeutung der durchgängigen IT-Infrastruktur und speziell der einheitlichen Verfügbarkeit der eLearning Angebote.

  19. Das Smart Meter Gateway - Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor für die Digitalisierung der Energiewende

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abs, Paul-Vincent

    Der kritische Erfolgsfaktor der Digitalisierung in der Energiewirtschaft liegt im bevorstehenden hohen Investitionsvolumen und der Beherrschung der neuen Technik. Ein Weg zur Kostenminimierung liegt im Zusammenschluss der einzelnen Akteure, um gemeinsame Skalenvorteile zu heben. Auch bieten neue Geschäftsmodelle die Möglichkeit, zusätzliche Erlöse zu generieren.

  20. van der Waals torque

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esquivel-Sirvent, Raul; Schatz, George

    2014-03-01

    The theory of generalized van der Waals forces by Lifshtz when applied to optically anisotropic media predicts the existence of a torque. In this work we present a theoretical calculation of the van der Waals torque for two systems. First we consider two isotropic parallel plates where the anisotropy is induced using an external magnetic field. The anisotropy will in turn induce a torque. As a case study we consider III-IV semiconductors such as InSb that can support magneto plasmons. The calculations of the torque are done in the Voigt configuration, that occurs when the magnetic field is parallel to the surface of the slabs. The change in the dielectric function as the magnetic field increases has the effect of decreasing the van der Waals force and increasing the torque. Thus, the external magnetic field is used to tune both the force and torque. The second example we present is the use of the torque in the non retarded regime to align arrays of nano particle slabs. The torque is calculated within Barash and Ginzburg formalism in the nonretarded limit, and is quantified by the introduction of a Hamaker torque constant. Calculations are conducted between anisotropic slabs of materials including BaTiO3 and arrays of Ag nano particles. Depending on the shape and arrangement of the Ag nano particles the effective dielectric function of the array can be tuned as to make it more or less anisotropic. We show how this torque can be used in self assembly of arrays of nano particles. ref. R. Esquivel-Sirvent, G. C. Schatz, Phys. Chem C, 117, 5492 (2013). partial support from DGAPA-UNAM.

  1. Zeit im Wandel der Zeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aichelburg, P. C.

    Contents: Einleitung(P. C. Aichelburg). 1. Über Zeit, Bewegung und Veränderung (Aristoteles). 2. Ewigkeit und Zeit (Plotin). 3. Was ist die Zeit? (Augustinus). 4. Von der Zeit (Immanuel Kant). 5. Newtons Ansichten über Zeit, Raum und Bewegung (Ernst Mach). 6. Über die mechanische Erklärung irreversibler Vorgänge (Ludwig Boltzmann). 7. Das Maß der Zeit (Henri Poincaré). 8. Dauer und Intuition (Henri Bergson). 9. Die Geschichte des Unendlichkeitsproblems (Bertrand Russell). 10. Raum und Zeit (Hermann Minkowski). 11. Der Unterschied von Zeit und Raum (Hans Reichenbach). 12. Newtonscher und Bergsonscher Zeitbegriff (Norbert Wiener). 13. Die Bildung des Zeitbegriffs beim Kinde (JeanPiaget).14. Eine Bemerkung über die Beziehungen zwischen Relativitätstheorie und der idealistischen Philosophie (Kurt Gödel). 15. Der zweite Hauptsatz und der Unterschied von Vergangenheit und Zukunft (Carl Friedrich v. Weizsäcker). 16. Zeit als physikalischer Begriff (Friedrich Hund). 17. Zeitmessung und Zeitbegriff in der Astronomie (Otto Heckmann). 18. Kann die Zeit rückwärts gehen? (Martin Gardner). 19. Zeit und Zeiten (Ilya Prigogine, Isabelle Stengers). 20. Zeit als dynamische Größe in der Relativitätstheorie (P. C. Aichelburg).

  2. Keim oder kein Keim: Herausforderungen bei der Diagnose mykobakterieller Infektionen der Haut.

    PubMed

    Peters, Franziska; Batinica, Marina; Plum, Georg; Eming, Sabine A; Fabri, Mario

    2016-12-01

    Kutane Mykobakteriosen sind in Deutschland selten. Dennoch ist es für eine frühzeitige Diagnose und anschließende wirksame Behandlung erforderlich, dass diese Krankheitsbilder im ärztlichen Bewusstsein verankert sind. Darüber hinaus stehen Infektionen mit Mykobakterien auf der Liste der Differentialdiagnosen vieler Hautkrankheiten. Diagnosen kutaner Mykobakteriosen beruhen auf klinischen Merkmalen und auf Laboruntersuchungen, einschließlich bakterieller Kulturen, histopathologischer Untersuchungen und PCR-basierten Verfahren. Das Wissen um Möglichkeiten und Grenzen dieser Laboruntersuchungen ist von zentraler Bedeutung, um eine angemessene klinische Entscheidung zu treffen. In diesem Beitrag diskutieren wir die aktuellen diagnostischen Möglichkeiten, die in Verdachtsfällen kutaner Mykobakteriosen zur Verfügung stehen. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Verantwortlicher Umgang mit Antibiotika: Notwendigkeit der Antibiotikareduktion in der Aknetherapie.

    PubMed

    Gollnick, Harald P M; Buer, Jan; Beissert, Stefan; Sunderkätter, Cord

    2016-12-01

    Der übermäßige oder unkritische weltweite Einsatz von Antibiotika in der Medizin hat die Ausbreitung von Antibiotikaresistenzen beschleunigt. In einigen Bereichen sind viele Antibiotika bei bakteriellen Infektionen, die zuvor noch gut auf antibakterielle Wirkstoffe reagierten, mittlerweile wirkungslos geworden. Dermatologen/Venerologen setzten orale und topische Antibiotika bei der Behandlung von Acne vulgaris routinemäßig ein, obwohl Akne weder eine infektiöse Erkrankung ist noch alleine durch das Propionibacterium getriggert wird. Vielmehr ist sie eine komplexe, chronische entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die durch verschiedene pathogenetische Faktoren wie follikuläre Hyperkeratose, erhöhter Sebumproduktion, bakterielle Proliferation und Entzündung zustande kommt. Folglich sollte eine erfolgreiche Therapie auf die Bekämpfung verschiedener pathogenetischer Faktoren und nicht nur auf die von Propionibacterium acnes abzielen. Daher wurden topische Retinoide und Benzoylperoxid als Mittel der ersten Wahl definiert. Monotherapien mit lokalen Antibiotika sollten insgesamt vermieden werden. Systemische Antibiotika der Tetrazyklin-Gruppe haben bei bestimmen Krankheitsstadien ihren Sinn, ihre Wirkung könnte aber eher auf der antientzündlichen als auf der antibiotischen Reaktion beruhen. Gesundheitsbehörden ermahnen alle Gesundheitsdienstleister, den Einsatz von Antibiotika einzuschränken. Das Nutzen-Risiko-Verhältnis muss bei der Entscheidung für oder gegen eine antibiotische Therapie bei einem einzelnen Patienten immer auch in Bezug auf das öffentliche Interesse am Erhalt der Wirksamkeit von Antibiotika abgewogen werden. Im Folgenden werden das aktuelle Krankheitskonzept zu Acne vulgaris und die sich daraus ableitenden Konsequenzen für den Einsatz von Antibiotika vorgestellt. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Grundlagen und Vollzug der amtlichen Lebensmittelkontrolle in der Schweiz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, Philipp; Spinner, Christoph

    In der Schweiz wird die Mehrheit der hoheitlichen Aufgaben von den 26 Kantonen, die zusammen die schweizerische Eidgenossenschaft bilden, autonom vollzogen. So liegt zum Beispiel die Kompetenz in den Bereichen Steuern, Gesundheit, Schulen oder Polizei grundsätzlich bei den Kantonen. Im Gegensatz dazu ist die Lebensmittelgesetzgebung national durch eidgenössische Erlasse harmonisiert. Die Vollzugsaufgaben liegen aber auch in diesem Bereich, abgesehen vom Vollzug an der Grenze und von einer nationalen Vollzugsaufsicht und Weisungsberechtigung, in kantonaler Kompetenz. Die Kantone können anhand kantonaler Erlasse das Bundesrecht präzisieren - insbesondere die organisatorischen Aspekte - und Regelungen im nicht harmonisierten Bereich treffen.

  5. Die Baukastensystematik in der Fördertechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebulke, Johannes

    In der Fördertechnik wird kaum ein größerer Einsatzfall so dem anderen gleichen, dass man zwei Anlagen nach denselben Zeichnungen fertigen kann. Konstruktionszeiten, Rüst- und Umstellungszeiten der Fertigung sind hoch; der Kunde muss bei Einzelanfertigung lange Lieferzeiten in Kauf nehmen. In der Fördertechnik haben sich daher Baukastenprinzip, Standardisierung und die Konstruktion von Erzeugnisreihen weitgehend durchgesetzt.

  6. Imaging van der Waals Interactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhumin; Wei, Xinyuan; Xu, Chen; Chiang, Chi-Lun; Zhang, Yanxing; Wu, Ruqian; Ho, W

    2016-12-15

    The van der Waals interactions are responsible for a large diversity of structures and functions in chemistry, biology, and materials. Discussion of van der Waals interactions has focused on the attractive potential energy that varies as the inverse power of the distance between the two interacting partners. The origin of the attractive force is widely discussed as being due to the correlated fluctuations of electron charges that lead to instantaneous dipole-induced dipole attractions. Here, we use the inelastic tunneling probe to image the potential energy surface associated with the van der Waals interactions of xenon atoms.

  7. Dialektischer Materialismus in der Quantentheorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Klaus

    Der absolute Determinismus der klassischen Mechanik bietet keine Ansatzpunkte für eine befriedigende Naturphilosophie. Mit der Quantenmechanik werden nicht lediglich die Unzulänglichkeiten einzelner klassischer Begriffe, sondern die des gesamten klassischen Begriffssystems beseitigt.Translated AbstractDialectical Materialism in Quantum TheoryThe absolute determinism of classical mechanics does not provide any base for a satisfactory philosophy of nature. In quantum mechanics the shortcomings of not only some single classical concepts but of the classical description as a whole are removed.

  8. Online Condition Monitoring mit der Stresswellenanalyse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruderreck, Frank

    Die Anforderungen des heutigen Energiemarkts und damit einhergehende veränderte Einsatzbedingungen für ältere Kraftwerksblöcke haben unvorhergesehene Produktionsausfälle in den letzten Jahren erheblich verteuert. Nach der Optimierung der Kraftwerksprozesse und der Steigerung der Wirkungsgrade richten die Energieversorger ihren Blick daher nun verstärkt auch auf die Verfügbarkeit ihrer Anlagen. Zur Verbesserung der Anlagenverfügbarkeit und der Minimierung der Instandhaltungskosten bietet sich der Einsatz von Condition Monitoring Systemen an. Nach der Erprobung eines Systems zur Vibrationsanalyse setzt die Evonik Steag GmbH jetzt in einem Pilotprojekt die Stresswellenanalyse ein, ein Online Condition Monitoring System auf der Basis von Ultraschallsensoren. Dieser Beitrag erläutert an einem Beispiel die Methode und grenzt sie gegen den De-facto-Standard Vibrationsanalyse ab.

  9. Auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, G.; Lillestøl, E.; Sellevåg, I.

    This book is a German translation by C. Ascheron and J. Urbahn, of "The search for infinity: solving the mysteries of the universe", published in 1994. Diese Buch beschreibt anschaulich die Meilensteine, die der Mensch seit der Antike auf der Suche nach dem Unendlichen erreicht und hinter sich gelassen hat. Es enthält Kurzbiographien der wichtigsten Forscher, verständlich geschriebene Texte sowie Erläuterungen der entscheidenen Fachtermini.

  10. Van der Waals quintessence stars

    SciTech Connect

    Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2007-01-15

    The van der Waals quintessence equation of state is an interesting scenario for describing the late universe, and seems to provide a solution to the puzzle of dark energy, without the presence of exotic fluids or modifications of the Friedmann equations. In this work, the construction of inhomogeneous compact spheres supported by a van der Waals equation of state is explored. These relativistic stellar configurations shall be denoted as van der Waals quintessence stars. Despite of the fact that, in a cosmological context, the van der Waals fluid is considered homogeneous, inhomogeneities may arise through gravitational instabilities. Thus, these solutions may possibly originate from density fluctuations in the cosmological background. Two specific classes of solutions, namely, gravastars and traversable wormholes are analyzed. Exact solutions are found, and their respective characteristics and physical properties are further explored.

  11. Otto von Guericke's "World in empty space" - on Guericke's place in the history of astronomy; (German Title: Otto von Guerickes "Welt im leeren Raum" - über Guerickes) Stellung in der Astronomiegeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Until now, Guericke's book "Experimenta Nova" was hardly taken note of in the history of astronomy, it was only counted as important in the history of physics. Already the large volume in this book that is occupied by astronomy is opposed to this view. lt presents a concise outline of astronomical research of that time, based on the heliocentric world system and the telescopic discoveries. Guericke's own researches on the vacuum are of fundamental importance for cosmology and are an important step on the way to the rise of physical astronomy.

  12. Der Organismus der Mathematik - mikro-, makro- und mesoskopisch betrachtet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Reinhard

    Meist enden ähnliche Gespräche über Mathematik etwa an diesem Punkt, ohne dass der Nichtmathematiker von der Sinnhaftigkeit mathematischer Forschung, ja mathematischer Tätigkeit generell überzeugt werden konnte. Ich glaube nicht, dass dem Laien Blindheit für die Großartigkeit unserer Wissenschaft vorzuwerfen ist, wenn hier keine befriedigendere Kommunikation zustande kommt. Ich sehe als Ursache eher ein stark verkürztes Bild von der Mathematik, welches auch Fachleute oft zeichnen, weil ihnen eine angemessenere Darstellung ihres Faches zu viel Mühe macht - und das obwohl Mathematik nur betreiben kann, wer geistige Mühen sonst keineswegs scheut. Ich will versuchen, den Ursachen dieses eigentümlichen Phänomens auf den Grund zu gehen.

  13. [Critical mass, explosive participation at the Max-Planck Institute about research of the living conditions of the scientific-technical world in Starnberg].

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    Reviewers of the Max-Planck-Institut zur Erforschung der Lebensbedingungen der wissenschaftlich-technischen Welt (MPIL) did focus upon an abundance of vague reports of evaluative commissions, of benchmarking, of scientific modes. Thus it remained rather neglected, what staff actually had researched. An example: Progression and end of project AKR (Work-Consumption-Assessment) does display all kinds of related emotions at MPIL, and the sensitive guidance by Carl Friedrich von Weizsäcker.

  14. Anwendungsgebiete und Nutzen der RFID-Technologie in der Instandhaltung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Gerhard; Plate, Cathrin

    Im Vergleich zu Fertigungsbereichen, in denen eine Vielzahl von Terminals den Zugriff auf Fertigungsinformationen und Produktionsdaten ermöglichen, sind viele Instandhaltungsbereiche dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass der Zugriff auf Anlagendaten, Planungs- und operative Informationen nur an wenigen Stationen des Instandhaltungsplanungs- und Steuerungssystems (IPS-System) vollzogen werden kann. Das IPS-System-Spektrum reicht von einfachen MS-Office Produkten über Stand-Alone-Applikationen der Instandhaltung (z. B. IPS-Systeme wie ApiPro oder WartMan) bis hin zu in Warenwirtschaftssysteme integrierten Instandhaltungsmodulen (z. B. SAP-PM).

  15. Twisted Van der Waals Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gani, Satrio; Rossi, Enrico

    Van der Waals systems formed by two-dimensional (2D) crystals and nanostructures possess electronic properties that make them extremely interesting for basic science and for possible technological applications. By tuning the relative angle (the twist angle) between the layers, or nanostructures, forming the Van der Waals systems experimentalists have been able to control the stacking configuration of such systems. We study the dependence on the twist angle of the electronic properties of two classes of Van der Waals systems: double layers formed by two, one-atom thick, layers of a metal dichalcogenide such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and graphene nanoribbons on a hexagonal boron nitride substrate. We present results that show how, for both classes of systems, the electronic properties can be strongly tuned via the twist angle. Work supported by ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5 and NSF-DMR-1455233.

  16. Grundlagen und Grundbegriffe der Messtechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plaßmann, Wilfried

    Es ist eine wesentliche Aufgabe der Messtechnik, technische Vorgänge quantitativ zu erfassen und anhand der gemessenen Größen Funktionsabläufe zu steuern. Als Beispiel sei ein Kraftwerk zur Energieerzeugung genannt, bei dem nur über die Messung von Temperaturen, Leistungen, Drücken und anderen Größen Aussagen über den momentanen Zustand möglich sind und bei Abweichungen vom Sollwert geeignete Eingriffe in das System erfolgen können. Damit eine eindeutige Kommunikation möglich wird, sind die in der Messtechnik verwendeten Begriffe, Messverfahren und Maßeinheiten in entsprechenden Normen oder Vorschriften festgelegt.

  17. Coronellis Cosmos in der Melker Stiftsbibliothek.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Gottfried; Pärr, Nora

    2009-06-01

    Die Melker Stiftsbibliothek besitzt ein Globenpaar des berühmten venezianischen Globenbauers Vincenzo Coronelli (1650-1718), einen Erdglobus von 1688 und einen Himmelsglobus von 1693. Wie und wann die beiden Globen nach Melk gekommen sind, ist nicht bekannt. Dass sie zur ursprünglichen Ausstattung der 1735 fertig gestellten Barockbibliothek gehörten, wird aber aus der zentralen Stellung deutlich, die dem Globus (Erdglobus und Armillarphäre) in dem von Paul Troger 1732 gemalten Deckenfresko zukommt. Mehrfach begegnet das Motiv des Globus als Attribut der Weisheit bzw. Philosophie, der Geographie bzw. Geometrie und der Astronomie in den beiden Hauptsälen wie auch in der Deckenmalerei von Johann Bergl in der Oberen Bibliothek (1768) und in der Kuppel des Gartenpavillons (1764).

  18. Five-body van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jianing

    2017-06-01

    We report on the five-body repulsive and attractive van der Waals interactions between the strongly dipole-dipole coupled Rydberg states. Compared to four-body van der Waals interactions, five-body van der Waals interactions show more energy levels and more potential wells caused by avoided crossings. This research bridges the few-body physics and many-body physics. Other disciplines, such as chemistry, biology, and medical fields, will also benefit from better understanding van der Waals interactions.

  19. Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik (1948).

    PubMed

    Feyerabend, Paul K

    2016-06-01

    This is a critical transcription of Paul Feyerabend's earliest extant essay "Der Begriff der Verständlichkeit in der modernen Physik" (1948) recovered from the European Forum Alpbach archives. In it, Feyerabend defends positivism as a progressive framework for scientific research in certain stages of scientific development. He argues that in physics visualizability (Anschaulichkeit) and intelligibility (Verständlichkeit) are time-conditioned concepts: what is deemed visualizable in the development of physical theories is relative to a specific historical context and changes over time. He concludes that from time to time the abandonment of visualizability is crucial for progress in physics, as it is conducive to major theory change, illustrating the point on the basis of advances in atomic theory. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Das Ende der Nacht [The End of the Night (2nd enlarged ed.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas; Hölker, Franz; Uhlmann, Thomas; Freyhoff, Anja

    2013-09-01

    We provide provide an overview of the history of lighting and of the problems arising from artificial lighting. The book covers the following topics: A brief history of light (ch. 1); night and light in cultural history (ch. 2); light pollution in central Europe (ch. 3); Moths and artificial lights (ch. 4); Artificial lighting and birds (ch. 5); Ocean turtles as victims of beach lighting (ch. 6); Moon light as a zeitgeber for the marine fauna (ch. 7); the influence of artificial light at night on freshwater ecology (ch. 8); artificial light and human health (ch. 9); the loss of the night in a 24 hours society (ch. 10).

  1. End-to-End Commitment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newcomb, John

    2004-01-01

    The end-to-end test would verify the complex sequence of events from lander separation to landing. Due to the large distances involved and the significant delay time in sending a command and receiving verification, the lander needed to operate autonomously after it separated from the orbiter. It had to sense conditions, make decisions, and act accordingly. We were flying into a relatively unknown set of conditions-a Martian atmosphere of unknown pressure, density, and consistency to land on a surface of unknown altitude, and one which had an unknown bearing strength.

  2. Ancillary Services Provided from DER

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.B.

    2005-12-21

    Distributed energy resources (DER) are quickly making their way to industry primarily as backup generation. They are effective at starting and then producing full-load power within a few seconds. The distribution system is aging and transmission system development has not kept up with the growth in load and generation. The nation's transmission system is stressed with heavy power flows over long distances, and many areas are experiencing problems in providing the power quality needed to satisfy customers. Thus, a new market for DER is beginning to emerge. DER can alleviate the burden on the distribution system by providing ancillary services while providing a cost adjustment for the DER owner. This report describes 10 types of ancillary services that distributed generation (DG) can provide to the distribution system. Of these 10 services the feasibility, control strategy, effectiveness, and cost benefits are all analyzed as in the context of a future utility-power market. In this market, services will be provided at a local level that will benefit the customer, the distribution utility, and the transmission company.

  3. Buried Ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    7 August 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a flow or landslide feature on a hillslope facing north (toward top/upper right) that is buried on both ends. Both the uphill portion of the slide (just below the center of the image) and the bottom end of the slide, or flow feature (near the upper right corner of the image), is buried. Whether this partially buried landform was formed by simple, dry mass movement (a landslide) or by flow of an ice-rich material, is unclear. The features in this image occur among the massifs located east of the Hellas basin.

    Location near: 45.6oS, 248.5oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Autumn

  4. Segmentierung der Papille in Fundusaufnahmen Aktives Kreisbogen-Modell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Torsten; Doering, Axel

    In der vorliegenden Arbeit präsentieren wir einen praxistauglichen Algorithmus zur automatischen Segmentierung der Disc-Grenze der Papille in Fundusaufnahmen. Ausgehend von einem lokalisierten Papillenpunkt werden Grauwertverläufe in horizontaler und vertikaler Richtung mittels einer Energiefunktion ausgewertet. In einem iterativen Prozess wird die Ellipse der tatsächlichen Disc-Grenze angenähert. Der Papillenrand konnte im Testdatensatz in 88% der Aufnahmen erfolgreich segmentiert werden. Der Algorithmus ist robust gegenüber der Lage des Startpunktes innerhalb der Papille und soll als Unterstützung bei der Glaukombefundung eingesetzt werden.

  5. Die Bedeutung der blauen Farbe in der Dermatoskopie.

    PubMed

    Popadić, Mirjana; Sinz, Christoph; Kittler, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Hautläsionen mit blauer Färbung werden häufig chirurgisch entfernt, um Malignität auszuschließen zu können. Das Ziel der vorliegenden Studie war es, die Bedeutung der blauen Färbung zu untersuchen. Wir untersuchten dermatoskopische Bilder retrospektiv auf blaue Farbe und klassifizierten sie gemäß der Musteranalyse. Von 1.123 pigmentierten Hautläsionen wiesen 144 (12,8 %) eine blaue Färbung auf. Von diesen waren 92 (63,9 %) bösartig. Unter den Läsionen mit Blaufärbung waren Nävi (n = 35, 24,3 %) und seborrhoische Keratosen (n = 8, 5,6 %) die häufigsten gutartigen Diagnosen. Von 103 (71,5 %) Läsionen mit einem strukturlosen blauen Muster waren acht (7,8 %) vollständig blau gefärbt und 95 (92,2 %) teilweise blau, davon zeigten 81 (78,6 %) periphere oder fleckige und 14 (13.6 %) eine zentrale Blaufärbung. Die meisten Läsionen mit peripherer oder fleckiger blauer Färbung waren Melanome (n = 47, 58 %), wohingegen die meisten Läsionen mit zentraler Blaufärbung Nävi darstellten (n = 9, 64,3 %). Von 28 Läsionen mit blauen Schollen waren 17 (60,7 %) Basalzellkarzinome. Bezüglich der Malignität war der positive prädiktive Wert der blauen Farbe 63,9 % (95 % KI: 56,0-71,8 %). Unter blaugefärbten bösartigen Läsionen ist eine strukturlose periphere oder fleckige blaue Farbe ein Hinweis auf Melanome, während blaue Schollen auf ein Basalzellkarzinom hinweisen. Als Fallstricke können sich seborrhoische Keratosen erweisen, die eine Blaufärbung zeigen können, sowie einige Nävi, vor allem kombinierte. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Verbesserung der Prozessbedingungen beim Einlippentiefbohren durch unterschiedliche Formen der Vorschubmodulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisseler, Rocco

    Das Tiefbohren mit Einlippenwerkzeugen ist bei vielen Anwendungen das Verfahren der ersten Wahl, vor allem wenn kleine und kleinste Bohrungsdurchmesser, ein sehr großes Verhältnis zwischen Bohrtiefe und Durchmesser (l/D) und eine hohe Bearbeitungsqualität gefordert werden. Der erreichbare Durchmesserbereich des Verfahrens liegt zwischen D = 0,5 mm und 40 mm, wobei die möglichen Bohrtiefen von l = 3 x D bis 250 x D reichen. Diese Werte beziehen sich auf das Vollbohren, beim Aufbohren können noch größere Durchmesser erreicht werden [1]. Die erreichbare Oberflächenqualität ist so hoch, dass in den meisten Fällen auf eine nachfolgende Feinbearbeitung verzichtet werden kann.

  7. Journey's end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    Nineteen years and five broken gyroscopes after its launch, the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) was finally decommissioned on September 30. The shutdown of IUE marked the end of what NASA officials called one of “the longest and most productive missions in the history of space science.” IUE was a joint project of NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council (United Kingdom).Designed to last just 3 years, IUE operated for about 24 hours a day from a geosynchronous orbit for nearly two decades. The observatory and spectrographic instruments enabled studies of phenomena that emit ultraviolet radiation, and the results were prodigious.

  8. Organe der Osmoregulation und Exkretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Møbjerg, Nadja

    Die meisten Schädeltiere sind in der Lage, die Wasser- und Ionenkonzentration ihres Innenmilieus zu regulieren, sind also im Hinblick auf ihren Ionenhaushalt weitgehend unabhängig von der Umgebung. Sie halten die Konzentration von Wasser und anorganischen Ionen in ihren Körperflüssigkeiten (interstitielle Flüssigkeit und Blut) innerhalb enger Grenzen konstant (Osmoregulierer). Schleim aale (Myxinoida) können zwar die Konzentration einzelner anorganischer Ionen regulieren, sind aber insgesamt der hohen Osmolarität des Meerwassers angepasst, also isoosmostisch zu diesem. Isoosmotisch oder leic ht hyperosmostisch zur Umgebung sind auch marine Neoselachier und Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), die dazu organische Osmolyte (Harnstoff und Trimethylaminoxid) im Blut akkumulieren (Osmokonformer). Bei anderen aquatischen Schädeltieren sind die Körperflüssigkeiten zur Umgebung hypoosmotisch (im Meerwasser) — sie halten Wasser zurück und scheiden anorganiche Ionen aus — oder hyperosmotisch (im Süßwasser), indem sie Wasser abgeben und anorganische Ionen aufnehmen.

  9. Quantitative Analyse und Visualisierung der Herzfunktionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Anne; Schwarz, Tobias; Engel, Nicole; Seitel, Mathias; Kenngott, Hannes; Mohrhardt, Carsten; Loßnitzer, Dirk; Giannitsis, Evangelos; Katus, Hugo A.; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Die computergestützte bildbasierte Analyse der Herzfunktionen ist mittlerweile Standard in der Kardiologie. Die verfügbaren Produkte erfordern meist ein hohes Maß an Benutzerinteraktion und somit einen erhöhten Zeitaufwand. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Ansatz vorgestellt, der dem Kardiologen eine größtenteils automatische Analyse der Herzfunktionen mittels MRT-Bilddaten ermöglicht und damit Zeitersparnis schafft. Hierbei werden alle relevanten herzphysiologsichen Parameter berechnet und mithilfe von Diagrammen und Graphen visualisiert. Diese Berechnungen werden evaluiert, indem die ermittelten Werte mit manuell vermessenen verglichen werden. Der hierbei berechnete mittlere Fehler liegt mit 2,85 mm für die Wanddicke und 1,61 mm für die Wanddickenzunahme immer noch im Bereich einer Pixelgrösse der verwendeten Bilder.

  10. Amplituden der Kernphasen im Bereich der Kaustik B und Untersuchung der Struktur der Übergangszone zum inneren Erdkern mit spektralen Amplituden der diffraktierten Phase PKP(BC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Michael D. C.

    2002-04-01

    Das Ziel dieser Arbeit ist es, die Strukturen im äueren Erdkern zu untersuchen und Rückschlüsse auf die sich daraus ergebenden Konsequenzen für geodynamische Modellvorstellungen zu ziehen. Die Untersuchung der Kernphasenkaustik B mit Hilfe einer kumulierten Amplituden-Entfernungskurve ist Gegenstand des ersten Teils. Dazu werden die absoluten Amplituden der PKP-Phasen im Entfernungsbereich von 142 ° bis 147 ° bestimmt und mit den Amplituden synthetischer Seismogramme verglichen. Als Datenmaterial dienen die Breitbandregistrierungen des Deutschen Seismologischen Re-gionalnetzes (GRSN 1 ) und des Arrays Gräfenberg (GRF). Die verwendeten Wellen-formen werden im WWSSN-SP-Frequenzbereich gefiltert. Als Datenbasis dienen vier Tiefherdbeben der Subduktionszone der Neuen Hebriden (Vanuatu Island) und vier Nuklearexplosionen, die auf dem Mururoa und Fangataufa Atoll im Südpazifik stattgefunden haben. Beide Regionen befinden sich vom Regionalnetz aus gesehen in einer Epizentraldistanz von ungefähr 145 °. Die Verwendung eines homogen instrumentierten Netzes von Detektoren und die Anwendung von Stations- und Magnitudenkorrekturen verringern den Hauptteil der Streuung bei den Amplitudenwerten. Dies gilt auch im Vergleich zu Untersuchungen von langperiodischen Amplituden im Bereich der Kernphasenkaustik (Häge, 1981). Ein weiterer Grund für die geringe Streuung ist die ausschlieliche Verwendung von Ereignissen mit kurzer impulsiver Herdzeitfunktion. Erst die geringe Streuung der Amplitudenwerte ermöglicht eine Interpretation der Daten. Die theoretischen Amplitudenkurven der untersuchten Erdmodelle zeigen im Bereich der Kaustik B einen gleichartigen Kurvenverlauf. Bei allen Berechnungen wird ein einheitliches Modell für die Güte der P- und S-Wellen verwendet, das sich aus den Q-Werten der Modelle CIT112 und PREM 2 zusammensetzt. Die mit diesem Q-Modell berechneten Amplituden liegen in geringem Mae oberhalb der gemessenen Amplituden. Dies braucht nicht ber

  11. Herausforderungen für künftige Lernumgebungen am Beispiel der Fakultät für Medizin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergintchev, Ivan; Graf, Stephan

    Nach der weit reichenden Etablierung von eLearning in den letzten Jahren stehen nahezu alle deutschen Hochschulen vor der Aufgabe, wettbewerbsfähige hochschulübergreifende Mechanismen sowie entsprechende organisatorische Rahmenbedingungen zu schaffen. Vor allem die Umsetzung von EBologna und die Unterstützung kooperativer Bildungsangebote verstärken diese Notwendigkeit. Motiviert durch die Veränderungen im Bereich der Hochschullehre und die Herausforderungen für künftige Lernumgebungen schlagen wir eine Integrationslösung im Sinne eines Learning Gateway vor, die zur webgestützten Abwicklung von kooperativen Bildungsangeboten in heterogen Lernumgebungen eingesetzt werden kann. Ihre Praxisanwendung verdeutlichen wir anschließend im komplexen Szenario der Medizin an der TUM. Die Evaluierung der Umsetzung belegt den deutlichen Mehrwert des Ansatzes.

  12. Friedrich Möglich - sein Beitrag zum Aufbau der Physik in der DDR. Friedrich Möglich - langjähriger Mitherausgeber und Chefredakteur der Annalen der Physik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompe, Robert

    Friedrich Möglich, ein Schüler von Max von Laue und Erwin Schrödinger, übernahm 1947 die Chefredaktion der Annalen der Physik.Translated AbstractFriedrich Möglich - His Contributions to the Formation of Physics in GDRFriedrich Möglich a student of Max von Laue and Erwin Schrödinger took over as editor in chief of Annalen der Physik in 1947.

  13. Tycho Brahe - Instrumentenbauer und Meister der Beobachtungstechnik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfschmidt, Gudrun

    Vor der Erfindung des Fernrohrs war der dänische Astronom Tycho Brahe (1546 - 1601) der bedeutendste beobachtende Astronom. Von seinem Observatorium Uraniborg auf der - damals dänischen - Insel Hven ist heute noch der Grundriß erkennbar, von Stjerneborg sind die Fundamente erhalten, die Kuppeln in den 1950er Jahren ergänzt. In der Astronomie-Ausstellung im Deutschen Museum gibt es ein Modell der Sternwarte Uraniborg und der zugehörigen Instrumente (Maßstab 1:10); das größere Modell wurde dem Technischen Museum in Malmö geschenkt. Die Instrumente, die er in den Observatorien Uraniborg und Stjerneborg benutzte, sind nicht erhalten. Aber es gibt gute Beschreibungen der Instrumente (Halbkreis, Quadranten, Sextanten, Armillarsphären, Triquetrum, Himmelsglobus) in seinem Buch Astronomiae instauratae mechanica (Wandsbek 1598). Eine Nachbildung des großen hölzernen Quadranten kann man im Runden Turm in Kopenhagen sehen. Zwei Sextanten, hergestellt für Tycho um 1600 von Jost Bürgi und Erasmus Habermel, gibt es noch im Nationalmuseum für Technik in Prag. Ähnlichkeiten von Tychos Instrumenten mit Groß-Instrumenten aus dem islamischen Kulturkreis sind auffällig. Tycho Brahes Meßgeräte markieren einen großen Fortschritt in der Entwicklung astronomischer Instrumente und Meßtechniken und bilden die Grundlage für den weiteren Fortschritt der Positionsastronomie und der damit verbundenen Tabellenwerke. Die Nachwirkungen sind bis ins 17. und 18. Jahrhundert nachweisbar.

  14. Sterblichkeit: der paradoxe Kunstgriff des Lebens - Eine Betrachtung vor dem Hintergrund der modernen Biologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeek, Bernhard

    Leben gibt es auf der Erde seit fast 4 Mio. Jahren, trotz allen Katastrophen. Die Idee des Lebens scheint unsterblich. Der Tod aber offenbar auch. Jedes Lebewesen ist davon bedroht, ja für Menschen und andere "höhere“ Lebewesen ist er im Lebensprogramm eingebaut - todsicher. Diese Tatsache ist alles andere als selbstverständlich. Ist sie überhaupt kompatibel mit dem Prinzip der Evolution, nach dem der am besten Angepasste überlebt?

  15. Untersuchung der Richtwirkung der Einkopplung von ebenen Wellen in eine Leitung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdowski, M.; Vick, R.

    2013-07-01

    Elektrische Leitungen und Kabel stellen häufig die Haupteinfallstore für elektromagnetische Felder in die daran angeschlossenen Geräte und Systeme dar. Für die Einkopplung einer ebenen Welle kann der in eine Leitung eingekoppelte Strom unter bestimmten Voraussetzungen mit Hilfe der Leitungstheorie sehr effizient bestimmt werden. Er hängt dabei von den Abmessungen der Leitung, den Leitungsabschlüssen sowie der Amplitude, der Wellenlänge und der Einfallsrichtung der ebenen Welle ab. In dieser Arbeit wird die Abhängigkeit der Einkopplung von der Einfallsrichtung näher untersucht. Dazu werden Richtdiagramme der Einkopplung berechnet, dargestellt und hinsichtlich der mittleren und maximalen Einkopplung über alle Einfallsrichtungen und Polarisationen ausgewertet. Die Ergebnisse werden genutzt, um die maximale Direktivität der Einkopplung in eine Leitung zu bestimmen. Fasst man die Einkopplung externer Felder in eine Leitung als einen Störfestigkeitstest auf, so kann die maximale Direktivität benutzt werden, um einen Vergleich zwischen unterschiedlichen Messumgebungen wie Absorberhallen und Modenverwirbelungskammern herzustellen.

  16. Der Einfluss der Digitalisierung auf die Organisation eines Unternehmens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Wolfram M.

    Die Digitalisierung schreitet mit großen Schritten voran. Dies wirkt sich nicht nur auf die Gesellschaft im Grundsatz, sondern auch auf das Verhalten der Kunden aus. Neue Kommunikationswege beschleunigen die Interaktion zwischen Unternehmen und Verbraucher. Im Vergleich mit großen Internetfirmen werden etablierte Dienstleistungsunternehmen - vom Energieversorger bis zu Versicherungen - stark unter Druck gesetzt, sich noch intensiver mit dem Kundenservice auseinanderzusetzen. Dies wird nur möglich sein, wenn sich die Organisationen entsprechend positionieren und sich frühzeitig auf die Veränderungen einstellen. Hieraus ergeben sich mehr Chancen als Risiken, zumal es nicht nur neue Prozesse, sondern auch neue Berufsbilder geben wird.

  17. Sequence polymorphisms of Der f 1, Der p 1, Der f 2 and Der p 2 from Korean house dust mite isolates.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Kyoung Yong; Lee, In-Yong; Yong, Tai-Soon; Lee, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Eun-Jin; Lee, Joo-Shil; Hong, Chein-Soo; Park, Jung-Won

    2012-09-01

    Amino acid sequence variations have possible influences on the allergenicity of allergens and may be important factors in allergen standardization. This study was undertaken to investigate the sequence polymorphisms of group 1 and 2 allergens from Korean isolates of the house dust mites Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus. cDNA sequences encoding group 1 and 2 allergens were amplified by RT-PCR and compared the deduced amino acid sequences. Der f 1.0101, which appeared in 64.0 % of the 50 sequences analyzed, was found to be predominant. Among the Der p 1 sequences, Der p 1.0102 and 1.0105 were predominant (58 %). Among the Der f 2 sequences, Der f 2.0102 (40.7 %) and a new variant with Gly at position 42 (27.8 %) were predominant. The deduced amino acid sequences of 60 Der p 2 clones were examined, and 28 variants with 1-5 amino acid substitutions were found. Interestingly, all of the Der p 2 sequences had Thr instead of Lys at position 49. Two variants (Leu40, Thr49, and Asn114 (26.6 %); Val40, Thr49, and Asn114 (20.0 %)) were found to be the most predominant forms of Der p 2. Der p 1 has a high rate of sporadic substitutions and the group 2 allergens show a more regular pattern with orderly associations of amino acid substitutions. Der f 1 and Der p 2 from Korean mite isolates have unique amino acid sequence polymorphisms. These findings provide important data for house dust mite allergen standardization.

  18. Von Humboldt bis Einstein. Berlin als Weltzentrum der exakten Wissenschaften.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschkowski, H.

    Contents: 1. Die Anfänge. 2. Die Ära Dirichlet-Jacobi. 3. Der Ausbau der experimentellen Naturwissenschaften. 4. Alexander von Humboldt. 5. Berlin wird "Weltzentrum" der Mathematik. 6. Die Ära Helmholtz. 7. Neue Arbeitsweisen der Astronomie. 8. Chemie: Forschung und Industrie. 9. Max Planck. 10. Ins technische Zeitalter. 11. Zur Mathematik der zwanziger Jahre. 12. Albert Einstein. 13. Fortschritte der Grundlagenforschung. 14. Erwin Schrödinger: Physiker, Philosoph und Poet. 15. Zum Schluß.

  19. Der Kalte Krieg in der Peripherie Griechische Physiker und Atomenergie nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahakis, George N.

    Die vorliegende Arbeit analysiert Ansichten griechischer Physiker zur Atomenergie und deren mögliche Anwendung nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, insbesondere während des Kalten Kriegs. Einerseits werden Ansichten von Physik- Professoren griechischer Universitäten präsentiert - beispielsweise von Dimitrios Hondros, der Student von Arnold Sommerfeld und Mitarbeiter von Peter Debye in München war, und andererseits wird die Politik der griechischen Regierung für die Etablierung eines Forschungsinstitutes diskutiert, das der Entwicklung der Atomenergie dienen sollte; ebenfalls wird eine öffentliche Meinungsumfrage zu diesen Thema, die in den Tageszeitungen der damaligen Zeit präsentiert wurde, diskutiert.

  20. Heterologous Expression of Der Homologs in an Escherichia coli der Mutant and Their Functional Complementation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Eunsil; Kang, Nalae; Jeon, Young; Pai, Hyun-Sook

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The unique Escherichia coli GTPase Der (double Era-like GTPase), which contains tandemly repeated GTP-binding domains, has been shown to play an essential role in 50S ribosomal subunit biogenesis. The depletion of Der results in the accumulation of precursors of 50S ribosomal subunits that are structurally unstable at low Mg2+ concentrations. Der homologs are ubiquitously found in eubacteria. Conversely, very few are conserved in eukaryotes, and none is conserved in archaea. In the present study, to verify their conserved role in bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit biogenesis, we cloned Der homologs from two gammaproteobacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium; two pathogenic bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae; and the extremophile Deinococcus radiodurans and then evaluated whether they could functionally complement the E. coli der-null phenotype. Only K. pneumoniae and S. Typhimurium Der proteins enabled the E. coli der-null strain to grow under nonpermissive conditions. Sucrose density gradient experiments revealed that the expression of K. pneumoniae and S. Typhimurium Der proteins rescued the structural instability of 50S ribosomal subunits, which was caused by E. coli Der depletion. To determine what allows their complementation, we constructed Der chimeras. We found that only Der chimeras harboring both the linker and long C-terminal regions could reverse the growth defects of the der-null strain. Our findings suggest that ubiquitously conserved essential GTPase Der is involved in 50S ribosomal subunit biosynthesis in various bacteria and that the linker and C-terminal regions may participate in species-specific recognition or interaction with the 50S ribosomal subunit. IMPORTANCE In Escherichia coli, Der (double Era-like GTPase) is an essential GTPase that is important for the production of mature 50S ribosomal subunits. However, to date, its precise role in ribosome biogenesis has not been

  1. Dynamics of three coupled van der Pol oscillators with application to circadian rhythms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rompala, Kevin; Rand, Richard; Howland, Howard

    2007-08-01

    In this work we study a system of three van der Pol oscillators. Two of the oscillators are identical, and are not directly coupled to each other, but rather are coupled via the third oscillator. We investigate the existence of the in-phase mode in which the two identical oscillators have the same behavior. To this end we use the two variable expansion perturbation method (also known as multiple scales) to obtain a slow flow, which we then analyze using the computer algebra system MACSYMA and the numerical bifurcation software AUTO. Our motivation for studying this system comes from the presence of circadian rhythms in the chemistry of the eyes. We model the circadian oscillator in each eye as a van der Pol oscillator. Although there is no direct connection between the two eyes, they are both connected to the brain, especially to the pineal gland, which is here represented by a third van der Pol oscillator.

  2. Symmetriebrechung und Emergenz in der Kosmologie.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, K.

    Seit der Antike wird der Aufbau des Universums mit einfachen und regulären (symmetrischen) Grundstrukturen verbunden. Diese Annahme liegt selbst noch den Standardmodellen der relativistischen Kosmologie zugrunde. Demgegenüber läßt sich die Emergenz neuer Strukturen von den Elementarteilchen über Moleküle bis zu den komplexen Systemen des Lebens als Symmetriebrechung verstehen. Symmetriebrechung und strukturelle Komplexität bestimmen die kosmische Evolution. Damit zeichnet sich ein fachübergreifendes Forschungsprogramm von Physik, Chemie und Biologie ab, in dem die Evolution des Universums untersucht werden kann.

  3. Qualitätsmanagement in der Lebensmittelindustrie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorn, Volker

    Die wesentlichen Kunden der Lebensmittelindustrie sind der Einzel- und Großhandel und die Verbraucher. Jedes Unternehmen kann mittel- und langfristig nur existieren, wenn seine Kunden zufrieden sind. Kunden sind zufrieden, wenn ihre Erwartungen, die sie an Produkt, Service und Preis stellen, erfüllt werden. Also die bestimmte erwartete Qualität (Leistung) sichergestellt wird. Trotz aller Bemühungen und Anstrengungen der Anbieter, Qualitätsprodukte auf den Markt zu bringen, kames in den letzten Jahren immer wieder zu Lebensmittelskandalen.

  4. Werner Heisenberg zum 100. Geburtstag: Pionier der Quantenmechanik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2001-11-01

    Werner Heisenberg war eine der prägendsten Gestalten der Physik des 20. Jahrhunderts. Zu seinen wichtigsten Verdiensten gehören die Grundlegung der Quantenmechanik, die Formulierung der Unschärferelationen sowie die Beteiligung an der Ausarbeitung der Kopenhagener Deutung der Quantenmechanik. Darüber hinaus lieferte er Arbeiten von fundamentalem Charakter zur Theorie des Atomkerns, zur kosmischen Strahlung und zur Quantenfeldtheorie. Während des Krieges war er an den Arbeiten des Uranvereins beteiligt, der die Möglichkeit einer Entwicklung von Kernwaffen untersuchte, jedoch über Vorarbeiten zur Reaktorphysik nicht hinauskam. Wegen dieser Tätigkeit wurde er bei Kriegsende für einige Monate in England interniert. Nach seiner Rückkehr widmete er sich vor allem dem Aufbau der Physik in Deutschland, die während der NS-Zeit nahezu ihrer gesamten Substanz beraubt worden war.

  5. Ending a Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share Ending a Pregnancy Ending a PregnancyWhat is abortion?Abortion means ending a pregnancy early. In some cases, ... This is called a miscarriage, or a spontaneous abortion. In other cases, a woman chooses to end ...

