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Sample records for endemic micromoth galagete

  1. Cryptic differentiation in the endemic micromoth Galagete darwini (Lepidoptera, Autostichidae) on Galápagos volcanoes.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Patrick; Cibois, Alice; Landry, Bernard

    2008-10-27

    To gain insight into the early stages of speciation, we reconstructed a DNA-based phylogeny, using combined mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunits I and II: 1008 bp) and nuclear (elongation factor 1-alpha and wingless: 1062 bp) markers of populations of the moth Galagete darwini endemic to the Galápagos, which belongs to an insular radiation similar in size to that of Darwin's finches. Adults of G. darwini were collected in the arid lowlands of 11 of the Galápagos Islands (Baltra, Española, Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Pinta, Pinzón, San Cristobal, Santa Cruz, Santiago and Seymour) and the humid highlands of a subset of 5 of them (Fernandina, Floreana, Isabela, Santa Cruz and Santiago). The combined phylogeographic analysis surprisingly revealed that G. darwini populations at higher elevation on the western islands (Fernandina, Isabela and Santiago) represent a distinct lineage from the one in the low arid zones of these same islands. This is the first reported case in the archipelago of genetic cryptic differentiation correlated with elevation on the western Galápagos volcanoes.

  2. Molecular phylogeny and dating of an insular endemic moth radiation inferred from mitochondrial and nuclear genes: the genus Galagete (Lepidoptera: Autostichidae) of the Galapagos Islands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Patrick; Cibois, Alice; Landry, Bernard

    2007-10-01

    Galagete is a genus of microlepidoptera including 12 nominate species endemic to the Galapagos Islands. In order to better understand the diversification of this endemic insular radiation, to unravel relationships among species and populations, and to get insight into the early stages of speciation, we developed a phylogenetic reconstruction based on the combined mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I (555bp) and II (453bp), and the nuclear elongation factor-1alpha (711bp) and wingless (351bp) genes. Monophyly of the genus is strongly supported in the Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses suggesting a single colonization event by a common ancestor. Two cases of paraphyly observed between species are hypothesized to represent imperfect species limits for G. espanolaensis nested within the G. turritella clade, and introgressive hybridization or lineage sorting in the case of the population of G. protozona from Santa Fe nested within the G. gnathodoxa clade. A geologically calibrated, relaxed molecular clock model was used for the first time to unravel the chronological sequence of an insular radiation. The first split occurring within the Galagete lineage on the archipelago is estimated at 3.3+/-0.4million years ago. The genus radiated relatively quickly in about 1.8million years, and gives an estimated speciation rate of 0.8 species per million years. Although the colonization scenario shows a stochastic dispersal pattern, the arrival of the ancestor and the diversification of the radiation coincide with the chronological emergence of the major islands.

  3. Update on endemic nephropathies.

    PubMed

    Wernerson, Annika; Wijkström, Julia; Elinder, Carl-Gustaf

    2014-05-01

    A large number of patients worldwide suffer from chronic kidney disease (CKD) of unknown cause. Endemic nephropathies possibly contribute to this. The purpose of this review is to give a brief review of endemic nephropathies and to summarize what is known about their cause. The cause of Balkan endemic nephropathy was eventually resolved, after 50 years of research. The cause was exposure to aristolochic acid from food. A new type of endemic nephropathy has recently been identified in Central America; Mesoamerican nephropathy. This kidney disease mainly affects agricultural workers in hot climates. Renal biopsy studies suggest that repeated dehydration and kidney ischemia is involved in the pathogenesis. Endemic nephropathies may comprise an important cause of CKD. Epidemiological studies are needed to describe the occurrence and distribution of the diseases. However, biopsy studies, in combination with careful clinical evaluation of the patients, are necessary to find out the cause of endemic nephropathies and thereby help in their prevention.

  4. Neglected and endemic zoonoses

    PubMed Central

    Maudlin, Ian; Eisler, Mark Charles; Welburn, Susan Christina

    2009-01-01

    Endemic zoonoses are found throughout the developing world, wherever people live in close proximity to their animals, affecting not only the health of poor people but often also their livelihoods through the health of their livestock. Unlike newly emerging zoonoses that attract the attention of the developed world, these endemic zoonoses are by comparison neglected. This is, in part, a consequence of under-reporting, resulting in underestimation of their global burden, which in turn artificially downgrades their importance in the eyes of administrators and funding agencies. The development of cheap and effective vaccines is no guarantee that these endemic diseases will be eliminated in the near future. However, simply increasing awareness about their causes and how they may be prevented—often with very simple technologies—could reduce the incidence of many endemic zoonoses. Sustainable control of zoonoses is reliant on surveillance, but, as with other public-sector animal health services, this is rarely implemented in the developing world, not least because of the lack of sufficiently cheap diagnostics. Public–private partnerships have already provided advocacy for human disease control and could be equally effective in addressing endemic zoonoses. PMID:19687045

  5. Endemic syphilis and yaws

    PubMed Central

    Grin, E. I.

    1956-01-01

    Endemic syphilis and similar conditions are compared in this paper with yaws. Both are non-venereal and endemic, and they have very similar epidemiological characteristics. There is also considerable similarity in the clinical manifestations at the various stages of yaws and endemic syphilis, the differences that do appear being mainly due to different environmental and living conditions. No antigenic or immunogenic differences between syphilis and yaws have yet been demonstrated, and the sensitivity of both to penicillin is the same. Control measures for both diseases may be based on similar principles. The author considers the treponematoses to be closely related infections, and stresses the “unitarian” view put forward by various writers. PMID:13404469

  6. Endemic goitre in Basutoland

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, J. A.; Anderson, M. M.

    1959-01-01

    Although it has long been known that endemic goitre exists in Basutoland, there was no clear information on its prevalence until a survey, reported on here, was conducted in 1957-58 by a nutrition survey team sent by the World Health Organization at the request of the Basutoland Government. Seven of the nine districts were covered by this survey, which revealed an average prevalence of endemic goitre (mainly diffuse) of 41%, with a range of from 30% to 50% according to the district. The problem is thus clearly a serious one, and the authors recommend the use of salt iodized at a level of 1 part of potassium iodate in 10 000-20 000 parts of salt. PMID:14425266

  7. The Endemic Treponematoses

    PubMed Central

    Giacani, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY The agents of human treponematoses include four closely related members of the genus Treponema: three subspecies of Treponema pallidum plus Treponema carateum. T. pallidum subsp. pallidum causes venereal syphilis, while T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum, and T. carateum are the agents of the endemic treponematoses yaws, bejel (or endemic syphilis), and pinta, respectively. All human treponematoses share remarkable similarities in pathogenesis and clinical manifestations, consistent with the high genetic and antigenic relatedness of their etiological agents. Distinctive features have been identified in terms of age of acquisition, most common mode of transmission, and capacity for invasion of the central nervous system and fetus, although the accuracy of these purported differences is debated among investigators and no biological basis for these differences has been identified to date. In 2012, the World Health Organization (WHO) officially set a goal for yaws eradication by 2020. This challenging but potentially feasible endeavor is favored by the adoption of oral azithromycin for mass treatment and the currently focused distribution of yaws and endemic treponematoses and has revived global interest in these fascinating diseases and their causative agents. PMID:24396138

  8. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology.

  9. Endemic bladder calculi in children.

    PubMed

    Soliman, Neveen A; Rizvi, S Adibul Hasan

    2016-11-15

    Urinary calculi are being recognized more frequently in children and the urinary bladder is the most common site for stone formation in the lower urinary tract. Bladder calculi are grouped into three basic categories: primary idiopathic/endemic, secondary, and migrant. The incidence of vesical calculi has declined significantly in the last 70 years in developed nations owing to improvements in nutrition and socioeconomic conditions, but it is still high in developing nations. Primary idiopathic/endemic bladder calculi typically occur in children, in the absence of urinary tract infection (UTI), urinary stasis, or foreign body, and diet lacking in animal proteins is the major contributor factor. Comprehensive preventive and treatment strategies are critical for improving the quality of life of diseased children, in addition to helping to eradicate, or at least decrease, the incidence of endemic bladder calculi in developing nations.

  10. [Endemic goiter in Austria's youth?].

    PubMed

    Riccabona, G; Glatzl, J; Platzer, S; Fill, H; Ehlich, P; Obendorf, L

    1981-01-01

    After 17 years the efficiency of iodine prophylaxis of endemic goiter (1 : 100000) in Austria was checked by control field studies in 3 Tyrolean towns n Austria. The data obtained there were compared with those of 123 school age children from the iodine deficient endemic goiter area of the province of Bolzano (Italy). The results show a reduction in goiter incidence from 50 to 35% in the total population in Austria, where goiter incidence in schoolchildren dropped from 45.9% to 12%. Urinary iodine/g creatinine was 65 micrograms in Austria, the 24 hr radioiodine uptake with 41.8% was normal. In comparison the ethnologically and geographically similar endemic goiter zone in the province of Bolzano showed a goiter incidence in schoolchildren of up to 46%, while urinary iodine/g creatinine was 35.9 micrograms and radioiodine uptake after 24 hr about 50%. Extensive studies of peripheral hormone parameters (T4, TBG, T3, TSH, rT3, FT3, FT4) revealed a significantly higher rT3 concentration of 24.7 ng/dl in Austria compared with a value of only 19.8 ng/dl in the province of Bolzano. These facts suggest an increased conversion of T4 to real T3 in iodine deficiency, which might contribute to the adaptation of the organism to this condition. No statement, however, can be presented regarding the regulation of this phenomenon. Even as endemic goiter is decreasing in Austria, an increase of salt iodization to 1 : 50000 according to the swiss procedure might eliminate definitely endemic goiter in Austria.

  11. Endemic Nephropathy Around the World.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Fiona J; Gifford, Robert M; Eddleston, Michael; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2017-03-01

    There have been several global epidemics of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu). Some, such as Itai-Itai disease in Japan and Balkan endemic nephropathy, have been explained, whereas the etiology of others remains unclear. In countries such as Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and India, CKDu is a major public health problem and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Despite their geographical separation, however, there are striking similarities between these endemic nephropathies. Young male agricultural workers who perform strenuous labor in extreme conditions are the worst affected. Patients remain asymptomatic until end-stage renal failure. Biomarkers of tubular injury are raised, and kidney biopsy shows chronic interstitial nephritis with associated tubular atrophy. In many of these places access to dialysis and transplantation is limited, leaving few treatment options. In this review we briefly describe the major historic endemic nephropathies. We then summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, histology and clinical course of CKDu in Mesoamerica, Sri Lanka, India, Egypt, and Tunisia. We draw comparisons between the proposed etiologies and supporting research. Recognition of the similarities may reinforce the international drive to establish causality and to effect prevention.

  12. [Trachoma--an endemic and post-endemic problem].

    PubMed

    Bujger, Z; Ekert, M

    2000-01-01

    Trachoma is a specific chronic keratoconjunctivitis, characterized by follicular and papillary hyperplasia of conjunctiva, pannus, and cicatrization in the late stages of the disease. The cause of trachoma is a bacterium, Chlamydia trachomatis (serovar A, B, Ba and C). There are 146 million people in the world suffering from the active trachoma disease, and 5.9 million are blind because of it. WHO has set the goal to eliminate the blinding trachoma by the year 2020 (GET 2020 Program). The evaluation of the gravity of the disease has been made according to the Trachoma Simplified Grading System. In order to achieve the goal, it has used the SAFE strategy. The SAFE strategy comprises surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial cleanliness and environmental improvement, especially in water supply and regulated sewage. The endemic trachoma in Croatia is a thing of past. Patients with active disease are rare, usually misdiagnosed and inadequately or insufficiently treated. A recent epidemic of another chlamydial (oculogenital sexually transmitted) disease has forced us to approach the diagnostics and treatment of chlamydial diseases with full responsibility.

  13. Delimiting areas of endemism through kernel interpolation.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D; Santos, Adalberto J

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units.

  14. Delimiting Areas of Endemism through Kernel Interpolation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Ubirajara; Brescovit, Antonio D.; Santos, Adalberto J.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach for identification of areas of endemism, the Geographical Interpolation of Endemism (GIE), based on kernel spatial interpolation. This method differs from others in being independent of grid cells. This new approach is based on estimating the overlap between the distribution of species through a kernel interpolation of centroids of species distribution and areas of influence defined from the distance between the centroid and the farthest point of occurrence of each species. We used this method to delimit areas of endemism of spiders from Brazil. To assess the effectiveness of GIE, we analyzed the same data using Parsimony Analysis of Endemism and NDM and compared the areas identified through each method. The analyses using GIE identified 101 areas of endemism of spiders in Brazil GIE demonstrated to be effective in identifying areas of endemism in multiple scales, with fuzzy edges and supported by more synendemic species than in the other methods. The areas of endemism identified with GIE were generally congruent with those identified for other taxonomic groups, suggesting that common processes can be responsible for the origin and maintenance of these biogeographic units. PMID:25611971

  15. Environmental Monitoring of Endemic Cholera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ElNemr, W.; Jutla, A. S.; Constantin de Magny, G.; Hasan, N. A.; Islam, M.; Sack, R.; Huq, A.; Hashem, F.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat. Since Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of the disease, is autochthonous to riverine, estuarine, and coastal waters, it is unlikely the bacteria can be eradicated from its natural habitat. Prediction of disease, in conjunction with preventive vaccination can reduce the prevalence rate of a disease. Understanding the influence of environmental parameters on growth and proliferation of bacteria is an essential first step in developing prediction methods for outbreaks. Large scale geophysical variables, such as SST and coastal chlorophyll, are often associated with conditions favoring growth of V. cholerae. However, local environmental factors, meaning biological activity in ponds from where the bulk of populations in endemic regions derive water for daily usage, are either neglected or oversimplified. Using data collected from several sites in two geographically distinct locations in South Asia, we have identified critical local environmental factors associated with cholera outbreak. Of 18 environmental variables monitored for water sources in Mathbaria (a coastal site near the Bay of Bengal) and Bakergonj (an inland site) of Bangladesh, water depth and chlorophyll were found to be important factors associated with initiation of cholera outbreaks. Cholera in coastal regions appears to be related to intrusion. However, monsoonal flooding creates conditions for cholera epidemics in inland regions. This may be one of the first attempts to relate in-situ environmental observations with cholera. We anticipate that it will be useful for further development of prediction models in the resource constrained regions.

  16. Shifts in Species Interactions Due to the Evolution of Functional Differences between Endemics and Non-Endemics: An Endemic Syndrome Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Courtney E.; Potts, Brad M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change. PMID:25340402

  17. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Courtney E; Potts, Brad M; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  18. Non-endemic cases of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Jones, Robert T

    2014-11-01

    Several cases of lymphatic filariasis (LF) have been reported in non-endemic countries due to travellers, military personnel and expatriates spending time in and returning from endemic areas, as well as immigrants coming from these regions. These cases are reviewed to assess the scale and context of non-endemic presentations and to consider the biological factors underlying their relative paucity. Cases reported in the English, French, Spanish and Portuguese literature during the last 30 years were examined through a search of the PubMed, ProMED-mail and TropNet resources. The literature research revealed 11 cases of lymphatic filariasis being reported in non-endemic areas. The extent of further infections in recent migrants to non-endemic countries was also revealed through the published literature. The life-cycle requirements of Wuchereria and Brugia species limit the extent of transmission of LF outside of tropical regions. However, until elimination, programmes are successful in managing the disease, there remains a possibility of low rates of infection being reported in non-endemic areas, and increased international travel can only contribute to this phenomenon. Physicians need to be aware of the signs and symptoms of lymphatic filariasis, and infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of people with a relevant travel history. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. California Rare Endemics and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinoza, M.

    2010-12-01

    California is known for its wide variety of endemic flora, from its annuals such as the Eschscholzia californica (California poppy) to the perennials like the Arctostaphylos pallida (Alameda manzanita), which happens to be a rare species. Each species plays an important role in the biodiversity of California, yet there are species that are threatened, not only by human interaction and urbanization, but by climate change. Species that we seldom see are now on the verge of becoming eradicated; rare endemics similar to Arctostaphylos pallida are now facing a new challenge that may severely impair their survival. The climate has changed significantly over the twentieth century and it has affected the distribution of rare endemics in California, both geographically as well as within their climatic and edaphic niches. Lilaeopsis masonii is just one rare endemic, however it serves as a representative of the other 23 species that were studied. Using Maxent, a climate-modeling program, it was viable to construct two climate envelopes of the masonii species: the early century envelope (1930-1959) and the later century envelope (1990-2009). When these two climate envelopes were compared, it became clear that the later century climate envelope had contracted radically, reshaping the climate niche of all rare endemics in California due to an increase in temperature. It is possible to conclude that the future of rare endemics hangs in the balance, where one degree higher in temperature is enough to topple the scale.

  20. Endemic goiter in western Colombia.

    PubMed

    Gaitan, E

    1983-01-01

    Goiter continues to occur in some areas of western Colombia despite iodine supplementation for 30 years. In 1973-1977, an average goiter prevalence of 15% (range 1-42%) still persisted among schoolchildren of 41 localities. Significant relationships were found between goiter prevalence and both the geological composition of watersheds and bacterial contamination of water supplies. Together, these associations account for 80% of the observed variation in goiter prevalence. The presence of sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter (coals, shales, etc.) was the best indicator of disease. The second best indicator, presence of K. pneumoniae in the water source, was associated with lower goiter prevalence but, as in other investigations, contamination of the pipeline system (households and schools) with gram-negative bacteria was associated with higher disease rates. Thus, epidemiological evidence indicates a cause-effect relationship between sources of drinking water and the persistence and development of goiter in this part of the world. Furthermore, identification of resorcinol, phthalate esters, and sulfur-bearing organic compounds, possibly aliphatic disulfides, in the water supplying the endemic goiter district of Candelaria town in western Colombia adds experimental support to this hypothesis. Resorcinol is derived from coal and humic substances, high molecular weight complex polymeric organic compounds present in sedimentary rocks, soils and water. Resorcinol is goitrogenic in man and experimental animals. Phthalate esters, also related to humic materials, undergo biodegradation by gram-negative bacteria with production of intermediate metabolites possessing antithyroid activity. Like phthalates and resorcinol, organic disulfides have also been identified as water contaminants in other parts of the world, and are known to be potent antithyroid compounds. The goitrogenic effect of organic and bacterial pollutants in water supplies is more pronounced in segments of

  1. Upper urothelium carcinomas in Croatian endemic area.

    PubMed

    Cvitković, Ante; Ivić-Hofman, Igor; Jurić, Dragana

    2013-09-01

    Endemic nephropathy (EN) is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease. Strong association between EN and urothelial carcinoma was noted as early as 40-50 ago. The aim of the study was to determine and compare specific mortality and morbidity of renal pelvis and ureter (upper urothelium) carcinoma (UUC) among Croatia as a whole, Brod-Posavina County, and Croatian endemic area. Data on UUC mortality and morbidity were analyzed. Indirect standardization was employed on data comparison by calculating standardized mortality ratio and morbidity ratio. Our study results showed the specific mortality rate in the endemic area to be 26.3-fold and 7.3-fold the rate recorded in Croatia and Brod-Posavina County, respectively. The mean standardized mortality ratio obtained by indirect standardization yielded an 8-fold and 32-fold risk of death from UUC in the endemic area vs. Brod-Posavina County and Croatia as a whole, respectively. These data revealed the specific morbidity in the Croatian endemic area and Brod-Posavina County to be 13.95-fold and 3.78-fold the morbidity recorded at the national level, respectively. The standardized morbidity ratio also showed the risk of developing UUC in the Croatian endemic area to be 3.75-fold the risk in Brod-Posavina County and 16.4-fold the risk in Croatia. These results showed that specific mortality and morbidity as well as standardized morbidity ratio and standardized mortality ratio were higher in Croatian endemic area than in Brod-Posavina County and Croatia.

  2. When endemic coral-reef fish species serve as models: endemic mimicry patterns in the Marquesas Islands.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, E; Planes, S; Williams, J T

    2016-09-01

    This article documents several cases of widespread species, which usually mimic other widespread species throughout the Indo-Pacific, using endemic Marquesan species as a model and displaying endemic mimicry patterns. This discovery adds a new line of evidence to the uniqueness of the Marquesas Islands, which not only host a high number of endemic reef-fish species, but also endemic mimicry patterns.

  3. Fifty years of Balkan endemic nephropathy: daunting questions, elusive answers.

    PubMed

    Batuman, V

    2006-02-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has remained a geographically constant endemic for 50 years. Despite extensive research, its etiology remains unknown. In the current issue, in a study in one of the earliest sites where the endemic was first recognized, Dimitrov et al. confirm the persistance of the endemic into a new generation and also identify a maternal link in the pathogenesis of BEN. This intriguing finding needs to be confirmed in other endemic areas.

  4. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt*

    PubMed Central

    Sooch, S. S.; Deo, M. G.; Karmarkar, M. G.; Kochupillai, N.; Ramachandran, K.; Ramalingaswami, V.

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 μg per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt. PMID:4546523

  5. Prevention of endemic goitre with iodized salt.

    PubMed

    Sooch, S S; Deo, M G; Karmarkar, M G; Kochupillai, N; Ramachandran, K; Ramalingaswami, V

    1973-01-01

    The paper describes a study, carried out over 16 years, of the use of iodized salt for the control of endemic goitre in a valley of the Himalayan foothills. From 1956, salt was fortified with either potassium iodide or potassium iodate to provide an estimated daily intake of 200 mug per head. There was a progressive and significant decline in goitre prevalence, together with a return of the pattern of iodine metabolism to within normal limits. It is concluded that endemic goitre can be successfully controlled by iodization of domestic salt.

  6. Endemic Viruses of Squirrel Monkeys (Saimiri spp.)

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Donna L; McClure, Gloria B; Ruiz, Julio C; Abee, Christian R; Vanchiere, John A

    2015-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are the experimental animals of choice for the study of many human diseases. As such, it is important to understand that endemic viruses of primates can potentially affect the design, methods, and results of biomedical studies designed to model human disease. Here we review the viruses known to be endemic in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.). The pathogenic potential of these viruses in squirrel monkeys that undergo experimental manipulation remains largely unexplored but may have implications regarding the use of squirrel monkeys in biomedical research. PMID:26141448

  7. Schistosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Coltart, Cordelia; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is one of the major parasitic diseases of the tropics, causing acute and long-term clinical syndromes. Almost all schistosomiasis is now imported from sub-Saharan Africa. This article summarises the aetiology, clinical presentation, diagnosis and management of schistosomiaisis for clinicians in non-endemic countries.

  8. Nodding Syndrome in Onchocerciasis Endemic Areas.

    PubMed

    Colebunders, R; Hendy, A; van Oijen, M

    2016-08-01

    High prevalence of nodding syndrome (NS) and other types of epileptic seizures have been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa for decades. To improve quality of life of affected patients and families, there is an urgent need to unravel the relationship between these epileptic disorders and onchocerciasis, and to design treatment and prevention strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Endemism in the moss flora of North America.

    PubMed

    Carter, Benjamin E; Shaw, Blanka; Shaw, A Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Identifying regions of high endemism is a critical step toward understanding the mechanisms underlying diversification and establishing conservation priorities. Here, we identified regions of high moss endemism across North America. We also identified lineages that contribute disproportionately to endemism and document the progress of efforts to inventory the endemic flora. To understand the documentation of endemic moss diversity in North America, we tabulated species publication dates to document the progress of species discovery across the continent. We analyzed herbarium specimen data and distribution data from the Flora of North America project to delineate major regions of moss endemism. Finally, we surveyed the literature to assess the importance of intercontinental vs. within-continent diversification for generating endemic species. Three primary regions of endemism were identified and two of these were further divided into a total of nine subregions. Overall endemic richness has two peaks, one in northern California and the Pacific Northwest, and the other in the southern Appalachians. Description of new endemic species has risen steeply over the last few decades, especially in western North America. Among the few studies documenting sister species relationships of endemics, recent diversification appears to have played a larger role in western North America, than in the east. Our understanding of bryophyte endemism continues to grow rapidly. Large continent-wide data sets confirm early views on hotspots of endemic bryophyte richness and indicate a high rate of ongoing species discovery in North America. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Rapid assessment of endemic bird areas in Michoacan, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Gilberto Chavez-Leon; Deborah M. Finch

    1999-01-01

    Non-sustainable land use practices in the state of Michoacan, Mexico, have perturbed endemic bird h~bitats for several decades. Endemic birds have a restricted geographic and ecological distribution. This feature makes them suitable to be used as indicators of biological diversity and environmental perturbation. Forty-one Mexican endemic species have been recorded in...

  11. Taenia solium in Europe: Still endemic?

    PubMed

    Devleesschauwer, Brecht; Allepuz, Alberto; Dermauw, Veronique; Johansen, Maria V; Laranjo-González, Minerva; Smit, G Suzanne A; Sotiraki, Smaragda; Trevisan, Chiara; Wardrop, Nicola A; Dorny, Pierre; Gabriël, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The pork tapeworm, Taenia solium, causes an important economic and health burden, mainly in rural or marginalized communities of sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin-America. Although improved pig rearing conditions seem to have eliminated the parasite in most Western European countries, little is known about the true endemicity status of T. solium throughout Europe. Three recent reviews indicate that autochthonous human T. solium taeniasis/cysticercosis may be possible in Europe, but that current peer-reviewed literature is biased towards Western Europe. Officially reported data on porcine cysticercosis are highly insufficient. Favourable conditions for local T. solium transmission still exist in eastern parts of Europe, although the ongoing integration of the European Union is speeding up modernisation and intensification of the pig sector. Further evidence is urgently needed to fill the gaps on the European T. solium endemicity map. We urge to make human cysticercosis notifiable and to improve the reporting of porcine cysticercosis.

  12. Endemic Scrub Typhus in South America.

    PubMed

    Weitzel, Thomas; Dittrich, Sabine; López, Javier; Phuklia, Weerawat; Martinez-Valdebenito, Constanza; Velásquez, Katia; Blacksell, Stuart D; Paris, Daniel H; Abarca, Katia

    2016-09-08

    Scrub typhus is a life-threatening zoonosis caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi organisms that are transmitted by the larvae of trombiculid mites. Endemic scrub typhus was originally thought to be confined to the so called "tsutsugamushi triangle" within the Asia-Pacific region. In 2006, however, two individual cases were detected in the Middle East and South America, which suggested that the pathogen was present farther afield. Here, we report three autochthonous cases of scrub typhus caused by O. tsutsugamushi acquired on Chiloé Island in southern Chile, which suggests the existence of an endemic focus in South America. (Funded by the Chilean Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica and the Wellcome Trust.).

  13. Forecasting dengue vaccine demand in disease endemic and non-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Wichmann, Ole; Margolis, Harold S; Mahoney, Richard T

    2010-01-01

    Background A dengue vaccine in large-scale clinical trials could be licensed in several years. We estimated the potential vaccine demand for different introduction strategies in 54 dengue-endemic countries and for travelers from non-endemic countries to enable vaccine producers and public health agencies to better prepare for timely utilization of the vaccine. Results Under our assumptions, 2.4–3.5 billion dengue vaccine doses would be needed in the first five years after introduction with >75% delivered in the public sector. Among 20 potential ‘early-adopter’ countries, an estimated 0.9–1.4 billion doses would be needed for the same introduction approach. For the private sector, covering 10% of children and 30% of adults an estimated 443–664 million doses would be required. In non-endemic countries, travelers could use an estimated 59–89 million vaccine doses, although the present product profile would make it unlikely to be able to administer vaccine in a timely manner. Methods Calculations were based on 2015–2020 population projections for endemic countries in Asia and the Americas with populations >100,000. For dengue-endemic countries we assumed country-wide routine 12–23 month-old vaccination and catch-up vaccination among 2–14 year-old children employing a 2 or 3-dose schedule. Assumptions on expected vaccination coverage were based on country-specific public, private and travelers' sectors immunization performance. Conclusions Our results project an upper-limit estimate of vaccine demand, with actual demand depending on country priorities, cost and product profile. Given the potential for a dengue vaccine, policymakers in endemic and non-endemic countries should consider appropriate implementation strategies in advance of licensure. PMID:20930501

  14. Endemic hepatitis E in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Chalupa, Pavel; Vasickova, Petra; Pavlik, Ivo; Holub, Michal

    2014-02-01

    An increasing incidence of endemic hepatitis E (HE) has been reported in developed countries. Thus, an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of the disease and the utility of the current diagnostic methods is warranted. Fifty-one adult acute patients with HE hospitalized in a single center between the years 2009 and 2012 were evaluated. Serological and molecular techniques (detection of hepatitis E virus [HEV] RNA from stool and serum samples by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction) with sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were used for diagnosis, and the clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological parameters of the patients were evaluated. Forty-nine (96.1%) patients had acute endemic HE and 2 (3.9%) had an imported infection. In the cohort of patients with acute symptomatic HE (n = 47), men outnumbered women (40:7), the patients were in older middle age (mean, 60.57 years), and they had elevated median values of total bilirubin (6.67 mg/dL), alanine aminotransferase (2288.82 U/L), aspartate aminotransferase (1251.76 U/L), gamma-glutamyl transferase (360.53 U/L), and alkaline phosphatase (197.06 U/L). Serology was positive in 50 (98%) of the patients, and 1 case was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction only. HEV RNA was detected in at least 1 specimen from 84.3% of the patients, and 28 of 29 tested isolates belonged to genotype 3. The eating of meat, innards, other home-prepared pork products, or the tasting of raw meat before cooking were the most frequently reported data (reported by 25 patients [49.0%]). Large numbers of the endemic cases of HE were caused by HEV genotype 3, and the clinical characteristics of endemic HE were demonstrated.

  15. Endemic goitre--iodine deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Lamberg, B A

    1991-10-01

    Endemic goitre occurs when the prevalence of thyroid enlargement in the population of an area exceeds 10%. With few exceptions its cause is iodine deficiency superimposed on other goitrogenic factors normally present and responsible for sporadic goitre. Iodine deficiency causes significant health problems and so, the term iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) has been introduced. The earliest sign of IDD is goitre, but these disorders also include cretinism, neonatal hypothyroidism and congenital defects, as well as retardation of mental and physical development etc. IDD are a worldwide problem: WHO estimates that substantially more than 800 million people are at risk and more than 190 millions suffer from IDD; over 3 million people have cretinism and in the largest and worst affected areas many millions suffer from mental and physical developmental defects. IDD can be totally eliminated by prophylaxis using iodine administered in salt, oil or some other vehicle. Problems over preventing iodine deficiency relate to difficulties in the handling and distribution of the iodized vehicle in some parts of the world and on the political will to introduce preventive schemes. In only a very few areas does the presence of goitrogenic agents in the environment cause endemic goitre despite adequate iodine supply. In a limited number of places excessive iodine from seaweed used as staple food results in endemic goitre.

  16. [An endemic area of sporotrichosis in Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Mayorga, R; Cáceres, A; Toriello, C; Gutiérrez, G; Alvarez, O; Ramirez, M E; Mariat, F

    1978-09-01

    An endemic area of sporotrichosis is described in the Lake of Ayarza District, South Guatemala, where 53 patients have been observed within 3 years. In 45.3% of the cases, the infection appeared after handling fish. The disease was more frequently observed in man (83%) and in patients less than 30 years of age. The most frequent clinical type was the ascending lymphocutaneous sporotrichosis of the limbs. Some cases of ulcerative or verrucous lesions were seen. Almost all the patients cured rapidly either by potassium iodide (46 patients) or spontaneously, or after application of local heat (4 patients). Intradermal tests were performed in healthy population in the endemic area and, for comparison, in Guatemala City. Whole yeast cell antigens of Sporothrix schenckii and Ceratocystis stenoceras were used in these tests. Skin tests to both antigens were more frequently positive in the endemic area; the highest frequency was obtained with the antigen of C. stenoceras. A serological study was performed in 26 patients. The fluorescent antibody staining technique was more sensitive than yeast cell and latex particles agglutinations. C. stenoceras was isolated from bark of some trees, especially Eucalyptus, in the environment, but not S. schenckii.

  17. Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non‐endemic Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    GULÍAS, JAVIER; FLEXAS, JAUME; MUS, MAURICI; CIFRE, JOSEP; LEFI, ELKADRI; MEDRANO, HIPÓLITO

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non‐endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter‐relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non‐endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non‐endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non‐endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species—including the crops—showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

  18. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes.

  19. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera

    PubMed Central

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  20. Incidence of skeletal deformities in endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    A, Shashi; M, Kumar; M, Bhardwaj

    2008-10-01

    An investigation was undertaken in three endemic fluorotic areas of Punjab State, India, to assess the prevalence of skeletal deformities. The concentration of fluoride in drinking water varies from 2.3 to 22.5 mg/L. The patients affected with skeletal fluorosis revealed joint pain in both upper and lower limbs, numbing and tingling of the extremities, back pains and knock-knees. Prevalence of skeletal fluorosis was found to be 29% of grade-I, 51% of grade-II and 20% of grade-III and was higher in males (63%) compared with females (37%).

  1. ENDEMISM OF COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN THE PARAGUAYAN CHACO

    PubMed Central

    Gomez, Raul F.

    1950-01-01

    Skin testing of 541 men with coccidioidin was carried out in an investigation of endemism of coccidiodomycosis in the Paraguayan Chaco. In two areas where the climate is hot, dry and windy, positive reactions developed in a considerable number of the employees of an oil company who were of various racial origins, as well as among native Indians. In a third area, where rain is more plentiful and vegetation lush, only 2 per cent of 250 Indians tested had positive reaction to coccidioidin. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:15426980

  2. Endemic mycoses in AIDS: a clinical review.

    PubMed Central

    Wheat, J

    1995-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are serious opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS who reside in areas of endemicity of the United States and Central and South America. Blastomycosis, although less common, also must be recognized as an opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Prompt diagnosis requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes and diagnostic tests as well as a high index of suspicion. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis respond well to antifungal treatment, but relapse is common without chronic suppressive therapy. Improvements in treatment are needed in coccidioidomycosis. Research is needed to identify preventive strategies for patients at risk. These strategies may include use of prophylactic antifungal therapy or vaccination. PMID:7704892

  3. Endemic giardiasis and municipal water supply.

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, G G; Cooke, K R

    1991-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that endemic giardiasis may be transmitted by unfiltered municipal water supplies, the incidence of laboratory-confirmed giardiasis was studied in a natural experiment due to the arrangement of the public water supply of Dunedin, New Zealand. The incidence rate ratio was 3.3 (90% CI = 1.1, 10.1) for the population receiving unfiltered (microstrained) water relative to that using sand filtered water. In a parallel case-control study of incident cases, the odds ratio for giardiasis and unfiltered (microstrained) water supply was 1.8 (90% CI = 0.5, 6.9). PMID:2029049

  4. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Peter L; Colville, Jonathan F; Linder, H Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky's second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky's second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR.

  5. Optimising Regionalisation Techniques: Identifying Centres of Endemism in the Extraordinarily Endemic-Rich Cape Floristic Region

    PubMed Central

    Bradshaw, Peter L.; Colville, Jonathan F.; Linder, H. Peter

    2015-01-01

    We used a very large dataset (>40% of all species) from the endemic-rich Cape Floristic Region (CFR) to explore the impact of different weighting techniques, coefficients to calculate similarity among the cells, and clustering approaches on biogeographical regionalisation. The results were used to revise the biogeographical subdivision of the CFR. We show that weighted data (down-weighting widespread species), similarity calculated using Kulczinsky’s second measure, and clustering using UPGMA resulted in the optimal classification. This maximized the number of endemic species, the number of centres recognized, and operational geographic units assigned to centres of endemism (CoEs). We developed a dendrogram branch order cut-off (BOC) method to locate the optimal cut-off points on the dendrogram to define candidate clusters. Kulczinsky’s second measure dendrograms were combined using consensus, identifying areas of conflict which could be due to biotic element overlap or transitional areas. Post-clustering GIS manipulation substantially enhanced the endemic composition and geographic size of candidate CoEs. Although there was broad spatial congruence with previous phytogeographic studies, our techniques allowed for the recovery of additional phytogeographic detail not previously described for the CFR. PMID:26147438

  6. Endemic predators, invasive prey and native diversity

    PubMed Central

    Wanger, Thomas C.; Wielgoss, Arno C.; Motzke, Iris; Clough, Yann; Brook, Barry W.; Sodhi, Navjot S.; Tscharntke, Teja

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between native diversity and invasive species can be more complex than is currently understood. Invasive ant species often substantially reduce diversity in the native ants diversity that act as natural control agents for pest insects. In Indonesia (on the island of Sulawesi), the third largest cacao producer worldwide, we show that a predatory endemic toad (Ingerophrynus celebensis) controls invasive ant (Anoplolepis gracilipes) abundance, and positively affects native ant diversity. We call this the invasive-naivety effect (an opposite of enemy release), whereby alien species may not harbour anti-predatory defences against a novel native predator. A positive effect of the toads on native ants may facilitate their predation on insect vectors of cacao diseases. Hence, toads may increase crop yield, but further research is needed on this aspect. Ironically, amphibians are globally the most threatened vertebrate class and are strongly impacted by the conversion of rainforest to cacao plantations in Sulawesi. It is, therefore, crucial to manage cacao plantations to maintain these endemic toads, as they may provide critical ecosystem services, such as invasion resistance and preservation of native insect diversity. PMID:20826488

  7. The Stochastic Modelling of Endemic Diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susvitasari, Kurnia; Siswantining, Titin

    2017-01-01

    A study about epidemic has been conducted since a long time ago, but genuine progress was hardly forthcoming until the end of the 19th century (Bailey, 1975). Both deterministic and stochastic models were used to describe these. Then, from 1927 to 1939 Kermack and McKendrick introduced a generality of this model, including some variables to consider such as rate of infection and recovery. The purpose of this project is to investigate the behaviour of the models when we set the basic reproduction number, R0. This quantity is defined as the expected number of contacts made by a typical infective to susceptibles in the population. According to the epidemic threshold theory, when R0 ≤ 1, minor epidemic occurs with probability one in both approaches, but when R0 > 1, the deterministic and stochastic models have different interpretation. In the deterministic approach, major epidemic occurs with probability one when R0 > 1 and predicts that the disease will settle down to an endemic equilibrium. Stochastic models, on the other hand, identify that the minor epidemic can possibly occur. If it does, then the epidemic will die out quickly. Moreover, if we let the population size be large and the major epidemic occurs, then it will take off and then reach the endemic level and move randomly around the deterministic’s equilibrium.

  8. Endemic strongyloidiasis on the Spanish Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, P R; Guzman, A P; Guillen, S M; Adell, R I; Estruch, A M; Gonzalo, I N; Olmos, C R

    2001-07-01

    Diagnosis and treatment of Strongyloides stercoralis infection can be difficult, and a high degree of clinical suspicion in patients who have visited an endemic area is required. We describe the epidemiology and clinical features of 152 prospectively identified cases of strongyloidiasis in an European region, and identify risk factors for the development of severe forms of the disease. This was a prospective study of all patients admitted to a single institution over an 8-year period. Patients (n=152) were mainly elderly male farmers (79%) who had acquired the disease by working barefoot in contact with soil and ingesting non-drinking water. Eosinophilia was a sensitive marker for the infection (82%). Twenty patients (13%) developed severe forms of the illness and six patients (4%) died. A significant association was found between severe forms of strongyloidiasis and steroid usage (OR 9.0, 95%CI 2.1-37.6), immunodebilitating illness (OR 10.1, 95%CI 3.2-32.3) and other immunosuppressive therapy (OR 13.7, 95%CI 2.9-58.7), but by logistic regression analysis, only immunodebilitating disease was as a risk factor (OR 2.1, 95%CI 1.78-2.43). S. stercolaris infection is endemic in the Spanish Mediterranean coast. The frequent development of severe forms of the disease, with a high mortality, makes early recognition and treatment essential.

  9. Hydroclimatological Controls of Endemic and Non-endemic Cholera of the 20th Century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutla, A. S.; Whitcombe, E.; Colwell, R.

    2012-12-01

    Cholera remains a major public health threat for the developing countries. Since the causative agent, Vibrio cholerae, is autochthonous to aquatic environment, it is not possible to eradicate the agent of the disease. Hydroclimatology based prediction and prevention strategies can be implemented in disease susceptible regions for reducing incidence rates. However, the precise role of hydrological and climatological processes, which will further aid in development of suitable prediction models, in creating spatial and temporal environmental conditions favorable for disease outbreak has not been adequately quantified. Here, we show distinction between seasonality and occurrence of cholera in epidemic and non-endemic regions. Using historical cholera mortality data, from the late 1800s for 27 locations in the Indian subcontinent, we show that non-endemic regions are generally located close to regional river systems but away from the coasts and are characterized by single sporadic outbreak in a given year. Increase in air temperature during the low river flow season increases evaporation, leading to an optimal salinity and pH required for bacterial growth. Thereafter, monsoonal rainfall, leads to interactions of contaminated river waters via human activity resulting in cholera epidemics. Endemic regions are located close to coasts where cholera outbreak occurs twice (spring and fall) in a year. Spring outbreak is generally associated with intrusion of bacterial seawater to inland whereas the fall peak is correlated with widespread flooding and cross-contamination of water resources via increased precipitation. This may be one of the first studies to hydroclimatologically quantitatively the seasonality of cholera in both endemic and non-endemic regions. Our results prompt the need of region and cause-specific prediction models for cholera, employing appropriate environmental determinants.

  10. Endemism patterns in the Italian leaf beetle fauna (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Biondi, Maurizio; Urbani, Fabrizia; D’Alessandro, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Abstract In this contribution the results of a zoogeographical analysis, carried out on the 123 endemic leaf beetle species (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) occurring in Italy and its immediately adjacent regions, are reported. To assess the level of faunistic similarity among the different geographic regions studied, a cluster analysis was performed, based on the endemic component. This was done by calculating the Baroni Urbani & Buser’s similarity index (BUB). Finally, a parsimony analysis of endemicity (PAE) was used to identify the most important areas of endemism in Italy. PMID:24163584

  11. Comparison of immune responses to a killed bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine between endemic and less endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Desai, Sachin N; Akalu, Zenebe; Teferi, Mekonnen; Manna, Byomkesh; Teshome, Samuel; Park, Ju Yeon; Yang, Jae Seung; Kim, Deok Ryun; Kanungo, Suman; Digilio, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Studies on safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of the killed, bivalent whole cell oral cholera vaccine (Shanchol) have been conducted in historically endemic settings of Asia. Recent cholera vaccination campaigns in Haiti and Guinea have also demonstrated favourable immunogenicity and effectiveness in nonendemic outbreak settings. We performed a secondary analysis, comparing immune responses of Shanchol from two randomised controlled trials performed in an endemic and a less endemic area (Addis Ababa) during a nonoutbreak setting. While Shanchol may offer some degree of immediate protection in primed populations living in cholera endemic areas, as well as being highly immunogenic in less endemic settings, understanding the characteristics of immune responses in each of these areas is vital in determining ideal dosing strategies that offer the greatest public health impact to populations from areas with varying degrees of cholera endemicity. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Endemicity response timelines for Plasmodium falciparum elimination.

    PubMed

    Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2009-04-30

    The scaling up of malaria control and renewed calls for malaria eradication have raised interest in defining timelines for changes in malaria endemicity. The epidemiological theory for the decline in the Plasmodium falciparum parasite rate (PfPR, the prevalence of infection) following intervention was critically reviewed and where necessary extended to consider superinfection, heterogeneous biting, and aging infections. Timelines for malaria control and elimination under different levels of intervention were then established using a wide range of candidate mathematical models. Analysis focused on the timelines from baseline to 1% and from 1% through the final stages of elimination. The Ross-Macdonald model, which ignores superinfection, was used for planning during the Global Malaria Eradication Programme (GMEP). In models that consider superinfection, PfPR takes two to three years longer to reach 1% starting from a hyperendemic baseline, consistent with one of the few large-scale malaria control trials conducted in an African population with hyperendemic malaria. The time to elimination depends fundamentally upon the extent to which malaria transmission is interrupted and the size of the human population modelled. When the PfPR drops below 1%, almost all models predict similar and proportional declines in PfPR in consecutive years from 1% through to elimination and that the waiting time to reduce PfPR from 10% to 1% and from 1% to 0.1% are approximately equal, but the decay rate can increase over time if infections senesce. The theory described herein provides simple "rules of thumb" and likely time horizons for the impact of interventions for control and elimination. Starting from a hyperendemic baseline, the GMEP planning timelines, which were based on the Ross-Macdonald model with completely interrupted transmission, were inappropriate for setting endemicity timelines and they represent the most optimistic scenario for places with lower endemicity. Basic

  13. Species richness and endemism in the native flora of California.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Bruce G; Thornhill, Andrew H; Freyman, William A; Ackerly, David D; Kling, Matthew M; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-03-01

    California's vascular flora is the most diverse and threatened in temperate North America. Previous studies of spatial patterns of Californian plant diversity have been limited by traditional metrics, non-uniform geographic units, and distributional data derived from floristic descriptions for only a subset of species. We revisited patterns of sampling intensity, species richness, and relative endemism in California based on equal-area spatial units, the full vascular flora, and specimen-based distributional data. We estimated richness, weighted endemism (inverse range-weighting of species), and corrected weighted endemism (weighted endemism corrected for richness), and performed a randomization test for significantly high endemism. Possible biases in herbarium data do not obscure patterns of high richness and endemism at the spatial resolution studied. High species richness was sometimes associated with significantly high endemism (e.g., Klamath Ranges) but often not. In Stebbins and Major's (1965) main endemism hotspot, Southwestern California, species richness is high across much of the Peninsular and Transverse ranges but significantly high endemism is mostly localized to the Santa Rosa and San Bernardino mountains. In contrast, species richness is low in the Channel Islands, where endemism is significantly high, as also found for much of the Death Valley region. Measures of taxonomic richness, even with greater weighting of range-restricted taxa, are insufficient for identifying areas of significantly high endemism that warrant conservation attention. Differences between our findings and those in previous studies appear to mostly reflect the source and scale of distributional data, and recent analytical refinements. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  14. [The endemic goitre in figurative arts].

    PubMed

    Giampalmo, A

    1996-01-01

    For the past fifteen years the author has been collecting photografic documentation of works of figurative arts (graffiti, mosiac, engravings, paintings and sculptures) made at different times and places, in which he found mostly unintentional display of diseases or deformities that would be clearly identified in nosography in the light of today's knowledge. In this study the author intends to illustrate briefly different cases on endemic goitre - whose representation is particularly frequent in figurative arts - in chronological order, beginning with the most ancient ones and focussing on Italian portraying of the Nativity and the Passion of Christ, where the most striking infirmities and disabilities were mirrored and commonly accepted. This study whose interest lies between a scientific and a humanistic one has also importance in the field of art, and especially in relevant philological research which is of particular importance to us pathologists. At last it contribute to establish the epidemiology of some diseases and the knowledge of historical and geographical pathology.

  15. Lack of endemic HIV infection in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Azocar, J; Martinez, C; McLane, M F; Allan, J; Essex, M

    1987-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection was recently conducted in 556 serum samples from donors in rural and urban areas of Venezuela and from aboriginal Amazonian Indians. The samples were tested for the presence of antibodies to HIV by the ELISA technique using several commercially available kits. 19 samples were positive. These samples then were tested by immunofluorescence, Western blot, and radioimmunoprecipitation techniques as confirmatory assays. 4 seropositive control samples from patients from Caracas with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) were analyzed. None of the samples from rural or aboriginal Indians could be confirmed by these assays. These sera also were evaluated for antibodies to STLV-3 by Western blot analysis. No positive samples were identified. The results fail to support earlier studies suggesting that HIV or a related virus is endemic in the Venezuelan population.

  16. Costs of illness due to endemic cholera.

    PubMed

    Poulos, C; Riewpaiboon, A; Stewart, J F; Clemens, J; Guh, S; Agtini, M; Sur, D; Islam, Z; Lucas, M; Whittington, D

    2012-03-01

    Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were US$32 and US$47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between US$28 and US$206, depending on hospitalization. Patients' cost of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective.

  17. Diagnosis of cysticercosis in endemic regions

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, H. H.; Martinez, M.; Gilman, R.; Herrera, G.; Tsang, V. C. W.; Pilcher, J. B.; Diaz, F.; Verastegui, M.; Gallo, C.; Porras, M.; Alvarado, M.; Naranjo, J.; Miranda, E.

    2010-01-01

    Taenia solium cysticercosis is a frequent cause of neurological disease in developing countries. Specific diagnosis of cysticercosis is difficult. We obtained serum and/or CSF samples from 204 consecutive patients admitted to a neurological ward in Lima, Peru, and looked for antibodies specific for T solium with the enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB) assay. 21 (12%) of 173 serum samples from these patients were EITB-positive. In contrast only 2 (1·5%) of 135 patients attending a public endoscopy clinic and 1 (1%) of 88 patients attending a private endoscopy clinic were seropositive. 1 (1%) of 98 pregnant women living in a Lima shanty town was EITB-positive. 15 (58%) of 26 neurology patients diagnosed clinically as having cysticercosis were seronegative. Routine screening by EITB of all patients with neurological symptoms from areas of endemic cysticercosis would avoid misdiagnosis of this common and treatable disease. PMID:1678809

  18. Cytotoxic compounds from endemic Arnebia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Yuzbasioglu, Merve; Kuruuzum-Uz, Ayse; Guvenalp, Zuhal; Simon, András; Tóth, Gabór; Harput, U Sebnem; Kazaz, Cavit; Bilgili, Bilgehan; Duman, Hayri; Saracoglu, Iclal; Demirezer, L Omur

    2015-04-01

    Phytochemical studies of the roots and aerial parts of endemic Arnebia purpurea S. Erik & H. Sumbul resulted in the isolation and characterization of four naphthoquinones [isovalerylalkannin (1), α-methyl-n-butanoyl alkannin (2), acetylalkannin (3), and alkannin (4)], a triterpene derivative [3-O-acetyl-oleanolic acid (5)], a steroid [β-sitosterol (6)], three flavonoid glycosides [isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside (9)] and a phenolic acid [rosmarinic acid (10)]. 3-O-Acetyl-oleanolic acid, isorhamnetin-3-O-rutinoside, kaempferol-3-O-mrutinoside, and kaempferol 3-O-(5"-acetyl) apiofuranoside 7-O-rhamnopyranoside are reported from an Arnebia species for the first time. Cytotoxic activities on L929 murine fibrosarcoma cell line of the isolated compounds were investigated using MTT assay. Naphthoquinones (1-4) showed intermediate cytotoxic activity in comparison with the standard, doxorubicin.

  19. Endemic human fasciolosis in the Bolivian Altiplano.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, M; O'Neill, S M; Dalton, J P

    2007-05-01

    Fasciolosis, caused by trematodes of the genus Fasciola, is an emerging disease of humans. One of the highest levels of human fasciolosis hepatica is found amongst the indigenous Aymaran people of the Northern Bolivian Altiplano. A meta-analysis of epidemiological surveys from 38 communities in the region demonstrates that fasciolosis has been endemic in the region since at least 1984 and is a zoonosis of rural communities. Human and bovine fasciolosis is associated with the communities lying in the plain from Lake Titicaca to La Paz, predominantly in the Los Andes province. In Los Andes incidences of up to 67% of population cohorts were found, and prevalence is age-related with the highest infection rate in children aged 8-11 years.

  20. Endemic cattle diseases: comparative epidemiology and governance.

    PubMed

    Carslake, David; Grant, Wyn; Green, Laura E; Cave, Jonathan; Greaves, Justin; Keeling, Matt; McEldowney, John; Weldegebriel, Habtu; Medley, Graham F

    2011-07-12

    Cattle are infected by a community of endemic pathogens with different epidemiological properties that invoke different managerial and governmental responses. We present characteristics of pathogens that influence their ability to persist in the UK, and describe a qualitative framework of factors that influence the political response to a livestock disease. We develop simple transmission models for three pathogens (bovine viral diarrhoea virus, bovine herpesvirus and Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis) using observed cattle movements, and compare the outcomes to an extensive dataset. The results demonstrate that the epidemiology of the three pathogens is determined by different aspects of within- and between-farm processes, which has economic, legal and political implications for control. We consider how these pathogens, and Mycobacterium bovis (the agent of bovine tuberculosis), may be classified by the process by which they persist and by their political profile. We further consider the dynamic interaction of these classifications with pathogen prevalence and with the action taken by the government.

  1. Comparative phylogeography of endemic Azorean arthropods.

    PubMed

    Parmakelis, Aristeidis; Rigal, François; Mourikis, Thanos; Balanika, Katerina; Terzopoulou, Sofia; Rego, Carla; Amorim, Isabel R; Crespo, Luís; Pereira, Fernando; Triantis, Kostas A; Whittaker, Robert J; Borges, Paulo A V

    2015-11-11

    For a remote oceanic archipelago of up to 8 Myr age, the Azores have a comparatively low level of endemism. We present an analysis of phylogeographic patterns of endemic Azorean island arthropods aimed at testing patterns of diversification in relation to the ontogeny of the archipelago, in order to distinguish between alternative models of evolutionary dynamics on islands. We collected individuals of six species (representing Araneae, Hemiptera and Coleoptera) from 16 forest fragments from 7 islands. Using three mtDNA markers, we analysed the distribution of genetic diversity within and between islands, inferred the differentiation time-frames and investigated the inter-island migration routes and colonization patterns. Each species exhibited very low levels of mtDNA divergence, both within and between islands. The two oldest islands were not strongly involved in the diffusion of genetic diversity within the archipelago. The most haplotype-rich islands varied according to species but the younger, central islands contributed the most to haplotype diversity. Colonization events both in concordance with and in contradiction to an inter-island progression rule were inferred, while a non-intuitive pattern of colonization from western to eastern islands was also inferred. The geological development of the Azores has followed a less tidy progression compared to classic hotspot archipelagos, and this is reflected in our findings. The study species appear to have been differentiating within the Azores for <2 Myr, a fraction of the apparent life span of the archipelago, which may indicate that extinction events linked to active volcanism have played an important role. Assuming that after each extinction event, colonization was initiated from a nearby island hosting derived haplotypes, the apparent age of species diversification in the archipelago would be moved closer to the present after each extinction-recolonization cycle. Exploiting these ideas, we propose a general

  2. Epidemiology of endemic goitre in western Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gaitan, E.; Merino, H.; Rodriguez, G.; Medina, P.; Meyer, J. D.; DeRouen, T. A.; MacLennan, R.

    1978-01-01

    This paper reports on recent epidemiological observations in western Colombia, which further demonstrate the presence of naturally-occurring goitrogens contaminating water supplies in areas where goitre persists despite prolonged and continuous iodine supplementation. 'Prospective' and 'cross-sectional' studies in 41 localities where the populations have been on a uniform and adequate iodine supplementation for the last 10-20 years indicate that, in the endemia of western Colombia, environmental factors other than nutritional iodine deficiency are responsible for differences in goitre prevalence. Further epidemiological studies to determine the causal factors for the persistence of the endemia established a correlation between the sources of drinking water and goitre prevalence rates. Organic compounds containing sulfur with marked thionamide-like antithyroid activity were isolated from water supplying endemic goitre districts, and results are presented supporting the hypothesis that sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter are the main source of water-borne goitrogens. Bacteriological investigations showed that the presence of Klebsiella pneumoniae in drinking water and bacterial concentration were related significantly with goitre prevalence only in the presence of other variables, particularly the presence of sedimentary rocks. In the light of these epidemiological observations and experimental studies it may be concluded that, at present, endemic goitre in western Colombia is not due to nutritional iodine deficiency, but that water supplies are contaminated with sulfur-bearing organic compounds with thionamide-like antithyroid activity most probably deriving from sedimentary rocks rich in organic matter and that these compounds are the main factor underlying the endemia. PMID:80287

  3. Endemic fungal infections in the Asia-Pacific region.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, A; Slavin, M A

    2011-05-01

    Endemic mycoses are important fungal infections in their respective habitats. In the Asia-Pacific region, an accurate epidemiological picture of endemic mycoses is elusive; few epidemiological surveys have been performed, and limited laboratory facilities and experience with fungal infections have further hampered recognition of infection. However, pockets of endemicity do indeed exist, and endemic fungal infections can have a significant impact on public health. This article reviews the most common endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region: histoplasmosis, penicilliosis, and sporotrichosis. Blastomycosis, which has been infrequently reported within the region, is also briefly discussed. Certain areas of the Asia-Pacific region are endemic for histoplasmosis; however, the ecologic niche for this infection remains unclear. Penicilliosis is restricted to Southeast and Eastern Asia, whereas sporotrichosis is encountered in tropical areas of the Asia-Pacific region linked to environmental reservoirs distinct from those seen in the Western world. Before the advent of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), histoplasmosis and penicilliosis were only occasionally reported; however, the incidence of both mycoses has increased with the rise in the incidence of AIDS. Comprehensive studies are needed to fully assess the areas of endemicity and the impact of endemic mycoses in the Asia-Pacific region.

  4. Correlation between Tick Density and Pathogen Endemicity, New Hampshire

    PubMed Central

    Walk, Seth T.; Xu, Guang; Stull, Jason W.

    2009-01-01

    To assess the endemicity of tick-borne pathogens in New Hampshire, we surveyed adult tick vectors. Pathogens were more prevalent in areas of high tick density, suggesting a correlation between tick establishment and pathogen endemicity. Infection rates in ticks correlated with disease frequency in humans. PMID:19331738

  5. Origins and consequences of serpentine endemism in the California flora.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L; Whittall, Justen B; Goldberg, Emma E; Harrison, Susan P

    2011-02-01

    Habitat specialization plays an important role in the creation and loss of biodiversity over ecological and evolutionary time scales. In California, serpentine soils have a distinctive flora, with 246 serpentine habitat specialists (i.e., endemics). Using molecular phylogenies for 23 genera containing 784 taxa and 51 endemics, we infer few transitions out of the endemic state, which is shown by an analysis of transition rates to simply reflect the low frequency of endemics (i.e., reversal rates were high). The finding of high reversal rates, but a low number of reversals, is consistent with the widely hypothesized trade-off between serpentine tolerance and competitive ability, under which serpentine endemics are physiologically capable of growing in less-stressful habitats but competitors lead to their extirpation. Endemism is also characterized by a decrease in speciation and extinction rates and a decrease in the overall diversification rate. We also find that tolerators (species with nonserpentine and serpentine populations) undergo speciation in serpentine habitats to give rise to new serpentine endemics but are several times more likely to lose serpentine populations to produce serpentine-intolerant taxa. Finally, endemics were younger on average than nonendemics, but this alone does not explain their low diversification.

  6. Mycotic Infections Acquired outside Areas of Known Endemicity, United States

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, George R.; Deresinski, Stan; Chiller, Tom

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, endemic mycoses—blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, and histoplasmosis—pose considerable clinical and public health challenges. Although the causative fungi typically exist within broadly defined geographic areas or ecologic niches, some evidence suggests that cases have occurred in humans and animals not exposed to these areas. We describe cases acquired outside regions of traditionally defined endemicity. These patients often have severe disease, but diagnosis may be delayed because of a low index of suspicion for mycotic disease, and many more cases probably go entirely undetected. Increased awareness of these diseases, with a specific focus on their potential occurrence in unusual areas, is needed. Continued interdisciplinary efforts to reevaluate and better describe areas of true endemicity are warranted, along with a more nuanced view of the notion of endemicity. The term “nonendemic” should be used with care; mycoses in such regions might more accurately be considered “not known to be endemic.” PMID:26485441

  7. Endemic earthworms (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) of the Balkan Peninsula: a review.

    PubMed

    Trakić, Tanja; Valchovski, Hristo; Stojanović, Mirjana

    2016-11-10

    A list of the endemic earthworms of the Balkan Peninsula is presented. Comprehensive information on the ecology, distribution on the Balkan Peninsula and zoogeographical type of all endemics is given. The list comprises 90 species and subspecies, belonging to 11 genera of the family Lumbricidae. The largest number of the Balkan endemic earthworms belongs to a narrow range group (63.3%). Broad range endemic species take part with 36.7%. Our study shows that the degree of endemism on the Balkan Peninsula is extremely high (about 40%) suggesting an important process of autochthonous speciation on the Balkan Peninsula. This appearance is attributable to relative isolation of the mountains compared to the lowlands within the context of paleoenvironmental changes.