  6. Reisen im freien Fall - Teil 2: Das Zwillingsparadoxon aus dem Blickwinkel der ART

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonne, Bernd; Weiß, Reinhard

    2013-07-01

    Nachdem wir uns mit den Prinzipien der ART und einigen Beispielen vertraut gemacht haben, kommen wir nun zur Berechnung des Zwillingsparadoxons aus Sicht des reisenden Zwillings. Dabei spielt das Äquivalenzprinzip eine große Rolle. Deshalb wird die Bewegungssituation noch einmal erläutert, diesmal aus Sicht von Katrin. Sie befindet sich in ihrem System S'in Ruhe. In ihrem System läuft die Zeit t'ab. Nach dem Start fühlt Katrin jedoch eine Kraft, die sie als Gravitationskraft interpretieren kann. Sie merkt es daran, dass sie in den Sitz gedrückt wird. Nach einiger Zeit werden die Triebwerke abgeschaltet, und das Raumschiff fliegt mit konstanter Geschwindigkeit weiter, Phase 2. Anschließend wird der Schub der Triebwerke solange umgekehrt, bis das Raumschiff irgendwo mit der Geschwindigkeit null am Umkehrpunkt U landet, Phase 3 (Abb. 15.1). Die Erde, auf der sich Michael befindet, bewegt sich mit x'(t') aus Sicht von Katrin im freien Fall von ihr weg, s. das Experiment mit dem steigenden Fahrstuhl in Abschn. 13.2.1.

  7. Genetics Home Reference: van der Woude syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Moretti-Ferreira D, Richieri-Costa A, Dixon MJ, Murray JC. Mutations in IRF6 cause Van der Woude ... PubMed Central Nopoulos P, Richman L, Andreasen N, Murray JC, Schutte B. Cognitive dysfunction in adults with ...

  8. Connecting Distributed Energy Resources to the Grid: Their Benefits to the DER Owner etc.

    SciTech Connect

    Poore, WP

    2003-07-09

    The vision of the Distributed Energy Research Program (DER) program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is that the United States will have the cleanest and most efficient and reliable energy system in the world by maximizing the use of affordable distributed energy resources. Electricity consumers will be able to choose from a diverse number of efficient, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly distributed energy options and easily connect them into the nation's energy infrastructure while providing benefits to their owners and other stakeholders. The long-term goal of this vision is that DER will achieve a 20% share of new electric capacity additions in the United States by 2010, thereby helping to make the nation's electric power generation and delivery system more efficient, reliable, secure, clean, economical, and diverse in terms of fuel use (oil, natural gas, solar, hydroelectric, etc.) and prime mover resource (solar, wind, gas turbines, etc.). Near- and mid-term goals are to develop new technologies for implementing and operating DER and address barriers associated with DER usage and then to reduce costs and emissions and improve the efficiency and reliability of DER. Numerous strategies for meeting these goals have been developed into a research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) program that supports generation and delivery systems architecture, including modeling and simulation tools. The benefits associated with DER installations are often significant and numerous. They almost always provide tangible economic benefits, such as energy savings or transmission and distribution upgrade deferrals, as well as intangible benefits, such as power quality improvements that lengthen maintenance or repair intervals for power equipment. Also, the benefits routinely are dispersed among end users, utilities, and the public. For instance, an end user may use the DER to reduce their peak demand and save money due to lower demand charges. Reduced end user

  9. Wie wissenschaftlich ist der Evolutionsgedanke?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, Gerhard

    Darwin war ein besonnener Mann; alles Aufsehen war ihm zuwider. Trotzdem hat er eine Revolution ausgelöst, deren Wirkung nicht auf die Biologie beschränkt blieb. Seine Theorie lässt sich in fünf Teiltheorien zerlegen, die sich durch die Begriffe Artenwandel, Verwandtschaft alles Lebendigen und gemeinsamer Ursprung, Artenaufspaltung und Artenvielfalt, Gradualismus, natürliche Auslese charakterisieren lassen. Dadurch wurden mehrere religiöse und weitere weltanschauliche Überzeugungen in Frage gestellt. Deshalb wird die Evolutionstheorie auch heute noch vielfach kritisiert, ja bekämpft. Die Vorwürfe lassen sich ordnen nach den Kriterien, mit denen wir erfahrungswissenschaftliche Theorien beurteilen. Haltbar ist daran nur, dass es für die Evolutionstheorie zwar beliebig viele Bestätigungen gibt, aber nur wenige Widerlegungsmöglichkeiten. Durch die neuerdings entwickelten und durchgeführten Evolutionsexperimente ist die empirische Situation allerdings deutlich besser geworden. Am (erfahrungs)wissenschaftlichen Charakter der Evolutionstheorie besteht deshalb kein Zweifel.

  10. Modellbasierte interindividuelle Registrierung an der lateralen Schädelbasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riechmann, M.; Lohnstein, P. U.; Raczkowsky, J.; Klenzner, T.; Schipper, J.; Wörn, H.

    Bei chirurgischen Eingriffen an der lateralen Schädelbasis wird in der zur Zeit gängigen Praxis das Knochengewebe unter optischer Kontrolle großflächig ablativ entfernt, um den Operationssitus freizulegen und konventionell operieren zu können. Prinzipiell soll dabei die Schonung vital und funktional bedeutender Strukturen berücksichtigt werden. Zur weiteren Minimierung der Traumatisierung und zur Erhaltung der strukturellen anatomischen Integrität soll eine alternative endoskopische Operationstechnik entwickelt werden, bei der der Situs durch dünne im Knochen liegende Bohrkanäle erreicht wird. Im Rahmen der Evaluierung der generellen Eignung der geometrischen Ausprägungen der humanen lateralen Schädelbasis wurden Methoden entwickelt, die anhand virtueller Modelle die Zugänglichkeit der anatomischen Zielstrukturen bestimmen können. Ein dabei auftretendes Problem ist die interindividuelle Vergleichbarkeit der Ergebnisse, da aufgrund der anatomischen Variationen eine zuverlässige interindividuelle Registrierung nicht trivial ist. Diese Arbeit beschreibt ein modellbasiertes Verfahren zur automatischen Registrierung mehrerer Felsenbeine zu einander über die prägnante Geometrie der Cochlea.

  11. Hypoallergenic Der p 1/Der p 2 combination vaccines for immunotherapy of house dust mite allergy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuan-Wei; Blatt, Katharina; Thomas, Wayne R; Swoboda, Ines; Valent, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf; Vrtala, Susanne

    2012-08-01

    More than 50% of allergic patients have house dust mite (HDM) allergy. Group 1 and 2 allergens are the major HDM allergens. We sought to produce and perform preclinical characterization of a recombinant hypoallergenic combination vaccine for specific immunotherapy of HDM allergy. Synthetic genes coding for 2 hybrid proteins consisting of reassembled Der p 1 and Der p 2 fragments with (recombinant Der p 2 [rDer p 2]/1C) and without (rDer p 2/1S) cysteines were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity by means of affinity chromatography. Protein fold was determined by using circular dichroism analysis, allergenic activity was determined by testing IgE reactivity and using basophil activation assays, and the presence of T-cell epitopes was determined based on lymphoproliferation in allergic patients. Mice and rabbits were immunized to study the molecules' ability to induce an allergic response and whether they induce allergen-specific IgG capable of inhibiting allergic patients' IgE binding to the allergens, respectively. rDer p 2/1C and rDer p 2/1S were expressed in large amounts in E coli as soluble and folded proteins. Because of the lack of disulfide bonds, rDer p 2/1S did not form aggregates and was obtained as a monomeric protein, whereas rDer p 2/1C did form aggregates. Both hypoallergens lacked relevant IgE reactivity and had reduced ability to induce allergic inflammation and allergic responses but induced similar T-cell proliferation as the wild-type allergens. Immunization with the hypoallergens (rDer p 2/1S > rDer p 2/1C) induced IgG antibodies in rabbits that inhibited the IgE reactivity of patients with HDM allergy to Der p 1 and Der p 2. The preclinical characterization indicates that particularly rDer p 2/1S can be used as a safe hypoallergenic molecule for both tolerance and vaccination approaches to treat HDM allergy. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Detection of inhaled Der p 1.

    PubMed

    Poulos, L M; O'Meara, T J; Sporik, R; Tovey, E R

    1999-09-01

    Measurement of personal exposure to Der p 1 aeroallergen has previously been limited by the low quantity of material collected by sampling systems and the assay sensitivity. This has meant that exposure could only be detected if long sampling periods were used or reservoir dust was artificially disturbed. We have developed a sampling method to sample true personal exposure and combined it with a novel method which is sensitive enough to measure allergen exposure over shorter time frames. To describe normal domestic exposure to dust mite allergen during a range of activities in houses in Sydney, Australia. Inhaled particles containing mite allergen Der p 1 were collected using a nasal air sampler which impacts particles (> approximately 5 microm) onto a protein-binding membrane coated with a thin, porous, adhesive film. The allergen is bound to the membrane in the immediate vicinity of the particle and detected by immunostaining with monoclonal antibodies specific for Der p 1. In addition, samples were collected using a standard Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal air sampler and the amount of eluted Der p 1 was assayed by ELISA. The median number (range) of inhaled particles containing Der p 1 collected in each 10-min sampling period was: dust raising 5 (2-10); lying in bed, 0 (0-2); sitting on the bed, 1 (0-2); walking around the bedroom, 0 (0-2). This represented 0-5.1% of all particles captured. The Der p 1 concentration of floor and bed dust was 19.4 and 55.1 microg/g, respectively. The standard IOM personal sampler and ELISA were unable to detect Der p 1 for any of the activities performed. We were able to count individual allergen-carrying particles inhaled over short time periods, during different domestic exposure situations. This will offer new insight into several aspects of personal allergen exposure.

  13. Ökologische Grundlagen und limitierende Faktoren der Renaturierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hölzel, N.; Rebele, F.; Rosenthal, G.; Eichberg, C.

    In den dicht besiedelten und agrarisch besonders intensiv genutzten Regionen Mittel- und Westeuropas ist seit Ende des Zweiten Weltkrieges ein fortschreitender Verlust an naturnahen ökosystemen mit hoher biologischer Vielfalt zu verzeichnen. Spätestens seit den 1970er-Jahren ist daher die Neuschaffung und Wiederherstellung gefährdeter Lebensräume und Biozönosen zunehmend in den Mittelpunkt von Naturschutzmaßnahmen gerückt (Bakker 1989, Muller et al. 1998, Bakker und Berendse 1999). Aufgrund fehlender wissenschaftlicher Grundlagen und praktischer Erfahrungen wurden Renaturierungsmaßnahmen anfangs fast durchweg nach dem trial and error-Prinzip durchgeführt. Im Vordergrund standen dabei zunächst die Wiederherstellung adäquater abiotischer Standortbedingungen sowie die Reorganisation traditioneller Nutzungsmanagements. Bei Ersterem ging es neben der Wiedervernässung entwässerter Feuchtgebiete (Pfadenhauer und Grootjans 1999) vor allem darum, Eutrophierungseffekte zu beseitigen und die Produktivität des Standortes auf das Niveau der Zielgemeinschaft zurückzuführen (Gough und Marrs 1990, Oomes et al. 1996, Snow et al. 1997, Tallowin et al. 1998).

  14. Measuring the thermal boundary resistance of van der Waals contacts using an individual carbon nanotube.

    PubMed

    Hirotani, Jun; Ikuta, Tatsuya; Nishiyama, Takashi; Takahashi, Koji

    2013-01-16

    Interfacial thermal transport via van der Waals interaction is quantitatively evaluated using an individual multi-walled carbon nanotube bonded on a platinum hot-film sensor. The thermal boundary resistance per unit contact area was obtained at the interface between the closed end or sidewall of the nanotube and platinum, gold, or a silicon dioxide surface. When taking into consideration the surface roughness, the thermal boundary resistance at the sidewall is found to coincide with that at the closed end. A new finding is that the thermal boundary resistance between a carbon nanotube and a solid surface is independent of the materials within the experimental errors, which is inconsistent with a traditional phonon mismatch model, which shows a clear material dependence of the thermal boundary resistance. Our data indicate the inapplicability of existing phonon models when weak van der Waals forces are dominant at the interfaces.

  15. Integrable extended van der Waals model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giglio, Francesco; Landolfi, Giulio; Moro, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Inspired by the recent developments in the study of the thermodynamics of van der Waals fluids via the theory of nonlinear conservation laws and the description of phase transitions in terms of classical (dissipative) shock waves, we propose a novel approach to the construction of multi-parameter generalisations of the van der Waals model. The theory of integrable nonlinear conservation laws still represents the inspiring framework. Starting from a macroscopic approach, a four parameter family of integrable extended van der Waals models is indeed constructed in such a way that the equation of state is a solution to an integrable nonlinear conservation law linearisable by a Cole-Hopf transformation. This family is further specified by the request that, in regime of high temperature, far from the critical region, the extended model reproduces asymptotically the standard van der Waals equation of state. We provide a detailed comparison of our extended model with two notable empirical models such as Peng-Robinson and Soave's modification of the Redlich-Kwong equations of state. We show that our extended van der Waals equation of state is compatible with both empirical models for a suitable choice of the free parameters and can be viewed as a master interpolating equation. The present approach also suggests that further generalisations can be obtained by including the class of dispersive and viscous-dispersive nonlinear conservation laws and could lead to a new type of thermodynamic phase transitions associated to nonclassical and dispersive shock waves.

  16. Electricity End Uses, Energy Efficiency, and Distributed Energy Resources Baseline

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Lisa; Wei, Max; Morrow, William; Deason, Jeff; Schiller, Steven R.; Leventis, Greg; Smith, Sarah; Leow, Woei Ling; Levin, Todd; Plotkin, Steven; Zhou, Yan

    2017-01-01

    This report was developed by a team of analysts at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, with Argonne National Laboratory contributing the transportation section, and is a DOE EPSA product and part of a series of “baseline” reports intended to inform the second installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review (QER 1.2). QER 1.2 provides a comprehensive review of the nation’s electricity system and cover the current state and key trends related to the electricity system, including generation, transmission, distribution, grid operations and planning, and end use. The baseline reports provide an overview of elements of the electricity system. This report focuses on end uses, electricity consumption, electric energy efficiency, distributed energy resources (DERs) (such as demand response, distributed generation, and distributed storage), and evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methods for energy efficiency and DERs.

  17. Kommunikationsanforderungen an verteilte Echtzeitsysteme in der Fertigungsautomatisierung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Just, Roman; Trsek, Henning

    Kommunikationssysteme der Automatisierung müssen hohe zeitliche Anforderungen erfüllen, damit die entsprechenden industriellen Anwendungen realisiert werden können. Im Gegensatz zum IT-Bereich sind diese Anforderungen jedoch häufig nicht genau bekannt, was insbesondere beim Einsatz von drahtlosen Technologien Probleme bereiten kann1. In dieser Arbeit werden Verkehrsmuster einer realen Anlage aus dem Bereich der Fertigungsautomatisierung bestimmt. Die Zwischenankunfts- und Latenzzeiten einzelner Sensorund Aktorsignale ermöglichen Rückschlüsse auf zeitliche Anforderungen und Charakteristiken der untersuchten Anwendung. Im Anschluss werden die erzielten Erkenntnisse hinsichtlich ausgewählter Kommunikationsanforderungen analysiert und aktuell gültige Anforderungen von realen Automatisierungsanlagen abgeleitet. Weiterhin werden sie zukünftig zur Entwicklung realitätsnaher Simulationsmodelle genutzt.

  18. Efficient thermoelectric van der Pauw measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Boor, Johannes; Schmidt, Volker

    2011-07-01

    The development of powerful thermoelectric materials requires fast and simple characterization techniques. We combine three measurements to obtain a complete thermoelectric characterization. The electrical conductivity is measured by the van der Pauw method, while ZT is determined directly by means of a Harman measurement. Finally, exploiting the analogy between electrical and thermal physics, a thermal van der Pauw measurement is performed and the sample Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity can be determined. No temperature differences need to be measured; all quantities can be deduced from voltage measurements concurrently on the same sample which allows for quick and convenient material screening.

  19. van der Waals radii of noble gases.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Jürgen; Alvarez, Santiago

    2014-09-02

    Consistent van der Waals radii are deduced for Ne-Xe, based on the noble gas···oxygen intermolecular distances found in gas phase structures. The set of radii proposed is shown to provide van der Waals distances for a wide variety of noble gas···element atom pairs that represent properly the distribution of distances both in the gas phase and in the solid state. Moreover, these radii show a smooth periodic trend down the group which is parallel to that shown by the halogens.

  20. TÜV - Zertifizierungen in der Life Science Branche

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaff, Peter; Gerbl-Rieger, Susanne; Kloth, Sabine; Schübel, Christian; Daxenberger, Andreas; Engler, Claus

    Life Sciences [1] (Lebenswissenschaften) sind ein globales Innovationsfeld mit Anwendungen der Bio- und Medizinwissenschaften, der Pharma-, Chemie-, Kosmetik- und Lebensmittelindustrie. Diese Branche zeichnet sich durch eine stark interdisziplinäre Ausrichtung aus, mit Anwendung wissenschaftlicher Erkenntnisse und Einsatz von Ausgangsstoffen aus der modernen Biologie, Chemie und Humanmedizin sowie gezielter marktwirtschaftlich orientierter Arbeit.

  1. Numerische Berechnung von Wirbelstromproblemen mit der Cell-Methode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenner, K.; Rucker, W. M.

    2006-09-01

    In dieser Arbeit wird die Cell-Methode auf die quasistatischen Maxwellgleichungen angewendet. Dabei werden für die notwendige Transformation vom Primärgitter auf das duale Gitter reziproke Basisvektoren verwendet. Anhand der Felddiffusion der magnetischen Induktion in einen zylindrischen Leiter werden Ergebnisse der Cell-Methode mit einer analytischen Vergleichsrechnung präsentiert.

  2. Darwin, Engels und die Rolle der Arbeit in der biologischen und kulturellen Evolution des Menschen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichholf, Josef H.

    Im Jahre 1876, 5 Jahre nach Erscheinen von Darwins Buch über die Evolution des Menschen und die sexuelle Selektion (Darwin 1871), veröffentlichte Friedrich Engels den berühmt gewordenen Essay "Anteil der Arbeit an der Menschwerdung des Affen“ (Engels 1876). Die Kernfrage darin lautet in Kurzform: Warum hat der Mensch eigentlich ein Bedürfnis nach Arbeit? Engels Antwort wird nachfolgend näher betrachtet und vom gegenwärtigen Kenntnisstand aus beurteilt. Wie sich zeigen wird, beantworten seine Überlegungen die Frage nicht wirklich. Sie ist weiterhin offen. Es können lediglich einige zusätzliche Anhaltspunkte zur Diskussion gestellt werden. Angesichts des drängenden Problems millionenfacher Arbeitslosigkeit und der Forderungen nach einem "Grundrecht auf Arbeit“ kommt den Überlegungen zum möglichen Ursprung des Bedürfnisses nach Arbeit mehr als nur akademisches Interesse zu.

  3. Die Evolution der Religiosität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voland, Eckart

    Ein konsequent darwinischer Blick auf den Menschen bedeutet, auch im Denken, Fühlen und Handeln biologische Anpassungsgeschichte zu suchen, denn auch die psychischen und mentalen Eigenheiten des Homo sapiens unterliegen der natürlichen Selektion. Lässt sich die religiöse Lebenspraxis von Menschen daher auch aus einer Fitnessperspektive betrachten?

  4. The Forced van der Pol Equation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fay, Temple H.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a study of the forced van der Pol equation x + [epsilon](x[superscript 2] - 1)x + x = F cos[omega]t, by solving numerically the differential equation for a variety of values of the parameters [epsilon], F and [omega]. In doing so, many striking and interesting trajectories can be discovered and phenomena such as frequency entrainment,…

  5. Note on a van der Waals Gas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Robert P.; Harrison, Joseph G.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the difficulties with the standard model for introduction of attractive forces into the van der Waals equation. Presents an analysis in terms of force and time delays and an alternative analysis for more advanced students in terms of energy. (JRH)

  6. Workflow-Management für organisationsübergreifende Datenübertragung am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TUM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boursas, Latifa

    In diesem Paper werden im ersten Schritt die Voraussetzungen und Anforderungen für Workflow-Management zur Bereitstellung einer organisationsübergreifenden Datenübertragung ausgeführt. Weiter werden auf einfache Art und Weise die Grundlagen des Identity Managements (IDM) und der Provisionierung von Zielsystemen erläutert sowie die technischen Lösungsideen für die genannten Anforderungen eingeführt. Am Beispiel des E-Learning-Systems der TU München zeigen wir zwei Lösungsansätze. Zu jedem Lösungsansatz werden die technischen Workflows genauer betrachtet und der Funktionsumfang erläutert. Ein paar Uses Cases bei den Datenkonvertierungen, die sich auf die verschiedenen Identity-Management-Schnittstellen beziehen werden auch präsentiert. Am Ende schließt ein Vergleich der beiden Lösungsansätze die Analyse ab.

  7. Qualitatsentwicklung von Schulen in der Einwanderungsgesellschaft: Evaluation der Lehrerfortbildung zur interkulturellen Koordination (2012- 2014)(Quality Development of Schools in the Immigration Society: Evaluation of lnterculturalCoordination of Teachers (2012 2014))

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    Programm und der Prazess der Qualifizierung a us der Perspektive der teilnehmenden Lehrkrafte und beteiligter Schul leitungen ana lysiert; (2.) wu...Folgen und Nebenwirkungen der Schulentwicklung erfassen und ana - lysieren zu kiinnen, ermiig lichen insbesondere zwei Traditionen der neueren...ver6ffentlicht wurden, die Erfassung aktue ller Medienberichte, die Auswertung der Interviews mit den Projektleiterinnen sowie die Ana lyse von

  8. Die Kometen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539 und ihre Bedeutung für die spätere Entwicklung der Kometenforschung.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, W.

    Contents: 1. Historisches Umfeld und spätere Entwicklungen. 2. Kometen als Objekte quantitativer Beobachtung im geschlossenen Universum der Epoche. 3. Verlauf der Kometenerscheinungen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539. 4. Die Bedeutung der Kometen der Jahre 1531 bis 1539 für die Entwicklung der Astronomie bis Tycho Brahe und für die Kometentheorie späterer Jahrhunderte. 5. Neuere Literatur und Spezialprobleme.

  9. Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris - Eine Fallserie mit neun Patienten.

    PubMed

    Buder, Valeska; Herberger, Katharina; Jacobi, Arnd; Augustin, Matthias; Radtke, Marc Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Die Pustulosis palmoplantaris ist eine chronisch entzündliche Hauterkrankung, die mit bedeutenden Einschränkungen der Lebensqualität und der Belastbarkeit einhergeht. Aufgrund von Zulassungsbeschränkungen und einem häufig therapierefraktären Verlauf sind die Behandlungsmöglichkeiten limitiert. Nach zuvor frustranen Therapien erhielten 9 Patienten mit Pustulosis palmoplantaris nach Ausschluss einer latenten Tuberkulose Ustekinumab (45 mg Ustekinumab bei < 100 kg Körpergewicht [KG], 90 mg Ustekinumab > 100 kg KG) in Woche 0, 4, 12 und 24. Reguläre Visiten erfolgten nach 4 und 12 Wochen, im weiteren Verlauf alle 12 Wochen. Das Durchschnittsalter bei Therapiebeginn betrug 48 Jahre. Drei Patienten waren männlich. Bei n  =  4 Patienten (44,4 %) wurde eine Verbesserung um 75 % des Palmoplantar-Psoriasis-Area-Severity-Index (PPPASI) erreicht. Insgesamt verbesserte sich der PPPASI nach 24 Wochen durchschnittlich um 71,6 %. Eine komplette Abheilung zeigte sich bei n  =  2 Patienten nach 24 Wochen. Bis auf lokale Injektionsreaktionen und leichte Infekte wurden keine unerwünschten Wirkungen beobachtet. Die Fallserie ist ein weiterer Beleg für die Wirksamkeit und Verträglichkeit von Ustekinumab in der Therapie der Pustulosis palmoplantaris. Zur Beurteilung der Langzeitwirkung und -sicherheit sowie der Wirksamkeit einer intermittierenden Therapie sind kontrollierte Studiendaten sowie Beobachtungen im Rahmen von Patientenregistern notwendig. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The End of the End of Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, John T.

    2006-01-01

    The "end of ideology" was declared by social scientists in the aftermath of World War II. They argued that: (1) ordinary citizens' political attitudes lack the kind of stability, consistency, and constraint that ideology requires; (2) ideological constructs such as liberalism and conservatism lack motivational potency and behavioral…

  11. The End of the End of Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jost, John T.

    2006-01-01

    The "end of ideology" was declared by social scientists in the aftermath of World War II. They argued that: (1) ordinary citizens' political attitudes lack the kind of stability, consistency, and constraint that ideology requires; (2) ideological constructs such as liberalism and conservatism lack motivational potency and behavioral…

  12. Wirkungen biogener Amine auf die Erregungs-Sekretions-Kopplung in der Speicheldrüse von Periplaneta americana (L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rietdorf, Katja

    2003-07-01

    AMP und / oder cGMP erhöht und anschließend den Proteingehalt im Endspeichel gemessen. Ein Anstieg der intrazellulären Ca2+-Konzentration aktiviert nur eine geringe Rate der Proteinsekretion. Dagegen kann die Steigerung der intrazellulären cAMP-Konzentration eine stärkere Proteinsekretion aktivieren, die sich nicht signifikant von der nach 5-HT-Stimulierung unterscheidet. Die cAMP-stimulierte Proteinsekretion kann durch gleichzeitige Erhöhung der intrazellulären Ca2+-Konzentration weiter gesteigert werden. Dagegen aktivierte eine Erhöhung der intrazellulären cGMP-Konzentration die Proteinsekretion nicht. Aufgrund dieser Ergebnisse postuliere ich die Existenz eines die Adenylatcyclase aktivierenden 5-HT-Rezeptors in der Basolateralmembran der C-Zellen. The aim of this PhD-work was to investigate major mechanisms of excitation-secretion coupling in the salivary gland of the cockroach Periplaneta americana (L.). This salivary gland is innervated by dopaminergic and serotonergic fibres (Baumann et al., 2002). The two transmitters stimulate different processes in the gland: Dopamine (DA) stimulates the p-cells of the acini and the salivary duct cells, whereas 5-HT (serotonin) activates the p- and the c-cells of the acini, but not the salivary duct cells. Final saliva is completely protein-free after dopamine stimulation. It contains proteins, which are secreted by the c-cells of the acini, after a 5-HT-stimulation (Just & Walz, 1996). In the first part of my work I measured the electrolytic composition of the final saliva by capillary electrophoretic analysis and measured the rates of fluid secretion, in order to answer the following questions: 1.) Which transporters affect the production of primary saliva and its modification? 2.) What is the function of the transport-active salivary duct cells for the modification of the primary saliva? Electrolytic composition of the DA- and 5-HT-stimulated final saliva is not significantly different from each other, and is

  13. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu Gandi, Appala; Alshareef, Husam N.; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-01

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  14. Thermal response in van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Gandi, Appala Naidu; Alshareef, Husam N; Schwingenschlögl, Udo

    2017-01-25

    We solve numerically the Boltzmann transport equations of the phonons and electrons to understand the thermoelectric response in heterostructures of M2CO2 (M: Ti, Zr, Hf) MXenes with transition metal dichalcogenide monolayers. Low frequency optical phonons are found to occur as a consequence of the van der Waals bonding, contribute significantly to the thermal transport, and compensate for the reduced contributions of the acoustic phonons (increased scattering cross-sections in heterostructures), such that the thermal conductivities turn out to be similar to those of the bare MXenes. Our results indicate that the important superlattice design approach of thermoelectrics (to reduce the thermal conductivity) may be effective for two-dimensional van der Waals materials when used in conjunction with intercalation.

  15. Superlubricity using repulsive van der Waals forces.

    PubMed

    Feiler, Adam A; Bergström, Lennart; Rutland, Mark W

    2008-03-18

    Using colloid probe atomic force microscopy, we show that if repulsive van der Waals forces exist between two surfaces prior to their contact then friction is essentially precluded and supersliding is achieved. The friction measurements presented here are of the same order as the lowest ever recorded friction coefficients in liquid, though they are achieved by a completely different approach. A gold sphere attached to an AFM cantilever is forced to interact with a smooth Teflon surface (templated on mica). In cyclohexane, a repulsive van der Waals force is observed that diverges at short separations. The friction coefficient associated with this system is on the order of 0.0003. When the refractive index of the liquid is changed, the force can be tuned from repulsive to attractive and adhesive. The friction coefficient increases as the Hamaker constant becomes more positive and the divergent repulsive force, which prevents solid-solid contact, gets switched off.

  16. Der Begriff mathematischer Schönheit in einer empirisch informierten Ästhetik der Mathematik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hill, Eva; Spies, Susanne

    Dieses Zitat des britischen Mathematikers G. H. Hardy bringt pointiert die unter praktizierenden Mathematikern, aber auch unter Philosophen der Mathematik weithin akzeptierte Ansicht zum Ausdruck, dass mathematische Schönheit eine nicht zu vernachlässigende Rolle in der mathematischen Forschungspraxis spielt und sowohl interessante ästhetiktheoretische, epistemische als auch ontologische Aspekte aufweist. Danach beeinflusst also das Verständnis dessen, was mathematische Schönheit ist, auch das Verständnis dessen, was Mathematik ist: "Was sind die Träger mathematischer Schönheit?" ist die Frage nach der Art der Gegenstände, für deren Schönheit Mathematiker sich begeistern und nach der sie streben. "Was sind die Kriterien für mathematische Schönheit?" ist die Frage nach den Kategorien, unter denen Mathematiker ihre Arbeit bewerten. Egal, ob sich das Phänomen mathematischer Schönheit als Ausnahmemerkmal oder als ständiger Begleiter mathematischen Tuns erweist - ein adäquates allgemeines Mathematikverständnis sollte dieses Phänomen berücksichtigen und bestenfalls auch erklären können.

  17. Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke: Anwendungen in der Informationstechnologie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, R.

    2007-06-01

    Zellulare Nichtlineare Netzwerke (CNN) wurden 1988 von Chua und Yang (Chua und Yang, 1988) eingeführt. Diese Netzwerke sind dadurch gekennzeichnet, dass eine Zelle, die die kleinste Einheit eines CNN darstellt, nur mit Zellen innerhalb einer bestimmten Umgebung verbunden ist. üblicherweise sind Art und Stärke der Wechselwirkung zwischen zwei Zellen eines CNN translationsinvariant, d.h. sie hängen nur von der relativen Lage beider Zellen zueinander ab. Im Vordergrund aktueller Arbeiten stehen auf derartigen Netzwerken basierende schaltungstechnische Realisierungen mit bis zu 176x144 Zellen, die eine direkte Verbindung zu zweidimensionalen optischen Sensor-Anordnungen aufweisen. Über einen separaten Speicherbereich können die Zellkopplungen eines Netzwerks verändert werden, wodurch eine adaptive Verarbeitung von mehrdimensionalen Sensorsignalen ermöglicht wird. Das kürzlich vorgestellte so genannte EyeRis System (Anafocus Ltd.) enthält zusätzlich noch einen Standardprozessor und stellt (bei einer Größe vergleichbar mit der einer Kreditkarte) daher ein vollständiges superschnelles System zur Informationsverarbeitung dar. In diesem Beitrag sollen, nach einem kurzen Überblick über die Eigenschaften von CNN, aktuelle Realisierungen und exemplarisch eine neuere eigene Anwendung vorgestellt und besprochen werden.

  18. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter.

    PubMed

    Kulić, Igor M; Kulić, Miodrag L

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R(-6)), in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R(-9)). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  19. Theory of coherent van der Waals matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulić, Igor M.; Kulić, Miodrag L.

    2014-12-01

    We explain in depth the previously proposed theory of the coherent van der Waals (cvdW) interaction, the counterpart of van der Waals (vdW) force, emerging in spatially coherently fluctuating electromagnetic fields. We show that cvdW driven matter is dominated by many-body interactions, which are significantly stronger than those found in standard van der Waals (vdW) systems. Remarkably, the leading two- and three-body interactions are of the same order with respect to the distance (∝R-6) , in contrast to the usually weak vdW three-body effects (∝R-9 ). From a microscopic theory we show that the anisotropic cvdW many-body interactions drive the formation of low-dimensional structures such as chains, membranes, and vesicles with very unusual, nonlocal properties. In particular, cvdW chains display a logarithmically growing stiffness with the chain length, while cvdW membranes have a bending modulus growing linearly with their size. We argue that the cvdW anisotropic many-body forces cause local cohesion but also a negative effective "surface tension." We conclude by deriving the equation of state for cvdW materials and propose experiments to test the theory, in particular the unusual three-body nature of cvdW.

  20. End of life care.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ruth

    2012-01-26

    The combination of an ageing population and increasing numbers of prisoners means delivering end of life care in prisons is inevitable. To this end the National End of Life Programme has published a practical guide, aimed at health and social care workers, and prison staff. The guide outlines the six steps of the end of life care pathway in detail, from initiating discussions to care after death. It also includes case studies highlighting best practice. To read the guide, visit http://tinyurl.com/ndoflifeinprison.

  1. Jahre Entwicklung der Instandhaltung - von der ausfallorientierten Instandhaltung zum gemeinsamen TPM und RCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iske, Friedhelm

    Zur Einleitung meines Beitrages möchte ich von einem Gespräch mit einem Mitarbeiter berichten, das ich als junger Vorgesetzter einer Instandhaltungsgruppe 1988 führte. Der engagierte Mitarbeiter feierte damals sein vierzigjähriges Dienstjubiläum und war stolz auf das von ihm Geleistete sowie auf den besonderen Einsatz seiner Altersgruppe, die nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg das Werk wieder aufgebaut hatte. Auf meine Frage, was denn damals die erste Aufgabe in der Firma war, bekam ich kurz und knapp und mit einer Selbstverständlichkeit die selbstbewusste Antwort: "Unser Pferd füttern und mit dem Pferd die innerbetrieblichen Transporte erledigen“. Als junger, technisch orientierter Vorgesetzter war ich über diese Antwort sehr überrascht. Gedanklich weit entfernt war die Vorstellung, dass in der Vergangenheit Transporte mit einem Pferd erledigt wurden.

  2. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  3. Der Telemanipulator daVinci als mechanisches Trackingsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Käst, Johannes; Neuhaus, Jochen; Nickel, Felix; Kenngott, Hannes; Engel, Markus; Short, Elaine; Reiter, Michael; Meinzer, Hans-Peter; Maier-Hein, Lena

    Der Telemanipulator daVinci (Intuitive Surgical, Sunnyvale, Kalifornien) ist ein M aster-Slave System für roboterassistierte minimalinvasive Chirurgie. Da er über integrierte Gelenksensoren verfügt, kann er unter Verwendung der daVinci-API als mechanisches Trackingsystem verwendet werden. In dieser Arbeit evaluieren wir die Präzision und Genauigkeit eines daVinci mit Hilfe eines Genauigkeitsphantoms mit bekannten Maßen. Der ermittelte Positionierungsfehler liegt in der Größenordnung von 6 mm und ist somit für einen Großteil der medizinischen Fragestellungen zu hoch. Zur Reduktion des Fehlers schlagen wir daher eine Kalibrierung der Gelenksensoren vor.

  4. Statik starrer Körper in der Ebene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böge, Gert; Böge, Wolfgang

    Die Kraft ist die Ursache einer Bewegungs- oder (und) Formänderung. Man arbeitet in der Statik mit dem Gedankenbild des "starren" Körpers, schließt also die bei jedem realen Körper auftretende Formänderung aus der Betrachtung aus. Jede Kraft lässt sich durch den Vergleich mit der Gewichtskraft eines Wägestücks messen. Eindeutige Kennzeichnung einer Kraft F erfordert drei Bestimmungsstücke (Abb. 9.1):

  5. Pneumatic inflatable end effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, K. H.; Johnston, J. D. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The invention relates to an end effector device for robot or teleoperated type space vehicle which includes an inflatable balloon member carried on the end of tubular member which has a hollow center or conduit through which a suitable pressurized fluid is supplied. The device may be inserted into a variety of shaped openings or truss-type structures for handling in space.

  6. Devices and applications of van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chao; Zhou, Peng; Zhang, David Wei

    2017-03-01

    Van der Waals heterostructures, composed of individual two-dimensional material have been developing extremely fast. Synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures without the constraint of lattice matching and processing compatibility provides an ideal platform for fundamental research and new device exploitation. We review the approach of synthesis of van der Waals heterostructures, discuss the property of heterostructures and thoroughly illustrate the functional van der Waals heterostructures used in novel electronic and photoelectronic device. Project supported by the National Key Research and Development Program (No. 2016YFA0203900) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61376093, 61622401).

  7. Bereits nach Ablauf der Halbwertszeit droht der vollständige Zerfall Die britische Atomic Scientists’ Association, die Ideologie der „objektiven” Wissenschaft und die H-Bombe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laucht, Christoph

    Präsident Harry Trumans Verlautbarung vom 31.1.1950, seine Regierung wolle die Entwicklung der Wasserstoffbombe vorantreiben, fand große Beachtung in den britischen Medien. Die illustrierte Zeitschrift Picture Post widmete der HBombe einen Artikel, der unter anderem kurze Stellungnahmen der britischen Atomwissenschaftler Eric Burhop, Kathleen Lonsdale, Harrie Massey, Rudolf Peierls und Maurice Pryce enthielt, die alle Mitglieder der Atomic Scientists' Association (ASA) waren.

  8. The end of the end of ideology.

    PubMed

    Jost, John T

    2006-10-01

    The "end of ideology" was declared by social scientists in the aftermath of World War II. They argued that (a) ordinary citizens' political attitudes lack the kind of stability, consistency, and constraint that ideology requires; (b) ideological constructs such as liberalism and conservatism lack motivational potency and behavioral significance; (c) there are no major differences in content (or substance) between liberal and conservative points of view; and (d) there are few important differences in psychological processes (or styles) that underlie liberal versus conservative orientations. The end-of-ideologists were so influential that researchers ignored the topic of ideology for many years. However, current political realities, recent data from the American National Election Studies, and results from an emerging psychological paradigm provide strong grounds for returning to the study of ideology. Studies reveal that there are indeed meaningful political and psychological differences that covary with ideological self-placement. Situational variables--including system threat and mortality salience--and dispositional variables--including openness and conscientiousness--affect the degree to which an individual is drawn to liberal versus conservative leaders, parties, and opinions. A psychological analysis is also useful for understanding the political divide between "red states" and "blue states." ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. TROPOMI end-to-end performance studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voors, Robert; de Vries, Johan; Veefkind, Pepijn; Gloudemans, Annemieke; Mika, Àgnes; Levelt, Pieternel

    2008-10-01

    The TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI) is a UV/VIS/NIR/SWIR non-scanning nadir viewing imaging spectrometer that combines a wide swath (110°) with high spatial resolution (8 x 8 km). Its main heritages are from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and from SCIAMACHY. Since its launch in 2004 OMI has been providing, on a daily basis and on a global scale, a wealth of data on ozone, NO2 and minor trace gases, aerosols and local pollution, a scanning spectrometer launched in 2004. The TROPOMI UV/VIS/NIR and SWIR heritage is a combination of OMI and SCIAMACHY. In the framework of development programs for a follow-up mission for the successful Ozone Monitoring Instrument, we have developed the so-called TROPOMI Integrated Development Environment. This is a GRID based software simulation tool for OMI follow-up missions. It includes scene generation, an instrument simulator, a level 0-1b processing chain, as well as several level 1b-2 processing chains. In addition it contains an error-analyzer, i.e. a tool to feedback the level 2 results to the input of the scene generator. The paper gives a description of the TROPOMI instrument and focuses on design aspects as well as on the performance, as tested in the end-to-end development environment TIDE.

  10. Die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft in der Weimarer Republik und während der Nazidiktatur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilke, Jürgen

    Nach anfänglichen Schwierigkeiten durch den 1. Weltkrieg erlangte die Deutsche Statistische Gesellschaft (DStatG) unter dem renommierten Statistiker und Vorsitzenden der DStatG, Friedrich Zahn, durch eine Vielzahl von Aktivitäten hohes Ansehen. Es gab Bestrebungen, Statistiker aus allen Arbeitsfeldern der Statistik in die DStatG zu integrieren, wobei die "Mathematische Statistik" nur zögerlich akzeptiert wurde (Konjunkturforschung, Zeitreihenanalyse). Nach der Machtübernahme 1933 durch Adolf Hitler geriet die DStatG in das Fahrwasser nationalsozialistischer Ideologie und Politik (Führerprinzip, Gleichschaltung des Vereinswesens). Damit war eine personelle Umstrukturierung in der DStatG verbunden. Politisch Missliebige und rassisch Verfolgte mussten die DStatG verlassen (Bernstein, Freudenberg, Gumbel u.a.). Unter den Statistikern gab es alle Abstufungen im Verhalten zum Regime von Ablehnung und zwangsweiser Anpassung über bereitwilliges Mitläufertum bis zu bewusster Täterschaft. Besonders die Bevölkerungsstatistik wurde durch die NS- Rassenpolitik auf lange Sicht diskreditiert. Im Rahmen von Wirtschaftsplanung und Aufrüstung wurden neue zukunftsträchtige statistische Modelle (Grünig, Bramstedt, Leisse) entwickelt.

  11. van der Waals Heterostructures Grown by MBE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkle, Christopher

    In this work, we demonstrate the high-quality MBE heterostructure growth of various layered 2D materials by van der Waals epitaxy (VDWE). The coupling of different types of van der Waals materials including transition metal dichalcogenide thin films (e.g., WSe2, WTe2, HfSe2) , insulating hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), and topological insulators (e.g., Bi2Se3) allows for the fabrication of novel electronic devices that take advantage of unique quantum confinement and spin-based characteristics. The relaxed lattice-matching criteria of van der Waals epitaxy has allowed for high-quality heterostructure growth with atomically abrupt interfaces, allowing us to couple these materials based primarily on their band alignment and electronic properties. We will discuss the impact of sample preparation, surface reactivity, and lattice mismatch of various substrates (sapphire, graphene, TMDs, Bi2Se3) on the growth mode and quality of the films and will discuss our studies of substrate temperature and flux rates on the resultant growth and grain size. Structural and chemical characterization was conducted via reflection high energy electron diffraction (RHEED, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy (STM/S), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Raman spectroscopy. Experimentally determined band alignments have been determined and compared with first-principles calculations allowing the design of novel low-power logic and magnetic memory devices. Initial results from the electrical characterization of these grown thin films and some simple devices will also be presented. These VDWE grown layered 2D materials show significant potential for fabricating novel heterostructures with tunable band alignments and magnetic properties for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  12. Kanban - der Weg ist das Ziel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aull, Florian; Berlak, Joachim; Dickmann, Eva; Dickmann, Philipp; Fischäder, Holm; Gerlach, Joachim; Henneberg, Jens; Kapalla, Klaus; Kress, Oliver; Kuttler, Robert; Schneider, Herfried M.; Schürle, Philipp; Stellpflug, Franz-Josef; Wannenwetsch, Ralph; Wulz, Johannes; Zäh, Michael F.

    Wenn man aktuell Produktionsbereiche in Deutschland und Europa besucht, fallen im Zusammenhang mit modernen Produktionsmethoden immer öfter die Begriffe Kanban (jap. Karte, Signal) und Pull-Produktion, und dies nicht ohne Stolz, da diese mit dem schillernden Vorbild des Toyota Produktionssystems in Zusammenhang stehen. Tatsächlich ist Kanban ein integraler Bestandteil moderner Produktionssysteme. Blickt man aber im Rahmen von Prozessanalysen hinter die Fassaden", d. h. in die tägliche Praxis der Arbeitsprozesse, wird man schnell desillusioniert - die viel gepriesenen klassischen Kanban-Regeln werden im Tagesgeschäft nicht eingehalten.

  13. Komplexität der Geographie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekert, Volker; Hertrampf, Ulrich

    Das allgemein als Prototyp eines PSPACE-vollständigen Spiels gesehene Geographiespiel wird bezüglich seiner Komplexität genauer untersucht. Das Interesse der theoretischen Informatik an diesem Spiel wurde sehr durch die Darstellung in dem Lehrbuch von Papadimitriou [Pap94] gefördert. Allerdings bestimmt dieses Lehrbuch nicht die Komplexität des Standardspiels sondern verwendet eine Verallgemeinerung. Die Aussage in dem Lehrbuch bleibt damit etwas unbefriedigend und hinter den Möglichkeiten. Wir zeigen hier, dass die komplexitätstheoretische Charakterisierung schon für die Standardvariante des Spiels gilt.

  14. Interlayer Hybridization in van der Waals Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Nam; Tran, Huan; Woods, Lilia

    Van der Waals heterostructures composed of chemically inert dissimilar layers are of great interest for fundamental science and applications. The weak interplanar interactions and orbital overlap are expected to bring modifications to the constituent materials. By using first principles simulations, we investigate the properties of several heterostructures, including graphene/silicene, graphene/MoS2, and silicene/MoS2. The calculations reveal superlattice characteristic points in the Brillouin zone associated with the different stacking patterns. Band structures projected on each of the constituents show hybridization features related to specific orbital overlap for each heterostructure. Phonon dispersion spectra for the considered heterostructures are also investigated.

  15. Die konstanz der melkordnung von ziegen in großen gruppen.

    PubMed

    Sambraus, H H; Keil, N M

    1997-01-12

    ZUSAMMENFASSUNG: An zwei großen Ziegengruppen (Gehörnte und Hornlose) wurde geprüft, ob es eine Melkordnung gibt. Die Tiere wurden in einem landwirtschaftlichen Betrieb in Oberbayern in Laufställen gehalten. Zunächst wurde für jede Herde die Soziale Rangordnung ermittelt und für jedes Tier ein Dominanzindex errechnet. Gleichzeitig wurde über Wochen hinweg bei 17 Melkvorgängen (Gehörnte) bzw. 20 Melkvorgängen (Hornlose) die Melkordnung ermittelt. Die Untersuchung führte zu folgenden Ergebnissen: 1 . Der Platz in der Melkordnung schwankte individuell sehr viel weniger, als es bei zufälliger Wahl zu erwarten gewesen wäre. Viele Tiere nahmen bei jedem Melkvorgang annähernd denselben Platz in der Melkordnung ein. 2 . Eine Platzkonstanz bestand vor allem am Anfang und am Ende der Melkordnung. 3 . Es konnte kein Zusammenhang zwischen Melkordnung und Sozialer Rangordnung gefunden werden. 4 . Geißen mit höherer Milchleistung nahmen im allgemeinen frühere Plätze in der Melkordnung ein, als es zufälliger Verteilung entsprochen hätte. 5 . Zwischen gehörnten und hornlosen Tieren bestanden in allen Aspekten nur geringfügige Unterschiede. 6 . Es ist denkbar, daß die Melkordnung weniger von meßbaren Merkmalen als von Gewohnheitsbildung abhängt. Equality of ranking of goats at milking The existence of rank order at milking was investigated in two large groups of horned and polled goats, respectively. First, social rank was determined and an index of dominance constructed for each animal in each herd. Simultaneously, the ranking at milking was observed 17 times for horned and 20 times for the polled goats, respectively: 1 . The ranking at milking shows less than random variation. At each milking, animals assume roughly the same position. 2 . Uniformity of ranks was particularly evident at the beginning and at the end of milking. 3 . No connection was evident between social rank and milking rank. 4 . Higher yielding goats entered the milking parlour

  16. End of Life Issues

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficult. But by deciding what end-of-life care best suits your needs when you are healthy, ... making choices about the following: The goals of care (for example, whether to use certain medicines during ...