  8. Chemotherapeutics challenges in developing effective treatments for the endemic malarias

    PubMed Central

    Kevin Baird, J.

    2012-01-01

    The endemic malarias threaten the several billion people residing where transmission occurs. Chemotherapeutic strategy pitted against these threats hinges upon species- and stage-specific treatments guided by diagnosis and screening against sometime dangerous contraindications. This approach suits malaria as it occurs among travelers in the developed, non-endemic world. However, limiting treatment to that which diagnosis affirms may not be rational in endemic zones. Most of the endemic malarias remain out of diagnostic reach, either by inaccessibility of the parasite stage, insensitivity of the technology, or unavailability of diagnostic services. The partial and fragmented chemotherapeutic attack of malaria guided by confirmed diagnostics leaves most of the endemic malarias unchallenged. Development of elimination therapy, a single course of treatment aimed at all species and stages, would significantly advance progress against the major killers known collectively as malaria. PMID:24533286

  9. Comparison of the prevalence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in endemic and non-endemic Bulgarian locations.

    PubMed

    Gergova, Ivanka; Kamarinchev, Bozhin

    2013-12-01

    The Balkans is an endemic region for Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF), caused by the CCHF virus (CCHFV). Several Bulgarian regions comprised of smaller locations are categorized either as endemic or non-endemic for CCHF. However, little is known about the dynamics that underlie the development of endemicity within the locations throughout the years. Seven locations categorized as endemic in one central Bulgarian region (Stara Zagora) were compared to seven non-endemic areas. During the period 2006-12, a total of 1775 blood samples from cattle, were tested for anti-CCHFV antibodies using an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay. Also, the infestation of 617 mature ticks for CCHFV was studied using a combination of an immunofluorescence haemocytes assay and molecular-virological methods. Anti-CCHFV antibodies were established in 7.89% (140/1775) of the sera. The average CCHFV-infestation in the ticks was 1.46% (9/617). CCHFV was detected in three tick species: H.m. marginatum (3.73%, 6/161), being the main vector of the infection; R. sanguineus (1.63%, 2/123); and I. ricinus (1.96%, 1/51). The data for the endemic and non-endemic locations did not reveal significant differences for the prevalence of CCHFV. Mosaic dispersion of the virus was determined in the studied region and the results did not vary significantly throughout the investigated years.

  10. Endemicity of chytridiomycosis features pathogen overdispersion.

    PubMed

    Grogan, Laura F; Phillott, Andrea D; Scheele, Benjamin C; Berger, Lee; Cashins, Scott D; Bell, Sara C; Puschendorf, Robert; Skerratt, Lee F

    2016-05-01

    Pathogens can be critical drivers of the abundance and distribution of wild animal populations. The presence of an overdispersed pathogen load distribution between hosts (where few hosts harbour heavy parasite burdens and light infections are common) can have an important stabilizing effect on host-pathogen dynamics where infection intensity determines pathogenicity. This may potentially lead to endemicity of an introduced pathogen rather than extirpation of the host and/or pathogen. Overdispersed pathogen load distributions have rarely been considered in wild animal populations as an important component of the infection dynamics of microparasites such as bacteria, viruses, protozoa and fungi. Here we examined the abundance, distribution and transmission of the model fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd, cause of amphibian chytridiomycosis) between wild-caught Litoria rheocola (common mist frogs) to investigate the effects of an overdispersed pathogen load distribution on the host population in the wild. We quantified host survival, infection incidence and recovery probabilities relative to infectious burden, and compared the results of models where pathogen overdispersion either was or was not considered an important feature of host-pathogen dynamics. We found the distribution of Bd load between hosts to be highly overdispersed. We found that host survival was related to infection burden and that accounting for pathogen overdispersion allowed us to better understand infection dynamics and their implications for disease control. In addition, we found that the pattern of host infections and recoveries varied markedly with season whereby (i) infections established more in winter, consistent with temperature-dependent effects on fungal growth, and (ii) recoveries (loss of infection) occurred frequently in the field throughout the year but were less likely in winter. Our results suggest that pathogen overdispersion is an important feature of endemic

  11. Value of routine dengue diagnosis in endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Nnukwu, Samuel Ekpesu; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Fobisong, Cajetang Nkong

    2017-02-12

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans and it is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is thought to account for 400 million cases annually among approximately 3.97 billion people at risk of infection in 128 endemic countries. Despite the global prevalence of the disease, the availability of a vaccine is limited in most countries in the endemic areas. Most endemic countries in South America, South East Asia and Africa serve as attractive touristic sites for people from non-endemic countries who become infected and export the virus to dengue-free regions. Dengue fever typically resembles malaria and in endemic countries most cases of dengue are treated as presumptive malaria. Consequently, routine dengue diagnosis among persons with fever will offer early treatment and reduce the burden of the disease. Also, routine testing among travellers from endemic countries will reduce importation and prevent the geographical expansion of dengue. In this essay, we seek to highlight the usefulness of routine dengue testing in endemic countries.

  12. [Retrospective investigation of schistosomiasis endemic situation in Hunan Province].

    PubMed

    Han, Yang-qing; Hu, Ben-Jiao; Zhou, Ying-cai; Wang, Xing-rao; Liu, Ke-jian; Wang, Yue-ming; Meng, Shi-hua; Li, Guang-ping; Ren, Guang-hui

    2014-10-01

    To understand the dynamic rules of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or transmission interrupted, so as to provide the evidence for improving schistosomiasis control. Wuling District, Xihu District and Linli County were selected and investigated retrospectively to collect the schistosomiasis epidemiological information 10 years before they reached the criteria of transmission controlled and the subsequent years until 2008. A database of retrospective investigation was established for analyzing the trends and rules of changes of the Oncomelania hupensis snail status and infection status of cattle and human. In Wuling District, the endemic situation was declining, and no schistosome infection persons, animals and snails were found after 1974. There was no rebound until 2008. In Xihu District, the endemic situation reached the criteria of transmission controlled in 1997, and the endemic situation was stable. The human infection rate was positively correlated with the area of infection snails (r = 0.584, P < 0.05). In Linli County, there were no snails, no infected persons and cattle twice, but 2 endemic rebounds, and there were positive correlations between the densities of living snails and the infection rates of human and animal during the endemic rebound period. The snail status is an important indicator of schistosomiasis endemic rebound. Therefore, the snail control is one of the most important schistosomiasis control measures.

  13. Value of routine dengue diagnosis in endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Ayukekbong, James Ayukepi; Oyero, Olufunmilayo G; Nnukwu, Samuel Ekpesu; Mesumbe, Henry Nzike; Fobisong, Cajetang Nkong

    2017-01-01

    Dengue is one of the most common arthropod-borne viral diseases in humans and it is a leading cause of illness and death in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is thought to account for 400 million cases annually among approximately 3.97 billion people at risk of infection in 128 endemic countries. Despite the global prevalence of the disease, the availability of a vaccine is limited in most countries in the endemic areas. Most endemic countries in South America, South East Asia and Africa serve as attractive touristic sites for people from non-endemic countries who become infected and export the virus to dengue-free regions. Dengue fever typically resembles malaria and in endemic countries most cases of dengue are treated as presumptive malaria. Consequently, routine dengue diagnosis among persons with fever will offer early treatment and reduce the burden of the disease. Also, routine testing among travellers from endemic countries will reduce importation and prevent the geographical expansion of dengue. In this essay, we seek to highlight the usefulness of routine dengue testing in endemic countries. PMID:28239567

  14. Temporal stability of an endemic Mexican treefrog

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Ruiz, Griselda; Venegas-Barrera, Crystian S.; Sanchez-Sanchez, Hermilo

    2015-01-01

    The demographic characteristics of an amphibian population fluctuate independently over time, mainly in response to the temporal variation of environmental factors, especially precipitation and temperature. These temporal fluctuations may contribute to the size of an amphibian population and could be used to determine the current conservation status of a species. During a five year (2004–2008) period, we studied the relative abundance, sex ratio, and age-sex structure of a population of metamorphosed individuals of the endemic treefrog Hyla eximia in Central Mexico. We also studied the species’ relationship with climatic variables such as temperature and precipitation. We found an interannual constant abundance during the study period. However, interannual differences were observed in the population structure by age-sex category (males, females, or juveniles), with decreased abundance of males and juveniles during the rainy months (August–November). The annual abundance of H. eximia was positively correlated with rainfall, but negatively with monthly temperature. We found the sex ratio was male-biased (2:1), except for year 2008. Also, differences in snout-vent length (SVL) were found between years, suggesting changes in recruitment of new individuals. We conclude that variations in abundance, and frequencies by age-sex category, of H. eximia are related to seasonal variations in temperature and precipitation characteristics of temperate zones. However, this temporal stability may suggest that anurans have an unusual capacity to persist even in the face of human-induced habitat change. PMID:26421242

  15. Endemic Transmission of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bhutan

    PubMed Central

    Yangzom, Thinley; Cruz, Israel; Bern, Caryn; Argaw, Daniel; den Boer, Margriet; Vélez, Iván Dario; Bhattacharya, Sujit K.; Molina, Ricardo; Alvar, Jorge

    2012-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis was first reported in Bhutan in 2006. We conducted studies of the parasite, possible vectors and reservoirs, and leishmanin skin test and risk factor surveys in three villages. Nineteen cases were reported from seven districts. Parasite typing yielded two novel microsatellite sequences, both related to Indian L. donovani. In one case village, 40 (18.5%) of 216 participants had positive leishmanin skin test results, compared with 3 (4.2%) of 72 in the other case village and 0 of 108 in the control village. Positive results were strongly associated with the village and increasing age. None of the tested dogs were infected. Eighteen sand flies were collected, 13 Phlebotomus species and 5 Sergentomyia species; polymerase chain reaction for leishmanial DNA was negative. This assessment suggests that endemic visceral leishmaniasis transmission has occurred in diverse locations in Bhutan. Surveillance, case investigations, and further parasite, vector, and reservoir studies are needed. The potential protective impact of bed nets should be evaluated. PMID:23091191

  16. Costs of Illness Due to Endemic Cholera

    PubMed Central

    Poulos, C.; Riewpaiboon, A.; Stewart, J.F.; Clemens, J.; Guh, S.; Agtini, M.; Sur, D.; Islam, Z.; Lucas, M.; Whittington, D.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Economic analyses of cholera immunization programmes require estimates of the costs of cholera. The Diseases of the Most Impoverished programme measured the public, provider, and patient costs of culture-confirmed cholera in four study sites with endemic cholera using a combination of hospital- and community-based studies. Families with culture-proven cases were surveyed at home 7 and 14 days after confirmation of illness. Public costs were measured at local health facilities using a micro-costing methodology. Hospital-based studies found that the costs of severe cholera were USD 32 and 47 in Matlab and Beira. Community-based studies in North Jakarta and Kolkata found that cholera cases cost between USD 28 and USD 206, depending on hospitalization. Patient costs of illness as a percentage of average monthly income were 21% and 65% for hospitalized cases in Kolkata and North Jakarta, respectively. This burden on families is not captured by studies that adopt a provider perspective. PMID:21554781

  17. The risk of developing endemic nephropathy in subjects with proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Cvitković, Ante; Sonicki, Zdenko; Babus, Vladimir; Cvoriscec, Dubravka

    2014-03-01

    Endemic nephropathy is a chronic tubulointerstitial disease characterized by early damage to the proximal tubule, with low-molecular weight proteinuria being an important hallmark and possible tool for early diagnosis. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the risk of developing endemic nephropathy in subjects with proteinuria from the endemic region in Croatia. The cohort study included subjects with proteinuria determined by the sulfosalicylic acid method (after 1988 with strip method), involved in the field survey conducted in the Croatian endemic village of Kaniza in 1975 and followed up until 1997. Subjects with endemic nephropathy established at the first visit and patients that failed to present for follow up visits after 1975. were excluded. In the field survey group that consisted of 624 subjects (286 male and 338 female), proteinuria was established in 157 subjects. Upon the application of exclusion and inclusion criteria, the study cohort included 111 of 157 subjects. The mean follow up was 7.26 years (95% confidence interval 4.06-10.46 years). During the follow up period, 19 (17%) subjects with initial proteinuria developed endemic nephropathy. The incidence density of endemic nephropathy among subjects with proteinuria was 1.3 per 100 persons/year. Estimated risk was 0.0137 (confidence interval 0.0087-0.0214) per year of exposure. The presence of proteinuria determined by the sulfosalicylic acid or test strip in subjects from the endemic village indicated that endemic nephropathy would develop in 1.3 of 100 subjects with proteinuria per year.

  18. Updated Global Burden of Cholera in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R.; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Background The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries’ reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Methods/Principal Findings Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). Conclusion/Significance The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control. PMID:26043000

  19. Updated global burden of cholera in endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Nelson, Allyson R; Lopez, Anna Lena; Sack, David A

    2015-01-01

    The global burden of cholera is largely unknown because the majority of cases are not reported. The low reporting can be attributed to limited capacity of epidemiological surveillance and laboratories, as well as social, political, and economic disincentives for reporting. We previously estimated 2.8 million cases and 91,000 deaths annually due to cholera in 51 endemic countries. A major limitation in our previous estimate was that the endemic and non-endemic countries were defined based on the countries' reported cholera cases. We overcame the limitation with the use of a spatial modelling technique in defining endemic countries, and accordingly updated the estimates of the global burden of cholera. Countries were classified as cholera endemic, cholera non-endemic, or cholera-free based on whether a spatial regression model predicted an incidence rate over a certain threshold in at least three of five years (2008-2012). The at-risk populations were calculated for each country based on the percent of the country without sustainable access to improved sanitation facilities. Incidence rates from population-based published studies were used to calculate the estimated annual number of cases in endemic countries. The number of annual cholera deaths was calculated using inverse variance-weighted average case-fatality rate (CFRs) from literature-based CFR estimates. We found that approximately 1.3 billion people are at risk for cholera in endemic countries. An estimated 2.86 million cholera cases (uncertainty range: 1.3m-4.0m) occur annually in endemic countries. Among these cases, there are an estimated 95,000 deaths (uncertainty range: 21,000-143,000). The global burden of cholera remains high. Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for the majority of this burden. Our findings can inform programmatic decision-making for cholera control.

  20. Endemic Tegumentary Leishmaniasis in Brazil: Correlation between Level of Endemicity and Number of Cases of Mucosal Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya-Pacheco, Sandro J.; Araujo-Melo, Maria H.; Valete-Rosalino, Claudia M.; Pimentel, Maria Inês F.; Conceição-Silva, Fátima; Schubach, Armando O.; Marzochi, Mauro C. A.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish a correlation between the endemic level of tegumentary leishmaniasis in different regions of Brazil during 2002–2009 and the number of cases of mucosal or mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. The proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis was inversely correlated with prevalence of infection. In areas with a lower infection prevalence, the proportion of mucosal leishmaniasis increased (P < 0.05). The hypothesis of an Amazonian origin and dissemination through human migration is considered. Our results show that in regions with lower prevalence and endemically younger, the proportion of cases that evolve to the mucosal form is higher than in regions with higher prevalence and endemically older. PMID:21633026

  1. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  2. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  3. Endemic pemphigus over a century: Part II

    PubMed Central

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Roselino, Ana Maria; Howard, Michael S.; Reason, Iara J. de Messias

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is an autoimmune disease, classically occurring in a restricted geographic area. Foci of EPF have been described in several Central and South American countries, often affecting young people and Amerindians, with some female predilection. Although most American EPF cases have been documented in Brazil, cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador and Venezuela. An additional variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, (El Bagre-EPF) affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, one additional type of EPF has been described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Aims: The main aim of this review is to summarize current knowledge about autoantigens, and immunologic and genetic studies in EPF. Material and Methods: We utilized a retrospective review of the literature, aiming to compile and compare the multiple geographic foci of EPF. Results: The primary autoantigens in EPF are still considered to be desmogleins in the case of the Tunisian and all American cases, in contradistinction to plakins and desmogleins in El Bagre-EPF. Although several autoantigens are been suggested, their biochemical nature needs further elucidation. Current knowledge still supports the concept that an antibody mediated immune response represents the principal pathophysiology in all variants of EPF. Conclusion: A strong genetic susceptibility appears to contribute to disease development in several people affected by these diseases; however, no specific genes have been confirmed at present. We conclude that further investigation is necessary to define these disorders immunologically and genetically. PMID:22624125

  4. Spatial distribution of Madeira Island Laurisilva endemic spiders (Arachnida: Araneae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Madeira island presents a unique spider diversity with a high number of endemic species, many of which are still poorly known. A recent biodiversity survey on the terrestrial arthropods of the native forest, Laurisilva, provided a large set of standardized samples from various patches throughout the island. Out of the fifty two species recorded, approximately 33.3% are Madeiran endemics, many of which had not been collected since their original description. Two new species to science are reported – Ceratinopsis n. sp. and Theridion n. sp. – and the first records of Poeciloneta variegata (Blackwall, 1841) and Tetragnatha intermedia Kulczynski, 1891 are reported for the first time for Madeira island. Considerations on species richness and abundance from different Laurisilva locations are presented, together with distribution maps for endemic species. These results contribute to a better understanding of spider diversity patterns and endemic species distribution in the native forest of Madeira island. PMID:24855443

  5. [Endemic goiter in Latium: environmental and genetic factors].

    PubMed

    Paggi, A

    1998-01-01

    Most studies on the pathogenesis of endemic goiter focus above all on iodine deficiency. In some endemic goiter areas (i.e. Nigeria) there is no evidence of iodine deficiency; therefore, we suggest the taking into account of various factors, both environmental and non-environmental. We report the results of two studies carried out in three different areas in Latium: one of them (Cerveteri, RM) could be classified as high prevalence of goiter area, while the two others (Roccasecca dei Volsci, LT and Castel San Pietro Romano, RM) are true endemic goiter areas. The role of environmental factors, radioactivity and electromagnetism, foodstuff, the hydrogeological and chemical composition of natural water and the importance of genetics are here discussed, assuming that the endemic goiter could have a multifactorial pathogenesis.

  6. Epidemiology of endemic systemic fungal infections in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Tobón, Angela; Restrepo, Angela; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Nucci, Marcio

    2011-11-01

    Although endemic mycoses are a frequent health problem in Latin American countries, clinical and epidemiological data remain scarce and fragmentary. These mycoses have a significant impact on public health, and early diagnosis and appropriate treatment remain important. The target population for endemic disease in Latin America is mostly represented by low-income rural workers with limited access to a public or private health system. Unfortunately, diagnostic tools are not widely available in medical centers in Latin America; consequently, by the time patients are diagnosed with fungal infection, many are already severely ill. Among immunocompromised patients, endemic mycoses usually behave as opportunistic infections causing disseminated rather than localized disease. This paper reviews the epidemiology of the most clinically significant endemic mycoses in Latin America: paracoccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, and coccidioidomycosis. The burdens of disease, typically affected populations, and clinical outcomes also are discussed.

  7. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora

    PubMed Central

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G.; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M.; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62–87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested. PMID:27377592

  8. Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome

    PubMed Central

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T.; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R.; Firkowski, Carina R.; Bornschein, Marcos R.; Ribeiro, Luiz F.; Moritz, Craig

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond. PMID:25122231

  9. Prediction of phylogeographic endemism in an environmentally complex biome.

    PubMed

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina; Waltari, Eric; Rodrigues, Miguel T; Rosauer, Dan; VanDerWal, Jeremy; Damasceno, Roberta; Prates, Ivan; Strangas, Maria; Spanos, Zoe; Rivera, Danielle; Pie, Marcio R; Firkowski, Carina R; Bornschein, Marcos R; Ribeiro, Luiz F; Moritz, Craig

    2014-10-07

    Phylogeographic endemism, the degree to which the history of recently evolved lineages is spatially restricted, reflects fundamental evolutionary processes such as cryptic divergence, adaptation and biological responses to environmental heterogeneity. Attempts to explain the extraordinary diversity of the tropics, which often includes deep phylogeographic structure, frequently invoke interactions of climate variability across space, time and topography. To evaluate historical versus contemporary drivers of phylogeographic endemism in a tropical system, we analyse the effects of current and past climatic variation on the genetic diversity of 25 vertebrates in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest. We identify two divergent bioclimatic domains within the forest and high turnover around the Rio Doce. Independent modelling of these domains demonstrates that endemism patterns are subject to different climatic drivers. Past climate dynamics, specifically areas of relative stability, predict phylogeographic endemism in the north. Conversely, contemporary climatic heterogeneity better explains endemism in the south. These results accord with recent speleothem and fossil pollen studies, suggesting that climatic variability through the last 250 kyr impacted the northern and the southern forests differently. Incorporating sub-regional differences in climate dynamics will enhance our ability to understand those processes shaping high phylogeographic and species endemism, in the Neotropics and beyond. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  10. Climate threat on the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora.

    PubMed

    Patiño, Jairo; Mateo, Rubén G; Zanatta, Florian; Marquet, Adrien; Aranda, Silvia C; Borges, Paulo A V; Dirkse, Gerard; Gabriel, Rosalina; Gonzalez-Mancebo, Juana M; Guisan, Antoine; Muñoz, Jesús; Sim-Sim, Manuela; Vanderpoorten, Alain

    2016-07-05

    Oceanic islands are of fundamental importance for the conservation of biodiversity because they exhibit high endemism rates coupled with fast extinction rates. Nowhere in Europe is this pattern more conspicuous than in the Macaronesian biogeographic region. A large network of protected areas within the region has been developed, but the question of whether these areas will still be climatically suitable for the globally threatened endemic element in the coming decades remains open. Here, we make predictions on the fate of the Macaronesian endemic bryophyte flora in the context of ongoing climate change. The potential distribution of 35 Macaronesian endemic bryophyte species was assessed under present and future climate conditions using an ensemble modelling approach. Projections of the models under different climate change scenarios predicted an average decrease of suitable areas of 62-87% per species and a significant elevational increase by 2070, so that even the commonest species were predicted to fit either the Vulnerable or Endangered IUCN categories. Complete extinctions were foreseen for six of the studied Macaronesian endemic species. Given the uncertainty regarding the capacity of endemic species to track areas of suitable climate within and outside the islands, active management associated to an effective monitoring program is suggested.

  11. [Testament's ability in Balkan endemic nephropathy].

    PubMed

    Novaković, Milan

    2009-01-01

    Testament is a solemn, authentic instrument in writing, by which a person declares his or her will as to disposal of his or her estate, and it has a psychopathological, lawful and ethical importance to a person, family and society. The aim of the study was to assess if the ability to make a testament was more damaged in patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) than in patients with other diseases that resulted in Chronic Renal Failure in Bosnia and Herzegovina in the period from the 1st January 2001 to 31st December 2006. The 753 respondents were divided into two groups in the study: BEN group (n=150) and control group made of patients with other diseases resulting in CRF (n=150). In a multicentric longitudinal study we used: adapted questionnaire from the Renal Register of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, and Mini-Mental State Examination. Descriptive analysis, discriminative function and regression model have been done statistically. In BEN group, heirs are mostly mentioned - 84.0% (t=14.391; P=0.001), and in control group: heirs - 66.6%, relatives - 43.3% (t=7.751; P=0.003), carers - 44.0% (t= 6.678 P=0.032), and institutions 10.0% (t=5.147, P=0.061). The discriminative function shows differences between BEN and control group: canonical correlation (rc) =0.827, Wilkinson lambda (lambda nj) =0.871, Chi-square test =141.575 and significance (P=0.001). The regression course of the analysis can be used for prediction of the ability to make testament for the patients on dialysis. [y=-0.95x + 15.715, and OR = 0.785, (95%) for CI = -0.997 - -0.375); Can Fanc r2=0.861: Significance is P=0.002]. The ability to make a testament is more damaged in patients from the nephropathy group than in the patients from the control group who are on dialysis in Bosnia and Herzegovina. This has been confirmed by socio-demographic and psychological parameters, and it is very important for preservation of the ethic norms of the patients on dialysis

  12. Evaluation of the malaria rapid diagnostic test VIKIA malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ in endemic and non-endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Eibach, Daniel; Traore, Boubacar; Bouchrik, Mourad; Coulibaly, Boubacar; Coulibaly, Nianégué; Siby, Fanta; Bonnot, Guillaume; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Picot, Stéphane

    2013-06-06

    Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) are a useful tool in endemic malaria countries, where light microscopy is not feasible. In non-endemic countries they can be used as complementary tests to provide timely results in case of microscopy inexperience. This study aims to compare the new VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ RDT with PCR-corrected microscopy results and the commonly used CareStart™ RDT to diagnose falciparum and non-falciparum malaria in the endemic setting of Bamako, Mali and the non-endemic setting of Lyon, France. Blood samples were collected during a 12-months and six-months period in 2011 from patients suspected to have malaria in Lyon and Bamako respectively. The samples were examined by light microscopy, the VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ test and in Bamako additionally with the CareStart™ RDT. Discordant results were corrected by real-time PCR. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value were used to evaluate test performance. Samples of 877 patients from both sites were included. The VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ had a sensitivity of 98% and 96% for Plasmodium falciparum in Lyon and Bamako, respectively, performing similar to PCR-corrected microscopy. The VIKIA Malaria Ag Pf/Pan™ performs similar to PCR-corrected microscopy for the detection of P. falciparum, making it a valuable tool in malaria endemic and non-endemic regions.

  13. A world malaria map: Plasmodium falciparum endemicity in 2007.

    PubMed

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-03-24

    Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2-10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2-10 < or = 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2-10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2-10 > or = 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the Africa+ region, where 0

  14. A World Malaria Map: Plasmodium falciparum Endemicity in 2007

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I; Guerra, Carlos A; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Tatem, Andrew J; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kabaria, Caroline W; Manh, Bui H; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F; Brooker, Simon; Smith, David L; Moyeed, Rana A; Snow, Robert W

    2009-01-01

    Background Efficient allocation of resources to intervene against malaria requires a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of malaria risk. It is exactly 40 y since the last global map of malaria endemicity was published. This paper describes the generation of a new world map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity for the year 2007. Methods and Findings A total of 8,938 P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) surveys were identified using a variety of exhaustive search strategies. Of these, 7,953 passed strict data fidelity tests for inclusion into a global database of PfPR data, age-standardized to 2–10 y for endemicity mapping. A model-based geostatistical procedure was used to create a continuous surface of malaria endemicity within previously defined stable spatial limits of P. falciparum transmission. These procedures were implemented within a Bayesian statistical framework so that the uncertainty of these predictions could be evaluated robustly. The uncertainty was expressed as the probability of predicting correctly one of three endemicity classes; previously stratified to be an informative guide for malaria control. Population at risk estimates, adjusted for the transmission modifying effects of urbanization in Africa, were then derived with reference to human population surfaces in 2007. Of the 1.38 billion people at risk of stable P. falciparum malaria, 0.69 billion were found in Central and South East Asia (CSE Asia), 0.66 billion in Africa, Yemen, and Saudi Arabia (Africa+), and 0.04 billion in the Americas. All those exposed to stable risk in the Americas were in the lowest endemicity class (PfPR2−10 ≤ 5%). The vast majority (88%) of those living under stable risk in CSE Asia were also in this low endemicity class; a small remainder (11%) were in the intermediate endemicity class (PfPR2−10 > 5 to < 40%); and the remaining fraction (1%) in high endemicity (PfPR2−10 ≥ 40%) areas. High endemicity was widespread in the

  15. Extraordinary micro-endemism in Australian desert spring amphipods.

    PubMed

    Murphy, N P; Adams, M; Guzik, M T; Austin, A D

    2013-03-01

    Increasing pressure for water in the Australian arid zone is placing enormous stress on the diverse endemic communities inhabiting desert springs. Detailed information about the evolutionary processes occurring within and between individual endemic species will help to develop effective and biologically relevant management strategies this fragile ecosystem. To help determine conservation priorities, we documented the genetic structure of the endemic freshwater amphipod populations in springs fed by the Great Artesian Basin in central Australia. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic history and genetic diversity measures were examined using nuclear and mitochondrial DNA from approximately 500 chiltoniid amphipods across an entire group of springs. Pronounced genetic diversity was identified, demonstrating that levels of endemism have been grossly underestimated in these amphipods. Using the GMYC model, 13 genetically divergent lineages were recognized as Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs), all of which could be considered as separate species. The results show that due to the highly fragmented ecosystem, these taxa have highly restricted distributions. Many of the identified ESUs are endemic to a very small number of already degraded springs, with the rarest existing in single springs. Despite their extraordinarily small ranges, most ESUs showed relative demographic stability and high levels of genetic diversity, and genetic diversity was not directly linked to habitat extent. The relatively robust genetic health of ESUs does not preclude them from endangerment, as their limited distributions ensure they will be highly vulnerable to future water extraction. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Current epidemiology and laboratory diagnosis of endemic mycoses in Spain].

    PubMed

    Buitrago, María J; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2012-08-01

    Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis are emerging infections in Spain associated with immigration and travelling. In last three decades a total of 128 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported in Spain, 59 in travellers, 63 in immigrants, three associated to drug abuse, two in laboratory workers, and one in a solid organ transplant receptor. In 1969 the first Spanish case of paracoccidioidomycosis was published and a total of 21 cases have been reported so far. Those patients suffered from the chronic form of the disease with period of latency as long as 50 years. Other endemic mycoses such as blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis, lobomycosis, pythiosis and sporotrichosis have not increased in frequency. Microbiological cultures of endemic fungi must be handled in facilities which comply with international biosafety regulations and must also be taken into account for cultures from patients with suspected endemic mycosis.

  17. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  18. Childhood parasitic infections endemic to the United States.

    PubMed

    Barry, Meagan A; Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2013-04-01

    Endemic parasitic infections in the United States are more frequent than is commonly perceived. Intestinal parasitic infection with Cryptosporidium, Dientamoeba, and Giardia occurs most often in children in northern states during the summer months. Zoonotic Toxocara and Toxoplasma parasitic infections are more frequent in southern states, in African Americans, and in populations with lower socioeconomic status. Approximately 300, 000 people in the United States have Trypanosoma cruzi infection. Local, vector-borne transmission of T cruzi and Leishmania infections has been documented in southern states. Parasitic diseases endemic to the United States are not uncommon but are understudied.

  19. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists - e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit - just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). "Data deficient" is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of the Cerrado and

  20. The mammalian faunas endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga

    PubMed Central

    Gutiérrez, Eliécer E.; Marinho-Filho, Jader

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We undertook a comprehensive, critical review of literature concerning the distribution, conservation status, and taxonomy of species of mammals endemic to the Cerrado and the Caatinga, the two largest biomes of the South American Dry-Diagonal. We present species accounts and lists of species, which we built with criteria that, in our opinion, yielded results with increased scientific rigor relative to previously published lists – e.g., excluding nominal taxa whose statuses as species have been claimed only on the basis of unpublished data, incomplete taxonomic work, or weak evidence. For various taxa, we provided arguments regarding species distributions, conservation and taxonomic statuses previously lacking in the literature. Two major findings are worth highlighting. First, we unveil the existence of a group of species endemic to both the Cerrado and the Caatinga (i.e., present in both biomes and absent in all other biomes). From the biogeographic point of view, this group, herein referred to as Caatinga-Cerrado endemics, deserves attention as a unit – just as in case of the Caatinga-only and the Cerrado-only endemics. We present preliminary hypotheses on the origin of these three endemic faunas (Cerrado-only, Caatinga-only, and Caatinga-Cerrado endemics). Secondly, we discovered that a substantial portion of the endemic mammalian faunas of the Caatinga and the Cerrado faces risks of extinction that are unrecognized in the highly influential Red List of Threatened Species published by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN). “Data deficient” is a category that misrepresents the real risks of extinction of these species considering that (a) some of these species are known only from a handful of specimens collected in a single or a few localities long ago; (b) the Cerrado and the Caatinga have been sufficiently sampled to guarantee collection of additional specimens of these species if they were abundant; (c) natural habitats of

  1. Measuring malaria endemicity from intense to interrupted transmission

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Simon I; Smith, David L; Snow, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Summary The quantification of malaria transmission for the classification of malaria risk has long been a concern for epidemiologists. During the era of the Global Malaria Eradication Programme, measurements of malaria endemicity were institutionalised by their incorporation into rules outlining defined action points for malaria control programmes. We review the historical development of these indices and their contemporary relevance. This is at a time when many malaria-endemic countries are scaling-up their malaria control activities and reconsidering their prospects for elimination. These considerations are also important to an international community that has recently been challenged to revaluate the prospects for malaria eradication. PMID:18387849

  2. Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli Serotypes and Endemic Diarrhea in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, M. Regina F.; Alvariza, M. do Carmo B.; Murahovschi, Jayme; Ramos, Sonia R. T. S.; Trabulsi, Luiz R.

    1983-01-01

    Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli serotypes were searched for in feces of 550 children with endemic diarrhea and in 129 controls, in São Paulo, in 1978 and 1979; serotypes O111ab:H−, O111ab:H2, and O119:H6 were significantly associated with diarrhea in children 0 to 5 months old and were the most frequent agents of diarrhea in this age group as compared with enterotoxigenic and enteroinvasive E. coli, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and Yersinia enterocolitica. It is concluded that various enteropathogenic E. coli serotypes may be agents of endemic infantile diarrhea. PMID:6339384

  3. Infection risk to travelers going to dengue fever endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Pongsumpun, P; Patanarapelert, K; Sriprom, M; Varamit, S; Tang, I M

    2004-03-01

    The risk of dengue virus infection to travelers visiting dengue fever endemic regions was studied through the use of mathematical modeling. A Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model is used to describe the transmission of dengue fever (DF) in an endemic region into which tourists enter. The dynamics of a new class of human, the traveler, is incorporated into the systems of first order differential equations in the SIR describing the dynamics of the transmission in the host region. Using standard dynamic analysis methods, the numbers of travelers who become infected with the dengue virus are calculated as a function of the length of time the tourist stays in the region.

  4. Ecological predictors of extinction risks of endemic mammals of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, You-Hua

    2014-07-01

    In this brief report, we analyzed ecological correlates of risk of extinction for mammals endemic to China using phylogenetic eigenvector methods to control for the effect of phylogenetic inertia. Extinction risks were based on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List and ecological explanatory attributes that include range size and climatic variables. When the effect of phylogenetic inertia were controlled, climate became the best predictor for quantifying and evaluating extinction risks of endemic mammals in China, accounting for 13% of the total variation. Range size seems to play a trivial role, explaining ~1% of total variation; however, when non-phylogenetic variation partitioning analysis was done, the role of range size then explained 7.4% of total variation. Consequently, phylogenetic inertia plays a substantial role in increasing the explanatory power of range size on the extinction risks of mammals endemic to China. Limitations of the present study are discussed, with a focus on under-represented sampling of endemic mammalian species.

  5. Allozyme diversity in Macbridea alba (Lamiaceae), an endemic Florida mint

    Treesearch

    M.J.W. Godt; Joan L. Walker; J.L. Hamrick

    2004-01-01

    Macbridea alba is a herbaceous perennial mint endemic to the panhandle region of Florida. We used starch gel electrophoresis to describe allozyme diversity and genetic structure in this federally threatened plant. Ten populations were analyzed, with an average sample size of 47 plants (range 41-48 plants) per population. Of the 22 loci analyzed, 11 (...

  6. ESTIMATES OF ENDEMIC WATERBORNE ILLNESS FROM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the

    United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the

    waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking wat...

  7. RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    *Christina A. Peterson 1,2,3 and Rebecca L. Calderon 2

    1 Department of Epidemiology
    School of Public Health (SPH)
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), 27516
    2 Nat...

  8. Global patterns in endemism explained by past climatic change.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Roland

    2003-03-22

    I propose that global patterns in numbers of range-restricted endemic species are caused by variation in the amplitude of climatic change occurring on time-scales of 10-100 thousand years (Milankovitch oscillations). The smaller the climatic shifts, the more probable it is that palaeoendemics survive and that diverging gene pools persist without going extinct or merging, favouring the evolution of neoendemics. Using the change in mean annual temperature since the last glacial maximum, estimated from global circulation models, I show that the higher the temperature change in an area, the fewer endemic species of mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians and vascular plants it harbours. This relationship was robust to variation in area (for areas greater than 10(4) km2), latitudinal position, extent of former glaciation and whether or not areas are oceanic islands. Past climatic change was a better predictor of endemism than annual temperature range in all phylads except amphibians, suggesting that Rapoport's rule (i.e. species range sizes increase with latitude) is best explained by the increase in the amplitude of climatic oscillations towards the poles. Globally, endemic-rich areas are predicted to warm less in response to greenhouse-gas emissions, but the predicted warming would cause many habitats to disappear regionally, leading to species extinctions.

  9. Studies on bilharziasis endemicity in the vicinity of Basra, Iraq*

    PubMed Central

    Najarian, H. H.; de Araoz, J.; Klimt, C. R.; al Ani, K.; Azzawi, J.

    1961-01-01

    This paper reports on investigations into the distribution of snail genera and possible limiting environmental factors in the endemic and non-endemic areas of human bilharziasis in and near Basra, carried out in 1958 by the WHO Bilharziasis Control Project staff in Iraq. These investigations confirmed the existence of an abrupt line of demarcation between these areas immediately south of Basra. During June and October 1958, the known intermediate snail host, Bulinus truncatus, was not found in canals bordering on areas of either infected or non-infected human populations. From these findings and the evidence of previous investigations it is concluded that in southern Iraq, and particularly in Basra, B. truncatus has been demonstrated with difficulty, if at all. Nevertheless, transmission has continued to take place. Explanations of this apparent phenomenon are discussed and it is concluded that populations of B. truncatus may be completely absent for several years and that other snail genera may play a role in transmitting the disease. A study of environmental factors indicates that water velocities, salinity, turbidity, and pH in the endemic and non-endemic areas showed no significant differences, but that the continuous change in water flow may be a factor limiting B. truncatus colonization. It is also concluded that the salinity in the Shatt al Arab River originates from Lake Hammar and is not introduced from the Persian Gulf by tidal wave, as has been previously believed. PMID:14478047

  10. ESTIMATES OF ENDEMIC WATERBORNE ILLNESS FROM COMMUNITY INTERVENTION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the

    United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the

    waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking wat...

  11. RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    RISK FACTORS FOR ENDEMIC GASTROINTESTINAL ILLNESS AMONG A WASHINGTON COHORT

    *Christina A. Peterson 1,2,3 and Rebecca L. Calderon 2

    1 Department of Epidemiology
    School of Public Health (SPH)
    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill (UNC-CH), 27516
    2 Nat...

  12. Salmonella serotype shift during an endemic dairy infection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Dairy farms are known reservoirs for Salmonella spp. and control of this organism is challenging. Salmonellae have been shown to be endemic in herds in part because they are easily spread between animals and throughout the farm environment. The impact of the infection on the herd is variable and dep...

  13. Historic forests and endemic mountain pine beetle and dwarf mistletoe

    Treesearch

    Jose Negron

    2012-01-01

    Mountain pine beetle has always been a significant disturbance agent in ponderosa and lodgepole pine forests in Colorado. Most studies have examined the impacts to forest structure associated with epidemic populations of a single disturbance agent. In this paper we address the role of endemic populations of mountain pine and their interactions with dwarf mistletoe...

  14. Collection of Helianthus exilis, an endemic serpentine sunflower of California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genus Helianthus consists of 51 species (14 annual and 37 perennial), all restricted to North America. Serpentine sunflower, Helianthus exilis A. Gray, is endemic to the serpentine soils of the Coastal Range and Sierra Nevada mountains of California and is a potential source of useful genes for ...

  15. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species.

  16. Future of Endemic Flora of Biodiversity Hotspots in India

    PubMed Central

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  17. Future of endemic flora of biodiversity hotspots in India.

    PubMed

    Chitale, Vishwas Sudhir; Behera, Mukund Dev; Roy, Partha Sarthi

    2014-01-01

    India is one of the 12 mega biodiversity countries of the world, which represents 11% of world's flora in about 2.4% of global land mass. Approximately 28% of the total Indian flora and 33% of angiosperms occurring in India are endemic. Higher human population density in biodiversity hotspots in India puts undue pressure on these sensitive eco-regions. In the present study, we predict the future distribution of 637 endemic plant species from three biodiversity hotspots in India; Himalaya, Western Ghats, Indo-Burma, based on A1B scenario for year 2050 and 2080. We develop individual variable based models as well as mixed models in MaxEnt by combining ten least co-related bioclimatic variables, two disturbance variables and one physiography variable as predictor variables. The projected changes suggest that the endemic flora will be adversely impacted, even under such a moderate climate scenario. The future distribution is predicted to shift in northern and north-eastern direction in Himalaya and Indo-Burma, while in southern and south-western direction in Western Ghats, due to cooler climatic conditions in these regions. In the future distribution of endemic plants, we observe a significant shift and reduction in the distribution range compared to the present distribution. The model predicts a 23.99% range reduction and a 7.70% range expansion in future distribution by 2050, while a 41.34% range reduction and a 24.10% range expansion by 2080. Integration of disturbance and physiography variables along with bioclimatic variables in the models improved the prediction accuracy. Mixed models provide most accurate results for most of the combinations of climatic and non-climatic variables as compared to individual variable based models. We conclude that a) regions with cooler climates and higher moisture availability could serve as refugia for endemic plants in future climatic conditions; b) mixed models provide more accurate results, compared to single variable based

  18. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yajima, A; Gabrielli, A F; Montresor, A; Engels, D

    2011-02-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Ninety percent (117 out of 130) of the areas eligible for preventive chemotherapy (PC) against schistosomiasis are also eligible for PC against STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area and to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Moderate and high endemicity of schistosomiasis is a predictor of the endemicity of soil-transmitted helminthiasis - Systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Yajima, A.; Gabrielli, A. F.; Montresor, A.; Engels, D.

    2017-01-01

    The authors conducted a systematic literature review with the following aims: (i) to investigate how frequently soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) infections are endemic where schistosomiasis is present; and (ii) to assess the correlation between the risk level of schistosomiasis and that of STH. Among 155 sites on which data were collected and analyzed, schistosomiasis was present in 130 sites, all of which were also co-endemic for STH, whereas 25 sites were endemic only for STH. Out of 83 sites where at least one biannual round of preventive chemotherapy (PC) for schistosomiasis is recommended, 94% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC against STH. And among 21 sites where PC for schistosomiasis is recommended once a year, 81% were also eligible for at least a yearly round of PC for STH. This fact provides managers of control programmes with the operationally important indication that use of available information on endemicity of schistosomiasis is a valid tool to predict the presence of STH in the same geographical area as well as to estimate the need of PC for STH. The implementation of this tool is expected to save financial and human resources and help accelerate the scale-up of PC throughout the world. PMID:21215979

  20. Assessing the risk of dengue virus transmission in a non-endemic city surrounded by endemic and hyperendemic areas.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Tsz Ho; Lee, Shui Shan; Chan, Denise Pui Chung; Cheung, Manton; Kam, Kai Man

    2017-02-01

    To assess the potential risk of dengue transmission in a non-endemic city using a spatial epidemiological approach. Past dengue exposure of the general population was examined by dengue virus (DENV) IgG testing of archived samples from voluntary blood donors. Vector intensities were determined by local ovitrap index (OI). Analyses were made in the context of population statistics at both the district and sub-district level. The overall prevalence of DENV IgG was low at 2.25%. Positive donors were more likely to be older, non-Chinese, and female. Neither the OI nor the location of residence was associated with DENV serology. The sub-district level OI was clustered, but no correlation could be confirmed with the location of residence of positive blood donors. The cumulative exposure of Hong Kong residents to dengue has so far been low. Coupled with the lack of a spatial relationship between exposed cases and vector intensities, a high risk of local transmission of DENV is not supported. The apparently higher exposure likelihood of females could be explained by past infection in workers from dengue endemic countries, while frequent travel could have exposed older adults to DENV. Continued surveillance, risk assessment, and intensive vector control remain essential to prevent the transformation of a non-endemic to an endemic city. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. [Study on distribution of endemic arsenism in China].

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinlong; Liang, Chaoke; He, Gongli; Cao, Jingxiang

    2003-11-01

    Drinking water and burning coal endemic arsenism as a severe disease is confirmed by National Ministry of Health in China in 1992. It is not uniform survey of the disease for the whole country from its report in 1980 in xijiang. Therefore National Ministry of Scientific and Technology in China supports to study on distribution of endemic arsenism in 21 provinces in China, so that it can know the basic distribution of endemic arsenism in China, and the data results will be a guide for the disease prevention and control. The project used environmental epidemiology study including retrospective epidemiology, present situation survey of the disease in severe areas and sampling investigation in unknown areas, collecting data of exposure population and arsenism cases. At the same time, the data of arsenic level in environment were collected, and environment samples were analyzed by standard chemical method. The both data were statistical analysis by access database and SAS procedure in computer. Through the study, it achieves the expected aim that grasps spreading distribution of drinking water arsenism and burning coal arsenism, including arsenic level in water, coal, food and air, as well as patient's condition of the disease at macroscopic. Drinking water endemic arsenism distributed in 8 provinces, 40 counties, affecting 2,343,238 peoples, among 522566 peoples expositing to the drinking water arsenic higher than 0.05 mg/L, and 7821 arsenism patients were diagnosed. Burning coal endemic arsenism spreads in 2 provinces, 8 counties, affecting 333905 peoples, 48438 peoples exposing to high arsenic of burning coal pollution, and 2402 peoples causing chronic arsenic poising by coal burning. Drinking water endemic arsenism: Nemeng, Shanxi is a severe drinking water endemic region also. Wusu city in Xinjiang is old arsenism area, which reformed drinking water to decrease arsenic, so chronic arsenic poisoning condition decreasing. Reforming drinking water measures to decreees

  2. Lassa fever in West Africa: evidence for an expanded region of endemicity.

    PubMed

    Sogoba, N; Feldmann, H; Safronetz, D

    2012-09-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic in Sierra Leone, Guinea and Liberia (known as the Mano River region) and Nigeria and Lassa fever cases from these countries are being reported annually. Recent investigations have found evidence for an expanded endemicity zone between the two known Lassa endemic regions indicating that LASV is more widely distributed throughout the Tropical Wooded Savanna ecozone in West Africa.

  3. Management of paediatric Lyme disease in non-endemic and endemic areas: data from the Registry of the Italian Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases.

    PubMed

    Esposito, S; Baggi, E; Villani, A; Norbedo, S; Pellegrini, G; Bozzola, E; Palumbo, E; Bosis, S; Nigro, G; Garazzino, S; Principi, N

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine how specialists in paediatric infectious diseases (PIDs) manage children with suspected Lyme disease (LD) by comparing their approaches in Italian endemic and non-endemic areas. A cross-sectional survey of the PID specialists participating in the Italian Society for Pediatric Infectious Disease (SITIP) Registry of LD was carried out between 1 January and 30 April 2012. A total of 160 children (80 living in endemic areas and 80 living in non-endemic areas) were diagnosed as having LD between 1 January 2005 and 31 December 2011. The clinical manifestations were erythema migrans in 130 cases (81.3 %), arthritis in 24 (15.0 %) and neuroborreliosis in six (3.8 %). Significant differences from the recommendations concerning serology and the tests to undertake were mainly observed in the children with erythema migrans, especially those living in non-endemic areas (p < 0.05). The children with erythema migrans who lived in non-endemic areas were treated with antibiotics significantly less frequently than those living in endemic areas (p < 0.05), and significantly fewer children with erythema migrans or arthritis living in non-endemic areas were treated with amoxicillin in comparison with those living in endemic regions (p < 0.05). The duration of antimicrobial therapy was significantly shorter than recommended in the children with erythema migrans or arthritis, especially those living in non-endemic areas (p < 0.05). Paediatric LD is also present in areas of Italy in which it is not considered endemic, but knowledge concerning its management is generally poor among PID specialists and characterised by enormous gaps in non-endemic areas.

  4. Rickettsial infection in animals and Brazilian spotted fever endemicity.

    PubMed

    Sangioni, Luis A; Horta, Maurício C; Vianna, Manoella C B; Gennari, Solange M; Soares, Rodrigo M; Galvão, Márcio A M; Schumaker, Teresinha T S; Ferreira, Fernando; Vidotto, Odilon; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2005-02-01

    We compared the rickettsial infection status of Amblyomma cajennense ticks, humans, dogs, and horses in both Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)-endemic and -nonendemic areas in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Most of the horses and few dogs from BSF-endemic areas had serologic titers against Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. In contrast, no dogs or horses from BSF-nonendemic areas had serologic titers against R. rickettsii antigens, although they were continually exposed to A. cajennense ticks. All human serum samples and ticks from both areas were negative by serologic assay and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our results indicate that surveys of horse serum are a useful method of BSF surveillance in areas where humans are exposed to A. cajennense ticks. In addition, we successfully performed experimental infection of A. cajennense ticks with R. parkeri.

  5. Secondary Metabolites of Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an Endemic Turkish Species

    PubMed Central

    Camas, Necdet; Radusiene, Jolita; Stanius, Zydrunas; Caliskan, Omer; Cirak, Cuneyt

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the presence of the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the phenylpropane chlorogenic acid and the flavonoids rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine was investigated in Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf, and stem tissues. After being dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for secondary metabolite concentrations by HPLC. Aerial plant parts accumulated chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine, but they did not accumulate hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, and kaempferol. Accumulation levels of the detected compounds varied with plant tissues. Such kind of data could be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical significance of the corresponding compounds and phytochemical evaluation of this endemic species. PMID:22649295

  6. Predator-prey oscillations can shift when diseases become endemic.

    PubMed

    Bate, Andrew M; Hilker, Frank M

    2013-01-07

    In epidemiology, knowing when a disease is endemic is important. This is usually done by finding the basic reproductive number, R(0), using equilibrium-based calculations. However, oscillatory dynamics are common in nature. Here, we model a disease with density dependent transmission in an oscillating predator-prey system. The condition for disease persistence in predator-prey cycles is based on the time-average density of the host and not the equilibrium density. Consequently, the time-averaged basic reproductive number R(0)¯ is what determines whether a disease is endemic, and not on the equilibrium-based basic reproductive number R(0)(*). These findings undermine any R(0) analysis based solely on steady states when predator-prey oscillations exist for density dependent diseases.

  7. Mapping phylogenetic endemism in R using georeferenced branch extents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerin, Greg R.; Lowe, Andrew J.

    2015-12-01

    Applications are needed to map biodiversity from large-scale species occurrence datasets whilst seamlessly integrating with existing functions in R. Phylogenetic endemism (PE) is a biodiversity measure based on range-restricted phylogenetic diversity (PD). Current implementations use area of occupancy (AOO) or frequency to estimate the spatial range of branch-length (i.e. phylogenetic range-rarity), rather than extent of occurrence (EOO; i.e. georeferenced phylogenetic endemism), which is known to produce different range estimates. We present R functions to map PD or PE weighted by AOO or EOO (new georeferenced implementation), taking as inputs georeferenced species occurrences and a phylogeny. Non-parametric statistics distinguish PD/PE from trivial correlates of species richness and sampling intensity.

  8. Rickettsial Infection in Animals and Brazilian Spotted Fever Endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Sangioni, Luis A.; Horta, Maurício C.; Vianna, Manoella C.B.; Gennari, Solange M.; Soares, Rodrigo M.; Galvão, Márcio A.M.; Schumaker, Teresinha T.S.; Ferreira, Fernando; Vidotto, Odilon

    2005-01-01

    We compared the rickettsial infection status of Amblyomma cajennense ticks, humans, dogs, and horses in both Brazilian spotted fever (BSF)–endemic and –nonendemic areas in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Most of the horses and few dogs from BSF-endemic areas had serologic titers against Rickettsia rickettsii antigens. In contrast, no dogs or horses from BSF-nonendemic areas had serologic titers against R. rickettsii antigens, although they were continually exposed to A. cajennense ticks. All human serum samples and ticks from both areas were negative by serologic assay and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Our results indicate that surveys of horse serum are a useful method of BSF surveillance in areas where humans are exposed to A. cajennense ticks. In addition, we successfully performed experimental infection of A. cajennense ticks with R. parkeri. PMID:15752445

  9. Climate change and the future of California's endemic flora.

    PubMed

    Loarie, Scott R; Carter, Benjamin E; Hayhoe, Katharine; McMahon, Sean; Moe, Richard; Knight, Charles A; Ackerly, David D

    2008-06-25

    The flora of California, a global biodiversity hotspot, includes 2387 endemic plant taxa. With anticipated climate change, we project that up to 66% will experience >80% reductions in range size within a century. These results are comparable with other studies of fewer species or just samples of a region's endemics. Projected reductions depend on the magnitude of future emissions and on the ability of species to disperse from their current locations. California's varied terrain could cause species to move in very different directions, breaking up present-day floras. However, our projections also identify regions where species undergoing severe range reductions may persist. Protecting these potential future refugia and facilitating species dispersal will be essential to maintain biodiversity in the face of climate change.

  10. Endemic human blastomycosis in Quebec, Canada, 1988-2011.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, I V; St-Germain, G; Pelletier, R; Paradis, M; Sheppard, D C

    2013-06-01

    Blastomycosis is a systemic fungal infection found in various parts of the world. A review of literature for Quebec, Canada revealed only few case reports with the most recent one dating back to 1993. However, whether Quebec represents an important endemic region for blastomycosis in North America is unknown. In this work we reviewed 158 cases of human blastomycosis documented in Quebec during 1988-2011 using microbiological records available from the provincial public health laboratory. The estimated annual incidence of blastomycosis in the province is was ~0·133 cases per 100 000 individuals with the highest rates of 0·79 and 0·46 cases per 100 000 recorded in South-eastern and South-western Quebec. Moreover, the annual incidence rate significantly increased over the past 20 years. This study for the first time establishes Quebec as an important endemic region for Blastomyces dermatitidis.

  11. Scena propylea (Druce) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) an endemic species of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Baz, F; Coates, R; Teston, J A; González, J M

    2013-06-01

    A revision of the bibliography, as well as an analysis on the data from the specimen labels of Scena propylea (Druce) (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Euchromiina) deposited in different scientific collections, was carried out and included information from 1894 to 2010. Its geographical distribution is restricted to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt which determines this species as endemic. Data are provided on the biogeography, ecology and biology for this species. Its food plant is Thenardia floribunda (Apocynaceae) which is also endemic to Mexico. From this analysis, we propose the inclusion of both species in the document known as the Norma Oficial Mexicana 059 which encompasses the environmental protection of wild flora and fauna species native to Mexico and their risk categories, as well as the specifications for their inclusion, exclusion or change and a list of all species at risk.

  12. Centers of endemism and diversity patterns for typhlocybine leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) in China.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shuai; Huang, Min; Wang, Xiu-Shuang; Ji, Li-Qiang; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2014-08-01

    This study identifies 'centers of endemism' for typhlocybine leafhoppers in China, revealing diversity patterns and congruence of patterns between total species richness and endemism. Distribution patterns of 774 Typhlocybinae (607 described and 167 undescribed species) were mapped on a 1.5° × 1.5° latitude/longitude grid. Total species richness, endemic species richness and weighted endemism richness were calculated for each grid cell. Grid cells within the top 5% highest values of weighted endemism richness were considered as 'centers of endemism'. Diversity patterns by latitude and altitude were obtained through calculating the gradient richness. A congruence of diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism was confirmed using correlation analysis. To investigate the bioclimatic factors (19 variables) contributing to the congruence between total species richness and endemism, we compared the factor's difference between non-endemic and endemic species using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Eleven centers of endemism, roughly delineated by mountain ranges, were identified in central and southern China, including the south Yunnan, Hengduan Mountains, Qinling Mountains, Hainan Island, Taiwan Island and six mountain areas located in western Sichuan, northwest Fujian, southeast Guizhou, southeast Hunan, central and western Guangdong, and north Zhejiang. Total species richness and endemic species richness decreased with increased latitude and had a consistent unimodal response to altitude. The proportions of endemism decreased with increased latitude and increased with rising altitude. Diversity patterns between total species richness and endemism were highly consistent, and 'Precipitation of Coldest Period' and 'Temperature of Coldest Period' may contribute to the congruence of pattern. Migration ability may play a role in the relationship of endemism and species richness; climate, environment factors and important geologic isolation events can also play

  13. Four new triterpenes from the endemic relict shrub Tetraena mongolica.

    PubMed

    Tang, Sheng-An; Ding, Lin-Lin; Zhai, Hui-Yuan; Qin, Nan; Duan, Hong-Quan

    2012-01-01

    A chemical investigation of the endemic relict shrub Tetraena mongolica led to the isolation of four new triterpenes: 11α,12α:13β,28-diepoxyoleanane-3β-yl trans-caffeate (1), 3β-hydroxy-11α,12α-epoxyoleanane-28-al (2), olean-11-en-28-al-3β-yl trans-caffeate (3), and 28-acetoxy-olean-12-en-3β-yl trans-caffeate (4). Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods.

  14. Chemoprophylaxis in US Naval aircrew transiting malaria endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A

    1998-07-01

    The role of chemoprophylaxis in aircrew transiting malaria endemic regions has been, and remains, a point of controversy. The recent emergence of multi-drug resistant parasites and pesticide-resistant mosquitoes have made malaria prevention and control even more challenging and complex. The primary purpose was to review the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis (as compared with no chemoprophylaxis) in U.S. Naval aircrew traveling to malaria endemic areas for short periods of time on a frequent, infrequent, or isolated basis. A secondary purpose was to generate chemoprophylaxis guidelines based on the outcomes of this review. A comprehensive MEDLINE database search was performed for the interval from January 1966 to April 1997. Additional resources were obtained from references cited in relevant journal articles, monographs, textbooks, and U. S. government publications. Pertinent U. S. Navy publications were also reviewed. Selection criteria were developed and applied to the data. The investigation failed to identify any analytic studies that met selection criteria regarding the efficacy of chemoprophylaxis in U.S. Naval aircrew or aircrew surrogates transiting malaria endemic areas. The data were therefore used to qualitatively assess the risks/benefits of chemoprophylaxis and generate chemoprophylaxis guidelines. Based on the results of this review, the decision to prescribe chemoprophylaxis was strongly dependent on the following risk factors: a) geographic region; b) transmission risk; c) duration of nighttime exposure; and d) aircrew, aircraft, and mission profiles. Studies of adequate analytic design are needed to delineate the role of chemoprophylaxis in aircrew transiting malaria endemic areas and to validate the chemoprophylaxis guidelines suggested in this review.

  15. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeanette K; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Fesenmyer, Kurt A; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V E; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B; Ode, Peter R; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M; Rehn, Andrew C; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  16. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica.

  17. Mitogenomic phylogeny of cone snails endemic to Senegal.

    PubMed

    Abalde, Samuel; Tenorio, Manuel J; Afonso, Carlos M L; Zardoya, Rafael

    2017-07-01

    Cone snails attain in Senegal one of their highest peaks of species diversity throughout the continental coast of Western Africa. A total of 15 endemic species have been described, all placed in the genus Lautoconus. While there is ample data regarding the morphology of the shell and the radular tooth of these species, virtually nothing is known regarding the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of one of the most endangered groups of cones. In this work, we determined the complete or near-complete (only lacking the control region) mitochondrial (mt) genomes of 17 specimens representing 11 endemic species (Lautoconus belairensis, Lautoconus bruguieresi, Lautoconus cacao, Lautoconus cloveri, Lautoconus cf. echinophilus, Lautoconus guinaicus, Lautoconus hybridus, Lautoconus senegalensis, Lautoconus mercator, Lautoconus taslei, and Lautoconus unifasciatus). We also sequenced the complete mt genome of Lautoconus guanche from the Canary Islands, which has been related to the cones endemic to Senegal. All mt genomes share the same gene arrangement, which conforms to the consensus reported for Conidae, Neogastropoda and Caenogastropoda. Phylogenetic analyses using probabilistic methods recovered three major lineages, whose divergence coincided in time with sea level and ocean current changes as well as temperature fluctuations during the Messinian salinity crisis and the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Furthermore, the three lineages corresponded to distinct types of radular tooth (robust, small, and elongated), suggesting that dietary specialization could be an additional evolutionary driver in the diversification of the cones endemic to Senegal. The reconstructed phylogeny showed several cases of phenotypic convergence (cryptic species) and questions the validity of some species (ecotypes or phenotypic plasticity), both results having important taxonomic and conservation consequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Dengue Virus Seroconversion in Travelers to Dengue-Endemic Areas.