  17. End-effector microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doggett, William R.

    1992-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include: automated structures assembly facility current control hierarchy; automated structures assembly facility purposed control hierarchy; end-effector software state transition diagram; block diagram for ideal install composite; and conclusions.

  18. CENTRIFUGE END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Beams, J.W.; Snoddy, L.B.

    1960-08-01

    An end cap for ultra-gas centrifuges is designed to impart or remove angular momentum to or from the gas and to bring the entering gas to the temperature of the gas inside the centrifuge. The end cap is provided with slots or fins for adjusting the temperature and the angular momentum of the entering gas to the temperature and momentum of the gas in the centrifuge and is constructed to introduce both the inner and the peripheral stream into the centrifuge.

  19. ROTOR END CAP

    DOEpatents

    Rushing, F.C.

    1959-02-01

    An improved end cap is described for the cylindrical rotor or bowl of a high-speed centrifugal separator adapted to permit free and efficient continuous counter current flow of gas therethrough for isotope separation. The end cap design provides for securely mounting the same to the hollow central shaft and external wall of the centrifuge. Passageways are incorporated and so arranged as to provide for continuous counter current flow of the light and heavy portions of the gas fed to the centrifuge.

  20. Helmholtz's early empiricism and the Erhaltung der Kraft.

    PubMed

    Jurkowitz, Edward

    2010-01-01

    Hermann Helmholtz has often been understood to have started research under the influence of Kant, and then to have made a transition to a later mature empiricist phase. Without claiming that in 1847 Helmholtz held the same positions that he later espoused, I suggest that already in his 1847 'Uber die Erhaltung der Kraft' one may find important aspects of his later empiricism. I highlight the ways in which, from early on, Helmholtz turned Kant to use in developing an empirical program of inquiry into possible basic natural causes. To that end, I indicate how, throughout his arguments, Helmholtz employed, sometimes explicitly, but often tacitly, an empiricist logic, one that ran contrary to any form of transcendental deduction, and even to all a priori knowledge. Instead of deriving aspects about the ultimate constituents of nature, Helmholtz aimed to define the proper project for physical natural science. The first part of the paper describes the context of discussion in which Helmholtz entered. The bulk of the paper then analyzes Helmholtz's arguments in order to make space between (1) Kantian, and other, deductions of characteristics that must be true of nature and (2) Helmholtz's delineation of empirically determinable characteristics of presumed ultimate elements of nature, ones that he meant to be specified and delimited through future experimental research. The paper highlights that throughout his discussion Helmholtz meant to define the proper project for physical natural science, a project rife with empiricist aspects.

  1. Physik gestern und heute: Visualisierung mit der Schlierenmethode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heering, Peter

    2006-07-01

    Der Name des österreichischen Forschers Ernst Mach ist heute noch mit der Schallgeschwindigkeit verbunden. Diese Auszeichnung resultiert aus Machs Untersuchungen, wie sich Projektile mit Überschallgeschwindigkeit durch die Luft bewegen. Gerade in jüngster Zeit hat die Anwendung derartiger Methoden durch technische Modifikationen wieder einen Aufschwung erfahren.

  2. Crystal Structures of Mite Allergens Der f 1 and Der p 1 Reveal Differences in Surface-Exposed Residues that May Influence Antibody Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Chapman, Martin D.; Vailes, Lisa D.; Stura, Enrico A.; Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie; Minor, Wladek; Pomés, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The Group 1 mite allergens, Der f 1 and Der p 1, are potent allergens excreted by Dermatophagoides farinae and Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, respectively. The human IgE antibody responses to the Group 1 allergens show more cross-reactivity than the murine IgG antibody responses which are largely species-specific. Here, we report the crystal structure of the mature form of Der f 1, which was isolated from its natural source, and a new, high-resolution structure of mature recombinant Der p 1. Unlike Der p 1, Der f 1 is monomeric both in the crystalline state and in solution. Moreover, no metal binding is observed in the structure of Der f 1, despite the fact that all amino acids involved in Ca{sup 2+} binding in Der p 1 are completely conserved in Der f 1. Although Der p 1 and Der f 1 share extensive sequence identity, comparison of the crystal structures of both allergens revealed structural features which could explain the differences in murine and human IgE antibody responses to these allergens. There are structural differences between Der f 1 and Der p 1 which are unevenly distributed on the allergens' surfaces. This uneven spatial arrangement of conserved versus altered residues could explain both the specificity and cross-reactivity of antibodies against Der f 1 and Der p 1.

  3. Scaling laws for van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials.

    PubMed

    Gobre, Vivekanand V; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Van der Waals interactions have a fundamental role in biology, physics and chemistry, in particular in the self-assembly and the ensuing function of nanostructured materials. Here we utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that van der Waals interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of van der Waals interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  4. Vollautomatische Segmentierung der Prostata aus 3D-Ultraschallbildern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heimann, Tobias; Simpfendörfer, Tobias; Baumhauer, Matthias; Meinzer, Hans-Peter

    Diese Arbeit beschreibt ein modellbasiertes Verfahren zur Segmentierung der Prostata aus 3D-Ultraschalldaten. Kern der Methode ist ein statistisches Formmodell, das auf Beispieldaten der Prostata trainiert wird. Erster Schritt der Segmentierung ist ein evolutionärer Algorithmus, mit dem das Modell grob im zu segmentierenden Bild positioniert wird. Für die darauf folgende lokale Suche wurden mehrere Varianten des Algorithmus evaluiert, unter anderem Ausreißer-Unterdrückung, freie Deformation und Gewichtung der verwendeten Erscheinungsmodelle nach ihrer Zuverlässigkeit. Alle Varianten wurden auf 35 Ultraschallbildern getestet und mit manuellen Referenzsegmentierungen verglichen. Die beste Variante erreichte eine durchschnittliche Oberflächenabweichung von 1.1 mm.

  5. The different modes of binding of the dust mite allergens, Der f 7 and Der p 7, on a monoclonal antibody WH9 contribute to the differential reactivity.

    PubMed

    Tai, Hsiao-Yun; Zhou, Jia-Kai; Yeh, Chang-Ching; Tam, Ming F; Sheu, Sheh-Yi; Shen, Horng-Der

    2017-06-28

    Der f 7 and Der p 7 are important house dust mite allergens. An IgE-binding inhibition monoclonal antibody WH9 reacts ten folds stronger against Der p 7 than to Der f 7. The purpose of this study is to identify the antigenic determinant(s) and the structural basis of Der f 7 recognize by WH9. WH9-reactive determinant(s) on Der f 7 was identified by immunoblot and immunoblot inhibition. The 3-D binary complex structures of WH9 and the group 7 allergens were simulated with homology modeling and docking methods. WH9 reacted with the Der f 7 f9 fragment. Among the five site-directed Der f 7 mutants, WH9 showed reduced immunoblot reactivity against Der f 7 S156A, D159A and P160A mutants. Only the wild-type protein and the Der f 7 I157A and L158A mutants can inhibit significantly the WH9-binding against Der f 7. The structural model of the Der f 7-WH9 complex suggests residues S156 and D159 of Der f 7 can bind to WH9 via potential hydrogen bonds. The structure models of Der f 7-WH9 and Der p 7-WH9 complexes revealed that the differential modes of binding of Der p 7 and Der f 7 allergens on WH9 contribute to the differential reactivity of WH9 against the Der f 7 and the Der p 7 mite allergens. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Root-end resection.

    PubMed

    Blahuta, R; Stanko, P

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the retrospective clinical study was to analyse a complex of patients who underwent a root end resection in the Department of Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery, Comenius University, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Bratislava, Slovakia between January 2006 and December 2009 on the small surgery court. A total number of 285 patients who underwent root end resection. Factors examined include sex, patients age structure, total number of resected teeth and their position in upper or lower jaw and the 10 most resected teeth. From 285 patients 103 (36.14 %) were males and 182 (63.86 %) were females. A total number of 378 root end resections was performed, 55 (14.55 %) in the lower jaw and 323 (85.45 %) in the upper jaw. The most resected teeth are from the first and second quadrant. There is a decrease trend by the number of patients who underwent root end resection and teeth which were resected in the timeline between 2006-2009. This process is positive and matches the worldwide trend, by making better and successfull endodontic treatment which results in healing of periapical pathology without the need of root end resection (Tab. 2, Fig. 2, Ref. 20). Full Text in PDF www.elis.sk.

  7. Emerging German Security Policy - The Dispute on ’Out of Area’ Employments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-12

    nationalen Tugend", Die Welt. (12 March 1991). Also: Ronald D. Asmus. "Fragen unter Freunden". Die Zeit. (Nr 8, 15 February 1991), 4, 7 Joachim Sobotta ...January 1992. Ruehl, Lothar. "Wie halten es die Deutschen mit der Buendnispflicht?". Die Welt. 28 December 1991. 41 Sobotta . % achim. "Schluss mit dem

  8. elecTUM: Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmayer, Sabine; Gergintchev, Ivan

    An der TUM wurde ein umfassendes und integriertes eLearning-Konzept umgesetzt, welches Präsenzstudium und eLearning in allen Leistungsbereichen der Universität miteinander verzahnt. Ein besonderer Schwerpunkt lag dabei in der Schaffung einer effizienten und wettbewerbsfähigen integrierten eLearning Infrastruktur in Hinblick auf die noch weiter steigenden Studienanfängerzahlen ab dem Jahr 2011 sowie die Umsetzung von eBologna. Die Etablierung einer hochschulweiten Lernplattform stellte eine wesentliche Basis für die Umsetzung der eLearning-Strategie dar. Die wissenschaftliche und wirtschaftliche Anschlussfähigkeit im Hinblick auf eine Verwertung der Projektergebnisse wurde durch die aktive Beteiligung an einer Vielzahl hochschulübergreifender Arbeitskreise, Fachtagungen und Kooperationen, vor allem über Organisations- und Dienstleistungsmodelle sowie innovative technische Entwicklungen, sichergestellt.

  9. Berechnung der auftretenden lokalen Kräfte auf der magnetischen Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preisner, T.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    Die numerische Berechnung entstehender Kraftwirkungen auf Körper aufgrund magnetischer Wechselwirkungen zwischen diesen, ist in Bezug auf die mechanische Deformation dieser Körper ein noch nicht vollständig gelöstes Problem. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Vergleich vorhandener Kraftberechnungsmethoden hinsichtlich der totalen Kraft anhand eines analytisch berechenbaren Beispiels vorgestellt, sowie Unterschiede der lokalen Kraftdichten dieser Methoden in Anwendung auf die magnetische Beschichtung eines magnetischen Rasterkraftmikroskops aufgezeigt. Due to magnetic interactions between magnetic field inducing bodies, force effects occur on the materials. The numerical computation of those occuring forces with respect to a subsequent structural analysis of a deformable material is still a topic of interest in research. In this paper a comparison between several existent force calculation methods regarding the total force is given for an example with two magnetic cubes. Furthermore, differences are shown concerning the local force densities on the magnetic coating of a magnetic force microscope.

  10. The North End Boston.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connally, Nicole; And Others

    Goals and objectives, student activities, and evaluations are contained in this guide for a one-day scavenger hunt through the North End of Boston. The culmination of a unit involving urban planning and land-use problems, the field trip is intended to give students first-hand experience with city life and a better understanding of urban issues…

  11. End-Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, Mai Neng

    2001-01-01

    Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

  12. Start at the End ...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsworthy, Anne

    2005-01-01

    Start at the end; that's the way to improve children's plans for investigations. Strange as it may seem, there are times when beginning at the beginning of an investigation is not the best way to start things off. To give children the opportunity to ask questions and plan what to do, sometimes it is best to get them first to consider others' data…

  13. End-Stage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moua, Mai Neng

    2001-01-01

    Through her reflections on dealing with dialysis for end-stage renal disease and awaiting a kidney transplant, the author presents insights into how her experience was shaped by the physical, emotional, and multicultural forces she faced. Among the issues discussed are her ambivalent feelings between pursuing a regular lifestyle and receiving…

  14. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient's serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen.

  15. Der f 21, a novel allergen from dermatophagoides farina

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yulan; Jiang, Congli; Li, Meng; Yu, Haiqiong; Xiao, Xiaojun; Fan, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jianli; Liu, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    The Dermatophagoides farina (D. farina) allergens are an important factor contributing to allergic disease. To identify new allergens is important for diagnosis and treatment of allergic diseases. In this study, we sought to characterize the biological activity of Der f 21 of D. farina. The recombinant Der f 21 protein was characterized by western-blot, ELISA and Skin prick test using clinic patient’s serum.An allergic asthma mouse model was established with the rDer f 21 as a specific antigen. The results showed that the sera from 28.9% in 38 dust mite allergic children displayed positive results in response to rDer f 21, and 42% in 98 dust mite allergic patients displayed positive response in skin prick test. In addition, Immune inhibition assays showed there was IgE cross-reactivity between rDer f 21 and rDer f 5. Moreover, an allergic asthma mouse model was established. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, IgG1, eosinophil infiltration in the allergic mice, interleukin-4(IL-4) and interferon-γ (INF-γ) from spleen cells were markedly increased in the allergic mice. The results demonstrate that Der f 21 is a novel allergen. PMID:27069539

  16. Leichte Neucodierung von Selenocystein in der Natur

    PubMed Central

    Mukai, Takahito; Englert, Markus; Tripp, H. James; Miller, Corwin; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Rubin, Edward M.; Kyrpides, Nikos C.

    2016-01-01

    Selenocystein (Sec oder U) wird durch Neuzuordnung des Stopp-Codons UGA durch einen Sec-spezifischen Elongationsfaktor und eine charakteristische RNA-Struktur codiert. Um mögliche Codonvariationen zu finden, analysierten wir 6.4 Billionen Basenpaare metagenomischer Daten sowie 24903 mikrobielle Genome für tRNASec-Spezies. UGA ist erwartungsgemäβ das vorherrschende Codon für Sec, allerdings finden wir auch tRNASec-Spezies, die die Stopp-Codons UAG und UAA erkennen, sowie weitere zehn Sense-Codons. Die Synthese von Selenoproteinen durch UAG in Geodermatophilus und Blastococcus sowie durch das Cys-Codon UGA in Aeromonas salmonicida konnte durch metabolische Markierung mit 75Se oder Massenspektrometrie bestätigt werden. Weitere tRNASec-Spezies mit verschiedenen Anticodons ermöglichten es Escherichia coli, die aktive Form des Selenoproteins Formiatdehydrogenase H zu synthetisieren. Der genetische Code ist damit bedeutend flexibler, als bisher angenommen. PMID:27440945

  17. Direct synthesis of van der Waals solids.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-Chuan; Lu, Ning; Perea-Lopez, Nestor; Li, Jie; Lin, Zhong; Peng, Xin; Lee, Chia Hui; Sun, Ce; Calderin, Lazaro; Browning, Paul N; Bresnehan, Michael S; Kim, Moon J; Mayer, Theresa S; Terrones, Mauricio; Robinson, Joshua A

    2014-04-22

    The stacking of two-dimensional layered materials, such as semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), insulating hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), and semimetallic graphene, has been theorized to produce tunable electronic and optoelectronic properties. Here we demonstrate the direct growth of MoS2, WSe2, and hBN on epitaxial graphene to form large-area van der Waals heterostructures. We reveal that the properties of the underlying graphene dictate properties of the heterostructures, where strain, wrinkling, and defects on the surface of graphene act as nucleation centers for lateral growth of the overlayer. Additionally, we show that the direct synthesis of TMDs on epitaxial graphene exhibits atomically sharp interfaces. Finally, we demonstrate that direct growth of MoS2 on epitaxial graphene can lead to a 10(3) improvement in photoresponse compared to MoS2 alone.

  18. Implantate und Verfahren in der Augenheilkunde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neuhann, Tobias H.

    Das in der Medizin mit am häufigsten verwendete Implantat weltweit ist die Intraokulare Linse (IOL). Die Gründe hierfür sind vielschichtig: einmal haben die Operationstechniken in den letzten 30 Jahren eine wesentliche Steigerung an Gleichmäßigkeit, Erfolg und Effizienz erfahren, zum anderen verursachen die gestiegenen Anforderungen des Alltags in den Industrienationen und im Berufsleben den höheren Anspruch an das Sehvermögen. Ist die menschliche Linse Ursache für schlechtes Sehvermögen, besteht meist eine Trübung des Linsenproteins. Diese Trübung nennt wird Volksmund Grauer Star genannt, wissenschaftlich die Katarakt (cataracta). Es gibt unterschiedliche Formen wie angeborene (congenita) oder erworbene, traumatische, krankheitsoder altersbedingte Formen [45]. Wird die eingetrübte Linse nun mittels moderner Operationsverfahren entfernt, muss für Ersatz dieses lichtbrechenden Mediums gesorgt werden [2].

  19. Hyperdislocations in van der Waals Layered Materials.

    PubMed

    Ly, Thuc Hue; Zhao, Jiong; Keum, Dong Hoon; Deng, Qingming; Yu, Zhiyang; Lee, Young Hee

    2016-12-14

    Dislocations are one-dimensional line defects in three-dimensional crystals or periodic structures. It is common that the dislocation networks made of interactive dislocations be generated during plastic deformation. In van der Waals layered materials, the highly anisotropic nature facilitates the formation of such dislocation networks, which is critical for the friction or exfoliation behavior for these materials. By transmission electron microscopy analysis, we found the topological defects in such dislocation networks can be perfectly rationalized in the framework of traditional dislocation theory, which we applied the name "hyperdislocations". Due to the strong pinning effect of hyperdislocations, the state of exfoliation can be easily triggered by 1° twisting between two layers, which also explains the origin of disregistry and frictionlessness for all of the superlubricants that are widely used for friction reduction and wear protection.

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR, PULPIT END (SOUTHEAST END) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey INTERIOR, PULPIT END (SOUTHEAST END) Lanny Miyamoto, Photographer - October 1958 - Eutaw Place Baptist Church, Dolphin & Eutaw Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  1. Kernschmelze Der nachhaltige Einfluss von Nuklearwaffen auf Politik und Wirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greiner, Bernd

    "Was sollen wir von einer Kultur halten, der die Ethik stets als wesentliches Element des menschlichen Lebens galt, die aber - außer in fachlicher oder spieltheoretischer Terminologie - nicht in der Lage war, über die Möglichkeit zu sprechen, nahezu alle Menschen zu töten?" Der Fragesteller gehört zu den berühmtesten Physikern des 20. Jahrhunderts und zu den nach wie vor Umstrittensten. über ihn wurde in den 1960er Jahren ein international viel beachtetes Theaterstück geschrieben, vor wenigen Jahren gar eine Oper.

  2. Synchronization law for a van der Pol array.

    PubMed

    Peles, Slaven; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

    2003-08-01

    We explore the transition to in-phase synchronization in globally coupled oscillator arrays, and compare results for van der Pol arrays with Josephson junction arrays. Our approach yields in each case an analytically tractable iterative map; the resulting stability formulas are simple because the expansion procedure identifies natural parameter groups. A third example, an array of Duffing-van der Pol oscillators, is found to be of the same fundamental type as the van der Pol arrays, but the Josephson arrays are fundamentally different owing to the absence of self-resonant interactions.

  3. Einsteins Spuren in den Archiven der Wissenschaft: Physikgeschichte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marx, Werner

    2005-07-01

    Die Erwähnungen und Zitierungen von Einsteins Arbeiten dokumentieren lediglich den quantifizierbaren Anteil von Einsteins Beitrag zur Physik. Gleichwohl belegen sie die außergewöhnliche Resonanz und Langzeitwirkung seiner Arbeiten. Die Häufigkeit der Zitierungen entspricht nicht der allgemeinen Einschätzung ihrer Bedeutung. Insbesondere die Pionierarbeiten werden inzwischen als bekannt vorausgesetzt und nicht mehr explizit zitiert. Interessanterweise ist seine nach 1945 meist zitierte Arbeit nicht eine der Pionierarbeiten zur Quantenphysik oder Relativitätstheorie, sondern jene aus dem Jahr 1935 zum berühmten Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Paradoxon.

  4. End of Mission Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hull, Scott M.

    2013-01-01

    While a great deal of effort goes into planning and executing successful mission operations, it is also important to consider the End of the Mission during the planning, design, and operations phases of any mission. Spacecraft and launch vehicles must be disposed of properly in order to limit the generation of orbital debris, and better preserve the orbital environment for all future missions. Figure 30-1 shows a 1990's projected growth of debris with and without the use of responsible disposal techniques. This requires early selection of a responsible disposal scenario, so that the necessary capabilities can be incorporated into the hardware designs. The mission operations must then be conducted in such a way as to preserve, and then actually perform, the planned, appropriate end of mission disposal.

  5. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, Richard L.

    1993-01-01

    An end effector for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion.

  6. Robotic end effector

    DOEpatents

    Minichan, R.L.

    1993-10-05

    An end effector is described for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gimbal with a probe, the gimbal holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gimbal and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion. 7 figures.

  7. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, center row, calls out the end of the Cassini mission, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Robotic end effector

    SciTech Connect

    Minichan, R.L.

    1991-12-31

    This invention is comprised of an end effector for use in probing a surface with a robotic arm. The end effector has a first portion that carries a gamble with a probe, the gamble holding the probe normal to the surface, and a second portion with a set of three shafts within a housing for urging the gamble and probe against the surface. The second portion contains a potentiometer connected by another shaft to the first portion to measure the position of the first portion with respect to the second so that the second portion can be moved to place and maintain the shafts at the midpoint of their travel. Then, as irregularities in the surface are encountered, the first portion can respond by moving closer to or farther from the second portion.

  9. End of life issues.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Nigel

    2008-05-01

    Despite advances in cancer survival rates, end of life care remains a vital aspect of cancer management. The use of integrated care pathways can facilitate effective care of dying patients in a generalist setting. However, it remains important that staff are able to recognise the onset of the dying process, not only in order to make symptom control provision, but also that appropriate communication can occur with patients and those close to them. This allows the exercise of choice over place and style of care. The key symptoms at the end of life are restlessness, agitation, breathlessness, pain and noisy respiration from retained airway secretions. Ethical tensions arise from the assumptions that the use of opioids and sedatives hastens dying, but this is contradicted by available evidence.

  10. ARIEL front end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchetto, M.; Baartman, R. A.; Laxdal, R. E.

    2014-01-01

    The ARIEL project at TRIUMF will greatly expand the variety and availability of radioactive ion beams (RIBs) (Laxdal, Nucl Inst Methods Phys Res B 204:400-409, 2003). The ARIEL front end connects the two ARIEL target stations to the existing ISAC facility to expand delivery to two and eventually three simultaneous RIB beams with up to two simultaneous accelerated beams (Laxdal et al. 2008). The low-energy beam transport lines and mass separators are designed for maximum flexibility to allow a variety of operational modes in order to optimize the radioactive ion beam delivery. A new accelerator path is conceived for high mass delivery from an EBIS charge state breeder. The front-end design utilizes the experience gained in 15 years of ISAC beam delivery.

  11. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Robotic Arm End Effector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Image illustrates the tools on the end of the arm that are used to acquire samples, image the contents of the scoop, and perform science experiments.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Applying Trustworthy Computing to End-to-End Electronic Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    "End-to-End (E2E)" voting systems provide cryptographic proof that the voter's intention is captured, cast, and tallied correctly. While E2E systems guarantee integrity independent of software, most E2E systems rely on software to provide confidentiality, availability, authentication, and access control; thus, end-to-end integrity is not…

  14. Applying Trustworthy Computing to End-to-End Electronic Voting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Russell A.

    2010-01-01

    "End-to-End (E2E)" voting systems provide cryptographic proof that the voter's intention is captured, cast, and tallied correctly. While E2E systems guarantee integrity independent of software, most E2E systems rely on software to provide confidentiality, availability, authentication, and access control; thus, end-to-end integrity is not…

  15. Das Semantic Web als Werkzeug in der biomedizinischen Forschung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenzhorn, Holger; Samwald, Matthias

    In der biomedizinischen Forschung werden besonders in den letzten Jahren vermehrt enorme Mengen an neuen Daten produziert und diese in Folge verstärkt per Internet veröffentlicht. Viele Experten sehen in dieser Vorgehensweise die Chance zur Entdeckung bisher unbekannter biomedizinischer Erkenntnisse. Um dies jedoch zu ermöglichen, müssen neue Wege gefunden werden, die gewonnenen Daten effizient zu verarbeiten und zu verwalten. In dem vorliegenden Artikel werden die Möglichkeiten betrachtet, die das Semantic Web hierzu anbieten kann. Hierfür werden die relevanten Technologien des Semantic Web im speziellen Kontext der biomedizinischen Forschung betrachtet. Ein Fokus liegt auf der Anwendung von Ontologien in der Biomedizin: Es wird auf deren Vorteile eingegangen, aber auch auf möglichen Probleme, die deren Einsatz in einem erweiterten wissenschaftlichen Umfeld mit sich bringen können.

  16. Isotope separation by photodissociation of Van der Waal's molecules

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Yuan T.

    1977-01-01

    A method of separating isotopes based on the dissociation of a Van der Waal's complex. A beam of molecules of a Van der Waal's complex containing, as one partner of the complex, a molecular species in which an element is present in a plurality of isotopes is subjected to radiation from a source tuned to a frequency which will selectively excite vibrational motion by a vibrational transition or through electronic transition of those complexed molecules of the molecular species which contain a desired isotope. Since the Van der Waal's binding energy is much smaller than the excitational energy of vibrational motion, the thus excited Van der Waal's complex dissociate into molecular components enriched in the desired isotope. The recoil velocity associated with vibrational to translational and rotational relaxation will send the separated molecules away from the beam whereupon the product enriched in the desired isotope can be separated from the constituents of the beam.

  17. Ein routine-integrierbares Planungswerkzeug zur operativen Rekonstruktion der Orbita

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiner, Melanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Pit Jakob; Deserno, Thomas M.

    Bei Frakturen des Orbitabodens kann ein Titangitter zur Rekonstruktion operativ eingesetzt werden. In dieser Arbeit wird ein Planungswerkzeug entwickelt, welches mit Hilfe eines aktiven Konturmodells die Orbita in CT Daten segmentiert, ihr Volumen berechnet und visualisiert. Neben den technischen Integrationsstufen der Funktions- und Präsentationsintegration, welche durch den Einsatz des Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit (MITK) erreicht werden, sowie der Daten-, und Kontextintegration ist vor allem die Stabilität der eingesetzten Algorithmik für die Routine-Integrierbarkeit wichtig. Erste Stabilitätsuntersuchungen basieren auf 3 von 100 zufällig ausgewählten CT-Datensätzen, wobei das Volumen mit je 50 verschiedenen Startpunkten berechnet wurde. Die so ermittelten Variationskoeffizienten liegen deutlich unterhalb der kritischen 5 % Schwelle.

  18. Lifshitz theory of van der Waals pressure in dissipative media

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Yi; Narayanaswamy, Arvind

    2011-04-15

    We derive a first-principles method of determining the van der Waals or Casimir pressure in a dissipative and dispersive planar multilayered system by calculating the Maxwell stress tensor in a fictitious layer of vacuum, that is eventually made to vanish, introduced in the structure. This is illustrated by calculating the van der Waals pressure in a thin film with dissipative properties embedded between two semi-infinite media.

  19. End-to-end attraction of duplex DNA

    PubMed Central

    Maffeo, Christopher; Luan, Binquan; Aksimentiev, Aleksei

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments [Nakata, M. et al., End-to-end stacking and liquid crystal condensation of 6 to 20 basepair DNA duplexes. Science 2007; 318:1276–1279] have demonstrated spontaneous end-to-end association of short duplex DNA fragments into long rod-like structures. By means of extensive all-atom molecular dynamic simulations, we characterized end-to-end interactions of duplex DNA, quantitatively describing the forces, free energy and kinetics of the end-to-end association process. We found short DNA duplexes to spontaneously aggregate end-to-end when axially aligned in a small volume of monovalent electrolyte. It was observed that electrostatic repulsion of 5′-phosphoryl groups promoted the formation of aggregates in a conformation similar to the B-form DNA double helix. Application of an external force revealed that rupture of the end-to-end assembly occurs by the shearing of the terminal base pairs. The standard binding free energy and the kinetic rates of end-to-end association and dissociation processes were estimated using two complementary methods: umbrella sampling simulations of two DNA fragments and direct observation of the aggregation process in a system containing 458 DNA fragments. We found the end-to-end force to be short range, attractive, hydrophobic and only weakly dependent on the ion concentration. The relation between the stacking free energy and end-to-end attraction is discussed as well as possible roles of the end-to-end interaction in biological and nanotechnological systems. PMID:22241779

  20. Modified Van der Waals equation and law of corresponding states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Wei; Xiao, Changming; Zhu, Yongkai

    2017-04-01

    It is well known that the Van der Waals equation is a modification of the ideal gas law, yet it can be used to describe both gas and liquid, and some important messages can be obtained from this state equation. However, the Van der Waals equation is not a precise state equation, and it does not give a good description of the law of corresponding states. In this paper, we expand the Van der Waals equation into its Taylor's series form, and then modify the fourth order expansion by changing the constant Virial coefficients into their analogous ones. Via this way, a more precise result about the law of corresponding states has been obtained, and the law of corresponding states can then be expressed as: in terms of the reduced variables, all fluids should obey the same equation with the analogous Virial coefficients. In addition, the system of 3 He with quantum effects has also been taken into consideration with our modified Van der Waals equation, and it is found that, for a normal system without quantum effect, the modification on ideal gas law from the Van der Waals equation is more significant than the real case, however, for a system with quantum effect, this modification is less significant than the real case, thus a factor is introduced in this paper to weaken or strengthen the modification of the Van der Waals equation, respectively.

  1. Demographische Entwicklung in der Metropolregion Berlin-Brandenburg

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyer, Wolf; Bluth, Friedrich

    〝Denn eins ist sicher: Die Rente.`` Der vielzitierte Satz des früheren Arbeits- und Sozialministers Norbert Blüm klingt heute vielen wie Hohn. Der Altersaufbau der deutschen Bevölkerung erinnert grafisch immer mehr an einen Baum auf dünnem Stämmchen als an eine Pyramide. Angesichts dessen rücken demographische Entwicklungen mehr und mehr in den Fokus der Öffentlichkeit. Besonders die neuen Bundesländer sind massiv von Abwanderung und einem nie dagewesenen Geburtenrückgang betroffen.DIPL.-GEOGR. UTE C. BAUERsprach mitFRIEDRICH BLUTHundWOLF BEYERüber die Besonderheiten der demographischen Prozesse in Berlin und Brandenburg. Beyer leitete bis Anfang 2004 das brandenburgische Referat für Raumbeobachtung. Seine Aufgabe bestand darin, Planungsgrundlagen für die Gemeinsame Landesplanung Berlin-Brandenburg(GL) zu schaffen. Dazu zählen auch Bevölkerungsprognosen für die Kreise und Städte Brandenburgs. Bluth ist in der Senatsverwaltung für Stadtentwicklung Berlin beschäftigt und leitet dort die Gruppe 〝Stadtwissen, Stadtentwicklungsmonitoring, Bevölkerungsprognose.``

  2. Prä- und perioperative Aspekte der Versorgung dermatochirurgischer Patienten.

    PubMed

    Müller, Cornelia S L; Hubner, Wakiko; Thieme-Ruffing, Sigrid; Pföhler, Claudia; Vogt, Thomas; Volk, Thomas; Gärtner, Barbara C; Bialas, Patric

    2017-02-01

    Die Dermatochirurgie nimmt hinsichtlich vieler Punkte eine Sonderstellung unter den operativen Fächern ein. Hierzu gehört in erster Linie die Tatsache, dass bis auf wenige Ausnahmen fast alle Eingriffe traditionell in Lokal- bzw. Regionalanästhesie und oft auch in räumlich-infrastruktureller Trennung von den großen Zentral-Operationssälen stattfinden können. Die peri- und postoperative Überwachung obliegt dabei dem dermatochirurgischen Operationsteam. Das sui generis kleinere OP-Team hat somit eine ganze Reihe perioperativer Notwendigkeiten zu beachten, um die sich in den "großen" chirurgischen Fächern eine Vielzahl verschiedener beteiligter Fachgruppen gemeinsam kümmern. Hierzu gehören neben Hygieneaspekten, Kenntnissen in der Überwachung der Patienten sowie dem Aspekt der surgical site infections auch Fragen zur postoperativen Schmerztherapie sowie detailliertes pharmakologisches Wissen über die zur Anwendung kommenden Lokalanästhetika und das Handling der damit assoziierten toxischen und allergischen Reaktionen. Eine interdisziplinäre Zusammenarbeit und Verantwortung für den Patienten ist notwendig und erfordert die Erarbeitung und Umsetzung qualitätsorientierter und evidenzbasierter Handlungsanweisungen, die im dermatochirurgischen OP-Setting meist weit über das eigentliche Fach hinausgehen. Ziel dieses Weiterbildungsartikels soll die komprimierte Darstellung der genannten fachübergreifenden Standpunkte bezüglich der wichtigsten perioperativen Aspekte sein. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Die Anfaenge der Melker Bibliothek - Neue Erkenntnisse zu Handschriften und Fragmenten aus der Zeit vor 1200

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaßner, Christine; Haidinger, Alois

    1996-04-01

    Shortly after Benedictine monks started monastic life in Melk in 1089 the scriptorium was flourishing under abbot Erchenfried (1121-1164). Noteworthy is Cod. 391, a manuscript written in its main part in 1123, but used by the monks as a yearbook with handwritten entries up to the 16th century. This manuscript was also an important source for the publication which dealt with the history of the scriptorium in 12th century. By examining the entries in this book the period of the activity of at least three unknwon writers in this era could be identified. It was the first time that not only the intact volumes but also the manuscripts preserved as fragments in the binding were examined. At the beginning of th 13th century the number of books held in the collection according to the result of this examination was 68. Another remarkable point of the exhibition and of the publication refering to the exhibition was Cod. 412, the oldest manuscript of the monastery, written in early 9th century and containing texts on natural sciences and astronomy by Venerable Bede. Three copies of this manuscript were done during 12th century, one of them probably in Melk, all of them with nearly identical consistency except the catalogue of signs of the zodiac which was ascribed erroneously to Venerable Bede in the Middle Ages: Vatican, Cod. Vat. lat. 643, Zwettl, Cod. 296 (copy of the Vatican manuscript), Klosterneuburg, Cod. 685 (copy of the Zwettl manuscript done in Klosterneuburg). Kurz nach Einführung der Benediktiner in Melk im Jahr 1089 erlebte das Melker Skriptorium unter Abt Erchenfried (1121-1163) seine erste Blüte. Hervorzuheben ist eine im Jahr 1123 angelegte Chronik, die bis in das 16. Jahrhundert durch Annaleneintragungen und andere wichtige Texte zur Geschichte des Klosters ergänzt wurde (Cod. 391). Diese Handschrift ist zugleich eine der wichtigsten Quellen zur Geschichte des Melker Skriptoriums im 12. Jahrhundert, dem sich die Publikation widmet. Mit Hilfe einer genaueren

  4. Growing for different ends.

    PubMed

    Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat

    2014-11-01

    Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this field in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a growing interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.

  5. Ending a nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cimbala, S.J.; Douglass, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    Western strategic concepts have had their own built-in images of nuclear war. These concepts concentrate largely upon the uncertainties of mass nuclear exchanges and the unbelievable devastation that would accompany such a conflict. By not considering in detail how a war of such magnitude and violence might unfold, let alone be ended, these nightmare strategists must resign themselves to either capitulation or cataclysm if their theories of deterrence should prove to be either inoperative or inappropriate in the acid test of reality. The world is at a crossroads in the development of its views of nuclear strategy. The rapid pace of technological development has profound implications for how both conventional and nuclear war might be either avoided or waged. The impact of technological development has been especially great in the area of strategic defense where, like never before, we have the opportunity to create an alternative to the exclusive reliance on the threat of retaliation. Ending a Nuclear War: Are the Superpowers Prepared provides contribution to the study of this vitally important component of deterrence.

  6. New Front End Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D; Jovanovic, I; Comaskey, B J

    2001-02-01

    The next generation of Petawatt class lasers will require the development of new laser technology. Optical parametric chirped pulse amplification (OPCPA) holds a potential to increase the peak power level to >10 PW with existing grating technology through ultrashort pulses. Furthermore, by utilizing a new type of front-end system based on optical parametric amplification, pulses can be produced with substantially higher contrast than with Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier technology. We performed extensive study of OPCPA using a single crystal-based OPA. We developed a replacement for Ti:sapphire regenerative amplifier for high peak power lasers based on OPCPA, with an output of 30 mJ, at 10 Hz repetition rate and 16.5 nm spectral bandwidth. We developed a 3D numerical model for OPCPA and we performed a theoretical study of influences of pump laser beam quality on optical parametric amplification. Our results indicate that OPCPA represents a valid replacement for Ti:sapphire in the front end of high energy short pulse lasers.

  7. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Spacecraft operations team manager for the Cassini mission at Saturn, Julie Webster is seen after the end of the Cassini mission, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize packs up his workspace in mission control after the end of the Cassini mission, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  9. The Galaxy End Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eales, Stephen; de Vis, Pieter; Smith, Matthew W. L.; Appah, Kiran; Ciesla, Laure; Duffield, Chris; Schofield, Simon

    2017-03-01

    A common assumption is that galaxies fall in two distinct regions of a plot of specific star formation rate (SSFR) versus galaxy stellar mass: a star-forming galaxy main sequence (GMS) and a separate region of 'passive' or 'red and dead galaxies'. Starting from a volume-limited sample of nearby galaxies designed to contain most of the stellar mass in this volume, and thus representing the end-point of ≃12 billion years of galaxy evolution, we investigate the distribution of galaxies in this diagram today. We show that galaxies follow a strongly curved extended GMS with a steep negative slope at high galaxy stellar masses. There is a gradual change in the morphologies of the galaxies along this distribution, but there is no clear break between early-type and late-type galaxies. Examining the other evidence that there are two distinct populations, we argue that the 'red sequence' is the result of the colours of galaxies changing very little below a critical value of the SSFR, rather than implying a distinct population of galaxies. Herschel observations, which show at least half of early-type galaxies contain a cool interstellar medium, also imply continuity between early-type and late-type galaxies. This picture of a unitary population of galaxies requires more gradual evolutionary processes than the rapid quenching process needed to explain two distinct populations. We challenge theorists to predict quantitatively the properties of this 'Galaxy End Sequence'.

  10. Van der Waals Interactions in Aspirin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reilly, Anthony; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2015-03-01

    The ability of molecules to yield multiple solid forms, or polymorphs, has significance for diverse applications ranging from drug design and food chemistry to nonlinear optics and hydrogen storage. In particular, aspirin has been used and studied for over a century, but has only recently been shown to have an additional polymorphic form, known as form II. Since the two observed solid forms of aspirin are degenerate in terms of lattice energy, kinetic effects have been suggested to determine the metastability of the less abundant form II. Here, first-principles calculations provide an alternative explanation based on free-energy differences at room temperature. The explicit consideration of many-body van der Waals interactions in the free energy demonstrates that the stability of the most abundant form of aspirin is due to a subtle coupling between collective electronic fluctuations and quantized lattice vibrations. In addition, a systematic analysis of the elastic properties of the two forms of aspirin rules out mechanical instability of form II as making it metastable.

  11. Van der Waals Interactions Involving Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Charles M.; Neal, Brian L.; Lenhoff, Abraham M.

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models. with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth.

  12. Van der Waals Force Assisted Heat Transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasihithlu, K.; Pendry, J. B.; Craster, R. V.

    2017-02-01

    Phonons (collective atomic vibrations in solids) are more effective in transporting heat than photons. This is the reason why the conduction mode of heat transport in nonmetals (mediated by phonons) is dominant compared to the radiation mode of heat transport (mediated by photons). However, since phonons are unable to traverse a vacuum gap (unlike photons), it is commonly believed that two bodies separated by a gap cannot exchange heat via phonons. Recently, a mechanism was proposed [J. B. Pendry, K. Sasihithlu, and R. V. Craster, Phys. Rev. B 94, 075414 (2016)] by which phonons can transport heat across a vacuum gap - through the Van der Waals interaction between two bodies with gap less than the wavelength of light. Such heat transfer mechanisms are highly relevant for heating (and cooling) of nanostructures; the heating of the flying heads in magnetic storage disks is a case in point. Here, the theoretical derivation for modelling phonon transmission is revisited and extended to the case of two bodies made of different materials separated by a vacuum gap. Magnitudes of phonon transmission, and hence the heat transfer, for commonly used materials in the micro- and nano-electromechanical industry are calculated and compared with the calculation of conduction heat transfer through air for small gaps as well as the heat transfer calculation due to photon exchange.

  13. Van der Waals Effects on semiconductor clusters.

    PubMed

    Li, Haisheng; Chen, Weiguang; Han, Xiaoyu; Li, Liben; Sun, Qiang; Guo, Zhengxiao; Jia, Yu

    2015-09-30

    Van der Waals (vdW) interactions play an important role on semiconductors in nanoscale. Here, we utilized first-principles calculations based on density functional theory to demonstrate the growth mode transition from prolate to multiunit configurations for Gen (n = 10-50) clusters. In agreement with the injected ion drift tube techniques that "clusters with n < 70 can be thought of as loosely bound assemblies of small strongly bound fragments (such as Ge7 and Ge10 )," we found these stable fragments are connected by Ge6 , Ge9 , or Ge10 unit (from bulk diamond), via strong covalent bonds. Our calculated cations usually fragment to Ge7 and Ge10 clusters, in accordance with the experiment results that the spectra Ge7 and Ge10 correspond to the mass abundance spectra. By controlling a germanium cluster with vdW interactions parameters in the program or not, we found that the vdW effects strengthen the covalent bond from different units more strikingly than that in a single unit. With more bonds between units than the threadlike structures, the multiunit structures have larger vdW energies, explaining why the isolated nanowires are harder to produce. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Van der Waals interactions involving proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Roth, C M; Neal, B L; Lenhoff, A M

    1996-01-01

    Van der Waals (dispersion) forces contribute to interactions of proteins with other molecules or with surfaces, but because of the structural complexity of protein molecules, the magnitude of these effects is usually estimated based on idealized models of the molecular geometry, e.g., spheres or spheroids. The calculations reported here seek to account for both the geometric irregularity of protein molecules and the material properties of the interacting media. Whereas the latter are found to fall in the generally accepted range, the molecular shape is shown to cause the magnitudes of the interactions to differ significantly from those calculated using idealized models, with important consequences. First, the roughness of the molecular surface leads to much lower average interaction energies for both protein-protein and protein-surface cases relative to calculations in which the protein molecule is approximated as a sphere. These results indicate that a form of steric stabilization may be an important effect in protein solutions. Underlying this behavior is appreciable orientational dependence, one reflection of which is that molecules of complementary shape are found to exhibit very strong attractive dispersion interactions. Although this has been widely discussed previously in the context of molecular recognition processes, the broader implications of these phenomena may also be important at larger molecular separations, e.g., in the dynamics of aggregation, precipitation, and crystal growth. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:8789115

  15. Modern theory of van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobson, John

    2014-03-01

    van der Waals (vdW, dispersion) interactions are important in diverse areas such as colloid, surface and nano science, cohesion of molecular crystals, and biomolecular science. They also provide competition in experiments to discover the fifth fundamental force.While vdW interactions have been understood in principle for a century, their quantitative first-principles prediction and modelling down to chemical contact separations have proven stubbornly difficult because the quantal many-electron problem is involved. After some brief historical material, the current state of the art will be discussed with particular reference to several approaches: pairwise additive, perturbative quantum chemical, vdW-DF, Lifshitz-like scattering, RPA-like, Adiabatic Connection Fluctuation Dissipation / Time Dependent DFT based etc.. A potentially useful classification will be introduced to aid in understanding the physical causes of departures from pairwise additivity, that is from the usual sum of C6R-6 contributions. These departures result in non-standard power law decays of nanostructure vdW interactions as a function of separation D, as well as surprising dependences of the attraction on the number, N, of atoms within each vdW-interacting fragment. Some further recent results on non-additivity will also be presented. Work supported by an Australian Research Council Discovery Grant.

  16. Advanced glycation end products

    PubMed Central

    Gkogkolou, Paraskevi; Böhm, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Aging is the progressive accumulation of damage to an organism over time leading to disease and death. Aging research has been very intensive in the last years aiming at characterizing the pathophysiology of aging and finding possibilities to fight age-related diseases. Various theories of aging have been proposed. In the last years advanced glycation end products (AGEs) have received particular attention in this context. AGEs are formed in high amounts in diabetes but also in the physiological organism during aging. They have been etiologically implicated in numerous diabetes- and age-related diseases. Strategies inhibiting AGE accumulation and signaling seem to possess a therapeutic potential in these pathologies. However, still little is known on the precise role of AGEs during skin aging. In this review the existing literature on AGEs and skin aging will be reviewed. In addition, existing and potential anti-AGE strategies that may be beneficial on skin aging will be discussed. PMID:23467327

  17. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    The Cassini Mission Ace console is seen inside the Space Flight Operations Center at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  18. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    A jar of peanuts is seen sitting on a console in mission control of the Space Flight Operations Center as the Cassini mission team await the final downlink of the spacecraft's data recorder, Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  19. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, left, and spacecraft operations team manager for the Cassini mission at Saturn, Julie Webster, right, embrace after the Cassini spacecraft plunged into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  20. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, watches monitors in mission control of the Space Flight Operations Center as the Cassini spacecraft begins downlink data through NASA's Deep Space Network, Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  1. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, is seen in mission control as he monitors the Cassini spacecraft, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  2. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, standing, watches telemetry come in from Cassini with Julie Bellerose, left, Duane Roth, second from left, and Mar Vaquero of the Cassini navigation team in the mission control room, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  3. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    Spacecraft operations team manager for the Cassini mission at Saturn, Julie Webster, watches monitors in mission control of the Space Flight Operations Center as the Cassini spacecraft begins downlink data through NASA's Deep Space Network, Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    A monitor in the mission control room shows a visualization of Cassini as it makes its final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  5. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Aseel Anabtawi, of Cassini's radio science team, monitors her console in mission control during Cassini's final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  6. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini team members embrace after the spacecraft was deliberately plunged into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT) The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  7. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    A monitor in mission control shows the time remaining until Cassini makes its final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Cassini team members monitor data from the spacecraft as it makes its final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  9. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    A monitor shows the status of NASA's Deep Space Network as it receives data from the Cassini spacecraft, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 in the Charles Elachi Mission Control Center in the Space Flight Operation Center at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  10. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    Monitors in mission control of the Space Flight Operations Center display the status of NASA's Deep Space Network as the Cassini spacecraft begins the final playback of its data recorder, Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  11. Brachistochrones with loose ends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertens, Stephan; Mingramm, Sebastian

    2008-11-01

    The classical problem of the brachistochrone asks for the curve down which a body sliding from rest and accelerated by gravity will slip (without friction) from one point to another in least time. In undergraduate courses on classical mechanics, the solution of this problem is the primary example of the power of variational calculus. Here, we address the generalized brachistochrone problem that asks for the fastest sliding curve between a point and a given curve or between two given curves. The generalized problem can be solved by considering variations with varying end points. We will contrast the formal solution with a much simpler solution based on symmetry and kinematic reasoning. Our exposition should encourage teachers to include variational problems with free boundary conditions in their courses and students to try simple, intuitive solutions first.

  12. Ending the cigarette pandemic.

    PubMed

    Richmond, J B

    1983-12-01

    1 year after the issuance of the original Surgeon General's report, Congress passed the Federal Cigarette Labeling Advertising Act, requiring all cigarette packages distributed in the US to carry a Surgeon General's warning that smoking may be hazardous to health. Congress pased the Public Health Cigarette Smoking Act in 1969. This banned cigarette advertising from radio and television. The Surgeon General published the most comprehensive volume on smoking ever issued in the US in 1979, the 15th anniversary of the 1st report. The data on cigarette smoking's adverse effects on health were overwhelming, and the press recognized this. No longer able to rely on journalists to cast doubt on the reliability of the data, the industry changed its strategy by attempting to portray smoking as a civil rights issue. The tobacco industry began to pour millions of dollars into campaigns to prevent the passage of municipal, state, and federal legislation that would ban cigarette advertising or restrict smoking in public places and at the work site. "Healthy People," the Surgeon General's 1st report on health promotion and disease prevention, emphasized the necessary future direction of medicine: prevention. Efforts to end the cigarette pandemic will need to focus on the following in the future: an end to the victimization of women; a greater focus on adolescents; more effective strategies for smoking cessation; more attention to clean indoor air rights; abandonment of recommendations to switch to low-tar, low-nicotine cigarettes; and revelation of chemical additives in cigarettes. The epidemiologists have now documented the devastating nature of the health problems attributable to cigarette smoking, but the minimal budgetary allocations to fight smoking testify to the lack of political will on the part of government.

  13. 51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Downstream end of diversion tunnel around east end of Humbug Creek Diversion Dam. Photographer James Eastwood, 1986. Source: Salt River Project. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. Thermal transport in van der Waals solids from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindroth, Daniel O.; Erhart, Paul

    2016-09-01

    The lattice thermal expansion and conductivity in bulk Mo and W-based transition metal dichalcogenides are investigated by means of density functional and Boltzmann transport theory calculations. To this end, a recent van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF-CX) is employed, which is shown to yield excellent agreement with reference data for the structural parameters. The calculated in-plane thermal conductivity compares well with experimental room-temperature values, when phonon-phonon and isotopic scattering are included. To explain the behavior over the entire available temperature range one must, however, include additional (temperature independent) scattering mechanisms that limit the mean free path. Generally, the primary heat carrying modes have mean free paths of 1 μ m or more, which makes these materials very susceptible to structural defects. The conductivity of Mo- and W-based transition metal dichalcogenides is primarily determined by the chalcogenide species and increases in the order Te-Se-S. While for the tellurides and selenides the transition metal element has a negligible effect, the conductivity of WS2 is notably higher than for MoS2, which may be traced to the much larger phonon band gap of the former. Overall, the present study provides a consistent set of thermal conductivities that reveal chemical trends and constitute the basis for future investigations of van der Waals solids.

  15. Advanced Communication and Control Solutions of Distributed Energy Resources (DER)

    SciTech Connect

    Asgeirsson, Haukur; Seguin, Richard; Sherding, Cameron; de Bruet, Andre, G.; Broadwater, Robert; Dilek, Murat

    2007-01-10

    This report covers work performed in Phase II of a two phase project whose objective was to demonstrate the aggregation of multiple Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) and to offer them into the energy market. The Phase I work (DE-FC36-03CH11161) created an integrated, but distributed, system and procedures to monitor and control multiple DERs from numerous manufacturers connected to the electric distribution system. Procedures were created which protect the distribution network and personnel that may be working on the network. Using the web as the communication medium for control and monitoring of the DERs, the integration of information and security was accomplished through the use of industry standard protocols such as secure SSL,VPN and ICCP. The primary objective of Phase II was to develop the procedures for marketing the power of the Phase I aggregated DERs in the energy market, increase the number of DER units, and implement the marketing procedures (interface with ISOs) for the DER generated power. The team partnered with the Midwest Independent System Operator (MISO), the local ISO, to address the energy market and demonstrate the economic dispatch of DERs in response to market signals. The selection of standards-based communication technologies offers the ability of the system to be deployed and integrated with other utilities’ resources. With the use of a data historian technology to facilitate the aggregation, the developed algorithms and procedures can be verified, audited, and modified. The team has demonstrated monitoring and control of multiple DERs as outlined in phase I report including procedures to perform these operations in a secure and safe manner. In Phase II, additional DER units were added. We also expanded on our phase I work to enhance communication security and to develop the market model of having DERs, both customer and utility owned, participate in the energy market. We are proposing a two-part DER energy market model--a utility

  16. Stufenweise Integration von eLearning an der Technischen Universität München

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pätzold, Sebastian; Graf, Stephan; Gergintchev, Ivan; Pongratz, Hans; Rathmayer, Sabine

    Der vorliegende Beitrag beschreibt als Best Practice Beispiel die stufenweise Integration eines Learning Management Systems (LMS) in die Infrastruktur von Information und Kommunikation (IuK) der Technischen Universität München (TUM). Dabei wird sowohl die Konsolidierung mehrfach angebotener Funktionalitäten und Dienste in den verschiedenen Portalen der Universität als auch die sukzessive Optimierung der Abläufe aufgezeigt. Gleichzeitig wird auf zukünftige weitere Entwicklungen hin zu einer vollständigen Integration der IuK, aber auch auf die Probleme in den unterschiedlichen Stadien der Entwicklung eingegangen.

  17. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-10-01

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. Such interactions are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. This review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. The outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  18. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; Rodriguez-Lopez, P.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Podgornik, R.

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insights into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.

  19. Van der Waals interaction in uniaxial anisotropic media.

    PubMed

    Kornilovitch, Pavel E

    2013-01-23

    Van der Waals interactions between flat surfaces in uniaxial anisotropic media are investigated in the nonretarded limit. The main focus is the effect of nonzero tilt between the optical axis and the surface normal on the strength of the van der Waals attraction. General expressions for the van der Waals free energy are derived using the surface mode method and the transfer-matrix formalism. To facilitate numerical calculations a temperature-dependent three-band parameterization of the dielectric tensor of the liquid crystal 5CB is developed. A solid slab immersed in a liquid crystal experiences a van der Waals torque that aligns the surface normal relative to the optical axis of the medium. The preferred orientation is different for different materials. Two solid slabs in close proximity experience a van der Waals attraction that is strongest for homeotropic alignment of the intervening liquid crystal for all the materials studied. The results have implications for the stability of plate-like colloids in liquid crystal hosts.

  20. Evolutionary design of interfacial phase change van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Kalikka, Janne; Zhou, Xilin; Behera, Jitendra; Nannicini, Giacomo; Simpson, Robert E

    2016-10-27

    We use an evolutionary algorithm to explore the design space of hexagonal Ge2Sb2Te5; a van der Waals layered two dimensional crystal heterostructure. The Ge2Sb2Te5 structure is more complicated than previously thought. Predominant features include layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 and Ge1Sb2Te4 two dimensional crystals that interact through Te-Te van der Waals bonds. Interestingly, (Ge/Sb)-Te-(Ge/Sb)-Te alternation is a common feature for the most stable structures of each generation's evolution. This emergent rule provides an important structural motif that must be included in the design of high performance Sb2Te3-GeTe van der Waals heterostructure superlattices with interfacial atomic switching capability. The structures predicted by the algorithm agree well with experimental measurements on highly oriented, and single crystal Ge2Sb2Te5 samples. By analysing the evolutionary algorithm optimised structures, we show that diffusive atomic switching is probable by Ge atoms undergoing a transition at the van der Waals interface from layers of Ge3Sb2Te6 to Ge1Sb2Te4 thus producing two blocks of Ge2Sb2Te5. Evolutionary methods present an efficient approach to explore the enormous multi-dimensional design parameter space of van der Waals bonded heterostructure superlattices.

  1. Materials perspective on Casimir and van der Waals interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, L. M.; Dalvit, D. A. R.; Tkatchenko, A.; ...

    2016-11-02

    Interactions induced by electromagnetic fluctuations, such as van der Waals and Casimir forces, are of universal nature present at any length scale between any types of systems. In such interactions these are important not only for the fundamental science of materials behavior, but also for the design and improvement of micro- and nanostructured devices. In the past decade, many new materials have become available, which has stimulated the need for understanding their dispersive interactions. The field of van der Waals and Casimir forces has experienced an impetus in terms of developing novel theoretical and computational methods to provide new insightsmore » into related phenomena. The understanding of such forces has far reaching consequences as it bridges concepts in materials, atomic and molecular physics, condensed-matter physics, high-energy physics, chemistry, and biology. Our review summarizes major breakthroughs and emphasizes the common origin of van der Waals and Casimir interactions. Progress related to novel ab initio modeling approaches and their application in various systems, interactions in materials with Dirac-like spectra, force manipulations through nontrivial boundary conditions, and applications of van der Waals forces in organic and biological matter are examined. Finally, the outlook of the review is to give the scientific community a materials perspective of van der Waals and Casimir phenomena and stimulate the development of experimental techniques and applications.« less

  2. Topologie und Dynamische Netzwerke: Anwendungen Der Optimierung MIT Zukunft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leugering, Günter; Martin, Alexander; Stingl, Michael

    Die optimale Auslegung von Infrastrukturen z. B. bei der Verkehrsplanung und bei der Planung von Versorgungssystemen, die optimale Strukturierung bzw. Formgebung von Materialien und Werkstücken z. B. im Leichtbau sind aktuelle Themen angewandter Forschung. In beiden Bereichen wurde bis in die jüngste Zeit vornehmlich eine simulationsbasierte Optimierung auf der Grundlage einer Parameterjustierung vorgenommen, die oft wenig systematisch und zeit- und kostenintensiv ist. Stattdessen erweisen sich modellbasierte mathematische Optimierungsalgorithmen zusammen mit moderner numerischer Simulations-und Visualisierungstechnologie zunehmend als Katalysator neuer Technologien. Eine so verstandene Mathematische Optimierung kann bereits auf beeindruckende Erfolgsgeschichten verweisen und so den Anspruch als eine Zukunftsdisziplin behaupten. Diesem Anspruch trägt die Einrichtung des DFG-Schwerpunktprogramms 1253, Optimierung mit partiellen Differentialgleichungen’ im Jahre 2006 Rechnung, in dem über 25 Projekte im Bundesgebiet sowohl auf die theoretische Fundierung, als auch und insbesondere auf die Verzahnung zwischen Methodenentwicklung und numerischer Realisierung fokussieren. Forschung im Bereich der mathematischen Optimierung und Steuerung von Prozessen bzw. Eigenschaften, die mit Hilfe partieller Differentialgleichungen, so genannten, verteilten Systemen’, beschrieben werden, erfolgt im Kontext konkreter und exemplarischer Anwendungssituationen, die neue mathematische Herausforderungen markieren: Sicherheitsvorgaben etwa bei der Belastung von Gas- und Frischwasserleitungen oder solche für die Belastbarkeit von Verkehrsflugzeugen führen auf Druckbeschränkungen bzw.

  3. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    A computer screen in mission control displays mission elapsed time for Cassini minutes after the spacecraft plunged into Saturn's atmosphere, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Where the Ice Ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03636 Where the Ice Ends

    This image shows the margin of the south polar cap. The polar layers are prominently shown against the rocky surroundings.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 71.7S, Longitude 142.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, is seen in mission control of the Space Flight Operations Center as the Cassini team wait for the spacecraft to establish a connection with NASA's Deep Space Network to begin the final playback of its data recorder, Thursday, Sept. 14, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  6. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Spacecraft operations team manager for the Cassini mission at Saturn, Julie Webster, rips up the final contingency plan for the Cassini mission, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 in mission control at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  7. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Spacecraft operations team manager for the Cassini mission at Saturn, Julie Webster is seen in mission control as the Cassini spacecraft makes its final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Duane Roth, of Cassini's navigation team, left, speaks with director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Michael Watkins, right, after Cassini's mission was declared over, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 in mission control at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  9. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Associate administrator for NASA's Science Mission Directorate Thomas Zurbuchen, left, Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, second from left, director of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Michael Watkins, center, director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, second from right, and director of the interplanetary network directorate at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Keyur Patel, left, are seen in mission control, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  10. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Todd Brown, right, working Cassini's attitude and articulation control subsystems, is seen at his console during the spacecraft's final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  11. Cassini End of Mission

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    Todd Brown, working Cassini's attitude and articulation control subsystems, is seen at his console during the spacecraft's final plunge into Saturn, Friday, Sept. 15, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators deliberately plunged the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. Loss of contact with the Cassini spacecraft occurred at 7:55 a.m. EDT (4:55 a.m. PDT). The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. Where the Ice Ends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03636 Where the Ice Ends

    This image shows the margin of the south polar cap. The polar layers are prominently shown against the rocky surroundings.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 71.7S, Longitude 142.3E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  13. Orbital maneuvering end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    This invention relates to an end effector device for grasping and maneuvering objects such as berthing handles of a space telescope. The device includes a V-shaped capture window defined as inclined surfaces in parallel face plates which converge toward a retainer recess in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess where latches lock handle in the recess. To align the capture window, plates may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base. Drive means is included in the form of a motor coupled with a harmonic drive speed reducer, which provides for slow movement of the fingers at a high torque so that large articles may be handled. Novelty of the invention is believed to reside in the combined intermeshing finger structure, drive means and the harmonic drive speed reducer, which features provide the required maneuverability and strength.

  14. [Beweggründe von Krebspatienten für und gegen die Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie].

    PubMed

    Gschwendtner, Kathrin M; Holmberg, Christine; Weis, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Einleitung: Die Misteltherapie ist im deutschsprachigen Raum ein häufig angewandtes komplementärmedizinisches Verfahren (KM) in der Onkologie. Diese Studie hatte das Ziel, die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu untersuchen und Themenfeldern zuzuordnen. Patienten und Methoden: Es wurden qualitative leitfadengestützte Interviews mit Krebspatienten geführt. Der Interviewleitfaden fragte nach der Inanspruchnahme von KM, der Motivation zur Inanspruchnahme, Informationsverhalten und -bedürfnissen zu KM sowie nach der Krebserkrankung. Um die Beweggründe für die Inanspruchnahme oder Nichtinanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie zu verstehen, wurden die Interviews inhaltsanalytisch ausgewertet. Ergebnisse: Insgesamt wurden Interviews mit 88 Krebspatienten geführt, davon nutzen 18 (20,5%) die Misteltherapie. Die Beweggründe für oder gegen eine Inanspruchnahme der Misteltherapie ließen sich den 2 Themenfeldern «Wahrgenommene Indikation» und «Abwägungen bei der Entscheidungsfindung» zuordnen. Diskussion und Schlussfolgerungen: Mit der Misteltherapie wird sowohl ein Einfluss auf das Tumorwachstum als auch eine supportive Wirkung assoziiert. Anwender sehen die Misteltherapie als sicheres Verfahren; Nichtnutzer befürchten eher Neben- oder Wechselwirkungen. Die Empfehlung von Fachpersonal spielt eine wichtige Rolle bei der Inanspruchnahme. Zum Teil waren die Nichtnutzer interessiert an der Anwendung der Misteltherapie, befanden sich jedoch noch im Klärungsprozess. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  15. Structure-based design and screening of inhibitors for an essential bacterial GTPase, Der.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jihwan; Tseitin, Vladimir; Ramnarayan, Kal; Shenderovich, Mark D; Inouye, Masayori

    2012-05-01

    Der is an essential and widely conserved GTPase that assists assembly of a large ribosomal subunit in bacteria. Der associates specifically with the 50S subunit in a GTP-dependent manner and the cells depleted of Der accumulate the structurally unstable 50S subunit, which dissociates into an aberrant subunit at a lower Mg(2+) concentration. As Der is an essential and ubiquitous protein in bacteria, it may prove to be an ideal cellular target against which new antibiotics can be developed. In the present study, we describe our attempts to identify novel antibiotics specifically targeting Der GTPase. We performed the structure-based design of Der inhibitors using the X-ray crystal structure of Thermotoga maritima Der (TmDer). Virtual screening of commercially available chemical library retrieved 257 small molecules that potentially inhibit Der GTPase activity. These 257 chemicals were tested for their in vitro effects on TmDer GTPase and in vivo antibacterial activities. We identified three structurally diverse compounds, SBI-34462, -34566 and -34612, that are both biologically active against bacterial cells and putative enzymatic inhibitors of Der GTPase homologs. We also presented the possible interactions of each compound with the Der GTP-binding site to understand the mechanism of inhibition. Therefore, our lead compounds inhibiting Der GTPase provide scaffolds for the development of novel antibiotics against antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacteria.

  16. Excitons in van der Waals materials: From monolayer to bulk hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskelo, Jaakko; Fugallo, Giorgia; Hakala, Mikko; Gatti, Matteo; Sottile, Francesco; Cudazzo, Pierluigi

    2017-01-01

    We present a general picture of the exciton properties of layered materials in terms of the excitations of their single-layer building blocks. To this end, we derive a model excitonic Hamiltonian by drawing an analogy with molecular crystals, which are other prototypical van der Waals materials. We employ this simplified model to analyze in detail the excitation spectrum of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) that we have obtained from the ab initio solution of the many-body Bethe-Salpeter equation as a function of momentum. In this way, we identify the character of the lowest-energy excitons in hBN, discuss the effects of the interlayer hopping and the electron-hole exchange interaction on the exciton dispersion, and illustrate the relation between exciton and plasmon excitations in layered materials.

  17. Ending the mutilation.

    PubMed

    Mbugua, I

    1997-01-01

    In Kenya, 50% of women have undergone female genital mutilation, which is considered a traditional rite of passage and usually occurs between the ages of 10 and 15 years. The physical harm associated with female genital mutilation has been well documented; the procedure also causes psychological harm because girls who undergo this "rite of passage" are considered old enough to begin sexual activity. Female genital mutilation is associated with higher rates of adolescent pregnancy and lower rates of school attendance. Efforts to eradicate the practice have begun with studies of its prevalence and the reasons for its existence as well as identification of families who have abandoned the practice. Organizations have used research findings and participatory strategies to disseminate community-level information about why the practice must be discarded. In their efforts to persuade people, the organizations have chosen to use the term "female circumcision" to avoid alienating those they are trying to change. Female genital mutilation ensures a higher bride price, and girls who refuse the procedure may be ostracized by their own families. Nevertheless, education and information empower girls to protect themselves from the practice. Organizations working with communities have proposed new coming of age rituals that abandon mutilation but involve the traditional seclusion and training of girls as well as the traditional community celebration at the end of the seclusion period. The success of efforts to eradicate female genital mutilation can be measured by the number of former circumcisers who have denounced the practice as well as by the fact that the custom is now openly debated. While eradication may take time, it is now clear that it will be achieved.

  18. Kommunale Energieversorger als wesentliche Akteure der Digitalisierung - Strategien und Handlungsoptionen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiche, Katherina

    Die Digitalisierung erfasst sämtliche Bereiche des Lebens und Wirtschaftens. Auch die Kommunalwirtschaft - insbesondere die kommunale Energiewirtschaft - sieht sich perspektivisch disruptiven Entwicklungen gegenüber. Stadtwerke haben bereits viele Herausforderungen erfolgreich gemeistert und stehen auch der Digitalisierung positiv gegenüber. Vielerorts gestalten kommunale Unternehmen den digitalen Wandel bereits aktiv mit. Dieser Artikel arbeitet die Assets kommunaler Unternehmen heraus und zeigt Strategien und Handlungsoptionen zum Umgang mit der digitalen Transformation für kommunale Energieversorgungsunternehmen auf. Dabei zeigt sich, dass das politische und regulatorische Umfeld für das positive Gelingen der Digitalisierung entscheidend sind. Kommunale Unternehmen benötigen die gleichen Marktzugangsbedingungen wie andere Akteure. Ferner profitieren kommunale Unternehmen von einigen Wettbewerbsvorteilen, etwa hohen Vertrauenswerten ihrer Kunden und umfangreiches Know-how im Datenmanagement.

  19. A cartography of the van der Waals territories.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Santiago

    2013-06-28

    The distribution of distances from atoms of a particular element E to a probe atom X (oxygen in most cases), both bonded and intermolecular non-bonded contacts, has been analyzed. In general, the distribution is characterized by a maximum at short E···X distances corresponding to chemical bonds, followed by a range of unpopulated distances--the van der Waals gap--and a second maximum at longer distances--the van der Waals peak--superimposed on a random distribution function that roughly follows a d(3) dependence. The analysis of more than five million interatomic "non-bonded" distances has led to the proposal of a consistent set of van der Waals radii for most naturally occurring elements, and its applicability to other element pairs has been tested for a set of more than three million data, all of them compared to over one million bond distances.

  20. Der Körper der Craniota und die Differenzierung seiner Grundgestalt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieger, Reinhard; Maier, Wolfgang; Goldschmid, Alfred; Westheide, Wilfried

    Die rezenten Wirbeltiere — die wir nun auf Grund ihres wichtigsten Schlüsselmerkmals generell Cranioten oder Schädeltiere nennen sollten (s. a. S. 5) — umfassen nah ezu 50.000 Arten. Nach allgemeinen Schätzungen sind dies etwa 1% der Tiere dieses Taxons, die jemals existierten. Bis heute wurden mehrere zehntausend fossiler Arten nachgewiesen, und ständig kommen neue Fossilfunde hinzu. Die ältesten eindeutig als Craniota anzusprechenden Fossilfunde haben ein Alter von etwa 545 Mio. Jahren (S. 187). Paläontologie und Paläobiologie rekonstruierten eingehend Aussehen und Lebensweise vieler dieser ausgestorbenen Arten. Viele Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen zwischen den rezenten Wirbeltiertaxa werden nur unter Berücksichtigung dieser Fossilformen verständlich.

  1. Standardizing an End-to-end Accounting Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no space system standards available for space agencies to accomplish end-to-end accounting. Such a standard does not exist for spacecraft operations nor for tracing the relationship between the mission planning activities, the command sequences designed to perform those activities, the commands formulated to initiate those activities and the mission data and specifically the mission data products created by those activities. In order for space agencies to cross-support one another for data accountability/data tracing and for inter agency spacecraft to interoperate with each other, an international CCSDS standard for end-to-end data accountability/tracing needs to be developed. We will first describe the end-to-end accounting service model and functionality that supports the service. This model will describe how science plans that are ultimately transformed into commands can be associated with the telemetry products generated as a result of their execution. Moreover, the interaction between end-to-end accounting and service management will be explored. Finally, we will show how the standard end-to-end accounting service can be applied to a real life flight project i.e., the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project.

  2. Chest tube removal: end-inspiration or end-expiration?

    PubMed

    Bell, R L; Ovadia, P; Abdullah, F; Spector, S; Rabinovici, R

    2001-04-01

    Recurrent pneumothorax is the most significant complication after discontinuation of thoracostomy tubes. The primary objective of the present study was to determine which method of tube removal, at the end of inspiration or at the end of expiration, is associated with a lesser risk of developing a recurrent pneumothorax. A secondary objective was to identify potential risk factors for developing recurrence. A prospective study of 102 chest tubes in 69 trauma patients (1.5 tubes per patient) randomly assigned to removal at the end of inspiration (n = 52) or the end of expiration (n = 50). Recurrent pneumothorax or enlargement of a small but stable pneumothorax was observed after the removal of four chest tubes in the end-inspiration group (8%) and after discontinuation of three chest tubes (6%) in the end-expiration group (p = 1.0). Of those, only two tubes in the end-inspiration group and 1 tube in the end-expiration group required repeat closed thoracostomy. Multiple factors were analyzed that did not adversely affect outcome. These included patient age, Injury Severity Score, Revised Trauma Score, mechanism of injury, hemothorax, thoracotomy, thoracostomy, previous lung disease, chest tube duration, the presence of more than one thoracostomy tube in the same hemithorax, or a small (but stable) pneumothorax at the time of tube removal. Discontinuation of chest tubes at the end of inspiration or at the end of expiration has a similar rate of post-removal pneumothorax. Both methods are equally safe.

  3. Standardizing an End-to-end Accounting Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Edward; Kazz, Greg

    2006-01-01

    Currently there are no space system standards available for space agencies to accomplish end-to-end accounting. Such a standard does not exist for spacecraft operations nor for tracing the relationship between the mission planning activities, the command sequences designed to perform those activities, the commands formulated to initiate those activities and the mission data and specifically the mission data products created by those activities. In order for space agencies to cross-support one another for data accountability/data tracing and for inter agency spacecraft to interoperate with each other, an international CCSDS standard for end-to-end data accountability/tracing needs to be developed. We will first describe the end-to-end accounting service model and functionality that supports the service. This model will describe how science plans that are ultimately transformed into commands can be associated with the telemetry products generated as a result of their execution. Moreover, the interaction between end-to-end accounting and service management will be explored. Finally, we will show how the standard end-to-end accounting service can be applied to a real life flight project i.e., the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project.

  4. B-Zell-Lymphome der Haut - Pathogenese, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Nicolay, Jan P; Wobser, Marion

    2016-12-01

    Primär kutane B-Zell-Lymphome (PCBCL) beschreiben reifzellige lymphoproliferative Erkrankungen der B-Zell-Reihe, die primär die Haut betreffen. Die Biologie und der klinische Verlauf der einzelnen PCBCL-Subtypen variieren untereinander stark und unterscheiden sich grundsätzlich von primär nodalen und systemischen B-Zell-Lymphomen. Primär kutane Marginalzonenlymphome (PCMZL) und primäre kutane follikuläre Keimzentrumslymphome (PCFCL) werden auf Grund ihres unkomplizierten Verlaufs und ihrer exzellenten Prognose zu den indolenten PCBCL gezählt. Demgegenüber stellen die diffus großzelligen B-Zell-Lymphome, hauptsächlich vom Beintyp (DLBCL, LT) die aggressiveren PCBCL-Varianten mit schlechterer Prognose dar. Für die Ausbreitungsdiagnostik und die Therapieentscheidung sind eine genaue histologische und immunhistochemische Klassifizierung sowie der Ausschluss einer systemischen Beteiligung in Abgrenzung zu nodalen oder systemischen Lymphomen notwendig. Die Diagnostik sollte dabei durch molekularbiologische Untersuchungen unterstützt werden. Therapeutisch stehen für die indolenten PCBCL primär operative und radioonkologische Maßnahmen im Vordergrund sowie eine Systemtherapie mit dem CD20-Antikörper Rituximab bei disseminiertem Befall. Die aggressiveren Varianten sollten in erster Linie mit Kombinationen aus Rituximab und Polychemotherapieschemata wie z. B. dem CHOP-Schema oder Modifikationen davon behandelt werden. Auf Grund der in allen seinen Einzelheiten noch nicht vollständig verstandenen Pathogenese und Biologie sowie des begrenzten Therapiespektrums der PCBCL besteht hier, speziell beim DLBCL, LT, noch erheblicher Forschungsbedarf. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The Economics of van der Waals Force Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    As micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) fabrication continues on an ever-decreasing scale, new technological challenges must be successfully negotiated if Moore's Law is to be an even approximately valid model of the future of device miniaturization. Among the most significant obstacles is the existence of strong surface forces related to quantum mechanical van der Waals interatomic interactions, which rapidly diverge as the distance between any two neutral boundaries decreases. The van der Waals force is a contributing factor in several device failures and limitations, including, for instance, stiction and oscillator non-linearities. In the last decade, however, it has been conclusively shown that van der Waals forces are not just a MEMS limitation but can be engineered in both magnitude and sign so as to enable classes of proprietary inventions which either deliver novel capabilities or improve upon existing ones. The evolution of van der Waals force research from an almost exclusively theoretical field in quantum-electro-dynamics to an enabling nanotechnology discipline represents a useful example of the ongoing paradigm shift from government-centered to private-capital funded R&D in cutting-edge physics leading to potentially profitable products. In this paper, we discuss the reasons van der Waals force engineering may lead to the creation of thriving markets both in the short and medium terms by highlighting technical challenges that can be competitively addressed by this novel approach. We also discuss some notable obstacles to the cultural transformation of the academic research community required for the emergence of a functional van der Waals force engineering industry worldwide.

  6. Effective field theories for van der Waals interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brambilla, Nora; Shtabovenko, Vladyslav; Tarrús Castellà, Jaume; Vairo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    Van der Waals interactions between two neutral but polarizable systems at a separation R much larger than the typical size of the systems are at the core of a broad sweep of contemporary problems in settings ranging from atomic, molecular and condensed matter physics to strong interactions and gravity. In this paper, we reexamine the dispersive van der Waals interactions between two hydrogen atoms. The novelty of the analysis resides in the usage of nonrelativistic effective field theories of quantum electrodynamics. In this framework, the van der Waals potential acquires the meaning of a matching coefficient in an effective field theory, dubbed van der Waals effective field theory, suited to describe the low-energy dynamics of an atom pair. It may be computed systematically as a series in R times some typical atomic scale and in the fine-structure constant α . The van der Waals potential gets short-range contributions and radiative corrections, which we compute in dimensional regularization and renormalize here for the first time. Results are given in d space-time dimensions. One can distinguish among different regimes depending on the relative size between 1 /R and the typical atomic bound-state energy, which is of order m α2. Each regime is characterized by a specific hierarchy of scales and a corresponding tower of effective field theories. The short-distance regime is characterized by 1 /R ≫m α2 and the leading-order van der Waals potential is the London potential. We also compute next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order corrections. In the long-distance regime we have 1 /R ≪m α2. In this regime, the van der Waals potential contains contact terms, which are parametrically larger than the Casimir-Polder potential that describes the potential at large distances. In the effective field theory, the Casimir-Polder potential counts as a next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-order effect. In the intermediate-distance regime, 1 /R ˜m α2, a significantly more complex

  7. Curves of growth for van der Waals broadened spectral lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, C.

    1980-01-01

    Curves of growth are evaluated for a spectral line broadened by the van der Waals interactions during collisions. The growth of the equivalent widths of such lines is shown to be dependent on the product of the perturber density and the 6/10 power of the van der Waals potential coefficient. When the parameter is small, the widths grow as the 1/2 power of the optical depth as they do for the Voigt profile: but when the parameter is large, they grow as 2/3 power and, hence, faster than the Voigt profile. An approximate analytical expression for the computed growth characteristics is given.

  8. Cold Anisotropically Interacting van der Waals Molecule: TiHe.

    PubMed

    Quiros, Nancy; Tariq, Naima; Tscherbul, Timur V; Kłos, Jacek; Weinstein, Jonathan D

    2017-05-26

    We have used laser ablation and helium buffer-gas cooling to produce titanium-helium van der Waals molecules at cryogenic temperatures. The molecules were detected through laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Ground-state Ti(a^{3}F_{2})-He binding energies were determined for the ground and first rotationally excited states from studying equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and found to agree well with theoretical calculations based on newly calculated ab initio Ti-He interaction potentials, opening up novel possibilities for studying the formation, dynamics, and nonuniversal chemistry of van der Waals clusters at low temperatures.

  9. Description of van der Waals interactions using transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Rongkuo; Luo, Yu; Fernández-Domínguez, A I; Pendry, J B

    2013-07-19

    Exact calculation of the van der Waals interaction between closely spaced plasmonic nanoparticles is challenging due to the strong concentration of the electromagnetic fields that takes place at the nanometric gap between them. The technique of transformation optics, capable of mapping a small volume into any desired length scale, enables us to shed physical insight into the intricate behavior of electromagnetic fields in extremely small gaps. Using this theoretical tool, we obtain universal analytical expressions for the van der Waals interactions between spherical nanoparticles made of realistic metals at arbitrary separation.

  10. Cold Anisotropically Interacting van der Waals Molecule: TiHe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quiros, Nancy; Tariq, Naima; Tscherbul, Timur V.; Kłos, Jacek; Weinstein, Jonathan D.

    2017-05-01

    We have used laser ablation and helium buffer-gas cooling to produce titanium-helium van der Waals molecules at cryogenic temperatures. The molecules were detected through laser-induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Ground-state Ti (a 3F2)-He binding energies were determined for the ground and first rotationally excited states from studying equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and found to agree well with theoretical calculations based on newly calculated ab initio Ti-He interaction potentials, opening up novel possibilities for studying the formation, dynamics, and nonuniversal chemistry of van der Waals clusters at low temperatures.

  11. Einsteins Traum. Expeditionen an die Grenzen der Raumzeit.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawking, S. W.

    This book is a German translation, by H. Kober, of the English original "Black holes and baby universes and other essays" published in 1993. It is a collection of articles written by the author between 1976 and 1992. Contents: 1. Kindheit. 2. Oxford und Cambridge. 3. Meine Erfahrung mit ALS. 4. Öffentliche Einstellungen zur Wissenschaft. 5. Eine kurze Geschichte der Kurzen Geschichte. 6. Mein Standpunkt. 7. Einsteins Traum. 8. Der Ursprung des Universums. 9. Die Quantenmechanik Schwarzer Löcher. 10. Schwarze Löcher und Baby-Universen. 11. Ist alles vorherbestimmt? 12. Die Zukunft des Universums. 13. Desert Island Discs, ein Interview.

  12. Aufbau und Anpassung der Motorsteuerungs-Software für Otto- und Dieselmotoren

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuhler, Harald; Ricken, Volker; Diener, René

    Die Erfüllung steigender Kundenansprüche und strenger gesetzlicher Vorgaben hinsichtlich der Verringerung des Kraftstoffverbrauchs, der Reduzierung von Schadstoffemissionen, der Erhöhung von Fahrsicherheit, Fahrleistung und Fahrkomfort ist untrennbar mit dem Einzug elektronischer Systeme in moderne Kraftfahrzeuge verbunden. Die elektronischen Systeme bestimmen zunehmend den Kundennutzen und werden für die Differenzierung der Automobilhersteller untereinander immer wichtiger. Daher sind sie ein wesentlicher Erfolgsfaktor moderner Kraftfahrzeuge.

  13. EPITOPE-BASED VACCINE FOR THE TREATMENT OF DER F 3 ALLERGY.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiaodong; Li, Chaopin; Jiang, Yuxing; Li, Na

    2015-12-01

    mites allergic asthma is caused by exposure to home dust mite (HDM). Der f 3 is believed to be one of the major allergens in mites allergic asthma. The work was to identify the immune characteristics of Der f 3 epitope-based vaccine containing T cell and B cell epitopes. T cell lines were generated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Der f 3 allergic patients. Three T cell epitopes and five B cell epitopes of Der f 3, which we identified previously, were selected to design a polypeptide (named Der f3-peptides). DNA constructions encoding these Der f 3-peptides were expressed in Escherichia coli. The T cell lines were stimulated with the peptides and tested for proliferative capacity and cytokine production. plasmid pET28a (+)-Der f 3-peptides was constructed and expressed in E. coli BL21, and the Der f3-peptides protein was purified and confirmed by Western blotting. The Der f 3-peptides were recognized by the T cell clones from allergic patients. SI value of Der f 3 group and Der f 3-peptides group were both higher than that of PBS group (P<0.05). The Der f 3 and Der f 3 peptides induced secretions of IL-4 and IL-5 were decreased compared with that of PBS group (P<0.05). The capacity of IgE-binding to Der f 3-peptides (41.25±5.67) μg/ml was decreased dramatically compared with that of Der f 3 (83.60 ± 10.92) μg/ml (P < 0.05). our results demonstrate that several major T cell epitopes and B cell epitopes of Der f 3 can be valuable for designing the peptide-based immunotherapeutics for the mites allergic asthma. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Der f 35: An MD-2-like house dust mite allergen that cross-reacts with Der f 2 and Pso o 2.

    PubMed

    Fujimura, T; Aki, T; Isobe, T; Matsuoka, A; Hayashi, T; Ono, K; Kawamoto, S

    2017-04-25

    Dermatophagoides farinae is a source of airborne house dust mite (HDM) allergens. We elucidated IgE-reactive allergens from D. farinae by two-dimensional immunoblotting-based allergenome analysis, and identified one new allergen, named Der f 35, that possesses IgE-binding capacity comparable to that of Der f 2. The aim of this study was to clarify the allergenic capacity of new HDM allergen Der f 35. We cloned der f 35 from D. farinae mRNA and produced recombinant Der f 35 in Escherichia coli. The IgE-binding capacity of Der f 35 and its cross-reactivity with group 2 allergens from D. farinae and Psoroptes ovis were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and ELISA inhibition assays, respectively. The deduced amino acid sequence for der f 35, which possesses the MD-2-related lipid-recognition domain, showed higher identity with group 2 allergens from P. ovis (61.5%) and Blomia tropicalis (50.7%) than with Der f 2 (40.8%). Der f 35 showed IgE-binding frequencies of 77.5% (31/40) for the native form upon allergenome analysis and 51.4% (18/35) for recombinant structure by ELISA. Der f 35 showed cross-reactivity with Der f 2 and Pso o 2 in reaction with HDM-allergic patients' IgE by ELISA inhibition assay. Der f 35 is a candidate major allergen from D. farinae, which is more similar to group 2 allergens from sheep scab mite and storage mites. Der f 35 could be responsible for the cross-reactivity among group 2 mite allergens. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  15. IgE Abs to Der p 1 and Der p 2 as diagnostic markers of house dust mite allergy as defined by a bronchoprovocation test.

    PubMed

    Minami, Takafumi; Fukutomi, Yuma; Lidholm, Jonas; Yasueda, Hiroshi; Saito, Akemi; Sekiya, Kiyoshi; Tsuburai, Takahiro; Maeda, Yuji; Mori, Akio; Taniguchi, Masami; Hasegawa, Maki; Akiyama, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    Limited information is available regarding the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to allergen components from house dust mites (HDMs) in the diagnosis of genuine HDM allergy. To evaluate the diagnostic usefulness of measuring levels of serum IgE antibodies (Abs) to allergen components from Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DP) as a predictor of immediate asthmatic response (IAR) to bronchoprovocation, we studied 55 DP-sensitized asthmatic patients who underwent a bronchoprovocation test using crude DP extract. The levels of IgE Abs to crude DP, nDer p 1, rDer p 2, and rDer p 10 in patients who showed IAR (n = 41) were compared with those in patients who showed no IAR (n = 14). While the frequencies of positivity for IgE Abs to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 among the entire study population were 89 and 86%, respectively, all patients with IAR tested positive for both of them with high IgE concentrations. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as predictors of IAR were 0.913 and 0.906, respectively. The specificity of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 was higher than IgE to crude DP even at low cut-off points. IgE to nDer p 1 and/or rDer p 2 was highly predictive of allergen-induced IAR. These findings validate the clinical usefulness of measuring the levels of IgE to nDer p 1 and rDer p 2 as a diagnostic tool for genuine HDM allergy. Copyright © 2014 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Web-gestütztes Social Networking am Beispiel der Plattform Wissensmanagement"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindstaedt, Stefanie; Thurner, Claudia

    Anhand der Plattform Wissensmanagement, der größten deutschsprachigen Community im Themenfeld Wissensmanagement, werden organisationale Rahmenbedingungen, technische Werkzeuge und Rollen der Moderatorin diskutiert, die Bedingungen für den erfolgreichen Betrieb einer Community im Web 2.0 sind. Weiters wird dargestellt, wie Communities für das betriebliche Wissensmanagement eingesetzt werden können.

  17. Geschichte der geodätischen Instrumente und Verfahren im Altertumund Mittelalter.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, F.

    Contents:A. Einleitung und allgemeiner Teil.B. Besonderer Teil:1. Nivellierinstrumente. 2. Instrumente zum Antragen eines rechten Winkels. 3. Längenmesser. 4. Stäbe und Stabzusammensetzungen als Instrumente zurmittelbaren Streckenbestimmung. 5. Die Instrumente mit dem Schattenquadrat: Das geometrische Quadrat. Das Astrolab. Der Quadrant. Anwendungen der Instrumente mit dem Schattenquadrat. 6. Der Jakobsstab. 7. Triangulationsinstrumente. 8. Schmiegen.

  18. Dynamic and static contributions to the rhythmic γ activation of primary and secondary spindle endings in external intercostal muscle

    PubMed Central

    von Euler, C.; Peretti, G.

    1966-01-01

    1. In cats anaesthetized with sodium pentobarbital 160 external intercostal muscle spindle afferents were identified by their pause in response to ventral root stimulation; the internal intercostal muscle was denervated. 2. In order to assignate the afferents to either primary or secondary endings they were tested for their responsiveness to vibration (Bianconi & Van Der Meulen, 1963). The maximal frequency which they were able to follow regularly for at least four cycles, termed `critical frequency', was determined. 3. The endings fell into two groups: low-f (frequency) sensitive endings with critical frequencies below 400 c/s and high-f sensitive endings with critical frequencies above 400 c/s. The latter were regarded as primary endings and the former as secondary ones. 4. The manner in which the spindle endings resumed activity after a pause produced by shocks to the ventral root, i.e. whether `phasic' or `tonic' (Granit & Van Der Meulen, 1962) was studied in all the spindle afferents. 5. All the secondary (low-f sensitive) endings were `tonic' except three for which the determination of critical frequency was questionable. Both `tonic' and `phasic' properties were found among the primary (high-f sensitive) endings. 6. The majority of the secondary endings (74%) showed inspiratory rhythmic fusimotor activation in parallel with the skeletomotor contraction as did the primary endings (79%). 7. Fifty-seven spindle endings which all showed marked rhythmic inspiratory γ activation were tested for respiratory variations in their dynamic responses to steady stretch and length changes introduced at low repetition rates. 8. The results indicate that both `dynamic' and `static' γ fibres are represented among the rhythmic γ fibres controlling primary muscle spindle endings, whereas rhythmic activation of secondary endings seems to be mediated only by `static' fibres. PMID:16783909

  19. Evaluation of End Mill Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Lazarus; R. L. Hester,

    2005-08-01

    Milling tests were run on families of High Speed Steel (HSS) end mills to determine their lives while machining 304 Stainless Steel. The end mills tested were made from M7, M42 and T15-CPM High Speed Steels. The end mills were also evaluated with no coatings as well as with Titanium Nitride (TiN) and Titanium Carbo-Nitride (TiCN) coatings to determine which combination of HSS and coating provided the highest increase in end mill life while increasing the cost of the tool the least. We found end mill made from M42 gave us the largest increase in tool life with the least increase in cost. The results of this study will be used by Cutting Tool Engineering in determining which end mill descriptions will be dropped from our tool catalog.

  20. Nonhomologous end joining: a good solution for bad ends.

    PubMed

    Waters, Crystal A; Strande, Natasha T; Wyatt, David W; Pryor, John M; Ramsden, Dale A

    2014-05-01

    Double strand breaks pose unique problems for DNA repair, especially when broken ends possess complex structures that interfere with standard DNA transactions. Nonhomologous end joining can use multiple strategies to solve these problems. It further uses sophisticated means to ensure the strategy chosen provides the ideal balance of flexibility and accuracy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Nonhomologous end joining: a good solution for bad ends

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Crystal Ann; Strande, Natasha Tiffany; Wyatt, David William; Pryor, John Michael; Ramsden, Dale A.

    2014-01-01

    Double strand breaks pose unique problems for DNA repair, especially when broken ends possess complex structures that interfere with standard DNA transactions. Nonhomologous end joining can use multiple strategies to solve these problems. It further uses sophisticated means to ensure the strategy chosen provides the ideal balance of flexibility and accuracy. PMID:24630899

  2. Left circumflex artery aneurysm: the end-to-end reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cuttone, Fabio; Guilbeau-Frugier, Céline; Roncalli, Jérome; Glock, Yves

    2015-08-01

    This report describes a surgical myocardial revascularization procedure for a huge, atherosclerotic left circumflex coronary artery aneurysm. The technique proposed in this paper is based on the isolation of the aneurysm followed by the aneurysmectomy and a complete reconstruction of the circumflex artery by an end-to-end anastomosis.

  3. Ends-in Vs. Ends-Out Recombination in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Hastings, P. J.; McGill, C.; Shafer, B.; Strathern, J. N.