    PubMed

    Olivero, Rosemary M; Hamer, Davidson H; MacLeod, William B; Benoit, Christine M; Sanchez-Vegas, Carolina; Jentes, Emily S; Chen, Lin H; Wilson, Mary E; Marano, Nina; Yanni, Emad A; Ooi, Winnie W; Karchmer, Adolf W; Kogelman, Laura; Barnett, Elizabeth D

    2016-11-02

    We conducted a prospective study to measure dengue virus (DENV) antibody seroconversion in travelers to dengue-endemic areas. Travelers seen in the Boston Area Travel Medicine Network planning to visit dengue-endemic countries for ≥ 2 weeks were enrolled from 2009 to 2010. Pre- and post-travel blood samples and questionnaires were collected. Post-travel sera were tested for anti-DENV IgG by indirect IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and anti-DENV IgM by capture IgM ELISA. Participants with positive post-travel anti-DENV IgG or IgM were tested for pre-travel anti-DENV IgG and IgM; they were excluded from the seroconversion calculation if either pre-travel anti-DENV IgG or IgM were positive. Paired sera and questionnaires were collected for 62% (589/955) of enrolled travelers. Most participants were 19-64 years of age, female, and white. The most common purposes of travel were tourism and visiting friends and relatives; most trips were to Asia or Africa. Median length of travel was 21 days. DENV antibody seroconversion by either anti-DENV IgM or IgG ELISA was 2.9-6.8%; lower range percent excluded potential false-positive anti-DENV IgG due to receipt of yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis vaccines at enrollment; upper range percent excluded proven false-positive anti-DENV IgM. Eighteen percent of those with seroconversion reported dengue-like symptoms. Seroconversion was documented for travel to Africa as well as countries and regions known to be highly dengue endemic (India, Brazil, southeast Asia). Given widespread risk of dengue, travel medicine counseling should include information on risk of dengue in endemic areas and advice on preventing insect bites and seeking prompt medical attention for febrile illness.

  19. [Endemic situation and control progress of taeniasis in western China].

    PubMed

    Long, Chang-Ping; Qian, Ying-Jun; Li, Tiao-Ying; Fu, Qing; Wang, Qiang; Xiao, Ning

    2014-06-01

    Taeniasis, caused by Taenia species, is one of the common zoonoses in China, particularly in the western region of China. Up to now, not enough attention has been given in the high prevalence and high burden of the diseases. In order to study the endemic patterns and control strategies of taeniasis, a series of epidemiological investigations, molecular researches and pilot control activities have been conducted in recent years. This paper reviews the relevant publications in taeniasis research over the last 10 years.

  20. Mapping of fluoride endemic areas and assessment of fluoride exposure.

    PubMed

    Viswanathan, Gopalan; Jaswanth, A; Gopalakrishnan, S; Siva ilango, S

    2009-02-15

    The prevalence of fluorosis is mainly due to the consumption of more fluoride through drinking water. It is necessary to find out the fluoride endemic areas to adopt remedial measures to the people on the risk of fluorosis. The objectives of this study are to estimate the fluoride exposure through drinking water from people of different age group and to elucidate the fluoride endemic areas through mapping. Assessment of fluoride exposure was achieved through the estimation fluoride level in drinking water using fluoride ion selective electrode method. Google earth and isopleth technique were used for mapping of fluoride endemic areas. From the study it was observed that Nilakottai block of Dindigul district in Tamil Nadu is highly fluoride endemic. About 88% of the villages in this block have fluoride level more than the prescribed permissible limit in drinking water. Exposure of fluoride among different age groups was calculated in this block, which comprises 32 villages. The maximum estimated exposure doses were 0.19 mg/kg/day for infants, 0.17 mg/kg/day for children and 0.10 mg/kg/day for adults. When compared with adequate intake of minimal safe level exposure dose of 0.01 mg/kg/day for infants and 0.05 mg/kg/day for other age groups, a health risk due to fluorosis to the people in Nilakottai block has become evident. From the results, the people in Nilakottai block are advised to consume drinking water with fluoride level less than 1 mg/l. It has been recommended to the government authorities to take serious steps to supply drinking water with low fluoride concern for the fluorosis affected villages.

  1. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  2. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California

    PubMed Central

    Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  3. Rescue of endemic states in interconnected networks with adaptive coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, F.; Serrano, M. Ángeles; Miguel, M. San

    2016-07-01

    We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads when the two layers are interconnected but not in each layer separately, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network –and therefore on the interconnected system– the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that rewiring amplifies finite-size effects, preventing the disease transmission between finite networks, as there is a non zero probability that the epidemics stays confined in only one network during its lifetime.

  4. The continuing medical mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crosby, Lynn M.; Tatu, Calin A.; Orem, William H.; Pavlovic MD PhD, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of subtle onset and insidious progression that typically occurs between the 4th and 6th decade in long‐resident individuals in highly specific geographic locations of the Balkan region and affects 1 – 5% of the population. Though it does not follow typical Mendelian genetics, there is a familial pattern of occurrence. Although residents may live only a few kilometers apart, certain locations are highly affected while others close by, even as close as across the road, remain unscathed. Because of this geographic selectivity scientists have searched for an environmental cause. It is thought that exposure to the toxic plant Aristolochia clematitis is to blame. Genotoxic N‐heterocyclic or polycyclic aromatic containing coal water leachates entering cultivated soil and drinking water are also a possible cause due to the proximity and predictive power of endemic foci to coal deposits. Evidence for Ochratoxin A fungal poisoning also exists. High levels of phthalates have been measured in BEN‐endemic drinking water. BEN is a probably a multifactorial disease that may result from exposure through some of above‐mentioned environmental sources, with genetic factors contributing. This review will discuss recent research concerning the etiology, potential therapies for the treatment of nephropathy, and unexplored research directions for this chronic kidney disease.

  5. Estimates of endemic waterborne risks from community-intervention studies.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Rebecca L; Craun, Gunther F

    2006-01-01

    The nature and magnitude of endemic waterborne disease are not well characterized in the United States. Epidemiologic studies of various designs can provide an estimate of the waterborne attributable risk along with other types of information. Community drinking water systems frequently improve their operations and may change drinking water treatment and their major source of water. In the United States, many of these treatment changes are the result of regulations promulgated under the Safe Drinking Water Act. A community-intervention study design takes advantage of these "natural" experiments to assess changes in health risks. In this paper, we review the community-intervention studies that have assessed changes in waterborne gastroenteritis risks among immunocompetent populations in industrialized countries. Published results are available from two studies in Australia, one study in the United Kingdom, and one study in the United States. Preliminary results from two other US studies are also available. Although the current information is limited, the risks reported in these community-intervention studies can help inform the national estimate of endemic waterborne gastroenteritis. Information is provided about endemic waterborne risks for unfiltered surface water sources and a groundwater under the influence of surface water. Community-intervention studies with recommended study modifications should be conducted to better estimate the benefits associated with improved drinking water treatment.

  6. The Endemic Mimic: Blastomycosis An Illness Often Misdiagnosed

    PubMed Central

    Bradsher, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    One of the endemic fungi, Blastomyces dermatitidis, can cause epidemics of infection with multiple persons involved in a point source outbreak but more commonly causes sporadic cases of infection within the areas of endemicity. Blastomycosis can present as an acute pneumonia which is often misdiagnosed as acute pneumococcal pneumonia or the infection may present as a chronic pneumonia along with weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and a lung mass suggesting tuberculosis or carcinoma of the lung. Extrapulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis is protean with many different manifestations. Most commonly, skin or subcutaneous lesions are found with either a verrucous or warty appearance or in an ulcerative form. Cases have been misidentified as keratoacanthoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, carcinoma, or as Weber-Christian panniculitis if there are nodular subcutaneous lesions. Essentially any site or organ can have lesions of disseminated blastomycosis. In our series, cases of laryngeal carcinoma, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid nodules, granulomatous hypercalcemia, abnormal mammograms thought to represent breast carcinoma, otitis media with cranial extension, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause have been misdiagnosed and blastomycosis subsequently identified as the cause. This infection causes manifestations which mimic many other more commonly diagnosed conditions and must always be considered by clinicians practicing in the endemic region. PMID:25125734

  7. Evolution of endemism on a young tropical mountain.

    PubMed

    Merckx, Vincent S F T; Hendriks, Kasper P; Beentjes, Kevin K; Mennes, Constantijn B; Becking, Leontine E; Peijnenburg, Katja T C A; Afendy, Aqilah; Arumugam, Nivaarani; de Boer, Hugo; Biun, Alim; Buang, Matsain M; Chen, Ping-Ping; Chung, Arthur Y C; Dow, Rory; Feijen, Frida A A; Feijen, Hans; Feijen-van Soest, Cobi; Geml, József; Geurts, René; Gravendeel, Barbara; Hovenkamp, Peter; Imbun, Paul; Ipor, Isa; Janssens, Steven B; Jocqué, Merlijn; Kappes, Heike; Khoo, Eyen; Koomen, Peter; Lens, Frederic; Majapun, Richard J; Morgado, Luis N; Neupane, Suman; Nieser, Nico; Pereira, Joan T; Rahman, Homathevi; Sabran, Suzana; Sawang, Anati; Schwallier, Rachel M; Shim, Phyau-Soon; Smit, Harry; Sol, Nicolien; Spait, Maipul; Stech, Michael; Stokvis, Frank; Sugau, John B; Suleiman, Monica; Sumail, Sukaibin; Thomas, Daniel C; van Tol, Jan; Tuh, Fred Y Y; Yahya, Bakhtiar E; Nais, Jamili; Repin, Rimi; Lakim, Maklarin; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-08-20

    Tropical mountains are hot spots of biodiversity and endemism, but the evolutionary origins of their unique biotas are poorly understood. In varying degrees, local and regional extinction, long-distance colonization, and local recruitment may all contribute to the exceptional character of these communities. Also, it is debated whether mountain endemics mostly originate from local lowland taxa, or from lineages that reach the mountain by long-range dispersal from cool localities elsewhere. Here we investigate the evolutionary routes to endemism by sampling an entire tropical mountain biota on the 4,095-metre-high Mount Kinabalu in Sabah, East Malaysia. We discover that most of its unique biodiversity is younger than the mountain itself (6 million years), and comprises a mix of immigrant pre-adapted lineages and descendants from local lowland ancestors, although substantial shifts from lower to higher vegetation zones in this latter group were rare. These insights could improve forecasts of the likelihood of extinction and 'evolutionary rescue' in montane biodiversity hot spots under climate change scenarios.

  8. The endemic mimic: blastomycosis an illness often misdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Bradsher, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    One of the endemic fungi, Blastomyces dermatitidis, can cause epidemics of infection with multiple persons involved in a point source outbreak but more commonly causes sporadic cases of infection within the areas of endemicity. Blastomycosis can present as an acute pneumonia which is often misdiagnosed as acute pneumococcal pneumonia or the infection may present as a chronic pneumonia along with weight loss, night sweats, hemoptysis, and a lung mass suggesting tuberculosis or carcinoma of the lung. Extrapulmonary infection with B. dermatitidis is protean with many different manifestations. Most commonly, skin or subcutaneous lesions are found with either a verrucous or warty appearance or in an ulcerative form. Cases have been misidentified as keratoacanthoma, pyoderma gangrenosum, carcinoma, or as Weber-Christian panniculitis if there are nodular subcutaneous lesions. Essentially any site or organ can have lesions of disseminated blastomycosis. In our series, cases of laryngeal carcinoma, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid nodules, granulomatous hypercalcemia, abnormal mammograms thought to represent breast carcinoma, otitis media with cranial extension, immune thrombocytopenic purpura, and hemolytic anemia of unknown cause have been misdiagnosed and blastomycosis subsequently identified as the cause. This infection causes manifestations which mimic many other more commonly diagnosed conditions and must always be considered by clinicians practicing in the endemic region.

  9. New endemic foci of schistosomiasis infections in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Leonardo, Lydia; Rivera, Pilarita; Saniel, Ofelia; Antonio Solon, Juan; Chigusa, Yuichi; Villacorte, Elena; Christoper Chua, James; Moendeg, Kharleezelle; Manalo, Daria; Crisostomo, Bobby; Sunico, Louie; Boldero, Nicasio; Payne, Lara; Hernandez, Leda; Velayudhan, Raman

    2015-01-01

    Schistosomiasis affects 28 provinces in the Philippines found along the southeastern part where there is continuous rainfall throughout the year. In 2002 and 2005 respectively, two new endemic foci were reported in the northernmost (Gonzaga, Cagayan) and central (Calatrava, Negros Occidental) parts of the country. This study conducted in March 2008-March 2009 confirmed the presence of the disease by determining its prevalence using four diagnostic tests - Kato-Katz, circumoval precipitin test (COPT), ELISA and ultrasonography. Oncomelania hupensis quadrasi was identified through snail surveys conducted in possible snail habitats in the seven new endemic villages. Animal surveys through stool examination confirmed the presence of schistosomiasis infection in animals in Gonzaga but not in Calatrava. Compared to Calatrava, Gonzaga demonstrated markedly higher prevalence of schistosomiasis using all four diagnostic methods. Proximity of snail habitats to human habitation including higher snail density and snail infection rate could be responsible for the high prevalence. Snail sites were more widespread in Gonzaga whereas those in Calatrava were confined only in areas not frequented by the general population except by farmers. GIS maps showing spatial distribution of snails in Gonzaga and Calatrava indicated differences in elevation among the snail sites. It is hypothesized that the snail intermediate host has been in these sites for sometime but discovered only lately. Migration of people from endemic provinces into Gonzaga and Calatrava brought in cases and in the presence of snail intermediate hosts, emergence of disease was just a matter of time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Human African trypanosomiasis in endemic populations and travellers.

    PubMed

    Blum, J A; Neumayr, A L; Hatz, C F

    2012-06-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei (T.b.) gambiense (West African form) and T.b. rhodesiense (East African form) that are transmitted by the bite of the tsetse fly, Glossina spp.. Whereas most patients in endemic populations are infected with T.b. gambiense, most tourists are infected with T.b. rhodesiense. In endemic populations, T.b. gambiense HAT is characterized by chronic and intermittent fever, headache, pruritus, and lymphadenopathy in the first stage and by sleep disturbances and neuro-psychiatric disorders in the second stage. Recent descriptions of the clinical presentation of T.b. rhodesiense in endemic populations show a high variability in different foci. The symptomatology of travellers is markedly different from the usual textbook descriptions of African HAT patients. The onset of both infections is almost invariably an acute and febrile disease. Diagnosis and treatment are difficult and rely mostly on old methods and drugs. However, new molecular diagnostic technologies are under development. A promising new drug combination is currently evaluated in a phase 3 b study and further new drugs are under evaluation.

  11. Recovery of endemic dragonflies after removal of invasive alien trees.

    PubMed

    Samways, Michael J; Sharratt, Norma J

    2010-02-01

    Because dragonflies are very sensitive to alien trees, we assessed their response to large-scale restoration of riparian corridors. We compared three types of disturbance regime--alien invaded, cleared of alien vegetation, and natural vegetation (control)--and recorded data on 22 environmental variables. The most significant variables in determining dragonfly assemblages were percentage of bank cover and tree canopy cover, which indicates the importance of vegetation architecture for these dragonflies. This finding suggests that it is important to restore appropriate marginal vegetation and sunlight conditions. Recovery of dragonfly assemblages after the clearing of alien trees was substantial. Species richness and abundance at restored sites matched those at control sites. Dragonfly assemblage patterns reflected vegetation succession. Thus, initially eurytopic, widespread species were the main beneficiaries of the removal of alien trees, and stenotopic, endemic species appeared after indigenous vegetation recovered over time. Important indicator species were the two national endemics (Allocnemis leucosticta and Pseudagrion furcigerum), which, along with vegetation type, can be used to monitor return of overall integrity of riparian ecology and to make management decisions. Endemic species as a whole responded positively to restoration, which suggests that indigenous vegetation recovery has major benefits for irreplaceable and widespread generalist species.

  12. Rescue of endemic states in interconnected networks with adaptive coupling.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, F; Serrano, M Ángeles; Miguel, M San

    2016-07-06

    We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads when the two layers are interconnected but not in each layer separately, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network -and therefore on the interconnected system- the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that rewiring amplifies finite-size effects, preventing the disease transmission between finite networks, as there is a non zero probability that the epidemics stays confined in only one network during its lifetime.

  13. Rescue of endemic states in interconnected networks with adaptive coupling

    PubMed Central

    Vazquez, F.; Serrano, M. Ángeles; Miguel, M. San

    2016-01-01

    We study the Susceptible-Infected-Susceptible model of epidemic spreading on two layers of networks interconnected by adaptive links, which are rewired at random to avoid contacts between infected and susceptible nodes at the interlayer. We find that the rewiring reduces the effective connectivity for the transmission of the disease between layers, and may even totally decouple the networks. Weak endemic states, in which the epidemics spreads when the two layers are interconnected but not in each layer separately, show a transition from the endemic to the healthy phase when the rewiring overcomes a threshold value that depends on the infection rate, the strength of the coupling and the mean connectivity of the networks. In the strong endemic scenario, in which the epidemics is able to spread on each separate network –and therefore on the interconnected system– the prevalence in each layer decreases when increasing the rewiring, arriving to single network values only in the limit of infinitely fast rewiring. We also find that rewiring amplifies finite-size effects, preventing the disease transmission between finite networks, as there is a non zero probability that the epidemics stays confined in only one network during its lifetime. PMID:27380771

  14. Coccidioidomycosis and Blastomycosis: Endemic Mycotic Co-Infections in the HIV Patient.

    PubMed

    Jehangir, Waqas; Tadepalli, Geeta Santoshi; Sen, Shuvendu; Regevik, Nina; Sen, Purnendu

    2015-03-01

    Opportunistic fungal infections including aspergillosis species, candida species, and fusarium can be found in HIV-infected patients. Disseminated diseases due to endemic mycoses including histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis are all being reported among HIV patients who reside in the known endemic areas. However, in the non-endemic areas, or due to the rarity of these pathogens, it might be difficult to recognize these unfamiliar disease presentations. We report a patient with HIV who had dual infections with endemic mycotic infections of coccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis, as he had a brief stay in the endemic area.

  15. Glomerular filtration rate in examined population of Bosnian Posavina - region of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Alecković, Mirna; Mesić, Enisa; Trnacević, Senaid; Stipancić, Zelimir; Hamidović, Damir; Hasanović, Evlijana

    2010-04-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is chronic tubulointersticial nephritis of unknown aetiology characterized by an insidious onset and gradual progression to end stage renal disease (ESRD). Endemic regions of Bosnia and Herzegovina are Posavina and Semberija, sited at basin of Sava River. In BEN, just like in other chronic renal diseases (CKD), glomerular filtration rate (GFR), is assumed a marker of overall renal function. The aim of this study was to compare GFR in examinees of endemic and non-endemic region for BEN, and between examinees with and without risk factors for BEN within endemic region. Study included 603 inhabitants of Bosnian Posavina, out of whom 386 (65%) from endemic (Domaljevac) and 217 (36%) from non-endemic (Svilaj) village, and it was performed in two phases. The first phase encompassed obtaining anamnestic data (demographic, personal and family history), measurement of arterial blood pressure, and urine dipstick testing (specific gravity, pH, proteins, leukocytes, glucose, ketones, and microalbuminuria). In the second phase, besides repeated urine dipstick test, laboratory blood testing and abdominal ultrasound, with special attention to urinary tract, was also performed. We have compared GFR between examinees of endemic and non-endemic regions for BEN, and between examinees with and without family burden for BEN within endemic region, using MDRD formula for calculating GFR, with cut-off value (5th percentile) based on result of studies performed in European Caucasians in screening for CKD and for establishing stages of CKD in BEN. Medical was used for statistical testing. Out of total number of examined inhabitants (603), 145 examinees were included in the second phase. After exclusion of 17 diabetic patients, 94 (73%) examinees from endemic and 34 (27%) examinees from non-endemic region remained. In the endemic region there were 46 (49%) examinees with and 48 (51%) without family burden for BEN. Overall GFR in examined groups was within

  16. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-09-23

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants.

  17. Spatio-temporal evolution on geographic boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan Xun; Wang, Zhi Qiang; Guo, Jing; Tang, Fang; Sun, Xiu Bin; Xue, Fu Zhong; Kang, Dian Min

    2013-12-01

    To take effective strategies and measures for the prevention and control of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) endemic areas by investigating its dynamic geographical boundaries in Shandong Province, China. The incidence of HFRS from 1982 to 2008 in Shandong Prvince, China, was detected with inverse distance weighting (IDW) interpolation based on geographical information system (GIS). Dynamic geographical boundaries of HFRS endemic areas in Shandong Province, China, were analyzed by geographical boundary analysis. The HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Linyi City in phase 1 (1982-1986), the SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS were located in Jining City in phase 2 (1987-2003), and the endemic areas of HFRS in Jining City gradually disappeared and the endemic areas of HFRS with mixed-types of reservoir rodents were located in Linyi City in phase 3 (2004-2008). Meanwhile, new endemic areas emerged in the northwestern Shandong province, China. The SEO-type endemic areas of HFRS are located in western Shandong Province, China, and the HTN-type endemic areas of HFRS are located eastern Shandong Province, Chin, indicating that the endemic areas of HFRS should be vaccinated and rodents should be controlled. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  18. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  19. [Visceral leishmaniasis as a threat for non-endemic countries].

    PubMed

    Górski, Stanisław; Wiercińska-Drapało, Alicja

    2009-01-01

    Global warming, globalisation, and constantly increasing number of people involved in long-distance tourism and travel to exotic destinations are likely to increase the number of cases of exotic diseases "imported" to nonendemic countries. One of the often forgotten and neglected diseases has been visceral leishmaniasis (VL or kala-azar). The disease is endemic to 62 countries, with India and Sudan accounting for the majority of the cases. It is typically fatal if left untreated. Each year about 500 000 new cases are reported worldwide, and 50 000 die as a result of the disease. Kala-azar is present in the Mediterranean Europe and 70% of cases are imported to non-endemic countries of European Union from that area. Immunocompromised status of patients, like HIV carriers are the principal prospective target for kala-azar. HIV/VL-coinfected patients have significantly higher relapse rates and decreased life expectancy. There is no formal system of reporting imported cases in Europe, except from Germany. In non-endemic countries, including Poland, there is usually the substantial delay between the onset of symptoms and the final diagnosis, with an average exceeding 3 months. This fact suggests that physicians are not familiar with leishmania infections. Despite progress in vaccine development, the only way to prevent the infection is avoiding sandfly bites. Mosquito nets, wearing appropriate clothes and repellents containing DEET (diethyl toluamide) can reduce number of bites and protect also from the other vector-borne diseases like malaria or dengue. Education concerning kala-azar risk and ways of the disease prevention is a needed for tourists and the other travelers.

  20. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from <1 to 43% of the endemic biota (average 11.6%), with biome specificity having the greatest influence on the estimates, followed by the global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting

  1. Feline Leishmania infection in a canine leishmaniasis endemic region, Portugal.

    PubMed

    Maia, C; Gomes, J; Cristóvão, J; Nunes, M; Martins, A; Rebêlo, E; Campino, L

    2010-12-15

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a serious zoonotic public health and veterinary problem in the Mediterranean basin. Leishmania infection in domestic cats (Felis catus domesticus) has been reported in several countries where this zoonosis is endemic, such as Portugal, Spain, Italy, France, Greece, Israel, Palestine and Brazil. The aim of this study was to contribute to the knowledge of the role played by cats in Leishmania epidemiology, in an endemic focus of zoonotic leishmaniasis, the Lisbon metropolitan area, Portugal. L. infantum DNA was detected in peripheral blood of 28 out of 138 cats (20.3%). The result of PCR in blood of cats was not closely associated with the level of specific circulating antibodies in their sera. Positive serology was observed only in one cat out of 76. In the same geographic region and time period the indirect immunofluorescent test revealed 20.4% (31/152) of dogs with antibodies and PCR detected Leismania DNA on 34.9% (53/152) animals. Despite the fact that specific antibodies have been validated for diagnosis of CanL, their detection does not seem to be sensitive enough to predict Leishmania infection in cats. On the other hand, the presence of parasite DNA in cat's peripheral blood during the transmission season and out of the season suggests that these animals living in endemic areas are frequently exposed or infected with the parasite. Although dogs have been universally regarded as the major domestic/peridomestic reservoir hosts, the present data allow us to hypothesize that cats can act as an alternative reservoir host of L. infantum, rather than an accidental host. However, in order to evaluate the existence of a transmission cycle with cats sustaining and spreading zoonotic leishmaniasis is necessary to prove that these animals can transmit the parasite to the vector in nature. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evidence for Endemic Chikungunya Virus Infections in Bandung, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Kosasih, Herman; de Mast, Quirijn; Widjaja, Susana; Sudjana, Primal; Antonjaya, Ungke; Ma'roef, Chairin; Riswari, Silvita Fitri; Porter, Kevin R.; Burgess, Timothy H.; Alisjahbana, Bachti; van der Ven, Andre; Williams, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is known to cause sporadic or explosive outbreaks. However, little is known about the endemic transmission of CHIKV. To ascertain the endemic occurrence of CHIKV transmission, we tested blood samples from patients with a non-dengue febrile illness who participated in a prospective cohort study of factory workers in Bandung, Indonesia. From August 2000 to June 2004, and September 2006 to April 2008, 1901 febrile episodes occurred and 231 (12.2%) dengue cases were identified. The remaining febrile cases were evaluated for possible CHIKV infection by measuring anti-CHIKV IgM and IgG antibodies in acute and convalescent samples. Acute samples of serologically positive cases were subsequently tested for the presence of CHIKV RNA by RT-PCR and/or virus isolation. A total of 135 (7.1%) CHIKV infections were identified, providing an incidence rate of 10.1/1,000 person years. CHIKV infections were identified all year round and tended to increase during the rainy season (January to March). Severe illness was not found and severe arthralgia was not a prominently reported symptom. Serial post-illness samples from nine cases were tested to obtain a kinetic picture of IgM and IgG anti-CHIKV antibodies. Anti-CHIKV IgM antibodies were persistently detected in high titers for approximately one year. Three patients demonstrated evidence of possible sequential CHIKV infections. The high incidence rate and continuous chikungunya cases in this adult cohort suggests that CHIKV is endemically transmitted in Bandung. Further characterization of the circulating strains and surveillance in larger areas are needed to better understand CHIKV epidemiology in Indonesia. PMID:24205417

  3. Plasmodium vivax Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Sariwati, Elvieda; Palupi, Niken W.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Kusriastuti, Rita; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax imposes substantial morbidity and mortality burdens in endemic zones. Detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of this parasite is needed to combat it. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of risk of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium vivax Annual Parasite Incidence data (2006–2008) and temperature masks were used to map P. vivax transmission limits. A total of 4,658 community surveys of P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) were identified (1985–2010) for mapping quantitative estimates of contemporary endemicity within those limits. After error-checking a total of 4,457 points were included into a national database of age-standardized 1–99 year old PvPR data. A Bayesian MBG procedure created a predicted PvPR1–99 endemicity surface with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population surface. Results We estimated 129.6 million people in Indonesia lived at risk of P. vivax transmission in 2010. Among these, 79.3% inhabited unstable transmission areas and 20.7% resided in stable transmission areas. In western Indonesia, the predicted P. vivax prevalence was uniformly low. Over 70% of the population at risk in this region lived on Java and Bali islands, where little malaria transmission occurs. High predicted prevalence areas were observed in the Lesser Sundas, Maluku and Papua. In general, prediction uncertainty was relatively low in the west and high in the east. Conclusion Most Indonesians living with endemic P. vivax experience relatively low risk of infection. However, blood surveys for this parasite are likely relatively insensitive and certainly do not detect the dormant liver stage reservoir of infection. The prospects for P. vivax elimination would be improved with deeper understanding of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PDd) distribution, anti-relapse therapy

  4. Human African trypanosomiasis in non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Sudarshi, Darshan; Brown, Mike

    2015-02-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a parasitic disease, acquired by the bite of an infected tsetse fly. In non-endemic countries HAT is rare, and therefore the diagnosis may be delayed leading to potentially fatal consequences. In this article the clinical presentation, diagnosis and treatment of the two forms of HAT are outlined. Rhodesiense HAT is an acute illness that presents in tourists who have recently visited game parks in Eastern or Southern Africa, whereas Gambiense HAT has a more chronic clinical course, in individuals from West or Central Africa.

  5. Plasmodium falciparum Malaria Endemicity in Indonesia in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Gething, Peter W.; Patil, Anand P.; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M.; Tarmizi, Siti N.; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Methods Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006–2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985–2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2–10 year old PfPR data (PfPR2–10) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR2–10 endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. Results We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. Conclusion While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of

  6. A generalized cholera model and epidemic-endemic analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Liao, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The transmission of cholera involves both human-to-human and environment-to-human pathways that complicate its dynamics. In this paper, we present a new and unified deterministic model that incorporates a general incidence rate and a general formulation of the pathogen concentration to analyse the dynamics of cholera. Particularly, this work unifies many existing cholera models proposed by different authors. We conduct equilibrium analysis to carefully study the complex epidemic and endemic behaviour of the disease. Our results show that despite the incorporation of the environmental component, there exists a forward transcritical bifurcation at R (0)=1 for the combined human-environment epidemiological model under biologically reasonable conditions.

  7. Antimicrobial activity of endemic Digitalis lamarckii Ivan from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Benli, Mehlika; Yiğit, Nazife; Geven, Fatmagü; Güney, Kerim; Bingöl, Umit

    2009-03-01

    Antimicrobial activity of the methanolic extracts of leaves and flowers of D. lamarckii Ivan, (Scophulariaceae), an endemic plant species of Turkey, was tested on ten bacterial and four yeast strains. Effective antibacterial activity was observed in four bacterial strains. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was calculated by use of liquid culture tests and in all the four effective bacterial strains, the MIC was found to be > or = 199.5 mg/ml. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of B. subtilis, S. aureus, and L. monocytogenes was calculated to be > or = 199.5 mg/ml, and MBC value for Shigella was calculated as > or = 399 mg/ml.

  8. Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemicity in Indonesia in 2010.

    PubMed

    Elyazar, Iqbal R F; Gething, Peter W; Patil, Anand P; Rogayah, Hanifah; Kusriastuti, Rita; Wismarini, Desak M; Tarmizi, Siti N; Baird, J Kevin; Hay, Simon I

    2011-01-01

    Malaria control programs require a detailed understanding of the contemporary spatial distribution of infection risk to efficiently allocate resources. We used model based geostatistics (MBG) techniques to generate a contemporary map of Plasmodium falciparum malaria risk in Indonesia in 2010. Plasmodium falciparum Annual Parasite Incidence (PfAPI) data (2006-2008) were used to map limits of P. falciparum transmission. A total of 2,581 community blood surveys of P. falciparum parasite rate (PfPR) were identified (1985-2009). After quality control, 2,516 were included into a national database of age-standardized 2-10 year old PfPR data (PfPR(2-10)) for endemicity mapping. A Bayesian MBG procedure was used to create a predicted surface of PfPR(2-10) endemicity with uncertainty estimates. Population at risk estimates were derived with reference to a 2010 human population count surface. We estimate 132.8 million people in Indonesia, lived at risk of P. falciparum transmission in 2010. Of these, 70.3% inhabited areas of unstable transmission and 29.7% in stable transmission. Among those exposed to stable risk, the vast majority were at low risk (93.39%) with the reminder at intermediate (6.6%) and high risk (0.01%). More people in western Indonesia lived in unstable rather than stable transmission zones. In contrast, fewer people in eastern Indonesia lived in unstable versus stable transmission areas. While further feasibility assessments will be required, the immediate prospects for sustained control are good across much of the archipelago and medium term plans to transition to the pre-elimination phase are not unrealistic for P. falciparum. Endemicity in areas of Papua will clearly present the greatest challenge. This P. falciparum endemicity map allows malaria control agencies and their partners to comprehensively assess the region-specific prospects for reaching pre-elimination, monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of future strategies against this 2010 baseline

  9. Malaria in Brazil: what happens outside the Amazonian endemic region

    PubMed Central

    de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Santi, Sílvia Maria Di; de Araujo, Mariana Pereira; Suárez-Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria e Silva; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2014-01-01

    Brazil, a country of continental proportions, presents three profiles of malaria transmission. The first and most important numerically, occurs inside the Amazon. The Amazon accounts for approximately 60% of the nation’s territory and approximately 13% of the Brazilian population. This region hosts 99.5% of the nation’s malaria cases, which are predominantly caused by Plasmodium vivax (i.e., 82% of cases in 2013). The second involves imported malaria, which corresponds to malaria cases acquired outside the region where the individuals live or the diagnosis was made. These cases are imported from endemic regions of Brazil (i.e., the Amazon) or from other countries in South and Central America, Africa and Asia. Imported malaria comprised 89% of the cases found outside the area of active transmission in Brazil in 2013. These cases highlight an important question with respect to both therapeutic and epidemiological issues because patients, especially those with falciparum malaria, arriving in a region where the health professionals may not have experience with the clinical manifestations of malaria and its diagnosis could suffer dramatic consequences associated with a potential delay in treatment. Additionally, because the Anopheles vectors exist in most of the country, even a single case of malaria, if not diagnosed and treated immediately, may result in introduced cases, causing outbreaks and even introducing or reintroducing the disease to a non-endemic, receptive region. Cases introduced outside the Amazon usually occur in areas in which malaria was formerly endemic and are transmitted by competent vectors belonging to the subgenus Nyssorhynchus (i.e., Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles aquasalis and species of the Albitarsis complex). The third type of transmission accounts for only 0.05% of all cases and is caused by autochthonous malaria in the Atlantic Forest, located primarily along the southeastern Atlantic Coast. They are caused by parasites that seem to be

  10. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Jennifer J; Young, Bruce E; Beck, Stephan; Comer, Pat; Córdova, Jesús H; Dyson, Jessica; Embert, Dirk; Encarnación, Filomeno; Ferreira, Wanderley; Franke, Irma; Grossman, Dennis; Hernandez, Pilar; Herzog, Sebastian K; Josse, Carmen; Navarro, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Víctor; Stein, Bruce A; Timaná, Martín; Tovar, Antonio; Tovar, Carolina; Vargas, Julieta; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M

    2012-01-27

    The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have

  11. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic

  12. Molecular, ethno-spatial epidemiology of leprosy in China: Novel insights for tracing leprosy in endemic and non endemic provinces

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Xiaoman; Xing, Yan; Liu, Jian; Wang, Yonghong; Ning, Yong; Li, Ming; Wu, Wenbin; Zhang, Lianhua; Li, Wei; Heiden, Jason Vander; Vissa, Varalakshmi

    2013-01-01

    Leprosy continues to be detected at near stable rates in China even with established control programs, necessitating new knowledge and alternative methods to interrupt transmission. A molecular epidemiology investigation of 190 patients was undertaken to define M. leprae strain types and discern genetic relationships and clusters in endemic and non-endemic regions spanning seventeen provinces and two autonomous regions. The findings support multiple locus variable number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis as a useful tool in uncovering characteristic patterns across the multiethnic and divergent geographic landscape of China. Several scenarios of clustering of leprosy from township to provincial to regional levels were recognized, while recent occupational or remote migration showed geographical separation of certain strains. First, prior studies indicated that of the four major M. leprae subtypes defined by single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), only type 3 was present in China, purportedly entering from Europe/West/Central Asia via the Silk Road. However, this study revealed VNTR linked strains that are of type 1 in Guangdong, Fujian and Guangxi in southern China. Second, a subset of VNTR distinguishable strains of type 3, co-exist in these provinces. Third, type 3 strains with rpoT VNTR allele of 4, detected in Japan and Korea were discovered in Jiangsu and Anhui in the east and in western Sichuan bordering Tibet. Fourth, considering the overall genetic diversity, strains of endemic counties of Qiubei, Yunnan; Xing Yi, Guizhou; and across Sichuan in southwest were related. However, closer inspection showed distinct local strains and clusters. Altogether, these insights, primarily derived from VNTR typing, reveal multiple and overlooked paths for spread of leprosy into, within and out of China and invoke attention to historic maritime routes in the South and East China Sea. More importantly, new concepts and approaches for prospective case finding and tracking of

  13. Areas of endemism in the Neotropical region based on the geographical distribution of Tabanomorpha (Diptera: Brachycera).

    PubMed

    Klassa, Bruna; Santos, Charles Morphy D

    2015-12-18

    We aim to investigate the geographical distribution patterns of the infraorder Tabanomorpha and to delimit primary hypotheses of areas of endemism for the group in the Neotropical region. The results were compared to areas of endemism proposed in previous works for other taxa and particularly with the recent Morrone's regionalisation proposal. An endemicity analysis was performed with the ndm/vndm algorithm using 3826 occurrence records for 1361 species of Tabanomorpha. Areas of endemism were established based on a grid size of 6º and consensus cut-off of 42%. We identified 13 areas of endemism comprising five main components: Northern South America (NSA), Southeastern South America (SESA), Central America (CA), Brazilian Savannah (BS), Central Andes (CAn). In a broad sense, the main areas of endemism recovered for Tabanomorpha are congruent with the recent proposals of regionalisation for the Neotropical region.

  14. Phylogenetic measures of biodiversity and neo- and paleo-endemism in Australian Acacia.

    PubMed

    Mishler, Brent D; Knerr, Nunzio; González-Orozco, Carlos E; Thornhill, Andrew H; Laffan, Shawn W; Miller, Joseph T

    2014-07-18

    Understanding spatial patterns of biodiversity is critical for conservation planning, particularly given rapid habitat loss and human-induced climatic change. Diversity and endemism are typically assessed by comparing species ranges across regions. However, investigation of patterns of species diversity alone misses out on the full richness of patterns that can be inferred using a phylogenetic approach. Here, using Australian Acacia as an example, we show that the application of phylogenetic methods, particularly two new measures, relative phylogenetic diversity and relative phylogenetic endemism, greatly enhances our knowledge of biodiversity across both space and time. We found that areas of high species richness and species endemism are not necessarily areas of high phylogenetic diversity or phylogenetic endemism. We propose a new method called categorical analysis of neo- and paleo-endemism (CANAPE) that allows, for the first time, a clear, quantitative distinction between centres of neo- and paleo-endemism, useful to the conservation decision-making process.

  15. Endemic systemic mycoses: coccidioidomycosis, histoplasmosis, paracoccidioidomycosis and blastomycosis.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Alexandro; Vázquez-González, Denisse; Perusquía-Ortiz, Ana María

    2011-09-01

    Endemic deep or systemic mycoses are common in specific geographical areas of the world. Coccidioidomycosis is present in semi-desert areas, histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis in tropical regions and blastomycosis belongs to temperate climates. The two former are widely distributed in the American continent and some tropical regions of the world; the third is limited to Central and South America, and the last to North America and Central and East Africa. These mycoses all have a similar pathogenesis, as the inoculum enters the host through the respiratory tract. Cutaneous manifestations are secondary to lymphatic and hematogenous dissemination. These deep mycoses are exceptional in Europe. Most cases are observed in returning travelers from endemic areas, aid workers, archaeologists, speleologist and immigrants. However, there have been some autochthonous cases of histoplasmosis due to Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum reported in European countries such as Italy and Germany. In this article, we provide up-to-date epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic data on the four most important imported systemic mycoses in Europe.

  16. Detection of human taeniases in Tibetan endemic areas, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Tiaoying; Chen, Xingwang; Yanagida, Tetsuya; Wang, Hao; Long, Changping; Sako, Yasuhito; Okamoto, Munehir; Wu, Yunfei; Giraudoux, Patrick; Raoul, Francis; Nkouawa, Agathe; Nakao, Minoru; Craig, Philip S; Ito, Akira

    2013-11-01

    Detection of taeniasis carriers of Taenia solium is essential for control of cysticercosis in humans and pigs. In the current study, we assessed the positive detection rate of a self-detection tool, stool microscopy with direct smear and coproPCR for taeniasis carriers in endemic Tibetan areas of northwest Sichuan. The self-detection tool through questioning about a history of proglottid expulsion within the previous one year showed an overall positive detection rate of more than 80% for Taenia saginata, T. solium and T. asiatica. The positive detection rate was similar for T. saginata and T. solium. In 132 taeniid tapeworm carriers, 68 (51·5%) were detected by microscopy and 92 (69·7%) were diagnosed by coproPCR. A combination of microscopy and coproPCR increased the positive detection rate to 77·3%. There remained 10 cases (7·6%) coproPCR negative but microscopy positive. Due to the high cost and complicated process, coproPCR is required for the identification of Taenia species only when necessary, though it had a significant higher positive detection rate than microscopy. Combined use of self-detection and stool microscopy are recommended in community-based mass screening for taeniases in this Tibetan area or in other situation-similar endemic regions.

  17. Molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive mycoses: advances and challenges.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Beatriz L

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of endemic and invasive fungal disease remains challenging. Molecular techniques for identification of fungi now play a significant and growing role in clinical mycology and offer distinct advantages as they are faster, more sensitive and more specific. The aim of this mini-review is to provide an overview of the state of the art of molecular diagnosis of endemic and invasive fungal diseases, and to emphasize the challenges and current need for standardization of the different methods. The European Aspergillus PCR Initiative (EAPCRI) has made significant progress in developing a standard for Aspergillus polymerase chain reaction (PCR), but recognizes that the process will not be finished until clinical utility has been established in formal and extensive clinical trials. Similar efforts should be implemented for the diagnosis of the other mycoses in order to fully validate the current methods or reinforce the need to design new ones. This manuscript is part of the series of works presented at the "V International Workshop: Molecular genetic approaches to the study of human pathogenic fungi" (Oaxaca, Mexico, 2012).

  18. Effective vaccination against rabies in puppies in rabies endemic regions

    PubMed Central

    Morters, M. K.; McNabb, S.; Horton, D. L.; Fooks, A. R.; Schoeman, J. P.; Whay, H. R.; Wood, J. L. N.; Cleaveland, S.

    2015-01-01

    In rabies endemic regions, a proportionally higher incidence of rabies is often reported in dogs younger than 12 months of age, which includes puppies less than 3 months of age; this presents a serious risk to public health. The higher incidence of rabies in young dogs may be the effect of low vaccination coverage in this age class, partly as a result of the perception that immature immune systems and maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion to rabies vaccine in puppies less than three months of age. Therefore, to test this perception, the authors report the virus neutralising antibody titres from 27 dogs that were vaccinated with high quality, inactivated rabies vaccine aged three months of age and under as part of larger serological studies undertaken in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and the Serengeti District, Tanzania. All of these dogs seroconverted to a single dose of vaccine with no adverse reactions reported and with postvaccinal peak titres ranging from 2.0 IU/ml to 90.5 IU/ml. In light of these results, and the risk of human beings contracting rabies from close contact with puppies, the authors recommend that all dogs in rabies endemic regions, including those less than three months of age, are vaccinated with high quality, inactivated vaccine. PMID:26109286

  19. Effective vaccination against rabies in puppies in rabies endemic regions.

    PubMed

    Morters, M K; McNabb, S; Horton, D L; Fooks, A R; Schoeman, J P; Whay, H R; Wood, J L N; Cleaveland, S

    2015-08-08

    In rabies endemic regions, a proportionally higher incidence of rabies is often reported in dogs younger than 12 months of age, which includes puppies less than 3 months of age; this presents a serious risk to public health. The higher incidence of rabies in young dogs may be the effect of low vaccination coverage in this age class, partly as a result of the perception that immature immune systems and maternal antibodies inhibit seroconversion to rabies vaccine in puppies less than three months of age. Therefore, to test this perception, the authors report the virus neutralising antibody titres from 27 dogs that were vaccinated with high quality, inactivated rabies vaccine aged three months of age and under as part of larger serological studies undertaken in Gauteng Province, South Africa, and the Serengeti District, Tanzania. All of these dogs seroconverted to a single dose of vaccine with no adverse reactions reported and with postvaccinal peak titres ranging from 2.0 IU/ml to 90.5 IU/ml. In light of these results, and the risk of human beings contracting rabies from close contact with puppies, the authors recommend that all dogs in rabies endemic regions, including those less than three months of age, are vaccinated with high quality, inactivated vaccine.

  20. Epidemiological and control aspects of schistosomiasis in Brazilian endemic areas.

    PubMed

    Coura, J R; Amaral, R S

    2004-01-01

    The present work analyzes the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in Brazil, its expansion, the attempts to control the disease, and the overall difficulties. The authors present the distribution of schistosomiasis intermediary hosts in Brazil, the migration routes of the human population, and disease distribution in highly and lowly endemic areas and isolated foci. They also analyze the controlling programs developed from 1977 to 2002, indicating the prevalence evolution and the reduction of disease morbi-mortality. In addition, the authors also evaluate controlling methods and conclude that: (a) no isolated method is able to control schistosomiasis, and every controlling program should consider the need of a multidisciplinary application of existing methods; (b) in long term, basic sanitation, potable water supply, as well as sanitary education, and community effective participation are important for infection control; (c) in short term, specific treatment at endemic areas, associated with control of intermediary hosts at epidemiologically important foci, are extremely relevant for controlling disease morbidity, although not enough for interrupting infection transmission.

  1. Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Regina L.; Assis, Jorge M.; Madeira, Celine; Seabra, Rui; Lima, Fernando P.; Lopes, Evandro P.; Williams, Suzanne T.; Castilho, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Oceanic archipelagos are the ideal setting for investigating processes that shape species assemblages. Focusing on keyhole limpets, genera Fissurella and Diodora from Cape Verde Islands, we used an integrative approach combining molecular phylogenetics with ocean transport simulations to infer species distribution patterns and analyse connectivity. Dispersal simulations, using pelagic larval duration and ocean currents as proxies, showed a reduced level of connectivity despite short distances between some of the islands. It is suggested that dispersal and persistence driven by patterns of oceanic circulation favouring self-recruitment played a primary role in explaining contemporary species distributions. Mitochondrial and nuclear data revealed the existence of eight Cape Verde endemic lineages, seven within Fissurella, distributed across the archipelago, and one within Diodora restricted to Boavista. The estimated origins for endemic Fissurella and Diodora were 10.2 and 6.7 MY, respectively. Between 9.5 and 4.5 MY, an intense period of volcanism in Boavista might have affected Diodora, preventing its diversification. Having originated earlier, Fissurella might have had more opportunities to disperse to other islands and speciate before those events. Bayesian analyses showed increased diversification rates in Fissurella possibly promoted by low sea levels during Plio-Pleistocene, which further explain differences in species richness between both genera. PMID:28150720

  2. Update on Fogo Selvagem, an Endemic Form of Pemphigus Foliaceus

    PubMed Central

    Aoki, Valeria; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Diaz, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    Pemphigus are organ-specific autoimmune diseases, where autoantibodies (mainly IgG) directed against epidermal targets (glycoproteins of the desmosomal core) are detected. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus or fogo selvagem (FS) is one of the variants of pemphigus foliaceus (PF) that shares the same clinical and immunopathological features of the classic nonendemic PF form, including pathogenic IgG (mainly IgG4) autoantibodies directed against the ectodomain of desmoglein 1 (Dsg1), that lead to acantholysis. Pathogenesis of FS is complex, involving genetic, environmental and immunological factors. HLADRB1 alleles DRB1*0404, *1402, *1406 or *0102 have been previously identified as risk factors for FS (relative risk > 14). Individuals exposed to hematophagous insects are more susceptible to develop the disease. Nonpathogenic anti-Dsg1 antibodies of the IgG1 subclass, directed against the extra-cellular 5 domain of Dsg1 are detected in patients in the preclinical stage of the disease, and also in healthy controls living in endemic areas. In counterpart, patients with FS show pathogenic anti-Dsg1 IgG4 auto-antibodies that bind the pathogenic extracellular 1 and 2 domains of Dsg 1, emphasizing the intramolecular epitope spreading hypothesis. A possible explanation for the development of the autoimmune process would be antigenic mimicry, initiated by environmental stimuli in those genetically predisposed individuals. Characterization of the pathogenesis of FS will allow the development of specific therapeutic targets, and the elucidation of other autoimmune processes. PMID:25558948

  3. Endemic Babesiosis in Another Eastern State: New Jersey

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Paul C.; Gerwel, Michal P.; Easton, Rachael M.; MacGregor, Rob Roy

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, most reported cases of babesiosis have been caused by Babesia microti and acquired in the northeast. Although three cases of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey were recently described by others, babesiosis has not been widely known to be endemic in New Jersey. We describe a case of babesiosis acquired in New Jersey in 1999 in an otherwise healthy 53-year-old woman who developed life-threatening disease. We also provide composite data on 40 cases of babesiosis acquired from 1993 through 2001 in New Jersey. The 40 cases include the one we describe, the three cases previously described, and 36 other cases reported to public health agencies. The 40 cases were acquired in eight (38.1%) of the 21 counties in the state. Babesiosis, a potentially serious zoonosis, is endemic in New Jersey and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with fever and hemolytic anemia, particularly in the spring, summer, and early fall. PMID:12603988

  4. Drivers of Cape Verde archipelagic endemism in keyhole limpets.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Regina L; Assis, Jorge M; Madeira, Celine; Seabra, Rui; Lima, Fernando P; Lopes, Evandro P; Williams, Suzanne T; Castilho, Rita

    2017-02-02

    Oceanic archipelagos are the ideal setting for investigating processes that shape species assemblages. Focusing on keyhole limpets, genera Fissurella and Diodora from Cape Verde Islands, we used an integrative approach combining molecular phylogenetics with ocean transport simulations to infer species distribution patterns and analyse connectivity. Dispersal simulations, using pelagic larval duration and ocean currents as proxies, showed a reduced level of connectivity despite short distances between some of the islands. It is suggested that dispersal and persistence driven by patterns of oceanic circulation favouring self-recruitment played a primary role in explaining contemporary species distributions. Mitochondrial and nuclear data revealed the existence of eight Cape Verde endemic lineages, seven within Fissurella, distributed across the archipelago, and one within Diodora restricted to Boavista. The estimated origins for endemic Fissurella and Diodora were 10.2 and 6.7 MY, respectively. Between 9.5 and 4.5 MY, an intense period of volcanism in Boavista might have affected Diodora, preventing its diversification. Having originated earlier, Fissurella might have had more opportunities to disperse to other islands and speciate before those events. Bayesian analyses showed increased diversification rates in Fissurella possibly promoted by low sea levels during Plio-Pleistocene, which further explain differences in species richness between both genera.

  5. Modeled regional climate change and California endemic oak ranges

    PubMed Central

    Kueppers, Lara M.; Snyder, Mark A.; Sloan, Lisa C.; Zavaleta, Erika S.; Fulfrost, Brian

    2005-01-01

    In the coming century, anthropogenic climate change will threaten the persistence of restricted endemic species, complicating conservation planning. Although most efforts to quantify potential shifts in species' ranges use global climate model (GCM) output, regional climate model (RCM) output may be better suited to predicting shifts by restricted species, particularly in regions with complex topography or other regionally important climate-forcing factors. Using a RCM-based future climate scenario, we found that potential ranges of two California endemic oaks, Quercus douglasii and Quercus lobata, shrink considerably (to 59% and 54% of modern potential range sizes, respectively) and shift northward. This result is markedly different from that obtained by using a comparable GCM-based scenario, under which these species retain 81% and 73% of their modern potential range sizes, respectively. The difference between RCM- and GCM-based scenarios is due to greater warming and larger precipitation decreases during the growing season predicted by the RCM in these species' potential ranges. Based on the modeled regional climate change, <50% of protected land area currently containing these species is expected to contain them under a future midrange “business-as-usual” path of greenhouse gas emissions. PMID:16260750

  6. Ascending colon cancer associated with deposited ova of Schistosoma japonicum in non-endemic area.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Kensuke; Kato, Takaharu; Okada, Shinichiro; Matsumoto, Risa; Nishida, Kazuhiro; Komuro, Hiroyasu; Iida, Maki; Tsujimoto, Shiro; Suganuma, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Some reports suggest the positive correlation between Schistosoma japonicum infection and colorectal cancer, however the sufficient evidence that supports a causal relationship between them has not been established. Japan used be an endemic area of S. japonicum infection for 40 years ago. But now all of Japan is a non-endemic area of S. japonicum infection. We report a case of ascending colon cancer associated with deposited ova of S. japonicum in non-endemic area.

  7. On areas of endemism, with an example from the African Restionaceae.

    PubMed

    Linder, H P

    2001-01-01

    Areas of endemism are central to cladistic biogeography. The concept has been much debated in the past, and from this has emerged the generally accepted definition as an area to which at least two species are endemic. Protocols for locating areas of endemism have been neglected, and to date no attempt has been made to develop optimality criteria against which to evaluate competing hypotheses of areas of endemism. Here various protocols for finding areas of endemism are evaluated--protocols based on both phonetic and parsimony analyses, on both unweighted data and data weighted by various criteria. The optimality criteria used to compare the performance of the methods include the number of species included in the areas of endemism, the number of areas delimited, and the degree of distributional congruency of the species restricted to each area of endemism. These methods are applied to the African Restionaceae in the Cape Floristic Region. Parsimony methods using weighted data are shown to perform best on the combination of all three optimality criteria. By varying the weighting parameters, the size of the areas of endemism can be varied. This provides a very useful tool for locating areas of endemism that satisfy prespecified scale criteria.

  8. [Human diphyllobothriosis. A case in non-endemic area of Argentina].

    PubMed

    Cargnelutti, Diego E; Salomón, María Cristina

    2012-01-01

    Diphyllobothriosis is an intestinal parasitosis caused by cestodes infection of the genus Diphyllobothrium. In Argentina, the Andean Patagonia is considered an endemic area for this parasitosis. Diphyllobothrium latum infection has not been previously reported in the province of Mendoza, Argentina. We are now reporting then the first case. Diphyllobothriosis was confirmed by examination of morphologic characteristics of the eggs eliminated in the patients' feces. These results suggest the requirement of a more specific training of health workers in the diagnosis and treatment of non endemic parasitosis. We want to emphasize the need of health workers' education on diagnosis and treatment of endemic and non-endemic parasitosis.

  9. Can migrants from high-endemic countries cause new HIV outbreaks among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries?

    PubMed

    Xiridou, Maria; van Veen, Maaike; Coutinho, Roel; Prins, Maria

    2010-08-24

    To investigate how the sexual behaviour of migrants originating from HIV-endemic countries affects the spread of HIV among heterosexuals in low-endemic countries. A mathematical model is developed describing the transmission of HIV in heterosexual partnerships between African migrants, Caribbean migrants, and local natives. The model accounts for infection of migrants before migration and during trips to their home country. The model is parameterized using data from the Netherlands. Among new and newly imported, heterosexually acquired, infections in 2010 in the Netherlands, the individual acquiring HIV is an African in 53% of cases, a Caribbean in 26% of cases, and a Dutch native in 21% of cases. The percentage of new infections acquired outside the Netherlands is 40% among African migrants and 32% among Caribbean migrants; these are mostly acquired before migration to the Netherlands. The prevalence of HIV in the Netherlands is hardly affected by changes in risk behaviour of migrants during trips to their home country after migration. If migrants mix more with the Dutch in forming partnerships, then HIV prevalence among migrants will decrease. The more initiating antiviral therapy is delayed among migrants, the higher the resulting prevalence in their own ethnic group and among the Dutch. The serostatus of individuals migrating to low-prevalence countries as well as their sexual behaviour in the country of residence affect considerably the spread of HIV. Preventive measures should focus on targeted interventions, promoting safe sex practices, HIV testing, and entry to specialized HIV care among migrants.

  10. Cysticerci-related single parenchymal brain enhancing lesions in non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Del Brutto, Oscar H; Nash, Theodore E; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-08-15

    Review of case reports and case series of patients with single cysticercus granulomas in non-endemic countries to determine the characteristics of this form of neurocysticercosis in these regions. MEDLINE and manual search of patients with single cysticercus granulomas diagnosed in non-endemic countries from 1991 to 2011. Abstracted data included: demographic profile, clinical manifestations, form of neurocysticercosis, and whether the disease occurred in immigrants, international travelers, or citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. A total of 77 patients were found. Of these, 61 (79%) were diagnosed since the year 2000. Thirty-four patients (44%) patients were immigrants from endemic countries, 18 (23%) were international travelers returning from disease-endemic areas, and the remaining 25 (33%) were citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Most immigrants and international travelers became symptomatic two or more years after returning home. Countries with the most reported patients were Kuwait (n=18), UK (n=11), Australia (n=8), USA (n=7), Japan (n=6), and Israel (n=5). A single cerebral cysticercus granuloma in a non-endemic country is not a rare event. As seen in endemic regions, these cases have a good prognosis although more surgical procedures are performed in non-endemic countries, likely reflecting a decrease of diagnostic suspicion for cysticercosis and an increased availability of surgical options. The mean age of the reported cases was 25 years, and immigrants most often developed the disease greater than two years after arrival into a non-endemic area, suggesting a significant delay between infection and symptoms. However, some may have been infected and developed the disease while residing in non-endemic countries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Cysticerci-related single parenchymal brain enhancing lesions in non-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Del Brutto, Oscar H.; Nash, Theodore E.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Review of case reports and case series of patients with single cysticercus granulomas in non-endemic countries to determine the characteristics of this form of neurocysticercosis in these regions. Methods MEDLINE and manual search of patients with single cysticercus granulomas diagnosed in non-endemic countries from 1991 to 2011. Abstracted data included: demographic profile, clinical manifestations, form of neurocysticercosis, and whether the disease occurred in immigrants, international travelers, or citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Results A total of 77 patients were found. Of these, 61 (79%) were diagnosed since the year 2000. Thirty-four patients (44%) patients were immigrants from endemic countries, 18 (23%) were international travelers returning from disease-endemic areas, and the remaining 25 (33%) were citizens from non-endemic countries who had never been abroad. Most immigrants and international travelers became symptomatic two or more years after returning home. Countries with the most reported patients were Kuwait (n=18), UK (n=11), Australia (n=8), USA (n=7), Japan (n=6), and Israel (n=5). Conclusions A single cerebral cysticercus granuloma in a non-endemic country is not a rare event. As seen in endemic regions, these cases have a good prognosis although more surgical procedures are performed in non-endemic countries, likely reflecting a decrease of diagnostic suspicion for cysticercosis and an increased availability of surgical options. The mean age of the reported cases was 25 years, and immigrants most often developed the disease greater than two years after arrival into a non-endemic area, suggesting a significant delay between infection and symptoms. However, some may have been infected and developed the disease while residing in non-endemic countries. PMID:22658897

  12. Childhood Leprosy in an Endemic Area of Central India.

    PubMed

    Gitte, Sunil Vilasrao; Sabat, Ramanath N; Kamble, K M

    2016-03-01

    To study clinical-epidemiological aspects of children affected with leprosy in a high-endemicity area. Hospital-based study (April 2010 to March 2015) of newly diagnosed children (=18 years) with leprosy, from a leprosy research institute in Chhattisgarh, India. 551 new childhood cases were diagnosed constituting 16% of the total newly leprosy cases examined; 221 (40.1%) were multibacillary cases with 11.2% smear positivity. 243 (44.1%) had known contact history of leprosy, 17.6% of children developed Lepra reaction, and 17.4% had visible deformity. 68% of subjects completed treatment within the prescribed time. Transmission of leprosy is still continuing in the area, and high disability and deformity rates are seen in children.