    1993-01-01

    Integration of linearized plasmids into yeast chromosomes has been used as a model system for the study of recombination initiated by double-strand breaks. The linearized plasmid DNA recombines efficiently into sequences homologous to the ends of the DNA. This efficient recombination occurs both for the configuration in which the break is in a contiguous region of homology (herein called the ends-in configuration) and for ``omega'' insertions in which plasmid sequences interrupt a linear region of homology (herein called the ends-out configuration). The requirements for integration of these two configurations are expected to be different. We compared these two processes in a yeast strain containing an ends-in target and an ends-out target for the same cut plasmid. Recovery of ends-in events exceeds ends-out events by two- to threefold. Possible causes for the origin of this small bias are discussed. The lack of an extreme difference in frequency implies that cooperativity between the two ends does not contribute to the efficiency with which cut circular plasmids are integrated. This may also be true for the repair of chromosomal double-strand breaks. PMID:8307337

  4. 8. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF EAST TRUSS, SHOWING END ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. DETAIL OF NORTH END OF EAST TRUSS, SHOWING END POST, TOP AND LOWER CHORDS, AND DIAGONAL EYE BARS, SEEN FROM NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  5. End-to-end azido-pinned interlocking lanthanide squares.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Lei; Wu, Jianfeng; Zhao, Lang; Shi, Wei; Cheng, Peng; Tang, Jinkui

    2017-03-09

    A rare end-to-end azido-pinned interlocking lanthanide square was self-assembled using a ditopic Schiff-base (H2L) and NaN3 as ligands. Obvious ferromagnetic interaction and a record anisotropy barrier of 152(4) K among lanthanide azido-bridged SMMs in a zero dc field were observed.

  6. Van der Waals forces in pNRQED

    SciTech Connect

    Shtabovenko, Vladyslav

    2016-01-22

    We report on the calculation of electromagnetic van der Waals forces [1] between two hydrogen atoms using non-relativistic effective field theories (EFTs) of QED for large and small momentum transfers with respect to the intrinsic energy scale of the hydrogen atom. Our results reproduce the well known London and Casimir-Polder forces.

  7. Statistical complexity, virial expansion, and van der Waals equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pennini, F.; Plastino, A.

    2016-09-01

    We investigate the notion of LMC statistical complexity with regards to a real gas and in terms of the second virial coefficient. The ensuing results are applied to the van der Waals equation. Interestingly enough, one finds a complexity-interpretation for the associated phase transition.

  8. Nonadiabatic corrections to the van der Waals potential

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Au, C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the finite-mass nonadiabatic corrections to the van der Waals potential in the electric-dipole approximations in terms of London-analog two-center atomic spectral sums. The nonadiabatic corrections to all orders at threshold energy and also those with first-order energy dependence are given.

  9. Excited nucleon as a van der Waals system of partons

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Muskeyev, A. O. Yezhov, S. N.

    2012-06-15

    Saturation in deep inelastic scattering (DIS) and deeply virtual Compton scattering (DVCS) is associated with a phase transition between the partonic gas, typical of moderate x and Q{sup 2}, and partonic fluid appearing at increasing Q{sup 2} and decreasing Bjorken x. We suggest the van der Waals equation of state to describe properly this phase transition.

  10. Direct muscle neurotization after end-to end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy

    PubMed Central

    Papalia, Igor; Ronchi, Giulia; Muratori, Luisa; Mazzucco, Alessandra; Magaudda, Ludovico; Geuna, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    The need for the continuous research of new tools for improving motor function recovery after nerve injury is justified by the still often unsatisfactory clinical outcome in these patients. It has been previously shown that the combined use of two reconstructive techniques, namely end-to-side neurorrhaphy and direct muscle neurotization in the rat hindlimb model, can lead to good results in terms of skeletal muscle reinnervation. Here we show that, in the rat forelimb model, the combined use of direct muscle neurotization with either end-to-end or end-to-side neurorrhaphy to reinnervate the denervated flexor digitorum muscles, leads to muscle atrophy prevention over a long postoperative time lapse (10 months). By contrast, very little motor recovery (in case of end-to-end neurorrhaphy) and almost no motor recovery (in case of end-to-side neurorrhaphy) were observed in the grasping activity controlled by flexor digitorum muscles. It can thus be concluded that, at least in the rat, direct muscle neurotization after both end-to-end and end-to-side neurorrhaphy represents a good strategy for preventing denervation-related muscle atrophy but not for regaining the lost motor function. PMID:25538749

  11. Applying DER-CAM for IIT Microgrid Explansion Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Shahidehpour, Mohammad; Li, Zuyi; Wang, Jianhui; Chen, Chen

    2016-04-19

    The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an economic and environmental model of customer DER adoption. This model has been in development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory since 2000. The objective of the model is to find optimal DER investments while minimizing total energy costs or carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, or achieving a weighted objective that simultaneously considers both criteria. The Illinois Institute of Technology (IIT) Microgrid project started in August 2008, and the majority of the project was completed in May 2013. IIT Microgrid, funded mostly by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as State and philanthropic contributions, empowers the campus consumers with the objective of establishing a smart microgrid that is highly reliable, economically viable, environmentally friendly, fuel-efficient, and resilient in extreme circumstances with a self-healing capability. In this project, we apply DER-CAM to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid. First, the load data, environmental data, utility data, and technology data for the IIT Microgrid are gathered and organized to follow the DER-CAM input requirements. Then, DERCAM is applied to study the expansion planning of the IIT Microgrid for different cases, where different objectives in DER-CAM and different utility conditions are tested. Case 1 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with fixed utility rates and 100% electric utility availability. Case 2 considers the objective of minimizing energy costs with real-time utility rates and 4 emergency weeks when the IIT Microgrid does not have access to the electric utility grid and has to operate in island mode. In Case 3, the utility rates are restored to fixed values and 100% electric utility availability is assumed, but a weighted multi-objective (Obj: a × costs + b × CO2 emissions, where a and b are weights for cost minimization and CO2 emissions minimization) is utilized to

  12. Einstellung und Wissen von Lehramtsstudierenden zur Evolution - ein Vergleich zwischen Deutschland und der Türkei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Dittmar; Soran, Haluk

    Es wird eine Untersuchung vorgestellt, in der Wissen und Überzeugungen von Lehramtsstudierenden aller Fächer zum Thema Evolution an zwei Universitäten in Deutschland und der Türkei erhoben worden sind. Die Befragung wurde in Dortmund und in Ankara durchgeführt. Es stellte sich heraus, dass ausgeprägte Defizite im Verständnis der Evolutionsmechanismen herrschen. Viele Studierende, insbesondere aus der Türkei, sind nicht von der Faktizität der Evolution überzeugt. Dies gilt sowohl für Studierende mit Fach Biologie als auch für Studierende mit anderen Fächern. Näher untersucht worden sind die Faktoren, die die Überzeugungen zur Evolution beeinflussen können, was ja in Anbetracht der hohen Ablehnungsrate der Evolution von besonderem Interesse ist. Das Vertrauen in die Wissenschaft spielt hierbei eine besondere Rolle: Wer der Wissenschaft vertraut, ist auch eher von der Evolution überzeugt, als diejenigen, die skeptisch gegenüber der Wissenschaft sind.

  13. The End of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2006-01-01

    Education as a major social movement is coming to an end. This book derives its theoretical framework from the ideas of Hegel, who perceived an end to history, and Thomas Kuhn, who theorized that history does not follow a linear path but that the scientific landscape changes through large-scale movements called "paradigm shifts". This book…

  14. The End of School Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berube, Maurice R.; Berube, Clair T.

    2006-01-01

    Education as a major social movement is coming to an end. This book derives its theoretical framework from the ideas of Hegel, who perceived an end to history, and Thomas Kuhn, who theorized that history does not follow a linear path but that the scientific landscape changes through large-scale movements called "paradigm shifts". This book…

  15. Combining Simulation Tools for End-to-End Trajectory Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitley, Ryan; Gutkowski, Jeffrey; Craig, Scott; Dawn, Tim; Williams, Jacobs; Stein, William B.; Litton, Daniel; Lugo, Rafael; Qu, Min

    2015-01-01

    Trajectory simulations with advanced optimization algorithms are invaluable tools in the process of designing spacecraft. Due to the need for complex models, simulations are often highly tailored to the needs of the particular program or mission. NASA's Orion and SLS programs are no exception. While independent analyses are valuable to assess individual spacecraft capabilities, a complete end-to-end trajectory from launch to splashdown maximizes potential performance and ensures a continuous solution. In order to obtain end-to-end capability, Orion's in-space tool (Copernicus) was made to interface directly with the SLS's ascent tool (POST2) and a new tool to optimize the full problem by operating both simulations simultaneously was born.

  16. End-to-end simulations for the LISA Technology Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannen, V. M.; Smit, M.; Hoyng, P.; Selig, A.; Schleicher, A.

    2003-05-01

    We present an end-to-end simulation facility which has been developed in the framework of the LISA Technology Package (LTP) architect study for SMART-2, the technology demonstration mission that precedes LISA. The simulator evolves positions and orientations of the spacecraft and two test masses contained in the inertial sensors of LTP under the influence of external and internal forces and torques and under the influence of control loops for satellite drag-free control (DFC) and electrostatic test mass suspension. Altogether, a coupled system with 18 degrees of freedom is solved numerically. A series of test runs has been performed to verify the correct functioning of the various models contained in the end-to-end simulator and to provide a preliminary assessment of the performance of DFC algorithms and control laws for test mass suspension, which are currently foreseen for use in the basic operation mode of LTP.

  17. LWS/SET End-to-End Data System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffin, Geoff; Sherman, Barry; Colon, Gilberto (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the concept for the End-to-End Data System that will support NASA's Living With a Star Space Environment Testbed missions. NASA has initiated the Living With a Star (LWS) Program to develop a better scientific understanding to address the aspects of the connected Sun-Earth system that affect life and society. A principal goal of the program is to bridge the gap.between science, engineering, and user application communities. The Space Environment Testbed (SET) Project is one element of LWS. The Project will enable future science, operational, and commercial objectives in space and atmospheric environments by improving engineering approaches to the accommodation and/or mitigation of the effects of solar variability on technological systems. The End-to-end data system allows investigators to access the SET control center, command their experiments, and receive data from their experiments back at their home facility, using the Internet. The logical functioning of major components of the end-to-end data system are described, including the GSFC Payload Operations Control Center (POCC), SET Payloads, the GSFC SET Simulation Lab, SET Experiment PI Facilities, and Host Systems. Host Spacecraft Operations Control Centers (SOCC) and the Host Spacecraft are essential links in the end-to-end data system, but are not directly under the control of the SET Project. Formal interfaces will be established between these entities and elements of the SET Project. The paper describes data flow through the system, from PI facilities connecting to the SET operations center via the Internet, communications to SET carriers and experiments via host systems, to telemetry returns to investigators from their flight experiments. It also outlines the techniques that will be used to meet mission requirements, while holding development and operational costs to a minimum. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  18. End-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenji; Bobyshev, Andrey; Bowden, Mark; Crawford, Matt; Demar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Grigoriev, Maxim; Petravick, Don; /Fermilab

    2007-09-01

    The computing models for HEP experiments are globally distributed and grid-based. Obstacles to good network performance arise from many causes and can be a major impediment to the success of the computing models for HEP experiments. Factors that affect overall network/application performance exist on the hosts themselves (application software, operating system, hardware), in the local area networks that support the end systems, and within the wide area networks. Since the computer and network systems are globally distributed, it can be very difficult to locate and identify the factors that are hurting application performance. In this paper, we present an end-to-end network/application performance troubleshooting methodology developed and in use at Fermilab. The core of our approach is to narrow down the problem scope with a divide and conquer strategy. The overall complex problem is split into two distinct sub-problems: host diagnosis and tuning, and network path analysis. After satisfactorily evaluating, and if necessary resolving, each sub-problem, we conduct end-to-end performance analysis and diagnosis. The paper will discuss tools we use as part of the methodology. The long term objective of the effort is to enable site administrators and end users to conduct much of the troubleshooting themselves, before (or instead of) calling upon network and operating system 'wizards,' who are always in short supply.

  19. Miniature modular microwave end-to-end receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukamto, Lin M. (Inventor); Cooley, Thomas W. (Inventor); Janssen, Michael A. (Inventor); Parks, Gary S. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An end-to-end microwave receiver system contained in a single miniature hybrid package mounted on a single heatsink is presented. It includes an input end connected to a microwave receiver antenna and an output end which produces a digital count proportional to the amplitude of a signal of a selected microwave frequency band received at the antenna and corresponding to one of the water vapor absorption lines near frequencies of 20 GHz or 30 GHz. The hybrid package is on the order of several centimeters in length and a few centimeters in height and width. The package includes an L-shaped carrier having a base surface, a vertical wall extending up from the base surface and forming a corner therewith, and connection pins extending through the vertical wall. Modular blocks rest on the base surface against the vertical wall and support microwave monolithic integrated circuits on top surfaces thereof connected to the external connection pins. The modular blocks lie end-to-end on the base surface so as to be modularly removable by sliding along the base surface beneath the external connection pins away from the vertical wall.

  20. Going End to End to Deliver High-Speed Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    By the end of the 1990s, the optical fiber "backbone" of the telecommunication and data-communication networks had evolved from megabits-per-second transmission rates to gigabits-per-second transmission rates. Despite this boom in bandwidth, however, users at the end nodes were still not being reached on a consistent basis. (An end node is any device that does not behave like a router or a managed hub or switch. Examples of end node objects are computers, printers, serial interface processor phones, and unmanaged hubs and switches.) The primary reason that prevents bandwidth from reaching the end nodes is the complex local network topology that exists between the optical backbone and the end nodes. This complex network topology consists of several layers of routing and switch equipment which introduce potential congestion points and network latency. By breaking down the complex network topology, a true optical connection can be achieved. Access Optical Networks, Inc., is making this connection a reality with guidance from NASA s nondestructive evaluation experts.

  1. [Experience with the reference manager EndNote-EndLink].

    PubMed

    Reiss, M; Reiss, G

    1998-09-01

    A good reference management program should make it easy to record the elements of a reference: author's name, year of publication, title of article, etc. It should offer tools that let you find and retrieve references quickly, and it should be able to produce the bibliography in the format required for a particular publication. There are many computer programs, but very few stand out as truly useful, time saving, and work enhancing. One of them is EndNote-EndLink. We want to report our experience with this database manager. The functions and the use of the software package EndNote 2.3 for Windows are described. You can create your database or you can download batches of references from one of the popular searching services (e.g. MEDLINE). When you want to cite a reference you simply paste the reference wherever you want your in-text citation to appear. To prepare the bibliography, EndNote scans your article, replaces the place holders with citations and prints the list of references at the end of the manuscript, according with the style that you have chosen. Altogether EndNote provides an excellent combination of features and ease of use.

  2. Anisotropic Charge Distribution and Anisotropic van der Waals Radius Leading to Intriguing Anisotropic Noncovalent Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hahn; Van Dung Doan; Cho, Woo Jong; Madhav, Miriyala Vijay; Kim, Kwang S.

    2014-01-01

    Although group (IV–VII) nonmetallic elements do not favor interacting with anionic species, there are counterexamples including the halogen bond. Such binding is known to be related to the charge deficiency because of the adjacent atom's electron withdrawing effect, which creates σ/π-holes at the bond-ends. However, a completely opposite behavior is exhibited by N2 and O2, which have electrostatically positive/negative character around cylindrical-bond-surface/bond-ends. Inspired by this, here we elucidate the unusual features and origin of the anisotropic noncovalent interactions in the ground and excited states of the 2nd and 3rd row elements belonging to groups IV–VII. The anisotropy in charge distributions and van der Waals radii of atoms in such molecular systems are scrutinized. This provides an understanding of their unusual molecular configuration, binding and recognition modes involved in new types of molecular assembling and engineering. This work would lead to the design of intriguing molecular systems exploiting anisotropic noncovalent interactions. PMID:25059645

  3. Infrared Spectroscopy of the H2/HD/D2-O2 Van Der Waals Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raston, Paul; Bunn, Hayley

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe and oxygen is the third, so understanding the interaction between the two in their different forms is important to understanding astrochemical processes. The interaction between H2 and O2 has been explored in low energy scattering experiments and by far infrared synchrotron spectroscopy of the van der Waals complex. The far infrared spectra suggest a parallel stacked average structure with seven bound rotationally excited states. Here, we present the far infrared spectrum of HD/D2-O2 and the mid infrared spectrum of H2-O2 at 80 K, recorded at the infrared beamline facility of the Australian Synchrotron. We observed 'sharp' peaks in the mid infrared region, corresponding to the end over end rotation of H2-O2, that are comparatively noisier than analogous peaks in the far infrared where the synchrotron light is brightest. The larger reduced mass of HD and D2 compared to H2 is expected to result in more rotational bound states and narrower bands. The latest results in our ongoing efforts to explore this system will be presented. Y. Kalugina, et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 14, 16458 (2012) S. Chefdeville et al. Science 341, 1094 (2013) H. Bunn et al. ApJ 799, 65 (2015)

  4. Helgoland und die Erforschung der marinen Benthosalgen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollenhauer, D.; Lüning, K.

    1988-09-01

    Early phycological research on the island of Helgoland was performed by amateur phycologists from the adjacent coastal regions of Germany (Bremen, Hamburg, Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein). These pioneers were followed by professionals, and by collectors from the mainland universities, particularly from Berlin. This second phase group includes the naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg, the zoologists Johannes Müller, Ernst Haeckel and Anton Dohrn, and the botanists Alexander Braun, Nathanael Pringsheim, and Ferdinand Cohn. The leading marine phycologist in Germany, towards the end of the 19th century, was Johannes Reinke, who finally worked at the University of Kiel. Paul Kuckuck's doctoral thesis had been supervised by Reinke who recommended him for the post of the first curator of botany at the Biological Station of Helgoland, which was founded in 1892. Kuckuck worked on the island from 1892 to 1914. After World War I, and after Kuckuck's untimely death, Wilhelm Nienburg became the second curator of botany on Helgoland, from 1921 to 1923. The next permanent phycologist on the island, from 1925 to 1936, was Ernst Schreiber. He was followed in 1936 by Peter Kornmann, who retired in 1972 but still continues as a research worker, together with Paul-Heinz Sahling, who started to work as a technical assistant under the guidance of Ernst Schreiber in 1927.

  5. Measurements and analysis of end-to-end Internet dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Paxson, Vern

    1997-04-01

    Accurately characterizing end-to-end Internet dynamics - the performance that a user actually obtains from the lengthy series of network links that comprise a path through the Internet - is exceptionally difficult, due to the network`s immense heterogeneity. At the heart of this work is a `measurement framework` in which a number of sites around the Internet host a specialized measurement service. By coordinating `probes` between pairs of these sites one can measure end-to-end behavior along O(N2) paths for a framework consisting of N sites. Consequently, one obtains a superlinear scaling that allows measuring a rich cross-section of Internet behavior without requiring huge numbers of observation points. 37 sites participated in this study, allowing the author to measure more than 1,000 distinct Internet paths. The first part of this work looks at the behavior of end-to-end routing: the series of routers over which a connection`s packets travel. Based on 40,000 measurements made using this framework, the author analyzes: routing `pathologies` such as loops, outages, and flutter; the stability of routes over time; and the symmetry of routing along the two directions of an end-to-end path. The author finds that pathologies increased significantly over the course of 1995 and that Internet paths are heavily dominated by a single route. The second part of this work studies end-to-end Internet packet dynamics. The author analyzes 20,000 TCP transfers of 100 Kbyte each to investigate the performance of both the TCP endpoints and the Internet paths. The measurements used for this part of the study are much richer than those for the first part, but require a great degree of attention to issues of calibration, which are addressed by applying self-consistency checks to the measurements whenever possible. The author finds that packet filters are capable of a wide range of measurement errors, some of which, if undetected, can significantly taint subsequent analysis.

  6. End-of-Life Decisions

    MedlinePlus

    ... A living will allows you to put in writing your wishes about medical treatments for the end ... the use of life-sustaining medical treatments in writing as a guide to healthcare providers and loved ...

  7. Fuel cell end plate structure

    DOEpatents

    Guthrie, Robin J.; Katz, Murray; Schroll, Craig R.

    1991-04-23

    The end plates (16) of a fuel cell stack (12) are formed of a thin membrane. Pressure plates (20) exert compressive load through insulation layers (22, 26) to the membrane. Electrical contact between the end plates (16) and electrodes (50, 58) is maintained without deleterious making and breaking of electrical contacts during thermal transients. The thin end plate (16) under compressive load will not distort with a temperature difference across its thickness. Pressure plate (20) experiences a low thermal transient because it is insulated from the cell. The impact on the end plate of any slight deflection created in the pressure plate by temperature difference is minimized by the resilient pressure pad, in the form of insulation, therebetween.

  8. Nearing the End of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... After Treatment Caregivers and Family Children and Cancer End of Life Care Find Support Programs and Services in Your Area Back To Top Imagine a world free from cancer. Help make it a reality. ...

  9. High-End Scientific Computing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA uses high-end scientific computing, geospatial services and remote sensing/imagery analysis to support EPA's mission. The Center for Environmental Computing (CEC) assists the Agency's program offices and regions to meet staff needs in these areas.

  10. End Points of Sepsis Resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, John C; Orloski, Clinton J

    2017-02-01

    Resuscitation goals for the patient with sepsis and septic shock are to return the patient to a physiologic state that promotes adequate end-organ perfusion along with matching metabolic supply and demand. Ideal resuscitation end points should assess the adequacy of tissue oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption, and be quantifiable and reproducible. Despite years of research, a single resuscitation end point to assess adequacy of resuscitation has yet to be found. Thus, the clinician must rely on multiple end points to assess the patient's overall response to therapy. This review will discuss the role and limitations of central venous pressure (CVP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and cardiac output/index as macrocirculatory resuscitation targets along with lactate, central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), central venous-arterial CO2 gradient, urine output, and capillary refill time as microcirculatory resuscitation endpoints in patients with sepsis.

  11. Romanistik ohne Latein? Zu einer Empfehlung der Konferenz der Romanischen Seminare (Romance Studies without Latin? On a Recommendation from the Conference of Romance Seminars)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neumeister, Sebastian

    1973-01-01

    Reaction to a February 19, 1972 recommendation of the Konferenz der Romanischen Seminare der Bundesrepublik Deutschland und West-Berlins in Deutschen Romanistenverband'' (Conference of Romance Seminars of the Federal Republic of Germany and West Berlin of the German Association of Romance Philologists) to discontinue the Latin prerequisite for…

  12. Characterization of arginine kinase, anovel allergen of dermatophagoides farinae (Der f 20)

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Peng; Yu, Haiqiong; Li, Meng; Xiao, Xiaojun; Jiang, Congli; Mo, Lihua; Zhang, Min; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To characterize a novel allergen, the Dermatophagoides farinae-derived arginine kinase (Der f 20). Methods: The protein of Der f 20 was synthesized by genetic engineering approaches. The allergenicity of Der f 20 was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and an airway allergy mouse model. Results: The Der f 20 gene was cloned andpresented in the Gene Bank with an accession number of AAP57094. The Der f 20 is an arginine kinase (AK), whichshowed a close relationship with D. pteronyssinus AK and Aleuroglyphusovatus AK. Western-blot and ELISA studies showed the IgE binding capacity of Der f 20 was 66.7% in the sera from 6 dust mite allergic patients. Immune inhibition assayresults showed the IgE cross-reactivity between Der f 20 and DME (Dust mite extract). Positive responses to Der f 20 were 41.2% as shown by skin prick tests in 17 DME-allergic patients. In vitro experimental results showed that Der f 20 induced Th2 cell differentiation and the expression of T cell Ig mucin domain molecule-4 (TIM4) in DCs. Conclusions; The Der f 20 protein is a novel subtype of thedust mite allergen. PMID:26885278

  13. Expression, purification and characterization of Der f 27, a new allergen from dermatophagoides farinae

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jianli; Li, Meng; Liu, Yulin; Jiang, Congli; Wu, Yulan; Wang, Yuanyuan; Gao, Anjian; Liu, Zhigang; Yang, Pingchang; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2015-01-01

    The house dust mite (HDM), Dermatophagoidesfarinae (D. farina), is one of the most important indoor allergen sources and a major elicitor of allergic asthma; itscharacterization is important in the diagnosis and immunotherapy of mite allergen-relevant diseases. This study aims to characterize a novel allergen, the D. farinae-derived serpin (Der f 27). In this study, the total RNA of D. farinae was extracted, and the Der f 27 gene was cloned and expressed. The allergenicity of recombinant Der f 27 protein was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and Western-blotting with the sera of asthma patients, and skin prick test (SPT) in allergic human subjects. A r-Der f 27 allergic asthma mouse model was established. The cloned Der f 27 gene has been presented at the Gene Bank with an accession number of KM009995. The IgE levels of r-Der f 27 in the serum from r-Der f 27 SPT positive allergic patients were 3 folds more than healthy subjects. The Der f 27 SPT positive ratewas 42.1% in 19 DM-SPT positive patients. Airway hyperresponsiveness, serum specific IgE, and levels of interleukin-4 in the spleen cell culture supernatant were significantly increased in allergic asthma mice sensitized to r-Der f 27. In conclusion, Der f 27 is a new subtype of house mite allergen. PMID:26328010

  14. Cloning, expression, and characterization of Der f 7, an allergen of Dermatophagoides farinae from China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Yu-bao; Cai, Hong-xing; Zhou, Ying; Gao, Cui-xiang; Shi, Wei-hong; Yu, Ming; Li, Li

    2010-09-01

    A full-length cDNA encoding house dust mite allergen Der f 7 from Dermatophagoides farina (Acari: Pyroglyphidae) from China was cloned, sequenced, and successfully expressed. A reference sequence (GenBank accession AY283292) was used to design polymerase chain reaction primers. Analysis revealed eight mismatched nucleotides in five Der f 7 cDNA clones, and the projected amino acid sequence contained six incompatible residues. These results suggest that the sequence of Der f 7 may be polymorphic. Further bioinformatic analysis revealed that the mature Der f 7 allergen had a molecular mass of approximately 21.88 kDa and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.90. Der f 7 protein secondary structure was composed of a helix (56.63%), extended strand (5.10%), and random coil (38.27%). Group 7 allergens are present in Pyroglyphidae, Acaridae, and Glycyphagidae families, and homology analysis revealed a 86% similarity between Der f 7 and Der p 7. Furthermore, a phylogenetic tree constructed of group 7 allergens from different mite species revealed that Der f 7 and Der p 7 clustered with 100% bootstrap support. Bioinformatics-driven characterization of Der f 7 allergen as conducted in this study may contribute to diagnostic and therapeutic applications for dust mite allergies.

  15. The End of Art Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    A look at Danto's many discussions of the end of art and its meaning. Also examined is Hegel's idea of the end of art and his use of the dialectic to explain it. Both philosophers sought the meaning of art in the object or artwork--more so for Danto, because he thinks the object is a material one that would exclude conceptual artists' thought…

  16. Cassini End of Mission Commentary

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-15

    On Sept. 15, NASA's Cassini spacecraft completed its remarkable story of exploration with an intentional plunge into Saturn's atmosphere, ending its mission after nearly 20 years in space. Live commentary of Cassini's end of mission activities was shown on NASA TV and the agency's website. Launched in 1997, Cassini arrived in orbit around Saturn in 2004 on a mission to study the giant planet, its rings, moons and magnetosphere.

  17. Nuclear instrumentation cable end seal

    DOEpatents

    Cannon, Collins P.; Brown, Donald P.

    1979-01-01

    An improved coaxial end seal for hermetically sealed nuclear instrumentation cable exhibiting an improved breakdown pulse noise characteristic under high voltage, high temperature conditions. A tubular insulator body has metallized interior and exterior surface portions which are braze sealed to a center conductor and an outer conductive sheath. The end surface of the insulator body which is directed toward the coaxial cable to which it is sealed has a recessed surface portion within which the braze seal material terminates.

  18. The End of Art Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wertz, S. K.

    2012-01-01

    A look at Danto's many discussions of the end of art and its meaning. Also examined is Hegel's idea of the end of art and his use of the dialectic to explain it. Both philosophers sought the meaning of art in the object or artwork--more so for Danto, because he thinks the object is a material one that would exclude conceptual artists' thought…

  19. Aqueous gating of van der Waals materials on bilayer nanopaper.

    PubMed

    Bao, Wenzhong; Fang, Zhiqiang; Wan, Jiayu; Dai, Jiaqi; Zhu, Hongli; Han, Xiaogang; Yang, Xiaofeng; Preston, Colin; Hu, Liangbing

    2014-10-28

    In this work, we report transistors made of van der Waals materials on a mesoporous paper with a smooth nanoscale surface. The aqueous transistor has a novel planar structure with source, drain, and gate electrodes on the same surface of the paper, while the mesoporous paper is used as an electrolyte reservoir. These transistors are enabled by an all-cellulose paper with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) on the top surface that leads to an excellent surface smoothness, while the rest of the microsized cellulose fibers can absorb electrolyte effectively. Based on two-dimensional van der Waals materials, including MoS2 and graphene, we demonstrate high-performance transistors with a large on-off ratio and low subthreshold swing. Such planar transistors with absorbed electrolyte gating can be used as sensors integrated with other components to form paper microfluidic systems. This study is significant for future paper-based electronics and biosensors.

  20. Plasmakristalle an Bord der ISS: Komplexe Plasmen in Schwerelosigkeit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Hubertus M.; Morfill, Gregor E.

    2005-03-01

    Das deutsch-russische Experiment PKE-Nefedov erforscht komplexe Plasmen in Schwerelosigkeit. Seit 2001 arbeitet es auf der internationalen Raumstation ISS. Komplexe Plasmen bestehen aus einem teilweise ionisierten Gas, das Mikropartikel enthält. Diese Partikel laden sich im Strom der Elektronen und Ionen elektrisch auf. Ihr Verhalten beeinflussen vor allem abgeschirmte Coulomb-Kräfte und Reibungskräfte im Gas. Sie können sich sogar zu einem Plasma-Kristall anordnen. Diese reguläre, dreidimensionale Struktur hat viele Eigenschaften eines echten Kristallgitters. Sie ist jedoch makroskopisch, also klassisch, und die einzelnen Partikel sind viel besser beobachtbar als etwa Atome in kondensierter Materie. Das macht sie zu idealen Modellsystemen für die Erforschung von Kristallen, Phasenübergängen oder von Flüssigkeiten. Komplexe Plasmen zeigen darüber hinaus ganz neue Eigenschaften.

  1. Discrete structure of van der Waals domains in globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Berezovsky, Igor N

    2003-03-01

    Most globular proteins are divisible by domains, distinct substructures of the globule. The notion of hierarchy of the domains was introduced earlier via van der Waals energy profiles that allow one to subdivide the proteins into domains (subdomains). The question remains open as to what is the possible structural connection of the energy profiles. The recent discovery of the loop-n-lock elements in the globular proteins suggests such a structural connection. A direct comparison of the segmentation by van der Waals energy criteria with the maps of the locked loops of nearly standard size reveals a striking correlation: domains in general appear to consist of one to several such loops. In addition, it was demonstrated that a variety of subdivisions of the same protein into domains is just a regrouping of the loop-n-lock elements.

  2. Accurate van der Waals coefficients from density functional theory

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jianmin; Perdew, John P.; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn

    2012-01-01

    The van der Waals interaction is a weak, long-range correlation, arising from quantum electronic charge fluctuations. This interaction affects many properties of materials. A simple and yet accurate estimate of this effect will facilitate computer simulation of complex molecular materials and drug design. Here we develop a fast approach for accurate evaluation of dynamic multipole polarizabilities and van der Waals (vdW) coefficients of all orders from the electron density and static multipole polarizabilities of each atom or other spherical object, without empirical fitting. Our dynamic polarizabilities (dipole, quadrupole, octupole, etc.) are exact in the zero- and high-frequency limits, and exact at all frequencies for a metallic sphere of uniform density. Our theory predicts dynamic multipole polarizabilities in excellent agreement with more expensive many-body methods, and yields therefrom vdW coefficients C6, C8, C10 for atom pairs with a mean absolute relative error of only 3%. PMID:22205765

  3. Van der Waals density functional: An appropriate exchange functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Valentino R.

    2010-04-01

    In this Rapid Communication, an exchange functional which is compatible with the nonlocal Rutgers-Chalmers correlation functional [van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF)] is presented. This functional, when employed with vdW-DF, demonstrates remarkable improvements on intermolecular separation distances while further improving the accuracy of vdW-DF interaction energies. The key to the success of this three-parameter functional is its reduction in short-range exchange repulsion through matching to the gradient expansion approximation in the slowly varying/high-density limit while recovering the large reduced gradient, s , limit set in the revised Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (revPBE) exchange functional. This augmented exchange functional could be a solution to long-standing issues of vdW-DF lending to further applicability of density-functional theory to the study of relatively large, dispersion bound (van der Waals) complexes.

  4. Towards a more accurate van der Waals density functional

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Ikutaro

    2014-03-01

    The van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) of Dion et al. [1] has attracted considerable attention, because the functional is able to describe intra- and intermolecular bondings with different natures, e.g., covalent and van der Waals bondings in a seamless fashion within the framework of density functional theory. However, the accuracy of the functional is yet to be improved for the applications to various systems. Here I propose an exchange functional for the second version of vdW-DF [2], which improves the accuracy of vdW-DF. The keys in the improved exchange are the matching to the gradient expansion approximation in the slowly varying limit and the large density gradient behavior set in Becke's exchange (B86b)[3]. Systematic study on gas phase molecules, solids, and molecular adsorption demonstrates the applicability of the proposed functional to a wide variety of materials.

  5. Poisson-Boltzmann Calculations: van der Waals or Molecular Surface?

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is widely used for modeling the electrostatics of biomolecules, but the calculation results are sensitive to the choice of the boundary between the low solute dielectric and the high solvent dielectric. The default choice for the dielectric boundary has been the molecular surface, but the use of the van der Waals surface has also been advocated. Here we review recent studies in which the two choices are tested against experimental results and explicit-solvent calculations. The assignment of the solvent high dielectric constant to interstitial voids in the solute is often used as a criticism against the van der Waals surface. However, this assignment may not be as unrealistic as previously thought, since hydrogen exchange and other NMR experiments have firmly established that all interior parts of proteins are transiently accessible to the solvent. PMID:23293674

  6. Poisson-Boltzmann Calculations: van der Waals or Molecular Surface?

    PubMed

    Pang, Xiaodong; Zhou, Huan-Xiang

    2013-01-01

    The Poisson-Boltzmann equation is widely used for modeling the electrostatics of biomolecules, but the calculation results are sensitive to the choice of the boundary between the low solute dielectric and the high solvent dielectric. The default choice for the dielectric boundary has been the molecular surface, but the use of the van der Waals surface has also been advocated. Here we review recent studies in which the two choices are tested against experimental results and explicit-solvent calculations. The assignment of the solvent high dielectric constant to interstitial voids in the solute is often used as a criticism against the van der Waals surface. However, this assignment may not be as unrealistic as previously thought, since hydrogen exchange and other NMR experiments have firmly established that all interior parts of proteins are transiently accessible to the solvent.

  7. Zu einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie des Lernens und Lehrens der biologischen Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallin, Anita

    Der Zweck dieser Studie (zwecks Überblick siehe dazu Abb. 9.1) war zu untersuchen, wie die Schüler der Sekundarstufe II ein Verständnis von der Theorie der biologischen Evolution entwickeln. Vom Ausgangspunkt "Vorurteile der Schüler“ ausgehend wurden Unterrichtssequenzen entwickelt und drei verschiedene Lernexperimente in einem zyklischen Prozess durchgeführt. Das Wissen der Schüler wurde vor, während und nach den Unterrichtssequenzen mit Hilfe von schriftlichen Tests, Interviews und Diskussionsrunden in kleinen Gruppen abgefragt. Etwa 80 % der Schüler hatten vor dem Unterricht alternative Vorstellungen von Evolution, und in dem Nachfolgetest erreichten circa 75 % ein wissenschaftliches Niveau. Die Argumentation der Schüler in den verschiedenen Tests wurde sorgfältig unter Rücksichtnahme auf Vorurteile, der konzeptionellen Struktur der Theorie der Evolution und den Zielen des Unterrichts analysiert. Daraus konnten Einsichten in solche Anforderungen an Lehren und Lernen gewonnen werden, die Herausforderungen an Schüler und Lehrer darstellen, wenn sie anfangen, evolutionäre Biologie zu lernen oder zu lehren. Ein wichtiges Ergebnis war, dass das Verständnis existierender Variation in einer Population der Schlüssel zum Verständnis von natürlicher Selektion ist. Die Ergebnisse sind in einer inhaltsorientierten Theorie zusammengefasst, welche aus drei verschiedenen Aspekten besteht: 1) den inhaltsspezifischen Aspekten, die einzigartig für jedes wissenschaftliche Feld sind; 2) den Aspekten, die die Natur der Wissenschaft betreffen; und 3) den allgemeinen Aspekten. Diese Theorie kann in neuen Experimenten getestet und weiter entwickelt werden.

  8. Astronomen bei der Arbeit - Live-Konferenz mit La Palma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Paul G.

    2012-02-01

    "Wie kann man sich die nächtliche Arbeit eines Astronomen am Teleskop vorstellen?" Diese Frage stellen sich viele wissenschaftlich interessierte Menschen, die noch kein professionelles Observatorium besuchen konnten. Das multimediale Experiment "Call a Scientist" verband Besucher einer österreichischen Amateursternwarte live mit dem Großobservatorium in La Palma und brachte damit einer interessierten Öffentlichkeit seltene Einblicke in die Arbeitsweise der modernen Astronomie nahe.

  9. Structure and dynamics of small van der Waals complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Loreau, J.

    2014-10-06

    We illustrate computational aspects of the calculation of the potential energy surfaces of small (up to five atoms) van der Waals complexes with high-level quantum chemistry techniques such as the CCSD(T) method with extended basis sets. We discuss the compromise between the required accuracy and the computational time. Further, we show how these potential energy surfaces can be fitted and used in dynamical calculations such as non-reactive inelastic scattering.

  10. Grippers Based on Opposing Van Der Waals Adhesive Pads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Kennedy, Brett A. (Inventor); Heverly, Matthew C (Inventor); Cutkosky, Mark R. (Inventor); Hawkes, Elliot Wright (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel gripping structures based on van der Waals adhesive forces are disclosed. Pads covered with fibers can be activated in pairs by opposite forces, thereby enabling control of the adhesive force in an ON or OFF state. Pads can be used in groups, each comprising a group of opposite pads. The adhesive structures enable anchoring forces that can resist adverse forces from different directions. The adhesive structures can be used to enable the operation of robots on surfaces of space vehicles.

  11. Dynamic changes of phase in a van der Waals fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagan, R.; Serrin, J.

    1984-03-01

    This paper gives sufficient conditions to guarantee the existence of a shock layer solution connecting two different equilibrium states in a van der Waals fluid. In particular, the equilibrium states can belong to two different phases of the fluid. The constitutive laws come from a modified Korteweg theory which is compatible with the Clausius Duhem inequality. The Clausius Duhem inequality in turn gives rise to a Liapunov function. The main mathematical tool is the LaSalle invariance principle.

  12. Nano Electronics on Atomically Controlled van der Waals Quantum Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-30

    ES) Columbia University 538 West 120th Street New York 10027 United States 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER N/A 9...dimensional (2D) van der Waals (vdW) materials for the realization of novel quantum electronic states . We employed molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) combined with...transitions between retro intraband and specular interband Andreev reflections opens a new route for future experiments that could employ the gate

  13. Laboratory tests of IEC DER object models for grid applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Blevins, John D.; Menicucci, David F.; Byrd, Thomas, Jr.; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Ginn, Jerry W.; Ortiz-Moyet, Juan

    2007-02-01

    This report describes a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Salt River Project Agricultural Improvement and Power District (SRP) and Sandia National Laboratories to jointly develop advanced methods of controlling distributed energy resources (DERs) that may be located within SRP distribution systems. The controls must provide a standardized interface to allow plug-and-play capability and should allow utilities to take advantage of advanced capabilities of DERs to provide a value beyond offsetting load power. To do this, Sandia and SRP field-tested the IEC 61850-7-420 DER object model (OM) in a grid environment, with the goal of validating whether the model is robust enough to be used in common utility applications. The diesel generator OM tested was successfully used to accomplish basic genset control and monitoring. However, as presently constituted it does not enable plug-and-play functionality. Suggestions are made of aspects of the standard that need further development and testing. These problems are far from insurmountable and do not imply anything fundamentally unsound or unworkable in the standard.

  14. Scaling Laws for van der Waals Interactions in Nanostructured Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobre, Vivekanand; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2014-03-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) forces originate from interactions between fluctuating multipoles in matter and play a significant role in the structure and stability of nanostructured materials. Many models used to describe vdW interactions in nanomaterials are based on a simple pairwise-additive approximation, neglecting the strong electrodynamic response effects caused by long-range fluctuations in matter. We develop and utilize an efficient microscopic method to demonstrate that vdW interactions in nanomaterials act at distances greater than typically assumed, and can be characterized by different scaling laws depending on the dimensionality and size of the system. Specifically, we study the behaviour of vdW interactions in single-layer and multilayer graphene, fullerenes of varying size, single-wall carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. As a function of nanostructure size, the van der Waals coefficients follow unusual trends for all of the considered systems, and deviate significantly from the conventionally employed pairwise-additive picture. We propose that the peculiar van der Waals interactions in nanostructured materials could be exploited to control their self-assembly.

  15. Morphometry of distal end radius in the Indian population: A radiological study

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Nagar, Manoj; Gaur, Suresh Chandra; Gupta, Anuj

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The morphometry of distal end radius (DER) comprises the four necessary parameters: radial inclination, palmer tilt, radial height, and ulnar variance. The unblemished intellect about the morphometry is urged for the management of fracture of DER. The goal of our study was to determine the values of morphometric parameters of the DER from the adult Indian. Materials and Methods: It was a single hospital- based observational cross-sectional, prospective study. Radial inclination, radial height, and ulnar variance were measured on posteroanterior view, and the measurement of palmer tilt was accomplished on the lateral view. All the statistical analysis was done by Microsoft XL 2007 (data add in function were installed for data analysis). T-test was used for comparing the means of the parameters. Results: Two hundred and forty two (n = 242) X-rays were included in this study to analyze. The mean value (n = 242) of radial inclination was 23.27°± (standard deviation [SD]) 7.42° (range: 11.3–42.1°), palmer tilt 10.07° ± (SD) 5.28° (range: 1–16.9°), radial height 11.31 mm ± (SD) 4.9 mm (range: 7.1–30.4 mm), and ulnar variance 0.66 mm ± (SD) 2.46 mm (range: −2.4 to +4.1). Conclusion: This study may provide an inauguratory plinth to prosecute the further analytical research in the Indian population. Moreover, the data may also be used as a reference data for the anatomical alignment while treating the injuries of the DER in the Indian population. PMID:27904215

  16. Constructing end-to-end models using ECOPATH data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, John H.; Ruzicka, James J.

    2011-09-01

    The wide availability of ECOPATH data sets provides a valuable resource for the comparative analysis of marine ecosystems. We show how to derive a bottom-up transform from the top-down ECOPATH; couple this to a simple microbial web with physical forcing; and use the end-to-end model (E2E) for scenario construction. This steady state format also provides a framework and initial conditions for different dynamic simulations. This model can be applied to shelf ecosystems with a wide range of physical forcing, coupled benthic/pelagic food webs, and nutrient recycling. We illustrate the general application and the specific problems by transforming an ECOPATH model for the Northern California Current (NCC). We adapt results on the upwelling regime to provide estimates of physical fluxes and use these to show the consequences of different upwelling rates combined with variable retention mechanism for plankton, for the productivity of fish and other top predators; and for the resilience of the ecosystem. Finally we show how the effects of inter-annual to decadal variations in upwelling on fishery yields can be studied using dynamic simulations with different prey-predator relations. The general conclusion is that the nature of the physical regimes for shelf ecosystems cannot be ignored in comparing end-to-end representations of these food webs.

  17. On routing algorithms with end-to-end delay guarantees

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, N.S.V.; Batsell, S.G.

    1998-11-01

    The authors consider the transmission of a message of size r from a source to a destination with guarantees on the end-to-end delay over a computer network with n nodes and m links. There are three sources of delays: (a) propagation delays along the links, (b) delays due to bandwidth availability on the links, and (c) queuing delays at the intermediate nodes. First, the authors consider that delays on various links and nodes are given as functions of the message size. If the delay in (b) is a non-increasing function of the bandwidth, they propose O(m{sup 2} + mn log n) time algorithm to compute a path with the minimum end-to-end delay for any given message size r. They then consider that the queuing delay in (c) is a random variable correlated with the message size according to an unknown distribution. At each node, the measurements of queuing delays and message sizes are available. They propose two algorithms to compute paths whose delays are close to optimal delays with a high probability, irrespective of the distribution of the delays, and based entirely on the measurements of sufficient size.

  18. Cyberinfrastructure for End-to-End Environmental Explorations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merwade, V.; Kumar, S.; Song, C.; Zhao, L.; Govindaraju, R.; Niyogi, D.

    2007-12-01

    The design and implementation of a cyberinfrastructure for End-to-End Environmental Exploration (C4E4) is presented. The C4E4 framework addresses the need for an integrated data/computation platform for studying broad environmental impacts by combining heterogeneous data resources with state-of-the-art modeling and visualization tools. With Purdue being a TeraGrid Resource Provider, C4E4 builds on top of the Purdue TeraGrid data management system and Grid resources, and integrates them through a service-oriented workflow system. It allows researchers to construct environmental workflows for data discovery, access, transformation, modeling, and visualization. Using the C4E4 framework, we have implemented an end-to-end SWAT simulation and analysis workflow that connects our TeraGrid data and computation resources. It enables researchers to conduct comprehensive studies on the impact of land management practices in the St. Joseph watershed using data from various sources in hydrologic, atmospheric, agricultural, and other related disciplines.