  13. Trachomatous Trichiasis and its Management in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Rajak, Saul N.; Collin, J. Richard O.; Burton, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    Trichiasis is the sight-threatening consequence of conjunctival scarring in trachoma, the most common infectious cause of blindness worldwide. Trachomatous trichiasis is the result of multiple infections from childhood with Chlamydia trachomatis, which causes recurrent chronic inflammation in the tarsal conjunctiva. This produces conjunctival scarring, entropion, trichiasis, and ultimately blinding corneal opacification. The disease causes painful, usually irreversible sight loss. Over eight million people have trachomatous trichiasis, mostly those living in poor rural communities in 57 endemic countries. The global cost is estimated at US$ 5.3 billion. The WHO recommends surgery as part of the SAFE strategy for controlling the disease.We examine the principles of clinical management, treatment options, and the challenging issues of providing the quantity and quality of surgery that is needed in resource-poor settings. PMID:22285842

  14. Crustacean hemolymph microbiota: Endemic, tightly controlled, and utilization expectable.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xian-Wei; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2015-12-01

    Increasing number of evidence suggests that the hemolymph of numerous apparently healthy invertebrates is unsterile. Investigation of hemolymph microbiota properties and the homeostasis between host and bacteria is helpful to reveal bacteria pathogenesis, host immunity, and possible utilization in disease control. Crustaceans represent a large family of aquatic animals. Therefore, crustacean fishery is of important economic value worldwide. Research related to crustacean hemolymph microbiota has been performed over the years. In the present study, we conclude currently available information and present a comprehensive analysis regarding homeostasis between host and bacteria. In general, the presence of microbiota in crustacean hemolymph is an endemic event and can be influenced by internal and external factors. Opportunistic bacteria may have generated some changes or mutations under hemolymph stress. Meanwhile, hosts suppress hemolymph microbiota proliferation with the help of some critical antimicrobial peptides and lectins. The hemolymph microbiota may be beneficial for hosts as resistance against external damages. In addition, the hemolymph microbiota may be utilized in aquaculture.

  15. High unexpected genetic diversity of a narrow endemic terrestrial mollusc.

    PubMed

    Madeira, Pedro M; Chefaoui, Rosa M; Cunha, Regina L; Moreira, Francisco; Dias, Susana; Calado, Gonçalo; Castilho, Rita

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has an extensive record of species displaying strong genetic structure as a result of their survival in isolated pockets throughout the Pleistocene ice ages. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to analyze phylogeographic patterns in endemic land snails from a valley of central Portugal (Vale da Couda), putatively assigned to Candidula coudensis, that show an exceptionally narrow distributional range. The genetic survey presented here shows the existence of five main mitochondrial lineages in Vale da Couda that do not cluster together suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Our results also indicate a departure from the expectation that species with restricted distributions have low genetic variability. The putative past and contemporary models of geographic distribution of Vale da Couda lineages are compatible with a scenario of species co-existence in more southern locations during the last glacial maximum (LGM) followed by a post-LGM northern dispersal tracking the species optimal thermal, humidity and soil physical conditions.

  16. High unexpected genetic diversity of a narrow endemic terrestrial mollusc

    PubMed Central

    Madeira, Pedro M.; Chefaoui, Rosa M.; Cunha, Regina L.; Moreira, Francisco; Dias, Susana; Calado, Gonçalo

    2017-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has an extensive record of species displaying strong genetic structure as a result of their survival in isolated pockets throughout the Pleistocene ice ages. We used mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data to analyze phylogeographic patterns in endemic land snails from a valley of central Portugal (Vale da Couda), putatively assigned to Candidula coudensis, that show an exceptionally narrow distributional range. The genetic survey presented here shows the existence of five main mitochondrial lineages in Vale da Couda that do not cluster together suggesting independent evolutionary histories. Our results also indicate a departure from the expectation that species with restricted distributions have low genetic variability. The putative past and contemporary models of geographic distribution of Vale da Couda lineages are compatible with a scenario of species co-existence in more southern locations during the last glacial maximum (LGM) followed by a post-LGM northern dispersal tracking the species optimal thermal, humidity and soil physical conditions. PMID:28321363

  17. Mapping internal connectivity through human migration in malaria endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bird, Tom J; Ruktanonchai, Nick W; Zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Pezzulo, Carla; Tejedor, Natalia; Waldock, Ian C; Sadler, Jason D; Garcia, Andres J; Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J

    2016-08-16

    Human mobility continues to increase in terms of volumes and reach, producing growing global connectivity. This connectivity hampers efforts to eliminate infectious diseases such as malaria through reintroductions of pathogens, and thus accounting for it becomes important in designing global, continental, regional, and national strategies. Recent works have shown that census-derived migration data provides a good proxy for internal connectivity, in terms of relative strengths of movement between administrative units, across temporal scales. To support global malaria eradication strategy efforts, here we describe the construction of an open access archive of estimated internal migration flows in endemic countries built through pooling of census microdata. These connectivity datasets, described here along with the approaches and methods used to create and validate them, are available both through the WorldPop website and the WorldPop Dataverse Repository.

  18. Mapping internal connectivity through human migration in malaria endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Sorichetta, Alessandro; Bird, Tom J.; Ruktanonchai, Nick W.; zu Erbach-Schoenberg, Elisabeth; Pezzulo, Carla; Tejedor, Natalia; Waldock, Ian C.; Sadler, Jason D.; Garcia, Andres J.; Sedda, Luigi; Tatem, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Human mobility continues to increase in terms of volumes and reach, producing growing global connectivity. This connectivity hampers efforts to eliminate infectious diseases such as malaria through reintroductions of pathogens, and thus accounting for it becomes important in designing global, continental, regional, and national strategies. Recent works have shown that census-derived migration data provides a good proxy for internal connectivity, in terms of relative strengths of movement between administrative units, across temporal scales. To support global malaria eradication strategy efforts, here we describe the construction of an open access archive of estimated internal migration flows in endemic countries built through pooling of census microdata. These connectivity datasets, described here along with the approaches and methods used to create and validate them, are available both through the WorldPop website and the WorldPop Dataverse Repository. PMID:27529469

  19. Clinical presentation of rheumatic fever in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Cann, Megan P; Sive, Alan A; Norton, Robert E; McBride, William J H; Ketheesan, Natkunam

    2010-06-01

    This study documented whether patients diagnosed with acute rheumatic fever (ARF) in North Queensland, Australia, conformed to the 1992 Revised Jones Criteria (RJC). The authors aimed to determine whether inclusion of subclinical carditis (SCC) and monarthritis as major manifestations and a low-grade temperature as a minor manifestation in the RJC are justified in this population. A retrospective review of patients in whom the diagnosis of ARF relied on the experience of clinicians and who were admitted to the Townsville and Cairns Base Hospitals between 1997 and 2007 was undertaken. Of the 98 cases reviewed, 71.4% satisfied the RJC. Modification of the RJC increased the rate of criteria satisfaction to 91.8%. On presentation, 27 patients had SCC. Of the patients with SCC followed up, 70.5% had long-term valvular consequences. In populations endemic for ARF, monarthritis, SCC and a low-grade temperature should be included in the RJC.

  20. Niche divergence accelerates evolution in Asian endemic Procapra gazelles

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Junhua; Jiang, Zhigang; Chen, Jing; Qiao, Huijie

    2015-01-01

    Ecological niche divergence and adaptation to new environments are thought to play important roles in driving speciation. Whether recently evolved species show evidence for niche divergence or conservation is vital towards understanding the role of ecology in the process of speciation. The genus Procapra is an ancient, monophyletic lineage endemic to Asia that contains three extant species (P. gutturosa, P. przewalskii and P. picticaudata). These species mainly inhabit the Qinghai-Tibetan and Mongolian Plateaus, and today have primarily allopatric distributions. We applied a series of geographic information system–based analyses to test for environmental variation and niche divergence among these three species. We found substantial evidence for niche divergence in species’ bioclimatic preferences, which supports the hypothesis that niche divergence accelerates diversification in Procapra. Our results provide important insight into the evolutionary history of ungulates in Asia and help to elucidate how environmental changes accelerate lineage diversification. PMID:25951051

  1. Zika virus: Endemic and epidemic ranges of Aedes mosquito transmission.

    PubMed

    Attaway, David F; Waters, Nigel M; Geraghty, Estella M; Jacobsen, Kathryn H

    As evidence linking Zika virus with serious health complications strengthens, public health officials and clinicians worldwide need to know which locations are likely to be at risk for autochthonous Zika infections. We created risk maps for epidemic and endemic Aedes-borne Zika virus infections globally using a predictive analysis method that draws on temperature, precipitation, elevation, land cover, and population density variables to identify locations suitable for mosquito activity seasonally or year-round. Aedes mosquitoes capable of transmitting Zika and other viruses are likely to live year-round across many tropical areas in the Americas, Africa, and Asia. Our map provides an enhanced global projection of where vector control initiatives may be most valuable for reducing the risk of Zika virus and other Aedes-borne infections. Copyright © 2016 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: Endemic Viruses and Lethal Brain Disease.

    PubMed

    Haley, Sheila A; Atwood, Walter J

    2017-09-29

    In 1971, the first human polyomavirus was isolated from the brain of a patient who died from a rapidly progressing demyelinating disease known as progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The virus was named JC virus after the initials of the patient. In that same year a second human polyomavirus was discovered in the urine of a kidney transplant patient and named BK virus. In the intervening years it became clear that both viruses were widespread in the human population but only rarely caused disease. The past decade has witnessed the discovery of eleven new human polyomaviruses, two of which cause unusual and rare cancers. We present an overview of the history of these viruses and the evolution of JC polyomavirus-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy over three different epochs. We review what is currently known about JC polyomavirus, what is suspected, and what remains to be done to understand the biology of how this mostly harmless endemic virus gives rise to lethal disease.

  3. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    PubMed Central

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. Availability http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm PMID:18317578

  4. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India.

    PubMed

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-27

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm.

  5. Extent and epidemiology of endemic goitre in Bosnia and Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Žarković, Grujica; Radovanović, Miroslav

    1958-01-01

    A survey of 1% of the population of Bosnia and Herzegovina over 6 years of age was carried out in 1956 in order to investigate the extent and epidemiology of endemic goitre in that Republic. The prevalence of goitre was found to be far greater than had been supposed, one male in five and rather more than one female in three showing signs of the disease. By and large, prevalence increases with increasing age. The proportion of the more severe forms of thyroid enlargement also increases with age, and at all ages the severity is greater among females than among males. No correlation could be established between the prevalence of goitre and the iodine content or the degree of pollution of the drinking-water. The authors offer some working hypotheses in explanation of their findings. PMID:20604044

  6. Survey of Turkey's endemic amphibians for chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Erismis, Ugur Cengiz; Konuk, Muhsin; Yoldas, Taner; Agyar, Pinar; Yumuk, Dilay; Korcan, Safiye Elif

    2014-09-30

    We report a new survey for Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) in Turkey. We swabbed 228 individuals of 7 amphibian species (from 5 families) living in 2 locations (26-August National Park and the Turkish Lakes District) in the southwestern Anatolian region. The infection intensity of all the samples was determined using quantitative PCR. All 4 amphibian breeding sites and 4 amphibian species in 26-August National Park were infected by Bd, with the prevalence at each site ranging from 8 to 29%. Only 1 species was sampled from Beysehir Lake near the conservation area Beysehir Natural Park, but these samples were notable for their high detection rates (prevalence of 32.11%). This study reports the first records of Bd infecting wild Pelophylax ridibundus, Hyla orientalis, Pseudepidalea variabilis, and endemic Beysehir frogs Pelophylax caralitanus.

  7. [Endemic goiter in the extreme North of West Siberia].

    PubMed

    Luzina, I G; Suplotova, L A; Osadchenko, G A

    1998-01-01

    Random examinations covering 8-60-year-old 4345 citizens of 12 settlements of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomic Territory discovered goiter endemia throughout the territory but most evident the endemy manifested in the Far North. The prevalence of endemic goiter among schoolchildren made up 52.8% (enlargement of the goiter of the 1st and 2nd degree), among adults-49.2%. By ultrasound investigation, the above percentages were 29 and 26.4%, respectively. This corresponds to moderate endemia. The median of urinary iodine excretion averaged in the territory 5.1 micrograms%, while overall iodine insufficiency (number of children with urinary iodine < 10 micrograms%) was 81.9%. In the Far North iodine excretion was less but goiter incidence was higher than normal. Thus, in the Far North goiter endemia is rather serious.

  8. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants.

  9. [Factors contributing to endemic cholera in Douala, Cameroon].

    PubMed

    Guévart, E; Noeske, J; Solle, J; Essomba, J M; Edjenguele, Mbonji; Bita, A; Mouangue, A; Manga, B

    2006-06-01

    Cholera has been endemic in Douala, Cameroon since 1971. A number of environmental factors favourize the survival of the Vibrio in Douala including location at the mouth of Wouri delta on the Atlantic Ocean, sandy clay soil, shallow dirty polluted foul-smelling groundwater, presence of vast expanses of swamp, streams/drainage ditches infested with algae, and high temperatures with low rainfall and drought during certain periods of the year. Most outbreaks have started in Bepanda, a slum area built on a garbage dump in a swampy zone fed by drainage ditches carrying the faecal pollution from neighbouring upstream districts. It is a densely overcrowded area of uncontrolled urbanization generated by the influx of poor city new-comers who live without adequate access to clean water or basic sanitary facilities. The most affected areas are those resulting from recent unregulated urban sprawl in polluted swamp zones or garbage dumps. Since access to the public water system is inadequate with only 65000 persons connected for 3 million inhabitants, dwellers in most areas must take water from the 70000 urban wells (estimated in 2004) that are often not more than 1.5 m deep. Sewage facilities are insufficient to provide complete evacuation of solid and liquid waste. The network of rivers, streams and man-made ditches waste are poorly maintained and often overflow during the rainy season. The contents of latrines are often discharged directly into the environment. Social factors such as the reformation of urban tribes and persistence of traditional attitudes toward waste disposal and water use have not only led to high-risk behaviour but also created barriers to sanitation and hygiene education. With an inadequate sanitation inspection system, a large but purely accessible public health system and a highly disorganized private health sector exists, effective preventive measures are difficult to implement. The combination of these factors probably account for the endemicity of

  10. Patterns of Endemism and Habitat Selection in Coalbed Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Christopher E; Strachan, Cameron R; Williams, Dominique D; Koziel, Susan; Hallam, Steven J; Budwill, Karen

    2015-11-01

    Microbially produced methane, a versatile, cleaner-burning alternative energy resource to fossil fuels, is sourced from a variety of natural and engineered ecosystems, including marine sediments, anaerobic digesters, shales, and coalbeds. There is a prevailing interest in developing environmental biotechnologies to enhance methane production. Here, we use small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics to better describe the interplay between coalbed methane (CBM) well conditions and microbial communities in the Alberta Basin. Our results show that CBM microbial community structures display patterns of endemism and habitat selection across the Alberta Basin, consistent with observations from other geographical locations. While some phylum-level taxonomic patterns were observed, relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups were localized to discrete wells, likely shaped by local environmental conditions, such as coal rank and depth-dependent physicochemical conditions. To better resolve functional potential within the CBM milieu, a metagenome from a deep volatile-bituminous coal sample was generated. This sample was dominated by Rhodobacteraceae genotypes, resolving a near-complete population genome bin related to Celeribacter sp. that encoded metabolic pathways for the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds and the production of methanogenic substrates via acidogenic fermentation. Genomic comparisons between the Celeribacter sp. population genome and related organisms isolated from different environments reflected habitat-specific selection pressures that included nitrogen availability and the ability to utilize diverse carbon substrates. Taken together, our observations reveal that both endemism and metabolic specialization should be considered in the development of biostimulation strategies for nonproductive wells or for those with declining productivity.

  11. Visceral Leishmaniasis in China: an Endemic Disease under Control

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ming-Shui; Chen, Yun-Fu; Wang, Jun-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liao, Li-Fu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chow, Larry M. C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne and largely zoonotic disease. In China, three epidemiological types of VL have been described: anthroponotic VL (AVL), mountain-type zoonotic VL (MT-ZVL), and desert-type ZVL (DT-ZVL). These are transmitted by four different sand fly species: Phlebotomus chinensis, P. longiductus, P. wui, and P. alexandri. In 1951, a detailed survey of VL showed that it was rampant in the vast rural areas west, northwest, and north of the Yangtze River. Control programs were designed and implemented stringently by the government at all administrative levels, resulting in elimination of the disease from most areas of endemicity, except the western and northwestern regions. The control programs consisted of (i) diagnosis and chemotherapy of patients, (ii) identification, isolation, and disposal of infected dogs, and (iii) residual insecticide indoor spraying for vector control. The success of the control programs is attributable to massive and effective mobilization of the general public and health workers to the cause. Nationally, the annual incidence is now very low, i.e., only 0.03/100,000 according to the available 2011 official record. The overwhelming majority of cases are reported from sites of endemicity in the western and northwestern regions. Here, we describe in some depth and breadth the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease, with particular reference to the control programs. Pertinent information has been assembled from scattered literature of the past decades in different languages that are not readily accessible to the scientific community. The information provided constitutes an integral part of our knowledge on leishmaniasis in the global context and will be of special value to those interested in control programs. PMID:26354822

  12. Visceral Leishmaniasis in China: an Endemic Disease under Control.

    PubMed

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Wu, Ming-Shui; Chen, Yun-Fu; Wang, Jun-Yun; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liao, Li-Fu; Chen, Jian-Ping; Chow, Larry M C; Chang, Kwang Poo

    2015-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania spp. is an important vector-borne and largely zoonotic disease. In China, three epidemiological types of VL have been described: anthroponotic VL (AVL), mountain-type zoonotic VL (MT-ZVL), and desert-type ZVL (DT-ZVL). These are transmitted by four different sand fly species: Phlebotomus chinensis, P. longiductus, P. wui, and P. alexandri. In 1951, a detailed survey of VL showed that it was rampant in the vast rural areas west, northwest, and north of the Yangtze River. Control programs were designed and implemented stringently by the government at all administrative levels, resulting in elimination of the disease from most areas of endemicity, except the western and northwestern regions. The control programs consisted of (i) diagnosis and chemotherapy of patients, (ii) identification, isolation, and disposal of infected dogs, and (iii) residual insecticide indoor spraying for vector control. The success of the control programs is attributable to massive and effective mobilization of the general public and health workers to the cause. Nationally, the annual incidence is now very low, i.e., only 0.03/100,000 according to the available 2011 official record. The overwhelming majority of cases are reported from sites of endemicity in the western and northwestern regions. Here, we describe in some depth and breadth the current status of epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of the disease, with particular reference to the control programs. Pertinent information has been assembled from scattered literature of the past decades in different languages that are not readily accessible to the scientific community. The information provided constitutes an integral part of our knowledge on leishmaniasis in the global context and will be of special value to those interested in control programs. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Balkan endemic nephropathy: an update on its aetiology.

    PubMed

    Stiborová, Marie; Arlt, Volker M; Schmeiser, Heinz H

    2016-11-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a unique, chronic renal disease frequently associated with upper urothelial cancer (UUC). It only affects residents of specific farming villages located along tributaries of the Danube River in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania where it is estimated that ~100,000 individuals are at risk of BEN, while ~25,000 have the disease. This review summarises current findings on the aetiology of BEN. Over the last 50 years, several hypotheses on the cause of BEN have been formulated, including mycotoxins, heavy metals, viruses, and trace-element insufficiencies. However, recent molecular epidemiological studies provide a strong case that chronic dietary exposure to aristolochic acid (AA) a principal component of Aristolochia clematitis which grows as a weed in the wheat fields of the endemic regions is the cause of BEN and associated UUC. One of the still enigmatic features of BEN that need to be resolved is why the prevalence of BEN is only 3-7 %. This suggests that individual genetic susceptibilities to AA exist in humans. In fact dietary ingestion of AA along with individual genetic susceptibility provides a scenario that plausibly can explain all the peculiarities of BEN such as geographical distribution and high risk of urothelial cancer. For the countries harbouring BEN implementing public health measures to avoid AA exposure is of the utmost importance because this seems to be the best way to eradicate this once mysterious disease to which the residents of BEN villages have been completely and utterly at mercy for so long.

  14. Aristolochic acid and the etiology of endemic (Balkan) nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Grollman, Arthur P.; Shibutani, Shinya; Moriya, Masaaki; Miller, Frederick; Wu, Lin; Moll, Ute; Suzuki, Naomi; Fernandes, Andrea; Rosenquist, Thomas; Medverec, Zvonimir; Jakovina, Krunoslav; Brdar, Branko; Slade, Neda; Turesky, Robert J.; Goodenough, Angela K.; Rieger, Robert; Vukelić, Mato; Jelaković, Bojan

    2007-01-01

    Endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), a devastating renal disease affecting men and women living in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, is characterized by its insidious onset, invariable progression to chronic renal failure and a strong association with transitional cell (urothelial) carcinoma of the upper urinary tract. Significant epidemiologic features of EN include its focal occurrence in certain villages and a familial, but not inherited, pattern of disease. Our experiments test the hypothesis that chronic dietary poisoning by aristolochic acid is responsible for EN and its associated urothelial cancer. Using 32P-postlabeling/PAGE and authentic standards, we identified dA-aristolactam (AL) and dG-AL DNA adducts in the renal cortex of patients with EN but not in patients with other chronic renal diseases. In addition, urothelial cancer tissue was obtained from residents of endemic villages with upper urinary tract malignancies. The AmpliChip p53 microarray was then used to sequence exons 2–11 of the p53 gene where we identified 19 base substitutions. Mutations at A:T pairs accounted for 89% of all p53 mutations, with 78% of these being A:T → T:A transversions. Our experimental results, namely, that (i) DNA adducts derived from aristolochic acid (AA) are present in renal tissues of patients with documented EN, (ii) these adducts can be detected in transitional cell cancers, and (iii) A:T → T:A transversions dominate the p53 mutational spectrum in the upper urinary tract malignancies found in this population lead to the conclusion that dietary exposure to AA is a significant risk factor for EN and its attendant transitional cell cancer. PMID:17620607

  15. DNA evidence for global dispersal and probable endemicity of protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David; Richards, Thomas A; Matthai, Lena; Marsh, Victoria; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Background It is much debated whether microbes are easily dispersed globally or whether they, like many macro-organisms, have historical biogeographies. The ubiquitous dispersal hypothesis states that microbes are so numerous and so easily dispersed worldwide that all should be globally distributed and found wherever growing conditions suit them. This has been broadly upheld for protists (microbial eukaryotes) by most morphological and some molecular analyses. However, morphology and most previously used evolutionary markers evolve too slowly to test this important hypothesis adequately. Results Here we use a fast-evolving marker (ITS1 rDNA) to map global diversity and distribution of three different clades of cercomonad Protozoa (Eocercomonas and Paracercomonas: phylum Cercozoa) by sequencing multiple environmental gene libraries constructed from 47–80 globally-dispersed samples per group. Even with this enhanced resolution, identical ITS sequences (ITS-types) were retrieved from widely separated sites and on all continents for several genotypes, implying relatively rapid global dispersal. Some identical ITS-types were even recovered from both marine and non-marine samples, habitats that generally harbour significantly different protist communities. Conversely, other ITS-types had either patchy or restricted distributions. Conclusion Our results strongly suggest that geographic dispersal in macro-organisms and microbes is not fundamentally different: some taxa show restricted and/or patchy distributions while others are clearly cosmopolitan. These results are concordant with the 'moderate endemicity model' of microbial biogeography. Rare or continentally endemic microbes may be ecologically significant and potentially of conservational concern. We also demonstrate that strains with identical 18S but different ITS1 rDNA sequences can differ significantly in terms of morphological and important physiological characteristics, providing strong additional support for

  16. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism.

    PubMed

    Collen, Ben; Whitton, Felix; Dyer, Ellie E; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Cumberlidge, Neil; Darwall, William R T; Pollock, Caroline; Richman, Nadia I; Soulsby, Anne-Marie; Böhm, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. We aimed to evaluate how congruent three commonly used metrics of diversity were among taxa for six groups of freshwater species. Global. We compiled geographical range data on 7083 freshwater species of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, crabs and crayfish to evaluate how species richness, richness of threatened species and endemism are distributed across freshwater ecosystems. We evaluated how congruent these measures of diversity were among taxa at a global level for a grid cell size of just under 1°. We showed that although the risk of extinction faced by freshwater decapods is quite similar to that of freshwater vertebrates, there is a distinct lack of spatial congruence in geographical range between different taxonomic groups at this spatial scale, and a lack of congruence among three commonly used metrics of biodiversity. The risk of extinction for freshwater species was consistently higher than for their terrestrial counterparts. We demonstrate that broad-scale patterns of species richness, threatened-species richness and endemism lack congruence among the six freshwater taxonomic groups examined. Invertebrate species are seldom taken into account in conservation planning. Our study suggests that both the metric of biodiversity and the identity of the taxa on which conservation decisions are based require careful consideration. As geographical range information becomes available for further sets of species, further testing will be warranted into the extent to which geographical variation in the richness of these six freshwater groups

  17. Southern Tunisia: A still high endemicity area for hepatitis A.

    PubMed

    Neffatti, Houcine; Lebraud, Patricia; Hottelet, Corinne; Gharbi, Jawher; Challouf, Taieb; Roque-Afonso, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Hepatitis A (HAV) and E (HEV) viruses are responsible for enterically transmitted hepatitis. Tunisia is reported to be of intermediate endemicity for HAV and of low seroprevalence for HEV; however, data from rural areas of South Tunisia are lacking. Sera from 216 asymptomatic pregnant women and from 92 patients with acute hepatitis were collected between October 2014 and November 2015. Total and IgM anti-HAV immunoglobulins and anti-HEV IgG and IgM were investigated. Anti-HAV IgM-positive samples were subjected to RT-PCR targeting the VP1/2A region and sequenced. HEV IgM positive samples and all samples from acute hepatitis patients were assessed for HEV RNA. Among pregnant women (mean age 32+/-8), HAV seroprevalence was 98.6%, none presented anti-HAV IgM; HEV seroprevalence was 5.1% and three presented weakly reactive anti-HEV IgM without detectable RNA. Among acute hepatitis patients (mean age 18.5 +/- 14), HEV seroprevalence was 19,5%, none presented anti-HEV IgM, nor HEV RNA. HAV seroprevalence exceeded 90% by age 5 and acute HAV infection was detected in 20 patients (21,7%), younger than patients with other hepatitis causes (9,8 years vs. 20,4 years, p = 0,004); 65% were male. Most acute HAV infections were observed in a coastal area where HAV infections represented 52% of hepatitis etiology. Phylogenetic analysis identified genotype IA strains, clustering close to previously published Tunisian sequences. The present study confirmed a low HEV endemicity and evidenced a still high level of HAV circulation in Southern Tunisia, suggesting distinct dissemination patterns for these viruses.

  18. Kenyan endemic bird species at home in novel ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Teucher, Mike; Rödder, Dennis; Bleicher, Marie-Therese; Dieckow, Claudia; Wiese, Anja; Fischer, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Riparian thickets of East Africa harbor a large number of endemic animal and plant species, but also provide important ecosystem services for the human being settling along streams. This creates a conflicting situation between nature conservation and land-use activities. Today, most of this former pristine vegetation is highly degraded and became replaced by the invasive exotic Lantana camara shrub species. In this study, we analyze the movement behavior and habitat use of a diverse range of riparian bird species and model the habitat availability of each of these species. We selected the following four riparian bird species: Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus, Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus, Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunus insularis, and the Kenyan endemic Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei. We collected telemetric data of 14 individuals during a 2 months radio-tracking campaign along the Nzeeu River in southeast Kenya. We found that (1) all four species had similar home-range sizes, all geographically restricted and nearby the river; (2) all species mainly use dense thicket, in particular the invasive L. camara; (3) human settlements were avoided by the bird individuals observed; (4) the birds' movement, indicating foraging behavior, was comparatively slow within thickets, but significantly faster over open, agricultural areas; and (5) habitat suitability models underline the relevance of L. camara as suitable surrogate habitat for all understoreyed bird species, but also show that the clearance of thickets has led to a vanishing of large and interconnected thickets and thus might have negative effects on the population viability in the long run.

  19. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Whitton, Felix; Dyer, Ellie E; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Cumberlidge, Neil; Darwall, William R T; Pollock, Caroline; Richman, Nadia I; Soulsby, Anne-Marie; Böhm, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Aim Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. We aimed to evaluate how congruent three commonly used metrics of diversity were among taxa for six groups of freshwater species. Location Global. Methods We compiled geographical range data on 7083 freshwater species of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, crabs and crayfish to evaluate how species richness, richness of threatened species and endemism are distributed across freshwater ecosystems. We evaluated how congruent these measures of diversity were among taxa at a global level for a grid cell size of just under 1°. Results We showed that although the risk of extinction faced by freshwater decapods is quite similar to that of freshwater vertebrates, there is a distinct lack of spatial congruence in geographical range between different taxonomic groups at this spatial scale, and a lack of congruence among three commonly used metrics of biodiversity. The risk of extinction for freshwater species was consistently higher than for their terrestrial counterparts. Main conclusions We demonstrate that broad-scale patterns of species richness, threatened-species richness and endemism lack congruence among the six freshwater taxonomic groups examined. Invertebrate species are seldom taken into account in conservation planning. Our study suggests that both the metric of biodiversity and the identity of the taxa on which conservation decisions are based require careful consideration. As geographical range information becomes available for further sets of species, further testing will be warranted into the extent to which geographical variation in

  20. Patterns of Endemism and Habitat Selection in Coalbed Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Christopher E.; Strachan, Cameron R.; Williams, Dominique D.; Koziel, Susan; Hallam, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Microbially produced methane, a versatile, cleaner-burning alternative energy resource to fossil fuels, is sourced from a variety of natural and engineered ecosystems, including marine sediments, anaerobic digesters, shales, and coalbeds. There is a prevailing interest in developing environmental biotechnologies to enhance methane production. Here, we use small-subunit rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics to better describe the interplay between coalbed methane (CBM) well conditions and microbial communities in the Alberta Basin. Our results show that CBM microbial community structures display patterns of endemism and habitat selection across the Alberta Basin, consistent with observations from other geographical locations. While some phylum-level taxonomic patterns were observed, relative abundances of specific taxonomic groups were localized to discrete wells, likely shaped by local environmental conditions, such as coal rank and depth-dependent physicochemical conditions. To better resolve functional potential within the CBM milieu, a metagenome from a deep volatile-bituminous coal sample was generated. This sample was dominated by Rhodobacteraceae genotypes, resolving a near-complete population genome bin related to Celeribacter sp. that encoded metabolic pathways for the degradation of a wide range of aromatic compounds and the production of methanogenic substrates via acidogenic fermentation. Genomic comparisons between the Celeribacter sp. population genome and related organisms isolated from different environments reflected habitat-specific selection pressures that included nitrogen availability and the ability to utilize diverse carbon substrates. Taken together, our observations reveal that both endemism and metabolic specialization should be considered in the development of biostimulation strategies for nonproductive wells or for those with declining productivity. PMID:26341214

  1. A comparative evaluation of end-emic and non-endemic region of visceral leishmaniasis (Kala-azar) in India with ground survey and space technology.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Shreekant; Bhunia, Gouri Sankar; Kumar, Vijay; Jeyaram, Algarswamy; Ranjan, Alok; Das, Pradeep

    2011-08-01

    In visceral leishmaniasis, phlebotomine vectors are targets for control measures. Understanding the ecosystem of the vectors is a prerequisite for creating these control measures. This study endeavours to delineate the suitable locations of Phlebotomus argentipes with relation to environmental characteristics between endemic and non-endemic districts in India. A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 25 villages in each district. Environmental data were obtained through remote sensing images and vector density was measured using a CDC light trap. Simple linear regression analysis was used to measure the association between climatic parameters and vector density. Using factor analysis, the relationship between land cover classes and P. argentipes density among the villages in both districts was investigated. The results of the regression analysis indicated that indoor temperature and relative humidity are the best predictors for P. argentipes distribution. Factor analysis confirmed breeding preferences for P. argentipes by landscape element. Minimum Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, marshy land and orchard/settlement produced high loading in an endemic region, whereas water bodies and dense forest were preferred in non-endemic sites. Soil properties between the two districts were studied and indicated that soil pH and moisture content is higher in endemic sites compared to non-endemic sites. The present study should be utilised to make critical decisions for vector surveillance and controlling Kala-azar disease vectors.

  2. Plasmodium vivax mdr1 genotypes in isolates from successfully cured patients living in endemic and non-endemic Brazilian areas.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Larissa Rodrigues; Almeida-de-Oliveira, Natália Ketrin; de Lavigne, Aline Rosa; de Lima, Suelen Rezende Félix; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Brasil, Patrícia; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu; Ménard, Didier; Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria de Fatima

    2016-02-18

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed species causing the highest number of malaria cases in the world. In Brazil, P. vivax is responsible for approximately 84 % of reported cases. In the absence of a vaccine, control strategies are based on the management of cases through rapid diagnosis and adequate treatment, in addition to vector control measures. The approaches used to investigate P. vivax resistance to chloroquine (CQ) were exclusively in vivo studies because of the difficulty in keeping parasites in continuous in vitro culture. In view of the limitations related to follow-up of patients and to assessing the plasma dosage of CQ and its metabolites, an alternative approach to monitor chemo-resistance (QR) is to use molecular markers. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug resistance gene pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQ resistance (CQR), but such SNPs in P. vivax isolates from patients with good response to treatment should be further explored. The aim of this study is to investigate the mutations in the gene, supposedly associated to QR, in P. vivax isolates from successfully cured patients, living in Brazilian endemic and non-endemic areas. Blood samples were collected from 49 vivax malaria patients from endemic (Amazon Basin: 45) and non-endemic (Atlantic Forest: four) Brazilian regions and analysed for SNPs in the CQR-related P. vivax gene (pvmdr1), using PCR-based methods. Among the 49 isolates genetically characterized for the gene pvmdr1, 34 (70 %) presented at least one mutation. T958M mutant alleles were the most frequent (73 %) followed Y976F (15 %) and F1076L (12 %). Single mutation was detected in 24 (70.5 %) isolates and double mutations in ten (29.5 %). The most common single mutant genotype was the 958M/Y976/F1076 (79 %), followed by 976F/F1076 (21 %) whereas 958M/Y976/1076L (60 %) and 976F/1076L (40 %) double mutant genotypes were detected. Single mutant profile was observed only in isolates from Amazon Basin

  3. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-12-22

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability.

  4. Phylogenetic endemism: a new approach for identifying geographical concentrations of evolutionary history.

    PubMed

    Rosauer, Dan; Laffan, Shawn W; Crisp, Michael D; Donnellan, Stephen C; Cook, Lyn G

    2009-10-01

    We present a new, broadly applicable measure of the spatial restriction of phylogenetic diversity, termed phylogenetic endemism (PE). PE combines the widely used phylogenetic diversity and weighted endemism measures to identify areas where substantial components of phylogenetic diversity are restricted. Such areas are likely to be of considerable importance for conservation. PE has a number of desirable properties not combined in previous approaches. It assesses endemism consistently, independent of taxonomic status or level, and independent of previously defined political or biological regions. The results can be directly compared between areas because they are based on equivalent spatial units. PE builds on previous phylogenetic analyses of endemism, but provides a more general solution for mapping endemism of lineages. We illustrate the broad applicability of PE using examples of Australian organisms having contrasting life histories: pea-flowered shrubs of the genus Daviesia (Fabaceae) and the Australian species of the Australo-Papuan tree frog radiation within the family Hylidae.

  5. Endemic and widespread coral reef fishes have similar mitochondrial genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Maynard, Jeffrey; Planes, Serge

    2014-01-01

    Endemic species are frequently assumed to have lower genetic diversity than species with large distributions, even if closely related. This assumption is based on research from the terrestrial environment and theoretical evolutionary modelling. We test this assumption in the marine environment by analysing the mitochondrial genetic diversity of 33 coral reef fish species from five families sampled from Pacific Ocean archipelagos. Surprisingly, haplotype and nucleotide diversity did not differ significantly between endemic and widespread species. The probable explanation is that the effective population size of some widespread fishes locally is similar to that of many of the endemics. Connectivity across parts of the distribution of the widespread species is probably low, so widespread species can operate like endemics at the extreme or isolated parts of their range. Mitochondrial genetic diversity of many endemic reef fish species may not either limit range size or be a source of vulnerability. PMID:25355471

  6. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P; Voice, Thomas C; Long, David T; Petropoulos, Evangelos A; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-03-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination.

  7. IgG Autoantibody Response Against Keratinocyte Cadherins in Endemic Pemphigus Foliaceus (Fogo Selvagem)

    PubMed Central

    Flores, Gustavo; Culton, Donna A.; Prisayanh, Phillip; Qaqish, Bahjat F.; James, Kirk; Maldonado, Mike; Aoki, Valeria; Hans-Filho, Gunter; Rivitti, Evandro A.; Diaz, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that autoantibodies against desmoglein 3 and desmoglein 1 are relevant in the pathogenesis of pemphigus vulgaris and pemphigus foliaceus, including its endemic form, Fogo Selvagem (FS). Isolated reports have shown that in certain patients with these diseases, autoantibodies against other desmosomal cadherins and E-cadherin may also be present. The goal of this investigation was to determine if FS patients and normal individuals living in endemic areas possess autoantibodies against other desmosomal cadherins and E-cadherin. Testing a large number of FS and endemic control sera by ELISA we find a consistent and specific autoantibody response against desmoglein 1 and other keratinocyte cadherins in these individuals, which is quite different from US controls. Overall, the highest correlations among the autoantibody responses tested are in the endemic controls, followed by FS patients, and lowest in the US controls. These findings suggest that multiple, perhaps cross reactive, keratinocyte cadherins are recognized by FS patients and endemic controls. PMID:22810308

  8. Conservation status and recovery strategies for endemic Hawaiian birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banko, Paul C.; David, Reginald E.; Jacobi, James D.; Banko, Winston E.

    2001-01-01

    Populations of endemic Hawaiian birds declined catastrophically following the colonization of the islands by Polynesians and later cultures. Extinction is still occurring, and recovery programs are urgently needed to prevent the disappearance of many other species. Programs to recover the endemic avifauna incorporate a variety of conceptual and practical approaches that are constrained by biological, financial, social, and legal factors. Avian recovery is difficult to implement in Hawai‘i because a variety of challenging biological factors limit bird populations. Hawaiian birds are threatened by alien predatory mammals, introduced mosquitoes that transmit diseases, alien invertebrate parasites and predators that reduce invertebrate food resources, and alien animals and plants that destroy and alter habitats. Life in the remote Hawaiian Archipelago has imposed other biological constraints to avian recovery, including limited geographical distributions and small population sizes. Recovery of the endemic avifauna is also challenging because resources are insufficient to mitigate the many complex, interacting factors that limit populations. Decisions must be made for allocating limited resources to species teetering on the brink of extinction and those in decline. If funds are spent primarily on saving the rarest species, more abundant species will decline and become more difficult to recover. However, critically rare species will disappear if efforts are directed mainly towards restoring species that are declining but not in immediate danger of becoming extinct. Determining priorities is difficult also because management is needed both to supplement bird populations and to restore habitats of many species. Rare species cannot respond quickly to management efforts intended only to improve habitat and reduce limiting factors. Recovery is slow, if it occurs at all, because years or decades are generally required for habitat rehabilitation and because small populations

  9. Cryptic diversity, geographical endemism and allopolyploidy in NE Pacific seaweeds.

    PubMed

    Neiva, João; Serrão, Ester A; Anderson, Laura; Raimondi, Peter T; Martins, Neusa; Gouveia, Licínia; Paulino, Cristina; Coelho, Nelson C; Miller, Kathy Ann; Reed, Daniel C; Ladah, Lydia B; Pearson, Gareth A

    2017-01-23

    Molecular markers are revealing a much more diverse and evolutionarily complex picture of marine biodiversity than previously anticipated. Cryptic and/or endemic marine species are continually being found throughout the world oceans, predominantly in inconspicuous tropical groups but also in larger, canopy-forming taxa from well studied temperate regions. Interspecific hybridization has also been found to be prevalent in many marine groups, for instance within dense congeneric assemblages, with introgressive gene-flow being the most common outcome. Here, using a congeneric phylogeographic approach, we investigated two monotypic and geographically complementary sister genera of north-east Pacific intertidal seaweeds (Hesperophycus and Pelvetiopsis), for which preliminary molecular tests revealed unexpected conflicts consistent with unrecognized cryptic diversity and hybridization. The three recovered mtDNA clades did not match a priori species delimitations. H. californicus was congruent, whereas widespread P. limitata encompassed two additional narrow-endemic species from California - P. arborescens (here genetically confirmed) and P. hybrida sp. nov. The congruence between the genotypic clusters and the mtDNA clades was absolute. Fixed heterozygosity was apparent in a high proportion of loci in P. limitata and P. hybrida, with genetic analyses showing that the latter was composed of both H. californicus and P. arborescens genomes. All four inferred species could be distinguished based on their general morphology. This study confirmed additional diversity and reticulation within NE Pacific Hesperophycus/Pelvetiopsis, including the validity of the much endangered, modern climatic relict P. arborescens, and the identification of a new, stable allopolyploid species (P. hybrida) with clearly discernable ancestry (♀ H. californicus x ♂ P. arborescens), morphology, and geographical distribution. Allopolyploid speciation is otherwise completely unknown in brown

  10. Ruthenium endemic isotope effects in chondrites and differentiated meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We report on the abundances of Ru isotopes in (1) iron meteorites, (2) stony-iron meteorites (pallasites), (3) ordinary and carbonaceous chondrites, and (4) in refractory inclusions from the carbonaceous meteorite Allende. We have developed improved Multiple-Collector, Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometric (MC-NTIMS) techniques for Ru, with high ionization efficiency of 4% and with chemical separation techniques for Ru, which reduce mass interferences to the ppm level, so that no mass interference corrections needed to be applied. Our data were normalized to 99Ru/ 101Ru to correct for mass-dependent fractionation. We find no Ru isotopic effects in the ordinary chondrites and group IAB iron meteorites we have measured. There are significant effects (deficits) in the pure s-process nuclide 100Ru, in the Allende whole-rock and in refractory inclusions of up to 1.7 parts in 10,000 (ɛu). There are also endemic deficits in 100Ru in iron meteorites and in pallasites of up to 1.1 ɛu. The Ru data suggest a wide spread and large scale heterogeneity in p-, s-, and r-process components resulting in a deficit in s-process nuclides or enhancements in both p- and r-process nuclides, in refractory siderophiles condensing in the early solar nebula. In contrast, the data on bulk Murchison suggest an excess in 100Ru and in 104Ru, which are distinct from the rest of the measured patterns. Our results establish the presence of significant isotopic heterogeneity for Ru in the early solar nebula. The observation of endemic Ru effects in planetary differentiates, such as iron meteorites and pallasites, must reflect the siderophile nature of Ru and the preservation in condensing FeNi metal of refractory metal condensate grains formed in the early solar nebula. Once incorporated in the metal phase, the refractory siderophiles remained in the metal phase through the melting and differentiation of planetesimals to form FeNi cores and silicate mantles and crusts.

  11. Multiple models of porcine teschovirus pathogenesis in endemically infected pigs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Shu-Chun; Yang, Chih-Lin; Chen, Ya-Mei; Hu, Shu-Chia; Chiu, Kuo-Chao; Lin, Yi-Chien; Chang, Chia-Yi; Wang, Fun-In

    2014-01-10

    Porcine teschoviruses (PTVs) belong to the genus Teschovirus within the family Picornaviridae. PTVs are universal contaminants in pig herds in endemic and multi-infection status. To further the understanding of PTV pathogenesis in endemically infected pigs, a set of samples was studied by real time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) to quantitate viral loads in tissues and by in situ hybridization (ISH) to locate PTV signals in target cells, both targeting the 5'-NTR. cRNA of PTV-1 and PTV-7, in vitro transcribed from cloned fragments of 5'-NTR of 2 viruses, was used to construct standard curves and to run parallel in qRT-PCR, which had detection limits of 10(1) copies/per reaction, with a linearity in between 10(1) and 10(7) copies/per reaction and correlation coefficients of 0.997-0.9988. The qRT-PCR specifically amplified RNA from PTV-1 to -11, while excluding those of Sapelovirus, PEV-9 and PEV-10. Inguinal lymph node (LN) had the highest viral load of all (assuming 100%), followed by ileac LN (89-91%), tonsil (66-68%), ileum (59-60%), spleen (38-40%), and kidney (30-31%), with the least in brain (22.9%) of the inguinal LN. The 22.9% load in brain was higher than that anticipated from a simple fecal-oral-viremia operative model. The results suggested in addition that intranasal infection and retrograding axonal infection from the tonsils were equally operative and significant. ISH revealed PTV signals in a wider variety of tissue cell types than before. PTV signals were noted most impressively in neurons of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus and in the dark zone of the germinal center and adjacent paracortex of regional LN. Multiple operative models indicated that PTVs seemed to have no difficulty invading the brain. The key to whether encephalitis would ensue resided in the animal's immune status and topographic differences of neurons' susceptibilities to PTVs. When common co-infected agents are present, as is typical in the field, PTVs may synergize in

  12. Endemic syphilis in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate

    PubMed Central

    Murray, J. F.; Merriweather, A. M.; Freedman, M. L.

    1956-01-01

    A form of endemic syphilis exists in the Bakwena Reserve of the Bechuanaland Protectorate known by the local name of “dichuchwa”. It is similar to bejel, njovera and the endemic syphilis reported elsewhere in the world. The Government of the Protectorate, with the assistance of WHO and UNICEF, began in November 1953 a mass campaign in the Reserve to control this disease and, at the same time, to study its epidemiological, clinical, social and therapeutic aspects. The seropositivity rate in the Reserve was found to be 37%. Dichuchwa is a childhood and family disease, usually spread non-venereally. The early lesions are similar to secondary lesions of sporadic venereal syphilis, and are often followed by tertiary lesions affecting mainly the skin, nasopharynx and long bones. Primary lesions are rare but may occur under certain epidemiological conditions if the inoculum is sufficiently large; thus a mother may develop primary sores on the nipples through suckling an infected infant. Lesions of the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and congenital syphilis are also rare. Superinfection of an already infected and allergic host is probably the chief reason for the frequency of the tertiary lesions. Treatment of the disease with penicillin is very effective, and the authors believe that mass treatment of cases and contacts combined with an improvement in the standards of hygiene could eradicate the disease. ImagesFig. 61Fig. 62Fig. 63Fig. 64Fig. 74Fig. 75Fig. 76Fig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 16Fig. 17Fig. 18Fig. 43Fig. 44Fig. 45Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9Fig. 13Fig. 14Fig. 15Fig. 31Fig. 32Fig. 33Fig. 50Fig. 51Fig. 52Fig. 53Fig. 54Fig. 55Fig. 56Fig. 34Fig. 35Fig. 36Fig. 46Fig. 47Fig. 48Fig. 49Fig. 22Fig. 23Fig. 24Fig. 10Fig. 11Fig. 12Fig. 57Fig. 58Fig. 59Fig. 60Fig. 65Fig. 66Fig. 67Fig. 19Fig. 20Fig. 21Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 68Fig. 69Fig. 70Fig. 71Fig. 72Fig. 73Fig. 37Fig. 38Fig. 39Fig. 28Fig. 29Fig. 30Fig. 25Fig. 26Fig. 27Fig. 40Fig. 41Fig. 42 PMID:13404470

  13. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes.

  14. Experimental infections of wild bank voles (Myodes glareolus) from nephropatia epidemica endemic and non-endemic regions revealed slight differences in Puumala virological course and immunological responses.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Adélaïde; Castel, Guillaume; Murri, Séverine; Pulido, Coralie; Pons, Jean-Baptiste; Benoit, Laure; Loiseau, Anne; Lakhdar, Latifa; Galan, Maxime; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Marianneau, Philippe

    2017-05-02

    In Europe, the occurrence of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a human disease caused by Puumala virus (PUUV), exhibits considerable geographical heterogeneity despite the continuous distribution of its reservoir, the bank vole Myodes glareolus. To better understand the causes of this heterogeneity, wild voles sampled in two adjacent NE endemic and non-endemic regions of France were infected experimentally with PUUV. The responses of bank voles to PUUV infection, based on the levels of anti-PUUV IgG and viral RNA, were compared. Slight regional differences were highlighted despite the high inter-individual variability. Voles from the NE non-endemic region showed greater immune responsiveness to PUUV infection, but lower levels of RNA in their organs than voles from the endemic region. These results suggest the existence of regional variations in the sensitivity of bank voles that could contribute to the apparent absence of PUUV circulation among voles and the absence of NE in the non-endemic region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  16. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Abate, Francesco; Ambrosio, Maria Raffaella; Mundo, Lucia; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Fuligni, Fabio; Rossi, Maura; Zairis, Sakellarios; Gazaneo, Sara; De Falco, Giulia; Lazzi, Stefano; Bellan, Cristiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Amato, Teresa; Marasco, Elena; Etebari, Maryam; Ogwang, Martin; Calbi, Valeria; Ndede, Isaac; Patel, Kirtika; Chumba, David; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Rabadan, Raul

    2015-10-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%), in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL), we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF). We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively.

  17. Incidence of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma in Three Regions of Mozambique.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan-Gordo, Cristina; Casabonne, Delphine; Carrilho, Carla; Ferro, Josefo; Lorenzoni, Cesaltina; Zaqueu, Clesio; Nhabomba, Augusto; Aguilar, Ruth; Bassat, Quique; de Sanjosé, Sílvia; Dobaño, Carlota; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-12-07

    Data on the burden and incidence of endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) across Mozambique are scarce. We retrospectively retrieved information on eBL cases from reports of the three main hospitals of Mozambique: Maputo Central Hospital (MCH), Beira Central Hospital (BCH), and Nampula Central Hospital (NCH) between 2004 and 2014. For 2015, we prospectively collected information of new eBL cases attending these hospitals. A total of 512 eBL cases were reported between 2004 and 2015: 153 eBL cases were reported in MCH, 195 in BCH, and 164 in NCH. Mean age of cases was 6.9 years (standard deviation = 2.8); 63% (319/504) of cases were males. For 2015, the estimated incidence rate of eBL was 2.0, 1.7, and 3.9 per 10(6) person-year at risk in MCH, BCH, and NCH, respectively. Incidence was higher in NCH (northern Mozambique), where intensity of malaria transmission is higher. Data presented show that eBL is a common pediatric malignancy in Mozambique, as observed in neighboring countries. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  18. Multiple aquatic invasions by an endemic, terrestrial Hawaiian moth radiation

    PubMed Central

    Rubinoff, Daniel; Schmitz, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Insects are the most diverse form of life on the planet, dominating both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems, yet no species has a life stage able to breath, feed, and develop either continually submerged or without access to water. Such truly amphibious insects are unrecorded. In mountain streams across the Hawaiian Islands, some caterpillars in the endemic moth genus Hyposmocoma are truly amphibious. These larvae can breathe and feed indefinitely both above and below the water's surface and can mature completely submerged or dry. Remarkably, a molecular phylogeny based on 2,243 bp from both nuclear (elongation factor 1α and carbomoylphosphate synthase) and mitochondrial (cytochrome oxidase I) genes representing 216 individuals and 89 species of Hyposmocoma reveals that this amphibious lifestyle is an example of parallel evolution and has arisen from strictly terrestrial clades at least three separate times in the genus starting more than 6 million years ago, before the current high islands existed. No other terrestrial genus of animals has sponsored so many independent aquatic invasions, and no other insects are able to remain active indefinitely above and below water. Why and how Hyposmocoma, an overwhelmingly terrestrial group, repeatedly evolved unprecedented aquatic species is unclear, although there are many other evolutionary anomalies across the Hawaiian archipelago. The uniqueness of the community assemblages of Hawaii's isolated biota is likely critical in generating such evolutionary novelty because this amphibious ecology is unknown anywhere else. PMID:20308549

  19. Natural Cholera Infection–Derived Immunity in an Endemic Setting

    PubMed Central

    Emch, Michael; Park, Jin Kyung; Yunus, Mohammad; Clemens, John

    2011-01-01

    Background. Live oral cholera vaccines may protect against cholera in a manner similar to natural cholera infections. However, information on which to base these vaccines is limited. Methods. The study was conducted in a cholera-endemic population in Bangladesh. Patients with cholera (index patients) detected between 1991 and 2000 were age-matched to 4 cholera-free controls and then followed up during the subsequent 3 years. Results. El Tor cholera was associated with a 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%–81%; P < .001) lower risk of a subsequent El Tor episode. Reduction of the risk of subsequent El Tor cholera was similar for children <5 years and for older persons and was sustained during all 3 years of follow-up. Having El Tor Inaba cholera was associated with lower risks of both El Tor Inaba and El Tor Ogawa cholera, but having El Tor Ogawa cholera was associated only with a reduced risk of El Tor Ogawa cholera. O139 cholera was associated with a 63% (95% CI, −61% to 92%; P = .18) lower risk of subsequent O139 cholera, but there was no evidence of cross-protection between the O1 and O139 serogroups. Conclusions. Live oral cholera vaccines designed to protect against the O1 and O139 serogroups should contain at least the Inaba serotype and strains of both serogroups. PMID:21849288

  20. Phytochemical and micromorphological traits of endemic Micromeria pseudocroatica (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kremer, Dario; Müller, Ivna Dragojević; Stabentheiner, Edith; Vitali, Dubravka; Kopricanec, Martina; Ruscić, Mirko; Kosalec, Ivan; Bezić, Nada; Dunkić, Valerija

    2012-12-01

    Micromeria pseudocroatica Silić is an endemic species distributed in southern Croatia. Chemical composition of the essential oil (analysed by GC and GC-MS), and the content of macroelements and trace elements analysed by ICP-AES was conducted. Additionally, a study on the types and distribution of trichomes was done by scanning electron microscopy. The essential oil was characterized by a high concentration of oxygenated monoterpenes, whose major compounds are borneol (22.7% and 24.8%) and camphor (16.1% and 13.9%). The content of Ca was highest (13202.69 mg/kg and 13223.83 mg/kg) among the investigated macroelements, while Fe was the most represented element (100.68 and 326.48 mg/kg) among the micronutrients. The content of potentially toxic elements that is Se, Cu, and Hg was below the limit of quantification. Non-glandular trichomes, peltate trichomes, and two types of capitate trichomes (type 1: one basal epidermal cell, one head cell with subcuticular space; type 2: one basal epidermal cell, two stalk cells, and one head cell with subcuticular space) were observed on leaves, bracteoles, calyx, corolla and stem.

  1. Managing conservation reliant species: Hawai'i's endangered endemic waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jared G; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being "conservation reliant." The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these "conservation reliant" species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species.

  2. Endemism and functional convergence across the North American soil mycobiome.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Jennifer M; Bruns, Thomas D; Taylor, John W; Smith, Dylan P; Branco, Sara; Glassman, Sydney I; Erlandson, Sonya; Vilgalys, Rytas; Liao, Hui-Ling; Smith, Matthew E; Peay, Kabir G

    2014-04-29

    Identifying the ecological processes that structure communities and the consequences for ecosystem function is a central goal of ecology. The recognition that fungi, bacteria, and viruses control key ecosystem functions has made microbial communities a major focus of this field. Because many ecological processes are apparent only at particular spatial or temporal scales, a complete understanding of the linkages between microbial community, environment, and function requires analysis across a wide range of scales. Here, we map the biological and functional geography of soil fungi from local to continental scales and show that the principal ecological processes controlling community structure and function operate at different scales. Similar to plants or animals, most soil fungi are endemic to particular bioregions, suggesting that factors operating at large spatial scales, like dispersal limitation or climate, are the first-order determinants of fungal community structure in nature. By contrast, soil extracellular enzyme activity is highly convergent across bioregions and widely differing fungal communities. Instead, soil enzyme activity is correlated with local soil environment and distribution of fungal traits within the community. The lack of structure-function relationships for soil fungal communities at continental scales indicates a high degree of functional redundancy among fungal communities in global biogeochemical cycles.

  3. Managing Conservation Reliant Species: Hawai'i's Endangered Endemic Waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Jared G.; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being “conservation reliant.” The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these “conservation reliant” species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species. PMID:23825687

  4. Prevalence of fluorosis in an endemic village in central India.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Aparna

    2010-10-01

    Endemic fluorosis is an important public health problem in certain parts of the Durg district of Chhattisgarh. The aim of the study was to find out the prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis among the population and to assess the relation between drinking water fluoride level and prevalence of fluorosis. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in Gureda Village, of the Durg district of Chhattisgarh state in October 2009. The survey covered 805 individuals - 362 males and 443 females. The prevalence of dental and skeletal fluorosis was assessed based on clinical examinations of individuals. Drinking and eating habits of individuals were recorded as per checklist. Water fluoride levels of prime water sources were also determined by lab examination. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 8.2%. Both skeletal and dental fluorosis were more common in males. Dental fluorosis was higher in the 8-45 age group, whereas the prevalence of skeletal fluorosis increased with age. Genu varum (38.1%) and genu vulgum (6.3%) were the common skeletal deformities. Water fluoride levels ranged from 0.2 to 7.8 ppm.

  5. A new hepadnavirus endemic in arctic ground squirrels in Alaska.

    PubMed

    Testut, P; Renard, C A; Terradillos, O; Vitvitski-Trepo, L; Tekaia, F; Degott, C; Blake, J; Boyer, B; Buendia, M A

    1996-07-01

    We present evidence for a novel member of the hepadnavirus family that is endemic in wild arctic ground squirrels (Spermophylus parryi kennicotti) in Alaska. This virus, designated arctic squirrel hepatitis virus (ASHV), was initially detected in the livers of animals bearing large hepatic nodules by nucleic acid hybridization with hepadnavirus probes and in plasma by cross-reactivity with antibodies to hepadnavirus surface and core antigens. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 3,302-bp-long ASHV genome was determined and compared with those of ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV); all sequences were organized into four open reading frames, designated pre-C/C, pre-S/S, pol, and X. Despite roughly equivalent variability among the three rodent hepadnaviruses (around 16% base and 19% amino acid exchanges), ASHV appeared to be more closely related to GSHV than to WHV in phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, preliminary studies of the pathology of ASHV infection suggested that ASHV may be a less efficient oncogenic agent than WHV. About one-third of aged animals maintained in captivity, including virus-infected as well as uninfected squirrels, developed large liver nodules, consisting of hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas or nonmalignant lesions characterized by drastic microvesicular steatosis. ASHV-infected arctic ground squirrels may serve as a new model with which to analyze the contribution of hepadnavirus- and host-specific determinants to liver pathology and tumorigenesis.

  6. A new hepadnavirus endemic in arctic ground squirrels in Alaska.

    PubMed Central

    Testut, P; Renard, C A; Terradillos, O; Vitvitski-Trepo, L; Tekaia, F; Degott, C; Blake, J; Boyer, B; Buendia, M A

    1996-01-01

    We present evidence for a novel member of the hepadnavirus family that is endemic in wild arctic ground squirrels (Spermophylus parryi kennicotti) in Alaska. This virus, designated arctic squirrel hepatitis virus (ASHV), was initially detected in the livers of animals bearing large hepatic nodules by nucleic acid hybridization with hepadnavirus probes and in plasma by cross-reactivity with antibodies to hepadnavirus surface and core antigens. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 3,302-bp-long ASHV genome was determined and compared with those of ground squirrel hepatitis virus (GSHV) and woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV); all sequences were organized into four open reading frames, designated pre-C/C, pre-S/S, pol, and X. Despite roughly equivalent variability among the three rodent hepadnaviruses (around 16% base and 19% amino acid exchanges), ASHV appeared to be more closely related to GSHV than to WHV in phylogenetic analysis. Accordingly, preliminary studies of the pathology of ASHV infection suggested that ASHV may be a less efficient oncogenic agent than WHV. About one-third of aged animals maintained in captivity, including virus-infected as well as uninfected squirrels, developed large liver nodules, consisting of hepatocellular adenomas or carcinomas or nonmalignant lesions characterized by drastic microvesicular steatosis. ASHV-infected arctic ground squirrels may serve as a new model with which to analyze the contribution of hepadnavirus- and host-specific determinants to liver pathology and tumorigenesis. PMID:8676441

  7. Evolution and phylogeographic dissemination of endemic porcine picornaviruses in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lu; Van Dung, Nguyen; Bryant, Juliet E.; Carrique-Mas, Juan; Van Cuong, Nguyen; Anh, Pham Honh; Rabaa, Maia A.; Baker, Stephen; Simmonds, Peter; Woolhouse, Mark E.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the Picornaviridae are important and often zoonotic viruses responsible for a variety of human and animal diseases. However, the evolution and spatial dissemination of different picornaviruses circulating in domestic animals are not well studied. We examined the rate of evolution and time of origin of porcine enterovirus G (EV-G) and porcine kobuvirus species C lineages (PKV-C) circulating in pig farms in Vietnam and from other countries. We further explored the spatiotemporal spread of EV-G and PKV-C in Southwest Vietnam using phylogeographic models. Multiple types of EV-G are co-circulating in Vietnam. The two dominant EV-G types among isolates from Vietnam (G1 and G6) showed strong phylogenetic clustering. Three clades of PKV-C (PKV-C1-3) represent more recent introductions into Vietnam; PKV-C2 is closely related to PKV-C from Southwest China, indicating possible cross-border dissemination. In addition, high virus lineage migration rates were estimated within four districts in Dong Thap province in Vietnam for both EV-G types (G1, G6) and all PKV-C (C1-3) clades. We found that Chau Thanh district is a primary source of both EV-G and PKV-C clades, consistent with extensive pig trading in and out of the district. Understanding the evolution and spatial dissemination of endemic picornaviruses in pigs may inform future strategies for the surveillance and control of picornaviruses. PMID:27774295

  8. Gene Expression Signature in Endemic Osteoarthritis by Microarray Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xi; Ning, Yujie; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Fangfang; Tan, Wuhong; Lei, Yanxia; Wu, Cuiyan; Zheng, Jingjing; Wang, Sen; Yu, Hanjie; Li, Zheng; Lammi, Mikko J.; Guo, Xiong

    2015-01-01

    Kashin-Beck Disease (KBD) is an endemic osteochondropathy with an unknown pathogenesis. Diagnosis of KBD is effective only in advanced cases, which eliminates the possibility of early treatment and leads to an inevitable exacerbation of symptoms. Therefore, we aim to identify an accurate blood-based gene signature for the detection of KBD. Previously published gene expression profile data on cartilage and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from adults with KBD were compared to select potential target genes. Microarray analysis was conducted to evaluate the expression of the target genes in a cohort of 100 KBD patients and 100 healthy controls. A gene expression signature was identified using a training set, which was subsequently validated using an independent test set with a minimum redundancy maximum relevance (mRMR) algorithm and support vector machine (SVM) algorithm. Fifty unique genes were differentially expressed between KBD patients and healthy controls. A 20-gene signature was identified that distinguished between KBD patients and controls with 90% accuracy, 85% sensitivity, and 95% specificity. This study identified a 20-gene signature that accurately distinguishes between patients with KBD and controls using peripheral blood samples. These results promote the further development of blood-based genetic biomarkers for detection of KBD. PMID:25997002

  9. Characterization of colostrum from dams of BLV endemic dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gerónimo; Lomonaco, Marina; Alvarez, Irene; Fernandez, Fernando; Trono, Karina

    2015-06-12

    Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV) is endemic in Argentina, where the individual prevalence is higher than 80% in dairy farms. The aim of this work was to find preliminary evidence to know if the high level of infection of the dam would implicate a higher challenge to her own offspring. We collected 65 sets of samples consisting of dam's blood and colostrum from two heavily infected dairy farms, and investigated the correlation between the dam's blood proviral load and the presence of provirus in colostrum. We also described the dual antibody/provirus profile in the colostrum. Provirus was detected in 69.23% of the colostrum samples, mostly from dams with a high proviral load, 36/45 (80%). Colostrum proviral load was significantly higher in dams with high blood proviral load (p<0.0001). Provirus was detected in colostrum samples all along the antibody distribution, even in those with a low amount of antibodies. These results show that even when high blood proviral load dams offer higher levels of infected cells to their offspring through colostrum they also offer higher levels of protection of antibodies. On the contrary, low blood proviral load dams also offer infected cells but a poor content of antibodies, suggesting that these animals could play an important role in the epidemiological cycle of transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ranking of elimination feasibility between malaria-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Tatem, Andrew J; Smith, David L; Gething, Peter W; Kabaria, Caroline W; Snow, Robert W; Hay, Simon I

    2010-01-01

    Summary Experience gained from the Global Malaria Eradication Program (1955–72) identified a set of shared technical and operational factors that enabled some countries to successfully eliminate malaria. Spatial data for these factors were assembled for all malaria-endemic countries and combined to provide an objective, relative ranking of countries by technical, operational, and combined elimination feasibility. The analysis was done separately for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, and the limitations of the approach were discussed. The relative rankings suggested that malaria elimination would be most feasible in countries in the Americas and Asia, and least feasible in countries in central and west Africa. The results differed when feasibility was measured by technical or operational factors, highlighting the different types of challenge faced by each country. The results are not intended to be prescriptive, predictive, or to provide absolute assessments of feasibility, but they do show that spatial information is available to facilitate evidence-based assessments of the relative feasibility of malaria elimination by country that can be rapidly updated. PMID:21035838

  11. Pure Ultrasonic Communication in an Endemic Bornean Frog

    PubMed Central

    Arch, Victoria S.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Gridi-Papp, Marcos; Narins, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    Huia cavitympanum, an endemic Bornean frog, is the first amphibian species known to emit exclusively ultrasonic (i.e., >20 kHz) vocal signals. To test the hypothesis that these frogs use purely ultrasonic vocalizations for intraspecific communication, we performed playback experiments with male frogs in their natural calling sites. We found that the frogs respond with increased calling to broadcasts of conspecific calls containing only ultrasound. The field study was complemented by electrophysiological recordings from the auditory midbrain and by laser Doppler vibrometer measurements of the tympanic membrane's response to acoustic stimulation. These measurements revealed that the frog's auditory system is broadly tuned over high frequencies, with peak sensitivity occurring within the ultrasonic frequency range. Our results demonstrate that H. cavitympanum is the first non-mammalian vertebrate described to communicate with purely ultrasonic acoustic signals. These data suggest that further examination of the similarities and differences in the high-frequency/ultrasonic communication systems of H. cavitympanum and Odorrana tormota, an unrelated frog species that produces and detects ultrasound but does not emit exclusively ultrasonic calls, will afford new insights into the mechanisms underlying vertebrate high-frequency communication. PMID:19401782

  12. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15-20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species.

  13. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L.; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15–20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. Discussion: This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species. PMID:28439475

  14. Natural cholera infection-derived immunity in an endemic setting.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mohammad; Emch, Michael; Park, Jin Kyung; Yunus, Mohammad; Clemens, John

    2011-09-15

    Live oral cholera vaccines may protect against cholera in a manner similar to natural cholera infections. However, information on which to base these vaccines is limited. The study was conducted in a cholera-endemic population in Bangladesh. Patients with cholera (index patients) detected between 1991 and 2000 were age-matched to 4 cholera-free controls and then followed up during the subsequent 3 years. El Tor cholera was associated with a 65% (95% confidence interval [CI], 37%-81%; P < .001) lower risk of a subsequent El Tor episode. Reduction of the risk of subsequent El Tor cholera was similar for children < 5 years and for older persons and was sustained during all 3 years of follow-up. Having El Tor Inaba cholera was associated with lower risks of both El Tor Inaba and El Tor Ogawa cholera, but having El Tor Ogawa cholera was associated only with a reduced risk of El Tor Ogawa cholera. O139 cholera was associated with a 63% (95% CI, -61% to 92%; P = .18) lower risk of subsequent O139 cholera, but there was no evidence of cross-protection between the O1 and O139 serogroups. Live oral cholera vaccines designed to protect against the O1 and O139 serogroups should contain at least the Inaba serotype and strains of both serogroups.

  15. Risk Factors for Leprosy Reactions in Three Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Scollard, David M.; Martelli, Celina M. T.; Stefani, Mariane M. A.; Maroja, Maria de Fatima; Villahermosa, Laarni; Pardillo, Fe; Tamang, Krishna B.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to ascertain risk factors for complications (reactions or neuritis) in leprosy patients at the time of diagnosis in three leprosy-endemic countries. Newly diagnosed patients were enrolled in Brazil, the Philippines, and Nepal, and risk factors for reactions and neuritis were assessed using a case-control approach: “cases” were patients with these complications, and controls were patients without complications. Of 1,972 patients enrolled in this study, 22% had complications before treatment. Type 1 reaction was diagnosed in 13.7% of patients, neuritis alone in 6.9.%, and type 2 reaction in 1.4%. The frequency of these complications was higher in Nepal, in lepromatous patients, in males, and in adults versus children. Reactions and neuritis were seen in patients at diagnosis, before treatment was started. Reactions were seen in adults and children, even in patients with only a single lesion. Neuritis was often present without other signs of reaction. Reactions and neuritis were more likely to occur in lepromatous patients, and were more likely to be seen in adults than in children. PMID:25448239

  16. Endemic caseous lymphadenitis in a wild Caprinae population.

    PubMed

    Varela-Castro, L; Lara-Vergara, J; Ortega, N; Salinas, J; Colom-Cadena, A; Lavín, S; Tizzani, P; Velarde, R; Serrano, E; Mentaberre, G

    2017-03-08

    Between 2010 and 2013, an outbreak of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) occurred in a captive stock of Iberian ibexes (Capra pyrenaica, Schinz 1838) maintained for conservation purposes in the National Game Reserve 'Ports de Tortosa i Beseit' (PTB), northeastern Spain. The aim of this study was to assess the CLA status in the free-ranging donor population of ibexes. An ELISA test to detect antibodies to CLA was performed in 360 hunter-harvested ibexes between 2007 and 2013. A spatial analysis and recursive partitioning approaches with regression tree models were used to explore CLA-associated risk factors. Nineteen per cent of ibexes had antibodies to CLA. Significant differences in seroprevalence were observed among game management areas but no clear trends of CLA occurrence were observed over the study period. Ibexes from areas of higher population density and living close to aggregation points displayed a higher probability of testing positive to CLA. These results suggest that CLA is endemic in the Iberian ibex population inhabiting PTB and density-dependent risk factors. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first record of CLA maintenance in a free-ranging wild Caprinae population.

  17. The genome of the Antarctic-endemic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sung Gu; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Min, Gi-Sik; Lee, Hyoungseok; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Sanghee; Park, Hyun

    2017-01-01

    The Antarctic intertidal zone is continuously subjected to extremely fluctuating biotic and abiotic stressors. The West Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapidly warming region on Earth. Organisms living in Antarctic intertidal pools are therefore interesting for research into evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments and the effects of climate change. We report the whole genome sequence of the Antarctic-endemic harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus kingsejongensi . The 37 Gb raw DNA sequence was generated using the Illumina Miseq platform. Libraries were prepared with 65-fold coverage and a total length of 295 Mb. The final assembly consists of 48 368 contigs with an N50 contig length of 17.5 kb, and 27 823 scaffolds with an N50 contig length of 159.2 kb. A total of 12 772 coding genes were inferred using the MAKER annotation pipeline. Comparative genome analysis revealed that T. kingsejongensis -specific genes are enriched in transport and metabolism processes. Furthermore, rapidly evolving genes related to energy metabolism showed positive selection signatures. The T. kingsejongensis genome provides an interesting example of an evolutionary strategy for Antarctic cold adaptation, and offers new genetic insights into Antarctic intertidal biota.

  18. The genome of the Antarctic-endemic copepod, Tigriopus kingsejongensis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seunghyun; Ahn, Do-Hwan; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Lee, Sung Gu; Shin, Seung Chul; Lee, Jungeun; Min, Gi-Sik; Lee, Hyoungseok

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: The Antarctic intertidal zone is continuously subjected to extremely fluctuating biotic and abiotic stressors. The West Antarctic Peninsula is the most rapidly warming region on Earth. Organisms living in Antarctic intertidal pools are therefore interesting for research into evolutionary adaptation to extreme environments and the effects of climate change. Findings: We report the whole genome sequence of the Antarctic-endemic harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus kingsejongensi. The 37 Gb raw DNA sequence was generated using the Illumina Miseq platform. Libraries were prepared with 65-fold coverage and a total length of 295 Mb. The final assembly consists of 48 368 contigs with an N50 contig length of 17.5 kb, and 27 823 scaffolds with an N50 contig length of 159.2 kb. A total of 12 772 coding genes were inferred using the MAKER annotation pipeline. Comparative genome analysis revealed that T. kingsejongensis-specific genes are enriched in transport and metabolism processes. Furthermore, rapidly evolving genes related to energy metabolism showed positive selection signatures. Conclusions: The T. kingsejongensis genome provides an interesting example of an evolutionary strategy for Antarctic cold adaptation, and offers new genetic insights into Antarctic intertidal biota. PMID:28369352

  19. Cuscuta jepsonii (Convolvulaceae): An invasive weed or an extinct endemic?

    PubMed

    Costea, Mihai; Stefanovic, Sasa

    2009-09-01

    Despite their ecological significance, parasitic plants face more conservation challenges than do autotrophic plants. This is especially true for the groups that include weedy or invasive species such as Cuscuta. While approximately half of the Cuscuta (dodders) species may require conservation measures, the genus as a whole is sometimes posted on governmental lists of noxious or quarantine weeds. Our study challenges this stereotype and uses the case of C. jepsonii (Jepson's dodder) to illustrate the precarious biodiversity and conservation status faced by many dodder species. Until now, Jepson's dodder has been known only from its type collection. Consequently, its phylogenetic affinities, morphological variation, and ecology have remained unknown, and the species is currently ambiguously considered either synonymous to the invasive North American weed C. indecora or to an extinct endemic from California. Using molecular data from newly found collections, we infer that C. jepsonii belongs to C. californica species complex, instead of C. indecora clade. Also, we discuss the conservation of this species within the broader biological and ecological context of Cuscuta in general.

  20. [Ameboma: possible therapeutic decisions in an amebiasis-endemic region].

    PubMed

    Villegas-Betanzo, Pavel; Martínez-Jiménez, Mario Aurelio; Guevara-Torres, Lorenzo; Quintero-Meza, Karla; Sánchez-Aguilar, Martín; Arriaga-Caballero, Jesús Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    Amebiasis can mimic cecal tumors. Unless this infection is diagnosed in a timely manner, affected individuals may undergo extensive surgery. We carried out a retrospective analytical study of the therapeutic approach to amebiasis in a second-level hospital in an area of central Mexico with a high prevalence of this infection. Records from 2005-2011 were reviewed. There were 261 cases of amebiasis. Twenty cases were diagnosed by the histopathologist or on the basis of serological results. Sixteen patients underwent surgery due to acute abdomen, and four received medical treatment with metronidazole. Three treatment groups were analyzed: 1. hemicolectomy, 2. appendicectomy and antiamebic therapy, and 3. antiamoebic therapy alone. In the non-surgical group, imaging studies showed improvement with medical therapy. Length of hospital stay was higher in the group undergoing extensive surgery (p < 0.0133). There were no statistically significant differences among the remaining variables. The incidence of ameboma in our environment is higher (7.6%) than that reported in the literature. We believe that, in endemic regions, ameboma should be ruled out in patients with a cecal mass. As part of the therapeutic approach, patients should be tested for amebiasis or receive antiamebic therapy with monitoring of the mass to avoid extensive resective surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  1. The population dynamics of an endemic collectible cactus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandujano, María C.; Bravo, Yolotzin; Verhulst, Johannes; Carrillo-Angeles, Israel; Golubov, Jordan

    2015-02-01

    Astrophytum is one of most collected genera in the cactus family. Around the world several species are maintained in collections and yearly, several plants are taken from their natural habitats. Populations of Astorphytum capricorne are found in the northern Chihuahuan desert, Mexico, and as many endemic cactus species, it has a highly restricted habitat. We conducted a demographic study from 2008 to 2010 of the northern populations found at Cuatro Ciénegas, Mexico. We applied matrix population models, included simulations, life table response experiments and descriptions of the population dynamics to evaluate the current status of the species, and detect key life table stages and demographic processes. Population growth rate decreased in both years and only 4% individual mortality can be attributed to looting, and a massive effort is needed to increase seedling recruitment and reduce adult mortality. The fate of individuals differed between years even having the same annual rainfall mainly in accentuated stasis, retrogression and high mortality in all size classes, which coupled with low seed production, no recruitment and collection of plants are the causes contributing to population decline, and hence, increase the risk in which A. capricorne populations are found. Reintroduction of seedlings and lowering adult mortality are urgently needed to revert the alarming demographic condition of A. capricorne populations.

  2. Trichomonas gallinae in Mauritian columbids: implications for an endangered endemic.

    PubMed

    Bunbury, N; Jones, C G; Greenwood, A G; Bell, D J

    2007-07-01

    Although well known as a widespread parasitic disease of columbids and birds of prey, there have been few studies of trichomonosis in populations of wild birds. In Mauritius, trichomonosis has been highlighted as a major threat to an endangered endemic, the Pink Pigeon (Neosoenas [Columba] mayeri). In this study, we examined the role that populations of other columbids in Mauritius might be playing as infectious reservoirs of the causal flagellate protozoan, Trichomonas gallinae. We screened 296 wild individuals of three columbid species (Madagascan Turtle Dove [Streptopelia picturata], Spotted Dove [Streptopelia chinensis], and Zebra Dove [Geopelia striata]) between September 2002 and April 2004. Prevalence varied significantly among species (ranging from 19% in S. chinensis to 59% in G. striata) and between S. picturata sampled from upland and coastal sites; S. picturata from upland sites (>500 m) were significantly less likely to be infected with T. gallinae than those from lowland sites (<50 m; 62% and 27% prevalence, respectively). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of T. gallinae at sites where Pink Pigeons were also present compared to those sampled at sites without Pink Pigeons. We show that T. gallinae infection prevalence is higher at sites and times of warmer temperatures and lower rainfall.

  3. Distinct Viral and Mutational Spectrum of Endemic Burkitt Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Mundo, Lucia; Laginestra, Maria Antonella; Fuligni, Fabio; Rossi, Maura; Zairis, Sakellarios; Gazaneo, Sara; De Falco, Giulia; Lazzi, Stefano; Bellan, Cristiana; Rocca, Bruno Jim; Amato, Teresa; Marasco, Elena; Etebari, Maryam; Ogwang, Martin; Calbi, Valeria; Ndede, Isaac; Patel, Kirtika; Chumba, David; Piccaluga, Pier Paolo; Pileri, Stefano; Leoncini, Lorenzo; Rabadan, Raul

    2015-01-01

    Endemic Burkitt lymphoma (eBL) is primarily found in children in equatorial regions and represents the first historical example of a virus-associated human malignancy. Although Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection and MYC translocations are hallmarks of the disease, it is unclear whether other factors may contribute to its development. We performed RNA-Seq on 20 eBL cases from Uganda and showed that the mutational and viral landscape of eBL is more complex than previously reported. First, we found the presence of other herpesviridae family members in 8 cases (40%), in particular human herpesvirus 5 and human herpesvirus 8 and confirmed their presence by immunohistochemistry in the adjacent non-neoplastic tissue. Second, we identified a distinct latency program in EBV involving lytic genes in association with TCF3 activity. Third, by comparing the eBL mutational landscape with published data on sporadic Burkitt lymphoma (sBL), we detected lower frequencies of mutations in MYC, ID3, TCF3 and TP53, and a higher frequency of mutation in ARID1A in eBL samples. Recurrent mutations in two genes not previously associated with eBL were identified in 20% of tumors: RHOA and cyclin F (CCNF). We also observed that polyviral samples showed lower numbers of somatic mutations in common altered genes in comparison to sBL specimens, suggesting dual mechanisms of transformation, mutation versus virus driven in sBL and eBL respectively. PMID:26468873

  4. Study of Hydatidosis-Attributed Mortality in Endemic Area

    PubMed Central

    Belhassen-García, Moncef; Romero-Alegria, Angela; Velasco-Tirado, Virginia; Alonso-Sardón, Montserrat; Lopez-Bernus, Amparo; Alvela-Suarez, Lucia; del Villar, Luis Perez; Carpio-Perez, Adela; Galindo-Perez, Inmaculada; Cordero-Sanchez, Miguel; Pardo-Lledias, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background Cystic hydatid disease is still an important health problem in European Mediterranean areas. In spite of being traditionally considered as a “benign” pathology, cystic echinococcosis is an important cause of morbidity in these areas. Nevertheless, there are few analyses of mortality attributed to human hydatidosis. Objective To describe the epidemiology, the mortality rate and the causes of mortality due to E. granulosus infection in an endemic area. Methodology A retrospective study followed up over a period of 14 years (1998–2011). Principal Findings Of the 567 patients diagnosed with hydatid disease over the period 1998–2011, eleven deaths directly related to hydatid disease complications were recorded. Ten patients (90.9%) died due to infectious complications and the remaining one (9.1%) died due to mechanical complications after a massive hemoptysis. We registered a case fatality rate of 1.94% and a mortality rate of 3.1 per 100.000 inhabitants. Conclusions Hydatidosis is still a frequent parasitic disease that causes a considerable mortality. The main causes of mortality in patients with hydatidosis are complications related to the rupture of CE cysts with supurative collangitis. Therefore, an expectant management can be dangerous and it must be only employed in well-selected patients. PMID:24632824

  5. Examining the relationship between total species richness and single island palaeo- and neo-endemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallimanis, A. S.; Panitsa, M.; Bergmeier, E.; Dimopoulos, P.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, Emerson and Kolm (2005) hypothesized that diversity begets speciation (DBS hypothesis). The relationship between total species richness and single island endemic diversity (as a proportion of the total species richness of the island) has been used as evidence for the DBS hypothesis. This relationship has been documented in oceanic archipelagos, but many criticisms have been raised on whether this relationship truly supports the DBS hypothesis. In this study we tested if this hypothesis holds in the Aegean archipelago (a continental archipelago with continuous human presence over millennia). Endemism in the Aegean includes mainly neo-endemic species but also relictual populations of formerly more widespread species (i.e. palaeo-endemics). Contrary to the DBS hypothesis, we found that total species richness was not significantly correlated to single island endemics (neither neo-endemics nor palaeo-endemics) as a proportion of the island flora. Furthermore, we found that neo-endemic diversity (either as species richness or as a proportion of the islands flora) is mainly correlated to island maximum elevation, while area and isolation were less important. So if this ratio is indeed an index of speciation, then an alternative explanation might be that elevation (interpreted as a proxy for habitat heterogeneity) is the driver of speciation in our case. Palaeo-endemics, on the other hand, were present in only six of the largest islands in the Aegean and their diversity was strongly correlated only with island area, perhaps implying that larger islands support larger population sizes that buffer stochastic extinctions risks.

  6. A Long Neglected World Malaria Map: Plasmodium vivax Endemicity in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Gething, Peter W.; Elyazar, Iqbal R. F.; Moyes, Catherine L.; Smith, David L.; Battle, Katherine E.; Guerra, Carlos A.; Patil, Anand P.; Tatem, Andrew J.; Howes, Rosalind E.; Myers, Monica F.; George, Dylan B.; Horby, Peter; Wertheim, Heiman F. L.; Price, Ric N.; Müeller, Ivo; Baird, J. Kevin; Hay, Simon I.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current understanding of the spatial epidemiology and geographical distribution of Plasmodium vivax is far less developed than that for P. falciparum, representing a barrier to rational strategies for control and elimination. Here we present the first systematic effort to map the global endemicity of this hitherto neglected parasite. Methodology and Findings We first updated to the year 2010 our earlier estimate of the geographical limits of P. vivax transmission. Within areas of stable transmission, an assembly of 9,970 geopositioned P. vivax parasite rate (PvPR) surveys collected from 1985 to 2010 were used with a spatiotemporal Bayesian model-based geostatistical approach to estimate endemicity age-standardised to the 1–99 year age range (PvPR1–99) within every 5×5 km resolution grid square. The model incorporated data on Duffy negative phenotype frequency to suppress endemicity predictions, particularly in Africa. Endemicity was predicted within a relatively narrow range throughout the endemic world, with the point estimate rarely exceeding 7% PvPR1–99. The Americas contributed 22% of the global area at risk of P. vivax transmission, but high endemic areas were generally sparsely populated and the region contributed only 6% of the 2.5 billion people at risk (PAR) globally. In Africa, Duffy negativity meant stable transmission was constrained to Madagascar and parts of the Horn, contributing 3.5% of global PAR. Central Asia was home to 82% of global PAR with important high endemic areas coinciding with dense populations particularly in India and Myanmar. South East Asia contained areas of the highest endemicity in Indonesia and Papua New Guinea and contributed 9% of global PAR. Conclusions and Significance This detailed depiction of spatially varying endemicity is intended to contribute to a much-needed paradigm shift towards geographically stratified and evidence-based planning for P. vivax control and elimination. PMID:22970336

  7. First imported coccidioidomycosis in Turkey: A potential health risk for laboratory workers outside endemic areas☆

    PubMed Central

    Kantarcioglu, A. Serda; Sandoval-Denis, M.; Aygun, Gokhan; Kiraz, Nuri; Akman, Canan; Apaydin, Hulya; Karaman, Emin; Guarro, Josep; de Hoog, G. Sybren; Gurel, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Coccidioidomycosis caused by Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii is endemic in arid climate zones in America, travel-related cases have been reported. We report the first documented case of coccidioidomycosis in Turkey, overviewing reported cases in Europe and underlying difficulties of differential diagnosis outside endemic regions. The patient was an otherwise healthy 41-year-old man who travelled endemic areas. Laboratory diagnosis was based on direct microscopy of two subsequent subcutaneous biopsy specimens and culture and confirmed molecularly. Laboratory personnel should become aware that BioSafety Level-3 organisms may become more frequent and widespread. PMID:24567896

  8. Remote sensing as a tool to survey endemic diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Correia, Virginia Ragoni de Moraes; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Sabroza, Paulo Chagastelles; Vasconcelos, Cíntia Honório

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study, based on a systematic literature review, is to present the characteristics and potentialities of remote sensing as a useful environmental surveillance tool for applied research in the control of endemics in Brazil. Onboard satellite sensors allow for monitoring the territory, furnishing spatial and temporal information on various scales and regions in the electromagnetic spectrum. Based on the literature review on the application of this technology to the study of endemics and the identification of the potential of new sensors with better spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions, this study highlights perspectives for the use of remote sensing in the study of important endemics for Brazil.

  9. Global stability of endemic equilibrium of an epidemic model with birth and death on complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaodan; Xu, Gaochao; Liu, Lijun; Zhou, Wenshu

    2017-07-01

    We study global stability of endemic equilibrium of an epidemic model with birth and death on complex networks. Under some conditions, the local asymptotic stability of the endemic equilibrium was established by Zhang and Jin (2011) for correlated networks, and the global asymptotic stability was obtained by Chen and Sun (2014) for uncorrelated networks. In this work, we remove those conditions, and prove by constructing a Lyapunov function that the endemic equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable. Numerical simulations are also presented to illustrate the feasibility of the result.

  10. Does the diversification rate of endemic birds of mainland China follow abrupt, gradual shifting or constant patterns?

    PubMed

    Chen, Youhua

    2017-03-01

    In this brief report, time-varying (including both gradual and abrupt change) and time-constant diversification models are fitted on a phylogeny of endemic birds of mainland China to test the diversification patterns of endemic birds in the region. The results show that phylogeny of endemic birds is best quantified by a constant-rate diversification model through model comparison. Limitations of the study are discussed. In particular, ignorance of non-endemic taxa and the limited sampling of endemic taxa could influence the conclusions of the study. © 2016 International Society of Zoological Sciences, Institute of Zoology/Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  11. Estimating the Global Burden of Endemic Canine Rabies

    PubMed Central

    Hampson, Katie; Coudeville, Laurent; Lembo, Tiziana; Sambo, Maganga; Kieffer, Alexia; Attlan, Michaël; Barrat, Jacques; Blanton, Jesse D.; Briggs, Deborah J.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Costa, Peter; Freuling, Conrad M.; Hiby, Elly; Knopf, Lea; Leanes, Fernando; Meslin, François-Xavier; Metlin, Artem; Miranda, Mary Elizabeth; Müller, Thomas; Nel, Louis H.; Recuenco, Sergio; Rupprecht, Charles E.; Schumacher, Carolin; Taylor, Louise; Vigilato, Marco Antonio Natal; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dushoff, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Background Rabies is a notoriously underreported and neglected disease of low-income countries. This study aims to estimate the public health and economic burden of rabies circulating in domestic dog populations, globally and on a country-by-country basis, allowing an objective assessment of how much this preventable disease costs endemic countries. Methodology/Principal Findings We established relationships between rabies mortality and rabies prevention and control measures, which we incorporated into a model framework. We used data derived from extensive literature searches and questionnaires on disease incidence, control interventions and preventative measures within this framework to estimate the disease burden. The burden of rabies impacts on public health sector budgets, local communities and livestock economies, with the highest risk of rabies in the poorest regions of the world. This study estimates that globally canine rabies causes approximately 59,000 (95% Confidence Intervals: 25-159,000) human deaths, over 3.7 million (95% CIs: 1.6-10.4 million) disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) and 8.6 billion USD (95% CIs: 2.9-21.5 billion) economic losses annually. The largest component of the economic burden is due to premature death (55%), followed by direct costs of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, 20%) and lost income whilst seeking PEP (15.5%), with only limited costs to the veterinary sector due to dog vaccination (1.5%), and additional costs to communities from livestock losses (6%). Conclusions/Significance This study demonstrates that investment in dog vaccination, the single most effective way of reducing the disease burden, has been inadequate and that the availability and affordability of PEP needs improving. Collaborative investments by medical and veterinary sectors could dramatically reduce the current large, and unnecessary, burden of rabies on affected communities. Improved surveillance is needed to reduce uncertainty in burden estimates and to

  12. More on Ru Endemic Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We reported last year on endemic isotope anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo isotopes, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for isotope anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many isotopes from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process isotopes show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the short half-lives, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general isotope anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.

  13. Factors associated to endemic dental fluorosis in Brazilian rural communities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Efigênia F; Vargas, Andréa Maria D; Castilho, Lia S; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M; Fantinel, Lucia M; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N G

    2010-08-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5-with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4-with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07-6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01-1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p < 0.05). No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value.

  14. Factors Associated to Endemic Dental Fluorosis in Brazilian Rural Communities

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Efigênia F.; Vargas, Andréa Maria D.; Castilho, Lia S.; Velásquez, Leila Nunes M.; Fantinel, Lucia M.; Abreu, Mauro Henrique N. G.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper examines the relationship between hydrochemical characteristics and endemic dental fluorosis, controlling for variables with information on an individual level. An epidemiological survey was carried out in seven rural communities in two municipalities in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The Thystrup & Fejerskov index was employed by a single examiner for the diagnosis of dental fluorosis. A sampling campaign of deep groundwater in the rural communities of interest was carried out concomitantly to the epidemiological survey for the determination of physiochemical parameters. Multilevel modeling of 276 individuals from seven rural communities was achieved using the non-linear logit link function. Parameters were estimated using the restricted maximum likelihood method. Analysis was carried out considering two response variables: presence (TF 1 to 9) or absence (TF = 0) of any degree of dental fluorosis; and presence (TF ≥ 5—with loss of enamel structure) or absence of severe dental fluorosis (TF ≤ 4—with no loss of enamel structure). Hydrogeological analyses revealed that dental fluorosis is influenced by the concentration of fluoride (OR = 2.59 CI95% 1.07–6.27; p = 0.073) and bicarbonate (OR = 1.02 CI95% 1.01–1.03; p = 0.060) in the water of deep wells. No other variable was associated with this prevalence (p > 0.05). More severe dental fluorosis (TF ≥ 5) was only associated with age group (p < 0.05). No other variable was associated to the severe dental fluorosis (p > 0.05). Dental fluorosis was found to be highly prevalent and severe. A chemical element besides fluoride was found to be associated (p > 0.05) to the prevalence of dental fluorosis, although this last finding should be interpreted with caution due to its p value. PMID:20948951

  15. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  16. Endemic Mo Isotopic Anomalies in Iron and Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ngo, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Mo in refractory interstellar grains shows large isotope anomalies. Recent Mo studies showed isotope effects in Allende and Murchison, and in iron meteorites, mesosiderites, and pallasites. Excesses of p- and r-process isotopes (or depletion of sprocess isotopes) of up to 3.5 epsilon units (epsilon u=parts in 10(exp 4)) were reported. We have reported on endemic isotope anomalies in Ru. Other workers have resolved no isotope anomalies for Mo or Ru and have claimed that the work by others is incorrect. Because Ru isotopes can interfere at Mo-96, Mo-98, Mo-100, we improved the chemical separations and eliminated interferences. For Mo work, we used the same solutions from which we separated and analyzed Ru. Three of the iron meteorites (Coahuila, Cape York, and Cape of Good Hope) were chosen for their large Mo isotopic effects. Mo was loaded on outgassed Re filaments, and then reduced; we used Ba(OH)2-NaOH as emitter, and measured Mo in static mode, as MoO3(-). We used Mo-98/Mo-96 for the mass fractionation correction (exponential law). No interferences from Ru or Zr isotopes were detected using the electron multiplier and no corrections were needed. For results on Mo standards we show 2 sigma(not 2 sigma mean) external precision better than: 0.7 epsilon u for Mo-94/Mo-96 and Mo-95/Mo-96; 1.0 epsilon u for Mo-92/Mo-96 and Mo-97/Mo-96; 1.4 epsilon u for Mo-100/Mo-96. Reproducibility for Mo standards is shown as contours (blue lines).

  17. Endemic pemphigus foliaceus over a century: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Abréu-Vélez, Ana María; Reason, Iara J. de Messias; Howard, Michael S.; Roselino, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    Background: Endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) is the only known autoimmune disease presenting in circumscribed geographic areas. Aim: We aim to provide information concerning the natural course of EPF, including systemic compromise in the presteroid era, which has been largely unavailable in the current medical literature. Material & Methods: By a retrospective review of the literature we aim to compile and compare the focus of EPF and the current knowledge about them. The main aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of EPF, including data described almost one century ago; and, to include several unindexed reports, which may have not been available to many current scientists and health care personnel. Results: Foci of EPF have been described in several Central American and South American countries, affecting predominately young people and Amerindians, with an additional female predilection. Although most cases have occurred in Brazil, some cases have been reported in Peru, Paraguay, El Salvador, and Venezuela. Another variant of EPF has been described in El Bagre, Colombia, affecting older men and a few post-menopausal females. Finally, another type of EPF was described in nomadic tribes affecting females of child bearing age in Tunisia, Africa. Conclusion: Our understanding of EPF has been hampered by a lack of government attention to these diseases, especially in some South and Central American countries. Other factors that have made past studies of EPF difficult include 1) that the disease foci are often located in rural areas bordering the rain forest of underdeveloped countries; and 2) military conflicts in some of these areas. PMID:22624115

  18. More on Ru Endemic Isotope Anomalies in Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papanastassiou, D. A.; Chen, J. H.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    2004-01-01

    We reported last year on endemic isotope anomalies for Ru in iron meteorites, pallasites, ordinary chondrites, and on a whole-rock sample of Allende. We have extended the Ru measurements to more meteorites, to refractory Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from Allende, and to a whole rock sample of Murchison (CM2). In a companion abstract we report on new measurements for the Mo isotopes, in some of the same samples. There has been a renewed interest in searching for isotope anomalies in this nuclide region, as Ru and Mo include many isotopes from r-, s-, and p-process nucleosynhesis. Furthermore, the Ru and Mo p-process isotopes show atypically high abundances, which have been hard to explain through the standard nucleosynthetic processes. Effects are possible in Ru-98 and Ru-99 from Tc-98 (with a poorly known t(sub 1/2)=4.2 to 10Ma) and from Tc-99 (t(sub 1/2)=0.21Ma). Natural Tc is now extinct on Earth due to the short half-lives, but may have been present in the early solar system. Both radiogenic and general isotope anomalies are important in understanding the processes for the formation of the early solar system. The current emphasis on Ru and Mo is also the result of the development of Negative-ion Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry and of Multiple-Collector, Inductively-Coupled-Mass-Spectrometry. We have also developed specific chemical siparation techniques for Ru, which eliminated mass interference effects.

  19. Endemic Mo Isotopic Anomalies in Iron and Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. H.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Ngo, H. H.

    2004-01-01

    Mo in refractory interstellar grains shows large isotope anomalies. Recent Mo studies showed isotope effects in Allende and Murchison, and in iron meteorites, mesosiderites, and pallasites. Excesses of p- and r-process isotopes (or depletion of sprocess isotopes) of up to 3.5 epsilon units (epsilon u=parts in 10(exp 4)) were reported. We have reported on endemic isotope anomalies in Ru. Other workers have resolved no isotope anomalies for Mo or Ru and have claimed that the work by others is incorrect. Because Ru isotopes can interfere at Mo-96, Mo-98, Mo-100, we improved the chemical separations and eliminated interferences. For Mo work, we used the same solutions from which we separated and analyzed Ru. Three of the iron meteorites (Coahuila, Cape York, and Cape of Good Hope) were chosen for their large Mo isotopic effects. Mo was loaded on outgassed Re filaments, and then reduced; we used Ba(OH)2-NaOH as emitter, and measured Mo in static mode, as MoO3(-). We used Mo-98/Mo-96 for the mass fractionation correction (exponential law). No interferences from Ru or Zr isotopes were detected using the electron multiplier and no corrections were needed. For results on Mo standards we show 2 sigma(not 2 sigma mean) external precision better than: 0.7 epsilon u for Mo-94/Mo-96 and Mo-95/Mo-96; 1.0 epsilon u for Mo-92/Mo-96 and Mo-97/Mo-96; 1.4 epsilon u for Mo-100/Mo-96. Reproducibility for Mo standards is shown as contours (blue lines).

  20. Evidence for widespread endemism among Antarctic micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyverman, Wim; Verleyen, Elie; Wilmotte, Annick; Hodgson, Dominic A.; Willems, Anne; Peeters, Karolien; Van de Vijver, Bart; De Wever, Aaike; Leliaert, Frederik; Sabbe, Koen

    2010-08-01

    Understanding the enormous diversity of microbes, their multiple roles in the functioning of ecosystems, and their response to large-scale environmental and climatic changes, are at the forefront of the international research agenda. In Antarctica, where terrestrial and lacustrine environments are predominantly microbial realms, an active and growing community of microbial ecologists is probing this diversity and its role in ecosystem processes. In a broader context, this work has the potential to make a significant contribution to the long-standing debate as to whether microbes are fundamentally different from macroorganisms in their biogeography. According to the ubiquity hypothesis, microbial community composition is not constrained by dispersal limitation and is solely the result of species sorting along environmental gradients. However, recent work on several groups of microalgae is challenging this view. Global analyses using morphology-based diatom inventories have demonstrated that, in addition to environmental harshness, geographical isolation underlies the strong latitudinal gradients in local and regional diversity in the Southern hemisphere. Increasing evidence points to a strong regionalization of diatom floras in the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic regions, mirroring the biogeographical regions that have been recognized for macroorganisms. Likewise, the application of molecular-phylogenetic techniques to cultured and uncultured diversity revealed a high number of Antarctic endemics among cyanobacteria and green algae. Calibration of these phylogenies suggests that several clades have an ancient evolutionary history within the Antarctic continent, possibly dating back to 330 Ma. These findings are in line with the current view on the origin of Antarctic terrestrial metazoa, including springtails, chironomids and mites, with most evidence suggesting a long history of geographic isolation on a multi-million year, even pre-Gondwana break-up timescale.

  1. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, A G

    1990-01-01

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed. PMID:2372605

  2. Drifting continents and endemic goitre in northern Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A G

    1990-06-09

    Although Baltistan, north east Pakistan, is in a region of iodine deficiency disorders, the distribution of goitre within the district, according to age and sex, has not been clearly defined. To establish the prevalence of the condition and to measure the reported difference in prevalence in the north and south of the district thyroid size was assessed in new patients attending the Aman clinic, Khapalu, and outlying areas between April and September from 1981 to 1986. Samples of potable water collected from villages were analysed for iodine (as iodide) concentrations in Britain. Population weighted prevalences were: in the north in males 20.4%, in females 28.1% and in the south in males 13.9%, in females 21.2%. There was an overall deficiency of iodine in the water (mean iodine (as iodide) concentrations (north) 11.0 nmol/l (1.4 micrograms/l), (south) 11.8 nmol/l (1.5 micrograms/l) (95% confidence interval -0.7 to 0.9). The differences followed the Main Karakoram Thrust, suggesting a geological goitrogen in the north, which might be minerals containing ions such as BF4- and SO3F-, and molybdenite and calcium, which are present in rocks in Baltistan. A new hypothesis for the genesis of endemic goitre is proposed--that is, that continents on crustal plates drift across the earth and collide, one plate sliding under the other and melting, giving rise to characteristic mineral assemblages in the overlying rocks. As the minerals weather out they enter the diet of the local population, where in the presence of iodine deficiency they produce or enhance iodine deficiency disorders. Despite the current iodised oil campaign by the Pakistani government with Unicef a long term working iodisation programme is still urgently needed.

  3. Epidemiology of endemic Oropouche virus transmission in upper Amazonian Peru.

    PubMed

    Baisley, K J; Watts, D M; Munstermann, L E; Wilson, M L

    1998-11-01

    A cross-sectional serosurvey of a rural community near Iquitos, Peru was conducted to determine Oropouche (ORO) virus antibody prevalence and risk factors for human infection. Venous blood samples, and demographic, social, and risk factor data were obtained from people age five years of age and older who lived in the village of Santa Clara on the Nanay River, a tributary of the Amazon River. Sera were tested for ORO viral antibody by an ELISA. The specificity of viral antibody reactivity was determined by a standard plaque-reduction neutralization test. Interview data were analyzed by univariate and multiple logistic regression to determine which variables were statistically associated with previous ORO viral infection, as indicated by the presence of IgG antibody. Final models were evaluated based on log-likelihood and Wald chi-square. Clustering of seropositive residents within houses was analyzed by the method of Walter. Among 1,227 persons sampled, 33.7% (n=414) were positive for ORO viral IgG antibody. Overall, antibody prevalence was similar for males (33.9%) and females (33.6%), and increased significantly with age for both sexes to include more than half of persons more than 25 years of age. The length of residence in the village was positively associated with serologic status; persons who had moved to the village within the past 15 years were less likely to be seropositive than life-long residents of the same age. Antibody prevalence among immigrants who had lived in Santa Clara more than 15 years was similar to that in life-long residents. The activity most predictive of previous ORO viral infection was travel to forest communities and travel to Iquitos. No evidence of spatial heterogeneity in ORO virus antibody distribution was observed. Results suggested that endemic transmission of ORO virus in this region has been ongoing during many decades, and that people are at considerable risk of infection.

  4. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Treglia, Michael L.; Grant, William E.; Smeins, Fred E.; Rogers, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  5. Malaria Situation in an Endemic Area, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Fekri, Sajjad; Vatandoost, Hassan; Daryanavard, Ali; Shahi, Mehran; Safari, Reza; Raeisi, Ahmad; Omar, Abdiqani Sheikh; Sharif, Mohammad; Azizi, Abdollah; Ali, Aref Ahmad; Nasser, Aboud; Hasaballah, Ibrahim; Hanafi-Bojd, Ahmad Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in southeastern parts of Iran. Despite years of efforts and intervention programs against malaria, transmission still occurs in Jask County. Methods: The epidemiological perspective of malaria in Jask County was conducted by gathering data from Jask County health center, during 2006–2010. A knowledge, attitude and practice study was also carried out. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS ver. 11.5. Results: A total of 2875 malaria cases were recorded, with highest and lowest numbers in 2007 and 2010, respectively. The number of cases had a decreasing trend from 1022 cases in 2006 to 114 cases in 2010. The main causative parasitic agent was Plasmodium vivax. Blood examination rate and slide positive rate were also decreased from 39.5% and 4.3% in 2006 to 15.6% and 1.4% in 2010, respectively. Most of people interviewed in the KAP study had a good knowledge about malaria transmission and symptoms but their use of the bed net for prevention was low (35%). Conclusion: Malaria incidence had significant reduction during the study years. The main reason for this may be due to changing environmental condition for Anopheline breeding and survival because of drought. Another reason may be integration of vector management by using long lasting insecticide treated bed nets, active case detection and treatment by implementation of mobile teams and increasing in financial sources of malaria control program. Knowledge, attitude and practice of people were good in malaria control and prevention, but needs to do more activities for health education and awareness. PMID:25629068

  6. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme activity in patients with endemic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Huskić, J; Kulenović, H; Culo, F

    1996-01-01

    Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme was measured in 60 patients with endemic nephropathy and in 30 healthy individuals. According to the arterial blood pressure, the patients with endemic nephropathy were further divided into groups with arterial hypertension (n = 30) and without arterial hypertension (n = 30). The activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was determined by a spectrophotometric method using hippuryl-l-histidyl-l-leucine as a substrate. The serum activity of angiotensin-converting enzyme was significantly increased in the patients with endemic nephropathy (28.51 +/- 1.64 U/l) as compared with healthy individuals (20.83 +/- 1.33 U/l). The level of the enzyme was further increased if the endemic nephropathy was accompanied by arterial hypertension (37.09 +/- 1.45 U/l). The possible mechanisms of the increase in the angiotensin-converting enzyme activity are discussed.

  7. Relationship between weathered coal deposits and the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Feder, G.L.; Radovanovic, Z.; Finkelman, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    Field studies in epidemiology and environmental geochemistry in areas in Yugoslavia containing villages with a high incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), indicate a possible relationship between the presence of low-rank coal deposits and the etiology of BEN. Preliminary results from qualitative chemical analyses of drinking water from shallow farm wells indicate the presence of soluble polar aromatic and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be derived from weathering of low-rank coals occurring in the vicinity of the endemic villages. All of the endemic villages are in alluvial valleys of tributaries to the Danube River. All except one of the clusters of endemic villages are located in the vicinity of known Pliocene age coals. Detailed sampling of the drinking waters and the nearby coals are being undertaken to identify a possible etiologic factor.

  8. Distribution patterns of Neotropical primates (Platyrrhini) based on Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity.

    PubMed

    Goldani, A; Carvalho, G S; Bicca-Marques, J C

    2006-02-01

    The Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity (PAE) is a method of historical biogeography that is used for detecting and connecting areas of endemism. Based on data on the distribution of Neotropical primates, we constructed matrices using quadrats, interfluvial regions and pre-determinated areas of endemism described for avians as Operative Geographic Units (OGUs). We codified the absence of a species from an OGU as 0 (zero) and its presence as 1 (one). A hypothetical area with a complete absence of primate species was used as outgroup to root the trees. All three analyses resulted in similar groupings of areas of endemism, which match the distribution of biomes in the Neotropical region. One area includes Central America and the extreme Northwest of South America, other the Amazon basin, and another the Atlantic Forest, Caatinga, Cerrado and Chaco.

  9. Phylogenetic concordance analysis shows an emerging pathogen is novel and endemic.

    PubMed

    Storfer, Andrew; Alfaro, Michael E; Ridenhour, Benjamin J; Jancovich, James K; Mech, Stephen G; Parris, Matthew J; Collins, James P

    2007-11-01

    Distinguishing whether pathogens are novel or endemic is critical for controlling emerging infectious diseases, an increasing threat to wildlife and human health. To test the endemic vs. novel pathogen hypothesis, we present a unique analysis of intraspecific host-pathogen phylogenetic concordance of tiger salamanders and an emerging Ranavirus throughout Western North America. There is significant non-concordance of host and virus gene trees, suggesting pathogen novelty. However, non-concordance has likely resulted from virus introductions by human movement of infected salamanders. When human-associated viral introductions are excluded, host and virus gene trees are identical, strongly supporting coevolution and endemism. A laboratory experiment showed an introduced virus strain is significantly more virulent than endemic strains, likely due to artificial selection for high virulence. Thus, our analysis of intraspecific phylogenetic concordance revealed that human introduction of viruses is the mechanism underlying tree non-concordance and possibly disease emergence via artificial selection.

  10. Systematic revision and phylogeny of the endemic southeastern Asiatic Pristaulacus comptipennis species group (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TThe endemic southeastern Asiatic Pristaulacus comptipennis species group is revised and illustrated. Twenty species are recognized: P. asiaticus Turrisi & Smith, sp. nov. (China), P. boninensis Konishi (Japan), P. comptipennis Enderlein (Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos), P. corellianus Turrisi & Smith, ...

  11. Selenium deficiency as a possible factor in the pathogenesis of myxoedematous endemic cretinism.

    PubMed

    Goyens, P; Golstein, J; Nsombola, B; Vis, H; Dumont, J E

    1987-04-01

    Myxoedematous endemic cretinism is prevalent in African goitre endemies. It has been related to a thyroid 'exhaustion' atrophy occurring near birth. It is proposed that this might result from the low resistance of a fragile tissue to enhanced H2O2 generation under intense thyroid stimulation by thyrotropin. In support of this hypothesis, low selenium and glutathione peroxidase serum levels have been found in the African endemic area of the Idjwi Island (Kivu, Zaire). Serum selenium and plasma glutathione peroxidase were lower in the area of high endemicity of goitre and cretinism (Northern part of the Island). However, only the former difference is statistically significant. These data thus suggest a role of oligoelements and oxygen toxicity in the pathogenesis of endemic cretinism.

  12. Two new species in the endemic Chinese leafhopper genera Flexocerus and Idioceroides (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Idiocerinae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingquan; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-02-24

    Two new species of endemic Chinese leafhopper genera (Flexocerus Kuoh & Fang and Idioceroides Matsumura), F. sinuatus sp. nov. and I. petaliformis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Keys to species for both genera are provided.

  13. The phylogenetic relationships of endemic Australasian trichostrongylin families (Nematoda: Strongylida) parasitic in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Chilton, Neil B; Huby-Chilton, Florence; Koehler, Anson V; Gasser, Robin B; Beveridge, Ian

    2015-10-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the endemic (or largely endemic) Australasian trichostrongylin nematode families Herpetostrongylidae, Mackerrastrongylidae and Nicollinidae as well as endemic trichostrongylin nematodes currently placed in the families Trichostrongylidae and Molineidae were examined using the complete large subunit (28S) ribosomal RNA gene. The Herpetostrongylinae proved to be monophyletic. However, representatives of the Nicollinidae nested with the Herpetostrongylinae. The Mackerrastrongylidae was also a monophyletic group and included Peramelistrongylus, currently classified within the Trichostrongylidae. The Globocephaloidinae, currently considered to be a subfamily of the Herpetostrongylidae, was excluded from the family in the current analysis. Ollulanus and Libyostrongylus, included for the first time in a molecular phylogenetic analysis, were placed within the Trichostrongylidae. This study provided strong support for the Herpetostrongylidae (including within it the Nicollinidae, but excluding the Globocephaloidinae) and the Mackerrastrongylidae as monophyletic assemblages. Additional studies are required to resolve the relationships of the remaining endemic Australasian trichostrongylin genera.

  14. Japanese Encephalitis in Travelers from Non-Endemic Countries, 1973–2008

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Susan L.; Griggs, Anne C.; Fischer, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a severe disease and a risk for travelers who visit JE-endemic countries. We reviewed all published JE cases in travelers from non-endemic areas from 1973 through 2008, and assessed factors related to risk of infection. There were 55 cases that occurred in citizens of 17 countries. Age range of case-patients was 1–91 years (median = 34 years). Ten (18%) persons died and 24 (44%) had mild to severe sequelae. In a detailed risk assessment of 37 case-patients, 24 (65%) had spent ≥ 1 month in JE-endemic areas, and most had factors identified that may have increased infection risk. The estimate of overall JE risk was low, < 1 case/1 million travelers to JE-endemic countries. Nonetheless, for each traveler, a careful assessment of itinerary and activities, a decision on vaccination, and information on mosquito precautions are needed to reduce the risk of this disease. PMID:20439978

  15. Rift Valley fever in West Africa: the role of space in endemicity.

    PubMed

    Favier, Charly; Chalvet-Monfray, Karine; Sabatier, Philippe; Lancelot, Renaud; Fontenille, Didier; Dubois, Marc A

    2006-12-01

    Rift Valley fever is an endemic vector-borne disease in West Africa, which mainly affects domestic ruminants and occasionally humans. The aetiological mechanisms of its endemicity remain under debate. We used a simple spatially explicit model to assess the possibility of endemicity without wild animals providing a permanent virus reservoir. Our model takes into account the vertical transmission in some mosquito species, the rainfall-driven emergence of their eggs and local and distant contacts because of herd migration. Endemicity without such a permanent virus reservoir would be impossible in a single site except when there is a strictly periodic rainfall pattern; but it would be possible when there are herd movements and sufficient inter-site variability in rainfall, which drives mosquito emergence.

  16. High prevalence of the EBER variant EB-8m in endemic nasopharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Shen, Zhi-chao; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jian-ning; Chao, Yan; Shao, Chun-kui; Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m) which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant), between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8) were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50) than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95) (p<0.0001), and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74) than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92) (p<0.0001). More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001). The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC.

  17. High Prevalence of the EBER Variant EB-8m in Endemic Nasopharyngeal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhi-chao; Luo, Bing; Chen, Jian-ning; Chao, Yan; Shao, Chun-kui; Liu, Qian-qian; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) are the most highly expressed transcripts in all EBV-associated tumors and are involved in both lymphoid and epithelioid carcinogenesis. Our previous study on Chinese isolates from non-endemic area of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) identified new EBER variants (EB-8m and EB-10m) which were less common but relatively more frequent in NPC cases than healthy donors. In the present study, we determined the EBER variants in NPC cases and healthy donors from endemic and non-endemic areas of NPC within China and compared the EBER variants, in relation to the genotypes at BamHI F region (prototype F and f variant), between population groups and between two areas. According to the phylogenetic tree, four EBER variants (EB-6m, EB-8m, EB-10m and B95-8) were identified. EB-6m was dominant in all population groups except for endemic NPC group, in which EB-8m was dominant. EB-8m was more common in endemic NPC cases (82.0%, 41/50) than non-endemic NPC cases (33.7%, 32/95) (p<0.0001), and it was also more frequent in healthy donors from endemic area (32.4%, 24/74) than healthy donors from non-endemic area (1.1%, 1/92) (p<0.0001). More importantly, the EB-8m was more prevalent in NPC cases than healthy donors in both areas (p<0.0001). The f variant, which has been suggested to associate with endemic NPC, demonstrated preferential linkage with EB-8m in endemic isolates, however, the EB-8m variant seemed to be more specific to NPC isolates than f variant. These results reveal high prevalence of EBER EB-8m variant in endemic NPC cases, suggesting an association between NPC development and EBV isolates carrying EB-8m variant. Our finding identified a small healthy population group that shares the same viral strain which predominates in NPC cases. It could be interesting to carry extensive cohort studies following these individuals to evaluate the risk to develop NPC. PMID:25807550

  18. Endemic Coccidioidomycosis in Northern California—An Outbreak in Yolo County

    PubMed Central

    Loofbourow, John C.; Pappagianis, Demosthenes; Cooper, Thomas Y.

    1969-01-01

    Endemicity of coccidioidomycosis in Yolo County, outside previously known endemic areas, was confirmed by occurrence of a small epidemic. Eleven cases of clinically apparent coccidioidomycosis occurred among a group of 23 archaeology students. Eight of the cases were confirmed serologically, and three by skin test conversion alone. The specific site of exposure was an ancient Indian burial ground on Cache Creek near Brooks in the Capay Valley approximately 40 miles northwest of Sacramento. PMID:5798012

  19. Endemic coccidioidomycosis in Northern California. An outbreak in the Capay Valley of Yolo County.

    PubMed

    Loofbourow, J C; Pappagianis, D; Cooper, T Y

    1969-07-01

    Endemicity of coccidioidomycosis in Yolo County, outside previously known endemic areas, was confirmed by occurrence of a small epidemic. Eleven cases of clinically apparent coccidioidomycosis occurred among a group of 23 archaeology students. Eight of the cases were confirmed serologically, and three by skin test conversion alone. The specific site of exposure was an ancient Indian burial ground on Cache Creek near Brooks in the Capay Valley approximately 40 miles northwest of Sacramento.

  20. Survey of Francisella tularensis in Wild Animals in Japan in Areas Where Tularemia is Endemic.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Akitoyo; Tanabayashi, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Shindo, Junji; Park, Chu-Ho; Kudo, Noboru; Hatai, Hitoshi; Oyamada, Toshifumi; Yamamoto, Yoshie; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Sharma, Neekun; Uda, Akihiko; Yamada, Akio; Morikawa, Shigeru

    2016-09-21

    Samples taken from 428 wild animals and 126 ticks, collected from a tularemia-endemic area in Japan between 2005 and 2013, were analyzed for the presence of Francisella tularensis. F. tularensis was isolated from a Japanese hare carcass whereas the samples from live animals and ticks were negative for F. tularensis by real-time PCR. Our results suggest that F. tularensis is still present in Japan although its prevalence is considerably low even in areas where tularemia is endemic.

  1. Among-species differences in pollen quality and quantity limitation: implications for endemics in biodiverse hotspots.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Conchita; Navarro-Fernández, Carmen M; Arceo-Gómez, Gerardo; Meindl, George A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Insufficient pollination is a function of quantity and quality of pollen receipt, and the relative contribution of each to pollen limitation may vary with intrinsic plant traits and extrinsic ecological properties. Community-level studies are essential to evaluate variation across species in quality limitation under common ecological conditions. This study examined whether endemic species are more limited by pollen quantity or quality than non-endemic co-flowering species in three endemic-rich plant communities located in biodiversity hotspots of different continents (Andalusia, California and Yucatan). Natural variations in pollen receipt and pollen tube formation were analysed for 20 insect-pollinated plants. Endemic and non-endemic species that co-flowered were paired in order to estimate and compare the quantity and quality components of pre-zygotic pollination success, obtained through piecewise regression analysis of the relationship between pollen grains and pollen tubes of naturally pollinated wilted flowers. Pollen tubes did not frequently exceed the number of ovules per flower. Only the combination of abundant and good quality pollen and a low number of ovules per flower conferred relief from pre-zygotic pollen limitation in the three stochastic pollination environments studied. Quality of pollen receipt was found to be as variable as quantity among study species. The relative pollination success of endemic and non-endemic species, and its quantity and quality components, was community dependent. Assessing both quality and quantity of pollen receipt is key to determining the ovule fertilization potential of both endemic and widespread plants in biodiverse hotspot regions. Large natural variation among flowers of the same species in the two components and pollen tube formation deserves further analysis in order to estimate the environmental, phenotypic and intraindividual sources of variation that may affect how plants evolve to overcome this limitation in

  2. Tuberculous meningitis in child born in the US to immigrants from a tuberculosis-endemic country.

    PubMed

    Chow, Eric J; Toll, Elizabeth; Montague, Brian T; Alexander-Scott, Nicole; Van Scoyoc, Erin

    2014-01-05

    This is a case of a child born in the US to immigrant parents from a tuberculosis (TB)-endemic area of Liberia who was diagnosed with TB meningitis after a greater than 1-month history of unremitting fever. This report aims to highlight the importance of early identification of TB in the pediatric population with risk factors for TB and considering TB as a diagnosis among US born children to immigrants from TB-endemic countries.