  19. The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bramstedt, Klaus; Noel, Stefan; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Reuter, Max; Burrows, John P.; Jurado Lozano, Pedro Jose; Meijer, Yasjka; Loescher, Armin; Acarreta, Juan R.; Sturm, Philipp; Tesmer, Volker; Sanchez Monero, Ana Maria; Atapuerca Rodreiguez de Dios, Francisco Javier; Toledano Sanchez, Daniel; Boesch, Hartmut

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the CarbonSat mission is to improve our knowledge on natural and anthropogenic sources and sinks of CO2 and CH4. CarbonSat was one of the two candidate missions selected for definition studies for becoming Earth Explorer 8 (EE8).The CarbonSat End-to-End Simulator (CSE2ES) simulates the full data flow of the mission with a set of modules embedded in ESA's generic simulation framework OpenSF. A Geometry Module (GM) defines the orbital geometry and related parameters. A Scene Generation Module (SGM) provides simulated radiances and irradiances for the selected scenes. The Level 1 Module (L1M) compromises the instrument simulator and the Level 1b processor, and provide as main output calibrated spectra. The L1M is implemented in two versions, reflecting the instrument concepts from the two competing industrial system studies. The Level 2 Retrieval Module (L2M) performs the retrieval from the input level 1b spectra to the atmospheric parameters (CO2 and CH4).In this paper, we show sensitivity studies with respect to atmospheric parameters, simulations along the orbit and a case study for the detection of a point source emitting carbon dioxide. In summary, the end-to-end simulation with CSE2ES proves the capability of the CarbonSat concept to reach its requirements.

  20. Toward End-to-End Face Recognition Through Alignment Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Yuanyi; Chen, Jiansheng; Huang, Bo

    2017-08-01

    Plenty of effective methods have been proposed for face recognition during the past decade. Although these methods differ essentially in many aspects, a common practice of them is to specifically align the facial area based on the prior knowledge of human face structure before feature extraction. In most systems, the face alignment module is implemented independently. This has actually caused difficulties in the designing and training of end-to-end face recognition models. In this paper we study the possibility of alignment learning in end-to-end face recognition, in which neither prior knowledge on facial landmarks nor artificially defined geometric transformations are required. Specifically, spatial transformer layers are inserted in front of the feature extraction layers in a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) for face recognition. Only human identity clues are used for driving the neural network to automatically learn the most suitable geometric transformation and the most appropriate facial area for the recognition task. To ensure reproducibility, our model is trained purely on the publicly available CASIA-WebFace dataset, and is tested on the Labeled Face in the Wild (LFW) dataset. We have achieved a verification accuracy of 99.08\\% which is comparable to state-of-the-art single model based methods.

  1. Application of diffusion Monte Carlo to materials dominated by van der Waals interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols; Kim, Jeongnim; Von Lilienfeld, Anatole

    2014-01-01

    Van der Waals forces are notoriously difficult to account for from first principles. We perform extensive calculation to assess the usefulness and validity of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo when applied to van der Waals forces. We present results for noble gas solids and clusters - archetypical van der Waals dominated assemblies, as well as a relevant pi-pi stacking supramolecular complex: DNA + intercalating anti-cancer drug Ellipticine.

  2. Application of Diffusion Monte Carlo to Materials Dominated by van der Waals Interactions

    DOE PAGES

    Benali, Anouar; Shulenburger, Luke; Romero, Nichols A.; ...

    2014-06-12

    Van der Waals forces are notoriously difficult to account for from first principles. We perform extensive calculation to assess the usefulness and validity of diffusion quantum Monte Carlo when applied to van der Waals forces. We present results for noble gas solids and clusters - archetypical van der Waals dominated assemblies, as well as a relevant pi-pi stacking supramolecular complex: DNA + intercalating anti-cancer drug Ellipticine.

  3. Unsere Sonne - ein rätselhafter Stern? Erkenntnisse und Spekulationen der Astrophysik.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gribbin, J.

    This book is a German translation, by A. Ehlers, of the English original "Blinded by the light. The secret life of the Sun", published in 1991. Contents: 1. Vorgeschichte. 2. Quelle gewaltiger Energien. 3. Im Innern der Sonne. 4. Zuwenig Geister. 5. Ein verrückter Gedanke. 6. Die atmende Sonne. 7. Die zitternde Sonne. 8. Das Große und das Kleine. 9. Der Beitrag der Supernova.

  4. Auf der Suche nach dem Codierungs-Gral für genetische Algorithmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weicker, Karsten

    Die umstrittene Frage nach dem "wichtigsten" Operator im genetischen Algorithmus - Mutation oder Crossover - hängt eng zusammen mit der Frage nach der richtigen binären Codierung. Gray- und standardbinärer Code bringen unterschiedliche Vor- und Nachteile in einen genetischen Algorithmus ein. Diese Arbeit beschäftigt sich mit der Suche nach einer Codierung, welche die Vorteile beider Codes vereinbart, und berichtet von einem Teilerfolg für mit 4 Bits encodierten Zahlen.

  5. Jacobus Schroeder van der Kolk (1797-1862): his resistance against materialism.

    PubMed

    Eling, P

    1998-07-01

    Schroeder van der Kolk is regarded as the founder of Dutch psychiatry and neurology. This paper describes his vitalistic views on the relation between body and soul, as formulated by him in a series of lectures. These lectures were intended to counteract the materialistic tendencies of some of Schroeder van der Kolk's French and German contemporaries. It is argued that Schroeder van der Kolk can be regarded as the transition in Holland from the "Naturphilosophie" approach to the modern experimental approach in physiology.

  6. Photonic ATM Front End Processors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    b. PostDoc: Dr. Zhijian Zhang (1/2 time) and Dr. Liji Wu . (1/2 time) c. Graduate Student: Mr. S. H. Yang, (to be graduated at Dec. 1998) Circuit...Y. Chai, F. S. Choa, H. J. Chao, Z. Zhang, L. Wu , S. Yang, "A photonic ATM front-end processor", Proc. ECOC󈨦, paper TuB27, 1998. 6. H.J.Chao, Z...Zhang, L. Wu , S.H. Yang, F.S. Choa and L. Wang," A photonic ATM front-end processor", IEEE Proc. LEOS󈨦 Annual Meeting, paper WR3, 1998. 7. H. J. Chao

  7. [Parasitic dead-end: update].

    PubMed

    Magnaval, J F

    2006-08-01

    Parasitic dead-ends occur when a parasite is unable to establish a permanent interaction in an unnatural host. Although the likelihood of successful reproduction by the pathogenic agent is nul, parasitic dead-end heralds capture of new parasites and therefore expansion of the host range. Angiostrongyliasis due to A. cantonensis or A. costaricensis, anisakiasis, Ancylostoma caninum infection, gnathostomiasis and sparganosis are undoubtedly emerging zoonoses of particular medical interest. Prevention of these diseases relies on abstinence from eating raw meat from invertebrates or cold-blooded (poikilotherm) vertebrates (e.g. used in exotic dishes). These guidelines must be included in recommendations to travelers.

  8. Bewertung von Fahrerassistenzsystemen mittels der Vehicle in the Loop-Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, Thomas

    Mit der Vehicle in the Loop-Simulation hat Audi eine Test- und Simulationsumgebung für Fahrerassistenzsysteme entwickelt, welche die Vorzüge eines realen Versuchsfahrzeugs mit der Sicherheit und Reproduzierbarkeit von Fahrsimulatoren kombiniert. Virtueller Fremdverkehr, Straßenbegrenzungen oder sonstige simulierte Gegenstände werden durch ein "Optical see through Head Mounted Display“ während der Fahrt realitätsnah und kontaktanalog für den Fahrer eingeblendet. Besonders bei der Erprobung aktiver Fahrerassistenzsysteme eröffnen sich durch das Konzept des virtuellen Fremdverkehrs im realen Versuchsfahrzeug neue Möglichkeiten.

  9. Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model Plus (DER-CAM+), Version 1.0.0

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, Michael; Cardorso, Goncalo; Mashayekh, Salman; DeForest, Nicholas

    2016-03-24

    DER-CAM+ v1.0.0 is internally referred to as DER-CAM v5.0.0. Due to fundamental changes from previous versions, a new name (DER-CAM+) will be used for DER-CAM version 5.0.0 and above. DER-CAM+ is a Decision Support Tool for Decentralized Energy Systems that has been tailored for microgrid applications, and now explicitly considers electrical and thermal networks within a microgrid, ancillary services, and operating reserve. DER-CAM was initially created as an exclusively economic energy model, able to find the cost minimizing combination and operation profile of a set of DER technologies that meet energy loads of a building or microgrid for a typical test year. The previous versions of DER-CAM were formulated without modeling the electrical/thermal networks within the microgrid, and hence, used aggregate single-node approaches. Furthermore, they were not able to consider operating reserve constraints, and microgrid revenue streams from participating in ancillary services markets. This new version DER-CAM+ considers these issues by including electrical power flow and thermal flow equations and constraints in the microgrid, revenues from various ancillary services markets, and operating reserve constraints.

  10. Why Helium Ends in "-Ium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.; Holme, Thomas; Cooper, Melanie; White, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Edward Frankland and Norman Lockyer researched upon a gaseous spectra in relation to the physical constitution of the sun and named it as "helium" (from Greek "helios" meaning "sun"). Since Lockyer apparently never formally proposed the name in print, it is not known why he chose to use a metallic end "ium".

  11. Retroflex Endings in Ancient Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hashimoto, Mantaro J.

    1973-01-01

    Reconstruction of Ancient Chinese retroflex endings (syllable-final consonants) based on internal phonological evidence in Modern Chinese. Paper read at the December 1972 meeting of the Kukeo Hakhoe (The National Language Association of Korea); research supported by the Social Science Research Council, Committee for Korean Studies. (RS)

  12. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  13. EndNote at Lehigh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Sharon; Simboli, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Describes the experiences of librarians at Lehigh University in implementing campus-wide use of EndNote, a citation management software package that allows users to create a searchable library of downloaded or manually entered references for any type of publication to be able to insert citations and format footnotes or endnotes within a…

  14. Why Helium Ends in "-Ium"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, William B.; Holme, Thomas; Cooper, Melanie; White, Carol

    2004-01-01

    Edward Frankland and Norman Lockyer researched upon a gaseous spectra in relation to the physical constitution of the sun and named it as "helium" (from Greek "helios" meaning "sun"). Since Lockyer apparently never formally proposed the name in print, it is not known why he chose to use a metallic end "ium".

  15. Trouble at the stem end

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potato tubers have an axial, stem to bud polarity that is apparent at all stages of growth and development. This polarity is most evident in elongate potatoes, but is also found in “round” varieties. These differences between the stem end and other regions of the tuber establish the context for rese...

  16. The End of Economic History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

  17. End of Life: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toner, Mary Ann; Shadden, Barbara B.

    2012-01-01

    Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) provide services to patients confronting the end of life (EOL) in a variety of settings. Instead of targeting improvement of health or sustaining life, EOL services focus primarily on quality of life. Although SLPs may not consider themselves core members of the health care team providing EOL services, the…

  18. The End of Economic History?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romer, Christina D.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the field of economic history is no longer a separate subfield of economics but an integral part of the entire discipline. Explains the concepts of monetary policy, labor force development, and economic growth in U.S. economic history. Concludes that the end of economic history is the beginning of better and richer economics. (CFR)

  19. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  20. Open-Ended Electric Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Mauri

    1975-01-01

    Presents complete instructions for assembling an electric motor which does not require large amounts of power to operate and which is inexpensive as well as reliable. Several open-ended experiments with the motor are included as well as information for obtaining a kit of parts and instructions. (BR)

  1. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  2. Dexterous end effector flight demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Edward L.; Monford, Leo G.

    1994-01-01

    The Dexterous End Effector Flight Experiment is a flight demonstration of newly developed equipment and methods which make for more dexterous manipulation of robotic arms. The following concepts are to be demonstrated: The Force Torque Sensor is a six axis load cell located at the end of the RMS which displays load data to the operator on the orbiter CCTV monitor. TRAC is a target system which provides six axis positional information to the operator. It has the characteristic of having high sensitivity to attitude misalignment while being flat. AUTO-TRAC is a variation of TRAC in which a computer analyzes a target, displays translational and attitude misalignment information, and provides cues to the operator for corrective inputs. The Magnetic End Effector is a fault tolerant end effector which grapples payloads using magnetic attraction. The Carrier Latch Assembly is a fault tolerant payload carrier, which uses mechanical latches and/or magnetic attraction to hold small payloads during launch/landing and to release payloads as desired. The flight experiment goals and objectives are explained. The experiment equipment is described, and the tasks to be performed during the demonstration are discussed.

  3. EndNote at Lehigh.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Sharon; Simboli, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Describes the experiences of librarians at Lehigh University in implementing campus-wide use of EndNote, a citation management software package that allows users to create a searchable library of downloaded or manually entered references for any type of publication to be able to insert citations and format footnotes or endnotes within a…

  4. Improving a Gripper End Effector

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, O Dennis; Smith, Christopher M.; Gervais, Kevin L.

    2001-01-31

    This paper discusses the improvement made to an existing four-bar linkage gripping end effector to adapt it for use in a current project. The actuating linkage was modified to yield higher jaw force overall and particularly in the critical range of jaw displacement

  5. Euclid end-to-end straylight performance assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaspar Venancio, Luis M.; Pachot, Charlotte; Carminati, Lionel; Lorenzo Alvarez, Jose; Amiaux, Jérôme; Prieto, Eric; Bonino, Luciana; Salvignol, Jean-Christophe; Short, Alex; Boenke, Tobias; Strada, Paulo; Laureijs, Rene

    2016-07-01

    In the Euclid mission the straylight has been identified at an early stage as the main driver for the final imaging quality of the telescope. The assessment by simulation of the final straylight in the focal plane of both instruments in Euclid's payload have required a complex workflow involving all stakeholders in the mission, from industry to the scientific community. The straylight is defined as a Normalized Detector Irradiance (NDI) which is a convenient definition tool to separate the contributions of the telescope and of the instruments. The end-to-end straylight of the payload is then simply the sum of the NDIs of the telescope and of each instrument. The NDIs for both instruments are presented in this paper for photometry and spectrometry.

  6. An end to end secure CBIR over encrypted medical database.

    PubMed

    Bellafqira, Reda; Coatrieux, Gouenou; Bouslimi, Dalel; Quellec, Gwenole

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we propose a new secure content based image retrieval (SCBIR) system adapted to the cloud framework. This solution allows a physician to retrieve images of similar content within an outsourced and encrypted image database, without decrypting them. Contrarily to actual CBIR approaches in the encrypted domain, the originality of the proposed scheme stands on the fact that the features extracted from the encrypted images are themselves encrypted. This is achieved by means of homomorphic encryption and two non-colluding servers, we however both consider as honest but curious. In that way an end to end secure CBIR process is ensured. Experimental results carried out on a diabetic retinopathy database encrypted with the Paillier cryptosystem indicate that our SCBIR achieves retrieval performance as good as if images were processed in their non-encrypted form.

  7. Analyse der Plasmakoma des Kometen P/Halley mittels Bildverarbeitung der Bochumer Photoplatten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, M. R.

    1993-12-01

    Photographic and photoeletric observations of comet P/Halley's ion gas coma from CO+ at 4250 A were part of the Bochum Halley Monitoring Program, conducted from 1986 February 17, to April 17 at the European Southern Observatory on La Silla (Chile). In this spectral range it is possible to watch the continuous formation, motion and expansion of plasma structures. To observe the morphology of these structures 32 CO+ photos (glass plates) from P/Halley's comet have been analysed. They have a field of view of 28.6 X 28.6 degrees and were obtained from 1986 March 29, to April 17 with exposure times between 20 and 120 minutes. All photos were digitized with a PDS 2020 GM (Photometric Data System) microdensitometer at the Astronomisches Institut der Westfalischen Wilhelms-Universitaet in Muenster (one pixel = 25 X 25 microns approximately 46.88 X 46.88 arcsec). After digitization the data were reduced to relative intensities, and the part with proper calibrations were also converted to absolute intensities, expressed in terms of column densities using the image data systems MIDAS (Munich Image Data Analysis System; ESO - Image Processing Group, 1988) and IHAP (Image Handling And Processing; Middleburg, 1983). With the help of the Stellingwerf-Theta-Minimum-Method (Stellingwerf, 1978) a period of (2.22 +/- 0.09) days result from analysis of structures in the plasma-coma by subtracting subsequent images. The idea behind subtracting subsequent images is that rotation effects are only 10% phenomena on gas distribution. Difference images are than used to supress the static component of the gas cloud. The CO+ column density data (in molecules cm^-2) were compared with the data of CN column density from Schulz (1990) in all common days. The results show that the relations between CO+ and CN in average column density values (N_CO^+/N_CN) are 11.6 for a circular slit with average diameter (Phi) of 6.1 arcminute which corresponds to a distance from the nucleus (rho) equal to 6.3 X

  8. Response to MRO's end-to-end data accountability challenges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Young H.

    2005-01-01

    (MRO) on August 12, 2005. It carries six science instruments and three engineering payloads. Because MRO will produce an unprecedented number of science products, it will transmit a much higher data volume via high data rate than any other deep space mission to date. Keeping track of MRO products as well as relay products would be a daunting, expensive task without a well-planned data-product tracking strategy. To respond to this challenge, the MRO project developed the End-to- End Data Accountability System by utilizing existing information available from both ground and flight elements. Therefore, a capability to perform first-order problem diagnosis is essential in order for MRO to answer the questions, where is my data? and when will my data be available? This paper details the approaches taken, design and implementation of the tools, procedures and teams that track data products from the time they are predicted until they arrive in the hands of the end users.

  9. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a

  10. Van der Waals interaction between two crossed carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Zhbanov, Alexander I; Pogorelov, Evgeny G; Chang, Yia-Chung

    2010-10-26

    The analytical expressions for the van der Waals potential energy and force between two crossed carbon nanotubes are presented. The Lennard-Jones potential between pairs of carbon atoms and the smeared-out approximation suggested by L. A. Girifalco (J. Phys. Chem. 1992, 96, 858) were used. The exact formula is expressed in terms of rational and elliptical functions. The potential and force for carbon nanotubes were calculated. The uniform potential curves for single- and multiwall nanotubes were plotted. The equilibrium distance, maximal attractive force, and potential energy have been evaluated.

  11. Van der Waals phase transition in the framework of holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiao-Xiong; Li, Li-Fang

    2017-01-01

    Phase structure of the quintessence Reissner-Nordström-AdS black hole is probed by the nonlocal observables such as holographic entanglement entropy and two point correlation function. Our result shows that, as the case of the thermal entropy, both the observables exhibit the Van der Waals-like phase transition. To reinforce this conclusion, we further check the equal area law for the first order phase transition and critical exponent of the heat capacity for the second order phase transition. We also discuss the effect of the state parameter on the phase structure of the nonlocal observables.

  12. Nutzergerechte Entwicklung der Mensch-Maschine-Interaktion von Fahrerassistenzsystemen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Winfried

    Durch langjährige Forschungen bei Kfz-Herstellern, Zulieferfirmen und an Hochschulen sind umfangreiche, aber dennoch lückenhafte Erkenntnisse über das Zusammenspiel zwischen FAS und Nutzer gewonnen worden. In deutschen und internationalen Projekten wie z. B. PROMETHEUS, DRIVE, MOTIV, INVENT, RESPONSE und AKTIV haben sich Kfz-Hersteller, Zulieferfirmen, Hochschulen und weitere staatliche und private Forschungseinrichtungen zusammengefunden, um die vorwettbewerbliche Forschung für derartige Systeme voranzutreiben. Im folgenden Kapitel sollen einige der gewonnenen Kenntnisse dargelegt werden, um die Entwicklung des HMI von FAS zu erleichtern.

  13. Mit Mathematik zu Mehr Intelligenz in der Logistik

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möhring, Rolf H.; Schenk, Michael

    Die Lösung logistischer Probleme ist ein wichtiger Aspekt menschlichen Handelns seit Menschen gemeinsam zielgerichtet tätig wurden. Die Grundlagen dessen, was wir heute Logistik nennen, entstammen dem militärischen Bereich. So basierte z. B. das römische Imperium in starkem Maße auf militärisch-logistischen Glanzleistungen. Ob damals bereits mathematische Überlegungen eine Rolle spielten, wissen wir heute nicht. Jedoch versuchte z. B. Napoleon, der mit den bedeutendsten Mathematikern seiner Zeit befreundet war, den Transport seiner Truppen und die Verbreitung von Informationen zu optimieren und strategisch einzusetzen.1,2

  14. Spherical and hyperspherical harmonics representation of van der Waals aggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lombardi, Andrea; Palazzetti, Federico; Aquilanti, Vincenzo; Grossi, Gaia; Albernaz, Alessandra F.; Barreto, Patricia R. P.; Cruz, Ana Claudia P. S.

    2016-12-01

    The representation of the potential energy surfaces of atom-molecule or molecular dimers interactions should account faithfully for the symmetry properties of the systems, preserving at the same time a compact analytical form. To this aim, the choice of a proper set of coordinates is a necessary precondition. Here we illustrate a description in terms of hyperspherical coordinates and the expansion of the intermolecular interaction energy in terms of hypersherical harmonics, as a general method for building potential energy surfaces suitable for molecular dynamics simulations of van der Waals aggregates. Examples for the prototypical case diatomic-molecule-diatomic-molecule interactions are shown.

  15. Slidable atomic layers in van der Waals heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yu; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Maniwa, Yutaka; Miyata, Yasumitsu

    2017-04-01

    We report the preparation and manipulation of slidable atomic layers in clean, incommensurate van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures. Monolayer and multilayer WS2 grains are grown on graphite and hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) via chemical vapor deposition, and these grains can slide smoothly on graphite and hBN surfaces by manipulation with a tip. Furthermore, this sliding process allows the suspension, tearing, stacking, and connection of the atomic layers. These results demonstrate a novel approach for developing a wide variety of atomic-layer heterostructures with tunable interlayer coupling and an ideal system for studying the superlubricity of incommensurate, highly clean vdW contacts.

  16. 7 CFR 51.1240 - Paper ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means peanuts which have very soft and/or very thin ends. ...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1240 - Paper ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., CERTIFICATION, AND STANDARDS) United States Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means peanuts which have very soft and/or very thin ends. ...

  18. Arnold's cat map dynamics in a system of coupled nonautonomous van der Pol oscillators.

    PubMed

    Isaeva, Olga B; Jalnine, Alexey Yu; Kuznetsov, Sergey P

    2006-10-01

    An example of a flow system is presented with an attractor concentrated mostly at a surface of a two-dimensional torus, the dynamics on which is governed by the Arnold cat map. The system is composed of four coupled nonautonomous van der Pol oscillators. Three of them have equal characteristic frequencies, and in the other one the frequency is twice as large. The parameters controlling excitation of the two pairs of oscillators are forced to undergo a slow counterphase periodic modulation in time. At the end of the active stage for one pair of the oscillators, the excitation is passed to another pair, than back, and so on. In terms of a stroboscopic Poincaré section, the respective eight-dimensional (8D) mapping, due to strong phase volume compression, reduces approximately to a 2D map for the phases of one pair of the oscillators that corresponds approximately to the Arnold cat map. The largest two Lyapunov exponents (one positive and one negative) are close to those predicted with the cat map model. Estimates for the fractal dimension of the attractor of the Poincaré map are close to 2.

  19. Optical Nanoimaging of Hyperbolic Surface Polaritons at the Edges of van der Waals Materials.

    PubMed

    Li, P; Dolado, I; Alfaro-Mozaz, F J; Nikitin, A Yu; Casanova, F; Hueso, L E; Vélez, S; Hillenbrand, R

    2017-01-11

    Hyperbolic polaritons in van der Waals (vdW) materials recently attract a lot of attention, owing to their strong electromagnetic field confinement, ultraslow group velocities, and long lifetimes. Typically, volume-confined hyperbolic polaritons (HPs) are studied. Here we show the first near-field optical images of hyperbolic surface polaritons (HSPs), which are confined and guided at the edges of thin flakes of a vdW material. To that end, we applied scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM) for launching and real-space nanoimaging of hyperbolic surface phonon polariton modes on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) flake. Our imaging data reveal that the fundamental HSP mode exhibits a stronger field confinement (shorter wavelength), smaller group velocities, and nearly identical lifetimes, as compared to the fundamental HP mode of the same h-BN flake. Our experimental data, corroborated by theory, establish a solid basis for future studies and applications of HPs and HSPs in vdW materials.

  20. Shaping van der Waals nanoribbons via torsional constraints: Scrolls, folds and supercoils

    PubMed Central

    Shahabi, Alireza; Wang, Hailong; Upmanyu, Moneesh

    2014-01-01

    Interplay between structure and function in atomically thin crystalline nanoribbons is sensitive to their conformations yet the ability to prescribe them is a formidable challenge. Here, we report a novel paradigm for controlled nucleation and growth of scrolled and folded shapes in finite-length nanoribbons. All-atom computations on graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) and experiments on macroscale magnetic thin films reveal that decreasing the end distance of torsionally constrained ribbons below their contour length leads to formation of these shapes. The energy partitioning between twisted and bent shapes is modified in favor of these densely packed soft conformations due to the non-local van der Waals interactions in these 2D crystals; they subvert the formation of supercoils that are seen in their natural counterparts such as DNA and filamentous proteins. The conformational phase diagram is in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. The facile route can be readily extended for tailoring the soft conformations of crystalline nanoscale ribbons, and more general self-interacting filaments. PMID:25417759

  1. ["... mein Recht muss mir werden!" Hermann Bahr's tragicomedy Der Querulant (1914)].

    PubMed

    Gaderer, Rupert

    2014-12-01

    At the end of the eighteenth century, people who became notorious for their excessive engagement in legal proceedings started being labeled as "querulents" or "paranoid litigants". The term "querulents" first appeared in the General Order of the Court for the Prussian States (Allgemeine Gerichtsardnung für die Preussischen Staaten) from July 6, 1793. From there on, the spectrum of juridical measures undertaken against the so-labeled litigators included classifying these persons as ineligible for legal action and psychiatric hospitalization. The paper discusses to what extent Hermann Bahr rearranges psychiatric and legal knowledge about this special type of the complainer in his tragi- comedy Der Querulant, premiered in 1914. This concerns, first, the theatricality of the body and speech, secondly, the use of cultural techniques of writing and, thirdly, conflict- ing notions of justice. Therefore, the paper analyzes the aesthetic function of querulous behavior in the dramatic structure of the play from the point of view of both media theory and literary theory.

  2. Versatile Large-Area Custom-Feature van der Waals Epitaxy of Topological Insulators.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Tanuj; Roy, Anupam; Movva, Hema C P; Walker, Emily S; Bank, Seth R; Neikirk, Dean P; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2017-07-25

    As the focus of applied research in topological insulators (TI) evolves, the need to synthesize large-area TI films for practical device applications takes center stage. However, constructing scalable and adaptable processes for high-quality TI compounds remains a challenge. To this end, a versatile van der Waals epitaxy (vdWE) process for custom-feature bismuth telluro-sulfide TI growth and fabrication is presented, achieved through selective-area fluorination and modification of surface free-energy on mica. The TI features grow epitaxially in large single-crystal trigonal domains, exhibiting armchair or zigzag crystalline edges highly oriented with the underlying mica lattice and only two preferred domain orientations mirrored at 180°. As-grown feature thickness dependence on lateral dimensions and denuded zones at boundaries are observed, as explained by a semiempirical two-species surface migration model with robust estimates of growth parameters and elucidating the role of selective-area surface modification. Topological surface states contribute up to 60% of device conductance at room temperature, indicating excellent electronic quality. High-yield microfabrication and the adaptable vdWE growth mechanism with readily alterable precursor and substrate combinations lend the process versatility to realize crystalline TI synthesis in arbitrary shapes and arrays suitable for facile integration with processes ranging from rapid prototyping to scalable manufacturing.

  3. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Principle investigator for the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, points to the location of the INMS during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  4. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, center, answers questions from members of the media during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  5. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  6. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, right, looks on as Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  7. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  8. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize is seen during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  9. An end to a rumour.

    PubMed

    Tuğ, Ayşim; Alakoç, Yeşim Doğan; Hanci, I Hamit

    2005-10-29

    Mardin, is a city in the southeastern part of Turkey where people from different cultures and religions have been living together peacefully for centuries. The province hosted many valuable historical constructions representing different civilizations. Kasimiye Medresse, one of the most important educational centers of its times, has a sacred value for people in Mardin. The reason is that the stain on the wall of Kasimiye Medresse is considered to be Sultan Kasim's blood. Our study aims to analyze if the stain in question is blood. Serological tests are performed by using "Kastle-Meyer" and "Luminol" reactives on the scrapped samples taken from stained and unstained parts of the wall. At the end of the analysis, the stain is turned out to be a dye made of herbal roots ending the rumour of centuries.

  10. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Preston Dyches, media relations specialist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  11. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green answers questions a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  12. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, is seen during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  13. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Principle investigator for the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waites, peaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  14. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  15. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker answers questions from members of the media during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  16. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    A model of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is seen during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  17. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    A model of the Cassini-Huygens spacecraft is seen in the von Kármán Auditorium during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  18. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  19. End moldings for cable dielectrics

    DOEpatents

    Roose, Lars D.

    2000-01-01

    End moldings for high-voltage cables are described wherein the dielectric insulator of the cable is heated and molded to conform to a desired shape. As a consequence, high quality substantially bubble-free cable connectors suitable for mating to premanufactured fittings are made. Disclosed is a method for making the cable connectors either in the field or in a factory, molds suitable for use with the method, and the molded cable connectors, themselves.

  20. Nichtlineare Dynamik kognitiv-motorischer Prozesse : tempoinduzierte Übergänge bei der Produktion von Polyrhythmen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engbert, Ralf

    1998-02-01

    Die Produktion von Polyrhythmen ist ein wichtiger experimenteller Zugang für die Untersuchung der menschlichen Motorik. Durch Variation des Tempos (externer Kontrollparameter) bei rhythmischen Bewegungsabläufen können qualitative Übergänge in der Koordinationsdynamik induziert werden. Diese Übergänge lassen sich mit der Methode der symbolischen Dynamik in experimentellen Zeitreihen nachweisen und sind ein wichtiger Hinweis darauf, dass die untersuchten Bewegungsabläufe nichtlinearen Kontrollprozessen unterliegen. Die theoretische Beschreibung bimanueller Rhythmusproduktion mit gekoppelten Differenzengleichungen führt auf ein Modell mit nichtlinearer Fehlerkontrolle. Es ist eine wichtige Eigenschaft der Kontrollprozesse, dass sie mit zeitverzögerter Rückkopplung arbeiten. Neben deterministischen Steuerungsmechanismen ist die Motorik des Menschen ausserdem von Fluktuationen auf zwei Ebenen gekennzeichnet, der kognitiven Kontrollebene und der Ebene der motorischen Systeme. Daher ist die Koordination von Bewegungen das Ergebnis von Wechselwirkungen zwischen nichtlinearen, zeitverzögerten Kontrollprozessen und stochastischen Fluktuationen.

  1. Unterstützung der IT-Service-Management-Prozesse an der Technischen Universität München durch eine Configuration-Management-Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittl, Silvia

    Hochschulprozesse in Lehre und Verwaltung erfordern durch die steigende Integration und IT-Unterstützung ein sogenanntes Business Alignment der IT und damit auch ein professionelleres IT-Service-Management (ITSM). Die IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) mit ihrer Beschreibung von in der Praxis bewährten Prozessen hat sich zum de-facto Standard im ITSM etabliert. Ein solcher Prozess ist das Konfigurationsmanagement. Es bildet die IT-Infrastruktur als Konfigurationselemente und deren Beziehungen in einem Werkzeug, genannt Configuration Management Database (CMDB), ab und unterstützt so das ITSM. Dieser Bericht beschreibt die Erfahrungen mit der prototypischen Einführung einer CMDB an der Technischen Universität München.

  2. Schönheit und andere Provokationen - Eine neue evolutionsbiologische Theorie der Kunst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junker, Thomas

    Die Evolution hat viele spektakuläre Phänomene hervorgebracht - von der Eleganz des Vogelflugs über die gigantischen Körper der Dinosaurier und die farbenprächtige Vielfalt der Korallenriffe bis hin zu ihrem jüngsten Geniestreich - der menschlichen Kunst. Die schönen Künste - Malerei, Bildhauerei und Architektur, Theater, Tanz, Oper und Filmkunst, Musik und Literatur - Produkte der Evolution? Diese Vorstellung mutet vielen Menschen fremd an, aber wie könnte es anders sein? Denn wenn Charles Darwin recht hat, dann sind nicht nur die körperlichen Merkmale der Menschen als Antworten auf die Erfordernisse des Lebens entstanden, sondern auch ihre geistigen Fähigkeiten und Verhaltensweisen. Im Jahr 1859 hatte er auf den letzten Seiten seines berühmten Buches über die Entstehung der Arten eine kühne Prophezeiung gemacht: Durch die Evolutionstheorie werde es "zu einer bemerkenswerten Revolution in der Naturwissenschaft kommen […]. Die Psychologie wird auf die neue Grundlage gestellt, dass jede geistige Kraft und Fähigkeit notwendigerweise durch graduelle Übergänge erworben wird“ (Darwin 1859, S. 484, 488; Junker 2008).

  3. Flexible DER Utility Interface System: Final Report, September 2004--May 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Lynch, J.; John, V.; Danial, S. M.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.; Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.

    2006-08-01

    In an effort to accelerate deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) such as wind, solar, and conventional backup generators to our nation's electrical grid, Northern Power Systems (NPS), the California Energy Commission (CEC), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) collaborated to create a prototype universal interconnect device called the DER Switch.

  4. Expression of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Harmsen, M M; Chua, K Y; Thomas, W R; Aalberse, R C; Van Ree, R

    1998-01-01

    The major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 was expressed as a recombinant mature protein in the baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The yeast produces the protein fused to the invertase signal peptide, leading to the secretion of Der p 2 as a soluble protein into the culture medium. The signal peptide is hereby cleaved off, resulting in a mature allergen. In this system Der p 2 was produced in 7.6 (+/-2.9) mg/L growth culture. Purification of the recombinant allergen was achieved by a single gel filtration step, resulting in a purity > or = 95%. The yeast-derived Der p 2 was almost indistinguishable from natural Der p 2 with respect to IgE-reactivity and binding to the majority of Der p 2 specific MoAbs -- as was shown in RAST analysis (n = 168) and a sandwich ELISA and RIA analysis, respectively. Recombinant and natural Der p 2 also showed similar biological activity in histamine release assays (n = 4). An expression system for Der p 2 was developed that enables the production of a soluble allergen in the culture supernatant with immunological characteristics similar to the natural allergen. In addition, yeast offers the advantage of the absence of endotoxin in comparison to E. coli. This might facilitate acceptance of recombinant allergens for in vivo applications as immunotherapy or skin-prick testing.

  5. Noch einmal: Zum phonologischen Aspekt in der Lautschulung (Once Again: The Phonological Aspect of Teaching Pronunciation)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Germer, Erich

    1973-01-01

    Argues against the dominance of applied phonology in the teaching of English pronunciation. A follow-up to the author's Einige Probleme der Aussprache im Englischunterricht der Hauptschule'' (Some Problems of Pronunciation in English Instruction in the Elementary School), Englisch, Mar 1972. (RS)

  6. Bifurkationsanalyse eines LC Tank VCOs unter Berücksichtigung der variablen Kapazität

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, J.-K.; Zorn, C.; Mathis, W.

    2009-05-01

    In dieser Arbeit präsentieren wir einen neuartigen Ansatz für den systematischen Entwurf von integrierten LC Tank VCO-Schaltungen basierend auf dem Andronov Hopf Theorem und der Störungstheorie. Der Ansatz ermöglicht es, eine Abschätzung des resultierenden Abstimmbereichs, eine Stabilitätsanalyse und eine Berechnung der Amplitude des VCOs im Vorfeld des eigentlichen Entwurfs durchzuführen. Des Weiteren erlaubt die vorgestellte Methode eine Optimierung des VCOs hinsichtlich der in den Spezifikationen geforderte Amplitude und eine Minimierung der höheren Harmonischen. Mit Hilfe eines ladungsbasierten MOS-Modells ist es möglich die spannungsabhängige Kapazität der Varaktortransistoren durch einen analytischen Ausdruck zu beschreiben. Auf Basis dieses analytischen Ausdrucks wird die amplitudenabhängige Großsignalkapazität des VCOs in Abhängigkeit von Designparametern und der Tuningspannung modelliert. Die Gültigkeit der vorgestellte Entwurfsmethode wird anhand eines Beispielentwurfes eines 2.4 GHz VCO unter Verwendung einer 0.25 μm HF-CMOS Technologie verifiziert.

  7. "Leges artis, end(ing) of life, and compassion".

    PubMed

    Rueff, Maria do Céu

    2013-12-01

    I will problematize medical performances at the end of life, confronting them with the responses of Portuguese Criminal Law. By starting from a review of literature, both in Portugal and abroad, I will cross the criminal doctrine with a broader, interdisciplinary approach, including the reconsideration of medicine ethical tradition (notably the Hippocratic Writings) and the present developments in neurosciences. The frame of homeostasis (neurobiology of emotions) by Damisio, with compassion in the top, helps to clarify to which extent medical act according to legesart is becomes the centre of the problem. Indeed, it is within the medical act, understood as the meeting of two autonomies--patient's and doctor's autonomies--that the compassion takes place as a result of the agreement/compromise between the patient's will of ceasing her/his life in a situation of unbearable suffering and the doctor's duty to relieve that suffering. Compassion arises here as a "homeostasis instrument", that is, an emotion which is important in the regulation of life, even when we are speaking about end(ing) of life. This new perspective allows us to guess a shift of paradigm on the ethical and social levels. On the other hand, in so far as we have passed from the compassionate response in medical setting to its discussion, successively, in medical ethics, in the courts, and as a normative instrument, I claim that we are before the "transition from an automatic homeostasis to a deliberate homeostasis" (Damisio). Therefore, 1 seek for a balance between the spontaneous and the planned, concerning the issue of praxis. Indeed, what increasingly happens in medical praxis should be brought together with theory, whereby medical law has a word to say.

  8. The Political Views of Students at the Universities of the Armed Forces in Comparison to Those of Students at Public Institutions (Die politischen Orientierungen der Studenten an den Universitaeten der Bundeswehr im Vergleich zu den Studenten an oeffentlichen Hochschulen)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Demokratie-Statements gegentiber distanzierteren Angaben machen die UniBw-Studenten. Dennoch gelten auch fir sie uneingeschriinkt die Prinzi - pien der...als die der meisten anderen und stehen damit z.T. bereits auBerhalb der demokratischen Prinzi - pien. In ihren Urteilen zum gegenwartigen politischen

  9. Vibrations of double-nanotube systems with mislocation via a newly developed van der Waals model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiani, Keivan

    2015-06-01

    This study deals with transverse vibrations of two adjacent-parallel-mislocated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) under various end conditions. These tubes interact with each other and their surrounding medium through the intertube van der Waals (vdW) forces, and existing bonds between their atoms and those of the elastic medium. The elastic energy of such forces due to the deflections of nanotubes is appropriately modeled by defining a vdW force density function. In the previous works, vdW forces between two identical tubes were idealized by a uniform form of this function. The newly introduced function enables us to investigate the influences of both intertube free distance and longitudinal mislocation on the natural transverse frequencies of the nanosystem which consists of two dissimilar tubes. Such crucial issues have not been addressed yet, even for simply supported tubes. Using nonlocal Timoshenko and higher-order beam theories as well as Hamilton's principle, the strong form of the equations of motion is established. Seeking for an explicit solution to these integro-partial differential equations is a very problematic task. Thereby, an energy-based method in conjunction with an efficient meshfree method is proposed and the nonlocal frequencies of the elastically embedded nanosystem are determined. For simply supported nanosystems, the predicted first five frequencies of the proposed model are checked with those of assumed mode method, and a reasonably good agreement is achieved. Through various studies, the roles of the tube's length ratio, intertube free space, mislocation, small-scale effect, slenderness ratio, radius of SWCNTs, and elastic constants of the elastic matrix on the natural frequencies of the nanosystem with various end conditions are explained. The limitations of the nonlocal Timoshenko beam theory are also addressed. This work can be considered as a vital step towards better realizing of a more complex system that consists of

  10. van der Waals forces influencing adhesion of cells

    PubMed Central

    Kendall, K.; Roberts, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion molecules, often thought to be acting by a ‘lock and key’ mechanism, have been thought to control the adhesion of cells. While there is no doubt that a coating of adhesion molecules such as fibronectin on a surface affects cell adhesion, this paper aims to show that such surface contamination is only one factor in the equation. Starting from the baseline idea that van der Waals force is a ubiquitous attraction between all molecules, and thereby must contribute to cell adhesion, it is clear that effects from geometry, elasticity and surface molecules must all add on to the basic cell attractive force. These effects of geometry, elasticity and surface molecules are analysed. The adhesion force measured between macroscopic polymer spheres was found to be strongest when the surfaces were absolutely smooth and clean, with no projecting protruberances. Values of the measured surface energy were then about 35 mJ m−2, as expected for van der Waals attractions between the non-polar molecules. Surface projections such as abrasion roughness or dust reduced the molecular adhesion substantially. Water cut the measured surface energy to 3.4 mJ m−2. Surface active molecules lowered the adhesion still further to less than 0.3 mJ m−2. These observations do not support the lock and key concept. PMID:25533101

  11. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Ultrathin Halide Perovkistes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yiping; Shi, Yunfeng; Shi, Jian

    We present our understanding, with CH3NH3PbX3 as a model system, on the 2D van der Waals growth and kinetics of 3D parent materials. We show the successful synthesis of ultrathin (sub-10 nm), large scale (a few tens of μm) single crystalline 2D perovskite thin films on layered mica substrate by van der Waals (VDW) epitaxy. Classical nucleation and growth model explaining conventional epitaxy has been modified to interpret the unique 2D results under VDW mechanism. The generalization of our model shows that a 3D crystal with low cohesive energy tends to favor the 2D growth while the one with strong cohesive energy has less kinetic window. With Monte Carlo simulations, we show that the fractal 2D morphology in perovskite precisely manifests the kinetic competition between VDW diffusivity and thermodynamic driving force, a unique phenomenon to VDW growth, suggesting a fundamental limit on the morphology stability of the 2D form of a 3D material. On the other hand, our single crystal thin film growth results and subsequent cryogenic study in the iodide perovskite provide a perfect resource for the exploration of its complex optical and electronic properties and unveiling the origins of its popularity in the energy conversion field.

  12. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-01-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors. PMID:28194037

  13. Epigenetische Aspekte bei Karzinomen der Kopf-Hals-Region

    PubMed Central

    Schmezer, Peter; Plass, Christoph

    2009-01-01

    Zusammenfassung Plattenepithelkarzinome der Kopf-Hals-Region (HNSCC) zählen seit Jahren zu den weltweit häufigsten Krebsarten. Trotz vieler Bemühungen hat sich das 5-Jahres-Überleben bei Patienten mit HNSCC kaum verbessert. Um einen Fortschritt zu erzielen, ist es notwendig, die der Erkrankung zugrunde liegenden biologischen Prozesse besser zu verstehen. Neben den bekannten genetischen Veränderungen haben molekular-zytogenetische Untersuchungen bei HNSCC gezeigt, dass es weitere Veränderungen gibt, die mit Vermehrung und Verlust chromosomaler Bereiche einhergehen, für die jedoch die krankheitsverursachenden Gene bisher nicht identifiziert wurden. Darüberhinaus haben jüngste Forschungsergebnisse verdeutlicht, dass epigenetische Modifikationen wie die DNA Methylierung eine wichtige Rolle spielen. So konnte gezeigt werden, dass bei HNSCC eine Reihe von Genen (z.B. das Tumorsuppressorgen CDKN2A sowie DAPK1, MGMT, TIMP3, TCF21, und C/EBPα) hypermethylierte Bereiche in regulatorischen DNA Sequenzen aufweisen, wodurch ihre Expression verringert oder unterbunden wird. Die Hypermethylierung solcher Gene könnte als Biomarker zur Früherkennung von HNSCC genutzt werden und nicht zuletzt dadurch zur Verbesserung von Prävention und Therapieerfolg beitragen. PMID:18483718

  14. A van der Waals DFT Approach to Modeling Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Brian; Thonhauser, Timo

    2010-03-01

    We present density functional theory calculations for small water clusters and bulk water including van der Waals interactions via the non-local functional vdW-DF [1]. Historically, standard functionals such as LDA or GGA have been unable to accurately predict vibrational frequencies of small water clusters or the freezing point of bulk water, which has been partly attributed to the lack of van der Waals interactions [2]. We have implemented vdW-DF in the PWscf package, using an efficient convolution approach [3]. Our results for the vibrational frequencies of small water clusters show that vdW-DF gives a significant improvement compared to LDA or GGA. While the discrepancy between experiment and LDA/GGA is as much as 28% for certain modes, vdW-DF reduces this error to only about 6%. We also present results for the vibrational spectrum and Raman spectrum of periodic ice, again showing the advantages of vdW-DF. In addition, we show preliminary results for bulk water from our vdW-DF MD simulations.[4pt] [1] Thonhauser et al., Phys. Rev. B 76, 125112 (2007).[2] H. Sit and N. Marzari, J. Chem. Phys. 122, 204510 (2005). [3] G. Roman-Perez and J. Soler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009).

  15. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S J; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J J; Pérez, Emilio M; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-02-13

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors.

  16. Vom Big Business zum Smart Business in der Energiewirtschaft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaus, Jürgen; Anthonijsz, Jos

    Kaum eine Branche hat in den letzten zehn Jahren einen tiefgreifenderen Wandel erfahren als die Energiewirtschaft. Einstmals geprägt durch Großkonzerne, die flächendeckend alle Formen von Energiedienstleistungen erbracht haben, stellt sich heute eine gänzlich veränderte Landschaft dar. Nicht nur das es heute eine Vielzahl von Erzeugern gibt, die zunehmend dezentral aufgestellt sind, auch die klassischen Marktrollen wechseln: Erzeuger werden zu Händlern, Verbraucher werden zu Erzeugern. Darüber hinaus drängen heute neue, vormals branchenfremde, Marktteilnehmer in die Energiewirtschaft. Leicht nachzuvollziehen, dass es eine neue Art der Kommunikation braucht. Ziel ist alle Akteure zu vernetzen, um so neuartige Geschäftsmodelle zu ermöglichen. Das Internet of Things (IoT) und die Serviceplattformen bieten hierzu die geeignete Grundlage und Lösungen für neue und zukünftige Prozesse in der Energiebranche. Hierbei stehen auch Themen, wie Big Data, Datenformate, Datennutzung und -sicherheit im Fokus.

  17. Two-dimensional van der Waals C60 molecular crystal

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, C. D.; Gen Yu, Zhi; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) atomic crystals, such as graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides et al. have drawn extraordinary attention recently. For these 2D materials, atoms within their monolayer are covalently bonded. An interesting question arises: Can molecules form a 2D monolayer crystal via van der Waals interactions? Here, we first study the structural stability of a free-standing infinite C60 molecular monolayer using molecular dynamic simulations, and find that the monolayer is stable up to 600 K. We further study the mechanical properties of the monolayer, and find that the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and failure strain are 55–100 GPa, 90–155 MPa, and 1.5–2.3%, respectively, depending on the stretching orientation. The monolayer fails due to shearing and cavitation under uniaxial tensile loading. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) of the monolayer are found to be delocalized and as a result, the band gap is reduced to only 60% of the isolated C60 molecule. Interestingly, this band gap can be tuned up to ±30% using strain engineering. Owing to its thermal stability, low density, strain-tunable semi-conducting characteristics and large bending flexibility, this van der Waals molecular monolayer crystal presents aplenty opportunities for developing novel applications in nanoelectronics. PMID:26183501

  18. Herschel und die Zukunft der Fern-Infrarot-Astronomie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linz, Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    Schon lange ist die beobachtende Astronomie den engen Grenzen des optisch Sichbaren entwachsen und hat fast alle Bereiche des elektromagnetischen Spektrums für sich dienstbar gemacht. Im sogenannten nahen und mittleren Infrarot (Wellenlängen zwischen 1-30 μm) sowie im Millimeter- und Radio-Regime (Wellenlängen zwischen 1 mm und 10 m) ist die Erdatmosphäre relativ gut durchlässig für elektromagnetische Signale oder hat zumindest eine Vielzahl von spektral begrenzten Transmissionsfenstern, die astronomische Beobachtungen zumindest von höheren Bergen aus möglich machen. Allerdings ist das sogenannte Ferne Infrarot (FIR, 30-300 μm Wellenlänge) von der Erde aus fast völlig unzugänglich für astronomische Beobachtungen. Selbst für die besten Beobachtungsplätze der Erde bleibt die atmosphärische Transmission durch die immense Wasserdampf- Absorption auf ein absolutes Minimum beschränkt. Jedoch erlaubt uns das FIR Zugang zu Informationen, die sehr nützlich sind für die astrophysikalische Forschung und komplementär zu anderen Wellenlängen-Bereichen.

  19. Franckeite as a naturally occurring van der Waals heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Mendoza, Aday J.; Giovanelli, Emerson; Paz, Wendel S.; Niño, Miguel Angel; Island, Joshua O.; Evangeli, Charalambos; Aballe, Lucía; Foerster, Michael; van der Zant, Herre S. J.; Rubio-Bollinger, Gabino; Agraït, Nicolás; Palacios, J. J.; Pérez, Emilio M.; Castellanos-Gomez, Andres

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication of van der Waals heterostructures, artificial materials assembled by individual stacking of 2D layers, is among the most promising directions in 2D materials research. Until now, the most widespread approach to stack 2D layers relies on deterministic placement methods, which are cumbersome and tend to suffer from poor control over the lattice orientations and the presence of unwanted interlayer adsorbates. Here, we present a different approach to fabricate ultrathin heterostructures by exfoliation of bulk franckeite which is a naturally occurring and air stable van der Waals heterostructure (composed of alternating SnS2-like and PbS-like layers stacked on top of each other). Presenting both an attractive narrow bandgap (<0.7 eV) and p-type doping, we find that the material can be exfoliated both mechanically and chemically down to few-layer thicknesses. We present extensive theoretical and experimental characterizations of the material's electronic properties and crystal structure, and explore applications for near-infrared photodetectors.

  20. Wie Rechner rechnen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamour, René; Tischendorf, Caren

    Mit Hilfe von Computern lassen sich Rechenoperationen wie Addition und Multiplikation mit hoher Geschwindigkeit ausführen. Der erste frei programmierbare Rechner, die mechanische Zuse Z1 aus dem Jahre 1937, schaffte etwa zwei Additionen pro Sekunde. Heute misst man die Geschwindigkeit in Flops (Floating Point Operations Per Second, d. h. Gleitkommaoperationen pro Sekunde). Die schnellsten Computer der Welt erreichen gegenwärtig (Stand November 2008) eine Geschwindigkeit von 1,105 PetaFlops, d. h. 1,105 · 1015 Flops. Zum Vergleich: Im November 2007 erreichten die schnellsten Computer der Welt eine Geschwindigkeit von 478 Tera-Flops, d. h. 478 · 1012 Flops.

  1. Die chronische venöse Insuffizienz - Eine Zusammenfassung der Pathophysiologie, Diagnostik und Therapie.

    PubMed

    Santler, Bettina; Goerge, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Die chronische Venenerkrankung ist eine weit verbreitete Krankheit, die in späteren Stadien mit einer Vielzahl an Symptomen, aber auch Komplikationen wie dem Ulcus cruris, einhergeht. Dies wiederum hat weitreichende Auswirkungen auf die Lebensqualität der Patienten wie auch auf das Gesundheitssystem. Für die Diagnostik der chronischen Venenerkrankungen steht eine Auswahl an Verfahren zur Verfügung, wobei sich die farbkodierte Duplexsonographie als Goldstandard etabliert hat. Im Bereich der Therapie kam es in den letzten Jahrzehnten zu großen Fortschritten, sodass heute auch Alternativen zum klassischen Stripping durch die endoluminalen Verfahren zur Verfügung stehen. Die Wahl der Therapieoption ist jedoch weiterhin stark abhängig von mehreren Faktoren, unter anderem von den anatomischen Gegebenheiten und dem Krankheitsstadium. Im folgenden Artikel werden die Anatomie und Pathophysiologie, sowie die aktuellen Standards der Diagnostik und Therapie zusammengefasst. © 2017 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. {InSe}/{GaSe} heterointerfaces prepared by Van der Waals epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, O.; Klein, A.; Schlaf, R.; Löher, T.; Pettenkofer, C.; Jaegermann, W.; Chevy, A.

    1995-01-01

    Epitaxial films of layered substrates can be prepared onto layered substrates even for large lattice mismatch, when the growth is attempted with the Van der Waals surfaces opposing each other (Van der Waals epitaxy). Thin epitaxial InSe(GaSe) films are prepared onto ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) cleaved GaSe(InSe) Van der Waals (0001) surfaces. The films and the heterointerface are characterized by photoelectron spectroscopy, electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). High quality and stoichiometric films are obtained by direct InSe(GaSe) evaporation from a Knudsen cell at sample temperatures between 520 and 620 K. Despite a 6% lattice mismatch the deposited films are oriented with their c- and α-axis to the hexagonal substrate. The growth mostly follows the Frank-Van der Merwe mode. This rather ideal growth behaviour is related to the specific properties of the Van der Waals plane which contains no dangling bonds.

  3. Improved description of soft layered materials with van der Waals density functional theory.

    PubMed

    Graziano, Gabriella; Klimeš, Jiří; Fernandez-Alonso, Felix; Michaelides, Angelos

    2012-10-24

    The accurate description of van der Waals forces within density functional theory is currently one of the most active areas of research in computational physics and chemistry. Here we report results on the structural and energetic properties of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, two layered materials where interlayer binding is dominated by van der Waals forces. Results from several density functionals are reported, including the optimized Becke88 van der Waals (optB88-vdW) and the optimized PBE van der Waals (optPBE-vdW) (Klimeš et al 2010 J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 22 022201) functionals. Where comparison to experiment and higher-level theory is possible, the results obtained from the two new van der Waals density functionals are in good agreement. An analysis of the physical nature of the interlayer binding in both graphite and hexagonal boron nitride is also reported.

  4. Implication of Two-Coupled Differential Van der Pol Duffing Oscillator in Weak Signal Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hang-hang; Xu, Xue-mei; Yang, Bing-chu; Yin, Lin-zi

    2016-04-01

    The principle of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator for state transition and for determining critical value is described, which has been studied to indicate that the application of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator in weak signal detection is feasible. On the basis of this principle, an improved two-coupled differential Van der Pol Duffing oscillator is proposed which can identify signals under any frequency and ameliorate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The analytical methods of the proposed model and the construction of the proposed oscillator are introduced in detail. Numerical experiments on the properties of the proposed oscillator compared with those of the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator are carried out. Our numerical simulations have confirmed the analytical treatment. The results demonstrate that this novel oscillator has better detection performance than the Van der Pol Duffing oscillator.

  5. A New Method for Suppressing Periodic Narrowband Interference Based on the Chaotic van der Pol Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jia; Zhang, Xiaoxing; Xiong, Hao

    The chaotic van der Pol oscillator is a powerful tool for detecting defects in electric systems by using online partial discharge (PD) monitoring. This paper focuses on realizing weak PD signal detection in the strong periodic narrowband interference by using high sensitivity to the periodic narrowband interference signals and immunity to white noise and PD signals of chaotic systems. A new approach to removing the periodic narrowband interference by using a van der Pol chaotic oscillator is described by analyzing the motion characteristic of the chaotic oscillator on the basis of the van der Pol equation. Furthermore, the Floquet index for measuring the amplitude of periodic narrowband signals is redefined. The denoising signal processed by the chaotic van der Pol oscillators is further processed by wavelet analysis. Finally, the denoising results verify that the periodic narrowband and white noise interference can be removed efficiently by combining the theory of the chaotic van der Pol oscillator and wavelet analysis.

  6. Ludwig Boltzmann als Experimentalphysiker: Frühe Bestätigung der Maxwell-Theorie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumpf, Klemens; Granitzer, Petra

    2006-09-01

    Am Beispiel von Boltzmanns Experimenten zur Bestätigung der Maxwell-Theorie wird dessen hervorragende Begabung auch als Experimentalphysiker deutlich. Die dargestellten Arbeiten fanden etwa 15 Jahre vor den Hertzschen Experimenten statt, zu einem Zeitpunkt also, als die noch junge Maxwell-Theorie dringend experimenteller Bestätigung bedurfte. Boltzmann konnte mit seinen experimentellen Untersuchungen eine direkte Konsequenz der Maxwellschen elektromagnetischen Theorie, die so genannte Maxwell-Relation, bestätigen. Seine Experimente stellten nicht nur lange Zeit den stärksten Beleg für die Richtigkeit der Maxwellschen Lichttheorie dar, sondern waren eine experimentelle Spitzenleistung an der Grenze des damals Möglichen. Besonders Boltzmanns Bestimmung der Dielektrizitätskonstanten von Gasen fand noch Jahrzehnte später Erwähnung in namhaften Lehrbüchern.

  7. Recirculating Linac Acceleration - End-to-End Simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Alex Bogacz

    2010-03-01

    A conceptual design of a high-pass-number Recirculating Linear Accelerator (RLA) for muons is presented. The scheme involves three superconducting linacs (201 MHz): a single pass linear Pre-accelerator followed by a pair multi-pass (4.5-pass) 'Dogbone' RLAs. Acceleration starts after ionization cooling at 220 MeV/c and proceeds to 12.6 GeV. The Pre-accelerator captures a large muon phase space and accelerates muons to relativistic energies, while adiabatically decreasing the phase-space volume, so that effective acceleration in the RLA is possible. The RLA further compresses and shapes up the longitudinal and transverse phase-spaces, while increasing the energy. Appropriate choice of multi-pass linac optics based on FODO focusing assures large number of passes in the RLA. The proposed 'Dogbone' configuration facilitates simultaneous acceleration of both mu± species through the requirement of mirror symmetric optics of the return 'droplet' arcs. Finally, presented end-to-end simulation validates the efficiency and acceptance of the accelerator system.

  8. Key management for large scale end-to-end encryption

    SciTech Connect

    Witzke, E.L.

    1994-07-01

    Symmetric end-to-end encryption requires separate keys for each pair of communicating confidants. This is a problem of Order N{sup 2}. Other factors, such as multiple sessions per pair of confidants and multiple encryption points in the ISO Reference Model complicate key management by linear factors. Public-key encryption can reduce the number of keys managed to a linear problem which is good for scaleability of key management, but comes with complicating issues and performance penalties. Authenticity is the primary ingredient of key management. If each potential pair of communicating confidants can authenticate data from each other, then any number of public encryption keys of any type can be communicated with requisite integrity. These public encryption keys can be used with the corresponding private keys to exchange symmetric cryptovariables for high data rate privacy protection. The Digital Signature Standard (DSS), which has been adopted by the United States Government, has both public and private components, similar to a public-key cryptosystem. The Digital Signature Algorithm of the DSS is intended for authenticity but not for secrecy. In this paper, the authors will show how the use of the Digital Signature Algorithm combined with both symmetric and asymmetric (public-key) encryption techniques can provide a practical solution to key management scaleability problems, by reducing the key management complexity to a problem of order N, without sacrificing the encryption speed necessary to operate in high performance networks.

  9. End-to-end Adversarial Retinal Image Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro; Galdran, Adrian; Meyer, Maria Ines; Niemeijer, Meindert; Abramoff, Michael; Mendonca, Ana Maria; Campilho, Aurelio

    2017-10-02

    In medical image analysis applications, the availability of large amounts of annotated data is becoming increasingly critical. However, annotated medical data is often scarce and costly to obtain. In this paper, we address the problem of synthesizing retinal color images by applying recent techniques based on adversarial learning. In this setting, a generative model is trained to maximize a loss function provided by a second model attempting to classify its output into real or synthetic. In particular, we propose to implement an adversarial autoencoder for the task of retinal vessel network synthesis. We use the generated vessel trees as an intermediate stage for the generation of color retinal images, which is accomplished with a Generative Adversarial Network. Both models require the optimization of almost everywhere differentiable loss functions, which allows us to train them jointly. The resulting model offers an end-to-end retinal image synthesis system capable of generating as many retinal images as the user requires, with their corresponding vessel networks, by sampling from a simple probability distribution that we impose to the associated latent space. We show that the learned latent space contains a well-defined semantic structure, implying that we can perform calculations in the space of retinal images, e.g., smoothly interpolating new data points between two retinal images. Visual and quantitative results demonstrate that the synthesized images are substantially different from those in the training set, while being also anatomically consistent and displaying a reasonable visual quality.

  10. Toward the end of time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinec, Emil J.; Robbins, Daniel; Sethi, Savdeep

    2006-08-01

    The null-brane space-time provides a simple model of a big crunch/big bang singularity. A non-perturbative definition of M-theory on this space-time was recently provided using matrix theory. We derive the fermion couplings for this matrix model and study the leading quantum effects. These effects include particle production and a time-dependent potential. Our results suggest that as the null-brane develops a big crunch singularity, the usual notion of space-time is replaced by an interacting gluon phase. This gluon phase appears to constitute the end of our conventional picture of space and time.

  11. Will artificial gametes end infertility?

    PubMed

    Smajdor, Anna; Cutas, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    In this paper we will look at the various ways in which infertility can be understood and at how need for reproductive therapies can be construed. We will do this against the background of research with artificial gametes (AGs). Having explored these questions we will attempt to establish the degree to which technologies such as AGs could expand the array of choices that people have to reproduce and/or become parents. Finally, we will examine whether and in what ways the most promising developments of such technologies are likely to bring about the "end of infertility".

  12. Ending child homelessness in America.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Ellen L

    2010-10-01

    Approximately 1.5 million children experience homelessness in America each year. The current economic recession and staggering numbers of housing foreclosures have caused the numbers of homeless families to increase dramatically. The impact of homelessness on families and children is devastating. Without a place to call home, children are severely challenged by unpredictability, dislocation, and chaos. Homelessness and exposure to traumatic stresses place them at high risk for poor mental health outcomes. Despite the pressing needs of these children, federal policy during the last decade has focused primarily on chronically homeless adult individuals-to the exclusion of the families. In 2010, however, the U.S. Interagency Council on Homelessness issued a comprehensive plan to eradicate homelessness for all people through interagency collaboration and aligning mainstream services. A key goal is to prevent and end homelessness for families, youth, and children within 10 years. This policy-focused article describes several tools that can be used to help achieve this goal, including: general principles of care for serving homeless families and children; BSAFE-a promising practice that helps families access community-based services and supports; and the Campaign to End Child Homelessness aimed at action on behalf of homeless families and children at the national, state, and local levels.

  13. The end of occupational therapy.

    PubMed

    Crabtree, J L

    1998-03-01

    In this article, I propose that the unique end, or goal, of occupational therapy is to help persons with performance deficits of any kind make and express meaning through organized human performance, which I call occupation. To support this thesis, I show that, too often, philosophers, psychologists, and others who have studied meaning do not see human performance as a crucial way of making and expressing meaning. This article challenges the assumption that meaning making is only a cognitive process in which language is its primary expression and shows that the nature of humans is to make meaning through occupation. Furthermore, this article reveals why occupational therapy should emphasize human performance and its role in meaning making. Finally, I propose that occupation is properly defined as intentional human performance organized in number and kind to meet the demands of self-maintenance and identity in the family and community. I justify this definition and discuss the likely therapeutic nature of occupation and examples of the end, or goal, of occupational therapy.

  14. The End of the Dinosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Charles

    1999-10-01

    The discovery of the giant Chicxulub impact crater, buried off the coast of Mexico, unveiled the solution to one of Earth's greatest mysteries--what killed the dinosaurs. Scientists uncovered physical evidence to explain the mass extinction that rocked the Earth 65 million years ago. Step-by-step, The End of the Dinosaurs: Chicxulub Crater and Mass Extinctions tells this great scientific detective story. Charles Frankel recounts the birth of the cosmic hypothesis, which holds that the crash of a meteor on the Earth's surface killed two-thirds of life and all the dinosaurs. He first provides a dramatic account of the impact and its aftermath. Frankel then goes on to detail the controversy that preceded the acceptance of the cosmic hypothesis, the search for the crater, its discovery and ongoing exploration, and the effect of the giant impact on the biosphere. In addition, he reviews other mass extinctions in the fossil record and the threat of asteroids and comets to our planet today. More than 70 photographs and diagrams enhance and help illustrate the material. Filled with drama and interesting science, The End of the Dinosaurs will readily appeal to both the general reader fascinated with the subject and the specialist always searching for more clues to this great mystery. Charles Frankel has written a number of articles on the earth sciences in books and magazines. His many books include Volcanoes of the Solar System (Cambridge University Press 1996).

  15. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    A model of the Cassini spacecraft is seen during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Participants in the press conference were: Director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, left, Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, second from right, Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, second from right, and principle investigator for the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, right. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  16. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, left, speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Also participating in the press conference were Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, second from right, Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, second from left, and principle investigator for the Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, right. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  17. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, right, Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, center, and principle investigator for the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, right, are seen during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  18. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    One of the final images of Saturn's moon Titan, that was taken by the Cassini spacecraft on Sept. 11, is seen as Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, second from right, speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Also participating in the press conference were director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, left, Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, second from left, and principle investigator for the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, left. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  19. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Principle investigator for the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, right, speaks during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission as director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, left, Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, second from left, and Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, second from right, look on, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  20. Cassini End of Mission Preview

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-13

    Director of NASA's Planetary Science Division, Jim Green, left, Cassini program manager at JPL, Earl Maize, second from right, Cassini project scientist at JPL, Linda Spilker, second from right, and principle investigator for the Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) at the Southwest Research Institute, Hunter Waite, right, are seen during a press conference previewing Cassini's End of Mission, Wednesday, Sept. 13, 2017 at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. Since its arrival in 2004, the Cassini-Huygens mission has been a discovery machine, revolutionizing our knowledge of the Saturn system and captivating us with data and images never before obtained with such detail and clarity. On Sept. 15, 2017, operators will deliberately plunge the spacecraft into Saturn, as Cassini gathered science until the end. The “plunge” ensures Saturn’s moons will remain pristine for future exploration. During Cassini’s final days, mission team members from all around the world gathered at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, to celebrate the achievements of this historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Joel Kowsky)

  1. End Calorimeter Warm Tube Heater

    SciTech Connect

    Primdahl, K.; /Fermilab

    1991-08-06

    The Tevatron accelerator beam tube must pass through the End Calorimeter cryostats of the D-Zero Collider Detector. Furthermore, the End Calorimeter cryostats must be allowed to roll back forty inches without interruption of the vacuum system; hence, the Tev tube must slide through the End Calorimeter cryostat as it is rolled back. The Tev pass through the End Calorimeter can actually be thought of as a cluster of concentric tubes: Tev tube, warm (vacuum vessel) tube, IS layers of superinsulation, cold tube (argon vessel), and Inner Hadronic center support tube. M. Foley generated an ANSYS model to study the heat load. to the cryostat. during collider physics studies; that is, without operation of the heater. A sketch of the model is included in the appendix. The vacuum space and superinsulation was modeled as a thermal solid, with conductivity derived from tests performed at Fermilab. An additional estimate was done. by this author, using data supplied by NR-2. a superinsulation manufacturer. The ANSYS result and hand calculation are in close agreement. The ANSYS model was modified. by this author. to incorporate the effect of the heater. Whereas the earlier model studied steady state operation only. the revised model considers the heater-off steady state mode as the initial condition. then performs a transient analysis with a final load step for time tending towards infinity. Results show the thermal gradient as a function of time and applied voltage. It should be noted that M. Foley's model was generated for one half the warm tube. implying the tube to be symmetric. In reality. the downstream connection (relative to the collision point) attachment to the vacuum shell is via several convolutions of a 0.020-inch wall bellows; hence. a nearly adiabatic boundary condition. Accordingly. the results reported in the table reflect extrapolation of the curves to the downstream end of the tube. Using results from the ANSYS analysis, that is, tube temperature and

  2. U.S. Democratization Strategy: Origins and Obstacles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs- Merrill Company, 1957), p. 11. 3 Michael W. Doyle, “Liberal Internationalism: Peace, War and...2008). 74 Ulrich Fichtner, “Mr. Tapfer, der Retter der Welt,” Der Spiegel, 11 June 2001, p. 76; and Carlos Widmann, “USA/Mit Schirm und Charme,” Der...157 Kant, Perpetual Peace, ed. Lewis White Beck (Indianapolis and New York: Bobbs-Merrill Company, 1957), p. 13. 158 Doyle, p. 206. 159 Ibid

  3. Measurement of $W$ -Boson Helicity-Fractions in Top-Quark Decays with the CDF II Experiment and Prospects for an Early $t\\overline{t}$ Cross-Section Measurement with the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chwalek, Thorsten

    2010-12-02

    Aus was besteht die Welt? Die Frage nach den fundamentalen Bausteinen der Materie beschaftigte Wissenschaftler und Gelehrte zu allen Zeiten. Ausgehend von abstrakten philosophischen Uberlegungen wurde das Konzept von kleinsten, nicht weiter zerteilbaren Grundbausteinen der Materie bereits einige Jahrhunderte vor Christus von indischen und griechischen Philosophieschulen entwickelt. Etwa 450 v. Chr. pragte Demokrit den Begriff ´atomos, das “Unzerschneidbare”, fur die diskreten Grundbausteine der Materie. Doch erst in der jungeren Vergangenheit konnte dieses philosophische Konzept auch experimentell uberpruft werden.

  4. Van der Waals Epitaxy of Functional Oxide Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Hao

    In the diligent pursuit of low-power consumption, multifunctional, and environmentally friendly electronics, more sophisticated requirements on functional materials are on demand. Recently, the discovery of 2D layered materials has created a revolution to this field. Pioneered by graphene, these new 2D materials exhibit abundant unusual physical phenomena that is undiscovered in bulk forms. These materials are characterized with their layer form and almost pure 2D electronic behavior. The confinement of charge and heat transport at such ultrathin planes offers possibilities to overcome the bottleneck of present device development in thickness limitation, and thus push the technologies into next generation. Van der Waals epitaxy, an epitaxial growth method to combine 2D and 3D materials, is one of current reliable manufacturing processes to fabricate 2D materials by growing these 2D materials epitaxially on 3D materials. Then, transferring the 2D materials to the substrates for practical applications. In the mean time, van der Waals epitaxy has also been used to create free-standing 3D materials by growing 3D materials on 2D materials and then removing them from 2D materials since the interfacial boding between 2D and 3D materials should be weak van der Waals bonds. In this study, we intend to take the same concept, but to integrate a family of functional materials in order to open new avenue to flexible electronics. Due to the interplay of lattice, charge, orbital, and spin degrees of freedom, correlated electrons in oxides generate a rich spectrum of competing phases and physical properties. Recently, lots of studies have suggested that oxide heterostructures provide a powerful route to create and manipulate the degrees of freedom and offer new possibilities for next generation devices, thus create a new playground for researchers to investigate novel physics and the emergence of fascinating states of condensed matter. In this talk, we use a 2D layered material as

  5. Ontogenic Caste Differences in the Van der Vecht Organ of Primitively Eusocial Neotropical Paper Wasps.

    PubMed

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Petrocelli, Iacopo; Lino-Neto, José; Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported incipient morphological caste dimorphism in the Van der Vecht organ size of some temperate Polistes paper wasps. Whether species other than the temperate ones show a similar pattern remains elusive. Here, we have studied some Neotropical Polistes species. By comparing females collected through the year, we showed caste related differences in the size of the Van der Vecht organ in P. ferreri (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.45 ± 0.06, workers = 0.38 ± 0.07 mm2, p = 0.0021), P. versicolor (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.54 ± 0.11, workers = 0.46 ± 0.09 mm2, p = 0.010), but not P. simillimus (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.52 ± 0.05, workers = 0.49 ± 0.06 mm2, p = 0.238). Therefore, it seems that queens and workers of some Neotropical Polistes have diverged in their ontogenic trajectory of the Van der Vecht organ size, providing clear evidence for incipient morphological caste dimorphism. As Polistes are distributed mostly in the tropics, we propose that physical caste differences may be widespread in the genus. Also, we highlight that morphological divergence in the queen-worker phenotypes may have started through differential selection of body structures, like the Van der Vecht organ.

  6. Ontogenic Caste Differences in the Van der Vecht Organ of Primitively Eusocial Neotropical Paper Wasps

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, André Rodrigues; Petrocelli, Iacopo; Lino-Neto, José; Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Noll, Fernando Barbosa; Turillazzi, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have reported incipient morphological caste dimorphism in the Van der Vecht organ size of some temperate Polistes paper wasps. Whether species other than the temperate ones show a similar pattern remains elusive. Here, we have studied some Neotropical Polistes species. By comparing females collected through the year, we showed caste related differences in the size of the Van der Vecht organ in P. ferreri (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.45 ± 0.06, workers = 0.38 ± 0.07 mm2, p = 0.0021), P. versicolor (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.54 ± 0.11, workers = 0.46 ± 0.09 mm2, p = 0.010), but not P. simillimus (body size corrected Van der Vech organ size of queens = 0.52 ± 0.05, workers = 0.49 ± 0.06 mm2, p = 0.238). Therefore, it seems that queens and workers of some Neotropical Polistes have diverged in their ontogenic trajectory of the Van der Vecht organ size, providing clear evidence for incipient morphological caste dimorphism. As Polistes are distributed mostly in the tropics, we propose that physical caste differences may be widespread in the genus. Also, we highlight that morphological divergence in the queen–worker phenotypes may have started through differential selection of body structures, like the Van der Vecht organ. PMID:27167514

  7. A crossover in anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of van der Waals crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Shimamura, Kohei; Misawa, Masaaki; Li, Ying; Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya; Shimojo, Fuyuki

    2015-12-07

    In nanoscale mechanochemistry, mechanical forces selectively break covalent bonds to essentially control chemical reactions. An archetype is anisotropic detonation of layered energetic molecular crystals bonded by van der Waals (vdW) interactions. Here, quantum molecular dynamics simulations reveal a crossover of anisotropic nanomechanochemistry of vdW crystal. Within 10{sup −13} s from the passage of shock front, lateral collision produces NO{sub 2} via twisting and bending of nitro-groups and the resulting inverse Jahn-Teller effect, which is mediated by strong intra-layer hydrogen bonds. Subsequently, as we transition from heterogeneous to homogeneous mechanochemical regimes around 10{sup −12} s, shock normal to multilayers becomes more reactive, producing H{sub 2}O assisted by inter-layer N-N bond formation. These time-resolved results provide much needed atomistic understanding of nanomechanochemistry that underlies a wider range of technologies.

  8. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Lee, Chul-Ho; van der Zande, Arend M.; Han, Minyong; Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Nuckolls, Colin; Heinz, Tony F.; Hone, James; Kim, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS2 heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS2/WSe2/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  9. Coincident-site lattice matching during van der Waals epitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Boschker, Jos E.; Galves, Lauren A.; Flissikowski, Timur; Lopes, Joao Marcelo J.; Riechert, Henning; Calarco, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Van der Waals (vdW) epitaxy is an attractive method for the fabrication of vdW heterostructures. Here Sb2Te3 films grown on three different kind of graphene substrates (monolayer epitaxial graphene, quasi freestanding bilayer graphene and the SiC (6√3 × 6√3)R30° buffer layer) are used to study the vdW epitaxy between two 2-dimensionally (2D) bonded materials. It is shown that the Sb2Te3 /graphene interface is stable and that coincidence lattices are formed between the epilayers and substrate that depend on the size of the surface unit cell. This demonstrates that there is a significant, although relatively weak, interfacial interaction between the two materials. Lattice matching is thus relevant for vdW epitaxy with two 2D bonded materials and a fundamental design parameter for vdW heterostructures. PMID:26658715

  10. Characterization of rarefaction waves in van der Waals fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuen, Albert; Barnard, John J.

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the isentropic evolution of an instantaneously heated foil, assuming a van der Waals equation of state with the Maxwell construction. The analysis by Yuen and Barnard [Phys. Rev. E 92, 033019 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevE.92.033019] is extended for the particular case of three degrees of freedom. We assume heating to temperatures in the vicinity of the critical point. The self-similar profiles of the rarefaction waves describing the evolution of the foil display plateaus in density and temperature due to a phase transition from the single-phase to the two-phase regime. The hydrodynamic equations are expressed in a dimensionless form and the solutions form a set of universal curves, depending on a single parameter: the dimensionless initial entropy. We characterize the rarefaction waves by calculating how the plateau length, density, pressure, temperature, velocity, internal energy, and sound speed vary with dimensionless initial entropy.

  11. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems.

  12. Entanglement growth during Van der Waals like phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao

    2017-09-01

    We address the problem of describing the coexistence state of two different black holes and Van der Waals like phase transition in Reissner-Nordström-AdS space-time. We start by a small charged black hole, then introduce a collapsing neutral thin-shell described by Vaidya metric to form a large one. The formation of the large black hole does not change the temperature and free energy of the initial state. We discuss the entanglement growing during the phase transition. The transition is always continuous and the saturation time is determined by the final state. It opens a possibility for studying the holography from excited states to excited states.

  13. Engineering Low Dimensional Materials with van der Waals Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Chenhao

    Two-dimensional van der Waals materials grow into a hot and big field in condensed matter physics in the past decade. One particularly intriguing thing is the possibility to stack different layers together as one wish, like playing a Lego game, which can create artificial structures that do not exist in nature. These new structures can enable rich new physics from interlayer interaction: The interaction is strong, because in low-dimension materials electrons are exposed to the interface and are susceptible to other layers; and the screening of interaction is less prominent. The consequence is rich, not only from the extensive list of two-dimensional materials available nowadays, but also from the freedom of interlayer configuration, such as displacement and twist angle, which creates a gigantic parameter space to play with. On the other hand, however, the huge parameter space sometimes can make it challenging to describe consistently with a single picture. For example, the large periodicity or even incommensurability in van der Waals systems creates difficulty in using periodic boundary condition. Worse still, the huge superlattice unit cell and overwhelming computational efforts involved to some extent prevent the establishment of a simple physical picture to understand the evolution of system properties in the parameter space of interlayer configuration. In the first part of the dissertation, I will focus on classification of the huge parameter space into subspaces, and introduce suitable theoretical approaches for each subspace. For each approach, I will discuss its validity, limitation, general solution, as well as a specific example of application demonstrating how one can obtain the most important effects of interlayer interaction with little computation efforts. Combining all the approaches introduced will provide an analytic solution to cover majority of the parameter space, which will be very helpful in understanding the intuitive physical picture behind

  14. A Scalable Implementation of Van der Waals Density Functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jun; Gygi, Francois

    2010-03-01

    Recently developed Van der Waals density functionals[1] offer the promise to account for weak intermolecular interactions that are not described accurately by local exchange-correlation density functionals. In spite of recent progress [2], the computational cost of such calculations remains high. We present a scalable parallel implementation of the functional proposed by Dion et al.[1]. The method is implemented in the Qbox first-principles simulation code (http://eslab.ucdavis.edu/software/qbox). Application to large molecular systems will be presented. [4pt] [1] M. Dion et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 246401 (2004).[0pt] [2] G. Roman-Perez and J. M. Soler, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 096102 (2009).

  15. The vibration of nanosprings affected by van der Waals interactions.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junhua; Ben, Sudong; Yu, Peishi

    2016-10-01

    The vibration of tightly helical nanosprings affected by van der Waals (vdW) interactions is investigated based on continuum modelling. Explicit solutions are derived to clarify the influence of initial pitch, stiffness and the number of nanosprings on the period, frequency and amplitude of the vibration. Unlike classic linear/nonlinear springs, the waveform of the vibration is always asymmetric for tightly helical nanosprings due to the asymmetry of vdW attraction and repulsion. The at most three equilibrium positions for the nanosprings strongly depend on the deformation due to competition between the vdW interactions and the elastic energy of the nanosprings. This study provides physical insights into the origin of the novel dynamic properties of such nanosprings.

  16. Flexible ferroelectric element based on van der Waals heteroepitaxy

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jie; Bitla, Yugandhar; Huang, Chun-Wei; Do, Thi Hien; Liu, Heng-Jui; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hao; Jang, Chi-Yuan; Lai, Yu-Hong; Chiu, Po-Wen; Wu, Wen-Wei; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhou, Yi-Chun; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-01-01

    We present a promising technology for nonvolatile flexible electronic devices: A direct fabrication of epitaxial lead zirconium titanate (PZT) on flexible mica substrate via van der Waals epitaxy. These single-crystalline flexible ferroelectric PZT films not only retain their performance, reliability, and thermal stability comparable to those on rigid counterparts in tests of nonvolatile memory elements but also exhibit remarkable mechanical properties with robust operation in bent states (bending radii down to 2.5 mm) and cycling tests (1000 times). This study marks the technological advancement toward realizing much-awaited flexible yet single-crystalline nonvolatile electronic devices for the design and development of flexible, lightweight, and next-generation smart devices with potential applications in electronics, robotics, automotive, health care, industrial, and military systems. PMID:28630922

  17. Extended version of the van der Waals capillarity theory.

    PubMed

    Baidakov, V G; Boltachev, G Sh

    2004-11-01

    An extended version of the van der Waals capillarity theory describing the liquid-vapor interface in the temperature range from the triple to the critical point is suggested. A model functional of thermodynamic potential for a two-phase Lennard-Jones system taking into account the effect of the highest degree terms of gradient expansion has been constructed. The identity of the thermodynamic and the mechanical definition of Tolman's length has been proved in the framework of the adopted form of functional. The properties of nuclei of the liquid and the vapor phase are described. The paper determines: the work of formation of a nucleus, density profiles, size dependences of the surface tension, and the parameter delta in the Gibbs-Tolman-Koenig-Buff equation.

  18. The impact of ancillary services in optimal DER investment decisions

    DOE PAGES

    Cardoso, Goncalo; Stadler, Michael; Mashayekh, Salman; ...

    2017-04-25

    Microgrid resource sizing problems typically include the analysis of a combination of value streams such as peak shaving, load shifting, or load scheduling, which support the economic feasibility of the microgrid deployment. However, microgrid benefits can go beyond these, and the ability to provide ancillary grid services such as frequency regulation or spinning and non-spinning reserves is well known, despite typically not being considered in resource sizing problems. This paper proposes the expansion of the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM), a state-of-the-art microgrid resource sizing model, to include revenue streams resulting from the participation in ancillary service markets.more » Results suggest that participation in such markets may not only influence the optimum resource sizing, but also the operational dispatch, with results being strongly influenced by the exact market requirements and clearing prices.« less

  19. Characterization of rarefaction waves in van der Waals fluids.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Albert; Barnard, John J

    2015-12-01

    We calculate the isentropic evolution of an instantaneously heated foil, assuming a van der Waals equation of state with the Maxwell construction. The analysis by Yuen and Barnard [Phys. Rev. E 92, 033019 (2015)] is extended for the particular case of three degrees of freedom. We assume heating to temperatures in the vicinity of the critical point. The self-similar profiles of the rarefaction waves describing the evolution of the foil display plateaus in density and temperature due to a phase transition from the single-phase to the two-phase regime. The hydrodynamic equations are expressed in a dimensionless form and the solutions form a set of universal curves, depending on a single parameter: the dimensionless initial entropy. We characterize the rarefaction waves by calculating how the plateau length, density, pressure, temperature, velocity, internal energy, and sound speed vary with dimensionless initial entropy.

  20. Statistical mechanics of simple fluids - Beyond van der Waals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebowitz, J. L.; Waisman, E. M.

    1980-03-01

    Consideration is given to recent developments in the theory of dense fluids, based on a model fluid of hard spheres. The fluid is treated as consisting of electrically neutral particles interacting through pair potentials dependent only on the distance between their centers, a macroscopic system which can be described by classical statistical mechanics. The van der Waals equation of state and the Maxwell amendment to it for temperatures less than the critical temperature are reviewed, and subsequent rigorous derivations of the amended equation are presented. A relatively simple scheme for approximating a dense, single-component simple classical fluid whose atoms interact via the Lennard-Jones potential, based on the hard sphere model and employing computer calculations is then outlined. It is noted that the approach can be easily generalized to treat quantitatively mixtures of simple fluids, and nonuniform fluids qualitatively, and that there remains much to be done to understand why the schemes presented work as well as they do.

  1. The history of Werner Spalteholz's Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen.

    PubMed

    Williams, D J

    1999-12-01

    Werner Spalteholz's Handatlas der Anatomie des Menschen is one of the most elegantly illustrated anatomical atlases of all time. Originally published in Leipzig as three volumes from 1895 to 1903, the atlas is still widely used and remains highly regarded by many. The atlas was remarkably popular during the first half of the 20th century, especially the English version in North America and the UK. Unfortunately, the original illustrations and printing plates for the work disappeared following the Second World War and their fate remains a mystery. And, in spite of the atlas's popularity, little is known to the men who prepared the artwork for Spalteholz. It is commonly believed that Max Brödel contributed illustrations to the atlas, but a close examination of the work does not confirm this. A century after its inception, Spalteholz's atlas remains a classic milestone in the history of anatomical illustration.

  2. Renormalization and Universality of Van der Waals forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Arriola, Enrique; Calle Cordón, Alvaro

    2010-04-01

    Renormalization ideas can profitably be exploited in conjunction with the superposition principle of boundary conditions in the description of model independent and universal scaling features of the singular and long range Van der Waals force between neutral atoms. The dominance of the leading power law is highlighted both in the scattering as well as in the bound state problem. The role of off-shell two-body unitarity and causality within the Effective Field Theory framework on the light of universality and scaling at low energies is analyzed. Presented by E. Ruiz Arriola at 19th International IUPAP Conference On Few-Body Problems In Physics (FB 19) 31 Aug - 5 Sep 2009, Bonn, Germany

  3. General van der Waals potential for common organic molecules.

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui; Wang, Qiantao; Ren, Pengyu

    2016-10-15

    This work presents a systematic development of a new van der Waals potential (vdW2016) for common organic molecules based on symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) energy decomposition. The Buf-14-7 function, as well as Cubic-mean and Waldman-Hagler mixing rules were chosen given their best performance among other popular potentials. A database containing 39 organic molecules and 108 dimers was utilized to derive a general set of vdW parameters, which were further validated on nucleobase stacking systems and testing organic dimers. The vdW2016 potential is anticipated to significantly improve the accuracy and transferability of new generations of force fields for organic molecules. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Thermohydrodynamics of boiling in a van der Waals fluid.

    PubMed

    Laurila, T; Carlson, A; Do-Quang, M; Ala-Nissila, T; Amberg, G

    2012-02-01

    We present a modeling approach that enables numerical simulations of a boiling Van der Waals fluid based on the diffuse interface description. A boundary condition is implemented that allows in and out flux of mass at constant external pressure. In addition, a boundary condition for controlled wetting properties of the boiling surface is also proposed. We present isothermal verification cases for each element of our modeling approach. By using these two boundary conditions we are able to numerically access a system that contains the essential physics of the boiling process at microscopic scales. Evolution of bubbles under film boiling and nucleate boiling conditions are observed by varying boiling surface wettability. We observe flow patters around the three-phase contact line where the phase change is greatest. For a hydrophilic boiling surface, a complex flow pattern consistent with vapor recoil theory is observed.

  5. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice.

  6. Orbital maneuvering vehicle end effectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Barnes, Wayne L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    An end effector device (A) for grasping and holding an article such as a handle (18) of a space telescope is disclosed. The device includes a V-shaped capture window (74) defined as inclined surfaces (76, 78) in parallel face plates (22, 24) which converge toward a retainer recess (54) in which the handle is retained. A pivotal finger (30) meshes with a pair of pivoted fingers (26, 28) which rotate in counterrotation. The fingers rotate to pull a handle within the capture window into recess (54) where latches (50) lock handle (18) in the recess. To align the capture window, plates (22, 24) may be cocked plus or minus five degrees on base (64).

  7. Shallow End Response from ATEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2014-12-01

    Different geological, hydrological, environmental and engineering targets are located shallow underground. The information collected with ATEM systems might be very useful for their study; although there are many deeper targets that the ATEM systems are traditionally used for. The idea to raise magnetic moment output and get deeper penetration response was one of the goals of ATEM systems development during the last decade. The shallow geology response was a trade for such systems, which sometimes were almost blind in the first hundred meter under surface. The possibility to achieve shallow end response from ATEM systems has become significant subject in last years. Several airborne TDEM systems got second higher frequency and lower magnetic moment signal to pick up shallow response together with deep one. Having a potential advantage such implementation raises complication and cost of the system. There's no need to receive 500 meter deep response when exploring shallow geology. P-THEM system having a compact size transmitter and relatively light weight is working on one base frequency at a time, but this frequency can be preset before a flight considering survey goals. A study of shallow geology response of the P-THEM system working on different base frequency has been conducted in 2014 in Ontario. The Alliston test area located in Southern Ontario has been flown with the P-THEM system working on base frequencies 30Hz and 90Hz. Results of the observations will be discussed in the presentation. The shallow end data can be used for mineral exploration applications and also for hydrological and environmental studies.

  8. Harris-type van der Waals density functional scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berland, Kristian; Londero, Elisa; Schröder, Elsebeth; Hyldgaard, Per

    2013-07-01

    Biomolecular systems that involve thousands of atoms are difficult to address with standard density functional theory (DFT) calculations. With the development of sparse-matter methods such as the van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method [M. Dion , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.246401 92, 246401 (2004)], it is now possible to include the dispersive forces in DFT which are necessary to describe the cohesion and behavior of these systems. vdW-DF implementations can be as efficient as those for traditional DFT. Yet, the computational costs of self-consistently determining the electron wave functions and hence the kinetic-energy repulsion still limit the scope of sparse-matter DFT. We propose to speed up sparse-matter calculations by using the Harris scheme [J. Harris, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.31.1770 31, 1770 (1985)]; that is, we propose to perform electronic relaxations only for separated fragments (molecules) and use a superposition of fragment densities as a starting point to obtain the total energy non-self-consistently. We evaluate the feasibility of this approach for an adaption of the Harris scheme for non-self-consistent vdW-DF (sfd-vdW-DF). We study four molecular dimers with varying degrees of polarity and find that the sfd scheme accurately reproduces standard non-self-consistent vdW-DF for van der Waals dominated systems but is less accurate for those dominated by polar interactions. Results for the S22 set of typical organic molecular dimers are promising.

  9. Electron response in van der Waals density functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyldgaard, Per

    2013-03-01

    There is significant interest in density functional theory (DFT) of dispersive or van der Waals (vdW) interactions and in DFT studies of sparse systems where vdW forces contribute to the cohesion and behavior. The Rutgers-Chalmers van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) method [PRL 92, 246401 (2004); PRB 76, 125112 (2007)] is a nonempirical approach to calculate vdW bonding and for DFT characterizations of sparse matter. The vdW-DF framework is defined by a single exchange-correlation density functional that rests on a plasmon-type description for both semilocal components and for a parameter-free evaluation of nonlocal correlation. My talk summarizes a set of vdW-DF studies that seeks to map and analyze details in the vdW-DF electron-response nature. The purpose is in part to extract consequences that can facilitate an experiment-theory comparison that goes beyond binding geometries and energies. The aim is also to seek implications that can help develop the vdW-DF framework. I present an analysis of the relative importance of morphology, screening (image-plane formation), and collective effects in the vdW-DF description of molecular systems. In addition, I compare vdW-DF results with Cu(111) experiments that tests the electron-response behavior in terms of adsorption-induced band shifts, the form of the overall light-molecule physisorption potential, and the corrugation in the kinetic-energy repulsion of molecules at surfaces. Overall, the vdW-DF studies suggest the importance of benchmarking vdW methods across different length scales and by exploring the variation that arise when related structures have a different balance between exchange repulsion and vdW attraction.

  10. High-level expression and purification of the major house dust mite allergen Der p 2 in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Cao, Tuo; Zhang, Zhang; Liu, Zhi-Gao; Dou, Xia; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Wei; Wu, Bo; Yu, Zhen-Dong; Wei, Zhun; Yu, Bo

    2016-05-01

    Der p 2, a major allergen derived from the house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, is one of the most clinically relevant allergens worldwide. Recombinant Der p 2 (rDer p 2) is useful in clinical diagnosis and disease-specific immunotherapy. However, previous studies showed that Der p 2 can only be expressed in Escherichia coli (E. coli) cells as inclusion bodies, thus protein refolding is required to obtain functional products. Here we report a new method to produce biologically active Der p 2 protein in E. coli. N-terminal hexahistidine- and trigger factor (TF)-tagged Der p 2 was expressed in soluble form in E. coli and purified using a combination of chromatography processes. This procedure produced milligram-level high purity Der p 2 per liter of bacterial culture. Moreover, far-UV region circular dichroism (CD) analysis and serum specific IgE reactivity test demonstrated that the secondary structure and IgE reactivity properties of rDer p 2 produced in our study were almost identical to those of natural Der p 2 (nDer p 2). In conclusion, the method developed in this work provides a useful tool for the production of immunologically active recombinant Der p 2 for clinical applications.