  3. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise

    PubMed Central

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. Methods This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Results Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Conclusions Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. PMID:26185194

  4. [The effect of duration of endemic nephropathy on serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity].

    PubMed

    Huskić, J; Kulenović, H

    1995-01-01

    The effects of duration of disease on serum angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) was measured in 60 patients with endemic nephropathy (30 men and 30 women) of age between 30 and 60 years. There were formed three groups: patients with endemic nephropathy and duration of disease less than 5 years (n = 23), patients with endemic nephropathy and duration of disease between 5-10 years (n = 17); and patients with endemic nephropathy and duration of disease 10 years and more (n = 20). The serum ACE activity was determined by the spectrophotometric method using Hip-Gly-Gly as a substrate. The activity of enzyme were expressed in units corresponding to 1 nmol of the hippuric acid that was released by the hydrolysis of Hip-Gly-Gly per minute and ml of serum. The results showed that serum ACE activity decreased in group of patients with endemic nephropathy and duration of disease 10 years and more (29.21 +/- 2.25; X +/- SEM) in comparison with group of patients with endemic nephropathy and the duration of disease less than 5 years (35.57 +/- 1.75), which was statistically significant (p < 0.03).

  5. Selenoprotein P and Yunnan endemic sudden cardiac death--an ecological study.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Li, X Z; Wang, T; Zhou, L W; Feng, H Q; Gao, L; Pei, J R; Lin, C; Jiang, C X

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore the role of selenoprotein P (SePP) in the etiology of the endemic sudden cardiac death in Yunnan, China. The levels of SePP of 124 subjects and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of 119 subjects were measured. The subjects were from the old and new endemic areas and non-endemic areas. The levels of SePP and GPx of the subjects of the old endemic area were significantly higher than those of the subjects of the new endemic area and the non-endemic areas, respectively. The Pearson's correlation among SePP, GPx, and the number of the incident cases of the disease were statistically significant. These correlations show that there is an inverse relationship among the number of patients and the levels of SePP (r  =  - 0.9800, P  =  0.0200) and GPx (r  =  - 0.961, P  =  0.009). The results show that selenium deficiency might play an important role in the incidence of the disease.

  6. Reconsidering contact precautions for endemic methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Murthy, Rekha; Munoz-Price, L Silvia; Barnden, Marsha; Camins, Bernard C; Johnston, B Lynn; Rubin, Zachary; Sullivan, Kaede V; Shane, Andi L; Dellinger, E Patchen; Rupp, Mark E; Bearman, Gonzalo

    2015-10-01

    Whether contact precautions (CP) are required to control the endemic transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in acute care hospitals is controversial in light of improvements in hand hygiene, MRSA decolonization, environmental cleaning and disinfection, fomite elimination, and chlorhexidine bathing. To provide a framework for decision making around use of CP for endemic MRSA and VRE based on a summary of evidence related to use of CP, including impact on patients and patient care processes, and current practices in use of CP for MRSA and VRE in US hospitals. A literature review, a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network members on use of CP, and a detailed examination of the experience of a convenience sample of hospitals not using CP for MRSA or VRE. Hospital epidemiologists and infection prevention experts. No high quality data support or reject use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE. Our survey found more than 90% of responding hospitals currently use CP for MRSA and VRE, but approximately 60% are interested in using CP in a different manner. More than 30 US hospitals do not use CP for control of endemic MRSA or VRE. Higher quality research on the benefits and harms of CP in the control of endemic MRSA and VRE is needed. Until more definitive data are available, the use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE in acute care hospitals should be guided by local needs and resources.

  7. [Research on chemotherapy measures in different Clonorchis sinensis infectiosity endemic areas].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yue-yi; Ruan, Cai-wen; Gao, Xiang-xiong; Tan, Tan; Chen, Rao-rao; Hao, Yang

    2014-06-01

    To explore the suitable chemotherapy measures in different Clonorchis sinensis infectiosity endemic areas. The interventional groups and control groups were set up in the heavy, moderate and light C. sinensis infectiosity areas in Guangdong Province, respectively. In the intervention groups, the chemotherapy was administered among all the residents aged above 3 years in the heavy endemic areas, the chemotherapy was given among the focus populations in the moderate endemic areas, and the chemotherapy was administered among the residents infected with C. sinensis confirmed by stool examinations in the light endemic areas. No measures were carried out in the control groups. One year after the interventions, the C. sinensis infection rates of the interventional groups decreased by 47.90%, 86.52% and 100%, the abnormal rates of liver B ultrasonic examinations decreased by 26.50%, 31.00% and 100%, the ALT abnormal rates decreased by 48.70%, 62.30% and 100%, and the AST abnormal rates decreased by 55.50%, 39.90% and 100% in the heavy, moderate and light endemic areas, respectively. There was no decreasing trend of above-mentioned indexes in the control groups. In the different C. sinensis infectiosity endemic areas, the different chemotherapy measures should be carried out.

  8. [Traightened on Chinese endemic seed plant species of medicine plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua-rong; Mu, Ze-jing; Du, Xiao-lang; He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-09-01

    This paper is in order to discussion with the composition and characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources, and promote the reasonable protection and utilization of the resources of Tibetan materia medica. Statistical analysis of species, distributions, and others of Chinese endemic seed plant from Tibetan medicine plants and usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. The results showed that there are 523 species (25%) of Chinese endemic seed plant, belonging to 65 families and 162 genera, in about 2 000 varieties of Tibetan medicine plants recorded in relevant literatures. There are 180 Chinese endemic seed plant species (28%) belonging to 42 families and 72 genera from 625 medicine plants usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. Specifically, the most of these Chinese endemic seed plant species are characteristic crude drug used in Tibetan medicine, and mainly or only distributed in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. And a few species of them were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and other ethnic medicines. In addition, about 10% are listed in China Species Red List. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant areas of Areal-types of the Chinese endemic seed plant. This is the biological and ecological reason formation the characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources. Therefore, strengthen the research of Chinese endemic seed plants used in Tibetan medicine is great significance for the reasonable protection and utilization of Tibetan medicine plant resources.

  9. Role of exposure analysis in solving the mystery of Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Long, David T; Voice, Thomas C

    2007-06-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A or aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur.

  10. Role of Exposure Analysis in Solving the Mystery of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Long, David T.; Voice, Thomas C.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the role of exposure analysis in assessing whether ochratoxin A aristolochic acid are the agents responsible for causing Balkan endemic nephropathy. We constructed a framework for exposure analysis using the lessons learned from the study of endemic goiter within the context of an accepted general model. We used this framework to develop an exposure analysis model for Balkan endemic nephropathy, evaluated previous findings from the literature on ochratoxin A and aristolochic acid in the context of this model, discussed the strength of evidence for each, and proposed approaches to address critical outstanding questions. The pathway for exposure to ochratoxin A is well defined and there is evidence that humans have ingested ochratoxin A. Factors causing differential exposure to ochratoxin A and how ochratoxin A is implicated in Balkan endemic nephropathy are not defined. Although there is evidence of human exposure to aristolochic acid and that its effects are consistent with Balkan endemic nephropathy, a pathway for exposure to aristolochic acid has been suggested but not demonstrated. Factors causing differential exposure to aristolochic acid are not known. Exposure analysis results suggest that neither ochratoxin A nor aristolochic acid can be firmly linked to Balkan endemic nephropathy. However, this approach suggests future research directions that could provide critical evidence on exposure, which when linked with findings from the health sciences, may be able to demonstrate the cause of this disease and provide a basis for effective public health intervention strategies. One of the key unknowns for both agents is how differential exposure can occur. PMID:17589972

  11. Correlation Of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy With Fluorescent Organic Compounds In Shallow Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Marvin C.; Feder, Gerald L.; Radovanovic, Zoran

    1994-04-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a disease of intersitial nephropathy leading to end-stage renal failure. The disease occurs in persons living in villages on alluvial valleys of streams tributary to the Danube River in Rumania, Bulgaria and former Yugoslavia. The etiologic agent is not known, but a contaminant in shallow groundwater has become suspect. In this study, samples of drinking water from endemic and non-endemic village water supplies were analyzed by excitation/emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy. Spectra characteristic of groundwater from BEN households show elongated teardrop shapes in the fluorescence excitation/emission matrix. A sharp rise occurs in fluorescence emission between 380 and 400 nanometers (nm) and a trailing emission intensity from 400 to 550 nm. Spectra of groundwater samples from some BEN households have an additional excitation maxima at 300 nm, which further contributes to the emission intensity at 400 nm. Spectra of water samples from non-BEN households located in endemic villages show characteristics of BEN household waters, exhibiting the 250-nm excitation peak, even though the fluorophoric intensity is much less than that in samples from BEN household waters. Samples from non-endemic villages do not show the characteristic EEM spectra described as "teardrop shaped". The non-BEN households have lower concentrations of these fluorophores in the drinking water than the endemic households; hence, one of the factors in contracting the disease may be the concentration of these fluorescent materials in drinking water.

  12. Disentangling Phylogenetic Relationships in a Hotspot of Diversity: The Butterworts (Pinguicula L., Lentibulariaceae) Endemic to Italy

    PubMed Central

    Di Maio, Antonietta; Menale, Bruno; Bacchetta, Gianluigi; Pires, Mathias; Noble, Virgile; Gestri, Giovanni; Conti, Fabio; Peruzzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    The genus Pinguicula (Lentibulariaceae) consists of about 100 carnivorous species, also known as butterworts. Eleven taxa are endemic to Italy, which represents a biodiversity hotspot for butterworts in Europe. The aim of our study was to provide a phylogenetic framework for the Italian endemics, in order to: a) investigate the relationships between species in this group; b) evaluate their actual taxonomic value. To achieve this, we analysed all the taxa endemic to Italy, along with several other species, by means of ITS nrDNA analysis. Our results clarify the relationships between Italian endemics and other Pinguicula taxa identifying a basal polytomy defined by five clades. All of the Italian endemics (with the exception of P. lavalvae) fall within a single large clade, which includes P. vulgaris and allied species. Among them, P. poldinii represents the most isolated lineage. Other taxa show strong molecular similarities and form a single subclade, although their taxonomic ranks can be retained. Pinguicula lattanziae sp. nov., seemingly endemic to Liguria (NW Italy), is also described. PMID:28030566

  13. Endemic infection reduces transmission potential of an epidemic parasite during co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Randall, J.; Cable, J.; Guschina, I. A.; Harwood, J. L.; Lello, J.

    2013-01-01

    Endemic, low-virulence parasitic infections are common in nature. Such infections may deplete host resources, which in turn could affect the reproduction of other parasites during co-infection. We aimed to determine whether the reproduction, and therefore transmission potential, of an epidemic parasite was limited by energy costs imposed on the host by an endemic infection. Total lipids, triacylglycerols (TAG) and polar lipids were measured in cockroaches (Blattella germanica) that were fed ad libitum, starved or infected with an endemic parasite, Gregarina blattarum. Reproductive output of an epidemic parasite, Steinernema carpocapsae, was then assessed by counting the number of infective stages emerging from these three host groups. We found both starvation and gregarine infection reduced cockroach lipids, mainly through depletion of TAG. Further, both starvation and G. blattarum infection resulted in reduced emergence of nematode transmission stages. This is, to our knowledge, the first study to demonstrate directly that host resource depletion caused by endemic infection could affect epidemic disease transmission. In view of the ubiquity of endemic infections in nature, future studies of epidemic transmission should take greater account of endemic co-infections. PMID:23966641

  14. A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions.

    PubMed

    Kier, Gerold; Kreft, Holger; Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter; Ibisch, Pierre L; Nowicki, Christoph; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2009-06-09

    Endemism and species richness are highly relevant to the global prioritization of conservation efforts in which oceanic islands have remained relatively neglected. When compared to mainland areas, oceanic islands in general are known for their high percentage of endemic species but only moderate levels of species richness, prompting the question of their relative conservation value. Here we quantify geographic patterns of endemism-scaled richness ("endemism richness") of vascular plants across 90 terrestrial biogeographic regions, including islands, worldwide and evaluate their congruence with terrestrial vertebrates. Endemism richness of plants and vertebrates is strongly related, and values on islands exceed those of mainland regions by a factor of 9.5 and 8.1 for plants and vertebrates, respectively. Comparisons of different measures of past and future human impact and land cover change further reveal marked differences between mainland and island regions. While island and mainland regions suffered equally from past habitat loss, we find the human impact index, a measure of current threat, to be significantly higher on islands. Projected land-cover changes for the year 2100 indicate that land-use-driven changes on islands might strongly increase in the future. Given their conservation risks, smaller land areas, and high levels of endemism richness, islands may offer particularly high returns for species conservation efforts and therefore warrant a high priority in global biodiversity conservation in this century.

  15. Measuring elimination of podoconiosis, endemicity classifications, case definition and targets: an international Delphi exercise.

    PubMed

    Deribe, Kebede; Wanji, Samuel; Shafi, Oumer; Muheki Tukahebwa, Edridah; Umulisa, Irenee; Davey, Gail

    2015-09-01

    Podoconiosis is one of the major causes of lymphoedema in the tropics. Nonetheless, currently there are no endemicity classifications or elimination targets to monitor the effects of interventions. This study aimed at establishing case definitions and indicators that can be used to assess endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis. This paper describes the result of a Delphi technique used among 28 experts. A questionnaire outlining possible case definitions, endemicity classifications, elimination targets and clinical outcomes was developed. The questionnaire was distributed to experts working on podoconiosis and other neglected tropical diseases in two rounds. The experts rated the importance of case definitions, endemic classifications, elimination targets and the clinical outcome measures. Median and mode were used to describe the central tendency of expert responses. The coefficient of variation was used to describe the dispersals of expert responses. Consensus on definitions and indicators for assessing endemicity, elimination and clinical outcomes of podoconiosis directed at policy makers and health workers was achieved following the two rounds of Delphi approach among the experts. Based on the two Delphi rounds we discuss potential indicators and endemicity classification of this disabling disease, and the ongoing challenges to its elimination in countries with the highest prevalence. Consensus will help to increase effectiveness of podoconiosis elimination efforts and ensure comparability of outcome data. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  16. A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Verma, Kanika Gupta; Verma, Pradhuman; Sidhu, Gagandeep Kaur; Sachdeva, Suresh

    2014-01-03

    The study was undertaken to determine serum/urinary fluoride status and comparison of free T4, free T3 and thyroid stimulating hormone levels of 8 to 15 years old children with and without dental fluorosis living in an endemic and non-endemic fluorosis area. A sample group of 60 male and female school children, with or without dental fluorosis, consuming fluoride-contaminated water in endemic fluoride area of Udaipur district, Rajasthan were selected through a school dental fluorosis survey. The sample of 10 children of same age and socio-economic status residing in non endemic areas who did not have dental fluorosis form controls. Fluoride determination in drinking water, urine and blood was done with Ion 85 Ion Analyzer Radiometer with Hall et al. method. The thyroid gland functional test was done by Immonu Chemiluminiscence Micropartical Assay with Bayer Centaur Autoanalyzer. The significantly altered FT3, FT4 and TSH hormones level in both group1A and 1B school children were noted. The serum and urine fluoride levels were found to be increased in both the groups. A significant relationship of water fluoride to urine and serum fluoride concentration was seen. The serum fluoride concentration also had significant relationship with thyroid hormone (FT3/FT4) and TSH concentrations. The testing of drinking water and body fluids for fluoride content, along with FT3, FT4, and TSH in children with dental fluorosis is desirable for recognizing underlying thyroid derangements and its impact on fluorosis.

  17. Risk factors associated with travel to rabies endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Fooks, A R; Johnson, N; Brookes, S M; Parsons, G; McElhinney, L M

    2003-01-01

    patient and reduce the requirement for invasive and costly interventions. Rabies should form part of a differential diagnosis for any patient presenting with a history of travel to a rabies endemic country and displaying an undiagnosed encephalopathy.

  18. Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Project - ODFW, 2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, Scott

    2009-04-10

    Core activities of the Grande Ronde Endemic Spring Chinook Supplementation Program (GRESCSP) are funded through the authority of the Lower Snake River Fish and Wildlife Compensation Plan (LSRCP). The LSRCP program was approved by the Water Resources Development Act of 1976, PL 94-587, Section 102, 94th Congress substantially in accordance with the Special Report, LSRCP, June 1975 on file with the Chief of Engineers. The LSRCP was prepared and submitted in compliance with the Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act of 1958, PL 85-624, 85th Congress, August 12, 1958 to mitigate for the losses of fish and wildlife caused by the construction of dams on lower Snake River. The GRESCSP is an artificial propagation program that was initiated by Bonneville Power Administrations Fish and Wildlife program in the mid 1990's. The intent of this program was to change the mitigation aspect of the LSRCP program (harvest mitigation) to an integrated supplementation program; inasmuch as, hatchery produced fish could be experimentally used as a recovery tool and fish surplus to mitigation would be available for in-place and in-kind harvest. Fish production is still authorized by the LSRCP with the original mitigation return goal of 5,860 adult spring Chinook to the project area. The GRESCSP was developed with two primary components: (1) conventional broodstock (projects 199800702; 199800703; 199800704) and (2) captive brood (projects 199801001; 199801006). The GRESCSP relies on cooperative M&E efforts from the LSRCP including setting aside the Wenaha and Minam tributaries as natural production reserves components used for reference streams. The GRESCSP, coordinated with federal and tribal partners, identifies production levels for both propagation components and weir management strategies for each of the three supplemented tributary areas within the Grande Ronde Sub-basin. The three supplemented areas are Catherine Creek, Lostine River, and upper Grande Ronde River. Lookingglass Creek, an

  19. Comparing sociocultural features of cholera in three endemic African settings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cholera mainly affects developing countries where safe water supply and sanitation infrastructure are often rudimentary. Sub-Saharan Africa is a cholera hotspot. Effective cholera control requires not only a professional assessment, but also consideration of community-based priorities. The present work compares local sociocultural features of endemic cholera in urban and rural sites from three field studies in southeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (SE-DRC), western Kenya and Zanzibar. Methods A vignette-based semistructured interview was used in 2008 in Zanzibar to study sociocultural features of cholera-related illness among 356 men and women from urban and rural communities. Similar cross-sectional surveys were performed in western Kenya (n = 379) and in SE-DRC (n = 360) in 2010. Systematic comparison across all settings considered the following domains: illness identification; perceived seriousness, potential fatality and past household episodes; illness-related experience; meaning; knowledge of prevention; help-seeking behavior; and perceived vulnerability. Results Cholera is well known in all three settings and is understood to have a significant impact on people’s lives. Its social impact was mainly characterized by financial concerns. Problems with unsafe water, sanitation and dirty environments were the most common perceived causes across settings; nonetheless, non-biomedical explanations were widespread in rural areas of SE-DRC and Zanzibar. Safe food and water and vaccines were prioritized for prevention in SE-DRC. Safe water was prioritized in western Kenya along with sanitation and health education. The latter two were also prioritized in Zanzibar. Use of oral rehydration solutions and rehydration was a top priority everywhere; healthcare facilities were universally reported as a primary source of help. Respondents in SE-DRC and Zanzibar reported cholera as affecting almost everybody without differentiating much for gender, age

  20. Urinary protein patterns in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Djukanović, Ljubica; Djordjević, Vidosava; Ležaić, Višnja; Cukuranović, Rade; Marić, Ivko; Bukvić, Danica; Marinković, Jelena; Cukuranović, Jovana; Rajić, Milena; Stefanović, Vladisav

    2013-12-01

    Urinary excretion of beta2-microglobulin (beta2-MG), albumin, immunoglobulin G (IgG) and protein was examined in patients with Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN), glomerulonephritis (GN) and healthy controls. The proteins were measured in morning urine samples from 74 patients with BEN, 50 healthy persons and 22 patients with GN. In BEN patients, median values for albumin, beta2-MG and protein were above upper normal limits, but median IgG was inside normal range. All patients with GN had microalbuminuria (MAU) and half of them had increased urinary beta2-MG, which was also found in eleven patients with increased urinary IgG. In BEN patients, there were significant negative correlations between eGFR and all measured urinary proteins, the composition of which changed during the course of BEN. In patients with eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) isolated beta2-MG was the most frequent finding (10/12 patients), but MAU was present in 4/12 patients. In BEN patients with eGFR between 30 and 59 ml/min/1.73 m(2), beta2-MG appeared as often as the combination of beta2-MG and albumin and isolated MAU. Out of 49 BEN patients with eGFR > 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) 15 had increased urinary IgG either alone (1) or together with beta2-MG (3) or albumin (3) or beta2-MG and albumin (8). In BEN patients with GFR < 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) only 1/25 had isolated beta2-MG but increased urinary IgG with increased beta2-MG, and albumin was the most frequent. Although low-molecular weight proteinuria was the most frequent urinary finding in BEN patients, MAU was frequently detected in advanced stages of BEN but also in some patients with eGFR > 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2). IgG was increasingly found as eGFR decreased.

  1. Population connectivity and the effectiveness of marine protected areas to protect vulnerable, exploited and endemic coral reef fishes at an endemic hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meer, M. H.; Berumen, M. L.; Hobbs, J.-P. A.; van Herwerden, L.

    2015-06-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) aim to mitigate anthropogenic impacts by conserving biodiversity and preventing overfishing. The effectiveness of MPAs depends on population connectivity patterns between protected and non-protected areas. Remote islands are endemism hotspots for coral reef fishes and provide rare examples of coral reefs with limited fishing pressure. This study explored population genetic connectivity across a network of protected and non-protected areas for the endemic wrasse, Coris bulbifrons, which is listed as "vulnerable" by the IUCN due to its small, decreasing geographic range and declining abundance. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and microsatellite DNA (msatDNA) markers were used to estimate historic and contemporary gene flow to determine the level of population self-replenishment and to measure genetic and genotypic diversity among all four locations in the species range (south-west Pacific Ocean)—Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI) and Norfolk Island (NI). MPAs exist at MR and LHI and are limited or non-existent at ER and NI, respectively. There was no obvious differentiation in mtDNA among locations, however, msatDNA revealed differentiation between the most peripheral (NI) and all remaining locations (MR, ER and LHI). Despite high mtDNA connectivity ( M = 259-1,144), msatDNA connectivity was limited ( M = 3-9) with high self-replenishment (68-93 %) at all locations. NI is the least connected and heavily reliant on self-replenishment, and the absence of MPAs at NI needs to be rectified to ensure the persistence of endemic species at this location. Other endemic fishes exhibit similar patterns of high self-replenishment across the four locations, indicating that a single spatial management approach consisting of a MPA network protecting part of each location could provide reasonable protection for these species. Thus, the existing network of MPAs at this endemic hotspot appears adequate at some locations, but not

  2. [Retrospective investigation on changes of endemic situation before and after reaching criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or interrupted in hilly endemic areas of Jiangxi Province].

    PubMed

    Lin, Dan-dan; Lv, Shang-biao; Gu, Xiao-nan; Ying, Hu; Zeng, Jian-fang; Zu, Zao-fen; Chen, Hong-gen

    2013-10-01

    To investigate the changing rules of schistosomiasis endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of schistosomiasis transmission controlled or interrupted in hilly endemic areas of Jiangxi Province, so as to provide the evidence for reformulating the criteria of schistosomiasis control and eradication in the future. In the hilly areas of schistosomiasis endemic in Jiangxi Province, 2 counties where the transmission has been interrupted and 1 county where the transmission has been controlled were selected and investigated with the retrospective research method. The endemic detailed data were collected and recorded 10 years before reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted/controlled, and several years after reaching the criteria (ending in 2008), and then a database was established. The changing rules of endemic situation before and after reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted/controlled were analyzed and compared. After reaching the criteria of transmission controlled, in the 3 counties, Guangfen, Shangrao and Dean, the declined rates of areas with Oncomelania hupensis snails were 96.79%, 98.99%, and 99.77% respectively. The snail density maintained a lower level, and 95% of infected persons and cattle were cured. The average time from transmission controlled to the transmission interrupted was 17 years in Guangfen County and 26 years in Dean County. However, in Shangrao County, the snail situation rebounded due to the snail re-found and spread although the schistosomiasis morbidity of population/animals maintained stably. After reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted/controlled, the remained snails were easy to re-find and spread under some certain condition, which is one of main obstacles for reaching the criteria of transmission interrupted. In an isolated snail unit, if the snail area and snail density are controlled in a very low level, it is still difficult to transmit and spread schistosomiasis even if there exist

  3. Factors affecting plant species richness and endemism on land-bridge islands - An example from the East Aegean archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitsa, Maria; Trigas, Panayiotis; Iatrou, Gregoris; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2010-07-01

    The native flora and a number of environmental factors were recorded for twenty islands in the eastern Aegean archipelago (Greece) in order to study the patterns of native and endemic plant species diversity as well as the effects of environmental factors in shaping these patterns at different levels of endemism. Stepwise regressions were used to test the effects of these factors on species richness of native and especially of endemic plants, at local scales. The performance of the Choros model was also compared with the separate effects of area and habitat diversity using simple linear regressions. The residuals from the species-area functions of native and endemic species were used as indices of relative island richness. Out of the 2238 species and subspecies recorded in total, 302 taxa (13.4%) are endemics (either single island endemics or endemic at a broader scale, namely Aegean, Greek-Aegean, or Anatolian-Aegean). All native, all endemic and Aegean endemic species similarities among islands were assessed and the three matrices were compared with the matrices of among-island geographical distances and island similarities based on components of habitat diversity using Mantel test. Among the factors tested, habitat diversity, of which elevation is another dimension, is the main factor affecting floral richness on east Aegean islands. The patterns exhibited by local endemics, though, are of a more idiosyncratic nature since this factor is the major predictor of species richness of most of the endemics levels (including single island endemics) except the Aegean endemics which are better predicted by elevation. The Choros model does not provide a better prediction of richness than habitat diversity alone. There is a positive correlation between native species similarities and geographical distances among islands, but no correlation between environmental and floral similarities.

  4. Oral iron supplements for children in malaria-endemic areas

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, Ami; Okebe, Joseph; Yahav, Dafna; Paul, Mical

    2016-01-01

    prevention or management services are provided efficiently. PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY Iron supplements for children living in malaria-endemic countries Why the review is important Children living in malarial areas commonly develop anaemia. Long-term anaemia is thought to delay a child's development and make children more likely to get infections. In areas where anaemia is common, health providers may give iron to prevent anaemia, but there is a concern amongst researchers that this may increase the risk of malaria. It is thought that the iron tablets will increase iron levels in the blood, and this will promote the growth of the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria. We aimed to assess the effects of oral iron supplementation in children living in countries where malaria is common. Main findings of the review Cochrane researchers searched the available evidence up to 30 August 2015 and included 35 trials (31,955 children). Iron did not increase the risk of malaria, indicated by fever and the presence of parasites in the blood (high quality evidence). There was no increased risk of death among children treated with iron, although the quality of the evidence for this was low. Among children treated with iron, there was no increased risk of severe malaria (high quality evidence). Although it is hypothesized that iron supplementation might harm children who do not have anaemia living in malarial areas, there is probably no increased risk for malaria in these children (moderate quality evidence). In areas where health services are sufficient to help prevent and treat malaria, giving iron supplements (with or without folic acid) may reduce clinical malaria. In areas where these services are not available, iron supplementation (with or without folic acid) may increase the number of children with clinical malaria (low quality evidence). Overall, iron resulted in fewer anaemic children at follow up, and the end average change in haemoglobin from base line was higher with iron

  5. Molecular typing of Brucella melitensis endemic strains and differentiation from the vaccine strain Rev-1.

    PubMed

    Noutsios, Georgios T; Papi, Rigini M; Ekateriniadou, Loukia V; Minas, Anastasios; Kyriakidis, Dimitrios A

    2012-03-01

    In the present study forty-four Greek endemic strains of Br. melitensis and three reference strains were genotyped by Multi locus Variable Number Tandem Repeat (ML-VNTR) analysis based on an eight-base pair tandem repeat sequence that was revealed in eight loci of Br. melitensis genome. The forty-four strains were discriminated from the vaccine strain Rev-1 by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) and Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). The ML-VNTR analysis revealed that endemic, reference and vaccine strains are genetically closely related, while most of the loci tested (1, 2, 4, 5 and 7) are highly polymorphic with Hunter-Gaston Genetic Diversity Index (HGDI) values in the range of 0.939 to 0.775. Analysis of ML-VNTRs loci stability through in vitro passages proved that loci 1 and 5 are non stable. Therefore, vaccine strain can be discriminated from endemic strains by allele's clusters of loci 2, 4, 6 and 7. RFLP and DGGE were also employed to analyse omp2 gene and reveled different patterns among Rev-1 and endemic strains. In RFLP, Rev-1 revealed three fragments (282, 238 and 44 bp), while endemic strains two fragments (238 and 44 bp). As for DGGE, the electrophoretic mobility of Rev-1 is different from the endemic strains due to heterologous binding of DNA chains of omp2a and omp2b gene. Overall, our data show clearly that it is feasible to genotype endemic strains of Br. melitensis and differentiate them from vaccine strain Rev-1 with ML-VNTR, RFLP and DGGE techniques. These tools can be used for conventional investigations in brucellosis outbreaks.

  6. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed Central

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D.; van Diggelen, Josepha M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. Methods We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. Key Results The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Conclusions Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow

  7. Molluskan species richness and endemism on New Caledonian seamounts: Are they enhanced compared to adjacent slopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelin, Magalie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Lozouet, Pierre; Sysoev, Alexander; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Samadi, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Seamounts were often considered as 'hotspots of diversity' and 'centers of endemism', but recently this opinion has been challenged. After 25 years of exploration and the work of numerous taxonomists, the Norfolk Ridge (Southwest Pacific) is probably one of the best-studied seamount chains worldwide. However, even in this intensively explored area, the richness and the geographic patterns of diversity are still poorly characterized. Among the benthic organisms, the post-mortem remains of mollusks can supplement live records to comprehensively document geographical distributions. Moreover, the accretionary growth of mollusk shells informs us about the life span of the pelagic larva. To compare diversity and level of endemism between the Norfolk Ridge seamounts and the continental slopes of New Caledonia we used species occurrence data drawn from (i) the taxonomic literature on mollusks and (ii) a raw dataset of mainly undescribed deep-sea species of the hyperdiverse Turridae. Patterns of endemism and species richness were analyzed through quantitative indices of endemism and species richness estimator metrics. To date, 403 gastropods and bivalves species have been recorded on the Norfolk Ridge seamounts. Of these, at least 38 species (˜10%) are potentially endemic to the seamounts and nearly all of 38 species have protoconchs indicating lecithotrophic larval development. Overall, our results suggest that estimates of species richness and endemism, when sampling effort is taken into account, were not significantly different between slopes and seamounts. By including in our analyses 347 undescribed morphospecies from the Norfolk Ridge, our results also demonstrate the influence of taxonomic bias on our estimates of species richness and endemism.

  8. Exploring rock fissures: does a specialized root morphology explain endemism on granite outcrops?

    PubMed

    Poot, Pieter; Hopper, Stephen D; van Diggelen, Josepha M H

    2012-07-01

    Worldwide, many plant species are confined to open, shallow-soil, rocky habitats. Although several hypotheses have been proposed to explain this habitat specificity, none has been convincing. We suggest that the high level of endemism on shallow soils is related to the edaphic specialization needed to survive in these often extremely drought-prone habitats. Previous research has shown that species endemic to ironstone communities in SW Australia have a specialized root morphology that enhances their chance to access fissures in the underlying rock. Here we test the generality of these findings for species that are confined to a shallow-soil habitat that is of much greater global significance: granite outcrops. We compared temporal and spatial root growth and allocation of three endemic woody perennials of SW Australian granite outcrop communities with those of congeners occurring on nearby deeper soils. Seedlings of all species were grown in 1·2 m long custom-made containers with a transparent bottom that allowed monitoring of root growth over time. The granite outcrop endemics mostly differed in a predictable way from their congeners from deeper soils. They generally invested a larger portion of their biomass in roots, distributed their roots faster and more evenly over the container and had a lower specific root length. In different species pairs the outcrop endemics achieved their apparent advantage by a different combination of the aforementioned traits. Our results are consistent with earlier work, indicating that species restricted to different types of drought-prone shallow-soil communities have undergone similar selection pressures. Although adaptive in their own habitat in terms of obtaining access to fissures in the underlying rock, these root system traits are likely to be maladaptive in deeper soil habitats. Therefore, our results may provide an explanation for the narrow endemism of many shallow-soil endemics.

  9. Selenium in soil and endemic diseases in China.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jian'an; Zhu, Wenyu; Wang, Wuyi; Li, Ribang; Hou, Shaofan; Wang, Dacheng; Yang, Linsheng

    2002-02-04

    , generally the laterite and other subtropic soil still have relatively high absolute water-soluble Se contents because of their higher total Se contents. A very significant correlation between total Se and water-soluble Se has been found in cultivated soil with a correlation coefficient of 0.58 (P < 0.01). The relationships between soil Se and human endemic diseases Keshan disease, Kashin-Back diseases and selenosis have been discussed. The reference criteria for evaluating Se deficiency and Se excess in soil were suggested.

  10. Spatial variation in the climatic predictors of species compositional turnover and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C; Chapple, David G

    2014-01-01

    Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species–environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation and their findings may not generalize to different locations at local scales. We assess how reptile–climatic relationships change with varying spatial scale, location, and direction. Since the spatial distributions of diversity and endemism hotspots differ for other species groups, we also assess whether reptile species turnover and endemism hotspots are influenced differently by climatic predictors. Using New Zealand reptiles as an example, the variation in species turnover, endemism and turnover in climatic variables was measured using directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°. Correlations between the species turnover, endemism and climatic turnover results generated by each rotation of the moving window were analysed using multivariate generalized linear models applied at national, regional, and local scales. At national-scale, temperature turnover consistently exhibited the greatest influence on species turnover and endemism, but model predictive capacity was low (typically r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001). At regional scales the relative influence of temperature and precipitation turnover varied between regions, although model predictive capacity was also generally low. Climatic turnover was considerably more predictive of species turnover and endemism at local scales (e.g., r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001). While temperature turnover had the greatest effect in one locale (the northern North Island), there was substantial variation in the relative influence of temperature and precipitation predictors in the remaining

  11. Spatial variation in the climatic predictors of species compositional turnover and endemism.

    PubMed

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C; Chapple, David G

    2014-08-01

    Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species-environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation and their findings may not generalize to different locations at local scales. We assess how reptile-climatic relationships change with varying spatial scale, location, and direction. Since the spatial distributions of diversity and endemism hotspots differ for other species groups, we also assess whether reptile species turnover and endemism hotspots are influenced differently by climatic predictors. Using New Zealand reptiles as an example, the variation in species turnover, endemism and turnover in climatic variables was measured using directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°. Correlations between the species turnover, endemism and climatic turnover results generated by each rotation of the moving window were analysed using multivariate generalized linear models applied at national, regional, and local scales. At national-scale, temperature turnover consistently exhibited the greatest influence on species turnover and endemism, but model predictive capacity was low (typically r (2) = 0.05, P < 0.001). At regional scales the relative influence of temperature and precipitation turnover varied between regions, although model predictive capacity was also generally low. Climatic turnover was considerably more predictive of species turnover and endemism at local scales (e.g., r (2) = 0.65, P < 0.001). While temperature turnover had the greatest effect in one locale (the northern North Island), there was substantial variation in the relative influence of temperature and precipitation predictors in the

  12. Elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome from the Western hemisphere: the US experience.

    PubMed

    Papania, Mark J; Wallace, Gregory S; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph P; Fiebelkorn, Amy Parker; Armstrong, Gregory L; Reef, Susan E; Redd, Susan B; Abernathy, Emily S; Barskey, Albert E; Hao, Lijuan; McLean, Huong Q; Rota, Jennifer S; Bellini, William J; Seward, Jane F

    2014-02-01

    To verify the elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) from the Western hemisphere, the Pan American Health Organization requested each member country to compile a national elimination report. The United States documented the elimination of endemic measles in 2000 and of endemic rubella and CRS in 2004. In December 2011, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention convened an external expert panel to review the evidence and determine whether elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and CRS had been sustained. To review the evidence for sustained elimination of endemic measles, rubella, and CRS from the United States through 2011. Review of data for measles from 2001 to 2011 and for rubella and CRS from 2004 to 2011 covering the US resident population and international visitors, including disease epidemiology, importation status of cases, molecular epidemiology, adequacy of surveillance, and population immunity as estimated by national vaccination coverage and serologic surveys. Annual numbers of measles, rubella, and CRS cases, by importation status, outbreak size, and distribution; proportions of US population seropositive for measles and rubella; and measles-mumps-rubella vaccination coverage levels. Since 2001, US reported measles incidence has remained below 1 case per 1,000,000 population. Since 2004, rubella incidence has been below 1 case per 10,000,000 population, and CRS incidence has been below 1 case per 5,000,000 births. Eighty-eight percent of measles cases and 54% of rubella cases were internationally imported or epidemiologically or virologically linked to importation. The few cases not linked to importation were insufficient to represent endemic transmission. Molecular epidemiology indicated no endemic genotypes. The US surveillance system is adequate to detect endemic measles or rubella. Seroprevalence and vaccination coverage data indicate high levels of population immunity to measles and rubella. The

  13. Incidence of Endemic Entomopathogenic Nematodes Following Application of Steinernema riobrave for Control of Diaprepes abbreviatus.

    PubMed

    Duncan, L W; Graham, J H; Dunn, D C; Zellers, J; McCoy, C W; Nguyen, K

    2003-06-01

    Control of Diaprepes abbreviatus by endemic and exotic entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) was monitored during 2000-2001 in two citrus orchards in central Florida (Bartow and Poinciana). Caged sentinel insect larvae were buried beneath citrus trees for 7 days at 1 to 2-month intervals from April to October each year. At Bartow, the survey occurred in experimental plots that were (i) not treated with commercial EPN, (ii) treated twice annually since 1998 with commercially formulated Steinernema riobrave, or (iii) treated twice annually with S. riobrave and liquid fertilization (15 times/year) occurred in place of dry fertilizer (3 times/year) used in the other treatments. Four endemic EPN species, in addition to S. riobrave, were recovered from the sandy soil at Bartow: S. diaprepesi, Heterorhabditis zealandica, H. indica, and H. bacteriophora. Mean insect mortality in control plots was 39.4% (range = 13% to 74%), with seasonal maxima in May to July each year. Endemic EPN were recovered from 55% (range = 22% to 81%) of the cadavers each month. Total numbers of endemic EPN recovered in all plots during 2 years were directly related to the numbers of adult weevils (D. abbreviatus and Pachnaeus litus) captured in modified Tedder's traps and inversely related to recovery of S. riobrave. Insect mortality was higher and cadavers containing endemic EPN were more numerous in untreated control plots than in S. riobrave-treated plots, except during months in which S. riobrave was applied. In treated plots, endemic EPN were recovered from cadavers at twice the rate of S. riobrave. Suppression of endemic EPN in plots treated with S. riobrave, combined with inferior persistence by the introduced species, may have attenuated the net efficacy of S. riobrave against D. abbreviatus. In contrast, H. indica was the only endemic nematode recovered from the sandy clay loam soil at Poinciana, where the average mortality of D. abbreviatus was 12% (range 3% to 20%) and incidence of H. indica

  14. Endemic versus epidemic viral spreads display distinct patterns of HTLV-2b replication

    SciTech Connect

    Gabet, Anne-Sophie; Moules, Vincent; Sibon, David; Nass, Catharie C.; Mortreux, Franck; Mauclere, Philippe; Gessain, Antoine; Murphy, Edward L.; Wattel, Eric . E-mail: wattel@lyon.fnclcc.fr

    2006-02-05

    As the replication pattern of leukemogenic PTLVs possesses a strong pathogenic impact, we investigated HTLV-2 replication in vivo in asymptomatic carriers belonging into 2 distinct populations infected by the same HTLV-2b subtype. They include epidemically infected American blood donors, in whom HTLV-2b has been present for only 30 years, and endemically infected Bakola Pygmies from Cameroon, characterized by a long viral endemicity (at least few generations). In blood donors, both the circulating proviral loads and the degree of infected cell proliferation were largely lower than those characterizing asymptomatic carriers infected with leukemogenic PTLVs (HTLV-1, STLV-1). This might contribute to explain the lack of known link between HTLV-2b infection and the development of malignancies in this population. In contrast, endemically infected individuals displayed high proviral loads resulting from the extensive proliferation of infected cells. The route and/or the duration of infection, viral genetic drift, host immune response, genetic background, co-infections or a combination thereof might have contributed to these differences between endemically and epidemically infected subjects. As the clonality pattern observed in endemically infected individuals is very reminiscent of that of leukemogenic PTLVs at the pre-leukemic stage, our results highlight the possible oncogenic effect of HTLV-2b infection in such population.

  15. Is endemic Burkitt's lymphoma an alliance between three infections and a tumour promoter?

    PubMed

    van den Bosch, C A

    2004-12-01

    Malaria and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), recognised cofactors for endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, are ubiquitous within the lymphoma belt of Africa, and, unless other cofactors are involved, the tumour should be much more common than it is. Malaria and EBV alone cannot account for the occasional shifting foci and space-time case clusters of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma. Arboviruses and plant tumour promoters are other possible local cofactors that could explain such characteristics. The geographical and age distributions of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma parallel those of potentially oncogenic, mosquito-borne arboviruses. Arboviruses seem to be associated with case clusters of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma, and symptoms compatible with arbovirus infection have been seen immediately before the onset of the tumour. RNA and DNA viruses, including EBV, are promoted by extracts of a commonly used plant, Euphorbia tirucalli, the distribution of which coincides with the boundaries of the lymphoma belt. Extracts of E tirucalli are tumour promoters and can induce the characteristic 8;14 translocation of endemic Burkitt's lymphoma in EBV-infected cell-lines. They also activate latent EBV in infected cells, enhance EBV-mediated cell transformation, and modulate EBV-specific immunity.

  16. Chagas disease and transfusion medicine: a perspective from non-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Angheben, Andrea; Boix, Lucia; Buonfrate, Dora; Gobbi, Federico; Bisoffi, Zeno; Pupella, Simonetta; Gandini, Giorgio; Aprili, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades, increasing international migration and travel from Latin America to Europe have favoured the emergence of tropical diseases outside their “historical” boundaries. Chagas disease, a zoonosis endemic in rural areas of Central and South America represents a clear example of this phenomenon. In the absence of the vector, one of the potential modes of transmission of Chagas disease in non-endemic regions is through blood and blood products. As most patients with Chagas disease are asymptomatic and unaware of their condition, in case of blood donation they can inadvertently represent a serious threat to the safety of the blood supply in non-endemic areas. Since the first cases of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease were described in the last years, non-endemic countries began to develop ad hoc strategies to prevent and control the spread of the infection. United States, Spain, United Kingdom and France first recognised the need for Trypanosoma cruzi screening in at-risk blood donors. In this review, we trace an up-to-date perspective on Chagas disease, describing its peculiar features, from epidemiological, pathological, clinical and diagnostic points of view. Moreover, we describe the possible transmission of Chagas disease through blood or blood products and the current strategies for its control, focusing on non-endemic areas. PMID:26513769

  17. Speciation and the Latitudinal Diversity Gradient: Insights from the Global Distribution of Endemic Fish.

    PubMed

    Hanly, Patrick J; Mittelbach, Gary G; Schemske, Douglas W

    2017-06-01

    The nearly universal pattern that species richness increases from the poles to the equator (the latitudinal diversity gradient [LDG]) has been of intense interest since its discovery by early natural-history explorers. Among the many hypotheses proposed to explain the LDG, latitudinal variation in (1) productivity, (2) time and area available for diversification, and (3) speciation and/or extinction rates have recently received the most attention. Because tropical regions are older and were formerly more widespread, these factors are often intertwined, hampering efforts to distinguish their relative contributions to the LDG. Here we examine the global distribution of endemic lake fishes to determine how lake age, area, and latitude each affect the probability of speciation and the extent of diversification occurring within a lake. We analyzed the distribution of endemic fishes worldwide (1,933 species and subspecies from 47 families in 2,746 lakes) and find that the probability of a lake containing an endemic species and the total number of endemics per lake increase with lake age and area and decrease with latitude. Moreover, the geographic locations of endemics in 34 of 41 families are found at lower latitudes than those of nonendemics. We propose that the greater diversification of fish at low latitudes may be driven in part by ecological opportunities promoted by tropical climates and by the coevolution of species interactions.

  18. Bats and marsupials as indicators of endemism in the Yungas forest of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Maria L; Szumik, Claudia A; Barquez, Ruben M

    2010-12-01

    Several studies have characterized the Yungas as a separate biogeographic unit, mainly based in floristic components. However, these characterizations were mainly qualitative and did not include faunal groups. The Yungas have been assumed as a region with rich floral and faunal diversity, but without testing how well they are described by animal distributions. Our study consists of a formal analysis of endemism based on distribution of small mammals in the southernmost portion of the Yungas. This area is biogeographically very interesting because the Yungas are comprised of discontinuous fragments of forests that extend into temperate arid and semiarid habitats. As a first approximation, we contrasted a group of volant species (bats) versus a group of non-volant species (marsupials). Our results show that small mammals are efficient indicators of endemism in Yungas. Eighty percent of the species of small marsupials included in the analysis supported the identified areas as being zones of endemism. Regarding bats, almost 55 percent of the species supported a designation of endemism. The results also show that the areas we considered are congruent with the botanical definition of the Yungas of northwestern Argentina and their subdivisions, an assumption that had not been previously tested with a formal quantitative method. We also found that non-volant species are better indicators of endemism than volant ones at regional scales, but volant species are better indicators than was previously thought.

  19. Contemporary environmental correlates of endemic bird areas derived from meteorological satellite sensors

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, D. D. P.; Hay, S. I.; Rogers, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    The present-day distribution of centres of endemism is the result of an interplay between historical biogeography and contemporary environmental conditions. The relative importance of these two factors has never been established, however, for want of information on both the distributions themselves and the continental-scale measurement of environmental variables. Recently published maps of avian endemism in Africa, and the increasing availability of continental-scale surrogates of climatic conditions derived from Earth-orbiting satellites, has allowed this problem to be addressed directly. In this paper, temporal-Fourier-processed surrogate meteorological data derived from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's series of polar-orbiting meteorological satellites and from the geostationary Meteosat satellites are used within a discriminant analytical framework to describe and predict areas of bird endemism in East Africa. The technique predicts endemic bird areas (EBAs) with an accuracy of 89% (mean 85%, range 70 to 89%). Contemporary environmental conditions, ultimately determined by climate, therefore appear to account for a substantial fraction of the observed variation in the distribution of EBAs. On the basis of these results, several hypotheses proposed to explain the distribution of centres of avian endemism are reviewed.

  20. Population expansions dominate demographic histories of endemic and widespread Pacific reef fishes

    PubMed Central

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Mona, Stefano; Maynard, Jeffrey; Neglia, Valentina; Veuille, Michel; Planes, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Despite the unique nature of endemic species, their origin and population history remain poorly studied. We investigated the population history of 28 coral reef fish species, close related, from the Gambier and Marquesas Islands, from five families, with range size varying from widespread to small-range endemic. We analyzed both mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data using neutrality test and Bayesian analysis (EBSP and ABC). We found evidence for demographic expansions for most species (24 of 28), irrespective of range size, reproduction strategy or archipelago. The timing of the expansions varied greatly among species, from 8,000 to 2,000,000 years ago. The typical hypothesis for reef fish that links population expansions to the Last Glacial Maximum fit for 14 of the 24 demographic expansions. We propose two evolutionary processes that could lead to expansions older than the LGM: (a) we are retrieving the signature of an old colonization process for widespread, large-range endemic and paleoendemic species or (b) speciation; the expansion reflects the birth of the species for neoendemic species. We show for the first time that the demographic histories of endemic and widespread reef fish are not distinctly different and suggest that a number of processes drive endemism. PMID:28091580

  1. An etiological approach to Balkan endemic nephropathy based on the investigation of two genetically different populations.

    PubMed

    Ceović, S; Hrabar, A; Radonić, M

    1985-01-01

    The direct inheritance as a possible etiologic factor of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has been studied in an endemic area in the district of Slavonski Brod (Croatia-Yugoslavia). The basis for the investigation was given by a natural experiment induced by immigration of people from Ukraina to the endemic and nonendemic areas near Slavonski Brod. 1,536 persons in endemic villages and 733 inhabitants from the villages, where BEN has not been found, were studied with the aim of establishing diagnosis or excluding BEN. The generally adopted criteria enabling to classify the examined persons into the following 3 groups have been used: (a) diseased of BEN; (b) suspect to be diseased of BEN, and (c) individuals without signs of a renal disease. In the endemic villages among the population of Croatian aborigines, 12,1% diseased and suspects have been revealed. Among the Ukrainian immigrants and their offsprings, 10.5% diseased and suspects have been found. The difference is not significant (t = 0.7, p greater than 0.05). On the other hand, in nonendemic villages there were no diseased nor suspect BEN patients among the indigenous people as well as among the Ukrainians. The inference is suggested that the factors of the direct inheritance do not play a decisive role in the etiopathogenesis of BEN.

  2. Large number of endemic equilibria for disease transmission models in patchy environment.

    PubMed

    Knipl, D H; Röst, G

    2014-12-01

    We show that disease transmission models in a spatially heterogeneous environment can have a large number of coexisting endemic equilibria. A general compartmental model is considered to describe the spread of an infectious disease in a population distributed over several patches. For disconnected regions, many boundary equilibria may exist with mixed disease free and endemic components, but these steady states usually disappear in the presence of spatial dispersal. However, if backward bifurcations can occur in the regions, some partially endemic equilibria of the disconnected system move into the interior of the nonnegative cone and persist with the introduction of mobility between the patches. We provide a mathematical procedure that precisely describes in terms of the local reproduction numbers and the connectivity network of the patches, whether a steady state of the disconnected system is preserved or ceases to exist for low volumes of travel. Our results are illustrated on a patchy HIV transmission model with subthreshold endemic equilibria and backward bifurcation. We demonstrate the rich dynamical behavior (i.e., creation and destruction of steady states) and the presence of multiple stable endemic equilibria for various connection networks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Chagas disease and transfusion medicine: a perspective from non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Angheben, Andrea; Boix, Lucia; Buonfrate, Dora; Gobbi, Federico; Bisoffi, Zeno; Pupella, Simonetta; Gandini, Giorgio; Aprili, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    In the last decades, increasing international migration and travel from Latin America to Europe have favoured the emergence of tropical diseases outside their "historical" boundaries. Chagas disease, a zoonosis endemic in rural areas of Central and South America represents a clear example of this phenomenon. In the absence of the vector, one of the potential modes of transmission of Chagas disease in non-endemic regions is through blood and blood products. As most patients with Chagas disease are asymptomatic and unaware of their condition, in case of blood donation they can inadvertently represent a serious threat to the safety of the blood supply in non-endemic areas. Since the first cases of transfusion-transmitted Chagas disease were described in the last years, non-endemic countries began to develop ad hoc strategies to prevent and control the spread of the infection. United States, Spain, United Kingdom and France first recognised the need for Trypanosoma cruzi screening in at-risk blood donors. In this review, we trace an up-to-date perspective on Chagas disease, describing its peculiar features, from epidemiological, pathological, clinical and diagnostic points of view. Moreover, we describe the possible transmission of Chagas disease through blood or blood products and the current strategies for its control, focusing on non-endemic areas.

  4. Coccidioidomycosis in a State Where It Is Not Known To Be Endemic - Missouri, 2004-2013.

    PubMed

    Turabelidze, George; Aggu-Sher, Ravi K; Jahanpour, Ehsan; Hinkle, C Jon

    2015-06-19

    During 1998‒2012, coccidioidomycosis cases increased nationally nearly eightfold. To describe the epidemiology of coccidioidomycosis in Missouri, a state without endemic coccidioidomycosis, coccidioidomycosis surveillance data during 2004-2013 at the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services were retrospectively reviewed. The incidence of reported coccidioidomycosis increased from 0.05 per 100,000 population in 2004 to 0.28 per 100,000 in 2013, with cases distributed throughout all regions of Missouri. Persons aged >60 years were most affected. In cases in which patients had disease manifestations, the most common were pneumonia (37%) and influenza-like illness (31%). Nearly half (48%) of patients had traveled to an area where coccidioidomycosis is endemic, whereas approximately one-quarter (26%) of patients did not report such travel. Those with history of travel to endemic areas were significantly more likely to receive a diagnosis by positive culture or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, compared with those without a history of travel to endemic areas, who were more likely to receive a diagnosis by serological tests. Additional studies will be required to ascertain whether truly endemic cases exist in Missouri.

  5. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods.

    PubMed

    Madyarova, Ekaterina V; Adelshin, Renat V; Dimova, Mariya D; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V; Lubyaga, Yulia A; Timofeyev, Maxim A

    2015-01-01

    At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea) are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema) are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus.

  6. Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) infecting introduced, native and endemic New Zealand birds.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laryssa; Castro, Isabel C; Schoener, Ellen R; Hunter, Stuart; Barraclough, Rosemary K; Alley, Maurice R

    2012-02-01

    Avian malaria is caused by intracellular mosquito-transmitted protist parasites in the order Haemosporida, genus Plasmodium. Although Plasmodium species have been diagnosed as causing death in several threatened species in New Zealand, little is known about their ecology and epidemiology. In this study, we examined the presence, microscopic characterization and sequence homology of Plasmodium spp. isolates collected from a small number of New Zealand introduced, native and endemic bird species. We identified 14 Plasmodium spp. isolates from 90 blood or tissue samples. The host range included four species of passerines (two endemic, one native, one introduced), one species of endemic pigeon and two species of endemic kiwi. The isolates were associated into at least four distinct clusters including Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum, a subgroup of Plasmodium elongatum, Plasmodium relictum and Plasmodium (Noyvella) spp. The infected birds presented a low level of peripheral parasitemia consistent with chronic infection (11/15 blood smears examined). In addition, we report death due to overwhelming parasitemia in a blackbird, a great spotted kiwi and a hihi. These deaths were attributed to infections with either Plasmodium spp. lineage LINN1 or P. relictum lineage GRW4. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of Plasmodium spp. infection in great spotted and brown kiwi, kereru and kokako. Currently, we are only able to speculate on the origin of these 14 isolates but consideration must be made as to the impact they may have on threatened endemic species, particularly due to the examples of mortality.

  7. Microsporidian Parasites Found in the Hemolymph of Four Baikalian Endemic Amphipods

    PubMed Central

    Madyarova, Ekaterina V.; Adelshin, Renat V.; Dimova, Mariya D.; Axenov-Gribanov, Denis V.; Lubyaga, Yulia A.; Timofeyev, Maxim A.

    2015-01-01

    At present, approximately 187 genera and over 1300 species of Microsporidia have been described, among which almost half infect aquatic species and approximately 50 genera potentially infect aquatic arthropods. Lake Baikal is the deepest and one of the oldest lakes in the world, and it has a rich endemic fauna with a predominance of arthropods. Among the arthropods living in this lake, amphipods (Crustacea) are the most dominant group and are represented by more than 350 endemic species. Baikalian amphipods inhabit almost all depths and all types of substrates. The age and geographical isolation of this group creates excellent opportunities for studying the diversity, evolution and genetics of host-parasite relationships. However, despite more than 150 years of study, data investigating the microsporidia of Lake Baikal remain incomplete. In this study, we used molecular genetic analyses to detect microsporidia in the hemolymph of several endemic species of amphipods from Lake Baikal. We provide the first evidence that microsporidian species belonging to three genera (Microsporidium, Dictyocoela and Nosema) are present in the hemolymph of Baikalian endemic amphipods. In the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, we detected SSU rDNA of microsporidia belonging to the genus Nozema. In the hemolymph of Pallasea cancellous, we found the DNA of Microsporidium sp. similar to that in other Baikalian endemic amphipods; Dictyocoela sp. was found in the hemolymph of Eulimnogammarus marituji and Acanthogammarus lappaceus longispinus. PMID:26087136

  8. Population expansions dominate demographic histories of endemic and widespread Pacific reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Mona, Stefano; Maynard, Jeffrey; Neglia, Valentina; Veuille, Michel; Planes, Serge

    2017-01-16

    Despite the unique nature of endemic species, their origin and population history remain poorly studied. We investigated the population history of 28 coral reef fish species, close related, from the Gambier and Marquesas Islands, from five families, with range size varying from widespread to small-range endemic. We analyzed both mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data using neutrality test and Bayesian analysis (EBSP and ABC). We found evidence for demographic expansions for most species (24 of 28), irrespective of range size, reproduction strategy or archipelago. The timing of the expansions varied greatly among species, from 8,000 to 2,000,000 years ago. The typical hypothesis for reef fish that links population expansions to the Last Glacial Maximum fit for 14 of the 24 demographic expansions. We propose two evolutionary processes that could lead to expansions older than the LGM: (a) we are retrieving the signature of an old colonization process for widespread, large-range endemic and paleoendemic species or (b) speciation; the expansion reflects the birth of the species for neoendemic species. We show for the first time that the demographic histories of endemic and widespread reef fish are not distinctly different and suggest that a number of processes drive endemism.

  9. Endemic epigean Tenebrionids (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) from the Andean Region: exploring the patagonian-diversification hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Carrara, Rodolfo; Flores, Gustavo E

    2015-08-26

    Tenebrionidae is a diverse insect family of Coleoptera that shows high levels of endemicity in epigean species. For the Andean region, which is divided into three subregions: Central Chilean, Subantarctic and Patagonian, it has been hypothesized that epigean tenebrionids have diversified in the Patagonian subregion and subsequently, they dispersed to Subantarctic and Central Chilean subregions. In this work, based on information obtained from museum collections and scientific studies, we presented the first list of endemic epigean tenebrionids from the Andean region with their taxonomic arrangement and geographic distribution. Moreover, we used these data to explore the veracity of the Patagonian-diversification hypothesis. A total of 416 species grouped into six subfamilies, 17 tribes and 41 genera were identified as endemic to the Andean region. Considering the spatial distribution it was observed that subfamilies, tribes, genera and species were unequally distributed across subregions. Results did not support the Patagonian-diversification hypothesis; to the contrary, they were more concordant with processes of isolation among subregions that have promoted speciation by interrupting gene flow among populations, resulting in endemism because species can not expand their range sizes. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings to be considered in biodiversity conservation, because endemic species, by their high extinction risk, are primary targets in conservation strategies.

  10. Population expansions dominate demographic histories of endemic and widespread Pacific reef fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delrieu-Trottin, Erwan; Mona, Stefano; Maynard, Jeffrey; Neglia, Valentina; Veuille, Michel; Planes, Serge

    2017-01-01

    Despite the unique nature of endemic species, their origin and population history remain poorly studied. We investigated the population history of 28 coral reef fish species, close related, from the Gambier and Marquesas Islands, from five families, with range size varying from widespread to small-range endemic. We analyzed both mitochondrial and nuclear sequence data using neutrality test and Bayesian analysis (EBSP and ABC). We found evidence for demographic expansions for most species (24 of 28), irrespective of range size, reproduction strategy or archipelago. The timing of the expansions varied greatly among species, from 8,000 to 2,000,000 years ago. The typical hypothesis for reef fish that links population expansions to the Last Glacial Maximum fit for 14 of the 24 demographic expansions. We propose two evolutionary processes that could lead to expansions older than the LGM: (a) we are retrieving the signature of an old colonization process for widespread, large-range endemic and paleoendemic species or (b) speciation; the expansion reflects the birth of the species for neoendemic species. We show for the first time that the demographic histories of endemic and widespread reef fish are not distinctly different and suggest that a number of processes drive endemism.