  11. Story II: Kommerzialisierung innovativer Technologien - das Beispiel der WoodWelding SA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Jörg; Plasonig, Gerhard

    Technologische Innovation war und ist der prinzipielle Grund der Erhöhung der Wertschöpfung von Produkten, Produktionsprozessen und Dienstleistungen in zumindest den letzten 100 Jahren. Die BoneWelding® Technologie ist - wie viele andere Plattformtechnologien auch - im universitären Umfeld entstanden. Um den Prozess, den die Gründer des Unternehmens WoodWelding SA erfolgreich durchlaufen haben, besser zu verstehen, folgen ein paar grundlegenden Ausführungen, die zu erfolgreicher Technologieentwicklung, -transfer und Unternehmens-Start-up führten.

  12. Finite element analysis of resistivity measurement with van der Pauw method in a diamond anvil cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaowei; Gao, Chunxiao; Han, Yonghao; Li, Ming; He, Chunyuan; Hao, Aimin; Zhang, Dongmei; Yu, Cuiling; Zou, Guangtian; Ma, Yanzhang

    2007-06-01

    Using finite element analysis, the authors studied the steady current field distribution under the configuration of van der Pauw method [L. J. van der Pauw, Philips Tech. Rev. 20, 220 (1958)] for resistivity measurement in a diamond anvil cell. Based on the theoretical analysis, the authors obtained the theoretical accuracy curve of the van der Pauw method. This method provides accurate determination of sample resistivity when the ratio of sample thickness to its diameter is less than 0.45. They found that the contact area between electrode and sample is a key factor in the resistivity measurement accuracy and its size is dependent on the sample diameter for a given measurement accuracy.

  13. Tuning the van der Waals Interaction of Graphene with Molecules via Doping.

    PubMed

    Huttmann, Felix; Martínez-Galera, Antonio J; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Schumacher, Stefan; Standop, Sebastian; Hamada, Ikutaro; Wehling, Tim O; Blügel, Stefan; Michely, Thomas

    2015-12-04

    We use scanning tunneling microscopy to visualize and thermal desorption spectroscopy to quantitatively measure that the binding of naphthalene molecules to graphene, a case of pure van der Waals interaction, strengthens with n and weakens with p doping of graphene. Density-functional theory calculations that include the van der Waals interaction in a seamless, ab initio way accurately reproduce the observed trend in binding energies. Based on a model calculation, we propose that the van der Waals interaction is modified by changing the spatial extent of graphene's π orbitals via doping.

  14. [Ernst von der Porten : looking for facts before and after forced emigration].

    PubMed

    Goerig, M; Bruijn, L

    2014-10-01

    The Ernst von der Porten medal has been awarded for many years to exceptional personalities by the Alliance of German Anesthesiologists to honor the outstanding achievements of the physician Ernst von der Porten from Hamburg in the development of anesthesiology as an autonomous discipline Only recent access to hitherto inaccessible documents enabled the reconstruction of his final years. He was persecuted and excluded by the National Socialist (NS) regime due to his Jewish roots and finally forced to emigrate. Records revealed that even in the so-called safe exile, degrading treatment and humiliation continued for Ernst von der Porten and his family. He eventually evaded this situation by committing suicide.

  15. OGC standards for end-to-end sensor network integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Headley, K. L.; Broering, A.; O'Reilly, T. C.; Toma, D.; Del Rio, J.; Bermudez, L. E.; Zedlitz, J.; Johnson, G.; Edgington, D.

    2010-12-01

    technology, and can communicate with any sensor whose protocol can be described by a SID. The SID interpreter transfers retrieved sensor data to a Sensor Observation Service, and transforms tasks submitted to a Sensor Planning Service to actual sensor commands. The proposed SWE PUCK protocol complements SID by providing a standard way to associate a sensor with a SID, thereby completely automating the sensor integration process. PUCK protocol is implemented in sensor firmware, and provides a means to retrieve a universally unique identifer, metadata and other information from the device itself through its communication interface. Thus the SID interpreter can retrieve a SID directly from the sensor through PUCK protocol. Alternatively the interpreter can retrieve the sensor’s SID from an external source, based on the unique sensor ID provided by PUCK protocol. In this presentation, we describe the end-to-end integration of several commercial oceanographic instruments into a sensor network using PUCK, SID and SWE services. We also present a user-friendly, graphical tool to generate SIDs and tools to visualize sensor data.

  16. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Rachel Landry

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related subtasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these subtasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these subtasks were derived from the original intent of

  17. Decoupling interface effect on the phase stability of CdS thin films by van der Waals heteroepitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin; Wang, Yiping; Seewald, Lucas J.; Chen, Zhizhong; Shi, Jian; Washington, Morris A.; Lu, Toh-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Wurtzite (W) and zinc-blende (ZB) polytypism has long been observed in epitaxial CdS thin films. The present work, based on van der Waals epitaxial CdS thin films, is an attempt to explain which crystal modification, W or ZB, is favored under different growth conditions. In this van der Waals epitaxy system where the substrate influence is considered weak, it is found that the substrate temperature plays a crucial role in determining the crystal modification of CdS, that is, W and ZB CdS are more stable at low and high ends of substrate temperature, respectively. We attribute this temperature effect to the entropy difference (SW < SZB), a conclusion well supported by the thermodynamic hard sphere model formulation of the entropy difference between hexagonal close-packed and face-centered cubic structures. By summarizing other works, we find that the entropy difference model can also be applied to large mismatched (≳3%) CdS-substrate chemical epitaxy systems but not for small mismatched (≲3%) ones. In the latter case, the energy benefit in terms of high density of bonding contributed by the substrate-film interface is believed to be too overwhelming for the intrinsic entropy difference to overcome. Furthermore, the deposition rate is found to affect the crystalline quality and strain level in CdS films but not the crystal modification of the CdS films. Last, Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies reveal the strain behaviors in the films. The phase change from W to ZB CdS is well-correlated with the observed peak shifts in Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopies.

  18. Narrative means to professional ends

    PubMed Central

    Peterkin, Allan; Roberts, Michael; Kavanagh, Lynn; Havey, Tom

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Problem addressed Medical students in training are rarely encouraged to engage in reflective thinking around clinical encounters. Writing exercises can be an effective route for encouraging student reflection. Objective of program The purpose of this pilot project was to determine if using reflective writing in teaching the CanMEDS roles helps to increase students’ understanding of the roles in the clinical context. Program description A pilot project was undertaken with 10 third-year medical students at the University of Toronto in Ontario. Students wrote about a different CanMEDS role for each session based on supplied writing prompts. Students also completed a Narrative Reflection Tool at the end of each group session. A selection of writing samples was assessed for reflection and for an understanding of the CanMEDS roles. Students were also given an opportunity to provide feedback on the program. Conclusion Students demonstrated a good grasp of the CanMEDS roles, strong reflective capacity, and engagement in the learning process. Results suggest reflective writing has an important role in encouraging personal reflection and reflective thinking in the clinical context. PMID:23064935

  19. Front end for GPS receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Jr., Jess Brooks (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    The front end in GPS receivers has the functions of amplifying, down-converting, filtering and sampling the received signals. In the preferred embodiment, only two operations, A/D conversion and a sum, bring the signal from RF to filtered quadrature baseband samples. After amplification and filtering at RF, the L1 and L2 signals are each sampled at RF at a high selected subharmonic rate. The subharmonic sample rates are approximately 900 MHz for L1 and 982 MHz for L2. With the selected subharmonic sampling, the A/D conversion effectively down-converts the signal from RF to quadrature components at baseband. The resulting sample streams for L1 and L2 are each reduced to a lower rate with a digital filter, which becomes a straight sum in the simplest embodiment. The frequency subsystem can be very simple, only requiring the generation of a single reference frequency (e.g. 20.46 MHz minus a small offset) and the simple multiplication of this reference up to the subharmonic sample rates for L1 and L2. The small offset in the reference frequency serves the dual purpose of providing an advantageous offset in the down-converted carrier frequency and in the final baseband sample rate.

  20. Making Ends Meet After Prison

    PubMed Central

    Harding, David J.; Wyse, Jessica J.B.; Dobson, Cheyney; Morenoff, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Former prisoners are at high risk of economic insecurity due to the challenges they face in finding employment and to the difficulties of securing and maintaining public assistance while incarcerated. This study examines the processes through which former prisoners attain economic security, examining how they meet basic material needs and achieve upward mobility over time. It draws on unique qualitative data from in-depth, unstructured interviews with a sample of former prisoners followed over a two to three year period to assess how subjects draw upon a combination of employment, social supports, and public benefits to make ends meet. Findings reveal considerable struggle among our subjects to meet even minimal needs for shelter and food, although economic security and stability could be attained when employment or public benefits were coupled with familial social support. Sustained economic security was rarely achieved absent either strong social support or access to long-term public benefits. However, a select few were able to leverage material support and social networks into trajectories of upward mobility and economic independence. Policy implications are discussed. PMID:25584015

  1. Der historische Buchbestand der Universitatssternwarte Wien. Ein illustrierter Katalog. Teil 2: 18. Jahrhundert

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duerbeck, H. W.; Lackner, K.; Muller, I.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.; Posch, T.

    2006-12-01

    -headed eagle in the centre, surrounded by the text Universitats-Sternwarte Wien , and obviously used after 1918. Finally, there is one book (J. Cassini, Tabulae Planetarum, 1764) which carries a stamp where the eagle has exchanged its hammer and sickle by a swastika, thus dating the acquisition to the time of 1938-45. The editors note that there are no indications of a previous owner. The first three types of stamps are also found on title pages of the books printed before 1700 (again, the reader is referred to my review in JAD 11,4). According to the cursory census, 219 books published between 1700 and 1799 carry the rectangular, 38 the plain Kakanian , and 21 the round stamp; there are about 30 books without such a stamp. Some of the rectangular books also carry a handwritten note that they belonged to the Jesuit College. Again, 4 of the post-1918 books also carry a rubber-stamped inscription Vermachtnis Rudolf Konig . Another major inheritage happened in the era 1867-1918: Several books carry a seal and the note Bibl.^a Coll. Lewenburg Schol. Piar. Vienna or Convictus Loevenburgici Scholarum Piarum . The majority (78%) of 18th century books was acquired by the Vienna observatory before 1867, 14% before the end of the monarchy, and 8% thereafter; for the pre-18th century books, the percentages are 58%, 29% and 13%. Thus, 18th century books were often acquired by the observatory library immediately after publication, while apparently a major percentage of 16th and 17th century books was integrated into the library in the early decades of the New University Observatory , i.e. after 1874. I wish to draw attention to a few omissions, errors or confusions. Usually, in each entry the author's lifespan is given. There are a few omissions in the case of well-known authors - e.g. with Boskovic, where, however, the life dates are given in the commentary section. The dates of Francois Noel are wrong, they should be 1651-1729; Wenceslaus Johann Gustav Karsten lived from 1732-1787. The

  2. Spectral mixing formulations for van der Waals-London dispersion interactions between multicomponent carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Rajter, Rick; French, Roger H; Podgornik, Rudi; Ching, W Y; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2008-09-01

    Recognition of spatially varying optical properties is a necessity when studying the van der Waals-London dispersion (vdW-Ld) interactions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that have surfactant coatings, tubes within tubes, andor substantial core sizes. The ideal way to address these radially dependent optical properties would be to have an analytical add-a-layer solution in cylindrical coordinates similar to the one readily available for the plane-plane geometry. However, such a formulation does not exist nor does it appear trivial to be obtained exactly. The best and most pragmatic alternative for end-users is to take the optical spectra of the many components and to use a spectral mixing formulation so as to create effective solid-cylinder spectra for use in the far-limit regime. The near-limit regime at "contact" is dominated by the optical properties of the outermost layer, and thus no spectral mixing is required. Specifically we use a combination of a parallel capacitor in the axial direction and the Bruggeman effective medium in the radial direction. We then analyze the impact of using this mixing formulation upon the effective vdW-Ld spectra and the resulting Hamaker coefficients for small and large diameter single walled CNTs (SWCNTs) in both the near- and far-limit regions. We also test the spectra of a [16,0,s+7,0,s] multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) with an effective MWCNT spectrum created by mixing its [16,0,s] and [7,0,s] SWCNT components to demonstrate nonlinear coupling effects that exist between neighboring layers. Although this paper is primarily on nanotubes, the strategies, implementation, and analysis presented are applicable and likely necessary to any system where one needs to resolve spatially varying optical properties in a particular Lifshitz formulation.

  3. Spectral mixing formulations for van der Waals–London dispersion interactions between multicomponent carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Rajter, Rick; French, Roger H.; Podgornik, Rudi; Ching, W. Y.; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Recognition of spatially varying optical properties is a necessity when studying the van der Waals–London dispersion (vdW-Ld) interactions of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) that have surfactant coatings, tubes within tubes, and∕or substantial core sizes. The ideal way to address these radially dependent optical properties would be to have an analytical add-a-layer solution in cylindrical coordinates similar to the one readily available for the plane-plane geometry. However, such a formulation does not exist nor does it appear trivial to be obtained exactly. The best and most pragmatic alternative for end-users is to take the optical spectra of the many components and to use a spectral mixing formulation so as to create effective solid-cylinder spectra for use in the far-limit regime. The near-limit regime at “contact” is dominated by the optical properties of the outermost layer, and thus no spectral mixing is required. Specifically we use a combination of a parallel capacitor in the axial direction and the Bruggeman effective medium in the radial direction. We then analyze the impact of using this mixing formulation upon the effective vdW-Ld spectra and the resulting Hamaker coefficients for small and large diameter single walled CNTs (SWCNTs) in both the near- and far-limit regions. We also test the spectra of a [16,0,s+7,0,s] multiwalled CNT (MWCNT) with an effective MWCNT spectrum created by mixing its [16,0,s] and [7,0,s] SWCNT components to demonstrate nonlinear coupling effects that exist between neighboring layers. Although this paper is primarily on nanotubes, the strategies, implementation, and analysis presented are applicable and likely necessary to any system where one needs to resolve spatially varying optical properties in a particular Lifshitz formulation. PMID:19529795

  4. The southern oscillation and prediction of Der season rainfall in Somalia

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, P. )

    1992-05-01

    Somalia survives in semiarid to and conditions, with annual rainfall totals rarely exceeding 700 mm, which are divided between two seasons. Many areas are arid, with negligible precipitation. Seasonal totals are highly variable. Thus, any seasonal rainfall forecast would be of significant importance to both the agricultural and animal husbandry communities. An investigation was carried out to determine whether there is a relationship between the Southern Oscillation and seasonal rainfall. No relationship exists between the Southern Oscillation and rainfall during the midyear [open quotes]Gu[close quotes] season, but it is shown that the year-end [open quotes]Der[close quotes] season precipitation is affected by the Southern Oscillation in southern and central areas of Somalia. Three techniques were used: correlation, regression, and simple contingency tables. Correlations between the SOI (Southern Oscillation index) and seasonal rainfall vary from zero up to about -0.8, with higher correlations in the south, both for individual stations and for area-averaged rainfall. Regression provides some predictive capacity, but the [open quotes]explanation[close quotes] of the variation in rainfall is not particularly high. The contingency tables revealed that there were very few occasions of both high SOI and high seasonal rainfall, although there was a wide scatter of seasonal rainfall associated with a low SOI. It is concluded that the SOI would be useful for planners, governments, and agencies as one tool in food/famine early warning but that the relationships are not strong enough for the average farmer to place much reliance on forecasts produced solely using the SOI.

  5. NetCoDer: A Retransmission Mechanism for WSNs Based on Cooperative Relays and Network Coding.

    PubMed

    Valle, Odilson T; Montez, Carlos; Medeiros de Araujo, Gustavo; Vasques, Francisco; Moraes, Ricardo

    2016-05-31

    Some of the most difficult problems to deal with when using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are related to the unreliable nature of communication channels. In this context, the use of cooperative diversity techniques and the application of network coding concepts may be promising solutions to improve the communication reliability. In this paper, we propose the NetCoDer scheme to address this problem. Its design is based on merging cooperative diversity techniques and network coding concepts. We evaluate the effectiveness of the NetCoDer scheme through both an experimental setup with real WSN nodes and a simulation assessment, comparing NetCoDer performance against state-of-the-art TDMA-based (Time Division Multiple Access) retransmission techniques: BlockACK, Master/Slave and Redundant TDMA. The obtained results highlight that the proposed NetCoDer scheme clearly improves the network performance when compared with other retransmission techniques.

  6. Lack of lysozyme activity of natural and yeast-derived recombinant Der p 2.

    PubMed

    Hakkaart, G A; Aalberse, R C; van Ree, R

    1997-10-01

    For Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus a number of allergens have been reported. Although the function of several allergens is known, that of the house dust mite allergen Der p 2 is unknown. A role as lysozyme has been suggested. We tested a yeast-derived recombinant Der p 2 for its lysozymatic activity. This recombinant allergen and affinity-purified natural Der p 2 lacked this enzymatic activity. Whole-body mite extract retained its lysozymatic activity after removal of the group 2 allergen by monoclonal antibody depletion. Analysis of spent medium revealed the reciprocal: it contained group 2 allergen, but lacked lysozymatic activity. Together, these data demonstrate that mite lysozyme and Der p 2 are different components of mite extract.

  7. Graphene on boron-nitride: Moiré pattern in the van der Waals energy

    SciTech Connect

    Neek-Amal, M.; Peeters, F. M.

    2014-01-27

    The spatial dependence of the van der Waals (vdW) energy between graphene and hexagonal boron-nitride (h-BN) is investigated using atomistic simulations. The van der Waals energy between graphene and h-BN shows a hexagonal superlattice structure identical to the observed Moiré pattern in the local density of states, which depends on the lattice mismatch and misorientation angle between graphene and h-BN. Our results provide atomistic features of the weak van der Waals interaction between graphene and BN which are in agreement with experiment and provide an analytical expression for the size of the spatial variation of the weak van der Waals interaction. We also found that the A-B-lattice symmetry of graphene is broken along the armchair direction.

  8. van der Waals screening by single-layer graphene and molybdenum disulfide.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, Stanislav; Dev, Pratibha; Friedman, Adam L; Stine, Rory; Robinson, Jeremy T; Reinecke, Thomas L; Sheehan, Paul E

    2014-12-23

    A sharp tip of atomic force microscope is employed to probe van der Waals forces of a silicon oxide substrate with adhered graphene. Experimental results obtained in the range of distances from 3 to 20 nm indicate that single-, double-, and triple-layer graphenes screen the van der Waals forces of the substrate. Fluorination of graphene, which makes it electrically insulating, lifts the screening in the single-layer graphene. The van der Waals force from graphene determined per layer decreases with the number of layers. In addition, increased hole doping of graphene increases the force. Finally, we also demonstrate screening of the van der Waals forces of the silicon oxide substrate by single- and double-layer molybdenum disulfide.

  9. Der Physik-Nobelpreis vor 100 Jahren Die Entdeckung des trägen Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobi, Manfred

    2004-11-01

    Im Jahr 1904 erhielt der britische Physiker Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt, 1842 bis 1919) den Nobelpreis für seine Untersuchungen über die Dichte von Gasen und die Entdeckung des Edelgases Argon.

  10. Enhanced Chiral Discriminatory van der Waals Interactions Mediated by Chiral Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barcellona, Pablo; Safari, Hassan; Salam, A.; Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2017-05-01

    We predict a discriminatory interaction between a chiral molecule and an achiral molecule which is mediated by a chiral body. To achieve this, we generalize the van der Waals interaction potential between two ground-state molecules with electric, magnetic, and chiral response to nontrivial environments. The force is evaluated using second-order perturbation theory with an effective Hamiltonian. Chiral media enhance or reduce the free interaction via many-body interactions, making it possible to measure the chiral contributions to the van der Waals force with current technology. The van der Waals interaction is discriminatory with respect to enantiomers of different handedness and could be used to separate enantiomers. We also suggest a specific geometric configuration where the electric contribution to the van der Waals interaction is zero, making the chiral component the dominant effect.

  11. NetCoDer: A Retransmission Mechanism for WSNs Based on Cooperative Relays and Network Coding

    PubMed Central

    Valle, Odilson T.; Montez, Carlos; Medeiros de Araujo, Gustavo; Vasques, Francisco; Moraes, Ricardo

    2016-01-01

    Some of the most difficult problems to deal with when using Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are related to the unreliable nature of communication channels. In this context, the use of cooperative diversity techniques and the application of network coding concepts may be promising solutions to improve the communication reliability. In this paper, we propose the NetCoDer scheme to address this problem. Its design is based on merging cooperative diversity techniques and network coding concepts. We evaluate the effectiveness of the NetCoDer scheme through both an experimental setup with real WSN nodes and a simulation assessment, comparing NetCoDer performance against state-of-the-art TDMA-based (Time Division Multiple Access) retransmission techniques: BlockACK, Master/Slave and Redundant TDMA. The obtained results highlight that the proposed NetCoDer scheme clearly improves the network performance when compared with other retransmission techniques. PMID:27258280

  12. Regenerative Energieträger im Aufwind: Entwicklung der erneuerbaren Energien

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Harald

    2006-05-01

    2005 kam 4,6 % des deutschen Primär-Energieverbrauchs aus erneuerbaren Energiequellen, bei der Stromproduktion lag ihr Anteil bei 10,2 %. Wesentliche Ursache ist der Boom bei der Windkraft, die vor allem durch Offshore-Windparks auf See weiter ausbaubar ist. Die Wasserkraft lieferte in Deutschland traditionell einen großen Beitrag zur Stromerzeugung, doch ihr Ausbaupotenzial ist gering. Die Photovoltaik, die solar- und die geothermische Stromerzeugung spielen derzeit noch eine kleine Rolle. Den deutschen Bedarf an Wärmeenergie deckten 2004 die erneuerbaren Energien zu 5,4 %, vor allem aus Biomasse. Die solarthermische Wärmeerzeugung hat sich gegenüber 2000 mehr als verdoppelt. Im Straßenverkehr spielen biogene Kraftstoffe mit 5,4 % noch eine untergeordnete Rolle. Bis 2050 könnte in Deutschland der Anteil regenerativer Energien am Primär-Energieverbrauch die Fünfzigprozentmarke überschreiten.

  13. Approximation dreidimensionaler Oberflächenmodelle der Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumen-Region durch aktive Polygonnetze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weichert, Frank; Ewerlin, Christoph; Büttner, Christian; Shamaa, Ali; Landes, Constantin; Linder, Roland; Wagner, Mathias

    In dieser Arbeit wird ein Verfahren zur Rekonstruktion eines dreidimensionalen Oberflächenmodells aus Serienschnitten vorgestellt, die sich von Lippen-Kiefer-Gaumenspalten (kurz LKG) ableiten und insbesondere die in der chirurgischen Behandlung relevanten medizinischen Strukturen berücksichtigen. Die Intention ist, ein aktives Polygonnetz (deformierbares Oberflächennetz) zur Rekonstruktion der Struktur zu verwenden. Initial wird ein Netzprototyp als grobe Approximation der Struktur erstellt und dann mithilfe eines Gradient Vector Flow (GVF)-Kraftfeldes deformiert. Inhärenter Aspekt der Deformation ist die Beachtung eines resultierenden überschneidungsfreien Oberflächennetzes. Die rekonstruierte Oberfläche eignet sich aufgrund ausgezeichneter Eigenschaften als Eingabe für eine Kräftesimulation mittels Finite-Elemente-Methoden.

  14. Combustor with non-circular head end

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Won -Wook; McMahan, Kevin Weston

    2015-09-29

    The present application provides a combustor for use with a gas turbine engine. The combustor may include a head end with a non-circular configuration, a number of fuel nozzles positioned about the head end, and a transition piece extending downstream of the head end.

  15. 7 CFR 51.1240 - Paper ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Paper ends. 51.1240 Section 51.1240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means...

  16. 7 CFR 51.1240 - Paper ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Paper ends. 51.1240 Section 51.1240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends means...

  17. The Open-Ended Approach Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munroe, Lloyd

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a pedagogical framework that teachers can use to support students who are engaged in solving open-ended problems, by explaining how two Japanese expert teachers successfully apply open-ended problems in their mathematics class. The Open-Ended Approach (OPA) framework consists of two main sections: Understanding Mathematical…

  18. 46 CFR 56.20-7 - Ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ends. 56.20-7 Section 56.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Valves § 56.20-7 Ends. (a) Valves may be used with flanged, threaded, butt welding, socket welding or other ends...

  19. 46 CFR 56.20-7 - Ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ends. 56.20-7 Section 56.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Valves § 56.20-7 Ends. (a) Valves may be used with flanged, threaded, butt welding, socket welding or other ends...

  20. 46 CFR 56.20-7 - Ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ends. 56.20-7 Section 56.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Valves § 56.20-7 Ends. (a) Valves may be used with flanged, threaded, butt welding, socket welding or other ends...

  1. 46 CFR 56.20-7 - Ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ends. 56.20-7 Section 56.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Valves § 56.20-7 Ends. (a) Valves may be used with flanged, threaded, butt welding, socket welding or other ends...

  2. 46 CFR 56.20-7 - Ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ends. 56.20-7 Section 56.20-7 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING PIPING SYSTEMS AND APPURTENANCES Valves § 56.20-7 Ends. (a) Valves may be used with flanged, threaded, butt welding, socket welding or other ends...

  3. End-User Training Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Albert H.

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the need for employee training in this information-based economy; reviews the process of end-user training and related research; describes a system that manages end-user training; and proposes potential opportunities for future development. Topics include the diversity of end users; diversity of training methods; need for outcome…

  4. End Game Strategies: Winning the Peace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    End Game Strategies: Winning the Peace by Lieutenant Colonel William L. Peace Sr. United States Army National Guard...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER End Game Strategies: Winning the Peace 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...RESEARCH PROJECT END GAME STRATEGIES: WINNING THE PEACE by Lieutenant Colonel William L. Peace Sr. United States Army

  5. End Joining at Caenorhabditis elegans Telomeres

    PubMed Central

    Lowden, Mia Rochelle; Meier, Bettina; Lee, Teresa Wei-sy; Hall, Julie; Ahmed, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Critically shortened telomeres can be subjected to DNA repair events that generate end-to-end chromosome fusions. The resulting dicentric chromosomes can enter breakage–fusion–bridge cycles, thereby impeding elucidation of the structures of the initial fusion events and a mechanistic understanding of their genesis. Current models for the molecular basis of fusion of critically shortened, uncapped telomeres rely on PCR assays that typically capture fusion breakpoints created by direct ligation of chromosome ends. Here we use independent approaches that rely on distinctive features of Caenorhabditis elegans to study the frequency of direct end-to-end chromosome fusion in telomerase mutants: (1) holocentric chromosomes that allow for genetic isolation of stable end-to-end fusions and (2) unique subtelomeric sequences that allow for thorough PCR analysis of samples of genomic DNA harboring multiple end-to-end fusions. Surprisingly, only a minority of end-to-end fusion events resulted from direct end joining with no additional genome rearrangements. We also demonstrate that deficiency for the C. elegans Ku DNA repair heterodimer does not affect telomere length or cause synthetic effects in the absence of telomerase. PMID:18780750

  6. 7 CFR 51.1240 - Paper ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Paper ends. 51.1240 Section 51.1240 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Standards for Cleaned Virginia Type Peanuts in the Shell Definitions § 51.1240 Paper ends. Paper ends...

  7. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and building retrofits with the strategic DER-CAModel

    SciTech Connect

    Stadler, M.; Groissböck, M.; Cardoso, G.; Marnay, C.

    2014-08-05

    The pressuring need to reduce the import of fossil fuels as well as the need to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions in Europe motivated the European Commission (EC) to implement several regulations directed to building owners. Most of these regulations focus on increasing the number of energy efficient buildings, both new and retrofitted, since retrofits play an important role in energy efficiency. Overall, this initiative results from the realization that buildings will have a significant impact in fulfilling the 20/20/20-goals of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, increasing energy efficiency by 20%, and increasing the share of renewables to 20%, all by 2020. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an optimization tool used to support DER investment decisions, typically by minimizing total annual costs or CO2 emissions while providing energy services to a given building or microgrid site. This document shows enhancements made to DER-CAM to consider building retrofit measures along with DER investment options. Specifically, building shell improvement options have been added to DER-CAM as alternative or complementary options to investments in other DER such as PV, solar thermal, combined heat and power, or energy storage. The extension of the mathematical formulation required by the new features introduced in DER-CAM is presented and the resulting model is demonstrated at an Austrian Campus building by comparing DER-CAM results with and without building shell improvement options. Strategic investment results are presented and compared to the observed investment decision at the test site. Results obtained considering building shell improvement options suggest an optimal weighted average U value of about 0.53 W/(m2K) for the test site. This result is approximately 25% higher than what is currently observed in the building, suggesting that the retrofits made in 2002 were not optimal. Furthermore

  8. Optimizing Distributed Energy Resources and building retrofits with the strategic DER-CAModel

    DOE PAGES

    Stadler, M.; Groissböck, M.; Cardoso, G.; ...

    2014-08-05

    The pressuring need to reduce the import of fossil fuels as well as the need to dramatically reduce CO2 emissions in Europe motivated the European Commission (EC) to implement several regulations directed to building owners. Most of these regulations focus on increasing the number of energy efficient buildings, both new and retrofitted, since retrofits play an important role in energy efficiency. Overall, this initiative results from the realization that buildings will have a significant impact in fulfilling the 20/20/20-goals of reducing the greenhouse gas emissions by 20%, increasing energy efficiency by 20%, and increasing the share of renewables to 20%,more » all by 2020. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) is an optimization tool used to support DER investment decisions, typically by minimizing total annual costs or CO2 emissions while providing energy services to a given building or microgrid site. This document shows enhancements made to DER-CAM to consider building retrofit measures along with DER investment options. Specifically, building shell improvement options have been added to DER-CAM as alternative or complementary options to investments in other DER such as PV, solar thermal, combined heat and power, or energy storage. The extension of the mathematical formulation required by the new features introduced in DER-CAM is presented and the resulting model is demonstrated at an Austrian Campus building by comparing DER-CAM results with and without building shell improvement options. Strategic investment results are presented and compared to the observed investment decision at the test site. Results obtained considering building shell improvement options suggest an optimal weighted average U value of about 0.53 W/(m2K) for the test site. This result is approximately 25% higher than what is currently observed in the building, suggesting that the retrofits made in 2002 were not optimal. Furthermore, the results obtained with

  9. Modified van der Pauw method based on formulas solvable by the Banach fixed point method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cieśliński, Jan L.

    2012-11-01

    We propose a modification of the standard van der Pauw method for determining the resistivity and Hall coefficient of flat thin samples of arbitrary shape. Considering a different choice of resistance measurements we derive a new formula which can be numerically solved (with respect to sheet resistance) by the Banach fixed point method for any values of experimental data. The convergence is especially fast in the case of almost symmetric van der Pauw configurations (e.g., clover shaped samples).

  10. High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Mudd, Garry W; Svatek, Simon A; Hague, Lee; Makarovsky, Oleg; Kudrynskyi, Zakhar R; Mellor, Christopher J; Beton, Peter H; Eaves, Laurence; Novoselov, Kostya S; Kovalyuk, Zakhar D; Vdovin, Evgeny E; Marsden, Alex J; Wilson, Neil R; Patanè, Amalia

    2015-07-01

    High broad-band photoresponsivity of mechanically formed InSe-graphene van der Waals heterostructures is achieved by exploiting the broad-band transparency of graphene, the direct bandgap of InSe, and the favorable band line up of InSe with graphene. The photoresponsivity exceeds that for other van der Waals heterostructures and the spectral response extends from the near-infrared to the visible spectrum.

  11. Graphene Substrate for van der Waals Epitaxy of Layer-Structured Bismuth Antimony Telluride Thermoelectric Film.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Sung; Hwang, Jae-Yeol; Lee, Kyu Hyoung; Ohta, Hiromichi; Lee, Young Hee; Kim, Sung Wng

    2017-02-01

    Graphene as a substrate for the van der Waals epitaxy of 2D layered materials is utilized for the epitaxial growth of a layer-structured thermoelectric film. Van der Waals epitaxial Bi0.5 Sb1.5 Te3 film on graphene synthesized via a simple and scalable fabrication method exhibits good crystallinity and high thermoelectric transport properties comparable to single crystals.

  12. Enhanced Allergic Inflammation of Der p 2 Affected by Polymorphisms of MD-2 Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Liao, En-Chih; Hsieh, Chia-Wei; Chang, Ching-Yun; Yu, Sheng-Jie; Sheu, Meei-Ling; Wu, Sheng-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Myeloid differentiation-2 (MD-2) has been associated with endotoxin and inflammatory disorders because it can recognize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding and attenuate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated signaling. However, its role in allergic inflammation has yet to be clarified. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MD-2 promoter can affect MD-2 expression and aimed to clarify the relationship between Der p 2 allergy and SNPs of MD-2 promoter. Methods The function of SNPs of MD-2 promoter and the effects of cytokines and immunoglobulin on the secretion and mRNA expression were investigated in 73 allergic subjects with different MD-2 gene promoter variants. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were cultured with or without LPS in the presence of Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus group 2 allergen (Der p 2), followed by mRNA extraction and cytokine expression analysis. The culture supernatants were collected for cytokine measurement. Results Patients with the MD-2 promoter SNPs (rs1809441/rs1809442) had increased mRNA expressions of MD-2, ε heavy chain of IgE (Cε), and interleukin (IL)-8; however, only MD-2 and IL-8 were further up-regulated after Der p 2 stimulation. Patients with SNPs of MD-2 promoter tended to have high levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α after Der p 2 and LPS stimulation. Increased secretions of IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10 were found to be up-regulated by Der p 2 stimulation, and an increased secretion of IFN-γ and decreased secretion of IL-4 were noted after LPS stimulation. Conclusions The high levels of proinflammatory cytokines secreted by Der p 2 were predetermined by MD-2 promoter SNPs (rs1809441/rs1809442). Through cytokine secretion by Der p 2 and LPS, these SNPs may serve as an indicator of the pathological phenotype of Der p 2-induced allergic inflammation. PMID:26122509

  13. Construction of a Der p2-transgenic plant for the alleviation of airway inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, CC; Ho, H; Lee, KT; Jeng, ST; Chiang, BL

    2011-01-01

    In clinical therapy, the amount of antigen administered to achieve oral tolerance for allergic diseases is large, and the cost is a major consideration. In this study, we used tobacco plants to develop a large-scale protein production system for allergen-specific immunotherapy, and we investigated the mechanisms of oral tolerance induced by a transgenic plant-derived antigen. We used plants (tobacco leaves) transgenic for the Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus 2 (Der p2) antigen to produce Der p2. Mice received total protein extract from Der p2 orally once per day over 6 days (days 0–2 and days 6–8). Mice were also sensitized and challenged with yeast-derived recombinant Der p2 (rDer p2), after which the mice were examined for airway hyper-responsiveness and airway inflammation. After sensitization and challenge with rDer p2, mice that were fed with total protein extracted from transgenic plants showed decreases in serum Der p2-specific IgE and IgG1 titers, decreased IL-5 and eotaxin levels in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid, and eosinophil infiltration in the airway. In addition, hyper-responsiveness was also decreased in mice that were fed with total protein extracted from transgenic plants, and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were significantly increased in mediastinal and mesenteric lymph nodes. Furthermore, splenocytes isolated from transgenic plant protein-fed mice exhibited decreased proliferation and increased IL-10 secretion after stimulation with rDer p2. The data here suggest that allergen-expressing transgenic plants could be used for therapeutic purposes for allergic diseases. PMID:21602845

  14. The end of cheap uranium.

    PubMed

    Dittmar, Michael

    2013-09-01

    Historic data from many countries demonstrate that on average no more than 50-70% of the uranium in a deposit could be mined. An analysis of more recent data from Canada and Australia leads to a mining model with an average deposit extraction lifetime of 10±2 years. This simple model provides an accurate description of the extractable amount of uranium for the recent mining operations. Using this model for all larger existing and planned uranium mines up to 2030, a global uranium mining peak of at most 58±4 ktons around the year 2015 is obtained. Thereafter we predict that uranium mine production will decline to at most 54±5 ktons by 2025 and, with the decline steepening, to at most 41±5 ktons around 2030. This amount will not be sufficient to fuel the existing and planned nuclear power plants during the next 10-20 years. In fact, we find that it will be difficult to avoid supply shortages even under a slow 1%/year worldwide nuclear energy phase-out scenario up to 2025. We thus suggest that a worldwide nuclear energy phase-out is in order. If such a slow global phase-out is not voluntarily effected, the end of the present cheap uranium supply situation will be unavoidable. The result will be that some countries will simply be unable to afford sufficient uranium fuel at that point, which implies involuntary and perhaps chaotic nuclear phase-outs in those countries involving brownouts, blackouts, and worse.

  15. End Tidal CO2 Tension

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Meredith E.; Newman, Alexander L.; Robbins, Ivan M.; Tolle, James; Austin, Eric D.; Newman, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Background: CO2 excretion is impaired in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) due to underlying vascular obstruction and increased dead space. Our aim was to determine whether resting end tidal CO2 (Etco2) could differentiate patients with PAH from those with pulmonary venous hypertension (PVH) or patients without pulmonary hypertension (PH) and whether successful treatment of PAH resulted in higher Etco2 values. Methods: We performed Etco2 measurements for five breaths at rest and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in patients seen at our pulmonary vascular center. Mean Etco2 values were correlated with 6-min walk distance and right-sided heart catheterization data. Results: We enrolled 84 patients with PAH, 17 with PVH without left ventricular systolic dysfunction, and seven with no PH and no severe alterations in pulmonary function testing. Etco2 was significantly lower in patients with PAH than in those with no PH and PVH (P < .0001 PAH vs both groups). Etco2 correlated with the pulmonary artery diastolic pressure-to-pulmonary artery occlusion pressure gradient (r = −0.50, P = .0002) and pulmonary vascular resistance (r = −0.44, P = .002). Etco2 after 6MWT correlated with walk distance (r = 0.34, P = .003). In patients with prostaglandin therapy escalation, Etco2 increased in those who had clinical improvement, whereas in patients who did not improve clinically, Etco2 failed to rise (P = .04). Conclusions: Etco2 is a promising tool to differentiate patients with PAH from those with PVH or no PH, correlates with diagnostic and prognostic hemodynamic indicators, and may increase with successful treatment of PAH. PMID:21622547

  16. Zeitlicher Verlauf der avaskulären Nekrose des Hüftkopfes bei Patienten mit Pemphigus vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Balighi, Kamran; Daneshpazhooh, Maryam; Aghazadeh, Nessa; Saeidi, Vahide; Shahpouri, Farzam; Hejazi, Pardis; Chams-Davatchi, Cheyda

    2016-10-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) wird in der Regel mit systemischen Corticosteroiden und Immunsuppressiva behandelt. Avaskuläre Nekrose (AVN) des Hüftkopfes ist eine gut bekannte schwerere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Therapie. Die Charakteristika dieser schweren Komplikation bei PV sind nach wie vor unbekannt. Nicht kontrollierte, retrospektive Untersuchung aller PV-bedingten AVN-Fälle, die in einer iranischen Klinik für bullöse Autoimmunerkrankungen zwischen 1985 und 2013 diagnostiziert wurden. Anhand der Krankenakten von 2321 untersuchten PV-Patienten wurden 45 Fälle (1,93 %) von femoraler AVN identifiziert. Dreißig davon waren Männer. Das mittlere Alter bei der Diagnose der AVN betrug 47,4 ± 14,2 Jahre. Der mittlere Zeitraum zwischen der Diagnose des PV und dem Einsetzen der AVN lag bei 25,3 ± 18,3 Monaten. Mit Ausnahme von acht Fällen (17,8 %) setzte die AVN bei der Mehrheit der Patienten innerhalb von drei Jahren nach Diagnose des PV ein. Die mittlere kumulative Dosis von Prednisolon bei Patienten mit AVN betrug 13.115,8 ± 7041,1 mg. Zwischen der Prednisolon-Gesamtdosis und dem Zeitraum bis zum Einsetzen der AVN bestand eine starke Korrelation (p = 0,001). Bei Patienten mit Alendronateinnahme in der Vorgeschichte war dieser Zeitraum signifikant kürzer (p = 0,01). Die AVN ist eine schwere Komplikation einer Corticosteroid-Behandlung bei Patienten mit PV. Sie wird bei 2 % der Patienten beobachtet und tritt vor allem in den ersten drei Behandlungsjahren auf. Bei Patienten, die höhere Dosen von Prednisolon erhalten, setzt die AVN tendenziell früher ein. © 2016 Deutsche Dermatologische Gesellschaft (DDG). Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sitzungsberichte der Heidelberger Akademie der Wissenschaften> " Jahrgang 1990 Sitzungsber.Heidelberg 90 " "Gott hat die Natur einfältig gemacht, sie aber suchen viel Künste"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehe, Horst

    Der Aufsatz demonstriert anhand ausgiebig kommentierter zeitgenössischer Zeugnisse Goethes Reaktion auf die Arbeiten Fraunhofers, insbesondere auf die Entdeckung der dunklen Linien im Sonnenspektrum. Den Fehlurteilen Goethes werden dabei die Urteile zeitgenössischer Physiker wie Chladni und J.F.W. Herschel gegenübergestellt. Bislang noch ungedruckte Dokumente aus dem Weimarer Goethe- und Schiller-Archiv belegen, daß sich Goethe nicht nur literarisch mit Fraunhofer beschäftigte, sondern daß er auch dessen Versuche mit Hilfe des Jenaer Universitätsmechanikers Körner getreulich zu wiederholen suchte.

  18. Physisorption of benzene on a tin dioxide surface: van der Waals interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viitala, Matti; Kuisma, Mikael; Rantala, Tapio T.

    2012-02-01

    An adsorption study of the benzene molecule on SnO2 (110) surfaces with the density functional theory is extended to include the van der Waals interaction. We compare adsorption onto two model surfaces of SnO2, oxygen rich (stoichiometric) and oxygen poor (reduced), considered as limiting cases of varying oxygen abundance. With the chosen van der Waals approach [M. Dion, H. Rydberg, E. Schröder, D. C. Langreth, and B. I. Lundqvist, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.92.246401 92, 246401 (2004)] it is found that on the stoichiometric surface, where binding has both a covalent nature and an ionic nature, with the addition of the van der Waals interaction the adsorption energy becomes somewhat stronger. However, on the reduced surface, where binding was earlier predicted to be more physisorptionlike by using a standard generalized gradient approximation (GGA) approach, the van der Waals interaction increases the adsorption energy by a larger factor. Furthermore, three different local-density approximation and GGA functionals are compared, as corrected with the van der Waals scheme. It is found that the correction brings those three to reasonably similar descriptions of adsorption on both surfaces.

  19. Molekulare Methoden zum Nachweis, zur Quantifizierung und zum Monitoring der Mykotoxinbildung lebensmittelrelevanter Pilze

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisen, Rolf

    Schimmelpilze kommen ubiquitär vor und spielen besonders bei pflanzlichen Lebensmitteln und Rohprodukten eine besondere Rolle als Verderbsorganismen. Es wird geschätzt, dass 20-25 % der jährlichen Produktion an pflanzlichen Produkten durch Schimmelpilze verdorben werden (Smith et al., 1994). Viele der lebensmittelrelevanten Schimmelpilze sind zudem in der Lage, Mykotoxine, toxische Sekundärmetabolite, zu bilden, was das Ausmaß des Problems deutlich macht. Die wichtigsten mykotoxinbildenden Spezies gehören zu den Fusarien (Trichothecene, Fumonisine, Zearalenon), Aspergillen (Aflatoxin, Ochratoxin, Cyclopiazonsäure) und Penicillien (Patulin, Ochratoxin). Für viele Mykotoxine, wie die Aflatoxine, Ochratoxin, Fumonisine und Trichothecene sind Grenzwerte erlassen worden, die die Verkehrsfähigkeit betroffener Produkte regeln. Die Einhaltung der Grenzwerte kann sehr genau durch offizielle chemisch-analytische Methoden, wie HPLC, GC-MS etc. kontrolliert werden. Diese analytischen Methoden sind aber für die Anwendung eines HACCP-Ansatzes zur Kontrolle der Mykotoxinbildung nur bedingt geeignet, da sie Endpunktkontrollen darstellen und nur das über eine längere Zeit gebildete Mykotoxin bestimmen. Sie sagen daher nichts über die biologischen Bedingungen zur Zeit der Bildung durch den Pilz aus.

  20. Untersuchung der Störwirkung von LTE auf SRD Anwendungen bei 868 MHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welpot, M.; Wunderlich, S.; Gaspard, I.

    2014-11-01

    Moderne Hausautomatisierungssysteme, Alarmanlagen oder auch Funk-Zugangssysteme in Haus und Automobil setzen auf frei nutzbare Frequenzen in ISM/SRD-Bändern. Die rasante Zunahme an privaten und kommerziell genutzten Applikationen im SRD-Band bei 868 MHz und der Ausbau der LTE-Mobilfunknetze im Frequenzbereich unterhalb von 1 GHz ("Digital Dividend") wirft zunehmend die Frage nach der Funkverträglichkeit dieser Systeme untereinander auf. Während die SRD-Funkmodule auf eine geringe Sendeleistung von ~ +14 dBm beschränkt sind (Ralf and Thomas, 2009), beträgt die maximale LTE-Sendeleistung im Uplink nach (ETSI-Norm, 2011) +23 dBm. Zusammen mit der Einführung von LTE im Frequenzbereich unterhalb 1 GHz als DSL-Ersatz vor allem in ländlichen Gebieten, ergibt sich damit als mögliches Störszenario, dass durch die Aussendung des LTE-Endgerätes im Bereich von ca. 850 MHz die SRD-Funkverbindungen bei 868 MHz insbesondere dann gestört werden, wenn die Antennen beider Funksysteme räumlich nahe zueinander angeordnet sind und folglich nur eine geringe zusätzliche Entkopplung der Systeme bieten. In der vorliegenden Arbeit wird das LTE-Störpotential auf SRD-Empfänger praxisnah untersucht.