  11. Origin and evolution of endemic Galápagos Varronia species (Cordiaceae).

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrea; Baird, Kristen E; McMullen, Conley K

    2010-11-01

    Four endemic Varronia species (Cordiaceae) occupy the Galápagos archipelago. Three comprise the V. leucophlyctis complex (V. anderssonii, V. leucophlyctis, V. scouleri), whose species' limits are not well defined but that is morphologically distinct from the fourth endemic species, V. revoluta. Sequence data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region and the cpDNA ndhF gene were gathered from 49 accessions of Varronia from five Galápagos islands in order to test the evolutionary relationships of endemic Varronia species, determine the number of immigration events to the islands and estimate their age of origin. All endemic species nest within the clade of species belonging to Varronia, which is an entirely American genus. We find little evidence of phylogenetic structuring of the V. leucophlyctis complex but divergent phylogenetic signals from nuclear and chloroplast genomes regarding its relationship to V. revoluta. Results are consistent with a hybridization event involving ancestral Galapagean lineages, with chloroplast and nuclear data suggesting one or two dispersal events from the Americas to the Galápagos, respectively. Fossil-based divergence time estimates indicate endemic species diverged from American continental species as early as 4.5 Myr ago and radiated 1.12 Myr, which coincides with ages of exposed and subsided Galápagos islands.

  12. Dispersing towards Madagascar: Biogeography and evolution of the Madagascan endemics of the Spermacoceae tribe (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Janssens, Steven B; Groeninckx, Inge; De Block, Petra J; Verstraete, Brecht; Smets, Erik F; Dessein, Steven

    2016-02-01

    Despite the close proximity of the African mainland, dispersal of plant lineages towards Madagascar remains intriguing. The composition of the Madagascan flora is rather mixed and shows besides African representatives, also floral elements of India, Southeast Asia, Australia, and the Neotropics. Due to its proportionally large number of Madagascan endemics, the taxonomically troublesome Spermacoceae tribe is an interesting group to investigate the origin and evolution of the herbaceous Rubiaceae endemic to Madagascar. The phylogenetic position of these endemics were inferred using four plastid gene markers. Age estimates were obtained by expanding the Spermacoceae dataset with representatives of all Rubiaceae tribes. This allowed incorporation of multiple fossil-based calibration points from the Rubiaceae fossil record. Despite the high morphological diversity of the endemic herbaceous Spermacoceae on Madagascar, only two colonization events gave rise to their current diversity. The first clade contains Lathraeocarpa, Phylohydrax and Gomphocalyx, whereas the second Madagascan clade includes the endemic genera Astiella, Phialiphora, Thamnoldenlandia and Amphistemon. The tribe Spermacoceae is estimated to have a Late Eocene origin, and diversified during Oligocene and Miocene. The two Madagascan clades of the tribe originated in the Oligocene and radiated in the Miocene. The origin of the Madagascan Spermacoceae cannot be explained by Gondwanan vicariance but only by means of Cenozoic long distance dispersal events. Interestingly, not only colonization from Africa occurred but also long distance dispersal from the Neotropics shaped the current diversity of the Spermacoceae tribe on Madagascar.

  13. Endemic species may have complex histories: within-refugium phylogeography of an endangered Iberian vole.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, S; Paupério, J; Herman, J S; Ferreira, C M; Pita, R; Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Garrido-García, J A; Soriguer, R C; Beja, P; Mira, A; Alves, P C; Searle, J B

    2017-02-01

    Glacial refugia protected and promoted biodiversity during the Pleistocene, not only at a broader scale, but also for many endemics that contracted and expanded their ranges within refugial areas. Understanding the evolutionary history of refugial endemics is especially important in the case of endangered species to recognize the origins of their genetic structure and thus produce better informed conservation practices. The Iberian Peninsula is an important European glacial refugium, rich in endemics of conservation concern, including small mammals, such as the Cabrera vole (Microtus cabrerae). This near-threatened rodent is characterized by an unusual suite of genetic, life history and ecological traits, being restricted to isolated geographic nuclei in fast-disappearing Mediterranean subhumid herbaceous habitats. To reconstruct the evolutionary history of the Cabrera vole, we studied sequence variation at mitochondrial, autosomal and sex-linked loci, using invasive and noninvasive samples. Despite low overall mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide diversities, we observed two main well-supported mitochondrial lineages, west and east. Phylogeographic modelling in the context of the Cabrera vole's detailed fossil record supports a demographic scenario of isolation of two populations during the Last Glacial Maximum from a single focus in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, our data suggest subsequent divergence within the east, and secondary contact and introgression of the expanding western population, during the late Holocene. This work emphasizes that refugial endemics may have a phylogeographic history as rich as that of more widespread species, and conservation of such endemics includes the preservation of that genetic legacy.

  14. Redescription of Thalassodes antithetica Herbulot, 1962, an endemic moth from Inner Seychelles (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Geometrinae).

    PubMed

    Bolotov, Ivan N; Matyot, Pat; Bippus, Maik; Spitsyn, Vitaly M; Kolosova, Yulia S; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-07-19

    The Seychelles archipelago is characterized by an exceptionally high level of endemism in certain taxa, including at least 275 endemic species of Lepidoptera (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015). Despite the fact that endemics are the main objects of conservation efforts, information regarding endemic Seychelles Lepidoptera is very poor, because the majority of them are known from a single or a few specimens (Legrand 1966; Gerlach and Matyot 2006; Bolotov et al. 2014, 2015). The emerald moth specimens are lacking in extensive samples obtained by earlier collectors (Fletcher 1910; Scott 1910; Fryer 1912). Further, two emerald moth species in the genus Thalassodes Guenée, 1858 have been reported from Seychelles, i.e., the widespread T. quadraria Guenée, 1858 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006; De Prins & De Prins 2015) and the endemic T. antithetica Herbulot, 1962. The latter species is known from eight specimens, collected between 1959 and 1963 (Legrand 1966; Gerlach & Matyot 2006). Herbulot (1962) provided a very short description of this species without any illustration. The protologue consists of a description of some external characters, i.e., antennae, palpi and legs, as well as the pattern of markings, but the male and female genitalia are not described. As the main diagnostic features, Herbulot (1962) noted two specific characters in the male morphology, namely the hind tibia with a single pair of spurs and an exceptional development of the lateral processes (octavals) on the posterior margin of the eighth sternite.

  15. Density-Dependent Competitive Suppression of Sylvatic Dengue Virus by Endemic Dengue Virus in Cultured Mosquito Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Kathryn A.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Mosquito-borne dengue viruses are maintained in two discrete transmission cycles: a sylvatic cycle between nonhuman primates and sylvatic Aedes mosquitoes, and an endemic cycle between humans and peridomestic Aedes (primarily Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus). Most sylvatic strains are genetically distinct from endemic strains, and human infections with sylvatic strains have been detected only rarely. Interestingly, sylvatic strains replicate as well as endemic strains in Ae. aegypti and experimental models of replication in humans, suggesting that adaptive constraints may not explain the limited spillover of sylvatic strains into the endemic cycle. Within-host competition is another mechanism known to decrease emergence of strains into occupied niches. In the current study, we examined the magnitude of competitive suppression between sylvatic and endemic dengue strains of different serotypes in pair-wise mixed infections of cultured Ae. albopictus cells to test whether the ecotype or the initial ratio of the two strains influenced the outcome of competition. Strains isolated from non-human primates were competitively inferior to those isolated from humans. Moreover, competition was density-dependent; the magnitude of suppression increased as the starting density of a strain relative to its competitor decreased. These data suggest that competitive inferiority in endemic vectors coupled with a numerical disadvantage relative to resident endemic strains could restrict reemergence of sylvatic strains into the endemic cycle and contribute to the ecologically correlated genetic divergence between sylvatic and endemic strains. PMID:18620509

  16. Existence, multiplicity and stability of endemic states for an age-structured S-I epidemic model.

    PubMed

    Breda, D; Visetti, D

    2012-01-01

    We study an S-I type epidemic model in an age-structured population, with mortality due to the disease. A threshold quantity is found that controls the stability of the disease-free equilibrium and guarantees the existence of an endemic equilibrium. We obtain conditions on the age-dependence of the susceptibility to infection that imply the uniqueness of the endemic equilibrium. An example with two endemic equilibria is shown. Finally, we analyse numerically how the stability of the endemic equilibrium is affected by the extra-mortality and by the possible periodicities induced by the demographic age-structure.

  17. Comparison of endemic and exotic entomopathogenic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Berry, R E; Liu, J; Reed, G

    1997-12-01

    We compared the efficacy of 2 endemic strains of entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from Hermiston, OR, with that of 3 exotic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In laboratory experiments, the exotic Heterorhabditis species were more pathogenic to Colorado potato beetle than were the endemic Heterorhabditis strains. Exotic Steinernema species were less pathogenic to Colorado potato beetle than the exotic Heterorhabditis species. No Colorado potato beetle adults emerged from soil treated with H. marelatus Liu & Berry, a new species collected from Seaside, OR. Nematode pathogenicity was detected up to 14 wk after application in Galleria mellonella (L.) in soil taken from field plots treated with endemic and exotic nematode species.

  18. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: Still more questions than answers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatu, C.A.; Orem, W.H.; Finkelman, R.B.; Feder, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology.

  19. Population maintenance among tropical reef fishes: Inferences from small-island endemics

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, D. Ross

    2001-01-01

    To what extent do local populations of tropical reef fishes persist through the recruitment of pelagic larvae to their natal reef? Endemics from small, isolated islands can help answer that question by indicating whether special biological attributes are needed for long-term survival under enforced localization in high-risk situations. Taxonomically and biologically, the endemics from seven such islands are broadly representative of their regional faunas. As natal-site recruitment occurs among reef fishes in much less isolated situations, these characteristics of island endemics indicate that a wide range of reef fishes could have persistent self-sustaining local populations. Because small islands regularly support substantial reef fish faunas, regional systems of small reserves could preserve much of the diversity of these fishes. PMID:11331752

  20. The etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy: still more questions than answers.

    PubMed Central

    Tatu, C A; Orem, W H; Finkelman, R B; Feder, G L

    1998-01-01

    Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) has attracted increasing attention as a possible environmental disease, and a significant amount of research from complementary scientific fields has been dedicated to its etiology. There are two actual competing theories attempting to explain the cause of this kidney disease: 1) the mycotoxin hypothesis, which considers that BEN is produced by ochratoxin A ingested intermittently in small amounts by the individuals in the endemic regions, and 2) the Pliocene lignite hypothesis, which proposes that the disease is caused by long-term exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other toxic organic compounds leaching into the well drinking water from low rank coals underlying or proximal to the endemic settlements. We outline the current developments and future prospects in the study of BEN and differentiate possible factors and cofactors in disease etiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9799184

  1. Immunodiagnostic Methods: What Is Their Role in Areas of Low Endemicity?

    PubMed Central

    Grenfell, Rafaella Fortini Queiroz; Silva-Moraes, Vanessa; Taboada, Diana; de Mattos, Ana Carolina Alves; de Castro, Ana Karine Sarvel; Coelho, Paulo Marcos Zech

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide Schistosomiasis mansoni continues to be a serious public health problem. Over the past decades, control programmes have made remarkable progress in reducing S. mansoni infections to a relatively low level in Brazil and African countries. Endemic regions are currently circumscribed in certain core areas where reinfection and repeated chemotherapy are frequent and, consequently, are related to residents with low parasite load. At present, diagnosis is predominately a key step for final disease control although low endemicity area residents are hardly detected by most of the available assays. In this paper, we review the current status and efforts made aiming at the improvement of diagnostic tools for S. mansoni in low endemicity infections. The establishment of diagnostic assays—simple, affordable, sensitive, and specific for field diagnosis of S. mansoni—is essential and should be given high priority. PMID:23319886

  2. Heart Failure Secondary to Chagas Disease: an Emerging Problem in Non-endemic Areas.

    PubMed

    Traina, Mahmoud; Meymandi, Sheba; Bradfield, Jason S

    2016-12-01

    Chagas disease affects millions of people worldwide. Though the majority of infected individuals remain asymptomatic, approximately 30 % of patients progress to develop cardiac manifestations and eventual heart failure. While vectorial transmission occurs predominantly in South America, Central America, and Mexico, millions of people originally from these endemic regions immigrate to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, and Asia. Outside of rare specialized centers, health-care providers lack experience diagnosing and treating this disease. This lack of experience likely leads to far fewer Chagas disease patients being diagnosed than what actually exist in non-endemic countries, with subsequent adverse effect on patient outcomes and health-care expenses. Underdiagnosis increases the risk of developing cardiomyopathy, associated heart failure, and life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias as the disease progresses.

  3. Hepatitis A virus epidemiology in Turkey as universal childhood vaccination begins: seroprevalence and endemicity by region.

    PubMed

    Demiray, Tayfur; Köroğlu, Mehmet; Jacobsen, Kathryn H; Özbek, Ahmet; Terzi, Hüseyin A; Altındiş, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comprehensive examination of current distribution of Hepatitis A virus (HAV) seroprevalence and endemicity in Turkey and the possible links between HAV endemicity and socioeconomic development. We performed a systematic search in online resources published between January 2000 and August 2015. The 22 provinces were able to be assigned a hepatitis A endemicity level based on this systematic review. The incidence rates for symptomatic hepatitis A infection are higher in the eastern part of Turkey than in the western and central region. These differences in socioeconomic indicators by region suggest the likelihood of lower seroprevalence rates in the western parts of the country and higher rates in the eastern region. Turkey's current policy of recommending hepatitis A immunization for all children without contraindications is an appropriate one and is likely to remain the best option for at least the next decade or two.

  4. Liver-Stage Specific Response among Endemic Populations: Diet and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dalai, Sarat Kumar; Yadav, Naveen; Patidar, Manoj; Patel, Hardik; Singh, Agam Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Developing effective anti-malarial vaccine has been a challenge for long. Various factors including complex life cycle of parasite and lack of knowledge of stage specific critical antigens are some of the reasons. Moreover, inadequate understanding of the immune responses vis-à-vis sterile protection induced naturally by Plasmodia infection has further compounded the problem. It has been shown that people living in endemic areas take years to develop protective immunity to blood stage infection. But hardly anyone believes that immunity to liver-stage infection could be developed. Various experimental model studies using attenuated parasite suggest that liver-stage immunity might exist among endemic populations. This could be induced because of the attenuation of parasite in liver by various compounds present in the diet of endemic populations. PMID:25852693

  5. Comment on "Forecasting dengue vaccine demand in disease endemic and non-endemic countries" Amarasinghe et al; Human Vaccines 2010; 6:9, 745-753.

    PubMed

    Miller, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    Recent forecasts of dengue travel vaccine demand, while worthy, might be improved by modelling future travel flows, and by accounting for incremental reductions in demand at the different points in the sequence of events leading to travel vaccine purchase. In particular, we suggest that an alternative method of projecting dengue travel vaccine uptake would account for (1) future flows of travellers from all non-endemic source to all endemic destination countries, based on data that are comparable between countries, and corrected for double-counting and other sources of error; (2) the proportion of such travellers that seek premedical travel advice within a timescale compatible with the probable dengue vaccine schedule; (3) the proportion of these travellers that will present with a combination of risk factors (above and beyond destination country) sufficient to prompt a physician to prescribe a dengue vaccine; and (4) the proportion of these travellers that actually purchase a vaccine when advised to do so.

  6. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E; Gaymer, Carlos F; Palma, Alvaro T; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures.

  7. China's endemic vertebrates sheltering under the protective umbrella of the giant panda.

    PubMed

    Li, Binbin V; Pimm, Stuart L

    2016-04-01

    The giant panda attracts disproportionate conservation resources. How well does this emphasis protect other endemic species? Detailed data on geographical ranges are not available for plants or invertebrates, so we restrict our analyses to 3 vertebrate taxa: birds, mammals, and amphibians. There are gaps in their protection, and we recommend practical actions to fill them. We identified patterns of species richness, then identified which species are endemic to China, and then which, like the panda, live in forests. After refining each species' range by its known elevational range and remaining forest habitats as determined from remote sensing, we identified the top 5% richest areas as the centers of endemism. Southern mountains, especially the eastern Hengduan Mountains, were centers for all 3 taxa. Over 96% of the panda habitat overlapped the endemic centers. Thus, investing in almost any panda habitat will benefit many other endemics. Existing panda national nature reserves cover all but one of the endemic species that overlap with the panda's distribution. Of particular interest are 14 mammal, 20 bird, and 82 amphibian species that are inadequately protected. Most of these species the International Union for Conservation of Nature currently deems threatened. But 7 mammal, 3 bird, and 20 amphibian species are currently nonthreatened, yet their geographical ranges are <20,000 km(2) after accounting for elevational restriction and remaining habitats. These species concentrate mainly in Sichuan, Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. There is a high concentration in the east Daxiang and Xiaoxiang Mountains of Sichuan, where pandas are absent and where there are no national nature reserves. The others concentrate in Yunnan, Nan Mountains, and Hainan. Here, 10 prefectures might establish new protected areas or upgrade local nature reserves to national status.

  8. Single origin and subsequent diversification of central Andean endemic Umbilicaria species.

    PubMed

    Hestmark, Geir; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Fraker, Emily; Molnar, Katalin; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    We studied an Andean endemic group of species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria from the subalpine and low-alpine zone, with their biogeographic center in Bolivia and Peru. A number of species and varieties have been described from this element, but apparent instability in several morphological traits has made it difficult to precisely delimit taxa. Based on DNA sequences of nuclear ITS, LSU and mitochondrial SSU from extensive collections from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, we present here a molecular phylogenetic analysis of this Andean endemic element within genus Umbilicaria. All analyses (MP, ML and Bayesian) support a single origin for the element and a division into two major groups characterized by different apothecium types: the Umbilicaria dichroa group and U. calvescens group. Taxa U. krempelhuberi, U. peruviana and U. subcalvescens are nested withinn U. calvescens and are treated as conspecific with the latter species. The endemic element shares a most recent common ancestor with the Umbilicaria vellea group, which has a worldwide distribution and contains several asexually reproducing (sorediate) species. Independent reversals to sexual reproduction might explain the evolution of two types of apothecia in this monophyletic endemic lineage. A number of cosmopolitan, mostly high-alpine, species of Umbilicaria also present in the central Andes are related only remotely to the endemic element and do not exhibit speciation into endemics. Because the An-dean element dominates the Umbilicaria habitats of the low- and subalpine zones we propose that the founder colonized the Andes at a time when the mountains had not yet reached their current elevation while the high-alpine species arrived more recently.

  9. The importance of protected areas for the forest and endemic avifauna of Sulawesi (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Lee, Tien Ming; Sodhi, Navjot S; Prawiradilaga, Dewi M

    2007-09-01

    Protected areas are critical for the conservation of residual tropical forest biodiversity, yet many of these are being deforested by humans both within and outside of their administrative boundaries. Therefore, it is critical to document the significance of protected areas for conserving tropical biodiversity, particularly in mega-diverse Southeast Asia. We evaluated the importance of protected areas (national parks [NP], nature reserves [NR], and wildlife reserves [WR]) in preserving avifaunal diversity, particularly the endemic and forest species, on the island of Sulawesi. This island has one of the highest numbers of endemic avifauna genera (12) globally and is also experiencing heavy deforestation. Rarefaction analyses and species estimators showed that parks and reserves consistently recorded higher number of forest, endemic, and endemic forest bird species, in addition to larger population densities, than in their surrounding human-modified areas across eight protected areas (Gunung Manembo-nembo WR, Tangkoko-Batu Angus and Dua Saudara NR, Gunung Ambang NR, Bogani Nani Wartabone NP, Gunung Tinombala NR, Gunung Sojol NR, Lore Lindu NP, and Rawa Aopa Watumohai NP). This implies that protecting natural forests must remain as one of the fundamental conservation strategies in Sulawesi. Two small reserves (Gunung Manembo-nembo WR and Tangkoko-Batu Angus and Dua Saudara NR), however, had high number of forest and endemic bird species both within and outside their boundaries, suggesting the importance of buffer areas for augmenting small reserves so as to improve their conservation value. Ordination analyses revealed the differential response of bird species to different environmental factors (e.g., native tree cover), highlighting the significance of forested habitats with dense native vegetation cover for effective conservation of forest dependent and endemic avifauna. In addition, the distinctiveness in bird species composition among protected areas highlights

  10. Morphological, ecological and genetic aspects associated with endemism in the Fly Orchid group.

    PubMed

    Triponez, Yann; Arrigo, Nils; Pellissier, Loïc; Schatz, Bertrand; Alvarez, Nadir

    2013-03-01

    The European genus Ophrys (Orchidaceae) is famous for its insect-like floral morphology, an adaptation for a pseudocopulatory pollination strategy involving Hymenoptera males. A large number of endemic Ophrys species have recently been described, especially within the Mediterranean Basin, which is one of the major species diversity hotspots. Subtle morphological variation and specific pollinator dependence are the two main perceptible criteria for describing numerous endemic taxa. However, the degree to which endemics differ genetically remains a challenging question. Additionally, knowledge regarding the factors underlying the emergence of such endemic entities is limited. To achieve new insights regarding speciation processes in Ophrys, we have investigated species boundaries in the Fly Orchid group (Ophrys insectifera sensu lato) by examining morphological, ecological and genetic evidence. Classically, authors have recognized one widespread taxon (O. insectifera) and two endemics (O. aymoninii from France and O. subinsectifera from Spain). Our research has identified clear morphological and ecological factors segregating among these taxa; however, genetic differences were more ambiguous. Insights from cpDNA sequencing and amplified fragment length polymorphisms genotyping indicated a recent diversification in the three extant Fly Orchid species, which may have been further obscured by active migration and admixture across the European continent. Our genetic results still indicate weak but noticeable phylogeographic clustering that partially correlates with the described species. Particularly, we report several isolated haplotypes and genetic clusters in central and southeastern Europe. With regard to the morphological, ecological and genetic aspects, we discuss the endemism status within the Fly Orchid group from evolutionary, taxonomical and conservation perspectives. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Marine Biodiversity in Juan Fernández and Desventuradas Islands, Chile: Global Endemism Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Friedlander, Alan M.; Ballesteros, Enric; Caselle, Jennifer E.; Gaymer, Carlos F.; Palma, Alvaro T.; Petit, Ignacio; Varas, Eduardo; Muñoz Wilson, Alex; Sala, Enric

    2016-01-01

    The Juan Fernández and Desventuradas islands are among the few oceanic islands belonging to Chile. They possess a unique mix of tropical, subtropical, and temperate marine species, and although close to continental South America, elements of the biota have greater affinities with the central and south Pacific owing to the Humboldt Current, which creates a strong biogeographic barrier between these islands and the continent. The Juan Fernández Archipelago has ~700 people, with the major industry being the fishery for the endemic lobster, Jasus frontalis. The Desventuradas Islands are uninhabited except for a small Chilean military garrison on San Félix Island. We compared the marine biodiversity of these islands across multiple taxonomic groups. At San Ambrosio Island (SA), in Desventuradas, the laminarian kelp (Eisenia cokeri), which is limited to Desventuradas in Chile, accounted for >50% of the benthic cover at wave exposed areas, while more sheltered sites were dominated by sea urchin barrens. The benthos at Robinson Crusoe Island (RC), in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, comprised a diverse mix of macroalgae and invertebrates, a number of which are endemic to the region. The biomass of commercially targeted fishes was >2 times higher in remote sites around RC compared to sheltered locations closest to port, and overall biomass was 35% higher around SA compared to RC, likely reflecting fishing effects around RC. The number of endemic fish species was extremely high at both islands, with 87.5% of the species surveyed at RC and 72% at SA consisting of regional endemics. Remarkably, endemics accounted for 99% of the numerical abundance of fishes surveyed at RC and 96% at SA, which is the highest assemblage-level endemism known for any individual marine ecosystem on earth. Our results highlight the uniqueness and global significance of these biodiversity hotspots exposed to very different fishing pressures. PMID:26734732

  12. Increased plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels in patients with endemic fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Varol, Ercan; Aksoy, Fatih; Icli, Atilla; Arslan, Akif; Yuksel, Ozlem; Ersoy, I Hakki; Varol, Simge; Dogan, Abdullah

    2012-11-01

    Although fluoride induced inflammatory reactions have been shown in animals and in vitro humans, there are few studies about fluoride induced inflammatory reactions in human beings at clinical setting. We aimed to measure the plasma neopterin, a marker of activation of the monocyte/macrophage system, and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in patients with endemic fluorosis to investigate the possible role of inflammatory processes (monocyte/macrophage activity) in the underlying pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity at clinical level. Plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels were determined in endemic fluorosis patients and control subjects. Plasma neopterin levels were significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.40 ± 0.66 vs. 1.63 ± 0.27 ng/mL respectively; p < 0.001) and plasma hs-CRP levels were also significantly higher among patients with endemic fluorosis when compared with control group (2.41 ± 1.23 vs. 1.93 ± 0.64 mg/L respectively; p < 0.001). Plasma neopterin levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.67, p < 0.001) and serum hs-CRP levels were positively correlated with urine fluoride levels (r = 0.36, p < 0.001). We have found that plasma neopterin and hs-CRP levels are increased in patients with endemic fluorosis. We have concluded that inflammation play an important role in the pathophysiology of fluoride toxicity in patients with endemic fluorosis.

  13. Discovery of an endemic area of Gnathostoma turgidum infection among opossums, Didelphis virginiana, in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Camacho, Sylvia Páz; Willms, Kaethe; Rendón-Maldonado, José Guadalupe; de la Cruz-Otero, María del Carmen; Delgado-Vargas, Francisco; Robert, Lilia; Antuna, Silvia; León-Règagnon, Virginia; Nawa, Yukifumi

    2009-06-01

    Gnathostomosis, caused by Gnathostoma binucleatum, is a serious public health issue in Mexico. Although 2 other Gnathostoma spp., G. turgidum and G. lamothei, have been found in wild animals, their natural life cycle or their relation to human disease remains unclear. While we were conducting an epidemiological survey on Gnathostoma spp. in Sinaloa State, Mexico, we found an endemic area for G. turgidum in common opossums, Didelphis virginiana, located in Tecualilla, Sinaloa. The species identification was carried out by morphological and molecular biological methods. This is the first record of an endemic area for G. turgidum infection in opossums, D. virginiana, in the Americas.

  14. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  15. Studies in hawaiian Diptera I: new distributional records for endemic asteia (asteiidae).

    PubMed

    O'Grady, Patrick M; Magnacca, Karl Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    New island records are reported for five species of Asteia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Asteiahawaiiensis, Asteiamauiensis, Asteiamolokaiensis, Asteiapalikuensis, Asteiasabroskyi). These new records expand our understanding of distributions in Asteia, change the percentage of single island endemics from 78% to 33%, and have significance in how we view the process of diversification acting in this lineage. We also present a list of the known rearing records for two species in this group. Asteiamontgomeryi has been recorded from Erythrina and Asteiasabroskyi has been reared from Pisonia, Urera, Charpentiera and Hibiscadelphus.

  16. Studies in Hawaiian Diptera I: New Distributional Records for Endemic Asteia (Asteiidae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract New island records are reported for five species of Asteia endemic to the Hawaiian Islands (Asteia hawaiiensis, Asteia mauiensis, Asteia molokaiensis, Asteia palikuensis, Asteia sabroskyi). These new records expand our understanding of distributions in Asteia, change the percentage of single island endemics from 78% to 33%, and have significance in how we view the process of diversification acting in this lineage. We also present a list of the known rearing records for two species in this group. Asteia montgomeryi has been recorded from Erythrina and Asteia sabroskyi has been reared from Pisonia, Urera, Charpentiera and Hibiscadelphus. PMID:24855434

  17. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  18. Geospatial association of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and highly cyanogenic cassava cultivars

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Exposure to cyanide from cassava foods is present in communities where ataxic polyneuropathy is endemic. Ataxic polyneuropathy is endemic in coastal parts of southwest and southeast Nigeria, and coastal Newala, south India, but it has been reported in epidemic or endemic forms from Africa, Asia, or Caribbean. This study was done to determine if cyanogenicity of cassava cultivars is higher in lowland than highland areas, and if areas of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy colocalize with areas of highest cyanogenicity of cassava. Methods Roots of cassava cultivars were collected from 150 farmers in 32 of 37 administrative areas in Nigeria. Global positioning system was used to determine the location of the roots. Roots were assayed for concentrations of cyanogens. Thin Plate Spline regression was used to produce the contour map of cyanogenicity of the study area. Contour maps of altitude of the endemic areas were produced. Relationship of cyanogenicity of cassava cultivars and altitude, and of locations of areas of high cyanogenicity and areas of endemicity were determined. Results Geometrical mean (95% CI) cyanogen concentration was 182 (142–233) mg HCN eq/kg dry wt for cassava cultivars in areas ≤ 25 m above sea level, but 54 (43–66) mg HCN eq/kg dry wt for areas > 375 m. Non-spatial linear regression of altitude on logarithm transformed concentrations of cyanogens showed highly significant association, (p < 0.0001). Contour map of concentrations of cyanogens in cassava cultivars in Nigeria showed four areas with average concentrations of cassava cyanogens > 250 mg HCN eq/kg dry wt, and one area of moderately high cyanogen concentration > 150 mg HCN eq/kg dry wt. The endemic areas colocalized with areas of highest cassava cyanogenicity in lowland areas close to the Atlantic Ocean. Conclusion This study shows strong geospatial association of areas of endemicity of ataxic polyneuropathy and areas of highest cyanogenicity of

  19. [Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2014].

    PubMed

    Lei, Zheng-long; Zhang, Li-juan; Xu, Zhi-min; Dang, Hui; Xu, Jing; Lv, Shan; Cao, Chun-li; Li, Shi-zhu; Zhou, Xiao-nong

    2015-12-01

    This report presented the endemic status of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China at national level in 2014, and analyzed the data captured from the national schistosomiasis prevention and control system and 81 national schistosomiasis surveillance sites. Among the 12 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) endemic for schistosomiasis japonica in China, 5 provinces (municipality and autonomous region) of Shanghai, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong and Guangxi had achieved transmission interruption, 4 provinces of Sichuan, Yunnan, Jiangsu and Hubei had achieved transmission control, and Anhui, Jiangxi and Hunan provinces were still at infection control until 2014. There were 453 counties (city, district) endemic for schistosomiasis, with 251 million residents, and 30,048 villages endemic for schistosomiasis, with 68 million 507 thousand and 3 hundred residents. Among the 453 endemic counties (city, district), 69.09% (313/453) and 29.80% (135/ 453) endemic counties (city, district) reached the transmission interruption and transmission control respectively while the number of counties (city, district) at the stage of infection control reduced from 34 in 2013 to 5 in 2014 (accounted for 1.10% of the total number of endemic counties, 5/53). Till 2014, 115,614 people were estimated to have schistosomiasis and only 2 acute schistosomiasis cases were reported. In addition, there were 30,880 advanced schistosomiasis cases documented in 2014. In 2014, a total of 9,461,348 individuals received schistosomiasis examinations and 8,270 persons were found stool positives with the reduction rate of 50.96% as compared to that (16,865 cases) in 2013. The Oncomelania hupensis snail survey was performed in 20 123 endemic villages in 2014, and the snails were detected in 5,653 villages, which accounted for 28.09% of total villages, with 13 newly detected villages with snails. The snail survey covered an area of 576,506.37 hm² and snails were found in an area of 364 324

  20. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  1. Dynamics of endemic infectious diseases of animal and human importance on three dairy herds in the northeastern United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endemic infectious diseases in dairy cattle are of significant concern to the industry as well as for public health due to their potential impact on animal and human health, milk and meat production, food safety, and economics. We sought to provide insight into the dynamics of important endemic infe...

  2. Acronymolpus, a new genus of Eumolpinae, endemic to New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae)

    PubMed Central

    Samuelson, G. Allan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The genus Acronymolpus is proposed as new. It is represented by four new species, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia. Proposed are: Acronymolpus joliveti sp. n. (type species), Acronymolpus gressitti sp. n., Acronymolpus meteorus sp. n., and Acronymolpus turbo sp. n. PMID:26798316

  3. Acronymolpus, a new genus of Eumolpinae, endemic to New Caledonia (Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Samuelson, G Allan

    2015-01-01

    The genus Acronymolpus is proposed as new. It is represented by four new species, all of which are endemic to New Caledonia. Proposed are: Acronymolpus joliveti sp. n. (type species), Acronymolpus gressitti sp. n., Acronymolpus meteorus sp. n., and Acronymolpus turbo sp. n.

  4. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  5. A conservation framework for the Critically Endangered endemic species of the Caribbean palm Coccothrinax.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With 30 threatened species [14 Critically Endangered (CR) and 16 Endangered, sensu IUCN)] Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its center of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic spe...

  6. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Galápagos Endemic Land Snail Naesiotus nux.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Samuel S; Settles, Matthew L; New, Daniel D; Parent, Christine E; Gerritsen, Alida T

    2016-01-21

    We report herein the draft mitochondrial genome sequence of Naesiotus nux, a Galápagos endemic land snail species of the genus Naesiotus. The circular genome is 15 kb and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes.

  7. [A new look at the mechanism of cholera endemicity caused by Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor].

    PubMed

    Huang, G; Lin, T; Jiang, J

    2000-06-01

    Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor (EVC) is an endemic disease, subsiding in winter and reappearing in spring and summer. Investigating the state of EVC during the intermittent time is of crucial importance in controlling this disease. Different factors mimicking the internal and external environmental conditions of the host, including human and fish bile, bacterial phages and antibiotics were used experimentally to induce variation in EVC. EVC variants were isolated from the stool of diarrhea patients and river water in old endemic areas during the winter. The variants obtained were tested with gene probe hybridization, DNA restriction enzyme mapping, immunoenzyme staining and animal passaging. Due to the loss of cell walls, 3 kinds of EVC variants were obtained during induction: the L-form variant, with a complete loss of cell walls; the nonagglutinating variants, with the loss of surface O-antigen; the phage-resistant variants, with the loss of phage receptors. Similar variants were found in field isolation. This variation was proved to be phenotypic, with no change in genetic material: it was reversible and appeared in a seasonal pattern, which coincided with the endemicity of this disease. Passage in animal enhanced this reversion. In compensation for the loss of cell walls, cell membranes were greatly thickened, increasing the ability of the variants to survive during the unfavorable winter conditions. EVC varied in a seasonal pattern, coincident with the endemicity of this disease. The compensatory thickening of the cell membranes protects the EVC variants to survive the winter.

  8. Reintroduction of Tigridiopalma magnifica, a rare and critically endangered herb endemic to China

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Songjun Zeng; Longna Li; Qianmei Zhang; Long Yang; Jun Wang; Zhengfeng Wang; Qinfeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Tigridiopalma magnifica, a perennial herb and the only species in the genus Tigridiopalma (Family Melastomataceae) is rare and endemic to China where it is categorized as Critically Endangered on the national Red List. Twelve locations with populations of T. magnifica have been identified (1 extinct, 11 extant...

  9. Endemic Amorphophallus (Araceae) from Madagascar: a revised key, a new species and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Hetterscheid, Wilbert L A; Claudel, Cyrille

    2014-12-01

    Since the revision of Amorphophallus of Madagascar (Bot Jahrb Syst 121(1):1-17, 1999) several additional new species have been described. The recent discovery of another new species promted the preparation of a revised key as well as the description of the new species. Amorphophallus hildebrandtii, never restudied since its analysis by Engler in 1881, has been refound and restudied. Meanwhile molecular phylogenetic studies have provided new insights in the relationships of the endemic Madagascan species. The new species Amorphophallus perrieri is described. A new revised key to the endemic Amorphophallus species of Madagascar is provided. An emended description of A. hildebrandtii is provided. A molecular phylogeny of the endemic Madagascan species of Amorphophallus is provided. The enigmatic character of a very short spadix in A. hildebrandtii has been confirmed, after it was thought for many years that it was artificially shorter in the holotype specimen than in nature. This was suggested by the fact that the spadix of the holotype is broken. The monophyletic character of the Madagascan endemic species clade remained unchallenged after analysis including all new species discovered recently, incl. the new species presented in this paper.

  10. Ecological adaptation of the endemic Shepherdia rotundifolia to conditions in its Colorado Plateau range

    Treesearch

    Chalita Sriladda; Roger Kjelgren; Heidi Kratsch; Thomas Monaco; Steven Larson; FenAnn Shen

    2014-01-01

    Due to limited water supplies, use of drought-tolerant species to conserve water in irrigated urban landscapes is increasingly important in the Intermountain West. The Colorado Plateau endemic shrub Shepherdia rotundifolia Parry is a potential candidate for use in sustainable urban low-water landscapes (LWLs) for its aesthetic and drought-tolerant qualities. However,...

  11. Societal Responses to Endemic Terror: Evidence from Driving Behavior in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, using data on traffic volume and fatal accident rates in Israel from 2001 to 2004--a period spanning much of the Second Intifada--we examine the population-level responses to endemic terror to uncover whether societies become habituated so that the response weakens following repeated attacks or whether they become increasingly…

  12. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia M A; Junior, Policarpo A S; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-07-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal-fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds.

  13. Characteristics of endemic-level mountain pine beetle populations in south-central Wyoming

    Treesearch

    Dale L. Bartos; Richard F. Schmitz

    1998-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the dynamics of endemic populations of mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins). In addition, we extended the geographical range of an existing data base recorded in Utah with similar data from Wyoming. This work was accomplished in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Var.

  14. Ptilagrostis contracta (Stipeae, Poaceae), a New Species Endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Shuai; Li, Ling-Lu; Chen, Wen-Li

    2017-01-01

    A new species, Ptilagrostis contracta, endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from other species in Ptilagrostis by having contracted panicles, 1-geniculate awns with hairy columns and scabrous bristles and evenly pubescent lemmas. Evidence from lemma epidermal pattern, cytology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS sequence data confirm its systematic position in Ptilagrostis.

  15. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Butin, Marine; Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-03-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone.

  16. Worldwide Endemicity of a Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus capitis Clone Involved in Neonatal Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Martins-Simões, Patricia; Rasigade, Jean-Philippe; Picaud, Jean-Charles; Laurent, Frédéric

    2017-01-01

    A multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus capitis clone, NRCS-A, has been isolated from neonatal intensive care units in 17 countries throughout the world. S. capitis NRCS-A prevalence is high in some neonatal intensive care units in France. These data highlight the worldwide endemicity and epidemiologic relevance of this multidrug-resistant, coagulase-negative staphylococci clone. PMID:28221122

  17. Colloquium paper: patterns of biodiversity and endemism on Indo-West Pacific coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Reaka, Marjorie L; Rodgers, Paula J; Kudla, Alexei U

    2008-08-12

    Diversity of the primary groups of contemporary Indo-West Pacific coral reef organisms, including mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans), peaks in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), reaches a lower peak in East Africa and Madagascar [Indian Ocean continental (IOC)], and declines in the central Indian Ocean (IO) and Central Pacific (CP). Percent endemism in stomatopods (highest in the IAA, high in the IOC, lower in regions adjacent to centers, and moderate in the CP) correlates positively with species diversity (this varies with scale) and inversely with species body size. Because it constrains reproductive traits and dispersal, body size is a reliable indicator of speciation and extinction potential in reef stomatopods and probably most marine organisms. Assemblages are dominated by small-sized species in the IAA and IOC. Both speciation and extinction likely are high, resulting in especially high endemism (small ranges reflect both originating and disappearing species) in these regions. Rates of speciation exceed extinction, yielding centers of diversity (especially in the IAA). Dispersal slows speciation and extinction in areas adjacent to these centers. Body size declines toward the CP, especially in atoll environments. Here the wheels of speciation and extinction again spin rapidly but in the opposite direction (extinction > speciation), yielding low diversity and moderate endemism. We conclude that life histories, dispersal, and speciation/extinction dynamics are primary agents that mold patterns of diversity and endemism. Historical factors, currents, productivity, and species diversity itself (through ecological interactions) also influence these patterns, in some cases by altering body size.

  18. Mountain-associated clade endemism in an ancient frog family (Nyctibatrachidae) on the Indian subcontinent.

    PubMed

    Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Biju, S D; Willaert, Bert; Giri, Varad B; Shouche, Yogesh S; Bossuyt, Franky

    2012-03-01

    Night frogs (Nyctibatrachidae) form a family endemic to the Western Ghats, a hill chain along the west coast of southern India. Extant members of this family are descendants of a lineage that originated on the subcontinent during its longtime isolation in the Late Cretaceous. Because the evolutionary history of Nyctibatrachidae has always been tightly connected to the subcontinent, these tropically-adapted frogs are an ideal group for studying how patterns of endemism originated and evolved during the Cenozoic in the Western Ghats. We used a combined set of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of 120 ingroup specimens of all known species of Nyctibatrachidae. Our analyses indicate that, although this family had an early origin on the Indian subcontinent, the early diversification of extant nyctibatrachids happened only in the Eocene. Biogeographic analyses show that dispersal across the Palghat gap and Shencottah gap was limited, which led to clade endemism within mountain ranges of the Western Ghats. It is likely that multiple biota have been affected simultaneously by these prominent geographical barriers. Our study therefore further highlights the importance of considering the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka biodiversity hotspot as an assemblage of distinct mountain regions, each containing endemism and deserving attention in future conservation planning. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endemism and regional color and genetic differences in five putatively cosmopolitan reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Allen, Gerald R; Kaufman, Les; Barber, Paul H

    2008-08-01

    Endemism is thought to be relatively rare in marine systems due to the lack of allopatric barriers and the potential for long-distance colonization via pelagic larval dispersal. Although many species of coral reef fishes exhibit regionally restricted color variants that are suggestive of regional endemism, such variation is typically ascribed to intraspecific variation. We examined the genetic structure in 5 putatively monospecific fishes from the Indo-West Pacific (Amphiprion melanopus, Chrysiptera talboti, and Pomacentrus moluccensis [Pomacentridae] and Cirrhilabrus punctatus, and Labroides dimidiatus [Labridae]) that express regional color variation unique to this area. Mitochondrial-control-region sequence analysis showed shallow to deep genetic divergence in all 5 species (sequence divergence 2-17%), with clades concordant with regional color variation. These results were partially supported by nuclear RAG2 data. An analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) mirrored the phylogenetic results; Phi(ST) values ranged from 0.91 to 0.7, indicating high levels of geographic partitioning of genetic variation. Concordance of genetics and phenotype demonstrate the genetic uniqueness of southwestern Pacific color variants, indicating that these populations are at a minimum distinct evolutionarily significant units and perhaps distinct regionally endemic species. Our results indicate that the alpha biodiversity of the southwestern Pacific is likely underestimated even in well-studied groups, such as reef fishes, and that regional endemism may be more common in tropical marine systems than previously thought.

  20. The relict darter, Etheostoma chienense (Percidae): status review of a Kentucky endemic

    Treesearch

    Melvin L. Warren; Brooks M. Burr; Christopher A. Taylor

    1994-01-01

    The distribution, microhabitat affinity and availability, and conservative estimates of numbers of Etheostoma chienense, the relict darter, were assessed. All known historical sites and sites in nearby drainages that might harbor the species were surveyed. The relict darter is endemic to the Bayou du chien drainage, Graves and Hickman counties,...

  1. Cysticercosis headache: an important differential of childhood headache disorder in endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Devendra

    2007-02-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common pediatric central nervous system (CNS) disease in endemic areas, presenting usually with seizures but has pleomorphic manifestations, including migraine-like secondary headache. We herein report a pediatric patient with tension-type headache as the sole presenting feature of single cysticercus granuloma.

  2. Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus endemic to Italy for biocontrol of aflatoxins in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effective biological control of aflatoxin­producing Aspergillus flavus with atoxigenic members of that species requires suitable A. flavus well adapted to and resident in target agroecosystems. Eighteen atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus endemic in Italy were compared for ability to reduce aflatoxin c...

  3. Sandfly fauna of endemic leishmaniasis foci in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    González, R; Jorquera, A; De Sousa, L; Ledezma, E; Devera, R

    2002-01-01

    A census of the sandfly fauna was undertaken in 1993-98 in 5 endemic leishmaniasis foci situated at different altitudes in Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. From the 17 species of Lutzomyia identified, we believe that Lu. ovallesi, Lu. panamensis and Lu. gomezi are the probable vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, while Lu. evansi might transmit visceral leishmaniasis.

  4. The complete mitochondrial DNA of endemic Eastern Pacific coral (Porites panamensis).

    PubMed

    Del Río-Portilla, Miguel A; Vargas-Peralta, Carmen E; Paz-García, David A; Lafarga De La Cruz, Fabiola; Balart, Eduardo F; García-de-León, Francisco J

    2016-01-01

    The mitogenome of the endemic coral Porites panamensis (Genbank accession number KJ546638) has a total length of 18,628 bp, and the arrangement consist of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes and 2 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes. Gene order was equal to other scleractinian coral mitogenomes.

  5. Case Report: Endemic Amebiasis in Australia: Implications for Residents, Travelers, and Clinicians.

    PubMed

    Smith, Simon; Phillips, Gael E; McBride, William J H; Hanson, Josh

    2017-07-01

    Entamoeba histolytica is considered endemic in Australia; however, cases are rare, occurring almost exclusively in high-risk individuals. We describe a series of locally acquired, complicated cases in low-risk individuals from Far North Queensland in whom the diagnosis was delayed. Amebiasis may pose a greater local threat than is currently recognized.

  6. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Luz M; O'Neal, Seth E; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C W; Gilman, Robert H; Gonzalez, Armando E; Garcia, Hector H

    2016-12-01

    Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. We conducted a population-based study of resident's ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future.

  7. Phylogeography of three snubnose darters (Percidae: subgenus Ulocentra) endemic to the southeastern U.S

    Treesearch

    Steven L. Powers; Melvin L Warren

    2009-01-01

    The Yazoo Darter, Etheostoma raneyi (Percidae: subgenus Ulocentra), is a narrowly restricted endemic occurring in small tributaries in the Loessial Hills of the upper Yazoo River basin in northern Mississippi. The range of the species is shared between the Little Tallahatchie and adjacent upper Yocona rivers, but populations in the two...

  8. Are there any widespread endemic flowering plant species in Macaronesia? Phylogeography of Ranunculus cortusifolius.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bethany R M; Schaefer, Hanno; De Sequeira, Miguel Menezes; Reyes-Betancort, J Alfredo; Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Oceanic island endemics typically exhibit very restricted distributions. In Macaronesia, only one endemic angiosperm species, Ranunculus cortusifolius, has a distribution spanning the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Earlier work suggested possible differences between archipelagos and the multiple origins of the species. This paper tests the hypothesis that R. cortusifolius is a single widespread Macaronesian endemic species with a single origin. Chloroplast (matK-trnK, psbJ-petA) and ITS sequences were generated from across the distribution of R. cortusifolius. Relationships were investigated using Bayesian inference and divergence times estimated using BEAST. Infraspecific variation was investigated using statistical parsimony. The general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC) was further used to identify putative species boundaries based on maternally inherited plastid data. The hypothesis of multiple independent origins of R. cortusifolius is rejected. Divergence of the R. cortusifolius lineage from a western Mediterranean sister group in the late Miocene is inferred. Distinct genotypes were resolved within R. cortusifolius that are endemic to the Azores, Madeira, and the Canaries. Four to five putative species were delimited by different versions of the GMYC model. Ranunculus cortusifolius is the result of a single colonization of Macaronesia. The large distances between archipelagos have been effective barriers to dispersal, promoting allopatric diversification at the molecular level with diversification also evident within the Canaries. Isolation has not been accompanied by marked morphological diversification, which may be explained by the typical association of R. cortusifolius with stable and climatically buffered laurel forest communities. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  9. Structure of the Helminth Assemblage of and Endemic Madtom Catfish (Noturus Lachneri)

    Treesearch

    Riccardo A. Fiorillo; R. Brent Thomas; Melvin L. Warren; Christopher M. Taylor

    1999-01-01

    The Ouachita madtom, Noturus lachneri, is a small, uniformly-colored catfish endemic to the upper Saline and Ouachita river drainages in central Arkansas (Robison and Buchanan, 1988), where it is often found in shallow pools associated with clear, high gradient, rock-bottomed streams (Robison and Harp, 1985). Distribution, habitat, diet, and conservation status of...

  10. Molecular resemblance of an AIDS-associated lymphoma and endemic Burkitt lymphomas: Implications for their pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Haluska, F.G.; Russo, G.; Croce, C.M. ); Kant, J. ); Andreef, M. )

    1989-11-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a common feature of AIDS. Approximately 30-40% of these tumors exhibit clinical features suggestive of endemic Burkitt lymphoma: they are aggressive malignancies that occur in association with Epstein-Barr virus infection, they arise in the setting of immunosuppression, and they carry t(8;14) translocations without detectable rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. To understand the molecular basis of these parallels, the authors analyzed a case of Epstein-Barr-positive AIDS-associated undifferentiated lymphoma. Southern blots show that the tumor exhibits immunoglobulin joining segment rearrangement but no rearrangement of the MYC oncogene. Cloning of the rearranged joining segment allowed the isolation of recombinant clones encompassing the translocation breakpoint, and sequencing of the translocation junction disclosed that the breakpoint is situated 7 base pairs from the chromosome 14 site involved in a previously described endemic Burkitt lymphoma translocation. Furthermore, the breakpoint is situated far from MYC on chromosome 8, a constant finding in endemic Burkitt lymphomas. That the molecular architecture of the translocation in this case is strikingly similar to previously analyzed translocations from endemic Burkitt lymphomas strongly suggests that common molecular mechanisms must be operative in the pathogenesis of these tumors.

  11. Patterns of forest use and endemism in resident bird communities of north-central Michoacan, Mexico

    Treesearch

    Santiago Garcia; Deborah M. Finch; Gilberto Chavez. Leon

    1998-01-01

    We compared breeding avian communities among 11 habitat types in north-central Michoacan, Mexico, to determine patterns of forest use by endemic and nonendemic resident species. Point counts of birds and vegetation measurements were conducted at 124 sampling localities from May through July, in 1994 and 1995. Six native forest types sampled were pine, pine-oak, oak-...

  12. Multilocus Phylogenetics Show High Levels of Endemic Fusaria Inhabiting Sardinian Soils (Tyrrhenian Islands)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Mediterranean island of Sardinia is well known for high levels of vascular plant diversity and endemism, but little is known about its microbial diversity. Under the hypothesis that Fusarium species would show similar patterns, we estimated variability in Fusarium species composition among ten ...

  13. Management and conservation of tree squirrels: the importance of endemism, species richness, and forest condition

    Treesearch

    John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Tree squirrels are excellent indicators of forest health yet the taxon is understudied. Most tree squirrels in the Holarctic Region are imperiled with some level of legal protection. The Madrean Archipelago is the epicenter for tree squirrel diversity in North America with 5 endemic species and 2 introduced species. Most species of the region are poorly studied in...

  14. A molecular phylogenetic approach to western North America endemic Artemisia and allies (Asteraceae): Untangling the sagebrushes

    Treesearch

    Sonia Garcia; E. Durant McArthur; Jaume Pellicer; Stewart C. Sanderson; Joan Valles; Teresa Garnatje

    2011-01-01

    Premise of the study: Artemisia subgenus Tridentatae plants characterize the North American Intermountain West. These are landscape-dominant constituents of important ecological communities and habitats for endemic wildlife. Together with allied species and genera (Picrothamnus and Sphaeromeria), they make up an intricate series of taxa whose limits are uncertain,...

  15. First Record of the Hawaiian Endemic Scale, Colobopyga pritchardiae (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), on the Big Island

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Colobopyga pritchardiae (Stickney 1934) (Hemiptera: Halimococcidae), an endemic Hawaiian scale insect associated with Pritchardia sp. was recorded for the first time on the Big Island. We began searching for palm scales on the Big Island to include in a host range testing program in quarantine for E...

  16. RAPD analysis of the last population of a likely Florida Keys endemic cactus

    Treesearch

    D.R. Gordon; Thomas L. Kubisiak

    1998-01-01

    The semaphore cactus in the Florida Keys has until recently been considered a disjunct location of the Jamaican Opuntia spinosissima. Loss of all but one population in the Keys coupled with recent suggestions that the species should be taxonomically separated from the Jamaican cactus and is, therefore, a Florida Keys endemic, makes this population of conservation...

  17. Effectiveness of Meningococcal B Vaccine against Endemic Hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis W Strain, England

    PubMed Central

    Giuliani, Marzia Monica; Biolchi, Alessia; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Beebeejaun, Kazim; Lucidarme, Jay; Findlow, Jamie; Ramsay, Mary E.; Borrow, Ray

    2016-01-01

    Serum samples from children immunized with a meningococcal serogroup B vaccine demonstrated potent serum bactericidal antibody activity against the hypervirulent Neisseria meningitidis serogroup W strain circulating in England. The recent introduction of this vaccine into the United Kingdom national immunization program should also help protect infants against this endemic strain. PMID:26811872

  18. Molecular Characterization of Mycoplasma agalactiae Reveals the Presence of an Endemic Clone in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Miguel, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Mycoplasma agalactiae isolates from Spain were genetically characterized to investigate their genomic diversity and to better understand their relationship to isolates from other countries. Molecular typing revealed a high genomic homogeneity in Spanish M. agalactiae isolates, which clearly shows the circulation of one endemic clonal population. PMID:23224102

  19. Coupling predicted model of arsenic in groundwater with endemic arsenism occurrence in Shanxi Province, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Rodriguez-Lado, Luis; Liu, Juan; Johnson, C Annette; Zheng, Quanmei; Sun, Guifan

    2013-11-15

    Statistical modeling has been used to predict high risk area of arsenic (As) hazard, but information about its application on endemic arsenism is limited. In this study, we aim to link the prediction model with population census data and endemic arsenicosis in Shanxi Province, Northern China. 23 explanatory variables from different sources were compiled in the format of grid at 1km resolution in a GIS environment. Logistic regression was applied to describe the relationship between binary-coded As concentrations data and the auxiliary predictors. 61 endemic arsenism villages were geo-located and combined with output maps of the prediction model. Linear regression was used to identify the relationship between arsenicosis occurrence rate and predictive As probability at village level. Our results show that 6 explanatory environmental variables were significantly contributed to the final model. Area of 3000 km(2) was found to have high risk of As concentrations above 50 μg L(-1). The linear regression indicates that 13% of the variation in arsenicosis occurrence rate can be predicted using predictive probability of As concentration above 50 μg L(-1) in Shanxi Province. These results suggest that As prediction model may be helpful for identifying As-contaminated area and endemic arsenism village. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Chemical composition of Achillea schischkinii Sosn., an endemic species from Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of an endemic species of Achillea schischkinii Sosn. (Asteraceae) collected from an eastern part of Turkey (Van). Air-dried aerial parts were subjected to water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS...

  1. Diversity and bioprospecting of fungal communities associated with endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae in Antarctica

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Valéria M; Furbino, Laura E; Santiago, Iara F; Pellizzari, Franciane M; Yokoya, Nair S; Pupo, Diclá; Alves, Tânia MA; S Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Cantrell, Charles L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed the distribution and diversity of fungi associated with eight macroalgae from Antarctica and their capability to produce bioactive compounds. The collections yielded 148 fungal isolates, which were identified using molecular methods as belonging to 21 genera and 50 taxa. The most frequent taxa were Geomyces species (sp.), Penicillium sp. and Metschnikowia australis. Seven fungal isolates associated with the endemic Antarctic macroalgae Monostroma hariotii (Chlorophyte) displayed high internal transcribed spacer sequences similarities with the psychrophilic pathogenic fungus Geomyces destructans. Thirty-three fungal singletons (66%) were identified, representing rare components of the fungal communities. The fungal communities displayed high diversity, richness and dominance indices; however, rarefaction curves indicated that not all of the fungal diversity present was recovered. Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6034 and Penicillium sp. UFMGCB 6120, recovered from the endemic species Palmaria decipiens (Rhodophyte) and M. hariotii, respectively, yielded extracts with high and selective antifungal and/or trypanocidal activities, in which a preliminary spectral analysis using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy indicated the presence of highly functionalised aromatic compounds. These results suggest that the endemic and cold-adapted macroalgae of Antarctica shelter a rich, diversity and complex fungal communities consisting of a few dominant indigenous or mesophilic cold-adapted species, and a large number of rare and/or endemic taxa, which may provide an interesting model of algal–fungal interactions under extreme conditions as well as a potential source of bioactive compounds. PMID:23702515

  2. High Prevalence of Asymptomatic Neurocysticercosis in an Endemic Rural Community in Peru

    PubMed Central

    O’Neal, Seth E.; Ayvar, Viterbo; Gonzalvez, Guillermo; Gamboa, Ricardo; Vilchez, Percy; Rodriguez, Silvia; Reistetter, Joe; Tsang, Victor C. W.; Gilman, Robert H.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Garcia, Hector H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Neurocysticercosis is a common helminthic infection of the central nervous system and an important cause of adult-onset epilepsy in endemic countries. However, few studies have examined associations between neurologic symptoms, serology and radiographic findings on a community-level. Methodology We conducted a population-based study of resident’s ≥2 years old in a highly endemic village in Peru (pop. 454). We applied a 14 -question neurologic screening tool and evaluated serum for antibodies against Taenia solium cysticercosis using enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (LLGP-EITB). We invited all residents ≥18 years old to have non-contrast computerized tomography (CT) of the head. Principal findings Of the 385 residents who provided serum samples, 142 (36.9%) were seropositive. Of the 256 residents who underwent CT scan, 48 (18.8%) had brain calcifications consistent with NCC; 8/48 (17.0%) reported a history of headache and/or seizures. Exposure to T. solium is very common in this endemic community where 1 out of 5 residents had brain calcifications. However, the vast majority of people with calcifications were asymptomatic. Conclusion This study reports a high prevalence of NCC infection in an endemic community in Peru and confirms that a large proportion of apparently asymptomatic residents have brain calcifications that could provoke seizures in the future. PMID:27992429

  3. Pollinators complicate conservation of a Piceance Basin endemic, Physaria obcordata (Cruciferae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Physaria obcordata, a rare endemic plant of the Piceance Basin, Colorado, was found to be incapable of reproducing sexually unless flowers were attended by pollinators. The plants are self-incompatible; pollen must be moved between flowers of different plants by an extraneous agent to effect fertil...

  4. Maxent-directed field surveys identify new populations of narrowly endemic habitat specialists

    PubMed Central

    Peterman, William E.; Taylor, Christopher A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Rare or narrowly endemic organisms are difficult to monitor and conserve when their total distribution and habitat preferences are incompletely known. One method employed in determining distributions of these organisms is species distribution modeling (SDM). Methods Using two species of narrowly endemic burrowing crayfish species as our study organisms, we sought to ground validate Maxent, a commonly used program to conduct SDMs. We used fine scale (30 m) resolution rasters of pertinent habitat variables collected from historical museum records in 2014. We then ground validated the Maxent model in 2015 by randomly and equally sampling the output from the model. Results The Maxent models for both species of crayfish showed positive relationships between predicted relative occurrence rate and crayfish burrow abundance in both a Receiver Operating Characteristic and generalized linear model approach. The ground validation of Maxent led us to new populations and range extensions of both species of crayfish. Discussion We conclude that Maxent is a suitable tool for the discovery of new populations of narrowly endemic, rare habitat specialists and our technique may be used for other rare, endemic organisms. PMID:28785520

  5. Maxent-directed field surveys identify new populations of narrowly endemic habitat specialists.

    PubMed

    Rhoden, Cody M; Peterman, William E; Taylor, Christopher A

    2017-01-01

    Rare or narrowly endemic organisms are difficult to monitor and conserve when their total distribution and habitat preferences are incompletely known. One method employed in determining distributions of these organisms is species distribution modeling (SDM). Using two species of narrowly endemic burrowing crayfish species as our study organisms, we sought to ground validate Maxent, a commonly used program to conduct SDMs. We used fine scale (30 m) resolution rasters of pertinent habitat variables collected from historical museum records in 2014. We then ground validated the Maxent model in 2015 by randomly and equally sampling the output from the model. The Maxent models for both species of crayfish showed positive relationships between predicted relative occurrence rate and crayfish burrow abundance in both a Receiver Operating Characteristic and generalized linear model approach. The ground validation of Maxent led us to new populations and range extensions of both species of crayfish. We conclude that Maxent is a suitable tool for the discovery of new populations of narrowly endemic, rare habitat specialists and our technique may be used for other rare, endemic organisms.

  6. A tale of two single mountain alpine endemics: Packera franciscana and Erigeron mancus

    Treesearch

    James F. Fowler; Carolyn H. Sieg; Brian M. Casavant; Addie E. Hite

    2012-01-01

    Both the San Francisco Peaks ragwort, Packera franciscana and the La Sal daisy, Erigeron mancus are endemic to treeline/alpine habitats of the single mountain they inhabit. There is little habitat available for these plant species to migrate upward in a warming climate scenario. For P. franciscana, 2008 estimates indicate over 18,000 ramets in a 4 m band along a...

  7. High endemism at cave entrances: a case study of spiders of the genus Uthina

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhiyuan; Dong, Tingting; Zheng, Guo; Fu, Jinzhong; Li, Shuqiang

    2016-01-01

    Endemism, which is typically high on islands and in caves, has rarely been studied in the cave entrance ecotone. We investigated the endemism of the spider genus Uthina at cave entrances. Totally 212 spiders were sampled from 46 localities, from Seychelles across Southeast Asia to Fiji. They mostly occur at cave entrances but occasionally appear at various epigean environments. Phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequence data from COI and 28S genes suggested that Uthina was grouped into 13 well-supported clades. We used three methods, the Bayesian Poisson Tree Processes (bPTP) model, the Bayesian Phylogenetics and Phylogeography (BPP) method, and the general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) model, to investigate species boundaries. Both bPTP and BPP identified the 13 clades as 13 separate species, while GMYC identified 19 species. Furthermore, our results revealed high endemism at cave entrances. Of the 13 provisional species, twelve (one known and eleven new) are endemic to one or a cluster of caves, and all of them occurred only at cave entrances except for one population of one species. The only widely distributed species, U. luzonica, mostly occurred in epigean environments while three populations were found at cave entrances. Additionally, eleven new species of the genus are described. PMID:27775081

  8. Endemic Circulation of European Bat Lyssavirus Type 1 in Serotine Bats, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Juste, Javier; Ibáñez, Carlos; Ruiz-Villamor, Eduardo; Avellón, Ana; Vera, Manuel; Echevarría, Juan E.

    2008-01-01

    To determine the presence of European bat lyssavirus type 1 in southern Spain, we studied 19 colonies of serotine bats (Eptesicus isabellinus), its main reservoir, during 1998–2003. Viral genome and antibodies were detected in healthy bats, which suggests subclinical infection. The different temporal patterns of circulation found in each colony indicate independent endemic circulation. PMID:18680651

  9. Mitochondrial Genome Sequence of the Galápagos Endemic Land Snail Naesiotus nux

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Samuel S.; Settles, Matthew L.; New, Daniel D.; Parent, Christine E.

    2016-01-01

    We report herein the draft mitochondrial genome sequence of Naesiotus nux, a Galápagos endemic land snail species of the genus Naesiotus. The circular genome is 15 kb and encodes 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, and 21 tRNA genes. PMID:26798085

  10. Patterns of biodiversity and endemism on Indo-West Pacific coral reefs

    PubMed Central

    Reaka, Marjorie L.; Rodgers, Paula J.; Kudla, Alexei U.

    2008-01-01

    Diversity of the primary groups of contemporary Indo-West Pacific coral reef organisms, including mantis shrimps (stomatopod crustaceans), peaks in the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), reaches a lower peak in East Africa and Madagascar [Indian Ocean continental (IOC)], and declines in the central Indian Ocean (IO) and Central Pacific (CP). Percent endemism in stomatopods (highest in the IAA, high in the IOC, lower in regions adjacent to centers, and moderate in the CP) correlates positively with species diversity (this varies with scale) and inversely with species body size. Because it constrains reproductive traits and dispersal, body size is a reliable indicator of speciation and extinction potential in reef stomatopods and probably most marine organisms. Assemblages are dominated by small-sized species in the IAA and IOC. Both speciation and extinction likely are high, resulting in especially high endemism (small ranges reflect both originating and disappearing species) in these regions. Rates of speciation exceed extinction, yielding centers of diversity (especially in the IAA). Dispersal slows speciation and extinction in areas adjacent to these centers. Body size declines toward the CP, especially in atoll environments. Here the wheels of speciation and extinction again spin rapidly but in the opposite direction (extinction > speciation), yielding low diversity and moderate endemism. We conclude that life histories, dispersal, and speciation/extinction dynamics are primary agents that mold patterns of diversity and endemism. Historical factors, currents, productivity, and species diversity itself (through ecological interactions) also influence these patterns, in some cases by altering body size. PMID:18695226

  11. A retrospective review of malaria cases seen in a non-endemic area of South Africa.

    PubMed

    Dube, S; Ismail, N; Hoosen, A A

    2008-09-01

    Malaria is a risk for travelers to endemic areas. We describe the diagnosis and treatment of malaria in Pretoria, a non-endemic area in South Africa. Records of specimens submitted to the medical microbiology laboratory for malaria investigations over 3 years were reviewed with follow up of hospital records for positive specimens for clinical data. The laboratory performs malaria smears and uses HRP2-Ag testing for rapid diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum. A total of 516 specimens were received, with a 211/516 (41%) malaria smear positive rate. The number of malaria positive specimens has been increasing overtime and this increase was statistically significant in children [p=0.005]. HRP2-Ag testing was done on 430 specimens with124/430 (29%) being positive, of which 10/124 (8%) were smear negative, giving 98% sensitivity. Hospital records for 198/211 (94%) smear positive cases showed that 190/198 (96%) of the patients had a travel history with 170/190 (71%) having traveled to Mozambique, a malaria endemic country. Most patients presented with uncomplicated malaria; the CFR was 4/198 (2%). Treatment mainly followed South African national guidelines. Imported malaria is increasingly being diagnosed in returning travelers, especially from Mozambique. Rapid antigen tests remain useful for the diagnosis of malaria in non-endemic areas.

  12. Fatal congenital Chagas' disease in a non-endemic area: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Flores-Chávez, María; Faez, Yamile; Olalla, José M; Cruz, Israel; Gárate, Teresa; Rodríguez, Mercedes; Blanc, Pilar; Cañavate, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    The early diagnosis of congenital Chagas' disease is very important if infected newborns, whether symptomatic or not, are to receive adequate treatment. This paper describes the complications arising in the diagnosis of a newborn with fatal congenital Chagas' disease in Spain, a non-endemic area where visceral leishmaniasis is present. PMID:18992159

  13. Phylogeography of an island endemic: the Puerto Rican freshwater crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons

    Treesearch

    Benjamin D. Cook; Catherine M. Pringle; Jane M. Hughes

    2008-01-01

    The endemic Puerto Rican crab, Epilobocera sinuatifrons (Pseudothelphusidae), has a freshwater-dependant life-history strategy, although the species has some capabilities for terrestrial movement as adults. In contrast to all other freshwater decapods on the island (e.g., caridean shrimp), E. sinuatifrons does not undertake amphidromous migration, and is restricted to...

  14. Response of a rare endemic, Penstemon clutei, to burning and reduced belowground competition

    Treesearch

    Peter Z. Fule; Judith D. Springer; David W. Huffman; W. Wallace Covington

    2001-01-01

    Penstemon clutei, a rare perennial beardtongue endemic to the ponderosa pine forest of the Sunset Crater volcanic field of northern Arizona, presents an opportunity to test the hypothesis that restoration of historic ecosystem conditions may enhance the sustainability of a rare species. We tested prescribed burning and root trenching treatments as proxies for the...

  15. The seed ecology of Iliamna logisepala (Torr.) Wiggins, an east Cascade endemic.

    Treesearch

    Richy J. Harrod; Charles B. Halpern

    2005-01-01

    We examined the seed ecology of Iliamna longisepala as an aid to developing a conservation strategy for this rare endemic forb of northcentral Washington. We conducted field, greenhouse, and laboratory studies to quantify: (1) densities of buried viable seed among sites with different histories of burning, (2) post-fire spatial distributions of...

  16. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  17. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  18. Societal Responses to Endemic Terror: Evidence from Driving Behavior in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stecklov, Guy; Goldstein, Joshua R.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, using data on traffic volume and fatal accident rates in Israel from 2001 to 2004--a period spanning much of the Second Intifada--we examine the population-level responses to endemic terror to uncover whether societies become habituated so that the response weakens following repeated attacks or whether they become increasingly…

  19. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomesson ecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to S. miniatum and S. campanulatum, both from Peru, with...

  20. Cholera at the Crossroads: The Association Between Endemic Cholera and National Access to Improved Water Sources and Sanitation

    PubMed Central

    Nygren, Benjamin L.; Blackstock, Anna J.; Mintz, Eric D.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of 71% has 65% sensitivity and 65% specificity in predicting endemic cholera, a sanitation access level of 39% has 63% sensitivity and 62% specificity, and an infant mortality rate of 65/1,000 has 67% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Our findings reveal the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity for these predictors of endemic cholera and highlight the substantial uncertainty in the data. More accurate global surveillance data will enable more precise characterization of the benefits of improved water and sanitation. PMID:25200265

  1. A new genus and two new species of feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from New Zealand endemic passerines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Palma, Ricardo L

    2015-03-09

    The first descriptions of New Zealand endemic feather lice belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are given. The new genus Melibrueelia and new species M. novaeseelandiae are described, illustrated and compared with morphologically close taxa within the complex. The type host of M. novaeseelandiae is the tui, Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Gmelin, 1788), and an additional host is the bellbird, Anthornis melanura (Sparrman, 1786) (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae), both endemic to New Zealand. Also, the new species Brueelia callaeincola is described and illustrated from four endemic bird species belonging to two endemic genera and an endemic family: Philesturnus carunculatus (Gmelin, 1789) (the type host), Ph. rufusater (Lesson, 1828), Callaeas cinerea (Gmelin, 1788) and C. wilsoni (Bonaparte, 1851) (Passeriformes: Callaeidae). Brief discussions on possible evolutionary histories of the new taxa are included.

  2. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed. PMID:24039521

  3. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed.

  4. Cholera at the crossroads: the association between endemic cholera and national access to improved water sources and sanitation.

    PubMed

    Nygren, Benjamin L; Blackstock, Anna J; Mintz, Eric D

    2014-11-01

    We evaluated World Health Organization (WHO) national water and sanitation coverage levels and the infant mortality rate as predictors of endemic cholera in the 5-year period following water and sanitation coverage estimates using logistic regression, receiver operator characteristic curves, and different definitions of endemicity. Each was a significant predictors of endemic cholera at P < 0.001. Using a value of 250 for annual cases reported in 3 of 5 years, a national water access level of 71% has 65% sensitivity and 65% specificity in predicting endemic cholera, a sanitation access level of 39% has 63% sensitivity and 62% specificity, and an infant mortality rate of 65/1,000 has 67% sensitivity and 69% specificity. Our findings reveal the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity for these predictors of endemic cholera and highlight the substantial uncertainty in the data. More accurate global surveillance data will enable more precise characterization of the benefits of improved water and sanitation.

  5. Relationship between endemic diseases and trace elements in the natural environment of Jilin province of China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.

    1986-01-01

    Jilin province is in the middle of the north eastern region of China. Several endemic diseases are recognized there: endemic goiter, endemic fluorosis, Kaschin - Beck disease and Keshan disease. Their etiology is uncertain but they are widely distributed in rural areas which are not contaminated by industrial waste. This study shows that there is a regular distribution of some trace elements (Se, Mo, I, F) in soil, crops and drinking water as the natural environmental factors (topography, climate, types of soil and plant) vary from east to west in the province. Endemic goiter is widely spread in the upland areas, which are deficient in iodine. Iodine levels in the drinking water were less than 5.0 ug/l which accounted for 60.72% of total samples. Endemic fluorosis was distributed only in the lowland areas of the plains. Fluorine contents in 80% of water samples were more than 2.1 mg/1 in the disease areas. Kaschin-Bec, disease and Keshan disease were distributed in the mountains and hills of the eastern part of the province. The selenium and molybdenum contents of soils, crops and drinking water in the disease areas were lower than those of non-disease areas. The difference between them was significant (p < 0.01). Kaschin-Beck disease also occurred in the local plains where there were selenium deficiencies in crops and drinking water. The relationship between Kaschin-Beck disease and selenium in grains (corn) presented a significant correlation Keshan disease is also associated with deficiency in selenium and molybdenum. 13 references, 2 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Genetic diversity of Anaplasma marginale strains from an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in an endemic area.

    PubMed

    Almazán, Consuelo; Alamzán, Consuelo; Medrano, Citlaly; Ortiz, Martín; de la Fuente, José

    2008-11-25

    Anaplasma marginale is a tick-borne pathogen of cattle that causes the disease bovine anaplasmosis worldwide. Major surface proteins (MSPs) are involved in host-pathogen and tick-pathogen interactions and have been used as markers for the genetic characterization of A. marginale strains. A. marginale genotypes are highly variable in endemic areas worldwide. The genetic composition of A. marginale strains during anaplasmosis outbreaks has been characterized in one study only which reported a single msp1alpha genotype in infected cattle. However, more information is required to characterize whether a single genotype is responsible for an anaplasmosis outbreak or whether multiple genotypes can cause disease in naïve cattle within a single herd in endemic areas. The aim of this study was to characterize the genetic diversity of A. marginale strains from an outbreak of bovine anaplasmosis in the State of Tamaulipas, Mexico. A. marginale genotypes were characterized at the molecular level using msp4 and msp1alpha gene sequences. The results revealed that several A. marginale genotypes are present in cattle during acute anaplasmosis outbreaks, thus suggesting that mechanical transmission or stochastic biological transmission through equally efficient independent transmission events may explain A. marginale genotype frequency in a cattle herd during acute bovine anaplasmosis outbreaks in endemic areas. The results reported herein corroborated the genetic heterogeneity of A. marginale strains in endemic regions worldwide. The development and implementation of anaplasmosis control measures is dependent upon understanding the epidemiology of A. marginale in endemic regions, including the characterization of the genetic diversity of strains that produce outbreaks of bovine anaplasmosis.

  7. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  8. New approaches to the biogeography and areas of endemism of red oaks (Quercus L., section Lobatae).

    PubMed

    Torres-Miranda, Andrés; Luna-Vega, Isolda; Oyama, Ken

    2013-07-01

    An area of endemism is defined by the spatial congruence among two or more species with distributions that are limited by barriers. In this study, we explored and discussed the use of the network analysis method (NAM) and neighbor-joining (NJ) to analyze the areas of endemism of Quercus sect. Lobatae (red oak species) in Mexico and Central America. We compared the NAM and NJ with other methods commonly used in biogeographic studies to show the advantages of these new approaches and to identify the shortcomings of other approaches. The NAM used in this study is based on notions of centrality measures, such as betweenness. We incorporated the strength of the ties within the internal networks through p-cores and aggregate constraints in iterative analyses. The NAM based on betweenness is ideal for recognizing completely allopatric areas of endemism. The iterative NAMs increase the number of possible areas of endemism because they minimize the effect of minimal overlap, and the p-core is efficient at identifying the closest relationships among species in the cases in which betweenness is not informative. The number of areas of endemism increases when the sympatry matrix minimizes the dispersal effect and the sample effort is maximized, allowing the identification of the greatest number of these areas. The NJ method supports the idea that areas diverge among themselves in a differential way; the long branches correspond to zones with high speciation rates and complex histories (biotic and tectonic), and the short branches correspond to zones with low speciation rates and simple histories. In a classification scheme, NJ was capable of identifying the areas that are considered biotically complex because of their high speciation rates. The results obtained with the NAM and NJ showed that the physiographic regions of Mexico are not natural units and that many of them are composed of at least two different biotic components.

  9. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections—Revelations from Endemic Mycoses

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Pamela P.; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique climatic and

  10. Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis in a non-endemic area: a review of cases and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Buitrago, Maria J; Bernal-Martínez, Leticia; Castelli, Maria V; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    Histoplasmosis and paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) have increased in Spain in recent years, due firstly to the migration from endemic regions and secondly to travelers returning from these regions. In non-endemic areas, diagnosis of both diseases is hampered by the lack of experience, long silent periods, and the resemblance to other diseases such as tuberculosis and sarcoidosis. A total of 39 cases of imported histoplasmosis and 6 cases of PCM diagnosed in the Spanish Mycology Reference Laboratory since 2006 were analyzed. Microbiological diagnosis was performed using classical methods and also a specific real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for each microorganism. We had 9 cases of probable histoplasmosis in travelers and 30 cases in immigrants, 29 of whom were defined as proven. Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) cases were either immigrants or people who had lived for a long period of time in endemic regions, all of whom were classified as proven cases. Cultures showed a good sensitivity in detecting Histoplasma capsulatum in immigrants with proven histoplasmosis (73%); however, growth was very slow. The fungus was never recovered in traveler patients. Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was isolated in a culture only in one case of the proven PCM. Serological methods were not very reliable in immunocompromised patients with histoplasmosis (40%). A PCR-based technique for histoplasmosis detected 55.5% of the cases in travelers (probable cases) and 89% of the cases in immigrants (proven). The PCR method for PCM detected 100% of the cases. These kinds of mycoses are increasingly frequent in non-endemic areas, and newer and faster techniques should be used to reach an early diagnosis. The RT-PCR techniques developed appear to be sensitive, specific, and fast and could be helpful to detect those mycoses. However, it is also essential that physicians perform differential diagnosis in individuals coming from endemic areas. © 2010 International Society of Travel

  11. Organic compounds in water extracts of coal: links to Balkan endemic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Maharaj, S V M; Orem, W H; Tatu, C A; Lerch, H E; Szilagyi, D N

    2014-02-01

    The Pliocene lignite hypothesis is an environmental hypothesis that has been proposed to explain the etiology of Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN). Aqueous leaching experiments were conducted on a variety of coal samples in order to simulate groundwater leaching of organic compounds, and to further test the role of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis in the etiology of BEN. Experiments were performed on lignite coal samples from endemic BEN areas in Romania and Serbia, and lignite and bituminous coals from nonendemic regions in Romania and the USA. Room temperature, hot water bath, and Soxhlet aqueous extraction experiments were conducted between 25 and 80 °C, and from 5 to 128 days in duration. A greater number of organic compounds and in higher concentrations were present in all three types of leaching experiments involving endemic area Pliocene lignite samples compared to all other coals examined. A BEN causing molecule or molecules may be among phenols, PAHs, benzenes, and/or lignin degradation compounds. The proposed transport pathway of the Pliocene lignite hypothesis for organic compound exposure from endemic area Pliocene lignite coals to well and spring drinking water, is likely. Aromatic compounds leached by groundwater from Pliocene lignite deposits in the vicinity of endemic BEN areas may play a role in the etiology of the disease. A better understanding of organic compounds leached by groundwater from Pliocene lignite deposits may potentially lead to the identification and implementation of effective strategies for the prevention of exposure to the causative agent(s) for BEN, and in turn, prevention of the disease.

  12. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil – and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants. PMID:26884706

  13. Indications for surgery and significance of unrecognized cancer in endemic multinodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Grisbolaki, Evangelia; Koutsomanolis, Dimosthenis; Venianaki, Maria; Petrakis, Ioannis; Vrachassotakis, Nikolaos; Chrysos, Emanuel; Zoras, Odysseas; Chalkiadakis, George

    2012-06-01

    The exclusion of cancer in endemic goiter is often difficult mainly because of the high number of nodules and the as-yet unclear natural history of diagnosed cancer in endemic goiter patients. In a large number of consecutive patients who were to undergo total thyroidectomy for endemic multinodular goiter, we assessed indications for surgery and thyroid cancer outcome. All patients who were to undergo total thyroidectomy for diffuse multinodular goiter on histological examination between January 1990 and October 2008 were evaluated. Of the 1,161 patients included in the study, 252 were cases of thyroid cancer (21.7%). Sensitivity of thyroid ultrasound (US) and fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) for cancer detection was 30.3 and 64.1%, respectively. Differentiated thyroid carcinoma accounted for most of the tumors (96%), with 54.8% of them being papillary microcarcinomas, while bilateral-multicentric cancer occurred in 20.3%. In multivariate analysis, younger age (p = 0.06), sonographic findings (p = 0.03), and presence of histological thyroiditis (p = 0.09) were independently associated with the occurrence of tumors with diameter greater than 2 cm. The percentage of transient and permanent postoperative complications were approximately 25 and below 2%, respectively. After a median follow-up time of 78.5 months, overall recurrence rate was 6.7% and disease-specific mortality was 1.2%. As US and FNAC did not consistently detect cancer in patients with diffuse multinodular goiter in our endemic area, evidence-based indications for surgery in this group of patients is needed, although radical surgery and favorable tumor histology offer favorable outcomes in commonly diagnosed thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy for endemic multinodular goiter.

  14. Dynamics and control of foot-and-mouth disease in endemic countries: a pair approximation model.

    PubMed

    Ringa, N; Bauch, C T

    2014-09-21

    Previous mathematical models of spatial farm-to-farm transmission of foot and mouth disease (FMD) have explored the impacts of control measures such as culling and vaccination during a single outbreak in a country normally free of FMD. As a result, these models do not include factors that are relevant to countries where FMD is endemic in some regions, like long-term waning natural and vaccine immunity, use of prophylactic vaccination and disease re-importations. These factors may have implications for disease dynamics and control, yet few models have been developed for FMD-endemic settings. Here we develop and study an SEIRV (susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered-vaccinated) pair approximation model of FMD. We focus on long term dynamics by exploring characteristics of repeated outbreaks of FMD and their dependence on disease re-importation, loss of natural immunity, and vaccine waning. We find that the effectiveness of ring and prophylactic vaccination strongly depends on duration of natural immunity, rate of vaccine waning, and disease re-introduction rate. However, the number and magnitude of FMD outbreaks are generally more sensitive to the duration of natural immunity than the duration of vaccine immunity. If loss of natural immunity and/or vaccine waning happen rapidly, then multiple epidemic outbreaks result, making it difficult to eliminate the disease. Prophylactic vaccination is more effective than ring vaccination, at the same per capita vaccination rate. Finally, more frequent disease re-importation causes a higher cumulative number of infections, although a lower average epidemic peak. Our analysis demonstrates significant differences between dynamics in FMD-free settings versus FMD-endemic settings, and that dynamics in FMD-endemic settings can vary widely depending on factors such as the duration of natural and vaccine immunity and the rate of disease re-importations. We conclude that more mathematical models tailored to FMD-endemic countries

  15. Cellular and Molecular Defects Underlying Invasive Fungal Infections-Revelations from Endemic Mycoses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pamela P; Lau, Yu-Lung

    2017-01-01

    The global burden of fungal diseases has been increasing, as a result of the expanding number of susceptible individuals including people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hematopoietic stem cell or organ transplant recipients, patients with malignancies or immunological conditions receiving immunosuppressive treatment, premature neonates, and the elderly. Opportunistic fungal pathogens such as Aspergillus, Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhizopus, and Pneumocystis jiroveci are distributed worldwide and constitute the majority of invasive fungal infections (IFIs). Dimorphic fungi such as Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides spp., Paracoccidioides spp., Blastomyces dermatiditis, Sporothrix schenckii, Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei, and Emmonsia spp. are geographically restricted to their respective habitats and cause endemic mycoses. Disseminated histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and T. marneffei infection are recognized as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining conditions, while the rest also cause high rate of morbidities and mortalities in patients with HIV infection and other immunocompromised conditions. In the past decade, a growing number of monogenic immunodeficiency disorders causing increased susceptibility to fungal infections have been discovered. In particular, defects of the IL-12/IFN-γ pathway and T-helper 17-mediated response are associated with increased susceptibility to endemic mycoses. In this review, we put together the various forms of endemic mycoses on the map and take a journey around the world to examine how cellular and molecular defects of the immune system predispose to invasive endemic fungal infections, including primary immunodeficiencies, individuals with autoantibodies against interferon-γ, and those receiving biologic response modifiers. Though rare, these conditions provide importance insights to host defense mechanisms against endemic fungi, which can only be appreciated in unique climatic and

  16. A Complex System of Glacial Sub-Refugia Drives Endemic Freshwater Biodiversity on the Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Clewing, Catharina; Albrecht, Christian; Wilke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although only relatively few freshwater invertebrate families are reported from the Tibetan Plateau, the degree of endemism may be high. Many endemic lineages occur within permafrost areas, raising questions about the existence of isolated intra-plateau glacial refugia. Moreover, if such refugia existed, it might be instructive to learn whether they were associated with lakes or with more dynamic ecosystems such as ponds, wetlands, or springs. To study these hypotheses, we used pulmonate snails of the plateau-wide distributed genus Radix as model group and the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, located in the north-eastern part of the plateau, as model site. First, we performed plateau-wide phylogenetic analyses using mtDNA data to assess the overall relationships of Radix populations inhabiting the Lake Donggi Cona system for revealing refugial lineages. We then conducted regional phylogeographical analyses applying a combination of mtDNA and nuclear AFLP markers to infer the local structure and demographic history of the most abundant endemic Radix clade for identifying location and type of (sub-)refugia within the drainage system. Our phylogenetic analysis showed a high diversity of Radix lineages in the Lake Donggi Cona system. Subsequent phylogeographical analyses of the most abundant endemic clade indicated a habitat-related clustering of genotypes and several Late Pleistocene spatial/demographic expansion events. The most parsimonious explanation for these patterns would be a scenario of an intra-plateau glacial refugium in the Lake Donggi Cona drainage system, which might have consisted of isolated sub-refugia. Though the underlying processes remain unknown, an initial separation of lake and watershed populations could have been triggered by lake-level fluctuations before and during the Last Glacial Maximum. This study inferred the first intra-plateau refugium for freshwater animals on the Tibetan Plateau. It thus sheds new light on the evolutionary history

  17. Laboratory agonistic interactions demonstrate failure of an introduced crayfish to dominate two imperiled endemic crayfishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rahm, E.J.; Griffith, S.A.; Noltie, Douglas B.; DiStefano, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Following its introduction into the St. Francis River drainage, Missouri, U.S.A., the woodland crayfish, Orconectes hylas has expanded its range there; simultaneously populations of two imperiled endemic species, the Big Creek crayfish, O. peruncus, and the St. Francis River crayfish, O. quadruncus have declined therein. In seeking a basis for this decline, our study objective was to test whether the outcome of aggressive inter-specific interactions would favor O. hylas. We studied agonistic encounters between size-matched pairs of same-sex individuals of the introduced and the endemic species in a laboratory setting, first with juveniles and then with adults. Within each life stage, we conducted four sets of laboratory experiments, with approximately 20 trials in each set: (1) O. hylas males versus O. peruncus males, (2) O. hylas males versus O. quadruncus males, (3) O. hylas females versus O. peruncus females, and (4) O. hylas females versus O. quadruncus females. In addition, these same four experiment sets were repeated using larger adult O. hylas crayfish matched with smaller-sized adult endemics, mimicking the mismatch in adult sizes that occurs in the wild. Within each experiment, every trial was analysed to quantify the frequency of occurrence of three initiation behaviors and to determine the overall outcome of the trial. Results did not show O. hylas (juveniles or adults) to be behaviorally dominant over either endemic species. Orconectes hylas displayed the majority of one of the initiation behaviors significantly more often than did the endemic species in only two of the twelve experiments. Because direct aggressive interaction was not demonstrated to be the mechanism whereby O. peruncus and O. quadruncus are being replaced by O. hylas, other life history and ecological factors will require investigation. ?? Koninklijke Brill NV, 2005.

  18. Comparative Genetic Structure and Demographic History in Endemic Galápagos Weevils

    PubMed Central

    Stepien, Courtney C.; Sijapati, Manisha; Roque Albelo, Lázaro

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of maintaining genetic diversity within populations can be exacerbated for island endemics if they display population dynamics and behavioral attributes that expose them to genetic drift without the benefits of gene flow. We assess patterns of the genetic structure and demographic history in 27 populations of 9 species of flightless endemic Galápagos weevils from 9 of the islands and 1 winged introduced close relative. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA reveals a significant population structure and moderately variable, though demographically stable, populations for lowland endemics (FST = 0.094–0.541; π: 0.014–0.042; Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026; and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203), in contrast to signals of past contractions and expansions in highland specialists on 2 islands (Mismatch P = 0.003–0.026 and D(Tajima) = −0.601 to 1.203). We interpret this series of variable and highly structured population groups as a system of long-established, independently founded island units, where structuring could be a signal of microallopatric differentiation due to patchy host plant distribution and poor dispersal abilities. We suggest that the severe reduction and subsequent increase of a suitably moist habitat that accompanied past climatic variation could have contributed to the observed population fluctuations in highland specialists. We propose the future exploration of hybridization between the introduced and highland endemic species on Santa Cruz, especially given the expansion of the introduced species into the highlands, the sensitivity to past climatic variation detected in highland populations, and the potentially threatened state of single-island endemics. PMID:22174444

  19. The biogeography of tropical reef fishes: endemism and provinciality through time.

    PubMed

    Cowman, Peter F; Parravicini, Valeriano; Kulbicki, Michel; Floeter, Sergio R

    2017-02-23

    The largest marine biodiversity hotspot straddles the Indian and Pacific Oceans, driven by taxa associated with tropical coral reefs. Centred on the Indo-Australian Archipelago (IAA), this biodiversity hotspot forms the 'bullseye' of a steep gradient in species richness from this centre to the periphery of the vast Indo-Pacific region. Complex patterns of endemism, wide-ranging species and assemblage differences have obscured our understanding of the genesis of this biodiversity pattern and its maintenance across two-thirds of the world's oceans. But time-calibrated molecular phylogenies coupled with ancestral biogeographic estimates have provided a valuable framework in which to examine the origins of coral reef fish biodiversity across the tropics. Herein, we examine phylogenetic and biogeographic data for coral reef fishes to highlight temporal patterns of marine endemism and tropical provinciality. The ages and distribution of endemic lineages have often been used to identify areas of species creation and demise in the marine tropics and discriminate among multiple hypotheses regarding the origins of biodiversity in the IAA. Despite a general under-sampling of endemic fishes in phylogenetic studies, the majority of locations today contain a mixture of potential paleo- and neo-endemic fishes, pointing to multiple historical processes involved in the origin and maintenance of the IAA biodiversity hotspot. Increased precision and sampling of geographic ranges for reef fishes has permitted the division of discrete realms, regions and provinces across the tropics. Yet, such metrics are only beginning to integrate phylogenetic relatedness and ancestral biogeography. Here, we integrate phylogenetic diversity with ancestral biogeographic estimation of lineages to show how assemblage structure and tropical provinciality has changed through time.

  20. A comprehensive checklist of vascular epiphytes of the Atlantic Forest reveals outstanding endemic rates.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Leandro; Salino, Alexandre; Neto, Luiz Menini; Elias Almeida, Thaís; Mortara, Sara Ribeiro; Stehmann, João Renato; Amorim, André Marcio; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin; Coelho, Marcus Nadruz; Zanin, Ana; Forzza, Rafaela Campostrini

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the geographic distribution of plants is essential to underpin the understanding of global biodiversity patterns. Vascular epiphytes are important components of diversity and functionality of Neotropical forests but, unlike their terrestrial counterparts, they are under-represented in large-scale diversity and biogeographic analyses. This is the case for the Atlantic Forest - one of the most diverse and threatened biomes worldwide. We provide the first comprehensive species list of Atlantic Forest vascular epiphytes; their endemism patterns and threatened species occurrence have also been analyzed. A list with 2,256 species of (hemi-)epiphytes - distributed in 240 genera and 33 families - is presented based on the updated Brazilian Flora Checklist. This represents more than 15% of the total vascular plant richness in the Atlantic Forest. Moreover, 256 species are included on the Brazilian Red List. More than 93% of the overall richness is concentrated in ten families, with 73% represented by Orchidaceae and Bromeliaceae species alone. A total of 78% of epiphytic species are endemic to the Atlantic Forest, in contrast to overall vascular plant endemism in this biome estimated at 57%. Among the non-endemics, 13% of epiphytic species also occur either in the Amazon or in the Cerrado - the other two largest biomes of Brazil - and only 8% are found in two or more Brazilian biomes. This pattern of endemism, in addition to available dated phylogenies of some genera, indicate the dominance of recent radiations of epiphytic groups in the Atlantic Forest, showing that the majority of divergences dating from the Pliocene onwards are similar to those that were recently reported for other Neotropical plants.

  1. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands

    PubMed Central

    Romeiras, Maria M.; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M. Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including ‘cryptic species’. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. PMID:25979965

  2. High genetic diversity and population structure in the endangered Canarian endemic Ruta oreojasme (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Meloni, Marilena; Reid, Andrea; Caujapé-Castells, Juli; Soto, Moisés; Fernández-Palacios, José María; Conti, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Insular species are expected to have low genetic diversity, for their populations are often small and isolated, and characterized by restricted gene flow and increased incidence of inbreeding. However, empirical results do not always match this expectation. For example, population genetic analyses of several Canarian endemics, based mainly on allozymes, show levels of genetic diversity exceptionally high for insular species. To investigate whether genetic variation in rare species endemic to Canary Islands is low, as predicted by theoretical expectations, or high, as documented in some previous studies, we analysed genetic diversity of the endangered Ruta oreojasme, a rare endemic of the island of Gran Canaria, using microsatellite markers, which are more variable than allozymes. Our analyses identified very high levels of genetic diversity (A = 7.625, P = 0.984, H o = 0.558, H e = 0.687) for R. oreojasme. Even though the distribution of the species is restricted to the South of Gran Canaria, only one population shows low genetic diversity, isolation and signs of a recent bottleneck/founder event. Some intrinsic characteristics of R. oreojasme (hermaphroditism, proterandry and polyploidy), the relative climatic stability of the Canarian archipelago during Quaternary glacials/interglacials, the size of most populations (thousands of individuals), its age, and the relative proximity of the archipelago to the mainland might have contributed to the high diversity that characterises this endemic. As expected, given the marked topographic complexity of Gran Canaria, we found marked genetic structure in R. oreojasme populations. Our results support the observation that Canarian endemics are characterised by unexpectedly high genetic diversity and provides important insights for potential applications to the conservation of R. oreojasme.

  3. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    PubMed

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora.

  4. [Clinical features of four atypical pediatric cases of endemic typhus with pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jin-rong; Xu, Bao-ping; Li, Shao-gang; Liu, Jun; Tian, Bao-lin; Zhao, Shun-ying

    2013-10-01

    To analyze clinical manifestations, treatment and prognosis of 4 cases with endemic typhus. The clinical data of four endemic typhus patients in prognosis were retrospectively analyzed. These four atypical cases of endemic typhus with pneumonia were treated in our department from October 2011 to March 2012. They were all male, with an age range of 15 months to 7 years. The four patients had long history, mild respiratory symptom and no improvement was found after treatment with cephalosporins. There were no evidences of bacterial, viral, or fungal infections and we thought they might have infection with other pathogen. Three were from rural areas. Routine blood tests, Weil-Felix reaction, blood smear (Giemsa staining) , and indirect immunofluorescence assay were performed. Blood smear and IFA tests showed evidences for endemic typhus. The clinical presentations were atypical, the patients had no headache, but all had fever, rash, and pneumonia of varying severity. None of the patients had a severe cough, but bronchial casts were observed in one case. Recurrent fever was reported in three cases. Physical examinations showed no eschars, but one patient had a subconjunctival hemorrhage, and one had skin scratches, cervical lymphadenopathy, pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and cardiac dilatation. Two patients had remarkably increased peripheral blood leukocyte counts; both these patients also had high alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels and one had a high C-reactive protein (CRP) level. Weil-Felix testing was negative or the OX19 titer was low. The peripheral blood smear (Giemsa stain) showed intracellular pathogens in all four cases. After combined therapy with doxycycline and macrolide antibiotics, all four patients recovered well. The endemic typhus children often come from rural areas. The clinical presentations were atypical, they usually have no headache, but have fever (often Periodic fever) , rash, and pneumonia of varying severity in these four cases

  5. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries

    PubMed Central

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela CV

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries. PMID:25410988

  6. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2014-11-01

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  7. Ecoepidemiology, short history and control of Chagas disease in the endemic countries and the new challenge for non-endemic countries.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Viñas, Pedro Albajar; Junqueira, Angela Cv

    2014-10-21

    Chagas disease is maintained in nature through the interchange of three cycles: the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles. The wild cycle, which is enzootic, has existed for millions of years maintained between triatomines and wild mammals. Human infection was only detected in mummies from 4,000-9,000 years ago, before the discovery of the disease by Carlos Chagas in 1909. With the beginning of deforestation in the Americas, two-three centuries ago for the expansion of agriculture and livestock rearing, wild mammals, which had been the food source for triatomines, were removed and new food sources started to appear in peridomestic areas: chicken coops, corrals and pigsties. Some accidental human cases could also have occurred prior to the triatomines in peridomestic areas. Thus, triatomines progressively penetrated households and formed the domestic cycle of Chagas disease. A new epidemiological, economic and social problem has been created through the globalisation of Chagas disease, due to legal and illegal migration of individuals infected by Trypanosoma cruzi or presenting Chagas disease in its varied clinical forms, from endemic countries in Latin America to non-endemic countries in North America, Europe, Asia and Oceania, particularly to the United States of America and Spain. The main objective of the present paper was to present a general view of the interchanges between the wild, peridomestic and domestic cycles of the disease, the development of T. cruzi among triatomine, their domiciliation and control initiatives, the characteristics of the disease in countries in the Americas and the problem of migration to non-endemic countries.

  8. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Gland Transcriptomes of Phlebotomus orientalis Sand Flies from Endemic and Non-endemic Foci of Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Vlkova, Michaela; Sima, Michal; Rohousova, Iva; Kostalova, Tatiana; Sumova, Petra; Volfova, Vera; Jaske, Erin L.; Barbian, Kent D.; Gebre-Michael, Teshome; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon; Ribeiro, Jose M. C.; Valenzuela, Jesus G.; Jochim, Ryan C.; Volf, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Background In East Africa, Phlebotomus orientalis serves as the main vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Phlebotomus orientalis is present at two distant localities in Ethiopia; Addis Zemen where VL is endemic and Melka Werer where transmission of VL does not occur. To find out whether the difference in epidemiology of VL is due to distant compositions of P. orientalis saliva we established colonies from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer, analyzed and compared the transcriptomes, proteomes and enzymatic activity of the salivary glands. Methodology/Principal Findings Two cDNA libraries were constructed from the female salivary glands of P. orientalis from Addis Zemen and Melka Werer. Clones of each P. orientalis library were randomly selected, sequenced and analyzed. In P. orientalis transcriptomes, we identified members of 13 main protein families. Phylogenetic analysis and multiple sequence alignments were performed to evaluate differences between the P. orientalis colonies and to show the relationship with other sand fly species from the subgenus Larroussius. To further compare both colonies, we investigated the humoral antigenicity and cross-reactivity of the salivary proteins and the activity of salivary apyrase and hyaluronidase. Conclusions This is the first report of the salivary components of P. orientalis, an important vector sand fly. Our study expanded the knowledge of salivary gland compounds of sand fly species in the subgenus Larroussius. Based on the phylogenetic analysis, we showed that P. orientalis is closely related to Phlebotomus tobbi and Phlebotomus perniciosus, whereas Phlebotomus ariasi is evolutionarily more distinct species. We also demonstrated that there is no significant difference between the transcriptomes, proteomes or enzymatic properties of the salivary components of Addis Zemen (endemic area) and Melka Werer (non-endemic area) P. orientalis colonies. Thus, the different epidemiology of VL

  9. High prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed

    Levick, Bethany; Laudisoit, Anne; Tepage, Floribert; Ensoy-Musoro, Chellafe; Mandro, Michel; Bonareri Osoro, Caroline; Suykerbuyk, Patrick; Kashama, Jean Marie; Komba, Michel; Tagoto, Alliance; Falay, Dadi; Begon, Michael; Colebunders, Robert

    2017-07-01

    An increased prevalence of epilepsy has been reported in many onchocerciasis endemic areas. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of epilepsy in onchocerciasis endemic areas in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and investigate whether a higher annual intake of Ivermectin was associated with a lower prevalence of epilepsy. Between July 2014 and February 2016, house-to-house epilepsy prevalence surveys were carried out in areas with a high level of onchocerciasis endemicity: 3 localities in the Bas-Uele, 24 in the Tshopo and 21 in the Ituri province. Ivermectin uptake was recorded for every household member. This database allowed a matched case-control pair subset to be created that enabled putative risk factors for epilepsy to be tested using univariate logistic regression models. Risk factors relating to onchocerciasis were tested using a multivariate random effects model. To identify presence of clusters of epilepsy cases, the Kulldorff's scan statistic was used. Of 12, 408 people examined in the different health areas 407 (3.3%) were found to have a history of epilepsy. A high prevalence of epilepsy was observed in health areas in the 3 provinces: 6.8-8.5% in Bas-Uele, 0.8-7.4% in Tshopo and 3.6-6.2% in Ituri. Median age of epilepsy onset was 9 years, and the modal age 12 years. The case control analysis demonstrated that before the appearance of epilepsy, compared to the same life period in controls, persons with epilepsy were around two times less likely (OR: 0.52; 95%CI: (0.28, 0.98)) to have taken Ivermectin than controls. After the appearance of epilepsy, there was no difference of Ivermectin intake between cases and controls. Only in Ituri, a significant cluster (p-value = 0.0001) was identified located around the Draju sample site area. The prevalence of epilepsy in health areas in onchocerciasis endemic regions in the DRC was 2-10 times higher than in non-onchocerciasis endemic regions in Africa. Our data suggests that

  10. The evolution of local endemism in madagascar: watershed versus climatic gradient hypotheses evaluated by null biogeographic models.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Richard G; Raxworthy, Christopher J

    2009-04-01

    Substantial insular speciation has resulted in exceptionally high levels of endemism in Madagascar, creating locally restricted species' ranges that remain poorly understood. The contributions of alternative processes that could influence patterns of local endemism-including speciation by geographic isolation or adaptation to environmental gradients-are widely debated, both for Madagascar and elsewhere. A recently proposed hypothesis (the "watershed hypothesis") suggests that allopatric speciation driven by isolation in watersheds during Quaternary climate shifts provides a general explanation for patterns of local endemism across taxa in Madagascar. Here we tested coincidence between species' distributions and areas of endemism predicted by two contrasting biogeographic hypotheses: (1) the watershed hypothesis, and (2) an alternative hypothesis driven by climatic gradients (the "current climate hypothesis"). Statistical significance of coincidence was assessed by comparing against a null model. Surprisingly, we found that extant distributions of lemurs, geckos, and chameleons reveal species patterns that are significantly coincident with the watershed and current climate hypotheses. These results strongly support local endemism developing from multiple processes, even among closely related species. Our findings thus indicate that pluralistic approaches will offer the best option both for understanding processes that generate local endemism, and for incorporating endemism within conservation priority setting.

  11. [Hygienic evaluation of the nutrition of the population in relation to endemic urolithiasis in the Chuvash ASSR].

    PubMed

    Suslikov, V L; Saĭkina, M K; Levchenko, M A; Belokon', R F

    1979-01-01

    By looking into the alimentary habits of the rural population residing in the urolithiasis endemic and non-endemic districts of the Chuvash ASSR the author ascertained definite differences in the content of calcium, silicon, strontium, manganese and cadmium in food rations of representative population groups under comparison. In the authors' opinion an elevated content of calcium, strontium, silicon, manganese and cadmium in food rations in inhabitants of the urolithiasis endemic districts is responsible for the urolithias endemy in the south-western areas of the republic.

  12. Diversity and levels of endemism of the Bromeliaceae of Costa Rica - an updated checklist.

    PubMed

    Cáceres González, Daniel A; Schulte, Katharina; Schmidt, Marco; Zizka, Georg

    2013-01-01

    An updated inventory of the Bromeliaceae for Costa Rica is presented including citations of representative specimens for each species. The family comprises 18 genera and 198 species in Costa Rica, 32 species being endemic to the country. Additional 36 species are endemic to Costa Rica and Panama. Only 4 of the 8 bromeliad subfamilies occur in Costa Rica, with a strong predominance of Tillandsioideae (7 genera/150 spp.; 75.7% of all bromeliad species in Costa Rica). 124 species (62.6%) grow exclusively epiphytic, additional 59 spp. (29.8%) are facultative epiphytes. The most diverse genus is Werauhia, with 59 species (29.8% of the Costa Rican bromeliad flora), followed by Tillandsia with 40 species (20.2%) and Guzmania with 28 spp. (8.6%).

  13. Microsatellite loci from the endemic Southern Ocean octopus Adelieledone polymorpha (Robson, 1930).

    PubMed

    Strugnell, Jan M; Allcock, A Louise; Watts, Phillip C

    2009-05-01

    To determine the pattern of spatial genetic structure in the endemic Southern Ocean octopus Adelieledone polymorpha, microsatellite loci were isolated from partial genomic libraries enriched for repetitive DNA motifs. Seven dinucleotide and two trinucleotide microsatellite loci were isolated successfully and levels of polymorphism were quantified in 34 individuals sampled from the Southern Ocean near South Georgia. No pairs of microsatellite loci were linked significantly; however, one locus deviated (P < 0.05) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Overall, the nine loci produced between five and 16 alleles, with observed and expected heterozygosities varying between 0.22 and 0.86 and between 0.21 and 0.94 respectively. This is the first description of microsatellite loci from an octopus endemic to the Southern Ocean, and these genetic markers are being used to quantify spatial structure within A. polymorpha.

  14. Is endemic stability of tick-borne disease in cattle a useful concept?

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Nicholas N; Bock, Russell E; Jorgensen, Wayne K; Morton, John M; Stear, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Endemic stability is a widely used term in the epidemiology of ticks and tick-borne diseases. It is generally accepted to refer to a state of a host-tick-pathogen interaction in which there is a high level of challenge of calves by infected ticks, absence of clinical disease in calves despite infection, and a high level of immunity in adult cattle with consequent low incidence of clinical disease. Although endemic stability is a valid epidemiological concept, the modelling studies that underpinned subsequent studies on the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases were specific to a single host-tick-pathogen system, and values derived from these models should not be applied in other regions or host-tick-pathogen systems.

  15. Antistreptokinase antibodies: implications for thrombolysis in a region with endemic streptococcal infection

    PubMed Central

    Blackwell, N; Hollins, A; Gilmore, G; Norton, R

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To determine antistreptokinase antibody (anti-SK) titres in patients with the acute coronary syndrome from communities with endemic group A streptococcal infection because of the implications for streptokinase (SK) thrombolysis. Methods: Anti-SK titres were determined using a standard method in 47 consecutive SK naive patients, presenting to the Mt Isa Hospital emergency department, Australia, with an acute coronary syndrome. Both indigenous and non-indigenous subjects were enrolled. Antistreptolysin O (ASOT) and anti-DNAse B (ADB) titres were also determined. Results: Indigenous patients were more likely to have anti-SK antibodies (p < 0.001) than the non-indigenous cohort. Anti-SK antibody titres also correlated well with ASOT/ADB titres. Conclusions: Anti-SK antibodies are highly prevalent in SK naive indigenous patients presenting with the acute coronary syndrome. Streptokinase should not be used for thrombolysis in populations with endemic group A streptococcal infection. PMID:16126892

  16. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan, Jean-François; Roche, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Buruli Ulcer is a devastating skin disease caused by the pathogen Mycobacterium ulcerans. Emergence and distribution of Buruli ulcer cases is clearly linked to aquatic ecosystems, but the specific route of transmission of M. ulcerans to humans remains unclear. Relying on the most detailed field data in space and time on M. ulcerans and Buruli ulcer available today, we assess the relative contribution of two potential transmission routes –environmental and water bug transmission– to the dynamics of Buruli ulcer in two endemic regions of Cameroon. The temporal dynamics of Buruli ulcer incidence are explained by estimating rates of different routes of transmission in mathematical models. Independently, we also estimate statistical models of the different transmission pathways on the spatial distribution of Buruli ulcer. The results of these two independent approaches are corroborative and suggest that environmental transmission pathways explain the temporal and spatial patterns of Buruli ulcer in our endemic areas better than the water bug transmission. PMID:26658922

  17. Evidence of global-scale aeolian dispersal and endemism in isolated geothermal microbial communities of Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Herbold, Craig W; Lee, Charles K; McDonald, Ian R; Cary, S Craig

    2014-05-20

    New evidence in aerobiology challenges the assumption that geographical isolation is an effective barrier to microbial transport. However, given the uncertainty with which aerobiological organisms are recruited into existing communities, the ultimate impact of microbial dispersal is difficult to assess. Here we use molecular genetic approaches to examine microbial communities inhabiting fumarolic soils on Mount Erebus, the southernmost geothermal site on Earth, to evaluate the ecological significance of global-scale microbial dispersal. There, hot, fumarolic soils provide an effective environmental filter to test the viability of organisms that have been distributed via aeolian transport over geological time. We find that cosmopolitan thermophiles dominate the surface, whereas endemic Archaea and members of poorly understood Bacterial candidate divisions dominate the immediate subsurface. These results imply that aeolian processes readily disperse viable organisms globally, where they are incorporated into pre-existing complex communities of endemic and cosmopolitan taxa.

  18. Geographic distribution of endemic fungal infections among older persons, United States.

    PubMed

    Baddley, John W; Winthrop, Kevin L; Patkar, Nivedita M; Delzell, Elizabeth; Beukelman, Timothy; Xie, Fenglong; Chen, Lang; Curtis, Jeffrey R

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the epidemiology and geographic distribution of histoplasmosis, coccidioidomycosis, and blastomycosis in older persons in the United States, we evaluated a random 5% sample of national Medicare data from 1999 through 2008. We calculated national, regional, and state-based incidence rates and determined 90-day postdiagnosis mortality rates. We identified 776 cases (357 histoplasmosis, 345 coccidioidomycosis, 74 blastomycosis). Patient mean age was 75.7 years; 55% were male. Histoplasmosis and blastomycosis incidence was highest in the Midwest (6.1 and 1.0 cases/100,000 person-years, respectively); coccidioidomycosis incidence rate was highest in the West (15.2). On the basis of available data, for 86 (11.1%) cases, there was no patient exposure to a traditional disease-endemic area. Knowledge of areas where endemic mycosis incidence is increased may affect diagnostic or prevention measures for older adults at risk.

  19. Characterization of Leishmania infection in rodents from endemic areas of the Islamic Republic of Iran.

    PubMed

    Mohebali, M; Javadian, E; Yaghoobi-Ershadi, M R; Akhavan, A A; Hajjaran, H; Abaei, M R

    2004-01-01

    Between 1991-2000, Leishmania species were isolated and characterized by isoenzyme and molecular analysis from rodents caught in various parts of the Islamic Republic of Iran. In areas endemic for cutaneous leishmaniasis, parasites were observed by direct microscopy in smears from 18.6% of 566 specimens. L. major was isolated from 4 species: Rhombomys opimus, Meriones libycus, Tatera indica and Mer. hurrianae. L. turanica was isolated from R. opimus for the first time in this country. In endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis, parasites were observed in liver and spleen from 13.7% of 504 rodents. Two species were positive on culture; promastigotes isolated from Mer. persicus were characterized as L. donovani zymodeme LON50 and from Mesocricetus auratus as L. infantum LON49.

  20. Vitamin D Toxicity in Adults: A Case Series from an Area with Endemic Hypovitaminosis D

    PubMed Central

    Koul, Parvaiz A.; Ahmad, Sheikh Hilal; Ahmad, Feroze; Jan, Rafi A.; Shah, S.U.; Khan, Umar H.

    2011-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency state is endemic to the Kashmir valley of the Indian subcontinent. Physicians often treat patients with high doses of vitamin D for various ailments and on occasion the prescribed doses far exceed the requirements of the patients. Ten cases of hypercalcemia due to vitamin D intoxication are presented with features of vomiting, polyuria, polydipsia, encephalopathy and renal dysfunction. All the patients had demonstrable hypercalcemia and vitamin D levels were high in nine of the 10 cases. The patients had received high doses of vitamin D and no other cause of hypercalcemia was identified. Treatment of hypercalcemia resulted in clinical recovery in nine cases. We conclude that hypervitaminosis D must be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with hypercalcemia in endemically vitamin D deficient areas. A careful history and appropriate biochemical investigation will unravel the diagnosis in most of the cases. PMID:22043417

  1. Prioritization of malaria endemic zones using self-organizing maps in the Manipur state of India.

    PubMed

    Murty, Upadhyayula Suryanarayana; Srinivasa Rao, Mutheneni; Misra, Sunil

    2008-09-01

    Due to the availability of a huge amount of epidemiological and public health data that require analysis and interpretation by using appropriate mathematical tools to support the existing method to control the mosquito and mosquito-borne diseases in a more effective way, data-mining tools are used to make sense from the chaos. Using data-mining tools, one can develop predictive models, patterns, association rules, and clusters of diseases, which can help the decision-makers in controlling the diseases. This paper mainly focuses on the applications of data-mining tools that have been used for the first time to prioritize the malaria endemic regions in Manipur state by using Self Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM results (in two-dimensional images called Kohonen maps) clearly show the visual classification of malaria endemic zones into high, medium and low in the different districts of Manipur, and will be discussed in the paper.

  2. Identification of a highly immunoreactive epitope of Brugia malayi TPx recognized by the endemic sera.

    PubMed

    Madhumathi, Jayaprakasam; Prince, Prabhu Rajaiah; Gayatri, Subash Chellam; Aparnaa, Ramanathan; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2010-12-01

    Filarial thiordoxin peroxidase is a major antioxidant that plays a crucial role in parasite survival. Although Brugia malayi TPx has been shown to be a potential vaccine candidate, it shares 63% homology with its mammalian counterpart, limiting its use as a vaccine or drug target. In silico analysis of TPx sequence revealed a linear B epitope in the host's nonhomologous region. The peptide sequence (TPx peptide(27-48)) was synthesized, and its reactivity with clinical sera from an endemic region was analyzed. The peptide showed significantly high reactivity (P < 0.05) against the sera of putatively immune individuals compared to the nonendemic control sera. It also showed high reactivity against the sera of patients with chronic pathology and patent infection. The high reactivity of the peptide with endemic immune sera equivalent to that of whole protein shows that it forms a dominant B epitope of TPx protein and thus could be utilized for incorporation into a multiepitope vaccine construct for filariasis.

  3. Genital schistosomiasis mansoni concomitant to genital tumor in areas of low endemicity: challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Marta G; Gonçalves, Margareth M I; Barreto, Magali M; Silva, Aline Helen da; Madi, Kalil; Peralta, José Mauro; Igreja, Ricardo P

    2011-01-01

    Genital infection by Schistosoma mansoni is usually misdiagnosed in individuals who reside in, or travel to endemic areas. We describe two cases of genital tumor associated with S. mansoni infection manifested by methrorragy. Surgical specimens revealed leiomyomas in both cases associated with S. mansoni. In one of them, granulomas were found in the ovary and in the other they were found in the uterine tube. Although none presented intestinal/hepatic disease, fecal egg excretion was detected in one. Both had elevated pretreatment antibody reactivity to S. mansoni antigen, but follow-up showed different outcomes. Schistosomiasis should be considered as a diagnosis in individuals with methrorragy residing in or having traveled to endemic areas. Since diagnosis follows genital amputation, and cure control is troublesome, improvement of diagnostic tools and follow-up markers are important priorities to decrease schistosomiasis morbidity.

  4. [Relapse of Plasmodium malariae malaria 20 years after living in an endemic area].

    PubMed

    Siala, Emna; Khalfaoui, Moncef; Bouratbine, Aida; Hamdi, Samira; Hili, Kamel; Aoun, Karim

    2005-03-12

    Malaria has been eradicated in Tunisia since 1979. Although it continues to be evoked in the case of fever after travel to an endemic zone, its diagnosis is however difficult during relapses, notably when they are delayed. A 50 year-old man having lived in Mauritania from 1978 to 1982 was hospitalized for interstitial pneumopathy and urarthritis. In spite of treatment with broad spectrum antibiotics, the fever accompanied by abundant sweating persisted. A thick blood drop and blood smear was requested and led to the diagnosis of Plasmodium malariae malaria. This observation recalls the possibility of parasitic upsurge of some plasmodial species. It should prompt physicians to be careful and evoke malaria in the case of fever in subjects having stayed, even several years before, in an endemic zone. This would permit early diagnosis and treatment.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi- specific immune responses in subjects from endemic areas of Chagas disease of Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Olivera, Gabriela C.; Albareda, Maria C.; Alvarez, Maria G.; De Rissio, Ana M.; Fichera, Laura E.; Cooley, Gretchen; Yachelini, Pedro; Hrellac, Hugo A.; Riboldi, Hilda; Laucella, Susana A.; Tarleton, Rick L.; Postan, Miriam

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi-specific immune responses were evaluated in a total of 88 subjects living in areas endemic of Chagas disease of Argentina by IFN-γ ELISPOT assays and immunoblotting. Positive T. cruzi antigen-induced IFN-γ responses were detected in 42% of subjects evaluated (15/26 positive by conventional serology and 22/62 seronegative subjects). Using immunoblotting, T. cruzi-specific IgG reactivity was detected in all seropositive subjects and in 11% (7/61) of subjects negative by conventional serology. Measurements of T cell responses and antibodies by immunoblotting, in conjunction with conventional serology, might enhance the capability of detection of exposure to T. cruzi in endemic areas. PMID:20123034

  6. New species of the fleas Farhangia and Nestivalius, from endemic rodents in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mardon, D K; Durden, L A

    2003-03-01

    The fleas (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) Farhangia quattuordecimdentata sp. n. and Farhangia sedecimdentata sp. n. are described from pygmy squirrels (Prosciurillus spp.), and Nestivalius sulawesiensis sp. n. from murine rodents, all from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Both new species of Farhangia were collected in Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah); F. quattuordecimdentata sp. n. was recovered mainly from P. murinus, whereas F. sedecimdentata sp. n. was recovered mainly from P. leucomus. These new species are compared with the two previously described species of Farhangia: F. celebensis (Ewing) from P. murinus in North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara) and F. sciuri (Ewing) from the tree squirrel Callosciurus prevosti in Sabah (Borneo). Nestivalius sulawesiensis sp. n. was collected from six species of endemic murine rodents in both North and Central Sulawesi. It is compared to the morphologically similar N. pomerantzi (Traub) from Mindanao, which parasitizes murine hosts that are endemic to the Philippines.

  7. Venezuelan equine encephalitis in Panama: fatal endemic disease and genetic diversity of etiologic viral strains.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Evelia; Aguilar, Patricia V; Cisneros, Julio; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2009-06-30

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) is a reemerging, mosquito-borne viral disease of the neotropics that is severely debilitating and sometimes fatal to humans. Periodic epidemics mediated by equine amplification have been recognized since the 1920s, but interepidemic disease is rarely recognized. We report here clinical findings and genetic characterization of 42 cases of endemic VEE detected in Panama from 1961-2004. Recent clusters of cases occurred in Darien (eastern Panama) and Panama provinces (central Panama) near rainforest and swamp habitats. Patients ranged from 10 months to 48 years of age, and the more severe cases with neurological complications, including one fatal infection, were observed in children. The VEE virus strains isolated from these cases all belonged to an enzootic, subtype ID lineage known to circulate among sylvatic vectors and rodent reservoir hosts in Panama and Peru. These findings underscore endemic VEE as an important but usually neglected arboviral disease of Latin America.

  8. Environmental transmission of Mycobacterium ulcerans drives dynamics of Buruli ulcer in endemic regions of Cameroon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garchitorena, Andrés; Ngonghala, Calistus N.; Texier, Gaëtan; Landier, Jordi; Eyangoh, Sara; Bonds, Matthew H.; Guégan,